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Sample records for 6fig 7fig 8fig

  1. Cartilage hair hypoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Siggers, D. C.; Burke, J. B.; Morris, B.; Normand, I. C.; Tanner, J. M.; Williamson, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Six cases of cartilage hair hypoplasia from five kindreds are described. They demonstrate variation in the expression of clinical features such as sparsity of hair, hair calibre, radiological changes, short stature and the extent of the disproportion between sitting height and stature. Images Figs. 1-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917962

  2. Innervation of alveolar walls in the human lung: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, B; Bull, T B; Guz, A

    1980-01-01

    Unmyelinated nerve fibres, probably sensory in type, are present in the human alveolar wall. It is possible that these fibres may be associated with juxta-capillary receptors which have been identified on physiological grounds in animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7216905

  3. The last illnesses of Robert and Horace Walpole.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Urinary lithiasis and gout were uncommonly prevalent in the eighteenth century. This essay considers the history of both afflictions and especially tells of the last illnesses of Sir Robert Walpole, who died from complications of stone, and his son, Horace, who throughout his life was a sufferer of gout. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:6356637

  4. Occlusive Peripheral Arteriosclerosis: Treatment by Percutaneous Transluminal Recanalization—“The Dotter Procedure”

    PubMed Central

    Palayew, M. J.; Sedlezky, I.; Sigman, H. H.; Sheiner, N. M.

    1969-01-01

    We have performed 17 percutaneous transluminal dilatations in 15 patients with segmental stenoses of the femoral and popliteal arteries. Initial success was achieved in 14 instances. This technique must be considered a useful adjunct in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease in selected patients. Its use along with endarterectomy has not been previously reported and warrants further investigation. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11 PMID:5353151

  5. Hyperparathyroidism: retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S.

    1976-01-01

    The history of hyperparathyroidism is outlined and the diagnosis and treatment of its various causes reviewed with reference to a series of 153 patients operated on for hyperparathyroidism in the past 20 years. In 119 cases the condition was primary, being due to a tumour or hyperplasia. Future developments in this field are briefly considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:782326

  6. Clothing for Sports: Part 2: Stridalongapos Loses Shorts, Wins in Style

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1985-01-01

    The choice of clothing for sports must take into account the climate, movement, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 2 of this two-part article describes the clothing needed for running, cycling, skiing, windsurfing, triathlon, aerobic dancing and hot air ballooning. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274232

  7. Order and disorder in fluid motion.

    PubMed Central

    Gollub, J P

    1995-01-01

    The development of complex states of fluid motion is illustrated by reviewing a series of experiments, emphasizing film flows, surface waves, and thermal convection. In one dimension, cellular patterns bifurcate to states of spatiotemporal chaos. In two dimensions, even ordered patterns can be surprisingly intricate when quasiperiodic patterns are included. Spatiotemporal chaos is best characterized statistically, and methods for doing so are evolving. Transport and mixing phenomena can also lead to spatial complexity, but the degree depends on the significance of molecular or thermal diffusion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:11607563

  8. Urinary Tract Refunctionalization After Prior Diversion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, W. Hardy

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-two children who had undergone previous urinary diversion were operated upon to refunctionalize the bladder. In 24 the diversion had been considered permanent, and in eight, temporary. Success in these procedures suggests that many young patients deserve a second look for possible “undiversion.” ImagesFig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17a.Fig. 17b.Fig. 18. PMID:4416811

  9. The respiratory epithelium of the lung in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.).

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, S E; Purton, M

    1984-01-01

    The chelonian lung exhibits reptilian, mammalian and avian features. The respiratory epithelium is typically vertebrate, i.e. pseudostratified columnar with cilia; gaseous exchange areas appear at all levels from the respiratory bronchi down to the alveoli. The latter are invested with a capillary network and both type I and type II cells are present. The possible functional significance of the distribution of collagen, elastic tissue, cartilage and smooth muscle is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:6490523

  10. Ultrastructural visualisation of carbohydrate groups in the surface coating of hamster alveolar macrophages and pneumonocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Meban, C

    1986-01-01

    The surface coating of the alveolar macrophages and pneumonocytes of hamster lung was studied using an electron microscopy technique. Slices of lung tissue were fixed in aldehyde, labelled with a battery of lectin-horseradish peroxidase conjugates, incubated in a diaminobenzidine-hydrogen peroxide medium and then postfixed in an osmium tetroxide solution. The results of the study suggest that the surface coating of the pneumonocytes and macrophages contains the following carbohydrate groups: N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, D-mannose, L-fucose, D-galactose and sialic acid. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:2447050

  11. A Mini-Atlas of Ear-drum Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, Michael; Kwok, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The authors provide a number of ear-drum pictures and identify and discuss diseases affecting the external ear canal, the tympanic membrane and middle ear. They also deal with the removal of foreign bodies from the external canal, perforation of the tympanic membrane, and the use of an artificial ventilation tube. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:21263886

  12. Pseudocyst of the head of the pancreas: relationship to the duct of Santorini.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, M C

    1979-01-01

    A series of 14 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis is presented which illustrates that cysts originating in the superior segment of the head of the pancreas communicate with the duct of Santorini which normally drains this area of the gland. Cysts in this location do not communicate with the major pancreatic duct (Wirsung) in most instances, and therefore may be overlooked in the standard retrograde drainage procedures employed to relieve pancreatic exocrine obstruction. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. PMID:518172

  13. Burn sepsis and burn toxin

    PubMed Central

    Allgöwer, Martin; Städtler, Karl; Schoenenberger, Guido A

    1974-01-01

    The salient steps of a 20-year programme of research into the nature of burn disease are described. By burn disease we mean the late mortality and morbidity following burns. We have isolated a burn toxin which is derived from a thermal polymerization of cell membrane lipoproteins within the dermis and have studied its influence on the effects of sepsis. We have also used it in the development of active and passive immunization therapy of severe burns. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:4429330

  14. The biomechanical ambiguity of the articular surface.

    PubMed Central

    Kamalanathan, S; Broom, N D

    1993-01-01

    A series of micromechanical tests carried out on the articular surface of cartilage have provided an accurate description of the mechanical properties of any one site with respect to the orientation framework obtained from its characteristic split-line direction. Ultrastructural studies revealed little evidence that the split-line direction correlated strongly with any preferred alignment of fibrils. This paper therefore offers a new interpretation of the biomechanical significance of the widely used split-line test for the articular surface of cartilage. Images Fig. 9 Fig. 2 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:8300433

  15. Glomus tissue in the vicinity of the human carotid sinus.

    PubMed Central

    Garfia, A

    1980-01-01

    Three of 60 cadavers have shown, in the adventitia or in the adipose tissue from the human carotid sinus region, small islands of tissue richly and typically vascularized and with nerve endings contacting cells like the tissue of the principal carotid body. In two of the cases such 'miniglomera' were single but in the third there were several all on the same side. A modified en bloc silver nitrate reduction stain was used to demonstrate the microvascular arrangements and the nerve endings by light microscopy of serial tangential sections of the carotid bifurcation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7364653

  16. PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Marcellin; Gaumond, Emile

    1965-01-01

    Eight cases of xeroderma pigmentosum are described-six in family B. and two in family T. The criteria used in making this diagnosis are indicated. The occurrence of epitheliomas and melanoma was observed. In family B. five of the six patients are alive at time of reporting, their ages varying from 40 to 55 years. In family T. the two affected children died at ages 8 and 14 years. The differential diagnosis between xeroderma pigmentosum and other conditions is briefly discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:14261153

  17. Foreign Bodies in the Aerodigestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Victor G.; Middleton, William G.

    1986-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the aerodigestive tract are common. They may cause minimal disturbance of function, severe morbidity or even sudden death. They enter the aerodigestive tract because of haste during eating, disturbances in physical function, impairments due to extreme youth or age, or contamination of food with foreign bodies. Common symptoms are pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, cough, airway distress, hemoptysis and hematemesis. Signs include point tenderness, respiratory distress and surgical emphysema. Clinical, radiological and endoscopic investigations are described, as are principles of crisis and elective management. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:21267132

  18. Pathology of Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection in Newborn Mice. Muscle, Heart and Brown Fat Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, G.

    1974-01-01

    Newborn mice were inoculated intracerebrally with murine cytomegalovirus and studies were made of the pathological changes in the striate and cardiac muscle and brown fat. Widespread necrosis was seen in muscle and brown fat in the early stages of the infection. Necrotic lesions became calcified. By 56 days lesions were not resolved in the heart and brown fat but were completely resolved in skeletal muscle. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4363374

  19. Comparison of albendazole, mebendazole and praziquantel chemotherapy of Echinococcus multilocularis in a gerbil model.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D H; Morris, D L; Reffin, D; Richards, K S

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of albendazole (50 mg/kg/d), mebendazole (50 mg/kg/d) and praziquantel (500 mg/kg/d) against established intraperitoneal infections of Echinococcus multilocularis in gerbils was compared by monitoring parasite weight and making ultrastructural observations on treated and untreated material. Praziquantel was the most active protoscolicidal agent, reducing protoscolex viability to less than 2%, although it did not inhibit cyst growth. Albendazole was the most effective agent in reducing cyst growth and was, when compared with other regimes significantly more effective than mebendazole (p less than 0.05), praziquantel (p less than 0.01) or untreated controls (p less than 0.01). Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:2583567

  20. Structure and innervation of extraocular muscles of Carassius.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, D F; Mark, R F; Marotte, L R; Proske, U

    1975-01-01

    The extraocular muscles of the carp Carassius contain two types of muscle fibre. Large white fibres have ribbon-shaped peripheral myofibrils and triads located at the Z line. Small red fibres, rich in mitochondria, have polygonal-shaped myofibrils and triads at the A-I junction. Silver- and cholinesterase-stained preparations show that the large fibres are innervated by axons which spiral around them and exhibit intense cholinesterase activity over long distances. Axons supplying small muscle fibres run across bundles of fibres, making one contact with each fibre. By electron microscopy the nerve endings on each fibre type appear identical, both having a smooth post-junctional muscle membrane. The differences in structure and innervation pattern of the two fibre types are discussed in relation to their possible functional roles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1184453

  1. Clinical and epidemiological study of chronic heart involvment in Chagas' disease*

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. García; Suárez, J. A.; Yépez, C. Gil

    1966-01-01

    It has been estimated that, in vast areas of the American continent, there is a high prevalence of human infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Such infection can lead to a variety of heart diseases, predominantly with involvement of the myocardium. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of heart disease in two rural areas of Venezuela with a high endemicity of Chagas' disease and to try to determine the natural history of the disease. It is shown that a form of chronic myocardial disease in patients with positive specific serology and good functional capacity is highly prevalent. Electrocardiographic patterns typical of the initial and developing stages of the disease, as well as early abnormalities of the cardiac rhythm, are described and illustrated. The present work forms part of a longitudinal study still in progress. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 4 PMID:4957485

  2. Electrical apparatus used in medicine before 1900.

    PubMed Central

    Cambridge, N A

    1977-01-01

    The Ancients had at their disposal torpedo fish, amber and magnets. It was not until the sixteenth century that ideas on the strange behaviour of amber and magnets were put forward. The eighteenth century saw the application of Newton's theories of matter and the introduction of the electrostatic machine, Galvanism and Volta's battery. In the nineteenth century there was extensive application of electricity in medical practice, with the development of electrocautery apparatus and illuminated cystoscopes, the pioneering of the electrocardiogram and the discovery of X-rays. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 PMID:335397

  3. Achondrogenesis type I. A familial subvariant?

    PubMed Central

    Lauder, I; Ellis, H A; Ashcroft, T; Burridge, A

    1976-01-01

    The clinical, pathological, and radiological features of 2 male sibs with a severe and lethal form of micromelic dwarfism are desribed. The family also includes 2 normal sibs. The histological and radiological appearances suggested a diagnosis of achondrogenesis type I, but the markedly deficient ossification of the skull and the presence of intrauterine rib fractures were atypical. These changes have been observed in two other families with 2 or more infants with suspected achondrogenesis, raising the possibility that these familial cases may be a subvariant of achondrogesis or even a distinct disease entity. The disease appears to be inherited as an autosomal recessive and death occurs shortly after birth because of severe pulmonary hypoplasia. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:962365

  4. Immunopathology of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D. B.; Castleden, M.; Smith, J. L.; Mepham, B. L.; Wright, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Eight patients with angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy have been studied by a variety of immunological and pathological techniques. They exhibited a spectrum of immunological reactivities that, in this small series, could be roughly correlated with survival. Those patients with relative B-cell predominance as shown by cell marker studies, histologically showed large numbers of plasma cells, and this pattern was associated in 3 of our patients with a survival of 3 years or more. T-cell predominance or both B- and T-cell depletion was associated histologically with large numbers of blast cells and eosinophils, but with few plasma cells. These patients responded poorly to therapy and had short survival times. One patient with B-cell predominance subsequently died of a histiocytic lymphoma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:678427

  5. The development and differentiation of human seminal vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, S F

    1985-01-01

    The development and differentiation of the human seminal vesicles has been studied using 14 human male fetuses and 4 postnatal specimens. Earlier accounts of the morphogenesis of the seminal vesicle have been reviewed and commented upon in the light of the present findings. Previously undocumented observations include the movements of the mesenchyme, the formation of epithelial folds and the development of the lamina propria and tunica muscularis. Epithelial differentiation is also described. The function of the basal cells and the possible prepubertal secretory activity of the seminal vesicle are discussed. More work is required on the differentiation of the vesicle between birth and puberty. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:3870731

  6. The evolution of surgery at the New York Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Leitman, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    Surgery evolved from colonial times through many innovations and developments. During this time it was transformed from a dangerous practice to a delicate and scientific art. Many of these early developments continue to be a part of modern surgical therapy. Although European discoveries have had a profound effect on this evolution, American advances solidified the link between the laboratory and the operating room. The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, like other medical centers around the country, made important contributions to this evolution. Because the hospital has spanned American history, it also has paralleled surgical development in the United States. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:1933072

  7. Localisation of thiamine pyrophosphatase in the amoeboid microglial cells in the brain of postnatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, C; Ling, E A; Wong, W C

    1987-01-01

    The activity of TPPase in amoeboid microglial cells has been studied in postnatal rats. When examined with the light microscope such cells in 1-10 days old rats perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde were round and showed a dark brown reaction in their cytoplasm. In older rats (10-30 days), the reactive amoeboid microglial cells were oval, flattened or branched. Electron microscopic examination revealed that the reaction product was seen on the plasma membrane, in the subplasmalemmal vacuoles, in tubular invaginations of plasma membrane and in the transface of the Golgi saccules. In rats perfused with the mixed aldehyde solution, the amoeboid microglial cells did not show a positive TPPase reaction with the light microscope but at the ultrastructural level a weak reaction was seen in some cytoplasmic vacuoles and in the Golgi saccules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2820912

  8. The fine structure of pulmonary contusion and the effect of various drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Eckert, P.; Földi-Börcsök, E.

    1976-01-01

    The results of contusion were examined by electron and light microscopy in the lungs of rats. It was found that the results here were very similar to those elsewhere in the body, with a few minor modifications due to the unique structure of the lung. Densitometry of protein concentration and visual estimation of oedema were used to quantitate the effects on the injury. The benzo-pyrone drug Venalot had a considerable effect in reducing the protein concentration in the air spaces and the interstitial tissue, and of the oedema in the latter. Neither the proteinase inhibitor Trasylol nor the pectin-based plasma expander HAS had any significant effect on the fine structural alterations of pulmonary contusion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1087159

  9. The Electron Microscopy of the Effects of Treatment with Coumarin (Venalot) and by Thoracic Duct Cannulation on Thermal Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börcsök, E.; FÖldi, M.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of coumarin (Venalot) and of external lymphatic drainage were examined with the electron microscope in rat hind legs and mouse ears that were injured by heat. Coumarin, especially when lymph drainage was added, greatly reduced the amounts of protein in the tissues and the concomitant oedema fluid, lymphatic dilatation, open interendothelial junctions and lymph protein concentration. While there were crude indications that the increased blood vascular permeability was unchanged, it was considered that there was insufficient evidence to decide between the various hypotheses as to the modes of action of these treatments. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4689821

  10. Connective tissue responses to some heavy metals. II. Lead: histology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G.; Ham, K. N.

    1987-01-01

    Lead loaded ion exchange resin beads implanted into the loose connective tissue of the rat pinna induced local lesions which differed widely from those of the control (sodium loaded) beads (Ellender & Ham 1987). These lesions were characterized by changes in the granulation tissue and the approximating connective tissue. Granulation tissue contained mononuclear phagocytes in various guises, and some cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies. The matrix of the granulation tissue contained collagen fibrils having a wide range of diameters suggestive of altered collagen biosynthesis. Foci of collagen mineralization occurred in zones of combined trauma and lead impregnation. Once mineralized they became enveloped by giant cells and epithelioid cells. Lead in damaged tissues is thought to modify the protective mechanism of calcification inhibition and the biosynthesis of the matrix. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3040063

  11. The effect of uranyl acetate on human lymphoblastoid cells (RPMI 6410) and HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ghadially, F. N.; Yang-Steppuhn, S. E.; Lalonde, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    RPMI 6410 cells and HeLa cells were exposed to uranyl acetate. In RPMI 6410 cell cultures this produced single-membrane-bound presumably lysosomal bodies (called "uraniosomes") containing electron-dense crystals in the cultured cells and crystalline deposits in extracellular locations. Neither uraniosomes nor extracellular uranium deposits were found in HeLa cell cultures. All uraniosomes and extracellular uranium deposits analysed by electron-probed X-ray analysis were found to contain uranium, potassium and phosphorus. Traces of sulphur were detected in some but not all uraniosomes and extracellular uranium deposits. Traces of calcium were found in all extracellular uranium deposits and in some uraniosomes also. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7093141

  12. Functional Plyometric Exercises for the Throwing Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Pezzullo, David J.; Karas, Steven; Irrgang, James J

    1995-01-01

    In this article we provide athletic health care professionals with a variety of functional strengthening exercises to use in improving the muscular strength of the throwing athlete's shoulder. Upper extremity functional plyometric exercise in sport-specific patterns can be an important component of a throwing athlete's rehabilitation. We discuss several plyometric exercises, using the Inertial Exercise System, the Plyo-ball, and the Theraband. Proper use of these exercises can facilitate a safe and progressive rehabilitation program for the injured, throwing athlete. After the athlete has successfully completed the functional plyometric exercises, a throwing progression can be initiated. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.Fig 9.Fig 10.Fig 11.Fig 12.Fig 13.Fig 14.Fig 15. PMID:16558304

  13. Incidence and structure of the appendices of the testis and epididymis.

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, D; Jit, I; Joshi, K; Sanjeev

    1996-01-01

    In paired tests obtained from 425 adults, 50 children and 10 neonates, the incidence of testicular appendices was 76% in adults (93.3% sessile) and 83.3% in neonates/children (88% sessile). An epididymal appendix was present in 21.9% of adults and 20% of neonates/children, out of which 79% were stalked in both types of specimen. Three sessile testicular appendices and 11 epididymal appendices were double. The microscopic structure of the appendices and the ultrastructure of their epithelia are described. Testicular or epididymal appendices were not present in any domestic or laboratory animal examined except the horse. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8886956

  14. The endocrine polypeptide cells of the human stomach, duodenum, and jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, A. G. E.; Coulling, I.; Weavers, B.; Friesen, S.

    1970-01-01

    Thirty specimens of stomach, duodenum, and jejunum, removed at operation, were examined by optical microscopical, cytochemical, and electron microscopical techniques. The overall distribution of four types of endocrine polypeptide cell in the stomach, and three in the intestine, was determined. The seven cell types are described by names and letters belonging to a scheme for nomenclature agreed upon at the 1969 Wiesbaden conference on gastrointestinal hormones. The gastrin-secreting G cell was the only cell for which firm identification with a known hormone was possible. Although there was wide variation in the distribution of the various cells, from one case to another, striking differences were nevertheless observable, with respect to the G cell, between antra from carcinoma and from ulcer cases. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:4919258

  15. An account of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations of the human tracheo-bronchial tree, with observations on those of some animals.

    PubMed Central

    Monkhouse, W S; Whimster, W F

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the distribution of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations in the human tracheo-bronchial tree. It has been shown that they are made up of elastic tissue in a collagen matrix, and that the elastic fibres continue into the smallest bronchioles beyond where the corrugations are no longer visible. An examination has also been made of the tracheo-bronchial trees of the hen, rat, raccoon, pig, sheep, llama and tiger. Corrugations are present in all these animals, except the hen and the raccoon, and they have been compared and contrasted with the condition in Man. The functional significance of these corrugations remains unknown, but, they could be important in equalizing tension in the tracheo-bronchial tree during inspiration, as well as in providing elastic recoil during expiration. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1010796

  16. A collagen and elastic network in the wing of the bat.

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, K A; Odland, G F

    1978-01-01

    Bundles of collagen fibrils, elastic fibres and fibroblasts are organized into a network that lies in the plane of a large portion of the bat wing. By ultrastructural (TEM and SEM) and biochemical analyses it was found that individual bundles of the net are similar to elastic ligaments. Although elastic fibres predominate, they are integrated and aligned in parallel with small bundles of collagen. A reticulum of fibroblasts, joined by focal junctions, forms a cellular framework throughout each bundle. Because of the unique features of the fibre bundles of the bat's wing, in particular their accessibility, and the parallel alignment of the collagen fibrils and elastic fibres in each easily isolatable fibre bundle, they should prove a most valuable model for connective tissue studies, particularly for the study of collagen-elastin interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:649500

  17. British surgical aid to Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, N. A.; Barry, N. A.; Davies, A. K.

    1971-01-01

    The surgical commitment of No. 2 Field Hospital, R.A.M.C., during its stay in Jordan is presented. The majority of patients that were admitted had sustained war wounds, many of which were infected due to the delay in treatment. The difficulties encountered in their subsequent management are discussed. Special reference is made to the use of ketamine (Ketalar) and mafenide acetate (Sulphamylon) in the treatment of those burns cases under our care. It is the first time for many years that a British field hospital has been employed in an active rôle. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 8Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:5114910

  18. Functional anatomy of the thymic microenvironment.

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, M D

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a review of our current understanding of the nature of the thymic microenvironment, after briefly considering the major role of the gland. The epithelial cells and their products are of fundamental importance, and other cells of the macrophage series are implicated in most functional events. The embryological origin of the epithelium is still not clear, although disease conditions would suggest a single origin. Immigration and emigration of thymocytes is considered, and also the passage of antigens into the gland. The events within the thymus are under the control of the CNS acting through the innervation or via hormonal pathways. Both of these areas are considered in detail, especially thymic hormone origins, functions and interactions. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 PMID:1769884

  19. Intermediate hosts of Schistosoma

    PubMed Central

    Mandahl-Barth, G.

    1957-01-01

    This study is an attempt to classify all described species of African Bulinus. It is based upon the author's examination of a great number of specimens collected from many parts of Africa. The variations attributable to age, environment and genetic factors which may be noted in the taxonomic characters are discussed, and some new species and subspecies are established. For each recognized species and subspecies the author states the distinguishing characters, indicates the geographical distribution, and gives a list of synonyms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 2(concluded)Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 5(continued)Fig. 5(concluded)Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 16(concluded)Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 22(concluded)Fig. 23 PMID:13479773

  20. Clinical presentations of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, F M; Narcisi, P; Nicholls, A C; Liberman, M; Oorthuys, J W

    1988-01-01

    Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV is an often lethal disease caused by various mutations of type III collagen genes. It presents in infancy and childhood in several ways, and the symptoms and signs include low birth weight, prematurity, congenital dislocation of the hips, easy inappropriate bruising (sometimes suspected as child battering), and a diagnostic facial phenotype. These features predict a lethal adult disease often complicated by fatal arterial rupture in early or middle adult life. Most affected patients can be diagnosed from radiolabelled collagen protein profiles by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Prenatal diagnosis by specific type III collagen restriction fragment length polymorphisms is possible in some families, and will become increasingly important. Prenatal diagnosis and prevention of the disease in selected families is already possible and will be widely available in the future. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 PMID:3178263

  1. Innervation of the undifferentiated limb bud in rabbit embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J; McCredie, J

    1982-01-01

    The concept that there are no nerves in the limb bud of mammalian embryos prior to differentiation has been re-examined. Rabbit embryos were collected at 260 and 290 hours gestation, which is prior to cartilage formation in the forelimb at 320 hours. Forelimb buds and adjacent neural tube were excised, fixed and embedded for light and electron microscopy. The limb buds were sectioned in two planes by serial 1 micrometer sections and inspected by light microscopy. Bundles of nerve fibres were seen within the proximal third of the limb bud, with distal ramification into adjacent zones of condensing mesenchyme. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons and associated immature Schwann cells. These results demonstrate the existence of an anatomical framework through which a neurotrophic influence might be brought to bear upon mesenchyme prior to early differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7130041

  2. Synaptic endfeet in the 'acoustic nerve nucleus' of the rat. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Bolado, G; Merchán, J

    1988-01-01

    The medial portion of the cochlear nerve of the rat contains astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. These neurons form what has been called the 'acoustic nerve nucleus'. This nucleus has been studied here at the electron microscopic level. Its neurons are large and round, showing an eccentric nucleus, fibrillary bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum which is not arranged in stacks. The somata and dendrites receive synaptic endfeet which can be classified into three groups according to vesicle size and shape. In general, the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are similar to those of bushy cells as reported by other authors. The 'acoustic nerve nucleus' can be considered to be the most peripheral part of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3248967

  3. Diaphragm disease: pathology of disease of the small intestine induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, J; Price, A B; Levi, A J; Burke, M; Gumpel, J M; Bjarnason, I

    1988-01-01

    Operative small bowel resection specimens received over a period of 16 years were reviewed to assess whether any intestinal disease could be directly attributed to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Seven cases of intestinal disease associated with the use of NSAID were identified, all of which occurred in the final six years of the survey, which may reflect the increasing use of these compounds. A spectrum of patterns was found from multiple pathognomonic ileal mucosal diaphragms to broad strictures similar to those seen as a complication of enteric potassium. It seems likely that the formation of diaphragm lesions requires an additional factor, but what is not known as yet is whether the effects of NSAID are local or systemic. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 PMID:3384981

  4. The susceptibility of rodents to schistosome infection, with special reference to Schistosoma haematobium

    PubMed Central

    Gear, J. H. S.; Davis, D. H. S.; Pitchford, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    In this investigation the susceptibility of several species of rodents—Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis, Saccostomus campestris, Arvicanthus niloticus, Aethomys chrysophilus, Tatera brantsi and the white mouse (SAIMR 200 strain)—to Schistosoma haematobium was determined and the pathology studied. From the results it is clear that these rodents are susceptible to infection with Schistosoma haematobium. For various reasons, notably adaptability to laboratory conditions, the most suitable as laboratory animals for the study of bilharziasis are Saccostomus campestris, Arvicanthus niloticus and Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis. These three species breed readily in the laboratory and show a high susceptibility to S. haematobium, with characteristic lesions involving several organs, including the lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas and intestine. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 16FIG. 17FIG. 18FIG. 19FIG. 20FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15 PMID:5297005

  5. Cell death during the development of the truncus and conus of the chick embryo heart.

    PubMed Central

    Hurle, J M; Ojeda, J L

    1979-01-01

    The presence of cell death in the walls of the truncus and conus of the developing chick heart was investigated by a variety of light and electron microscopic techniques. Necrotic areas were observed in the myocardial layer of the truncus and conus and within the mesenchymal cells of the truncoconal ridges and aortopulmonary septum. These necrotic zones appeared first at Stage 25-26 and reached their maximum extent at Stages 29-32 undergoing later progressive disappearance. The morphological changes of the degenerating cells detectable under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy are also reported. The possible role of cell death in the morphogenesis of the truncus and conus is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:500497

  6. Personnel and Vehicle Data Collection at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and its Distribution for Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    5 Fig. 5 Day 3 walker’s diamond pattern ............................................................6 Fig. 6 Day 3...walker’s double wedge pattern ....................................................8 Fig. 10 Day 3 walker’s diamond in front and 2 men behind pattern...8 Fig. 11 Day 3 walker’s point man slack man pattern .........................................9 Fig. 12 Day 3 walker’s diamond

  7. The innervation of the adrenal gland. IV. Innervation of the rat adrenal medulla from birth to old age. A descriptive and quantitative morphometric and biochemical study of the innervation of chromaffin cells and adrenal medullary neurons in Wistar rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, A; Coupland, R E

    1990-01-01

    The innervation of the adrenal medulla has been investigated in normal Wistar rats from birth to old age and ultrastructural findings compared with biochemical markers of the cholinergic innervation of the adrenal gland and catecholamine storage. Morphological evidence of the immaturity of the innervation during the first postnatal week is provided and using quantitative morphometry the innervation of chromaffin cells is shown to reach a mean total of 5.4 synapses per chromaffin cell during the period 26 days to 12 weeks of age. The variation in contents of synaptic profiles is discussed in the light of recent work that demonstrates a major sensory as well as visceral efferent innervation of the gland. Adrenal medullary neurons usually occur in closely packed groups, intimately associated with Schwann cells. Axodendritic and axosomatic synapses on these neurons are described and the likely origin of axonal processes innervating the neurons discussed. In old age the density of innervation remains the same as in young adult animals even though the medulla shows evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of individual chromaffin cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:2384334

  8. The surgical conservation of the neuropathic foot.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, A. G.

    1989-01-01

    Basic surgical principles applied when caring for neuropathic limbs can result in the maintenance or restoration of a useful ulcer-free limb. It is possible to help many patients with neuropathy to become ulcer-free and to remain ulcer-free and mobile, with surgical procedures. Recommended methods of management are briefly outlined. These include the débridement of the osteomyelitic, metatarsal head in order to save the adjacent toe, removal of bony irregularities that predispose to ulceration, and the use of wedge osteotomies and arthrodeses to improve the functional shape of the affected foot. The emphasis is on the removal of high pressure points from the weight-bearing surface and to increase the total area available for weight-bearing. Adequate rest and protection are essential, and include the use of splints or total contact plaster casts in all cases of ulceration of weight-bearing surfaces. All patients with reduced sensory perception should learn daily self-examination and care to reduce the chances of recurrent ulceration. Healing after surgical reconstruction will occur, and the healed tissues, if adequately cared for, will maintain their integrity for years. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 fig. 6 fig. 7 fig. 8 fig. 9 fig. 10 PMID:2549839

  9. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-01-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1452481

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation of two cytosolic proteins of 50 kDa and 35 kDa in rat liver by insulin-receptor kinase in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Y C; Yip, C C

    1987-01-01

    Insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase can phosphorylate a variety of artificial substrates in vitro. Its physiological substrate(s), however, remains unknown. In the present study, we show that immobilized insulin receptors phosphorylate tyrosine residues of two cytosolic proteins of 50 kDa and 35 kDa in rat liver. Phosphorylation of these two proteins required Mn2+- or Mg2+-ATP as the phosphate donor. Phosphorylation was time- and temperature-dependent. Furthermore, the rate of phosphorylation of the two proteins was related to the autophosphorylated state of the insulin receptor. The pI of the phosphorylated 50 kDa and 35 kDa proteins was 5.4 and 5.6 respectively. These proteins were present in low abundance. They were not related to each other, nor to the insulin receptor, as demonstrated by in-gel proteolytic digestion and by immunoprecipitation using antibodies produced against them. They were specific substrates for the insulin receptor kinase, since they were not phosphorylated by epidermal-growth-factor-receptor kinase. These observations suggest that the 50 kDa and 35 kDa cytosolic proteins may be endogenous substrates for the insulin-receptor kinase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2829823

  11. Radiographic features of bone in several strains of laboratory mice and of their tumours induced by bone-seeking radionuclides.

    PubMed Central

    Loutit, J F; Corp, M J; Ardran, G M

    1976-01-01

    The natural radiographic appearance of the various bones of the skeleton are described for several strains of laboratory mice. The Harwell substrains of CBA, A and 101 are generally similar and become osteoporotic on ageing. Harwell C57BL have similar, but more delicately chiseled, bones. Harwell C3H mice have bones with stouter cortices and may show osteosclerosis on ageing. CF1 females (donated by Dr M. Finkel) showed osteosclerosis and osteophytic outgrowths when aged. NMRI mice (donated by Dr A. Luz) appeared larger than the pure-strain Harwell mice. In general, mouse bones are simple tubular structures with an ivory cortex and a marrow cavity. Cancellous trabecular bone is scanty, even in vertebrae, flat bones and the metaphyses of long bones. Bone-seeking radionuclides administered to mice lead to skeletal tumours: (a) osteosarcomata, which are commonly radio-opaque to a variable degree owing to calcified tumour bone, but which may be osteolytic, (b) primitive mesenchymal (angio-) sarcomata which are non-osteogenic and osteolytic, (c) fibrosarcomata--which also are osteolytic--and to local or general lymphomata from irradiation of parental cells in bone marrow, but no special radiological features have been found associated with these last-named tumours. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1069700

  12. Experimental Tetracycline Labeling in Avian Osteopetrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sanger, V. L.; Holt, J. A.

    1965-01-01

    Osteopetrosis was experimentally produced and lesion development in time was studied by fluorescent illumination of tetracycline labels in the bone. Bones from birds 84, 115, 186 and 354 days of age were examined by ground section under ultraviolet light. Periosteal activity of the tibia and femur was present in normal bones at 84 days of age but had stopped at 115 days. Focal periosteal activity of osteopetrotic lesions was present at 186 days but not at 354 days of age. Slight endosteal activity of osteopetrotic bones was present at 354 days of age. Osteopetrotic bone formed at a rate of 1.26 mm. per week or 6 times faster than normal bone in some of these lesions. Tetracycline diffused throughout the 354-day-old osteopetrotic lesion but not normal compact bone indicating that the osteopetrotic bone is porous and spongy. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2. Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13. PMID:4221759

  13. The sequence and topology of human complement component C9.

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, K K; Kocher, H P; Luzio, J P; Jackson, P; Tschopp, J

    1985-01-01

    A partial nucleotide sequence of human complement component C9 cDNA representing 94% of the coding region of the mature protein is presented. The amino acid sequence predicted from the open reading frame of this cDNA concurs with the amino acid sequence at the amino-terminal end of three proteolytic fragments of purified C9 protein. No long stretches of hydrophobic residues are present, even in the carboxy-terminal half of the molecule which reacts with lipid-soluble photoaffinity probes. Monoclonal antibody epitopes have been mapped by comparing overlapping fragments of C9 molecule to which the antibodies bind on Western blots. Several of these epitopes map to small regions containing other surface features (e.g., proteolytic cleavage sites and N-linked oligosaccharide). The amino-terminal half of C9 is rich in cysteine residues and contains a region with a high level of homology to the LDL receptor cysteine-rich domains. A model for C9 topology based on these findings is proposed. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:4018030

  14. The fine structure of the proximal growth plate of the avian tibia: vascular supply.

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, C R; Dickson, M; Sheridan, A K

    1984-01-01

    The vascular supply to the proximal tibial growth plate of the 7 weeks old chicken is described using various vascular markers. In addition the ultrastructure of metaphyseal and epiphyseal vessels as well as their supporting tissue is reported. The metaphyseal arterioles terminate in large calibre vessels which have occasional endothelial gaps and no basement membrane or supporting cells, and therefore could be classified as venous sinusoids. In contrast the epiphyseal arteriole terminates in a capillary-venule plexus lined by an attenuated and fenestrated but continuous endothelium. This paper definitively establishes that communication of epiphyseal and metaphyseal vessels across the avian growth plate does not occur. The eosinophilic streaks which often join these two vascular supplies have been described ultrastructurally and would appear to be remnants of the 'retreating' epiphyseal vessels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:6469851

  15. Meckel's cartilage in Xenopus laevis during metamorphosis: a light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, D A

    1986-01-01

    Meckel's cartilage, in Xenopus laevis prior to metamorphosis, is a tissue exhibiting very large lacunae, separated by thin rims of matrix, presenting a net-like appearance, similar to that of cartilage in invertebrates. The cells on the periphery of the tissue are rather more flattened, and more closely packed. On the lateral aspects of the cartilage distinct columns of apparently dividing cells are evident. During metamorphic climax, the amount of matrix separating the lacunae increases, with an associated decrease in lacunar size, and some of the deeper cells develop cilia, which are not seen either before or after climax. By the end of metamorphic climax there is a considerable increase in the amount of matrix present in the tissue, while many cells at all depths in the cartilage show the presence of lysosome-like structures, possibly associated with the changing shape of the cartilage. Intramembranous ossification is proceeding around Meckel's cartilage, but there is no evidence of endochondral ossification up to the end of metamorphosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:3693112

  16. Tumours of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Mackey, L. J.; Misdorp, W.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequent renal tumours of animals are renal cell carcinoma and nephroblastoma. Renal cell carcinomas are seen mainly in dogs and cattle and nephroblastoma is encountered in pigs, puppies, and calves. Renal cell carcinomas are usually papillary in the dog. They show a marked propensity for vascular invasion, penetration of the posterior vena cava, and subsequent pulmonary metastasis. Nephroblastoma, which is morphologically identical to Wilms' tumour of children, is almost always a benign tumour in animals. It is one of the most frequent neoplasms of pigs, possibly owing to the fact that most pigs are slaughtered (and examined) when a few months old. Lymphosarcoma involving the kidney is particularly frequent in the cat, but is also seen in other species as part of a generalized disease. ImagesFig. 5,6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 1,2Fig. 3,4Fig. 16,17,18,19Fig. 9,10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14,15 PMID:1086154

  17. Tumours of bones and joints

    PubMed Central

    Misdorp, W.; Van Der Heul, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of bones and joints are not infrequent in dogs but are rare in other domestic animals. In the dog, most bone tumours are malignant; osteosarcomas are by far the most frequently encountered tumours, especially in giant breeds and boxers. The following main categories of bone tumour are described: bone-forming, cartilage-forming, giant cell, marrow, vascular, miscellaneous, metastatic, unclassified, and tumour-like lesions. The tumours of joints and related structures are classified as synovial sarcomas, fibroxanthomas, and malignant giant cell tumour of soft tissues. ImagesFig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086157

  18. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract

    PubMed Central

    Head, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. ImagesFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:1086147

  19. Characterization and localization of the even-skipped protein of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, M; Hoey, T; Rushlow, C; Doyle, H; Levine, M

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of homeo box cross-homology we have isolated the pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve) of Drosophila. The eve transcription unit appears to be less than 1.5 kb in length, and encodes a single mRNA of approximately 1.4 kb. The nucleotide sequence of genomic and cDNA clones indicates that the eve protein is composed of 376 amino acid residues, and that its homeo domain shares only approximately 50% amino acid identity with the homeo domains of previously characterized genes. Using antibodies raised against a beta-galactosidase fusion protein we show that the eve protein is distributed in a series of seven transverse stripes at the cellular blastoderm stage, and is localized primarily within the nuclear regions of those embryonic cells that express the gene. After gastrulation, seven weakly stained stripes of eve expression appear, resulting in a transient pattern that consists of a total of 14 evenly spaced stripes. Both the original and new stripes gradually disappear during germ band elongation. A second expression pattern emerges during neurogenesis, whereby eve protein is detected in discrete subsets of neurons in each of the ventral ganglia. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2884106

  20. The ventricular system of the pigeon brain: a scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Mestres, P; Rascher, K

    1994-01-01

    The fine structural features and regional differences of the ependyma in adult pigeons have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Pigeons of either sex were fixed with buffered glutaraldehyde (3%) and formaldehyde (0.5%) by intravascular perfusion. The brain was dissected using section planes adequate to expose each part of the ventricular system. The specimens were then dehydrated, critical point dried and sputtered with gold. Depending upon the distribution of cilia, microvilli and single cilia, different areas were recognised in the 4 ventricles. The topographic locations of these areas were determined using the atlas of Karten & Hodos (1967). The medial surfaces of the 1st and 2nd lateral ventricles are more densely ciliated than the lateral surfaces. In the floor of the 4th ventricle the medial part is less ciliated than the lateral parts. The circumventricular organs (subseptal organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, infundibulum, choroid plexus, subcommissural organ, area postrema) show very characteristic surfaces and are surrounded by a transitional zone with the nonspecialized ependyma. In contrast, in the paraventricular organ the transition to the nonspecialized ependyma is rather abrupt. The ependyma covering the trochlear nucleus appears densely ciliated, differing from that of the classic circumventricular organs. Finally, the existence of openings in the caudal medullary velum, which represent direct communications between the ventricles and the subarachnoid space, was demonstrated. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:8157492

  1. Liver disease and “natural” hepatotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Schoental, R.

    1963-01-01

    The author discusses the role of “natural” hepatotoxic substances, derived from plants and fungi, in the etiology of liver disease, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The hazards involved in even the occasional use of natural hepatotoxins and the difficulty in tracing the causative factors of chronic diseases are illustrated by the example of the pyrrolizidine (Senecio) alkaloids. The ingestion by rats of a single dose of these alkaloids can induce chronic liver lesions and even hepatoma which, however, may not become apparent for 1½-2½ years. It is suggested that, however varied the chemical structures of the various hepatocarcinogens, they may all affect an essential cell constituent (e.g., a “mitotic hormone”), possibly of a steroidal nature, each substance interfering with a particular stage of its biosynthesis. “Natural” toxic factors may also be responsible for some other chronic diseases, especially those which are mainly encountered in, or restricted to, certain pastoral communities. In view of the greater susceptibility of the suckling young and the foetus than of adults to hepatotoxins, it would appear more promising to attempt to trace the causative agents of liver disease in children than in adults, in whom disease takes much longer to develop. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:14107756

  2. Cardiac lesions in rats fed rapeseed oils.

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, K M; Corner, A H; Davey, K; Kramer, J K; Mahadevan, S; Sauer, F D

    1975-01-01

    Fully refined rapeseed oils containing different amounts of erucic acid (1.6%, 4.3% and 22.3%) were fed, at 20% by weight of diet, to weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for periods up to 112 days. Transient myocardial lipidosis characterized by accumulation of fat droplets in myocardial fibers was marked in male and female rats fed oxidized and unoxidized rapeseed oil containing 22.3% erucic acid, moderate with rapeseed oil containing 4.3% erucic acid and very slight in rats fed rapeseed oil containing 1.6% erucic acid. Peak intensity of myocardial lipidosis occurred at three to seven days and regressed thereafter. Focal myocardial necrosis and fibrosis occurred in male rats fed rapeseed oils containing different levels of erucic acid for 112 days. The incidence of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis was markedly lower in female rats, and the incidence of these lesions in either sex was not affected by the state of oxidation of these oils. In a second experiment, male rats were fed diets containing crude, partially refined or fully refined rapeseed oils. There was no correlation between the number of foci of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis and the state of refinement of the oils, but there were generally fewer lesions in rats fed those oils having the lowest levels of erucic acid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:1170010

  3. In vitro phagocytosis of exogenous collagen by fibroblasts from the periodontal ligament: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, E L; Brunette, D M; Melcher, A H

    1979-01-01

    There have been numerous electron microscopic reports of apparent phagocytosis of collagen by fibroblasts and other cells in vivo. We have developed an in vitro system which, to the best of our knowledge, will permit for the first time the study of regulatory mechanisms governing phagocytosis and digestion of collagen fibres. Cells were cultured from explants of monkey periodontal ligament, subcultured, and grown to confluence in alpha-MEM plus 15% fetal calf serum plus antibiotics. The confluent cells were then cultured together with minced rat tail tendon collagen in alpha-MEM lacking proline, lysine, glycine and fetal calf serum for up to 7 days, after which they were processed for electron microscopy. Intracellular collagen profiles could be seen in cultured cells that were associated with exogenous collagen fibrils as early as 24 hours after addition of the collagen. Through electron microscopic examination of serial sections of the culture, we have demonstrated: (1) that fibroblasts can phagocytose collagen; (2) that the observed intracellular collagen is not the result of aggregation of endogenous synthesized collagen; (3) that it is not possible to base a decision as to whether a collagen fibril has been phagocytosed in whole or in part by the type of vesicle with which it is associated; (4) that cleavage of collagen into small pieces may not be a necessary prelude to its phagocytosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:108237

  4. Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified SV40 minichromosomes: the liquid drop model.

    PubMed Central

    Dubochet, J; Adrian, M; Schultz, P; Oudet, P

    1986-01-01

    The structure of SV40 minichromosomes has been studied by cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified thin layers of solution. In high-salt buffer (130 mM NaCl), freshly prepared minichromosomes are condensed into globules 30 nm or more in diameter. On the micrograph, they appear to be formed by the close packing of 10 nm granules which give rise to a 10 nm reflection in the optical diffractogram. The globules can adopt many different conformations. At high concentration, they fuse into a homogeneous 'sea' of closely packed 10 nm granules. In low-salt buffer (less than 10 mM NaCl), the globules open, first into 10 nm filaments, and then into nucleosome-strings. The 'liquid drop' model is proposed to explain the condensed structure of the minichromosome in high-salt buffer: nucleosomes stack specifically on top of one another, thus forming the 10 nm filaments. 10 nm filaments in turn, tend to aggregate laterally. Optimizing both these interactions results in the condensation of 10 nm filaments or portions thereof into a structure similar to that of a liquid. Some implications of this model for the structure of cellular chromatin are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 11. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. PMID:3011410

  5. Nucleosome assembly in mammalian cell extracts before and after DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Gruss, C; Gutierrez, C; Burhans, W C; DePamphilis, M L; Koller, T; Sogo, J M

    1990-01-01

    Protein-free DNA in a cytosolic extract supplemented with SV40 large T-antigen (T-Ag), is assembled into chromatin structure when nuclear extract is added. This assembly was monitored by topoisomer formation, micrococcal nuclease digestion and psoralen crosslinking of the DNA. Plasmids containing SV40 sequences (ori- and ori+) were assembled into chromatin with similar efficiencies whether T-Ag was present or not. Approximately 50-80% of the number of nucleosomes in vivo could be assembled in vitro; however, the kinetics of assembly differed on replicated and unreplicated molecules. In replicative intermediates, nucleosomes were observed on both the pre-replicated and post-replicated portions. We conclude that the extent of nucleosome assembly in mammalian cell extracts is not dependent upon DNA replication, in contrast to previous suggestions. However, the highly sensitive psoralen assay revealed that DNA replication appears to facilitate precise folding of DNA in the nucleosome. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2167837

  6. New perspectives in the management of severe cranio-facial deformity.

    PubMed Central

    David, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is postulated that craniosynostosis is due to a growth abnormality in all or part of the cranial capsule. Release of the stenosed part in the first months of life will re-establish the balance between the rapidly growing brain and eye, and the cranial capsule. Three periods for operative treatment are described: early, intermediate and late. Only in the early period can operative treatment restore normal growth dynamics; in the late period the aim is correction of an established deformity. The relationship between cranial clefts and frontonasal encephaloceles is explored. If the space-occupying encephalocele is removed early, the distorted facial bones adopt a more normal position, whereas cranial clefts do not respond to early operation by remoulding. The treatment of the acquired deformities of acute cranio-facial trauma have taken on new perspectives with the application of the multi-disciplinary approach and surgical techniques developed in the treatment of congenital deformities resulting in considerable reduction in the period of hospitalisation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6742741

  7. Testicular Biopsy in Evaluation of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Meinhard, Elizabeth; McRae, C. U.; Chisholm, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Testicular biopsy findings in 100 infertile men were correlated with the clinical findings. Mild or moderately severe tubular lesions were seen in 57 cases and severe changes in 43. Clinical examination and semen analysis were no guide to the severity of the testicular lesion. Though patients with normal sized testes more commonly had mild tubular lesions, many were severe. Patients with small testes more often had severe lesions but some had only mild tubular changes. Biopsy findings in both aspermic and oligospermic patients ranged from normal to a complete loss of germinal tissue. Testicular biopsy is advocated in infertile men for the complete assessment of the case and for identifying those which are potentially treatable. Patients with a severe lesion can be spared further investigations. The choice and results of treatment are discussed, particularly the surgical treatment of varicocele or obstruction. Only patients with a mild or moderate testicular tubular lesion should participate in future trials with drugs for male infertility. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:4726930

  8. Chronic Actinic Keratopathy—A Condition Associated with Conjunctival Elastosis (Pingueculae) and Typified by Characteristic Extracellular Concretions

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1972-01-01

    Morphologic observations on a peculiar type of corneal reaction with a predisposition for the superficial stroma of the interpalpebral portion of the cornea are reviewed. Histochemical evidence is provided which indicates that the corneal concretions, though not homogenous, are proteinaceous in nature and contain amino acids not normally detectable in the cornea. The corneal concretions were associated with conjunctival elastosis (pingueculae) in all 22 instances in which the eyes were sectioned in the horizontal plane. Identical concretions were identified within these associated pingueculae, as well as in a large percentage of other pingueculae and cutaneous lesions with actinic elastosis. The findings suggest that the abnormal material arises in the pericorneal conjunctival connective tissue from whence it diffuses into, and deposits in, the superficial corneal stroma. The data also raise the possibility that the concretions may be derived, at least in part, from altered elastic tissue. Morphologic and epidemiologic observations on the condition taken together strongly suggest that this unique reaction is a sequel to the cumulative effect of chronic actinic irradiation. Further observations on this keratopathy are needed to establish whether this unique response can be provoked by other noxious stimuli. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15 PMID:5021106

  9. The olfactory apparatus of the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus): fine structure and presence of a septal olfactory organ.

    PubMed Central

    Kratzing, J E

    1978-01-01

    The structure and extent of olfactory epithelium in the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) were examined by light and electron microscopy. Sensory epithelium covers most of the dorsal conchae, though non-sensory epithelium lines ventrally facing scrolls. The middle conchae are partly covered by olfactory epithelium, the proportion of olfactory to ciliated respiratory epithelium increasing caudally. Ventral conchae are lined by non-sensory ciliated epithelium. The nasal septum ends short of the floor of the nasal cavity in its caudal two thirds. It is covered dorsally by olfactory epithelium. The ventral margin has rounded lateral extensions which carry the isolated strips of olfactory epithelium which form the septal olfactory organ. The fine structure of the olfactory epithelium is the same in all areas. Cell types include olfactory receptors, supporting cells, two types of basal cell and rarer pale and brush cells. There is considerable morphological variation in olfactory cells, and evidence suggestive of continuing turnover in the receptor cell population. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:640961

  10. Mucosal tears at the oesophagogastric junction (the Mallory-Weiss syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Michael; Bottrill, M. B.; Edwards, A. T.; Mitchell, Winifred M.; Peet, B. Gadsby; Williams, R. E.

    1961-01-01

    This is a re-appraisal of the supposedly rare Mallory-Weiss syndrome in which 11 patients with mucosal tears at the oesophagogastric junction are described. The fact that these cases were collected from general hospitals within a short period suggests that the condition is more common than supposed and may account for a considerable proportion of the 20 to 25% of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in whom no radiological abnormality can subsequently be found. Of the 11 patients, eight presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, two with mediastinitis, and one without relevant symptoms. The classical history of antecedent vomiting before the bleeding was obtained in only four patients, its absence not excluding the diagnosis. The presence of a small hiatal hernia in four patients appeared to predispose to mucosal tears as did mucosal atrophy occurring with advancing age. Some experimental findings pertaining to the mechanism of the tears are presented. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIGS. 4 and 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:13684977

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

  12. Electron Microscopy of the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, T. S.

    1965-01-01

    The use of the electron microscope has added much to our knowledge of the cell. The fine structure of the component parts of the nucleus and the cytoplasm is described, and their functions are indicated. The nature and structural modifications of the plasma membrane are illustrated with particular reference to function. To illustrate the interrelationships of the nucleus and cytoplasm, the theory of protein secretion is discussed, the secretion of a particular protein or polypeptide being determined by a particular nucleotide sequence in the desoxyribonucleic acid of a chromosome, that is, by a gene. This information is transferred from nucleus to cytoplasm. It is in the cytoplasm that the majority of the work is performed while the nucleus directs the work of the cell. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:5829410

  13. Amyloidogenesis in Healing Wound

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ken; Brownstein, Martin H.

    1972-01-01

    Clinically and histologically typical skin lesions of macular and lichenoid amyloidoses were biopsied. Rebiopsies were performed after 2 to 16 weeks, and the sequence of amyloid reproduction in granulation tissue was followed. Initially, medium electron-dense proteinaceous substance with fine filaments was produced within or in close relation to the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum of fibroblasts and subsequently discharged. Typical amyloid filaments emerged within and in the vicinity of this substance. A significant number of collagen fibrils were admixed in the centers of some amyloid islands. Predominantly amorphous amyloid substance was seen in contact with the basal laminae. No plasma cells were observed in foci of amyloid. Nonepithelialized wounds did not contain amyloid. It was suggested that, in the primary skin amyloidoses, abnormal dermal fibroblasts produce amyloid precursors under the influence of the epidermis. ImagesFig 9Fig 10Fig 4Fig 5Fig 11Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 8Fig 3 PMID:5049430

  14. Expression of amphiphysin I, an autoantigen of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, S.; Butler, M. H.; Cremona, O.; David, C.; Freyberg, Z.; Zhang, X.; Solimena, M.; Tokunaga, A.; Ishizu, H.; Tsutsui, K.; De Camilli, P.

    1998-01-01

    Amphiphysin I is a 128 kD protein highly concentrated in nerve terminals, where it has a putative role in endocytosis. It is a dominant autoantigen in patients with stiff-man syndrome associated with breast cancer, as well as in other paraneoplastic autoimmune neurological disorders. To elucidate the connection between amphiphysin I autoimmunity and cancer, we investigated its expression in breast cancer tissue. We report that amphiphysin I was expressed as two isoforms of 128 and 108 kD in the breast cancer of a patient with anti-amphiphysin I antibodies and paraneoplastic sensory neuronopathy. Amphiphysin I was also detectable at variable levels in several other human breast cancer tissues and cell lines and at low levels in normal mammary tissue and a variety of other non-neuronal tissues. The predominant amphiphysin I isoform expressed outside the brain in humans is the 108 kD isoform which represents an alternatively spliced variant of neuronal amphiphysin I missing a 42 amino acid insert. Our study suggests a link between amphiphysin I expression in cancer and amphiphysin I autoimmunity. The enhanced expression of amphiphysin I in some forms of cancer supports the hypothesis that amphiphysin family members may play a role in the biology of cancer cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 PMID:9513187

  15. Light microscopic identification of immature glial cells in semithin sections of the developing mouse corpus callosum.

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, R R

    1976-01-01

    Four distinct types of glial cell were recognized in the corpus callosum of young postnatal mice: the early glioblast; the small glioblast; the large glioblast; and the young astrocyte. As well as these, mature microglia could be recognized from birth. In semithin, toluidine blue stained sections early glioblasts had large, fair to moderately stained nuclei, and a thin rim of pale cytoplasm; small glioblasts had small, dark nuclei and a rim of darkly stained cytoplasm; large glioblasts had moderately unevenly stained nuclei and a thin rim of moderately stained cytoplasm; and young astrocytes had fairly small nuclei, moderately stained cytoplasm, and one or more processes, which could usually be seen extending for 5 mum or more from the perikaryon. Differential glial counts using the criteria described above, in conjunction with electron microscopic analysis, suggested that early glioblasts gave rise to small glioblasts and large glioblasts; that small glioblasts gave rise directly to astrocytes, large glioblasts, oligodendrocytes and possibly microglia; that large glioblasts formed oligodendrocytes only, and might be immature light oligodendrocytes; and that part of the microglial population might arise from vascular pericytes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:795801

  16. The embryological development of primary visual centres in the turtle Emys orbicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Hergueta, S; Lemire, M; Pieau, C; Ward, R; Repérant, J

    1993-01-01

    The development of the primary visual centres was studied in a series of embryos of the turtle, Emys orbicularis, incubated at 25 degrees C. The differentiation of both visual and nonvisual diencephalic and mesencephalic structures takes place entirely within the 2nd quarter of the period of incubation; this finding appears to be consistent with previous descriptions of the embryology of 2 other chelonian species, Lepidochelys and Chelydra. Two successive waves of migration, each dividing into internal and external sheaves, are involved in the formation of the structures of the diencephalon and mesencephalon. The primary visual centres, which comprise 2 hypothalamic, 5 thalamic and 5 pretectal zones of retinal projections, together with the 2 superficial layers of the tectum and a single tegmental projection zone, all have their origin in the external sheaf of the 1st wave of migration. The finding that the adult nucleus geniculatus lateralis dorsalis, pars ventralis arises from one of the migrations of the dorsal thalamus is discussed in the context of the debate over the possible homologues of the mammalian geniculostriate visual pathway. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2 Fig. 3 (cont.) Fig. 3 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 (cont.) Fig. 5 Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 (cont.) Fig. 8 Fig. 9 (cont.) Fig. 9 Fig. 10 (cont.) Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:8300423

  17. A fine structural study of the removal of the effectiveness of benzo-pyrone treatment of lymphoedema by the destruction of the macrophages by silica.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börcsök, E.; Földi, M.

    1978-01-01

    Macroscopical, light microscopical and electronmicroscopical observations were made of the diaphragm, skin and brain of rats, some of which were treated with intraperitoneal silica for 8 days (after being given it i.v. for 2 days). The diaphragms showed a most remarkable increase in fibroblast activity and fibrosis beneath the peritoneal mesothelium (which was disintegrating). Deep to this there were many disintegrating macrophages, and much oedema and increased protein concentration. Ligation of the cervical lymphatics produced the usual changes of lymphoedema in the skin and brain. This was greatly reduced in the animals treated with a mixture of benzo-pyrones. However, in those animals also treated with silica, the benzo-pyrones had no effect on the amount of oedema or of protein. In all the animals except those treated with silica, lymphoedema was accompanied by considerable numbers of macrophages entering the affected tissues; in those treated with silica, these numbers were greatly reduced. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:207299

  18. The prelymphatic pathways of the brain as revealed by cervical lymphatic obstruction and the passage of particles.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börsök, E.; Földi, M.

    1976-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy was used to examine portions of the brain, the circle of Willis, and the internal carotid arteries of normal cats and rabbits, of sham-operated ones, and of those whose cervical lymphatics had been ligated. Carbon was injected into the cerebral cortex of some lymphoedematous animals. It was found that lymphatic ligation produced oedema of the brain, and a dilatation of the prelymphatic spaces around the vessels. Carbon was traced in these from the injection site, around the minor and major vessels, in the adventitia of the internal carotid artery, entering lymphatics adjacent to it, and finally in the draining lymph nodes. The oedema and dilated spaces were not present in the control animals. This was taken to indicate that there is a continuous system of non-endothelialized spaces and potential spaces-the prelymphatics-draining the brain into the cervical lymphatics. The protein in these spaces appeared to be increased if the lymph-oedema had lasted three weeks as compared to 24 hours, indicating that one of the major roles of this system is the removal of protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:773400

  19. Selenium toxicity and porcine focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia: description of a field outbreak and experimental reproduction.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T M; Scholz, R W; Drake, T R

    1983-01-01

    An acute afebrile paretic condition was diagnosed in 18 of 225 feeder pigs between eight to ten weeks of age. Nine pigs died acutely, seven pigs were euthanatized and two appeared to recover. Macroscopic lesions in the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements consisted of focal, bilateral, depressed areas. Histopathologically, the lesion consisted of endothelial proliferation, glial cell reaction and microcavitation. Similar lesions were observed in some brain stem motor nuclei. High selenium levels were detected in the pig feed and in pig tissues and blood. Two of five experimental pigs fed a commercial grower ration and supplemented with 52 ppm selenium as sodium selenite developed paresis and paralysis after a 29 day feeding trial. Histopathological lesions of focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia confined to the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements, and identical to those in the field cases, were produced. Select brain stem motor nuclei were also affected. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:6667430

  20. The cellular changes during osteogenesis in bone and bone marrow composite autografts.

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, P V; Gray, J C

    1975-01-01

    Osteogenesis in and around autografts has been studied in the hope of identifying the osteoblast precursor. Fresh autografts of cortical bone with its constituent bone marrow were implanted into intramuscular sites in rats. The grafts were removed at intervals over a four week period and examined by light and electron microscopy. A chronological sequence of degenerative, reparative and differentiative events was found and described. The relative contributions of the host and graft components to post-grafting osteogenesis are discussed and the problem of the origin of the osteoblast cells is examined, taking into account present views about the interrelationships between skeletal connective tissue cells and their precursors. It is concluded that, in the investigation described, the presence of host granulation tissue was necessary for osteogenesis and it is postulated that osteoblast progenitor cells can arise from this granulation tissue, their differentiation along the osteogenic line being stimulated in some way by the presence of the graft bone. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:1102503

  1. Association of interstitial nephritis with tubule cell injury and proliferation in NZB/NZW mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, E R; Ziff, M

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between renal interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration and renal tubule cell (TC) proliferation has been examined in (NZB X NZW) F1 hybrid (B/W) and control mice. TC proliferation was measured by tritiated thymidine ([3H]TdR) injection, autoradiographic examination of kidney sections and enumeration of labelled tubule cells. In B/W mice interstitial infiltration began at 5 months and reached a peak at 9 months. Proliferation of TC began at 7 months and also reached a peak at 9 months. Control mice consisting of NZB, CBA/J and C57Bl/6J mice showed no increase with age. When the percentages of labelled TC in areas adjacent to interstitial infiltrates and distant from them were compared, the TC adjacent to infiltrates showed an approximately four-fold greater amount of labelling. Ultrathin light and electron microscopic sections demonstrated TC injury in areas in close proximity to infiltrates. These studies suggest that mononuclear cells in the interstitial infiltrate may be injurious to TC, leading to a sequence of injury and subsequent regeneration of these cells. In diseases in which interstitial nephritis is present, such as Sjögren's syndrome, the interstitial infiltrate may contribute to the observed TC dysfunction. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:668188

  2. Pathology of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in the Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, Timothy G.; Stookey, James L.; Eddy, Gerald A.; Kastello, Michael D.

    1973-01-01

    Gross and microscopic lesions associated with Bolivan hemorrhagic fever virus infection in the rhesus monkey were studied in 10 animals which died following inoculation. Gross lesions included skin rash, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, meningeal edema, hydropericardium and enlarged friable livers. Hemorrhagic manifestations of the infection were not consistently observed, but hemorrhages were present in the skin, heart, brain and nares in some monkeys. Histopathologic lesions were fairly consistent. Hepatic necrosis with the presence of acidophilic hyaline bodies, necrotizing enteritis, epithelial necrosis and adrenal cortical necrosis were present in all monkeys. Those monkeys which died after the seventeenth day of infection had nonsupurative meningoencephalitis; lymphoid necrosis was present in 3 monkeys that died after day 18. Other microscopic lesions included myocardial degeneration, lymphoid and reticuloendothelial cell hyperplasia and lymphoid depletion. Most of the histopathologic lesions described in human autopsy material were reproduced; however, the necrosis in the skin and oral mucosa, mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and the adrenal cortex have not been described in man. Despite these apparent discrepancies the results of this investigation indicate that the rhesus monkey is a good experimental model for the study of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever infection. ImagesFig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:4202335

  3. A scanning electron microscope study of the pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans): possible involvement of melanosomes in protecting the pecten against damage by ultraviolet light.

    PubMed Central

    Kiama, S G; Bhattacharjee, J; Maina, J N; Weyrauch, K D

    1994-01-01

    The pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans), a diurnally active bird of prey, has been examined by scanning electron microscopy. In this species the pecten consists of 12 highly vascularised pleats, held together apically by a heavily pigmented 'bridge' and projects freely into the vitreous body in the ventral part of the eye cup. Ascending and descending blood vessels of varying calibre, together with a profuse network of capillaries, essentially constitute the vascular framework of the pecten. A distinct distribution of melanosomes is discernible on the pecten, the concentration being highest at its apical end, moderate at the crest of the pleats and least at the basal and lateral margins. Overlying and within the vascular network, a close association between blood vessels and melanocytes is evident. It is conjectured that such an association may have evolved to augment the structural reinforcement of this nutritive organ in order to keep it firmly erectile within the gel-like vitreous. Such erectility may be an essential prerequisite for its optimal functioning, as well as in its overt use as a protective shield against the effects of ultraviolet light, which otherwise might lead to damage of the pectineal vessels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7649799

  4. An analysis of implantation in Indian hipposiderid bats.

    PubMed Central

    Bhiwgade, D A

    1979-01-01

    The meagre information on the early developmental stages and the evolutionary and taxonomic position of hipposiderid bats has stimulated the present study. The cranial segment of the uterus forms a balloon-like enlargement at the time of implantation, and the antimesometrial part of its huminal slit expands into a spacious implantation chamber. Implantation is superficial and circumferential and the embryonic disc is orientated towards the side of the uterus which lies between the lateral and the antimesometrial sides. Reichert's membrane develops early, and the formation of a symplasma is described. A comparative account of implantation in the four species of hipposiderid bats of the family Hipposideridae is given, and the taxonomic position of this family is discussed on the basis of the present observations and earlier work on the embryology of Chiroptera. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 PMID:438094

  5. The ACTH cells in the pituitary gland of the nine-spined stickleback, Pungitius pungitius L.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M

    1982-01-01

    The ACTH cells form a layer 1-8 cells thick, dorsal to the prolactin cells in the rostral pars distalis. They react only mildly with a variety of stains including PAS-lead haematoxylin. Their nuclear diameters vary seasonally in a manner that closely parallels that of the prolactin cells. The relative volumes of the ACTH and prolactin cell zones are remarkably constant in animals of different sizes. It is suggested that the two hormones may act synergistically at various body sites and that this accounts for the related morphological features of the ACTH and prolactin cells. There are no changes in the surface density of the ACTH zone with increasing animal size. Consequently, the ACTH/neurohypophysial border is highly convoluted in large animals. The proximity of the neurohypophysis also influences cell ultrastructure, as small processes, packed with secretory granules are more numerous near the basal lamina separating the adeno- and neurohypophyses. A morphometric analysis of ACTH cells provides base-line ultrastructural data for experimental studies and for comparisons with other teleosts. The cells have small, secretory granules, 100-300 nm in diameter, and of variable electron density. There is little rough endoplasmic reticulum and a small Golgi apparatus. There is no evidence of granule release by exocytosis and various explanations for this are suggested. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6290440

  6. On the ovarian bursa of the golden hamster. II. Intercellular connections in the bursal epithelium and passage of ferritin from the cavity into lymphatics.

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, T; Shinohara, H; Matsuda, T

    1986-01-01

    Cell abutments in the ovarian bursal epithelium of the golden hamster included tight junctions, desmosome-like junctions, gap junctions and zonulae adhaerentes. The plasma membranes of adjacent epithelial cells were often closely apposed forming a zonula adherens at the apex of the intercellular space, but these did not fuse along the entire length of the intercellular space. Gap junctions and other intercellular junctions did not allow diffusion of ferritin into the junctional areas, but failed to prevent ferritin from filling the intercellular space basal to the junction. This suggested that these junctions were not continuous around the entire circumference of the cell. In general, intercellular connections in the bursal epithelium may be labile and this lability, as well as periodic distention of the bursa, may give rise to separation of epithelial cells. Ferritin injected into the bursal cavity reached lymphatics via three routes: (1) via stomata; (2) via gaps and pores; (3) via intercellular spaces. Transcellular transport did not make a major contribution to permeation of ferritin across the bursal epithelium, and ferritin particles did not enter fenestrated blood vessels within 30 minutes after injection. The variety of routes may facilitate rapid and complete drainage of fluid and cellular components from the bursal cavity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Figs. 17-18 PMID:3693080

  7. Role of cartilage canals in osteogenesis and growth of the vertebral centra.

    PubMed Central

    Chandraraj, S; Briggs, C A

    1988-01-01

    Bone formation in the vertebral centra commences within the centrum and is in this respect analogous to the secondary ossification which occurs in the epiphysis of a long bone. Bone tissue first appears at about the 85 mm C.R. stage and not in the 55 mm C.R. length embryo; at the latter stage blood vessels and calcification alone were observed. The connective tissue cells within the cartilage canal appear to assist osteogenesis by providing osteogenic cells which lay down bone in the walls of the cartilage canal, and provide cells which remove calcified cartilage found at the periphery of the canal; they assist growth by producing an appreciable number of chondrocytes that permit lateral expansion of the centra. Osteogenesis appears to occur in multiple foci within the growth plate of the older embryos and could account for the rapid rate of growth of vertebrae. Bone formation occurs in both mineralised and unmineralised matrix (as seen on the walls of the cartilage canals). The blood vessels within the growing vertebra tend to follow the zone of cartilage hypertrophy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3225216

  8. The uterine vascular system of the golden hamster and its changes during the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, A; Nishida, T

    1988-01-01

    The vascular pattern of the hamster uterus and its changes during the oestrous cycle were studied by using the corrosion vascular casting method. The vascular system of the hamster uterus has two main division, the circumferential division and the medial arterial division. The former consists of circumferential and radial vessels and supplies the major part of the uterus. In this system the arteries and veins run parallel to each other throughout the uterus except for the inner circumferential plexus to which veins are predominantly distributed. The latter division has a delicate arterial system which supplies the mesometrial are of the endometrium. It forms a conglomerate structure along the mesometrial surface of the circular muscle layer. The arrangement of the vessels, especially those in the circumferential division, evidently changes during the oestrous cycle. From the evening of dioestrus II to the evening of pro-oestrus most of the circumferential and radial vessels are enormously dilated and subepithelial capillaries make an elaborate network without blind endings. These changes in the vascular structure are associated with those in the external and internal (or luminal) aspects of the uterus: the uterine horns are markedly swollen and the luminal surface becomes much more irregular due to the indentations in the endometrium. No new vascular formation is found in the uterus throughout the four days cycle. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:3225224

  9. The fine structure of the human fetal urinary bladder. Development and maturation. A light, transmission and scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, J; Antonakopoulos, G N

    1989-01-01

    The urinary bladders of 27 human fetuses, aged 7 weeks to full term, were studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy to establish the sequence of events in the development and maturation of the organ during fetal life. In the early specimens, 7-12 weeks old, the urinary bladder was lined by a bilayered, cuboidal and glycogen-rich epithelium. During the 13-17th weeks the epithelium thickened, a third layer developed and by light microscopy it now resembled urothelium. By 21 weeks this had evolved into a 3-4 layer thick epithelium with typical ultrastructural urothelial characteristics. Smooth muscle cells emerged from the condensed mesenchyme of the bladder wall by the 12th week of gestation, initially in the cephalic part of the organ but spreading within a week into the caudal end. Our findings indicate that the human fetal bladder undergoes a series of vital developmental changes during 13-21 weeks of gestation finally acquiring the typical urothelial lining and a well-developed muscular coat. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:2621133

  10. Mass and number of fibres in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung disease in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. M.; Beckett, S. T.; Bolton, R. E.; Collings, P.; Middleton, A. P.

    1978-01-01

    Five groups of rats were treated by inhalation for 12 months, with the U.I.C.C. preparations of the 3 main commercially used asbestos types, chrysotile, crocidolite and amosite. The experiment was designed so that the effects of both fibre mass and fibre number could be examined. The results indicated that chrysotile dust caused far more lung fibrosis than either amphibole type even when the fibre numbers in the dust clouds were similar. All malignant pulmonary neoplasms found during this study occurred in animals treated with chrysotile. The fibre-number calculations used for the generation of dust clouds were evaluated using the parameters recommended by the Health and Safety Executive in 1976, by which all fibres over 5 microgram long are counted using a phase-contrast light microscopy. When fibre-length distributions were calculated using a scanning electron microscope, however, it was found that the chrysotile clouds used in this study contained many more fibres over 20 microgram long than either of the amphibole clouds. The results, therefore, support previous suggestions that long asbestos fibres are more dangerous than short. They also indicate that neither a single mass standard, nor the present fibre-number standards are satisfactory. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Figs. 9 and 10 PMID:656299

  11. A major stylar matrix polypeptide (sp41) is a member of the pathogenesis-related proteins superclass.

    PubMed Central

    Ori, N; Sessa, G; Lotan, T; Himmelhoch, S; Fluhr, R

    1990-01-01

    A novel stylar-specific glycosylated protein, sp41, was characterized. Sp41 constitutes greater than 12% of the transmitting tract tissue soluble proteins and is mainly localized in the extracellular matrix. Two cDNA clones corresponding to sp41 mRNA were isolated and sequenced. The decoded sequences are, respectively, 80% and 49% homologous to acidic and basic pathogen-induced (1-3)-beta-glucanases of the leaf. Thus a subfamily of (1-3)-beta-glucanase pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins constitutes one of the major stylar matrix proteins. The accumulation of sp41 transcripts in normally developing and elicitor-treated styles and leaves was followed using an RNase protection assay. During development sp41 transcript accumulation starts well after carpel differentiation. It is first detected in styles at 8 days before anthesis. The maximal level of accumulation is reached during anthesis. Elicitor-treated styles do not accumulate the leaf-type (1-3)-beta-glucanase transcript, although they retain the capacity to synthesize leaf-type pathogenesis-related proteins such as the pathogen-induced acidic chitinase. The developmental regulation of sp41 expression points to a role for them in the normal processes of flowering and reproductive physiology. Images Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7 Fig.8 Fig.9 PMID:2120041

  12. Ultrastructural Localization of Peroxidase Activity in Human Platelets and Megakaryocytes

    PubMed Central

    Breton-Gorius, Janine; Guichard, Josette

    1972-01-01

    Normal human platelets and megakaryocytes were examined for peroxidase activity by the diaminobenzidine (DAB) cytochemical technic. When the fixation and the incubation were adequate, a strong reaction was present in the dense tubular system of platelets suspended in plasma or spread on carbon. The black reaction product was ascribed to enzyme activity, since the reaction was completely eliminated when H2O2 or DAB were omitted, or when H2O2 was in excess. In addition, the reaction was inhibited by aminotriazole, cyanide and azide. In the human megakaryocytes, the reaction was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum including the perinuclear envelope. The Golgi complex and the clear vacuolar system were negative for the reaction. After platelet release, the reaction was always seen in the perinuclear space. The nature and function of the enzyme, as well as its possible relationships with catalase, are discussed. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16 PMID:5009974

  13. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of peripheral T cell lymphomas: a proposal for their classification.

    PubMed Central

    Suchi, T; Lennert, K; Tu, L Y; Kikuchi, M; Sato, E; Stansfeld, A G; Feller, A C

    1987-01-01

    Based on the results of histological and immunohistochemical observations of a large number of peripheral T cell lymphomas from China, England, Germany and Japan, histological and cytological morphology were correlated with immunophenotype, aetiological association with HTLV-1, and clinical behaviour to produce a working classification of the T cell lymphomas. This classification, based mainly on cytological criteria, divides the peripheral T cell lymphomas into tumours of low grade and high grade malignancy. Adult T cell lymphoma/leukaemia (ATLL) is caused by HTLV-1 and belongs chiefly to the high grade category. Some tumours are characterised by an admixture of other cells (epithelioid cells, follicular dendritic cells, etc) and structures (high endothelial venules, follicles), which may indicate the secretion of lymphokines by the tumour cells. Clear cells seem to be specific for T cell lymphomas and may occur in various types of peripheral T cell lymphoma. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 PMID:3312308

  14. Variations in structure and function during the life cycle of malarial parasites*

    PubMed Central

    Aikawa, M.

    1977-01-01

    The fine structure of malarial parasites is reviewed and the function of the intracellular organelles is discussed. When the erythrocytic, exoerythrocytic, and mosquito stages of plasmodia are compared, substantial differences are seen. The major differences involve the amount of surface coat of the motile forms, the structure and function of the mitochondria, and the ingestion and digestion of nutrients. Significant structural differences are also observed between comparable stages of mammalian and avian parasites. These differences indicate that malarial parasites adapt themselves to the different environments in which the parasite resides. When host cell changes induced by malarial parasite infection are reviewed, alterations characteristic of the infecting plasmodia are observed in erythrocytes. Erythrocyte changes include caveola—vesicle complexes, excrescences, and clefts. The caveola—vesicle complexes possess malarial antigens and exhibit pinocytotic activities. The excrescences form focal junctions with adjacent cells and may be responsible for infected erythrocyte sequestration in organs. The significance of these host cell changes specific to certain species of malarial parasite is still unknown. ImagesFig. 9Fig. 8Fig. 2Fig. 6Fig. 3Fig. 1Fig. 7Fig. 4Fig. 10Fig. 5 PMID:338177

  15. Occult Carcinoma of the Bronchus

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, F. G.; Thompson, D. W.

    1966-01-01

    The term “occult carcinoma” is applied to those patients with carcinoma of the bronchus at an in situ or early invasive stage who have carcinoma cells in their sputum but have no recognizable evidence of tumour in the chest radiograph. In eight such patients at the Toronto General Hospital, the lesion was localized and treatment instituted. Our experience with these eight patients can be compared with that of 27 patients described in two similar studies. The lesions were commonly symptomatic. Localization, although sometimes difficult, was accomplished using information obtained during bronchoscopy and bronchography. The prognosis following adequate resection appeared excellent. No patient died of carcinoma during the post-treatment follow-up period, which was continued for a minimum of 18 months. Pathological evidence indicates that bronchial carcinoma at this occult stage can be diagnosed cytologically, is rarely multifocal and, as a localized neoplasm, is amenable to curative therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:5929532

  16. Placental agenesis, embryonal hydraemia, embryolethality and acute hypervitaminosis A in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Love, A. M.; Vickers, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    Acute maternal hypervitaminosis A established on Day 9 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley-derived rats caused a dose-related increase in the resorption of implants. The median embryolethal dose was 189,000 i.u./kg. In addition to suppression of the allantois leading to placental agenesis, damaged embryos showed retarded somatic development and hydraemia, all apparent 24 h after treatment. At about Day 11 the hydraemia involved the visceral wall of the yolk sac causing death of the embryo soon after. The fluid in the vitelline vessels continued to collect until Day 13 when it absorbed following necrosis of the wall of the yolk sac. Two mechanisms are suggested for the embryonal hydraemia: either the excess fluid resulted from a permeability disorder induced by the vitamin A; or it was retained metabolic water or water specifically absorbed to inflate the allantois and, being unused for this purpose, it pooled in the blood vessels of the embryo. The yolk sac hydraemia is more likely to have followed injury to the proximal endoderm. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 PMID:999789

  17. Comparative morphology, cytochemistry and innervation of chromaffin tissue in vertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Scheuermann, D W

    1993-01-01

    Chromaffin cells were observed singly or in clusters in the heart and sympathetic cord of 2 genera of dipnoan fish, Protopterus and Lepidosiren. They were invariably found in close association with the autonomic sympathetic nervous system and at sites where chromaffin cells or their precursors are situated in mammals during ontogenetic development. X-ray microanalysis demonstrated that they contained a primary catecholamine which was identified microspectrofluorometrically as dopamine. The chromaffin cells were innervated by efferent axons with typical preganglionic sympathetic terminals which were acetylcholinesterase-positive. Although the general morphology and cytochemistry agree with those of developing intra-adrenal chromaffin cells in mammals, the morphological characteristics implicate them as active secretory gland cells. The dopamine transmitter phenotype seems to be determined by the maintenance throughout life of the separate and distant location of steroidogenic interrenal tissue from suprarenal elements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 14 PMID:8300420

  18. Early Development of and Pathology Associated with Strongylus edentatus

    PubMed Central

    McCraw, B. M.; Slocombe, J. O. D.

    1974-01-01

    Pony foals inoculated with infective Strongylus edentatus larvae were monitored for clinical signs and selected blood changes and were examined at necropsy from two to 56 days postinfection. Larvae penetrated the intestine and reached the liver intravenously before 40 hours postinfection. Occasional thrombi and larval tracks associated with the intima of cecal and colic veins suggested aberrant paths. Larvae in the liver doubled in width between seven and 15 days postinfection and a sudden increment in circulating eosinophils occurred between 11 and 15 days. These changes were probably associated with the third molt. At 30 days fourth stage larvae were migrating in the liver; at 42 days they were present in the hepatorenal ligament. White foci were observed in the liver from two to 56 days. They contained mononuclear cells and eosinophils and later necrotic cores of eosinophils. By one month foci were overshadowed by tortuous tracks of migrating larvae. Aberrant larvae in the lungs were confined in granulomas. Massive granulomas in the wall of the cecum and colon contained small larvae which were probably inhibited by antibody associated with the third molt. Severe disruption of omental architecture and adhesions involving the intestine occurred several weeks after infection. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20.Fig. 21.Fig. 22.Fig. 23.Fig. 24. PMID:4274818

  19. Anatomical aspects of the lacrimal gland of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella).

    PubMed Central

    Veiga Neto, E R; Tamega, O J; Zorzetto, N L; Dall Pai, V

    1992-01-01

    In the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) the main lacrimal gland is composed of 2 distinct portions with an intraorbital and extraorbital localisation, interconnected by a bridge of glandular tissue which crosses the lateral orbital wall through the lateral orbital fissure located in the sphenozygomatic suture. The intraorbital lacrimal gland is flattened and extremely thin, with a variable outline. It lies on the upper and outer third of the globe of the eye, and the aponeurosis and the belly of the lateral rectus muscle, extending antero-posteriorly from the upper lateral angle of the orbit midway along the orbital cavity. The extraorbital lacrimal gland is compact, halfmoon-shaped, with 3 surfaces, 3 borders and 2 extremities. It lies in the temporal fossa between the temporalis muscle and the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone, fitting into a depression in this bone, and totally surrounded by adipose tissue. The secretory cells have a flocculent appearance and either low or high density. They possess a basal region containing the nucleus and rich in granular endoplasmic reticulum, and an apical region filled with secretory granules varying in size, form and density. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1452484

  20. The Nature of D-Serine-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ganote, Charles E.; Peterson, Darryl R.; Carone, Frank A.

    1974-01-01

    Renal structural changes were studied sequentially between 1 hour and 6 days in rats treated with D-serine. Extensive necrosis of proximal straight tubules was rapid in onset and was followed by complete tubular regeneration 6 days post-treatment. The apparent progression of cellular changes was initial shrinkage, followed either by swelling and loss of apical cytoplasm or immediate lysis of cytoplasmic and nuclear contents. Tubular damage left only the basement membrane as a barrier between interstitial and luminal fluids. In similarly treated rats, proteinuria and glucosuria developed at the onset of tubular necrosis and disappeared when the tubules were completely relined by epithelium suggesting that they are due to diffusion of protein and glucose from interstitium into tubular fluid across the denuded basement membranes and that epithelial cells, under normal conditions, act as a barrier to diffusion of certain substances between the interstitium and tubular fluid. ImagesFig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9 PMID:4447130

  1. Early Pathological Changes Associated with Fasciola hepatica Infection in White-tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Presidente, P. J. A.; McCraw, B. M.; Lumsden, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated with 1000 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica and examined on days 7, 14, and 28 postinoculation to determine the early response of a resistant host to this infection. It was concluded that only small numbers of the metacercariae penetrated the intestinal wall into the peritoneal cavity. Flukes that migrated to the liver penetrated through Glisson's capsule, primarily on the parietal surface. Marked fibroplasia and cellular infiltration of the capsule were induced and flukes were killed and destroyed in granulomas immediately beneath the capsule. Migration in hepatic parenchyma was minimal and immature flukes or migratory tracks were not found. There were infiltrations of eosinophils and mononuclear cells, bile duct hyperplasia and fibroplasia in portal areas. A few flukes penetrated through the diaphragm within 14 days postinoculation and on day 28 granulomas were observed on the dorsal surface of the lung where F. hepatica had penetrated this organ. The early reaction of Glisson's capsule to F. hepatica infection in white-tailed deer has not been described in cattle, sheep or swine infected with this fluke. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10. PMID:4277445

  2. Distribution of otic postganglionic and recurrent mandibular nerve fibres to the cavernous sinus plexus in monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Ruskell, G L

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of dorsal rami of the otic ganglion was traced on one or both sides of 1 rhesus and 15 cynomolgus monkeys using interrupted serial sections. From 15 to 24 fine rami containing unmyelinated and small myelinated nerve fibres entered the cranial cavity with the mandibular nerve through the foramen ovale. Most rami contributed to a plexus positioned in the crotch of the mandibular and maxillary nerves adjacent to the trigeminal ganglion. The plexus was augmented by an accessory otic ganglion. Rami then continued dorsally on each side of or through the maxillary nerve and joined the cavernous sinus plexus. The pathway described probably gives otic parasympathetic fibres access to the cerebral arteries and may share a wider distribution in common with other nerves contributing to the cavernous sinus plexus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Figs. 13,15 Fig. 14 PMID:8376193

  3. Shape and motion from image streams: a factorization method.

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, C; Kanade, T

    1993-01-01

    Inferring scene geometry and camera motion from a stream of images is possible in principle, but it is an ill-conditioned problem when the objects are distant with respect to their size. We have developed a factorization method that can overcome this difficulty by recovering shape and motion without computing depth as an intermediate step. An image stream can be represented by the 2F x P measurement matrix of the image coordinates of P points tracked through F frames. Under orthographic projection this matrix is of rank 3. Using this observation, the factorization method uses the singular value decomposition technique to factor the measurement matrix into two matrices, which represent object shape and camera motion, respectively. The method can also handle and obtain a full solution from a partially filled-in measurement matrix, which occurs when features appear and disappear in the image sequence due to occlusions or tracking failures. The method gives accurate results and does not introduce smoothing in either shape or motion. We demonstrate this with a series of experiments on laboratory and outdoor image streams, with and without occlusions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:11607434

  4. Mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Elling, F.; Møller, T.

    1973-01-01

    In Denmark a nephropathy in pigs characterized by tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis has been identified frequently during the last 5 decades in the course of meat inspection in slaughterhouses. The disease was first described by Larsen, who recognized the connexion between feeding mouldy rye to pigs and the development of the nephropathy. In this study kidneys were examined from 19 pigs coming from a farm with an outbreak of nephropathy. The barley fed to the pigs was contaminated with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Histological examination revealed different degrees of change ranging from slight regressive changes in the tubular epithelium and periglomerular and interstitial fibrosis to tubular atrophy, thickened basement membranes, glomerular sclerosis, and marked fibrosis. These differences were considered to be due to differences in the length of time of exposure to the mouldy barley and differences in the amount of mycotoxin consumed by the individual pig. However, it will be necessary to carry out experiments using crystalline ochratoxin A in order to prove such a relationship. Mycotoxins have also been suggested as etiological factors in Balkan nephropathy in man, which in the initial stages is characterized by tubular lesions similar to those seen in mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4546872

  5. The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

    1966-01-01

    The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

  6. The fine structure of normal lymphocyte subpopulations--a study with monoclonal antibodies and the immunogold technique.

    PubMed Central

    Matutes, E; Catovsky, D

    1982-01-01

    The ultrastructural characteristics of normal lymphocyte subpopulations, identified by monoclonal antibodies and visualized by a colloidal gold labelled anti-mouse IgG were analysed. Our study demonstrates: (1) the major T lymphocyte subsets (OKT4+ and OKT8+) have distinct ultrastructural morphology. The majority of OKT4+ cells have a high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (N/C) and few cytoplasmic organelles whilst most OKT8+ cells have a low N/C ratio and numerous organelles, namely a well developed Golgi apparatus, lysosomal granules and parallel tubular arrays (PTA); (2) a unique subtype with irregular nuclear outline that resembles Sézary cells was seen in 5-10% of OKT4+ lymphocytes; (3) OKM1, a reagent that reacts with monocytes and granulocytes, is positive in a small lymphocyte subset which appears to be negative with the OKT reagents and is morphologically identical to OKT8+ cells; (4) 'hand-mirror' cells were only seen labelled with OKT8 and OKM1; (5) B lymphocytes labelled with FMC4 (anti-IA) could be distinguished from OKT3+ lymphocytes by having numerous profiles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ribosomes; these were particularly prominent in lymphoplasmacytoid cells. Morphological similarities between normal T lymphocyte subsets and T neoplasias of the same membrane phenotype suggest that these disorders arise from specific T cell types present in normal peripheral blood or from common precursors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6185261

  7. Evidence for autonomic paraneurons in sympathetic ganglia of a shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed Central

    Heym, C; Williams, T H

    1979-01-01

    The morphological relationships between blood vessels and the small monoamine-storing cells have been studied in the superior sympathetic ganglia of Tupaia. Substantial clusters of these cells were found to be associated anatomically with vascular loops or glomeruli. Blood from these glomeruli enters the capillary bed that supplies principal ganglionic neurons. Thus the vascular path for catecholamine transportation is rather clearly defined in Tupaia, providing new morphological evidence for the existence of a portal system for conveying catecholamine from clusters of paraneurons to principal ganglionic neurons. On the basis of vesicle criteria, two populations of small, granule-containing cell were distinguished, and both were encountered in the same cluster. On the basis of fluorescence microscopy, the relatively small number (14.3%) of solitary SIF cells may be true interneurons because, although there has been no electron microscopic identification of efferent synapses, their processes are much longer than those of the paraneurons. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:511759

  8. The formation of abdomino-perineal sacs by the fasciae of Scarpa and Colles, and their clinical significance.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, B F

    1984-01-01

    It has been shown that the membranous layer of the subcutaneous tissue, known as Scarpa's fascia, is confined to an oval area on each side of the abdominal wall. By its attachment to the deep fascia it encloses an obliquely directed oval sac which extends into the perineum by three pocket-like diverticulae. The fascial extension which forms the pockets is known as the fascia of Colles. Medially, the sac blends with the fundiform ligament, so that the sacs do not communicate with each other or with the interfascial space deep to the penile dartos. Laterally, the inferior margin creates the crease-line of the groin by its attachment to the fascia lata. Between these attachments the pockets arise from the sac. The lateral pocket continues into the superficial perineal pouch. The medial pocket, together with the intermediate, occupies the scrotum or labium majus. The intermediate pocket is associated with the spermatic cord or the round ligament of the uterus and blends with their coverings posteriorly. In the male it terminates just above the testis. The significance of the fascial arrangements in relation to urinary extravasation is discussed, and also the relationship of the intermediate pocket to an indirect inguinal hernia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:6235202

  9. Do the Purkinje cells have a special type of oligodendrocyte as satellites?

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, R A

    1983-01-01

    Two types of oligodendrocytes considered to be a constant feature in the cerebellar cortex of the rat are described. One cell type (I) exhibits rounded or elliptical nuclei, whereas the other type (II) presents more irregular nuclear and cellular contours and wider perinuclear cisternae. The latter cell type shows a more electron-dense cytoplasm with more heavily clumped heterochromatin, contrasting strongly with the euchromatin; also long and parallel cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum are more frequent. The percentages of both types of oligodendrocytes in relation to the total population of common glial cell types were calculated in the cortical layers and at several levels in these layers. The distribution of oligodendrocytes in the associated white matter was also carried out for purposes of comparison. The results provide evidence the the Purkinje cells may have a special kind of oligodendrocyte (Type II) as satellites. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6630036

  10. The ultrastructure of the paratympanic organ in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed Central

    Giannessi, F; Pera, L

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the paratympanic organ in chickens was investigated by means of the transmission electron microscope. The epithelium lining the lumen of the paratympanic organ consists of sensory and non-sensory components. The sensory epithelium is composed of supporting and hair cells. The hair cells are similar to the type II receptor cells present in the neuroepithelia of the vestibule and of the lateral line organs. The afferent synapses at the bases of the hair cells are also described. The non-sensory epithelium is made up of cells with a clear cytoplasm and arranged in a single layer. It also contains dark, flattened cells which sometimes possess motile cilia. Special emphasis is given to the fact that the results agree with Vitali's theory that the paratympanic organ and the lateral line organs are homologous. It is concluded, therefore, that present knowledge about this structure is not yet sufficient to allow a definitive functional interpretation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3693071

  11. Laboratory Design for Microbiological Safety

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. Briggs; Runkle, Robert S.

    1967-01-01

    Of the large amount of funds spent each year in this country on construction and remodeling of biomedical research facilities, a significant portion is directed to laboratories handling infectious microorganisms. This paper is intended for the scientific administrators, architects, and engineers concerned with the design of new microbiological facilities. It develops and explains the concept of primary and secondary barriers for the containment of microorganisms. The basic objectives of a microbiological research laboratory, (i) protection of the experimenter and staff, (ii) protection of the surrounding community, and (iii) maintenance of experimental validity, are defined. In the design of a new infectious-disease research laboratory, early identification should be made of the five functional zones of the facility and their relation to each other. The following five zones and design criteria applicable to each are discussed: clean and transition, research area, animal holding and research area, laboratory support, engineering support. The magnitude of equipment and design criteria which are necessary to integrate these five zones into an efficient and safe facility are delineated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:4961771

  12. Replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, J.; Fink, C. G.; Skinner, G. R.; Thomas, G. H.; Jordan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture was investigated. The temporal profile of virus replication was related to the initial virus inoculum; high input inocula induced a rapid increase in virus titre while lower multiplicities induced a more slow-rising increase in virus titre. Our evidence suggested that explants were capable of initiating and supporting virus replication for at least 2 weeks following establishment of the culture. Virus yields were optimal when explants were cultured at 37 degrees and in serum-supplemented medium. Explants also supported the replication of type 1 herpes simplex virus and a "non-human" herpes simplex virus (pseudo-rabies virus). The optimal conditions for replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical explants have been established and will provide a model permitting precise investigation of lytic or other virus-cervical cell interactions and their possible relationship to herpes virus-induced pre-invasive carcinoma of this organ. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:183806

  13. Intrapulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos: ultrastructural features.

    PubMed Central

    Oghiso, Y.; Kagan, E.; Brody, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Although all commercial types of asbestos can cause pulmonary fibrosis, little is known about ultrastructural differences in the evolution of pulmonary lesions induced by amphiboles and serpentines. The present study was designed to compare the histological and ultrastructural effects produced by chronic inhalation of either crocidolite (amphibole) or chrysotile (serpentine) asbestos in the rat. Animals, exposed by intermittent inhalation for 3 months, were killed after 2 to 16 months. When inhaled, both types of asbestos caused thickened alveolar duct bifurcations associated with macrophage aggregates. Crocidolite inhalation also produced subpleural collections of alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes. Electron microscopy revealed some similarities, but also distinct differences, in the pulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite. Whereas both asbestos varieties were identified within the pulmonary interstitium, only crocidolite was detected inside alveolar macrophages. Chrysotile fibres were seen infrequently within the vascular compartment. Microcalcifications were noted after chrysotile inhalation, but were never observed following crocidolite exposure. Both asbestos types induced slight pulmonary fibrosis. These findings indicate that crocidolite and chrysotile produce different pathogenetic features, although both are fibrogenic. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:6087872

  14. Transhepatic Cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Birch, John R.; Shea, John; Currie, Donald J.

    1964-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is a method of visualizing the biliary tree by the injection of radio-opaque medium through the abdominal wall and liver into an intrahepatic bile duct. The procedure is indicated in the immediate preoperative evaluation of patients with obstructive jaundice of unknown etiology and is usually diagnostic in these cases. It may also be of value in avoiding operation in poor-risk patients with obstructive jaundice. Biliary leak resulting in chemical peritonitis is a complication in about 5% of these procedures. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage is a complication in less than 1%. Death results from the procedure in less than 0.5% of cases. Transhepatic cholangiography during surgical operation is of value in demonstrating obstructive lesions of the bile ducts. However, preoperative percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is preferred, since it makes possible adequate preparation for technically difficult repairs and resections. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:14158553

  15. Intranuclear inclusions in Schwann cells of aged fowl ciliary ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, M G

    1987-01-01

    Schwann cells in ciliary ganglia of fowls aged five to seven years were found to contain numerous intranuclear inclusions and pseudo-inclusions. Similar inclusions were usually absent from both neurons and non-neuronal cells, including connective tissue cells, and were rare in Schwann cells of chickens aged less than five years. Inclusions were of two different types: filamentous bundles and granulofibrillar bodies. Individual nuclei contained one to three inclusions. Pseudo-inclusions, i.e. cytoplasmic pockets invaginated into the nuclei, were found more rarely and accompanied one or both types of 'true' inclusions. The possible significance of these findings in relation to ageing phenomena is discussed. It is concluded that intranuclear inclusions appear to be a consequence of nuclear/cellular activation and may be regarded as aggregates of previously dispersed intranuclear proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Figs. 11-12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-19 PMID:2833482

  16. Ultrastructural Changes in Chick Cerebellum Induced by Polyinosinic Polycytidylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mang C.; Young, Paul A.; Yu, Wan-Hua Amy

    1971-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes in cerebellar encephalopathy induced by intravenous injection of poly I:C in young chickens were studied. The neuroglia and the small blood vessels showed the most severe injury. In the astroglia, initial alterations consisted of a mild cytoplasmic swelling whereas terminally, evagination of the outer nuclear membrane, formation of large vacuoles, and mitochondrial swelling occurred. In the cortex, oligodendroglial alterations consisted of dilatation of the nuclear membranes and of the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas in the white matter, the interfascicular oligodendroglia exhibited clumping and coagulation of the chromatin material. Some small blood vessels appeared normal, while others showed massive erosion of the endothelium resulting in aneurysm-like ballooning of the vascular wall. The granule cells displayed marked edema. The myelin of nerve fibers showed an accumulation of fluid initially, with splitting occurring in the terminal stages. These studies indicated a severe cytotoxic effect of poly I:C on the cerebella of young chickens. ImagesFig 16Fig 17Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:5142269

  17. Morphometric study on the development of magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus utilising immunohistochemical methods.

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano, M A; Bentura, M L; Toledano, A

    1990-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)- and oxytocin (OXY)-producing neurons, components of the rat supraoptic nucleus, have been located with immunohistochemical methods, with the purpose of studying their morphofunctional characteristics during different phases of life (embryonic, juvenile, adult and senile). To carry out this study, an IBAS I (Kontron) computerised image analyser has been utilised. The hormone VP is first detected in the neuronal cytoplasm of 21 days old rat embryos and the hormone OXY appears in the neuronal cytoplasm later, in the newborn phase. The neuronal area with a positive reaction for the two neurohormones has been evaluated and it has been found that the quantity of reaction substance is proportional to the age. In the adult period, VP neurons possess a reaction area (198 microns 2) greater than that of OXY neurons (153 microns 2). In the SON, there are two neuronal shapes, fusiform and round; these shapes coexist in both hormonal types of neurons. Until Day 15 of postnatal development, the SON neurons are intermixed in the interior of the nucleus but in this period a neuronal redistribution is initiated. In the adult phase, OXY neurons are situated preferentially in the anterior, posterior and dorsal parts and VP neurons in the ventral and posterior parts, with both neurons being present in the intermediate part of the SON. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:2182586

  18. A morphological and morphometric study of the prosimian lung: the lesser bushbaby Galago senegalensis.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1990-01-01

    The lung of the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis) has been investigated morphologically and morphometrically using the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. Grossly and microscopically, the bushbaby lung was found to be essentially similar to that of the other primates and the mammals in general. Subtle morphometric differences were, however, observed, with the bushbaby lung being generally structurally less sophisticated than that of the other primates on which comparable data are available, except for man. The weight-specific surface area of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier in G. senegalensis was 25 cm2 g-1. The thickness of the blood-gas barrier was 0.355 micron and the weight specific total anatomical pulmonary diffusing capacity 0.045 mlO2 sec-1 mbar1 kg-1. The morphological similarity of the galago lung to that of man gives sufficient grounds to justify its possible use in human pulmonary studies but caution has been called for in the general utilisation of primate tissues without first establishing their morphological characteristics, just because the primates are taken to be evolutionally close to man. The dearth of morphological studies on the various organ systems of the prosimians is pointed out. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2272898

  19. Hepatitis Due to Equine Abortion Virus. Comparison Between the Liver Histology in Human, Canine, Duckling, and Equine Viral Hepatitis1

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, W. M.; Nilsson, M. R.

    1966-01-01

    Five livers of equine fetuses, aborted due to the action of equine abortion virus, five livers from men, two of whom died of epidemic hepatitis and three obtained by needle biopsies, 5 livers of dogs with infectious canine hepatitis and 7 livers of ducklings that had hepatitis, were studied histopathologically. The foals' livers were studied by several staining methods and the others by H. E. only. The results indicate that the lesions are quite similar in the four species with the appearance of nuclear inclusion bodies only in foals and dogs. The strong staining properties of the nuclear inclusion bodies in infectious canine hepatitis and the weak staining properties of the equine virus abortion reveal that the protein-DNA association is different resulting in a different electropolarity. The lesions in foals are of two main types, one a Necrotic-Mosaic Type in which the hepatocyte degeneration is irregularly distributed within the hepatic lobules and the other an Hyperplastic Type in which marked regeneration occurs. In the Hyperplastic Type the practical absence of plasmocytes in foals' livers might suggest that if the newborn is a female, abortions may occur later in life because the virus remained alive in colts which were born in an immune tolerance state. Histologically the picture in the livers of aborted foals assume features of a viral hepatitis similar to the viral hepatitis in men, dogs and ducklings. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4225286

  20. Remodelling of bone and bones: growth of normal and transplanted caudal vertebrae.

    PubMed Central

    Feik, S A; Storey, E

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the rate of growth, shape and structure of the 8th, 16th and 22nd caudal vertebrae of 4 and 24-27 days old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in situ and in three different non-functional transplantation sites for 12 weeks. With increasing size, maturity and age the three vertebrae showed progressively decreasing growth, changes in shape and structural abnormalities. The smallest anlages grew faster and matured sooner than normal, so that their length equalled that of controls. Central endochondral necrosis in older bones was associated with decreased longitudinal growth but in some younger ones, despite a perforation of the cartilage and herniation of the nucleus pulposus into the marrow cavity of the shaft, growth proceeded at near normal rates. The free ends of older, larger transplants grew faster than the abutting ends joined by joint connective tissue, indicating that central necrosis of cartilage resulted from impaired nutrient diffusion. The results suggest that the cartilage model may possess an inherent capacity to produce a certain limited amount of bone tissue which may be distributed either in the form of long and thin or short and inwaisted bones, depending on the balance of forces between interstitial cartilage expansion and the restraining ensheathing periosteal-perichondrial tissues. This basic form may be modified further by functional forces. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 9 PMID:6339456

  1. Transplantation and regeneration of striated muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Allbrook, D.

    1975-01-01

    This lecture explores the factors controlling regeneration and reconstitution of skeletal muscle following vascular and neural injury by giving an account of some experimental work in this field, which is then linked to the problem of the use of whole-muscle transplants in clinical surgery. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1147539

  2. Android Virtual Machine (VM) Setup on Linux

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    12 Fig. 23 Disable Android ISO image from launch...the storage type, and select the Android ISO image that was downloaded (Fig. 7). Fig. 7 Select storage type 5 8) Run the VM that was just...created with the Android ISO attached. Select the installation option (Fig. 8). Fig. 8 Select installation option 9) Select the <Create/Modify

  3. Interference Cancellation System Design Using GNU Radio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Contents List of Figures iv 1. Introduction 1 2. Development 1 2.1 Hardware Platform 1 2.2 Software Platform 3 2.3 Adaptive Filter Algorithm 3 3...4 Fig. 4 Adaptive filter length of 1 ......................................................................6 Fig. 5 Adaptive filter length...of 2 ......................................................................7 Fig. 6 Adaptive filter length of 3

  4. The morbid anatomy of high altitude

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Donald

    1979-01-01

    The morbid anatomical changes which take place in man and animals exposed to the chronic hypoxia of residence at high altitude are briefly reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:493205

  5. Haemangioendothelioma (Kupffer cell angiosarcoma), myelofibrosis, splenic atrophy, and myeloma paraproteinaemia after parenteral thorotrast administration.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, R C; Priestley, S E

    1978-01-01

    A case of thorotrastosis occurred 25 years after thorotrast angiography, with the previously unrecorded association of myeloma type paraproteinaemia. The relationship between haemangioendothelioma due to thorotrast and other vascular sarcomas of the liver is briefly reviewed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:748384

  6. The morphological tissue response of the piglet oesophagus to experimental irradiation by 1320 nm Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, U; Schaarschmidt, K; Lehmann, R R; Schürenberg, M; Willital, G H; Berens, A

    1995-01-01

    The oesophagus of 18 minipiglets was exposed to endoscopic intraluminal irradiation with a 1320 nm Nd:YAG laser (10 W, 20 s) via a radial applicator with strictly radially symmetric light distribution. Immediately and at 2, 3, 4 and 8 wk after irradiation, the oesophagus was perfusion-fixed and filled with contrast solution. Radiographs were taken for evaluation by microradiometry. The specimens were subsequently prepared for light and transmission electron microscopy. The immediate reaction to irradiation was a morphological gradient of damage extending from the centre of the laser exposure where there was cellular thermonecrosis in all layers of the wall and condensation of the extracellular matrix, to a peripheral zone (at a distance of up to 8 mm from the region where the laser was centred) which showed only minor tissue damage manifested by intracellular vacuolation. In this zone dilatation of most vascular lumina was prominent. In the period between 2 and 8 wk after irradiation all phases of wound healing were observed and resulted in occlusion of the lumen of the oesophagus by early scar tissue after an interval of more than 3 wk at the former centre of laser exposure. Peripherally, epithelial regeneration resulted in a new luminal lining. Both the process of epithelial regeneration and that of fibrous repair indicated a good reparative capacity of laser-irradiated oesophageal wall tissues resembling the phases of normal wound healing. The immediate laser interaction with tissue indicated that the noncellular matrix components of tissues are more resistant to the photothermal effect than the cellular components. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8586565

  7. Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

  8. Histopathology of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mesenchymal tumours of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Kunze, E.; Ruschitzka, F.; Schwalbe, K.

    1990-01-01

    The present study reports the induction, histopathology, immunocytochemistry, growth pattern and proliferative behaviour of mesenchymal tumours of the urinary bladder of rats induced by a single intravesical dose (5 mg/kg/body weight) of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). In 14 of 283 female Wistar rats (incidence: 4.9%). 16 non-epithelial tumours had developed after an experimental period of 14 months. The most common histological type induced was of fibrohistiocytic origin (eight benign-appearing and three malignant fibrous histiocytomas). Furthermore, two pure histiocytomas (one benign and one malignant) and three capillary and cavernous haemangiomas were produced. Since no metastases occurred and no clear-cut distinction between a merely expansive and a truly invasive growth was possible, the diagnosis of malignancy was based on the degree of cellular atypia and the mitotic activity. The benign-appearing fibrous histiocytomas showed a mean mitotic index of 0.06% and the malignant fibrous histiocytomas of 0.34%. The mitotic activity of the malignant histiocytoma was threefold (0.78%) as high as in the benign-appearing histiocytoma (0.25%). There exist close morphological similarities between the induced mesenchymal tumours in the rat and those occurring in the human bladder. Although the spectrum of histological types of mesenchymal tumours seen in the rat bladder was narrower than that encountered in man, MNU seems suitable for further studying the histogenesis, histopathology and biology of experimentally induced non-epithelial bladder neoplasms to gain information for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of human disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:2164825

  9. Remodelling of bone and bones: effects of translation and strain on transplants.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, A. W.; Feik, S. A.; Storey, E.

    1984-01-01

    Tail segments, from 4-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats, consisting of caudal vertebrae (CV) approximately 7-9 were impaled on 0.23-mm diameter Elgiloy wire and transplanted subcutaneously into 50-70 g male hosts to study the effects on transplants of (a) impaling (b) strain and (c) translation. The CV were impaled onto straight lengths of wire to serve as controls (a); onto a wire curved to form a loop and exert a bending force (b) and onto the arms of a spring which moved bones through the surrounding tissues, i.e. translation (c). Tissue changes were studied up to 28 days by radiographic and histological techniques. Control bones grow relatively normally along the straight wire. The CV subjected to strain bend initially and then grow in an arc along the curve of the wire. The outer bone shaft usually becomes straighter while the inner one becomes concave and rarefied. In the translated bones remodelling occurs in a direction generally opposite to the direction of movement but this is modified by the influence of soft tissue tension and pressure. Bone resorbs on the outer leading side under continuous pressure and forms on the inner trailing side under continuous tension. The process is essentially the same as that seen in 'cortical drift'; however, since translation is rapid there is an alteration in the shape of the translated bones as formation on the trailing side is faster than resorption on the leading side.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:6388616

  10. WHO Co-operative studies on a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav

    1963-01-01

    Tuberculosis surveys are in progress in many countries that do not have adequate laboratory facilities for carrying out complicated bacteriological procedures. As part of a WHO co-operative research programme, studies have been undertaken with a view to developing a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria that does not require elaborate equipment. This paper is the first report on these co-operative studies. Storage and transport are known to affect adversely the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pathological specimens, thus giving rise to poor culture results and indicating the advisability of culturing such specimens on the spot. The preparation of the efficient and widely used Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture medium, however, requires materials and facilities that are not easy available in developing countries. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty, the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague has developed a semi-synthetic liquid medium that can be prepared in bulk, concentrated and lyophilized, and sent even to distant laboratories. The present paper describes in detail the preparation of this lyophilized medium, which can be stored at room temperature for at least 6-12 months and is easy to reconstitute, and discusses the growth characteristics of mycobacteria multiplied in it. Experience in Czechoslovakia, where between 1953 and 1962 nearly 21 million cultures have been made with the medium, has shown that it is quite satisfactory and even slightly superior to L-J medium in certain respects. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 & 4FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15FIG. 16 PMID:14102036

  11. Haemopoietic phagocytes in the early differentiating avian retina.

    PubMed Central

    Cuadros, M A; García-Martín, M; Martin, C; Ríos, A

    1991-01-01

    The existence of specialised phagocytic cells is described in regions of the retinal neuroepithelium undergoing intense cell death during early differentiation of the avian embryo retina (2.5-5 days of incubation). These results were obtained using routine techniques for light microscopy, acid phosphatase histochemistry and immunocytochemical staining with antibodies MB-1 and QH-1, both specific for quail endothelial cells and all blood cells except mature erythrocytes. Specialised phagocytes were distinguishable from neuroepithelial cells on the basis of morphological criteria: in the former, the nucleus was not oval in shape and was not oriented perpendicular to basement membrane neuroepithelium. The cytoplasm of the specialised phagocytes was often filled with dead cell fragments. In contrast to neuroepithelial cells, the specialised phagocytes showed acid phosphatase activity and were labelled with both MB-1 and QH-1 antibodies in normal quail embryos and chick----quail yolk sac chimeras. Moreover, some acid phosphatase positive and MB-1/QH-1 positive cells also appeared in the presumptive vitreous body, at the edges of the optic cup and in the surrounding mesenchyme. As the vitreal cells and the specialised phagocytes of the neural retina were immunolabelled in chick----quail yolk sac chimeras, we conclude that they are derived from haemopoietic cells in the yolk sac. Some images suggest that these cells enter the vitreous body from the surrounding mesenchyme and traverse the basement membrane of the neuroepithelium in the optic disc region to give rise to the specialised phagocytes of the retinal neuroepithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:1769889

  12. Animal models of primary myocardial diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S. K.; Tilley, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Feline and canine cardiomyopathies (primary myocardial diseases) were reviewed and divided into three groups based on the clinical, hemodynamic, angiocardiographic, and pathologic findings: (1) feline and canine hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, (2) feline and canine congestive (dilated) cardiomyopathy, and (3) feline restrictive cardiomyopathy. All three groups consisted predominantly of mature adult male cats and dogs. Cardiomyopathy in the hamster and turkey was also reviewed. The most common presenting signs were dyspnea and/or thromboembolism in the cat, systolic murmurs with gallop rhythms on auscultation, cardiomegaly with (groups 1 and 3) or without (group 2) pulmonary edema, abnormal electrocardiograms, elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressures, and angiocardiographic evidence of mitral regurgitation with left ventricular concentric hypertrophy (group 1), left ventricular dilatation (group 2), or midventricular stenosis (group 3). Some cats in groups 1 and 3 also had evidence of left ventricular outflow obstruction. The principal pathologic findings in all of the cats and dogs were left atrial dilation, hypertrophy, increased septal:left ventricular free wall thickness ratio with disorganization of cardiac muscle cells (group 1); dilatation of the four chambers with degeneration of cardiac muscle cells (group 2); and extensive endocardial fibrosis and adhesion of the left ventricle (group 3). Aortic thromboembolism was commonly observed in the cats of all three groups. These clinical and pathologic findings indicate that cardiomyopathy in the cat or dog is similar to the three forms of cardiomyopathy in humans (hypertrophic, congestive, and restrictive). Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 FIG. 15 FIG. 16 FIG. 17 FIG. 20 FIG. 21 FIG. 22 FIG. 24 FIG. 25 PMID:6447412

  13. Immunocytochemical Localization and Time Course of Appearance of an Anionic Peroxidase Associated with Suberization in Wound-Healing Potato Tuber Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Espelie, Karl E.; Franceschi, Vincent R.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Thin sections of wound-healing potato tuber tissue were stained with rabbit antibody prepared against a suberization-associated anionic peroxidase and then stained with a goat anti-rabbit antibody-fluorescein conjugate. When these sections were examined with an epiilluminating fluorescence microscope, bright green fluorescent linear deposits were observed on the inner side of cell walls in the periderm layer. Initial deposits which were often not contiguous throughout the wall were first observed in some cells after 3 days of wound-healing and subsequently these layers became more pronounced so that all 6 day old periderm cells had green fluorescent layers on their inner walls. This fluorescence was not present in the walls of parenchyma cells or in the walls of periderm cells treated with preimmune serum and anti-rabbit IgG-FITC conjugate. Thin sections of wound-healing potato tissue which were stained with anti-peroxidase antibody and a goat anti-rabbit antibody-rhodamine conjugate exhibited a similar time course of development with a bright reddish-orange fluorescent layer observed on the inside wall of periderm cells. The production of this suberization-associated anionic peroxidase in wound-healing tissue was also demonstrated by an immunobinding dot blot assay which showed that the largest increase in the enzyme level occurred between 4 and 6 days of wound-healing. The present results support the hypothesis that this anionic peroxidase is involved in the deposition of the aromatic polymeric domain of suberin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 and 15 PMID:16664843

  14. Proteins Associated with Adaptation of Cultured Tobacco Cells to NaCl 1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra K.; Handa, Avtar K.; Hasegawa, Paul M.; Bressan, Ray A.

    1985-01-01

    Cultured tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Wisconsin 38) adapted to grow in medium containing high levels of NaCl or polyethylene glycol (PEG) produce several new or enhanced polypeptide bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensities of some of the polypeptide bands (molecular weights of 58, 37, 35.5, 34, 26, 21, 19.5, and 18 kilodaltons) increase with increasing levels of NaCl adaptation, while the intensities of other polypeptide bands (54, 52, 17.5, and 16.5 kilodaltons) are reduced. Enhanced levels of 43- and 26-kilodalton polypeptides are present in both NaCl and PEG-induced water stress adapted cells but are not detectable in unadapted cells. In addition, PEG adapted cells have enhanced levels of 29-, 17.5-, 16.5-, and 11-kilodalton polypeptides and reduced levels of 58-, 54-, 52-, 37-, 35.5-, 34-, 21-, 19.5-, and 18-kilodalton polypeptide bands. Synthesis of 26-kilodalton polypeptide(s) occurs at two different periods during culture growth of NaCl adapted cells. Unadapted cells also incorporate 35S into a 26-kilodalton polypeptide during the later stage of culture growth beginning at midlog phase. The 26-kilodalton polypeptides from adapted and unadapted cells have similar partial proteolysis peptide maps and are immunologically cross-reactive. During adaptation to NaCl, unadapted cells synthesize and accumulate a major 26-kilodalton polypeptide, and the beginning of synthesis corresponds to the period of osmotic adjustment and culture growth. From our results, we suggest an involvement of the 26-kilodalton polypeptide in the adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl and water stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:16664357

  15. Splenorrhaphy. The alternative.

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, D V; Spjut-Patrinely, V; Burch, J M; Mattox, K L; Bitondo, C G; Cruse-Martocci, P; Jordan, G L

    1990-01-01

    From 1980 to 1989, 240 adult patients underwent splenorrhaphy at one urban trauma center. This represents 43.4% of all splenic injuries seen during this time interval. Splenic injuries were graded I to V, and splenorrhaphy was attempted except when the spleen was shattered or when multiple injuries with associated hypotension were present. Penetrating wounds, blunt trauma, or iatrogenic/unknown etiologies were present in 54.2%, 41.6%, and 4.2% of patients, respectively. Grade I or II injuries were present in 51.7% of patients, grade III in 34.6%, grade IV or V in 9.6%, and unknown grade in 4.1%. The technique of splenorrhaphy was simple suture (usually chromic) with or without the addition of topical hemostatic agents in 200 patients (83.3%), topical agents alone in 12 (5%), unknown type of repair in 12 (5%), compression, cautery, or nonbleeding injury in 9 (3.8%), and partial or hemisplenectomy in 7 (2.9%). Postoperative rebleeding occurred in three patients (1.3%) with grade II, III, and IV injuries, respectively, and led to splenectomy at reoperation. In another patient who had a hemisplenectomy performed for a grade IV injury, subphrenic abscesses and septic shock led to the death of the patient. Splenorrhaphy can be safely performed in properly selected adult patients after a variety of injuries. The risk of rebleeding is practically nil when the spleen is fully mobilized and visualized during repair. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2339918

  16. The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, H S; McGadey, J; Thompson, G G; Moore, M R; Payne, A P

    1983-01-01

    The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content were examined in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). The gland consisted of tubules lined by a single layer of epithelial cells and a myoepithelial network. The tubule cells were often binucleate and possessed lipid vacuoles in the apical half of the cell, a corona of granular endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the nucleus, and cytoplasmic 'slashes'. The latter are probably derived from dense membranous couplets and may be precursors of the lipid vacuoles. Holocrine and merocrine secretion was observed. Interstitial cells included plasma cells, mast cells and (predominantly) melanocytes which render the gland black. The gland was surrounded by a collagen capsule and an outer layer of highly attenuated (possibly endothelioid) cells. Within the gland, the secretory duct was lined by a single layer of normal tubule cells. Outside the gland, the duct enlarged to form an ampulla, from which clefts led off to deep crypts. The ampulla and clefts were lined by cells with small dense apical granules and stubby microvilli; some possessed lipid vacuoles. The crypts were lined by serous cells with active Golgi regions. At the duct opening, ampullary cells became squamous and goblet cells occurred. Geometric crystalloid deposits (with a layered structure of 7.6 nm periodicity) occurred at cleft-crypt junctions. Islets of extra-glandular ductal tissue were occasionally found within the gland. Porphyrins were detectable both by chemical assay and fluorescence microscopy. There was a trend for female glands to have a higher content than males. Solid intraluminal accretions of porphyrin and/or lipid were present. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:6654750

  17. The orbital glands of the chelonians Pseudemys scripta and Testudo graeca: comparative histological, histochemical and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed Central

    Chieffi Baccari, G; DiMatteo, L; Minucci, S

    1992-01-01

    The orbital glands of the chelonians Pseudemys scripta and Testudo graeca were investigated at the histological, histochemical and ultrastructural levels. Four acinar cell types were seen in the harderian gland of P. scripta on the basis of histochemical reactions and ultrastructure. Secretory granules were of 2 types, one showing moderate electron density with an electronlucent core, the other being smaller and more osmiophilic with an electron-dense core. In the harderian gland of T. graeca only 2 glandular cell types were found; one type contained secretory granules with a dense core surrounded by a wide zone of lower density. Acinar cells of the anterior lacrimal gland in both species were of 2 types, one being of mucous type. In the harderian gland and in the lacrimal gland of both species, one cell type appeared not to be involved in the secretion of organic material. These cells contained numerous tightly packed mitochondria among which were abundant clumps of glycogen; the cell membrane was specialised at both edges. This cell type was similar ultrastructurally to the 'salt cells' described in the salt-secreting glands of various marine vertebrates, i.e. of the cells involved in transport processes. These combined histological, histochemical and ultrastructural studies have allowed us to distinguish orbital glands. In the past, the harderian and lacrimal glands in chelonians have often been mistaken for one another. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:1452463

  18. The liver of the brown trout, Salmo trutta fario: a light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, E; Monteiro, R A; Pereira, C A

    1994-01-01

    A qualitative study by light and electron microscopy was undertaken on the liver of the brown trout, Salmo trutta fario. Vessels and bile ducts were observed to be scattered without any apparent order within the parenchyma. Venous profiles appeared either isolated or included in 'venous-arteriolar tracts' (VAT) and 'venous-biliary-arteriolar tracts' (VBAT). Bile ducts also appeared either isolated or in groups which often included an arteriole. The parenchyma was organised in tubules of hepatocytes encircling biliary passages radially. Those cells were uninucleate and contained large cytoplasmic areas of rough endoplasmic reticulum; lipid droplets and dense bodies sometimes also occupied a considerable portion of the cytoplasm. Microvilli extended from hepatocytes into biliary passages and towards the space of Disse. Other cell types encountered comprised biliary epithelial cells, macrophages (including melanin laden cells), fat-storing cells and endothelial cells. The biliary tree was formed sequentially by intra- and intercellular canaliculi, preductules, ductules and ducts. Canaliculi without microvilli are described for the first time in fishes. Structural differences between the brown trout and other fishes were noted. In contradistinction to other fishes, in brown trout the triads (i.e. the VBAT) are not just occasional structures; also, they probably transmit portal veins. Our observations support the concept of a tubular arrangement of hepatocytes in fish. The possibility that the axis of the tubule may be a sinusoid instead of a biliary passage is questioned. Homology between, on one hand, the segment formed by preductules and ductules and, on the other, the canal of Hering of mammals is defended. It is concluded that among salmonids notable interspecific differences do not seem to exist. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:7961130

  19. Experimental Induction of Atheroarteriosclerosis by the Synergy of Allergic injury to Arteries and Lipid-Rich Diet

    PubMed Central

    Minick, C. Richard; Murphy, George E.

    1973-01-01

    Rabbits fed a lipid-rich, cholesterol-poor diet and given concomitant injections of foreign protein, over a period as long as 17 months, developed in their coronary arteries both a) proliferative fibromuscular intimal thickening closely resembling the diffuse intimal thickening that commonly occurs in coronary arteries of man, and b) fatty-proliferative fibromuscular intimal thickening that closely resembles coronary atherosclerosis in man. In contrast, rabbits of another group that were concurrently fed the same diet for as long as 22 months without injections of foreign protein developed changes in arteries of their hearts that resemble neither coronary atherosclerosis nor diffuse intimal thickening in man. Fatty-proliferative changes in aortas of the first group of rabbits are strikingly greater and more closely resemble human aortic atherosclerosis than those in the latter group. In the course of the experiments, the average serum cholesterol was not significantly different in the two groups of rabbits. It was approximately 200 to 250 mg%, which is the average serum cholesterol in adult humans in the United States. These experiments support the hypothesis that the synergy of arterial injury, in particular immunologic injury, and a diet rich in lipid can lead to atherosclerosis in man. ImagesFig 24Fig 25Fig 26,27Fig 28Fig 29Fig 30Fig 31Fig 32Fig 33Fig 34Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 35Fig 36Fig 37Fig 38Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17Fig 18Fig 19Fig 20Fig 21Fig 22Fig 23 PMID:4758786

  20. Distribution of catecholamine and indoleamine neurons in the brain of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, S P; Dixson, A F

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of monoamine neurons in the brains of ten common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) was examined by means of the Falck-Hillarp formaldehyde histofluorescence technique. Large populations of catecholamine and indoleamine neurons were found throughout the brain stem. Catecholamine cell bodies corresponded essentially to th noradrenaline and dopamine groups defined as A1-A7 and A8-A14, respectively. In contrast to Old World primate species, however, the noradrenaline cell populations (particularly the pontine coeruleal A6 group) were less numerous. Ascending catecholamine fibre pathways were not observed within the medulla or pons, although numerous axons were found near the mesodiencephalic border. These were fine and smooth in appearance in contrast to those of other species and this finding may represent a significant morphological difference. The catecholamine terminal innervation of the diencephalon was modest in the marmoset and was less dense than in other primates. In contrast, limbic areas and the striatum contained very large numbers of terminals. Indoleamine cell bodies, equivalent to the serotonin groups defined as B1-B9, were also observed. The most rostral cell populations (B7-9) were large. In addition, pontine and medullary indoleamine neurons extended laterally through the tegmentum as noted in other primates, such that they often adjacent to catecholamine neurons. A prominent bundle of indoleamine axons was observed in the mesencephalon and corresponded to a fibre pathway seen in rodents and other primates. No terminal varicosities were noted. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6804424

  1. Diffusely infiltrated lymphoid areas of the bursa of Fabricius (DIA) and of the cloaca: an embryological study with morphological analogies.

    PubMed Central

    Dolfi, A; Lupetti, M; Bianchi, F; Michelucci, S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to verify whether the origin of the DIA is ectodermal or endodermal. A rabbit serum against the epithelial cells of the final portion of the cloaca was prepared. The indirect immunofluorescence method was applied to strips obtained with a cryostat, carefully cut in such a way as to include a part of the cloaca, the burso-cloacal stalk, the DIA, and the bursal plicae. In this way, it was possible to demonstrate that the epithelium of the cloaca, of the burso-cloacal stalk, and of the DIA exhibited an intense fluorescence that could not be observed at the level of the epithelium of the bursal plicae. These findings would appear to indicate that the DIA, like the cloaca and the burso-cloacal stalk, is ectodermal in origin. Furthermore, histological study revealed that the DIA exhibits close structural analogies with the dorsal wall of the cloaca. In both areas, unorganized lymphoid infiltrations of the tunica propria can be seen, and the epithelium does not show any follicle-associated epithelial cells. The glands often assume the aspect of dilated crypts containing intestinal transit material. The epithelium of these glands reveals lymphoid infiltrations at various points, and it is not uncommon to detect accumulations of cells in their lumina. Several groups of eosinophilic granulocytes can also be observed in the tunica propria of these two areas, with a clear predominance at the level of the DIA. These similarities between the cloaca and the DIA might lead one to suppose the existence of a functional as well as a morphological correspondence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3417544

  2. Eimeria tenella (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, A. E.

    1962-01-01

    Complete immunity to a challenge dose of 100,000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella was developed in fowls 14 days after they had received the last of three graded doses of oocysts of this species, whereas uninfected fowls of comparable age were fully susceptible. In fowls similarly immunized, no detectable first-generation schizogony developed from challenge doses of 10 million oocysts administered to each fowl 21 days after the last of the three graded doses had been administered. Precipitating antibodies were demonstrated in some but not all of these immune fowls by the agar-gel diffusion technique. Precipitin bands, developed as the result of infection, showed a reaction of identity with those induced by parenteral injection of schizont antigen and most of the bands appeared to be directed against protein antigens. Cross reactions were observed between E. tenella antiserum and antigens prepared from the species of coccidia, E. tenella from the fowl and the species E. stiedae from the rabbit. Electrophoretic analysis of serum from immune birds showed an albumin component and four globulin fractions (I-IV); antibody activity was confined to the fraction with the slowest mobility (IV). No significant differences were shown between the electrophoretic analyses at comparable ages of serum from the infected and control groups of fowls between 7 and 63 days of age. The components in both groups altered significantly with time, showing a general rise in protein concentrations. Infected fowls repeatedly showed numerous pyroninophilic cells in the gut mucosa and cells closely resembling globular leucocytes in the deep glands of the caeca. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:14486445

  3. The ultrastructure of the epithelium of the ductuli efferentes testis in the common starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, S J; Kendall, M D

    1985-01-01

    The ductuli efferentes of male common starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were prepared for light and electron microscopy. The epithelium of breeding birds was pseudostratified, consisting of ciliated cells, which were of the same type throughout the ductules, and of two types of non-ciliated cells: an electron-dense form with complex lateral invaginations, long microvilli and apical invaginations found in proximal ductuli efferentes (Type 1 a) and a less dense, taller, seemingly more secretory cell found distally (Type 1 b). Both types contained crystal-like structures in granular and transitional endoplasmic reticulum, which were occasionally seen in ciliated cells and not elsewhere. These 'intracisternal bodies' were probably proteinaceous in nature. The ciliated cells were typically more electron-lucent than the non-ciliated cells. They adopted the height and interdigitation characteristics of the surrounding epithelium. Occasional annulate lamellae were encountered. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were seen occasionally, notably in non-breeding birds. The epithelial morphology of the non-breeding common starling is briefly mentioned. The tubules were collapsed and apparently inactive, although signs of proliferative activity were seen in birds killed in February. The distinction of the epithelial cells into one ciliated and two non-ciliated types in this study is discussed in the light of previous work, as differences were found to exist. It is suggested that care should be taken in the use of mammalian tubule nomenclature when it is applied to birds. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:4077685

  4. Visceral leishmaniasis in a dog: clinical, hematological and pathological observations.

    PubMed Central

    Tryphonas, L; Zawidzka, Z; Bernard, M A; Janzen, E A

    1977-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed in a dog that had been living with his owners in Spain for two years. Clinical diagnosis was somewhat delayed as the disease is largely unknown to Canada and was manifested by a nonresponsive anemia which was not easily explained on peripheral blood evaluation alone, and concomitant interstitial nephritis. On post mortem examination splenomegaly was the main gross pathological finding. Light microscopic examination of bone marrow aspirates and subsequent electron microscopic examination of splenic and hepatic tissues revealed numerous Leishman-Donovan bodies in cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Parasitized reticuloendothelial cells were seen singly or forming granulomata. These latter did not contain giant cells and were confined mainly to the liver and spleen, being sparse and single in the first but extremely numerous and coalescing in the latter. Accumulation of intrafollicular hyaline material was seen in a small number of splenic follicles. Leishman-Donovan bodies on electron microscopic examination had a trilaminar periplast, a large round nucleus with heavy blocks of marginated chromatin and two nucleoli, a short flagellum and a kinetoplast. Lymph nodes and bone marrow had numerous parasitized macrophages but no granulomata. Leishman-Donovan bodies were not detected in the lungs and kidneys both of which exhibited a chronic intersitital reaction. The comparative hematological profile as well as the importance of bone marrow and electron microscopic examinations of the spleen and liver in diagnosis are discussed. The potential public health hazard of leishmaniasis to North America and particularly to Canada is considered. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 11. PMID:832183

  5. Effects of excess iodine in chick embryo thyroid follicles: initial inhibition and subsequent hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Z; Narbaitz, R; Fryer, J N

    1991-01-01

    The effects of excess iodine on the development of the thyroid gland of chick embryos was assessed following injections of potassium iodide prior to incubation. Iodide injection resulted in a significantly greater thyroid gland weight (goitre) on Day 18 of incubation and a delay in hatching. Histological studies of the thyroid gland on Day 12 of incubation revealed that iodide injection had inhibited thyroid follicle development. On Day 14, however, the thyroid glands of the iodide-treated embryos were indistinguishable from controls and on Day 18 the thyroid follicles of the iodide-injected embryos were clearly hypertrophied. In agreement with these light microscopical observations, electron microscopical examination showed conspicuous development of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the follicle cells of both iodide-treated 14 and 18 days old embryos and in those of the corresponding controls. Immunocytochemical studies of the pituitary of 18 days old embryos revealed a depletion of immunoreactive TSH suggesting that the iodide-induced hypertrophy of the thyroid was mediated by an activation of the thyrotropes. Iodide treatment was without effect on plasma levels of T3 and T4 for Day 18 embryos suggesting that the compensatory hypertrophy of the thyroid gland was sufficient to maintain circulating levels of thyroid hormones. The present results demonstrate that, in the embryonic chick thyroid, excess iodine produces effects which occur in two phases. The first phase consists of a transitory inhibition of the formation of follicles; it is followed by a second phase of compensatory hypertrophy resulting in goitre. The first phase probably results from a direct inhibitory effect of iodine on the developing thyroid whereas the second phase probably reflects a stimulation of the thyroid by TSH. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1917670

  6. Age changes in the triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist joint.

    PubMed Central

    Mikić, Z D

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a study of 180 wrist joints from 100 fresh cadavers of individuals ranging in age from fetuses to 94 years, it is concluded that the triangular fibro-cartilage is very liable to degenerative alterations associated with ageing. Degeneration begins in the third decade and progressively increases in frequency and severity in subsequent decades. The changes comprise reduced cellularity, loss of elastic fibres, mucoid degeneration of the ground substance, exposure of collagen fibres, fibrillation, erosion, ulceration, abnormal thinning, and, ultimately, disc perforation. The changes are more frequent and more intense on the ulnar surface, and they are always situated in the central part of the disc. It appears that disc perforation is degenerative and age-related: thus there were no perforations in the first two decades of life; in the third there were 7.6%, in the fourth 18.1%, in the fifth 40.0%, in the sixth 42.8%, and in the over sixties 53.1%. There was an associated pattern of degenerative changes in the wrist joint as a whole. The structures adjacent to the articular disc (discal surface of the ulnar head, discal part of the lunate) were much more often involved, and the changes were much more advanced, than on non-discal surfaces. It is argued that this is because of more intensive biomechanical forces, particularly rotational forces, in the disc compartment of the joint. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 (cont.) Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:670069

  7. A comparison of alcoholic pancreatitis in rat and man

    PubMed Central

    Sarles, H.; Lebreuil, G.; Tasso, F.; Figarella, C.; Clemente, F.; Devaux, M. A.; Fagonde, B.; Payan, H.

    1971-01-01

    Acute ethanol intoxication was studied in 38 Wistar rats, 18 on a balanced diet and 20 on a high fat diet, fed by gavage on 47% ethanol in a dosage of from 3 to 12 g/kg body weight daily for periods ranging from three to 16 days. No macroscopic changes in pancreas or liver were found in any of these animals. Histological changes (venous congestion of the pancreas, the liver, and the kidneys) were found in rats given 4 g or more per kilogram. The only difference between the findings in rats given a balanced diet and those given a high fat diet was the development of fatty livers in the latter group. Chronic ethanol intoxication was studied in 45 Wistar rats, on a balanced diet, which were given 20% ethanol freely for 20 to 30 months. More than half the animals developed pancreatic lesions very similar to those of human chronic pancreatitis. The pathological changes, in foci surrounded by normal pancreatic tissue, were a reduction in acini, duct multiplication (probably by neogenesis), protein plugs, sometimes calcified in the ducts and sclerosis. Samples of pancreatic juice from four animals exposed to ethanol contained significantly higher protein concentrations than samples taken from two control animals. Protein precipitates appeared spontaneously in the pancreatic juice of the animals exposed to ethanol, but not in that of the controls. These findings are very similar to those in alcoholic pancreatitis in man, which has thus been reproduced for the first time in experimental animals. Beta-cell adenomata of the islets of Langerhans were observed in four of the rats exposed to ethanol. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:4329553

  8. Electrophoretic analysis of polypeptides immune precipitated from cytomegalovirus-infected cell extracts by human sera.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, L; Hoffman, M; Cremer, N

    1982-01-01

    Serodiagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection by complement fixation tests depends on showing a fourfold rise in antibody titer from acute- to convalescent-phase sera. Freeze-thaw and glycine-extracted, infected cell culture antigens used for these tests give markedly different titers in reactions with the same sera. In this study, we characterized the CMV-infected cell polypeptides contained in freeze-thaw and glycine-extracted antigens and identified the proteins precipitated by 23 pairs of human acute and convalescent sera. Our results were as follows. First, freeze-thaw and glycine-extracted antigens prepared from infected cells radiolabeled with [35S]methionine and subjected to electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels yielded similar patterns, and the bulk of the label was contained in late structural proteins and glycoproteins. Glycine-extracted preparations contained a greater proportion of soluble 66,000- and 50,000-molecular-weight proteins than did freeze-thaw antigens. Second, convalescent sera precipitated proteins migrating with apparent molecular weights of 150,000, 130,000, 110,000, 96,000, 74,000, 66,000, 50,000, 34,000, 32,000, and 25,000. Of these the 130,000-, 110,000-, 96,000-, 66,000-, 50,000-, and 25,000-molecular-weight proteins comigrated with glucosamine-labeled polypeptides. Both immunoglobulin G and M antibodies in human sera precipitated these proteins from CMV-infected cell preparations. Implications of the results for serodiagnosis of CMV infections are discussed. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 PMID:6284646

  9. Annual changes in the number, testosterone content and ultrastructure of glandular tissue cells of the testis in the marbled newt Triturus marmoratus.

    PubMed Central

    Fraile, B; Paniagua, R; Rodríguez, M C; Sáez, F J; Jimenez, A

    1989-01-01

    The testes of 8 specimens of Triturus marmoratus were collected during each month of 1987 and processed for electron microscopy and light microscopy demonstration of testosterone (T) following the ABC (avidin-biotin peroxidase complex) method. According to their staining affinity for anti-T antibodies, the glandular tissue cells were classified as T-, T+, T++, and T and the annual changes in the numbers of these cell populations, as well as in the volume occupied by the glandular tissue, were calculated. The volume occupied by the glandular tissue increases from September to December; it begins to decrease in April and disappears from June to August. The glandular tissue is formed from the interstitial cells that surround the lobules containing differentiating germ cells. During the spermatogenic process, the interstitial cells do not show staining affinity for anti-T antibodies. In August-September, the interstitial cells around the lobules that have completed spermatogenesis become positively stained (T+) and form the glandular tissue when the spermatozoa leave the testis. The numbers of intensely stained cells in the glandular tissue (T++ and T ) increase from September to November; begin to decrease in December; disappear in January-February; increase again in March and decrease again in April until they disappear in June-September. The interstitial cells, before their transformation in glandular tissue, are ultrastructurally similar to fibroblasts. After their transformation these cells increase in size and develop abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria with tubular cristae and lipid droplets. This morphological pattern is maintained in the glandular tissue from September to April in spite of the changes in staining affinity during this period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2630543

  10. The pathological changes caused by Eimeria falciformis var pragensis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, G M; Bellamy, J E; Stockdale, P H

    1978-01-01

    Groups of Swiss white mice weighing 25-28 grams were infected orally with 500, 2,000, 5,000 or 20,000 oocysts of Eimeria falciformis var pragensis. Depression, anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea or dysentery, and dehydration were most pronounced at eight to ten days postinfection. The highest mortality, 31%, occurred in mice infected with 20,000 oocysts. None of the mice infected with 500 oocysts died. The pathological findings were equally severe in mice infected with 5,000 and 20,000 oocysts. The enteric lesions, most pronounced at eight to ten days postinfection, were restricted mainly to the large intestine and consisted initially of both cryptal and absorptive epithelial cell destruction and submucosal edema. These changes were followed in 12 to 24 hours by a transient influx of neutrophils into the lamina propria followed by mononuclear cell infiltration which lasted for five to ten days. As the infective dose decreased, the inflammatory response occurred later and was less extensive. When seen, hemorrhage occurred seven to 11 days postinfection. In 50% of the mice infected with 5,000 and 20,000 oocysts, varying degrees of a nonselective mucosal necrosis were seen at eight to 12 days postinfection. In mice infected with 500 oocysts, mucosal destruction was restricted to the epithelium. Neutrophils predominated when necrosis was extensive, otherwise, mononuclear cells were the main inflammatory cells. Two to three days following necrosis, crypt hyperplasia was marked and mucosal integrity was restored. Ulcers, some of which extended into the submucosa, healed by days 14 to 20. Localized granulomatous colitis, induced by trapped oocysts within the lamina propria, was seen until the experiment was terminated at 25 days postinfection. Infection was followed by lymphoid hyperplasia in the lymph nodes and the spleen. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:743602

  11. Expression of TNF and TNF receptors (p55 and p75) in the rat brain after focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Botchkina, G. I.; Meistrell, M. E.; Botchkina, I. L.; Tracey, K. J.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces a rapid and dramatic up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) protein and mRNA, but the cellular sources of TNF in the ischemic brain have not been defined. The diverse activities of TNF are mediated via ligand interaction with two distinct receptors, p55 and p75, which activate separate intracellular signal transduction pathways, leading to distinct biological effects. Since the effects of cerebral ischemia on TNF receptor (TNFR) expression are unknown, we examined the cellular localization and protein expression of TNF and its two receptors in the rat cerebral cortex in response to permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. The results indicate that focal. cerebral ischemia up-regulates expression of TNF and both TNFRs within the ischemic cortex. The most abundant type of TNF immunoreactivity (IR) was a punctate and filamentous pattern of transected cellular processes; however, cell bodies of neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, as well as infiltrating polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes also showed TNF IR. Brain vasculature displayed TNF IR not only within endothelial cells but also in the perivascular space. MCA occlusion induced significant up-regulation of TNF receptors, with p55 IR appearing within 6 hr, significantly before the appearance of p75 IR at 24 hr after the onset of ischemia. Since p55 has been implicated in transducing cytotoxic signalling of TNF, these results support the proposed injurious role of excessive TNF produced during the acute response to cerebral ischemia. Images FIG. 7 FIG. 3 FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:9407552

  12. Regression of atherosclerosis by the intravenous infusion of specific biochemical nutrient substrates in animals and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Dudrick, S J

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary studies in 400 New Zealand albino rabbits produced a reliable animal model of nutrient-induced atherosclerosis that simulated that observed in humans. Atherosclerosis was then induced in an additional 1600 rabbits in sets of 40 animals each, maintaining plasma cholesterol concentrations between 1000 and 2000 mg/dL for 6-20 weeks. In each set, 10 control rabbits were killed to document baseline atherosclerosis, and the other 30 rabbits were assigned randomly to one of three groups of 10 rabbits. Groups of 10 rabbits were either continued on the atherogenic diet (group I), given standard laboratory rabbit pellets (group II), or infused continuously with specially formulated anticholesterol solutions via central venous catheters (group III) for 6 weeks. At autopsy, atherosclerotic lesions consistently involved 85-95% of the aorta in group I. In group II, atherosclerosis was comparable with the baseline control group with no regression. In group III, regression of atherosclerosis by 90-95% was consistently documented. Correlations between plasma amino acids and plasma cholesterol concentrations were established in four humans with severe atherosclerosis to maximize the cholesterol reduction capacity of the amino acid formulation. Infusion of the modified total parenteral nutrition solution induced prompt reduction in plasma cholesterol levels by 40-60% regardless of the initial level and was accompanied by evidence of regression of atherosclerosis after a 90-day infusion therapy period. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. PMID:3115205

  13. The gubernaculum during testicular descent in the human fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Heyns, C F

    1987-01-01

    This study of 178 male human fetuses and infants demonstrates that descent of the testis through the inguinal canal is a rapid process, with 75% of testes descending between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. The gubernaculum is a cylindrical, gelatinous structure attached cranially to the testis and epididymis. While the testis is in the abdomen, the caudal tip of the gubernaculum is firmly attached to the region of the inguinal canal. In a few fetuses prior to descent the globular tip of the gubernaculum can be seen bulging through the external inguinal ring, covered by superficial fascia, with no macroscopically discernible extensions to the scrotum or any other area. Once the testis has passed through the inguinal canal, the bulbous lower tip of the gubernaculum is no longer firmly attached to any structure, nor does it extend to the bottom of the scrotum. Histologically the gubernaculum consists of undifferentiated mesenchymatous tissue. Prior to descent of the testis, there is an increase in the length of the intra-abdominal gubernaculum. The wet mass of the gubernaculum relative to the fetal mass increases rapidly prior to descent, while the relative wet mass of the testis remains constant during this period. There is also an increase in the wet/dry mass ratio of the gubernaculum, denoting an increase in its water content prior to descent. This indicates that a combination of growth processes is responsible for testicular descent, with the increase in the size of the gubernaculum playing the most important role in passage of the testis through the inguinal canal. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2892824

  14. A re-investigation of the centres of ossification in the avian skeleton at and after hatching.

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, D A

    1980-01-01

    The centres of ossification occurring in the skeleton of the domestic fowl from hatching onwards have been re-investigated in groups of birds from the same hatches, reared under standardised conditions and sampled at intervals from hatching to 182 days. Selected areas have been surveyed in adult birds. The numerous centres which are already present at hatching have been identified. Those first appearing around the time of hatching were for the uncinate processes and the phalanx of digit IV. The centres appearing after hatching were those for metacarpal II, four carpal centres, the orbitosphenoid, rostal and caudal basibranchials, epibranchials, entoglossal, proximal tibial centre, patella and tarsal sesamoid. These have been illustrated and the mean time of appearance and range of time of appearance of each calculated. Some evidence of slight variation in sequence of appearance was detected. The proximal tibial centre was concluded to be the only true secondary centre in the long bones and to correspond to the traction epiphysis of this region in the mammal. In adults, the phalangeal formula of the manus was found usually to be 2:2:1, but occasionally it was reduced to 1:2:1. The only sesamoidean centre found, other than the patella and the tarsal sesamoid, was in the carpal region and was termed the dorsal carpal sesamoid. Some of the many controversies existing in the previous literature have been assessed in the light of the findings of this study. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7429964

  15. Further Studies on Induction of Stomach Cancer in Hamsters by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine*

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, K.; Sasadaira, H.; Kawachi, T.; Shimosato, Y.; Tokunaga, A.; Fujimura, S.; Sugimura, T.

    1974-01-01

    Oral administration of N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) to hamsters at a concentration of 50-83 μg/ml in the drinking water resulted in a high incidence of tumours in the glandular stomach. Short-term administration of MNNG for 4-6 months resulted in more adenocarcinomata in the glandular stomach than long-term administration for 7-8 months. One case of metastasis of an adenocarcinoma of the glandular stomach to the liver and 2 cases of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes were found. Spindle cell sarcomata in the glandular stomach and adenocarcinomata in the duodenum were also often produced. Oral administration of MNNG at the very high concentration of 500-2000 μg/ml induced a hepatic cell carcinoma, intrahepatic bile duct carcinomata, bile duct cystadenomata and cystic dilatation, and a haemangioma in the liver but no tumour in the glandular stomach. Sequential morphological studies on the glandular stomach of hamsters receiving 50 μg/ml of MNNG in the drinking water showed 3 stages of change of the mucosa. The mucosa became atrophic and eroded in the first 16 weeks. Irregular atypical glands developed at the margins of erosions and proliferation of spindle cells in the submucosa were found after 18 weeks. Spindle cell sarcomata developed in animals after 20 weeks. Adenocarcinomata developed between 25 and 32 weeks. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:4830138

  16. Prolonged administration of antithymocyte serum in mice. II. Histopathological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth; Nehlsen, Sandra L.

    1971-01-01

    Prolonged administration of ATS to mice resulted in depletion of small lymphocytes in the thymus-dependent (paracortical) areas of lymph nodes in all mice. Small lymphocyte depletion of the thymus-dependent periarteriolar region of the spleen was present in most mice, although this feature was masked by plasmacytosis in this region in some. Depletion of small lymphocytes in the thymus-dependent areas of Peyer's patches was evident in some of the younger mice. None of these changes in lymphoid organs were seen in control mice, untreated or given NRS. The thymus was unaffected except in some ATS- or NRS-treated mice which were sick and/or old, in which the narrowing of the thymic cortex was attributed to non-specific stress. Plasmacytosis was seen in the medullae of lymph nodes of both ATS- and NRS-treated mice, although it was more intense in the latter. In non-lymphoid organs the most striking changes were seen in the kidneys of mice treated both with ATS and NRS. Complex-type nephritis followed by amyloidosis was seen in a large proportion of mice over 6 months old in both these groups and in these mice amyloid was seen frequently in other organs, including spleen and liver. Tumours occurred in fifty-four ATS-treated mice, but in no other group. Fifty-two of these tumours were attributable to polyoma virus; two other were lymphoblastomas. Reticulum cell hyperplasia was seen in two further mice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:4326920

  17. The atrioventricular valves of the mouse. I. A scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Icardo, J M; Arrechedera, H; Colvee, E

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports a scanning electron microscope study of the morphology of the atrioventricular (AV) valves in the mouse. The leaflet tissue of the 2 AV valves consists of a continuous veil that shows no commissures or clefts. In all instances, the chordae that arise from the papillary system merge with the free border of the leaflet tissue. No distinct terminations of chordae were observed on the ventricular face of the valves. The leaflet tissue of the right AV valve can be divided into parietal and septal components on the basis of the insertion into the ventricular wall and of the papillary system. While the septal component is similar in shape, location and tension apparatus to the septal tricuspid leaflet in man, the parietal component appears to correspond to the anterior and posterior human leaflets. This segment of the valve is served by 3 papillary muscles that arise from the septal wall. The right AV valve is not a tricuspid structure from the morphological standpoint, but appears to function as such because of the particular attachment of the papillary muscles. The leaflet tissue of the mitral valve is served by 2 papillary muscles, anterior and posterior, which consist of muscular trabeculae extending from the heart apex to the base of the valve. These muscles remain associated with the ventricular wall. The leaflet tissue attaches directly to these papillary muscles, which give rise to a very small number of slender chordae. There are thus several important differences between the AV valves of the mouse and man.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs 4-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:8509303

  18. Cell death during the postnatal morphogenesis of the normal rabbit kidney and in experimental renal polycystosis.

    PubMed Central

    García-Porrero, J A; Ojeda, J L; Hurlé, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have studied, by means of optic and electron microscopy, the normal and abnormal cell death that takes place during the postnatal morphogenesis of rabbit kidney, and in the experimental renal polycystosis produced by methylprednisolone acetate. In the normal kidney intertubular cell death can be observed during the first 20 days of the postnatal development. However, cell death in the normal metanephric blastema is a very rare event. In the polycystic kidney numerous dead cells can be seen between the third and forty eighth days after injection. The topography and morphology of the dead cells depend on the stage in the evolution of the disease. In the 'stage of renal immaturity', dying and dead cells are present in the nephrogenic tissue, in the dilating collecting tubules and in the intertubular spaces. In this stage the cellular pathology is essentially nuclear. In the stage of tubular cysts, the dead cells are mostly located in the walls of cysts, with some dead cells, but mostly cellular debris in their lumina. At this stage the cellular pathology is basically cytoplasmic. The dead cells are eventually digested by what appear to be phagocytes of tubular epithelial origin. It is suggested that cell death is an important factor in the evolution of the lesions of renal polycystosis induced by corticosteroids, and probably in the initiation of the pathological process as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:670065

  19. Translational control by cytoplasmic polyadenylation during Xenopus oocyte maturation: characterization of cis and trans elements and regulation by cyclin/MPF.

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, L L; Richter, J D

    1990-01-01

    The expression of certain maternal mRNAs during oocyte maturation is regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation. To understand this process, we have focused on a maternal mRNA from Xenopus termed G10. This mRNA is stored in the cytoplasm of stage 6 oocytes until maturation when the process of poly(A) elongation stimulates its translation. Deletion analysis of the 3' untranslated region of G10 RNA has revealed that two sequence elements, UUUUUUAU and AAUAAA were both necessary and sufficient for polyadenylation and polysomal recruitment. In this communication, we have defined the U-rich region that is optimal for polyadenylation as UUUUUUAUAAAG, henceforth referred to as the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE). We have also identified unique sequence requirements in the 3' terminus of the RNA that can modulate polyadenylation even in the presence of wild-type cis elements. A time course of cytoplasmic polyadenylation in vivo shows that it is an early event of maturation and that it requires protein synthesis within the first 15 min of exposure to progesterone. MPF and cyclin can both induce polyadenylation but, at least with respect to MPF, cannot obviate the requirement for protein synthesis. To identify factors that may be responsible for maturation-specific polyadenylation, we employed extracts from oocytes and unfertilized eggs, the latter of which correctly polyadenylates exogenously added RNA. UV crosslinking demonstrated that an 82 kd protein binds to the U-rich CPE in egg, but not oocyte, extracts. The data suggest that progesterone, either in addition to or through MPF/cyclin, induces the synthesis of a factor during very early maturation that stimulates polyadenylation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Fig.4 Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7 Fig.8 Fig.9 PMID:2145153

  20. Quantitative studies of the regeneration of rat myelinated nerve fibres: variations in the number and size of regenerating fibres after repeated localized freezings.

    PubMed Central

    Mira, J C

    1979-01-01

    The number and size of myelinated nerve fibres were determined in the nerve to the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles of rats whose left sciatic nerve was repeatedly frozen (one to five times at three weekly intervals). The contralateral nerve was used as a control. Results varied according to the number of freezings performed and, for a given number of freezings, according to the period of regeneration. When measurements were completed 1 month after the last of several localized freezings, the number of regenerating myelinated nerve fibres increased regularly up to the third freezing, reaching to about 220% of the control value, but no higher values were recorded after four or five freezings. The nerve fibre distribution was unimodal in all the nerves studied. The mean diameter of all myelinated fibres decreased with the number of freezings from 50% of the control value after the first to 36% after the fifth. When measurements were made 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after the third and final freezing, the number of regenerating myelinated nerve fibres decreased by about 30% between the first and third month and then stabilized at 190% of the control value. Nerve fibre distribution became bimodal from the third month onwards, and the mean diameter of all myelinated fibres increased regularly. However, by the eighteenth month, the size of regenerated myelinated nerve fibres had only reached 70% of the normal contralateral value. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:511774

  1. The avian egg and the retina

    PubMed Central

    MALCOLM, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for study of blood flow has been derived from the avian egg, utilizing the theories of crystallography and photosynthesis. The model is employed to explain the form of the eye and the function of the cells of the human retina, with special reference to colour vision and the pathology of migraine. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4736600

  2. Presidential Address: The Woman in the Case Jane Todd Crawford, 1763-1842

    PubMed Central

    Sparkman, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    The 1978 Presidential Address of the Southern Surgical Association is dedicated to the wives of the members, past and present, in acknowledgment and appreciation of the enduring contribution that they have made to the quality and character of this association. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20. PMID:375854

  3. Combat Loads on Modern Fighters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    Stability Augmentation System (CSAS) are shown. This aircraft has variable sweep as shown in Fig. 8. Fig. 9 shows the flight envelope for this variable wing...this aircraft, MIL-A-008861 A has been applied. First of all, the influence of the actuator and of the Control and Stability Augmentation System are...NOISE FIG. 11 CONTROL AND STABILITY AUGMENTATION SYSTEM OF SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT 2-6 FIG. TAILPUNE ANGLE INPUT SIGNAL z [deg] 5

  4. Natural Fiber Span Reflectometer Proving a Virtual Differential Signal Sensing Array Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-07

    collected and photodetected . By 7 1 correlating the photodetected composite optical signal with the 2 master or reference carrier wave, each individual...invention; 6 FIG. 4 is an electrical schematic of a balanced heterodyne 7 optic detector circuit; 8 FIG. 5 is an electrical schematic of an alternative 9... photodetected in optical receiver, 15, by optically 4 interfering the composite back propagating lightwave on the 5 local oscillator signal. As one of the

  5. Natural Fiber Span Reflectometer Providing a Virtual Signal Sensing Array Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-29

    to a 24 receiver where these are collected and photodetected . By 7 1 correlating the photodetected composite optical signal with the 2 master or...system in accordance with the present 5 invention; 6 FIG. 4 is an electrical schematic of a balanced heterodyne 7 optic detector circuit; 8 FIG. 5 is an...interfered with the 2 composite lightwave on optical path 11. The interference power 3 is photodetected in optical receiver, 15, by optically 4

  6. The radiological investigation of urinary infections in children

    PubMed Central

    Starer, F.

    1970-01-01

    One hundred children with urinary tract infections were fully investigated radiologically. More than half showed abnormalities of the urinary tract. It is concluded that full investigation of the urinary tract is justifiable at any age; it should be carried out in boys at the first infection, and in girls at the latest after the second infection, or if treatment did not produce the expected cure. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5412561

  7. PubMed Central

    Beraud, R.; Bilodeau, B.; Sirois, J.; Reinhardt, G.; Cote, J.

    1966-01-01

    Two cases of post-traumatic thrombosis of the internal carotid artery are presented, which are of interest because of their relative rarity. A detailed understanding of the pathogenesis and variety of clinical presentations, an adequate appraisal of the diverse proposed treatments, and an improvement in the prognosis, which is poor even in young patients-these await further enquiry and research. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5904926

  8. The application of laser microscopy to the spectrochemical analysis of fungal tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, M.; Ansel, M.; Saez, H.

    1981-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis by means of a laser microscope was employed to detect, in fungal tissue, some elements of Mendeleev's classification. Such a method allows all the necessary information to be obtained from the same sample, and permits the detection of 74 elements in the periodic system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Figs. 3-4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7295539

  9. Mal del pinto in Mexico*

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Francisco; Rein, Charles R.; Arias, Oswaldo

    1955-01-01

    This report deals with the geographical distribution, prevalence, epidemiology, etiology, serological, clinical, and histopathological features, and treatment of mal del pinto, or pinta, in Mexico. Repository penicillin preparations (PAM and Panbiotic) have been found highly effective in the treatment of this endemic, non-venereal treponematosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13260889

  10. Angiographic studies of quinton—scribner arteriovenous cannulae

    PubMed Central

    Dathan, J. R.; Thompson, J. M. A.; Worthington, B. S.

    1969-01-01

    An analysis of 86 angiographic studies of Quinton–Scribner shunts has shown that these may be very useful in determining the cause and helping in the management of poorly functioning cannulae in patients on regular haemodialysis treatment. ImagesFig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5822081

  11. Ultrastructural changes in the parenchymal liver cells of rats treated with high doses of rifampicin.

    PubMed Central

    Piriou, A.; Maissiat, R.; Jacqueson, A.; Warnet, J. M.; Claude, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of hepatic parenchyma was carried out in female Wistar rats after they had received high doses (400 mg X kg-1) of rifampicin for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Morphological changes in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria were observed as early as day 1 of intoxication. These changes corroborate the biochemical data available regarding RFP-induced fatty liver. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 & 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3580280

  12. Development of peptide-containing nerves in the human fetal prostate gland.

    PubMed Central

    Jen, P Y; Dixon, J S

    1995-01-01

    -ENK-IR nerves together with a few m-ENK-IR nerves. Occasional smooth muscle-associated varicose nerve fibres showed immunoreactivity for SP, CGRP, VIP or BOM although the majority of these types of nerve formed perivascular plexuses. Also at 26 wk numerous varicose nerve fibres were observed in association with the prostatic acini, the majority of such nerves containing NPY with a few showing immunoreactivity to VIP, l-ENK, SP or CGRP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7591978

  13. The morphology of the lung of the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis (Reptilia: Ophidia: Elapidae). A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1989-01-01

    evolution of the lungs of the air-breathing vertebrates from lower through to higher vertebrates. The gross and ultrastructural heterogeneity of the organisation of the ophidian lung is illustrated and the dearth of pulmonary morphological data in this taxon is pointed out. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2630539

  14. Cytochemical localisation and characterisation of proteoglycans (glycosaminoglycans) in the epithelial-stromal interface of the seminal vesicle of the guinea pig.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, L; Wong, Y C

    1992-01-01

    The proteoglycans (PGs) in the guinea pig seminal vesicle were demonstrated ultrastructurally by both cuprolinic blue (CB) and ruthenium red (RR) staining. The PGs appeared as electron-dense granules with RR, but were filamentous following CB staining using the critical electrolyte concentration method. Three major types of PGs (T1, T2, T3) have been described according to their different locations and sizes. T1 filaments were short and were found mostly on both sides of the lamina densa of the basal lamina of the glandular epithelium (40-60 nm long) and also on the basal laminae of smooth muscle cells and capillary endothelial cells (20-30 nm long). In the epithelial basal lamina they were regularly spaced at an interval of 40-60 nm. T1 filaments in the lamina densa were smaller and more randomly distributed. Cytochemical characterisation of these PGs by various GAG degrading enzymes showed that T1 PGs are rich in heparan sulphate. T2 filaments were 30-40 nm long and closely associated with the collagen fibrils. They were arranged perpendicular to the long axis of collagen fibrils, also at intervals of about 60 nm. T2 filaments were removed by chondroitinase (Ch)-ABC, Ch-ABC plus Streptomyces (S)-hyaluronidase and pronase, but resistant to nitrous acid, heparitinase, heparinase, neuraminidase and S-hyaluronidase. These show that T2 filaments are rich in dermatan sulphate. T3 filaments (60-100 nm) were widely distributed in the stroma at sites such as the interstitial spaces of the lamina propria, the reticular layer below the basal lamina, around individual collagen fibrils or bundles of such fibres, and on the cell surfaces of fibroblasts. The T3 filaments were removed by Ch-ABC, Ch-AC and pronase but were resistant to heparitinase, heparinase, S-hyaluronidase, neuraminidase and nitrous acid. They are therefore rich in chondroitin sulphate. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig

  15. An Experimental Investigation of the Lymphatic System of the Teeth and Jaws

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Alexander

    1936-01-01

    are given, and the lines on which further experiments are being continued are indicated. Finally, the application of the results to the pathology of infection in this region, particularly paradontal disease, is given, and also their application to the phenomena of injection anæsthesia. ImagesFig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:19990818

  16. Splenic trauma. Choice of management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, C E

    1991-01-01

    severely shattered spleen; these patients usually are treated best by early operative intervention. Following splenectomy for injury, polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine decreases the likelihood of OPSI and should be used routinely. The role of prophylactic penicillin is uncertain but the use of antibiotics for minor infectious problems is indicated after splenectomy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. PMID:1992948

  17. Axonal and vascular changes following injury to the rat's optic nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, J A

    1985-01-01

    seventh to the fourteenth postoperative week. The responses of the optic nerve of the rat to axotomy contrast markedly with those of the goldfish, in which the blood vessels become permeable to protein throughout the optic pathway and the axons regenerate successfully. Various attempts were made to increase or prolong the opening of the blood-optic nerve barrier in the rat, in the hope of enhancing axonal regeneration, but these endeavours were all unsuccessful. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:4077712

  18. Endemic syphilis in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J. F.; Merriweather, A. M.; Freedman, M. L.

    1956-01-01

    A form of endemic syphilis exists in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate known by the local name of “dichuchwa”. It is similar to bejel, njovera and the endemic syphilis reported elsewhere in the world. The Government of the Protectorate, with the assistance of WHO and UNICEF, began in November 1953 a mass campaign in the Reserve to control this disease and, at the same time, to study its epidemiological, clinical, social and therapeutic aspects. The seropositivity rate in the Reserve was found to be 37%. Dichuchwa is a childhood and family disease, usually spread non-venereally. The early lesions are similar to secondary lesions of sporadic venereal syphilis, and are often followed by tertiary lesions affecting mainly the skin, nasopharynx and long bones. Primary lesions are rare but may occur under certain epidemiological conditions if the inoculum is sufficiently large; thus a mother may develop primary sores on the nipples through suckling an infected infant. Lesions of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and congenital syphilis are also rare. Superinfection of an already infected and allergic host is probably the chief reason for the frequency of the tertiary lesions. Treatment of the disease with penicillin is very effective, and the authors believe that mass treatment of cases and contacts combined with an improvement in the standards of hygiene could eradicate the disease. ImagesFig. 61Fig. 62Fig. 63Fig. 64Fig. 74Fig. 75Fig. 76Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 45Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 49Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 57Fig. 58Fig. 59Fig. 60Fig. 65Fig. 66Fig. 67Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 68Fig. 69Fig. 70Fig. 71Fig. 72Fig. 73Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 40Fig. 41Fig. 42 PMID:13404470

  19. The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, A P

    1994-01-01

    The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The chief product(s) of the gland varies between different groups of vertebrates, and epithelial cells possess granules or vacuoles whose contents may be mucous, serous or lipid. In rodents, the gland synthesises lipids, porphyrins and indoles. In the case of lipid vacuoles, the gland is unusual in releasing these by an exocytotic mechanism. It is unclear whether the gland can act both as an exocrine and endocrine organ. There is control of gland structure and synthesis through a variety of humoral agents, including gonadal, thyroid and pituitary hormones; in addition there is a rich autonomic innervation and many neuropeptides have been identified. The proposed functions of the gland are remarkably diverse and include the gland being (1) a source of 'saliva', (2) a site of immune response, (3) a photoprotective organ, (4) part of a retinal-pineal axis, (5) a source of pheromones, (6) a source of thermoregulatory lipids, (7) a site of osmoregulation, and (8) a source of growth factors. The gland is discussed in terms of its embryology and phylogeny, and in relation to ecological variables. Several goals of future research are identified. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 40 PMID:7559104

  20. Periosteal response in translation-induced bone remodelling.

    PubMed Central

    Feik, S A; Ellender, G; Crowe, D M; Ramm-Anderson, S M

    1990-01-01

    reflected in the periosteum which functions as an integrated unit modulating the signal transmitted to the osteoblasts which play a key role in events occurring at the bone surface. Changes are not attributable to internal bone strain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2081711

  1. Primary hyperparathyroidism in the 1990s. Choice of surgical procedures for this disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, E L; Yashiro, T; Salti, G

    1992-01-01

    cases of adenoma, bilateral visualization of normal parathyroid glands and careful biopsy of only one of them will minimize hypoparathyroidism. This operative approach will lead to better results, especially for the less experienced parathyroid surgeon. Images FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7. FIG. 8. FIG. 9. FIG. 10. PMID:1558410

  2. Light and Electron Microscopic Studies of the Rat Kidney After Administration of Inhibitors of the Citric Acid Cycle In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Elizabeth M.

    1972-01-01

    2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17Fig 18Fig 19 PMID:4258508

  3. Bilateral cryptorchidism in a dog with persistent cranial testis suspensory ligaments and inverted gubernacula: report of a case with implications for understanding normal and aberrant testis descent.

    PubMed Central

    Kersten, W; Molenaar, G J; Emmen, J M; van der Schoot, P

    1996-01-01

    human cryptorchidism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:8771408

  4. Pacesetters of the American image or (a case for a pleasant diversion).

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    Regardless of how you resolve the morality of our history, the fact is that Currier and Ives documented in their own special and often biased way the iconography of the growth and development of the United States of America (Fig. 88) in some of the most eventful years of its history from about 1840 through 1895. Now, as we near our 500th anniversary commemoration of Columbus' voyage to the Americas, it seems especially appropriate to review--to think about all of this. I think you have sensed, as we have gone along, that learning about Currier and his colleagues--these pacesetters of the American Image--has meant, as Osler predicted, a pleasant diversion for me. These activities have carried me into new areas of interest, expanding my perspective of the American Image--of people, of medicine, of life in general, and aiding in the identification of values, my own, as well as those of others. All along, my knowledge has been enhanced, especially of the history of this wonderful complex country of ours. Furthermore, and of considerable importance, this endeavor has sharpened my power of observation. I have, like a good doctor should do, learned to look better! Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 19 Fig. 18 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 23 Fig. 25 Fig. 27 Fig. 26 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Fig. 45 Fig. 46 Fig. 47 Fig. 48 Fig. 49 Fig. 50 Fig. 51 Fig. 52 Fig. 53 Fig. 54 Fig. 55 Fig. 56 Fig. 57 Fig. 58 Fig. 59 Fig. 60 Fig. 61 Fig. 62 Fig. 63 Fig. 64 Fig. 65 Fig. 66 Fig. 68 Fig. 67 Fig. 69 Fig. 70 Fig. 71 Fig. 72 Fig. 73 Fig. 74 Fig. 75 Fig. 76 Fig. 77 Fig. 78 Fig. 79 Fig. 80 Fig. 82 Fig. 81 Fig. 83 Fig. 84 Fig. 85 Fig. 86 Fig. 87 Fig. 88 PMID:1413369

  5. Structure of the Thylakoids and Envelope Membranes of the Cyanelles of Cyanophora paradoxa1

    PubMed Central

    Giddings, Thomas H.; Wasmann, Cathy; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    1983-01-01

    isolated cyanelles exhibits two additional layers: (a) a 5- to 7-nanometer-thick layer that lies adjacent to the inner membrane and which seems to correspond to the peptidoglycan layer of cyanobacteria; and (b) a layer external to the purported peptidoglycan layer that exhibits fracture faces similar to those of the lipopolysaccharide layer of gram negative bacteria. Our findings indicate that the supramolecular architecture of cyanelles differs only slightly from free-living cyanobacteria to which they are presumably related. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:16662839

  6. The value of needle renal allograft biopsy. I. A retrospective study of biopsies performed during putative rejection episodes.

    PubMed Central

    Matas, A J; Sibley, R; Mauer, M; Sutherland, D E; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S

    1983-01-01

    infiltrate had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased survival at six to 24 months. 5) Kidneys with moderate chronic vascular rejection (MCV) without an acute infiltrate (ATI) had significantly better survival than those having both MCV and ATI. 6) Similarly, kidneys having severe ATI alone had better survival than those with ATI plus vascular rejection. It was concluded that a) percutaneous allograft biopsy can be done without graft loss or infection; b) biopsy represents changes throughout the kidney; c) biopsy aids in deciding when to treat for rejection and in deciding when to withhold increased immunosuppression, and d) allograft biopsy predicts the outcome of treatment of a rejection episode. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:6297416

  7. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c. PMID:4606330

  8. Arterial surgery for arm ischemia. A survey of 136 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Holleman, J H; Hardy, J D; Williamson, J W; Raju, S; Neely, W A

    1980-01-01

    A series of 136 patients with upper extremity ischemia requiring operative correction is presented. Causes of the ischemia included trauma, atherosclerosis, embolism, iatrogenic causes, radiation injury, and cervical rib syndrome. Operations included primary repair, various bypass grafts and embolectomy. Illustrative case reports are used to emphasize important points. The subclavian, axillary and brachial arteries have been considered separately. In general, ischemia of the arm caused by a discrete lesion is amenable to surgical correction with an excellent change of success. Images Fig. 1. Figs. 5a and b. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:7387235

  9. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Peripheral Vascular Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Eugene L. St.; Provan, John L.; Gray, Robin R.; Grosman, Harvey; Ameli, F. Michael; Elliott, David S.

    1982-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is a relatively new technique employed in the treatment of stenoses or occlusions of peripheral arteries. While the longterm success rates have yet to be determined, short-term results have been excellent. The procedure has greatest value in the dilatation of localized lesions, avoiding surgery and its attendant risks. However, PTA and surgery are complementary, not competing, modes of therapy. PTA complements the traditional therapy of peripheral vascular disease, which remains reconstructive surgery. ImagesFig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:21286052

  10. A light and electron microscopic study of the changes in the duodenal mucosa induced by sustained pentagastrin stimulation of gastic acid secretion in young rats.

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, W. J.; Denham, D.; Hawkins, W.; Forrest, A. P.

    1975-01-01

    The histological and electron microscopic changes in the duodenal mucosa have been studied over an 8-week experimental period in rats whose gastric acid secretion was stimulated by pentagastrin in a medium of beeswax and mineral oil, and in controls that received injections of beeswax and mineral oil only. The changes leading of final disintegration of the epithelium are described in detail. The main aim of the experiment--to induce mucous change in the duodenal mucosa--was not realized. Images Figs. 1-2 Figs. 3-4 Figs. 5-6 Figs. 7-8 Fig. 9 PMID:1222117

  11. Mast Cell Hyperplasia and Eosinophilia Induced by Ascaris Body Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Archer, G. T.; Binet, J.-L.

    1971-01-01

    Daily i.p. injections of dilute Ascaris body fluid into rats induced peritoneal eosinophilia and the formation of pin-point follicles in the omentum. The follicles comprised plasma cells, macrophages and fibroblasts together with large numbers of eosinophils and mast cells. Electron microscopy of eosinophils in the follicles revealed loss of cytoplasmic granules and numerous vesicular and tubular structures in the cytoplasm. The mast cells showed clear areas round the granules, suggesting dissolution of granule components. ImagesFigs. 4-6Figs. 7-8Figs. 13-14Figs. 9-10Figs. 1-3Figs. 11-12 PMID:5135540

  12. Cardiac Trauma: Clinical and Experimental Correlations of Myocardial Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Donald B.; Anderson, Alan E.; Rose, Earl F.; Go, Raymundo T.; Chiu, Chiang L.; Ehrenhaft, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Clinical and experimental observations in myocardial contusion have been correlated. Cardiac arrhythmia is always an important consequence and may be fatal. Reduction in cardiac output often accompanies significant cardiac injury. The coronary arterial circulation is not interrupted and is generally enhanced to the area of injury. Healing of the injury under these circulatory conditions may result in patchy scarring and peculiar adynamic areas of myocardium. Early diagnosis of myocardial contusion may be aided using radionuclide imaging with 99mTc-Sn-polyphosphate. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4412327

  13. Tumours of the nasal cavity*

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Hauser, B.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the nasal cavity are rare in domestic animals, most cases occurring in the dog. Epithelial tumours are the most common type in carnivores (dogs and cats). In general, the same types of tumour occur in domestic animals as occur in man. There was no significant predisposition for breed in dogs, but in both dogs and cats far more males than females were affected. Metastases occurred only rarely. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:1086156

  14. Langerhans-like cells in amphibian epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Farga, J; Castell, A; Pérez, A; Rondán, A

    1990-01-01

    Langerhans cells have been described in epidermis and other stratified epithelia of mammals. In other vertebrates equivalent cells have not been found. Amphibians show skin graft rejection, so it is possible that these animals have epidermal cells homologous to Langerhans cells. In this work we demonstrate the existence of ATPase-positive dendritic cells in frog epidermis that are similar ultrastructurally to mammalian Langerhans cells, except for the absence of Birbeck granules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2148747

  15. Clothing for Sports: Part 1: Fashion Foils Phidippides, Proves Fatal At Finish

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1985-01-01

    The choice of clothing for any particular sport can be made on a reasonably scientific basis, taking into account hot, cold or wet conditions, effects on temperature regulating mechanism, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 1 of this two-part article discusses the selection of garments for any sports activity according to specific properties of certain fabrics and also covers safety gear, sports brassieres and shoes. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5 and 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:21274113

  16. Striatal degeneration in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Erdohazi, M; Marshall, P

    1979-01-01

    The clinical features, and the radiological and neuropathological findings of 3 unrelated children with striatal degeneration are presented. In one case the father had recently developed choreiform movements while in the other two the family history was negative for neurological disorders. Two patients had juvenile onset of psychiatric symptoms, seizures, and rigidity. The 3rd child presented with focal seizures at 9 weeks of age. The neuropathological findings are virtually identical in all 3 cases. The classification of striatal degeneration in childhood is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:434899

  17. Apical disease: an analysis of diagnosis and management with special reference to root lesion resection and pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Winstock, D.

    1980-01-01

    Apical disease is discussed against a background of a hitherto assumed high percentage of cystic and bacteriologically sterile lesions, both these concepts being challenged by the author's own investigations. Techniques are described for posterior root resection with emphasis on the conservability of apically diseased teeth, even in the presence of systemic diseases. Open operation is suggested for the diagnosis and treatment of apical disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7396345

  18. Effect of a deproteinized blood extract on the recovery of blood circulation in an ischaemic skin lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Smahel, J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental model was used to study the revascularization of an ischaemic skin lesion and the effect on this process of the blood extract Solcoseryl. Under the conditions given in the experiment, restoration of the circulation was by 2 modes--re-flow in the original vessels, and neovascularization. Solcoseryl given daily i.p. encouraged the re-flow phenomenon and therefore, by improving the microcirculation and nutrition, the healing of the ischaemic lesions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6176254

  19. Dupuytren's Contracture: Fibroblast Contraction?

    PubMed Central

    Gabbiani, Giulio; Majno, Guido

    1972-01-01

    In 6 cases of Dupuytren's disease and 1 of Ledderhose's disease, the nodules of the palmar and plantar aponeurosis were examined by light and electron microscopy. The cells composing these nodules, presumably fibroblasts, showed three significant ultrastructural features: (1) a fibrillar system similar to that of smooth muscle cells; (2) nuclear deformations such as are found in contracted cells, the severest being recognizable by light microscopy (cross-banded nuclei); (3) cell-to-cell and cell-to-stroma attachments. Based on these data and on recent information about the biology of the fibroblasts, it is suggested that these cells are fibroblasts that have modulated into contractile cells (myofibroblasts), and that their contraction plays a role in the pathogenesis of the contracture observed clinically. ImagesFig 10Fig 5Fig 11Fig 6 and 7Fig 8Fig 1Fig 2Fig 9Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:5009249

  20. Heterogeneity in Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, M J; Delleman, J W

    1977-01-01

    Heterogeneity of Waardenburg syndrome is demonstrated in a review of 1,285 patients from the literature and 34 previously unreported patients in five families in the Netherlands. The syndrome seems to consist of two genetically distinct entities that can be differentiated clinically: type I, Waardenburg syndrome with dystopia canthorum; and type II, Waardenburg syndrome without dystopia canthorum. Both types have an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The incidence of bilateral deafness in the two types of the syndrome was found in one-fourth with type I and about half of the patients with type II. This difference has important consequences for genetic counseling. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:331943

  1. Ultrastructure of Ebola virus particles in human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, D S; Simpson, I H; Francis, D P; Knobloch, J; Bowen, E T; Lolik, P; Deng, I M

    1978-01-01

    Electron microscopy of tissues from two necropsies carried out in the Sudan on patients with Ebola virus infection identified virus particles in lung and spleen, but the main concentrations of Ebola particles were seen in liver sections. Viral precursor proteins and cores were found in functional liver cells, often aligned in membrane-bound aggregations. Complete virions, usually found only extracellularly, were mainly seen as long tubular forms, some without cores. Many tubular forms had 'enlarged heads' or 'spores' and some branched and torus forms were identified. The size and structure of the Ebola virus forms appear to be virtually indistinguishable from those of Marburg virus. Images Figs 6, 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:641193

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, C S

    1986-01-01

    Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:3811023

  3. Fractures and Soft Tissue Injuries of the Feet and Ankle

    PubMed Central

    English, Edward

    1985-01-01

    An accurate clinical diagnosis of foot and ankle pain can be made by a history, physical examination and routine X-rays of the affected part. Each problem has a specific treatment; however, fractures and dislocations around the foot and ankle can be thought of in an organized fashion by proper physical examination and then the appropriate treatment. Fractures and soft tissue injuries can be treated rationally by understanding the mechanism of injury and the possibility of subsequent deformity. This article classifies specific injuries as a group and indicates a treatment program for each problem. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7bFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274230

  4. Orthotics in Sports Shoes

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1983-01-01

    We are all born with a varying assortment of biomechanical discrepancies. Ordinarily these may be of no consequence, but to those who try to achieve excellence in a certain sport these discrepancies can spell the difference between success and failure. Some athletes may have to accept the fact that biomechanically the odds are against them ever becoming excellent and that intensive training may in fact be detrimental to their wellbeing. However, the majority can be helped with advice on proper shoe wear and orthotic correction. This article highlights the role of foot orthotics as indicated for various biomechanically-related problems commonly encountered in athletes. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23 PMID:21283401

  5. Ia antigens are expressed on ATPase-positive dendritic cells in chicken epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Torres, A; Millan Aldaco, D A

    1994-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are antigen-presenting dendritic cells located in mammalian epidermis and in other stratified epithelia. We recently demonstrated the presence of Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken using ultrastructural histochemistry for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). The aim of the present study was to test whether ATPase-positive dendritic cells also express class II histocompatibility molecules (Ia antigens) encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), using a double staining technique, in separated chicken epidermal sheets. We concluded that the epidermal dendritic cells observed are the LC of the chicken, based on their morphology and spatial distribution, but mainly on the complete overlap for ATPase reaction and Ia antigen expression, these being reliable markers for the identification of mammalian LC. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs 7,8 Figs 9,10 Figs 11,12 PMID:7928646

  6. Histological changes in the nasal ventral conchae of piglets infected with Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed Central

    Martineau-Doizé, B; Trépanier, H; Martineau, G P

    1991-01-01

    Piglets infected intranasally with Bordetella bronchiseptica were injected with two fluorochrome markers. Transverse sections of undecalcified nasal conchae (cut between the third incisor and the third premolar teeth) were examined by microradiography and fluorescence microscopy; surface-stained sections were evaluated by light microscopy. The fluorescent surface of the nasal ventral conchae from the infected piglets was increased as compared with the controls. This was due to an increased amount of fluorescent mineralization fronts as well as to the presence of abnormal fluorescent areas within trabeculae. Trabecular mineral content of the microradiographs was irregular and varied from hypo- to hypermineralized. When compared with the corresponding surface-stained sections, no correlation could be made between the mineral content and the type of tissue. These findings suggest that an increased number of osteoblasts which secrete prebone matrix but are modified so that mineralization does not occur normally. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1884283

  7. Anatomical variations in human carotid bodies.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Q; Heath, D; Smith, P

    1988-01-01

    The variations in anatomical structure and position of both carotid bodies were noted in 100 consecutive subjects who came to necropsy. Considerable variations in form were found. Although most carotid bodies (83% on the right and 86% on the left) were of the classic ovoid type, an appreciable minority was bilobed (9% on the right and 7% on the left) or double (7% on the right and 6% on the left); 1% were leaf shaped. All these anatomical variants have to be distinguished from the pathologically enlarged carotid body that may have a smooth or finely nodular surface. Anatomical variants (such as the bilobed) may themselves enlarge as a consequence of carotid body hyperplasia. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:3209707

  8. The use of oxidation ditches for treatment of sewage for small communities*

    PubMed Central

    Baars, J. K.

    1962-01-01

    The system of prolonged aeration in an oxidation ditch permits the full treatment of sewage from small communities at the same proportionate cost as that of the conventional activated-sludge system for large communities. It must be considered an important means of abating surface-water pollution. The treatment may be continuous or discontinuous, depending on the local situation and the quantity of sewage to be purified. Several plants are at present in operation, ranging in capacity from 200 to 4000 population-equivalent. The system may be used not only for the purification of domestic sewage, but also for the treatment of wastes from dairies and other industrial activities, even when these contain phenols, thiocyanides or peak loads of cyanides. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:13863606

  9. Pseudocyanotic pigmentation of the skin induced by amiodarone: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Delage, C.; Lagacé, R.; Huard, J.

    1975-01-01

    An unusual bluish discolouration of the nose was noticed in a woman 9 months after she had begun treatment with a coronary vasodilator, amiodarone hydrochloride. Cutaneous biopsies of the nose were obtained 6 and 9 months later for light and electron microscopic studies. In the dermis were histiocytes containing cytoplasmic yellow-brown granules with histochemical properties of melanin and lipofuscin. Ultrastructurally the granules appeared as lysosomal membrane-bound dense bodies similar to lipofuscin. Similar granules were observed at diascopy in both corneas. The pathogenesis is obscure. A storage disease involving the drug or its metabolites cannot be ruled out. Another possibility is that amiodarone accelerates the normal cellular autophagocytosis, resulting in increased production of lipofuscin, which then accumulates in lysosomes because of a deficiency in lipolytic enzymes. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:47784

  10. Ischaemic colitis in the experimental animal. II. Role of hypovolaemia in the production of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, J G; Parks, T G

    1976-01-01

    Hypovolaemia alone did not lead to ischaemic colitis but when venesection was induced immediately after the acute ligation of the common colic artery large bowel ischaemia ensued. Similarly, hypovolaemia induced one month after two major blood vessels had been occluded led to ischaemic colitis. These findings suggest that states of low blood flow in the presence of previous arterial constriction or blockage may lead to enough reduction in mesenteric perfusion for intestinal ischaemia to develop. Using an electromagnetic flowmeter placed in the cranial mesenteric artery of the dog, it was shown that hypovolaemia may lead to 50-75% reduction in mesenteric blood flow without producing any significant change in the systemic blood pressure. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:976807

  11. Protein-synthesis-dependent induction of annexin I by glucocorticoid.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, W T; Frost, S C; Nick, H S

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that annexin I/lipocortin I (lipo I) gene expression is regulated by dexamethasone (DEX) in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and LA-4 lung epithelial cells. We have characterized this induction further in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. At 24 h after addition of DEX, the levels of lipo I mRNA and protein increased 5-fold and 1.5-fold respectively. Time-course experiments revealed that the induction was delayed by 2-4 h after DEX addition. Half-maximal induction of both lipo I mRNA and protein was achieved with 10 nM-DEX. Both actinomycin D and cycloheximide blocked the DEX effect on lipo I mRNA expression. These results indicate that the induction of lipo I by DEX has a transcriptional component and requires protein synthesis de novo. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1827255

  12. Polyerositis and Arthritis Due to Escherichia coli in Gnotobiotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Waxler, G. L.; Britt, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Forty gnotobiotic pigs from six litters were exposed orally to Escherichia coli 083:K·:NM at 69 to 148 hours of age, while 17 pigs from the same litters served as unexposed controls. Clinical signs of infection included fever, anorexia, diarrhea, lameness, and reluctance to move. Eighty-four percent of the exposed pigs in four litters died, while only 13% in two litters died. Gross and microscopic lesions included serofibrinous to fibrinopurulent polyserositis in 96% of the exposed pigs in four litters and 33% of the exposed pigs in two litters. A few pigs had gross and/or microscopic lesions of arthritis. Escherichia coli was routinely isolated from the serous and synovial cavities of infected pigs. Anti-hog cholera serum administered orally as a colostrum substitute gave partial protection against E. coli infection. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4261837

  13. A role of amphiphysin in synaptic vesicle endocytosis suggested by its binding to dynamin in nerve terminals.

    PubMed Central

    David, C; McPherson, P S; Mundigl, O; de Camilli, P

    1996-01-01

    Amphiphysin, a major autoantigen in paraneoplastic Stiff-Man syndrome, is an SH3 domain-containing neuronal protein, concentrated in nerve terminals. Here, we demonstrate a specific, SH3 domain-mediated, interaction between amphiphysin and dynamin by gel overlay and affinity chromatography. In addition, we show that the two proteins are colocalized in nerve terminals and are coprecipitated from brain extracts consistent with their interactions in situ. We also report that a region of amphiphysin distinct from its SH3 domain mediates its binding to the alpha c subunit of AP2 adaptin, which is also concentrated in nerve terminals. These findings support a role of amphiphysin in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8552632

  14. Rehabilitation of the Patient with a Fractured Hip

    PubMed Central

    Austman, Mardie; Higgins, Patty; Rosenberg, Gilbert

    1979-01-01

    Fracture of the hip is a common traumatic event in the elderly. Surgical repair is the treatment of choice for most patients, but represents only the first phase in the total rehabilitation of the patient. A comprehensive team approach, involving the patient, the family, the physician, nursing personnel and rehabilitation staff, is mandatory if the elderly person is to achieve maximal recovery and hopefully return to his normal lifestyle. Lack of a team approach leads to ineffectual therapy, with the likelihood that the patient will become unnecessarily institutionalized. However, some patients will be very poor candidates for rehabilitation if already at a non-ambulatory, heavy care level, with a variety of complicated medical conditions such as congestive heart failure, diabetes and obstructive lung disease. Realistic, individual goals must be set. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:21297729

  15. Histochemical studies on genetical control of hormonal enzyme inducibility in the mouse. I. Non-specific esterase activity and regional histology of the epididymis.

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, S R; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    As a base line for future cell genetical studies the authors record the distribution of non-specific esterase reaction in the various histologically distinguishable cell types of the mouse epididymis. The findings are correlated with previous descriptions of the lobar structure of the organ. Assuming the sequence of lobes of the head to be as implied in these classical descriptions, the esterase activity of the epithelial cells gradates between strong to weak several times along the length of the epididymal duct. The relationship of the lobes to each other, as seen in transverse sections, is described. Methodological studies using different fixatives indicate that apparent similarity of esterase reaction at different sites may camouflage an underlying difference in the nature of the esterases at these sites. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:564339

  16. The surgical management of the arthritic hand.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, S. H.

    1979-01-01

    The surgical management of the arthritic hand is very largely concerned with rheumatoid arthritis and Still's disease and less frequently with psoriatic and degenerative arthritis. In the rheumatoid hand the surgeon may be called upon to intervene at any point in the chain reaction leading to total deformity, performing synovectomies of joints or tendons to relieve pain or prevent further deformity, repairing ruptured tendons, restoring the mechanism of injured joints, and correcting deformities when they have been allowed to occur. The great variety of operations that may be necessary to achieve these ends, with varying degrees of success, are discussed with reference to a personal series of 970 cases and 2002 operations. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 PMID:420491

  17. A light and electron microscope study of rat abducens nucleus neurons projecting to the cerebellar flocculus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodella, L; Rezzani, R; Corsetti, G; Simonetti, C; Stacchiotti, A; Ventura, R G

    1995-01-01

    Injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the cerebellar flocculus of the rat was employed to identify neurons in the abducens nucleus that project to the flocculus. The number, ultrastructural features and precise localisation of these neurons in the nucleus were examined. They were present bilaterally and represented about 7% of the total neuronal population of each nucleus. They were localised principally in the dorsomedial area of the cranial half of each nucleus and did not display the typical ultrastructural features of motoneurons. It is concluded that the localisation and ultrastructural characteristics of these HRP-positive neurons are useful for distinguishing them from other neuronal populations within the nucleus. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7649835

  18. Common injuries of the athlete's hand.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    Hand injuries are among the most frequent accidents seen in sports medicine. All too commonly they are considered trivial since the athlete may continue to participate actively and neglect his injury. The consequent delay in diagnosis and proper treatment may result in long-standing or even permanent disability. This paper describes the more commonly encountered hand injuries, their diagnosis and their optimal treatment. Included are soft-tissue injuries, ligamentous injuries, fractures and tendon avulsions. The basic principles applicable to skeletal and soft-tissue trauma of the hand, which physicians at all levels of sports medicine may encounter, are stressed. Images FIG. 1A FIG. 1B FIG. 1C FIG. 2A FIG. 2B FIG. 2C FIG. 2D FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8A FIG. 8B FIG. 9 FIG. 10A FIG. 10B PMID:332313

  19. An electron microscope and immunohistochemical study of the intracellular location of Toxoplasma tissue cysts within the brains of mice with congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sims, T. A.; Hay, J.; Talbot, I. C.

    1989-01-01

    The wall of intact Toxoplasma tissue cysts within the brains of mice with congenital toxoplasmosis was investigated. Smaller cysts were identified within the soma of neurones. With larger cysts, the contained cystozoites were shown by ultrastructural examination to be surrounded by a layer of microtubules; immunohistochemical staining revealed that this layer contained neurofilament protein. Interior to this layer was a much convoluted parasitophorus vacuole membrane; exterior was the host cell membrane. In most cases, synaptic plates were noted on the outer plasma membrane. In no instance were tissue cysts observed either within neuroglial cells or in the absence of host cells. These observations are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of congenital toxoplasmosis in the brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2504268

  20. Causation and Disease: The Henle-Koch Postulates Revisited 1

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Alfred S.

    1976-01-01

    The Henle-Koch postulates are reviewed in terms of their full validity in Koch's day and in light of subsequent developments. The changing guidelines developed for viral diseases, for viruses in relation to cancer and to chronic central nervous system infection, and for causative agents in chronic diseases are discussed chronologically. A set of guidelines for both acute infectious and chronic diseases is presented. The need for recognizing the role of the host and the spectrum of host responses, for sound biologic sense in evaluating causal roles of agents in disease, and for flexibility in adapting our guidelines to new knowledge are emphasized. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:782050

  1. Morphological and Biochemical Effects of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine and 1-Methylhydrazine in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hawks, A.; Hicks, R. M.; Holsman, J. W.; Magee, P. N.

    1974-01-01

    Single toxic doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced mild centrilobular necrosis of the liver in rats and mice. Ultrastructural studies showed hepatic nuclear changes including nucleolar microsegregation and changes in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. 1-Methylhydrazine caused little morphological change in the liver. Tumours of the colon and kidney and also massive cystic hyperplasia of the liver were found in some of the rats and tumours of the anal margin and kidney in some of the mice, following single doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Incorporation of amino acids into rat liver proteins was inhibited by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, which also caused disaggregation of hepatic polysomes. No effects on hepatic protein synthesis by 1,1-dimethylhydrazine or 1-methylhydrazine were observed. Similarities between the effects of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, cycasin and dimethylnitrosamine are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4469195

  2. The Reflexes of the Fundus Oculi

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, A. J.

    1940-01-01

    fragmented” surface reflexes, or as evidence of the presence of some highly refractile substance, such as cholesterin or calcium carbonate, in a retinal exudate or other lesion. It is characteristic of the pathological reflexes that they come and go and change their character according to the progress of the pathological condition. The linear reflexes in particular may change from one from to another, and may be finally transformed into surface reflexes of physiological character. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:19992307

  3. hSP, the domain-duplicated homolog of pS2 protein, is co-expressed with pS2 in stomach but not in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Tomasetto, C; Rio, M C; Gautier, C; Wolf, C; Hareuveni, M; Chambon, P; Lathe, R

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 50% of human breast tumors secrete a small cysteine-rich protein, pS2, of unknown function. pS2 protein was recently found to be homologous to a porcine protein with hormonogastric activity, pancreatic spasmolytic polypeptide (PSP), in which the 5-cysteine domain present in pS2 is tandemly duplicated. We have characterized cDNA species encoding PSP and its human and mouse counterparts, hSP and mSP. We show that hSP and pS2 are separately encoded in the genome, and that the two proteins are co-expressed in normal stomach epithelium. However, expression of hSP was not detected in breast tumors. Computer analysis revealed that the pattern of conserved cysteine residues in hSP and pS2, the P domain, is present at the N termini of two other mammalian proteins, intestinal sucrase-isomaltase and lysosomal alpha-glucosidase. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2303034

  4. Joint remodelling and the evolution of the human hand.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O J

    1977-01-01

    A funtional morphological study has been made of the joints of the primate hand, particular emphasis being placed upon the carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints. The presumptive evolutionary history of these joints has been charted by reference to a comparative series of mammals. It has been demonstrated that the human joints have been quite strikingly modified in a number of ways, and that these evolutionary changes may be logically correlated with the refined functional attributes of the human hand. The morphological background thus established has been applied in a preliminary study of the hand bones of various fossil hominids. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Figs. 15 and 16 Figs. 17 and 18 Figs. 19 and 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Figs. 24 and 25 Figs. 26 and 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Fig. 45 PMID:402345

  5. Study of cystine urinary calculi in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Escolar, E; Bellanato, J; Rodriquez, M

    1991-01-01

    The composition and structure of 48 canine cystine urinary stones were determined by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron dispersive X-ray analysis. The infrared analysis showed that about 45% of the specimens were composed of pure cystine. The remainder also contained calcium oxalate (mono and/or dihydrate), magnesium ammonium phosphate hexadydrate (struvite), calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (brushite) and complex urates (ammonium, ammonium potassium and/or potassium enriched ammonium urate). The infrared study of several samples heated at 620 degrees C and 750 degrees C revealed the presence of apatitic calcium phosphate. This compound was difficult to detect in the spectrum of the original samples due to the small proportion of phosphate contained in the calculi and to band overlapping. The examination of a series of selected samples by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis complemented the infrared results. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5a. Fig. 5b. Fig. 6a. Fig. 6b. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:1884286

  6. Variability of dermal elastin visualized ultrastructurally with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, S. S.; Brissie, R. M.; Thompson, N. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Verhoeff iron hematoxylin-lead citrate (VIH-LC) method demonstrated vertical elastic fibers that were often composed only of microfibrillar component extending into the epidermal basement membrane in human skin. These fibers connected with a network of trabeculae composed of microfibrils and elastin fibrils in varying proportions. The large elastic fibers in the deep two thirds of the dermis consited mainly of compact bundles of small elstin fibrils in infants and of solid elastin cores with a fimbriated periphery in adults; Dermis of a 6-month-old fetus contained very few small elastic fibrils except around blood vessels. Skin of an elderly subject revealed exteme proliferation of unusual reticulated elastic fibers in various areas and disclosed abnormal nodules of elastin or collagen fibrils in finely particulate matter. Small elastin fibrils, abundant microfibrils, and intermixed individual collagen fibrils comprised an adventitial collar between sweat glands and fibroblasts. Elastin fibrils were absent from this collar in the fetus and increased with the subject's age. A permanganate-high iron diamine sequence appeared to impart density to the microfibrillar component of elastic fibers. Images Figs 6-7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3-5 Fig 28 Fig 29 Fig 30 Fig 31 Fig 32 Fig 33 PMID:49149

  7. Purification and properties of molecular-weight variants of human placental alkaline phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Nimai K.; Fishman, William H.

    1968-01-01

    1. Alkaline phosphatase of human placenta was purified by a procedure involving homogenization with tris buffer, pH8·6, extraction with butanol, ammonium sulphate fractionation, exposure to heat, ethanol fractionation, gel filtration, triethylaminoethylcellulose anion-exchange chromatography, continuous curtain electrophoresis on paper and equilibrium dialysis. Methods for both laboratory-scale and large-scale preparation were devised. 2. Two major molecular-weight variants designated A and B were separated by molecular sieving with Sephadex G-200 and variant A was purified 4000-fold. 3. Variant B, which comes off the Sephadex G-200 column before variant A, is the electrophoretically slower-moving species on starch gel and is quite heterogeneous. 4. Purified variant A was fairly homogeneous on the basis of electrophoretic studies on starch gel and Sephadex gel, ultracentrifugation and immunodiffusion. 5. The respective molecular weights for variants A and B were 70000 and over 200000 on the basis of sucrose-density-gradient ultracentrifugation. Variant A exhibited a sedimentation coefficient of 4·2s. 6. Crystalline variant B could be converted into fast-moving variant A and vice versa. 7. Kinetic studies indicated no difference between the two variants. These include linear rates of hydrolysis, pH optimum, Michaelis constants and uncompetitive stereospecific l-phenylalanine inhibition. 8. The amino acid compositions of variants A and B and of placental albumin were determined. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 5.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4970595

  8. All six GC-motifs of the SV40 early upstream element contribute to promoter activity in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Saldana, H; Takahashi, K; Vigneron, M; Wildeman, A; Davidson, I; Chambon, P

    1985-01-01

    Recombinants in which the six GC-motifs (I-VI) present in the upstream element of the SV40 early promoter region have been point mutated either individually or in pairs were used to determine the possible contribution of each GC-motif to the function of the overlapping early-early and late-early SV40 promoters. GC-motif I, and to a lesser extent, GC-motifs II and III, are critical for initiation at the early-early start sites. GC-motifs IV-VI play a subsidiary role. Mutations in GC-motifs I and II do not decrease the activity of the late-early promoter, whereas mutations in the GC-motifs III-VI have a moderate effect on it. The in vivo phenotype of the GC-motif mutants can be almost fully reproduced in vitro using a nuclear extract. DNase I protection footprinting experiments using wild-type or mutated templates and nuclear extracts indicate that each GC-motif behaves principally as an independent protein-binding site, presumably for transcription factor Sp1. The effect of changing the position of the 21-bp repeat region on initiation from the early-early and late-early start sites indicates that there is little flexibility in the position in which this upstream element can efficiently activate initiation of transcription from these start sites. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:3004974

  9. Procurement and Maintenance of Germ-Free Swine for Microbiological Investigations1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, R. C.; Bohl, E. H.; Kohler, E. M.

    1964-01-01

    Germ-free swine were routinely procured by both hysterectomy and hysterotomy (Caesarian section). By means of light-weight portable equipment, piglets could be obtained and transported to the laboratory (without contamination) over distances in excess of 100 miles. The isolators employed in rearing were constructed of stainless steel and flexible plastic film. At weekly intervals, fecal swabs and waste from the floor of the isolator were cultured on blood-agar and in thioglycolate broth, as well as being examined microscopically for the presence of bacteria, yeast, and fungi. The presence of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) and viruses in such material was not demonstrable, either by the use of enriched PPLO media or primary porcine-kidney cell cultures. Tissues, body fluids, and cecal contents of piglets sacrificed specifically for microbiological examination were also negative for PPLO, viruses, bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Prenatal infestations by ascarids were not observed. Nutritional problems related to rearing of germ-free piglets, such as hypoglycemia, were not encountered, and the use of an autoclaved commercial sow's milk replacer proved quite satisfactory. The temperature to which piglets were subjected during the first few days of life, however, was very important. The isolator design and application of gnotobiotic techniques to the procurement and rearing of a large germ-free animal such as the pig proved feasible and less difficult than anticipated. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:14199016

  10. A guinea pig model of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Morck, D W; Costerton, J W; Bolingbroke, D O; Ceri, H; Boyd, N D; Olson, M E

    1990-01-01

    The induction of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) was examined. Specific pathogen free male guinea pigs were anesthetized and a tracheostomy performed to introduce 10(5), 10(4) or 10(3) Pasteurella haemolytica-A1 into the left principal bronchus. The surgical site was closed with tissue adhesive and staples and the animals were monitored for signs of respiratory tract infection. Within 24 hours after inoculation they became depressed, anorectic, pyretic and dyspneic. Fibrinous pleuropneumonia with prominent areas of necrosis and hemorrhage was present. Pericardial effusion was a frequent finding. There was infiltration of the pleura and alveoli with degenerate heterophils and macrophages, a hyperplastic mesothelium and fibrin exudation on the pleura and within alveoli. Hemorrhage, congestion, consolidation, edema and fibrin exudation were prominent in the hilar region of the lungs. Bacterial colonies were evident in all airways. More bacteria were recovered from infected lungs than were inoculated (p less than 0.05) indicating P. haemolytica was actively multiplying in the lungs. Hematological and clinical chemistry data were consistent with fibrinous pneumonia, however, blood cultures were positive for P. haemolytica in 61% (11/18) of animals sampled. Examination of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs may be useful in studying pathogenetic and pathological features applicable to bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever pneumonia). Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2306663

  11. Inhalation and injection studies in rats using dust samples from chrysotile asbestos prepared by a wet dispersion process.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. M.; Addison, J.; Bolton, R. E.; Donaldson, K.; Jones, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    Long term inhalation studies and intraperitoneal injection studies in rats were undertaken with a series of chrysotile asbestos dusts. Three dust samples were generated from chrysotile modified by the wet dispersion process (WDC) and one was from unmodified chrysotile. Following a 1 year inhalation period, all the chrysotile samples proved extremely fibrogenic and carcinogenic and there were no significant differences between the WDC dusts and normal chrysotile. In all experimental groups approximately 25% of animals developed pulmonary carcinomas and in the oldest rats advanced interstitial fibrosis occupied on average 10% of all lung tissue. In the injection studies all the dust samples produced mesotheliomas in over 90% of animals. Very little chrysotile remained in the lungs of the animals that survived longest following dust inhalation and what there was was present as individual chrysotile fibrils. It is suggested that chrysotile is potentially the most harmful variety of asbestos as shown in these and other animal studies but that it is removed from lung tissue quite rapidly. In the long lived human species this may mean that except where exposure levels are very high and of long duration, chrysotile should be less hazardous than other asbestos types. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3004552

  12. Positron emission tomography in patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    McGeer, P L; Kamo, H; Harrop, R; Li, D K; Tuokko, H; McGeer, E G; Adam, M J; Ammann, W; Beattie, B L; Calne, D B

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen patients who had clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease with mild to severe dementia (mean age 69.1 years) were evaluated by calculation of local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMR-gl) based on uptake of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) detected with positron emission tomography (PET). PET scanning showed that the patients had significantly lower LCMR-gl values than 11 age-matched neurologically normal volunteers (mean age 66.3 years). The differences were most marked in the temporal cortex, followed by the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex. In each case the LCMR-gl value was below the lowest control value in at least one cortical area and usually in several; the reduction in LCMR-gl and the number of regions involved in the patients increased with the severity of the dementia. Deficits noted in neuropsychologic testing generally correlated with those predicted from loss of regional cortical metabolism. The patients with Alzheimer's disease were also examined with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography or both; the degree of atrophy found showed only a poor correlation with the neuropsychologic deficit. Significant atrophy was also noted in some of the controls. A detailed analysis of LCMR-gl values in selected cerebral regions of various sizes refuted the hypothesis that the reduction in cortical glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease is due to the filling by metabolically inert cerebrospinal fluid of space created by tissue atrophy. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:3512063

  13. Association of Potassium and Some Other Monovalent Cations with Occurrence of Polyphosphate Bodies in Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    PubMed Central

    Peverly, John H.; Adamec, Jan; Parthasarathy, Mandayam V.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphate-starved Chlorella pyrenoidosa cells formed polyphosphate bodies (PB) upon transfer into nutrient solutions containing phosphate and potassium, or another monovalent cation, such as Na+, NH4+, Li+, or Rb+. The phenomenon was studied by chemical analyses, light microscopy, and electron microscopy. When the P-starved cells were transferred into a complete nutrient solution containing 100 micromolar P, they accumulated large quantities of P and K within several hours. The accumulation was accompanied by a corresponding appearance of PB in the cells. The absence of K from the medium prevented appreciable P accumulation and PB formation, but omitting Ca or Mg did not. The P-starved cells exposed to a simple solution of at least 20 micromolar H3PO4 and 100 micromolar KHCO3 responded in a similar manner as the cells exposed to the complete nutrient solution. However, the PB appeared structurally different. It is proposed that monovalent cations are essential for PB formation in C. pyrenoidosa. K is suggested to be a major component of PB formed in K-sufficient media. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:16660449

  14. New method of hepatocyte transplantation and extracorporeal liver support.

    PubMed Central

    Demetriou, A A; Whiting, J; Levenson, S M; Chowdhury, N R; Schechner, R; Michalski, S; Feldman, D; Chowdhury, J R

    1986-01-01

    A technique has been developed by the authors that allows hepatocyte attachment on collagen-coated microcarriers resulting in prolonged hepatocyte viability and function both in vivo and in vitro. Rat hepatocytes were obtained by portal vein collagenase perfusion. Intraperitoneally transplanted microcarrier-attached normal hepatocytes into congeneic Gunn rats were functioning 3-4 weeks later, as shown by the presence and persistence of conjugated bilirubin in recipient bile, sustained decrease in serum bilirubin, uptake of Tc99m-DESIDA, and morphologic criteria. Intraperitoneal transplantation of normal microcarrier-attached hepatocytes into genetically albumin deficient rats (NAR) resulted in marked increase in plasma albumin levels (6 days without and 21 days with Cyclosporin A immunosuppression). Microcarrier-attached hepatocytes transplanted after 2 weeks of storage at -80 C into congeneic Gunn rats were viable and functional as assessed by criteria outlined above. An extracorporeal liver perfusion system was developed using the microcarrier-attached hepatocytes that was capable of synthesizing and conjugating bilirubin and synthesizing liver-specific proteins. Images FIGS. 5A and B. FIG. 7. FIG. 8. FIG. 9. FIG. 12. PMID:3530153

  15. The distribution of stellate cell descending axons in the rat cerebellum: a Golgi and a combined Golgi-electron microscopical study.

    PubMed Central

    Paula-Barbosa, M M; Tavares, M A; Ruela, C; Barroca, H

    1983-01-01

    Axonal descending branches of stellate cells in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex of the rat were studied by means of Golgi and combined Golgi-ultrastructural methods. Special attention was paid to those branches from more superficially located cell bodies. With the Golgi method, it was observed that the number of axons from stellate cells forming pericellular baskets and 'pinceaux' increases as their cell bodies come to lie deeper in the layer. With the combined Golgi-ultrastructural method, it was verified that the synaptic contacts established by these axons are identical to those of axons from basket cells, either contacting Purkinje cell bodies or lying around the axon initial segments, where they establish septate-like junctions. This overlapping of axonal territories between stellate and basket cells is in accordance with the hypothesis that these interneurons, although situated at different levels of the cerebellar molecular layer, may be genetically identical cells. Their diversity of form would depend on the cellular microenvironment present at the time of differentiation. Images Figs. 1-4 Figs. 5-7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6668252

  16. Encrustation and Atherosclerosis: The Analogy Between Early in Vivo Lesions and Deposits Which Occur in Extracorporeal Circulations

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, E. A.; Rowsell, H. C.; Downie, H. G.; Robinson, G. A.; Mustard, J. F.

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the relation between the pattern and topography of thrombus formation in models of various vessel configurations coupled into extracorporeal shunts in swine and the development of atherosclerosis at corresponding sites on swine aortas. The pattern and distribution of deposits formed in the models were strikingly similar to the pattern and distribution of incipient atherosclerosis at comparable sites in the vascular tree. The earliest and only consistent component of the flow chamber deposits was the blood platelet. The platelet deposits would frequently stain with oil red O. The cholesterol level of washed human platelets was found to show a good correlation with that in the plasma. This evidence suggests that deposition of particulate matter (chiefly platelets), largely determined by the hydraulic factors, may be an important factor in the early, as well as later, stages of atherosclerosis. ImagesFigs. 10a and bFig. 13Fig. 21Fig. 1Fig. 3Figs. 4a and bFig. 5Fig. 6aFig. 6bFig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20 PMID:14477412

  17. Spatial arrangement of the heart muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue in the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus).

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Garcia-Martinez, V; Rojo, M; Hurlé, J M

    1994-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of the muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue was examined in the ventricles of the heart of the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus). In both ventricles, the muscle fascicles of the myocardium are arranged in 3 main directions, forming 3 muscle layers within the ventricular wall. The preferentially vertical arrangement of the muscle fascicles in the superficial and deep layers at the level of the fibrous aortic rings and the base of the semilunar valve leaflets suggests that these fascicles are actively involved in valvular dynamics. After controlled digestion of myocytes and elastic fibres with NaOH, a 3-dimensional arrangement of the scaffolding of connective tissue that supports the muscle fascicles and myocytes was observed. The arrangement and structure of this scaffolding may influence the order of contraction of muscle fascicles in different layers of the ventricle. In addition, differences were observed between the connective tissue scaffolding surrounding the myocytes of the 2 ventricles; these variations were correlated with the different biomechanical properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8014119

  18. Histopathology and Distribution of Viral Antigens in Hamsters Infected with Virulent and Benign Venezuelan Encephalitis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Jahrling, P. B.; Scherer, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    Lethalities and virulences of Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) viruses for hamsters were found to correlate with severity of histopathologic lesions in hematopoietic and brain tissues. Highly virulent strains (subtype I) destroyed marrow and lymphoid cells rapidly and produced intestinal wall damage; focal brain hemorrhages and destruction of Purkinje cells also occurred within the 4 to 5 days between subcutaneous inoculation and death. Like subtype I virus, a slightly less virulent strain (subtype II) also caused necrosis of bone marrow and brain lesions, but only minimal lymphoid cell damage occurred. The less virulent subtype III VE virus, which killed hamsters between 4 and 14 days after inoculation, usually caused no lesions in hematopoietic tissues, and deaths were related chiefly to hemorrhagic brain lesions and necrosis of Purkinje cells. Two VE viruses, benign for hamsters (the TC-83 attenuated vaccine strain and subtype IV), usually caused no necrosis of hematopoietic or brain tissues; focal extravasations of blood and swollen glial cells were found in brains of the rare hamsters that died. The degrees of necrosis seen in tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin correlated with the quantities of viral antigens detected by fluorescent antibody, except in pancreas and small intestinal smooth muscle and glands, where antigens of subtype I virus were present without morphologic damage. ImagesFig 5-6Fig 7-8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 1-4 PMID:4578265

  19. Ultrastructural and biochemical observations on proteoglycans and collagen in the mutable connective tissue of the feather star Antedon bifida (Echinodermata, Crinoidea).

    PubMed Central

    Erlinger, R; Welsch, U; Scott, J E

    1993-01-01

    Mutable connective tissue, unique to echinoderms, changes its mechanical behaviour within seconds of nervous stimulation. The molecular mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. In this study proteoglycans and collagen of the brachial ligaments connecting neighbouring ossicles of the arms of the feather star Antedon bifida have been investigated by biochemistry, light and electron microscopy and the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) technique using the dye Cupromeronic Blue (CB). The ligaments consist mainly of parallel cross-striated collagen fibrils, 82 +/- 12 nm in diameter, with a characteristic banding pattern and a D-period of 52.8 +/- 3.2 nm. Some fibrils were disaggregated into bundles of 10-11 nm protofibrils, lying between the normal fibrils. Proteoglycans occur at the surface of the fibrils with 2 binding sites (each with a different CEC) per D-period and also inside the fibrils. The surface proteoglycans are more highly sulphated (i.e. their CECs are > 1.3 M) than the intrafibrillar proteoglycans (CEC < 0.9 M). The glycosaminoglycans consist of a highly sulphated chondroitin sulphate, possibly with fucose residues. The results are consistent with the theory that disaggregation of the fibrils into protofibrils and reaggregation might be a mechanism of mutability, without excluding the possibility that fibrils may slide alongside each other during movements in the viscous phase of the ligament. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8270464

  20. Hematuria and rectal bleeding in the child with Klippel and Trenaunay syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Servelle, M; Bastin, R; Loygue, J; Montagnani, A; Bacour, F; Soulie, J; Andrieux, J B

    1976-01-01

    We have operated upon 588 patients with Klippel and Trenaunay syndrome. The underlying factor is a congenital malformation of the deep veins: agenesis, atresia or compression by fibrovascular bands of the popliteal, femoral or iliac veins. Of these 588 patients, 6 children between 15 months and 4 years of age had severe rectal bleeding and hematuria. One of these children died from massive bleeding of the rectum with septicemia. Another boy was saved by rectal resection and the last one by subtotal cystectomy. The important venogram shows an absence of the anterior venous pathway (superficial femoral vein) compensated by the abnormal development of 2 venous groups, the vein of the sciatic nerve and large veins along the external aspect of the inferior limb. These 2 venous groups penetrate into the pelvis by the sciatic and gluteal notches and terminate in the internal iliac vein which becomes enormous and has a very high flow. This overflow hinders drainage of the venous collateral from the rectum, the bladder and the vagina. The retro adductor vein, prolongated by the deep femoral vein, represents an anastomosis between the sciatic nerve vein and the common femoral vein. The surgeon must try to widen this pathway. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. PMID:178278

  1. A 40 kd protein binds specifically to the 5'-untranslated regions of yeast mitochondrial mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, B; Dekker, P; Blom, J; Grivell, L A

    1990-01-01

    Using a gel mobility shift assay we show that a 40 kd protein (p40), present in extracts of yeast mitochondria, binds specifically to the 5'-untranslated leader of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II mRNA. Binding of p40 to coxII RNA protects an 8-10 nucleotide segment from diethylpyocarbonate modification, indicating that the protein interacts with only a restricted region of the 5'-leader. This segment is located at position -12 with respect to the initiation AUG. Deletion of 10 nucleotides encompassing this site completely abolishes protein binding. Nevertheless, Bal31 deletion analysis within the coxII leader shows that a major part of the leader is essential for p40 binding, suggesting that binding of the protein is also dependent on secondary structural features. p40 binds to other mitochondrial leader mRNAs including those for coxI, coxIII and cyt b. p40 is present in a cytoplasmic (rho0) petite mutant lacking mitochondrial protein synthesis. It is therefore presumably nuclear encoded. The possible biological function of the protein is discussed. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:1701144

  2. The reaction of the dura to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in repair of skull defects.

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, K; Urist, M R

    1982-01-01

    Trephine defects in the adult rat skull 0.8 cm in diameter, which do not spontaneously heal, were filled with a bovine bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) fraction. The defects healed not only by bony ingrowth from the trephine rim, but also by proliferation of pervascular mesenchymal-type cells (pericytes) of the dura mater. Under the influence of BMP, dural pericytes differentiated into chondroid and woven bone. Between three and four weeks postimplantation, sinusoids formed and the woven bone remodelled into lamellar bone. Concurrently, blood-borne bone marrow cells colonized the bone deposits, and the diploe were restored. Demonstrating that it is soluble in interstitial fluid, and diffusible across a nucleopore membrane (which isolated the bony margins of the skull), BMP induced new bone formation in the underlying dura and complete repair of the defect. The response of the dura to the BMP fraction produced more new bone than the response to allogeneic bone matrix. The BMP-induced repair was dose dependent; the quantity of new bone was proportional to the dose of the implanted BMP. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1b. Fig. 1c. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:7092346

  3. Ultrastructural features of degenerated cardiac muscle cells in patients with cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Maron, B. J.; Ferrans, V. J.; Roberts, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Degenerated cardiac muscle cells were present in hypertrophied ventricular muscle obtained at operation from 12 (38%) of 32 patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) or aortic valvular disease. Degenerated cells demonstrated a wide variety of ultrastructural alterations. Mildly altered cells were normal-sized or hypertrophied and showed focal changes, including preferential loss of thick (myosin) filaments, streaming and clumping of Z band material, and proliferation of the tubules of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Moderately and severely degenerated cells were normal-sized or atrophic and showed additional changes, including extensive myofibrillar lysis and loss of T tubules. The appearance of the most severely degenerated cells usually reflected the cytoplasmic organelle (sarcoplasmic reticulum, glycogen, or mitochondria) which underwent proliferation and filled the myofibril-free areas of these cells. Moderately and severely degenerated cells were present in areas of fibrosis, had thickened basement membranes, and had lost their intercellular connections. These observations suggest that degenerated cardiac muscle cells have poor contractile function and may be responsible for impaired cardiac performance in some patients with chronic ventricular hypertrophy. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Figs 4-6 Figs 7-8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Figs 12-15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Figs 18-21 Figs 22-23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Figs 28-29 Fig 30 Figs 31-32 Fig 33 PMID:124533

  4. Experimental frost-bite in Hanford Miniature Swine. II. Vascular changes.

    PubMed Central

    Schoning, P.; Hamlet, M. P.

    1989-01-01

    Frost-bite lesions were produced in five Hanford Miniature Swine exposed to - 75 degrees C air for 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 min. Biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and 1 and 2 weeks. Two hundred slides were evaluated microscopically: superficial and deep hyperaemia, vascular inflammation, medial degeneration, and thrombosis were graded from 0 to 5; 0, no change; 5, severe change. Haemorrhage was recorded as present or absent. Hyperaemia was the earliest change seen, both grossly and microscopically. Leucocyte emigration and vasculitis were intermediate stages seen most commonly in the 6, 12, and 24 h biopsies. Medial degeneration and thrombosis, the most severe vascular changes, were not seen until 1-2 weeks following frost-bite injury. These findings show that the outcome of frost-bite can not be accurately predicted from early frost-bite lesions, because thrombosis and medial degeneration are not evident in early lesions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:2923789

  5. The effect of Pasteurella haemolytica and the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica on bovine lung explants.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, I W; Fallding, M H; Shewen, P E; Yager, J A

    1990-01-01

    Bovine lung explants were used in a study designed to compare the pathogenic effects of Pasteurella haemolytica type 1, a nonpathogenic organism Neisseria subflava, or the crude leukotoxin of P. haemolytica on alveolar macrophages and lung parenchymal cells. Concentrated, purified peripheral blood neutrophil suspensions were added with the bacteria to some explants. Duplicate pairs of cultures from each treatment group were fixed at regular intervals up to 24 hours after seeding and morphological changes were assessed by light and electron microscopy. Pasteurella haemolytica caused deterioration of alveolar macrophages within one hour but did not affect parenchymal cells for more than 12 hours. Neisseria subflava did not affect alveolar macrophages initially, but caused an accelerated deterioration after four hours. After 24 hours, bacterial overgrowth caused similar deterioration of all cells in explants seeded with either bacterium. Alveolar macrophages phagocytosed large numbers of N. subflava but rarely ingested P. haemolytica. Added neutrophils did not have any discernible effect on any of the explants and did not potentiate bacterial effects. Addition of crude leukotoxin of P. haemolytica to the culture medium significantly accelerated alveolar macrophage deterioration without apparent effect on parenchymal cell survival. These results support the hypothesis that the severe tissue destruction of fulminant pneumonic pasteurellosis is not a direct result of bacterial infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2306666

  6. The urease locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its utilization for the demonstration of allelic exchange in Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    PubMed Central

    Reyrat, J M; Berthet, F X; Gicquel, B

    1995-01-01

    The ureABC genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were cloned. By using a set of degenerate primers corresponding to a conserved region of the urease enzyme (EC 3.5.1.5), a fragment of the expected size was amplified by PCR and was used to screen a M. tuberculosis cosmid library. Three open reading frames with extensive similarity to the urease genes from other organisms were found. The locus was mapped on the chromosome, using an ordered M. tuberculosis cosmid library. A suicide vector containing a ureC gene disrupted by a kanamycin marker (aph) was used to construct a urease-negative Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin mutant by allelic exchange involving replacement of the ureC gene with the aph::ureC construct. To our knowledge, allelic exchange has not been reported previously in the slow-growing mycobacteria. Homologous recombination will be an invaluable genetic tool for deciphering the mechanisms of tuberculosis pathogenesis, a disease that causes 3 x 10(6) deaths a year worldwide. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7568014

  7. Helminthic pseudotumours of the bowel: Thirty-four cases of helminthoma

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, P. P.; McAdam, I. W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Human infestation with nematode worms of the superfamily Strongyloidea has been recorded from time to time to give rise to serious surgical complications. Worms of the genus Oesophagostomum are most frequently responsible. These are common parasites of ruminants, monkeys, and apes in which their histotropic phase is confined to the bowel wall and sometimes results in multiple inflammatory nodules. Man is an accidental host and it seems an abnormal one. The worm fails to return to the bowel lumen, migrates further and persists in the tissues. The commonest manifestation is a solitary tumour-like inflammatory mass or abscess (`helminthoma') in the ileocaecal region. The ileum, transverse and sigmoid colons are affected less commonly and the lesions are occasionally multiple. Patients may also present with abscesses of the abdominal wall. The clinical diagnosis is difficult, even at laparotomy. Carcinoma, appendicitis, ileocaecal tuberculosis are frequently simulated and unnecessary radical surgery is often the result, particularly in expatriate Europeans. In this communication 34 cases from Uganda are reviewed with emphasis on histopathology as responsibility for the correct diagnosis is likely to fall on pathologists. Three characteristic appearances are described and related to phases in the natural history of the disease. Current knowledge on parasitology is reviewed. The disease affects Africans as well as Europeans and it is anticipated that cases will be seen in those returning from the tropics. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4258523

  8. Histopathological changes in the epithelial cells of rat duodenum following chronic dietary exposure to cadmium, with particular reference to Paneth cells.

    PubMed Central

    Phillpotts, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    Male and female rats 8 weeks old were exposed for 360 days to a sole source of drinking water containing 0.2 g/l cadmium as the chloride salt. Control rats were exposed for the same period to deionized water. At 90, 180, 270 and 360 day intervals a proportion of the rats from both test and control groups were killed and the duodenums removed. The histopathology was assessed by both light and electron microscopy. In cadmium treated rats the duodenums were enlarged and there was a significant reduction in the percentage of crypts containing Paneth cells. Remaining Paneth cells appeared vacuolated. By both light and electron microscopy changes were noted in the epithelial cells covering the villus tips. These were swollen and protruded towards the duodenal lumen to give a 'cobblestone' appearance by scanning electron microscopy. It is suggested that these histopathological appearances will be seen in chronic dietary exposure to cadmium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 3 Fig. 8 PMID:3741776

  9. A microscopic study of the lung of Testudo graeca (Chelonia).

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, L M; Ballesta, J; Castells, M T; Perez-Tomas, R; Marin, J A; Madrid, J F

    1989-01-01

    The lung of the tortoise, Testudo graeca (Chelonia) was studied by means of light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunocytochemistry. The lung showed the typical faviform structure of the reptilian lung. Three orders of trabeculae were observed. The epithelium of primary and secondary trabeculae was composed of ciliated, mucous, basal and endocrine cells. Mucous cells contained sialo- and sulpho-mucins and were reactive to the lectins Con-A, WGA, DBA, PNA and SBA. Endocrine cells were observed as solitary cells or forming neuroepithelial bodies. By means of immunocytochemistry, endocrine cells were demonstrated to contain serotonin. In the gas-exchange area Types I and II pneumonocytes and undifferentiated cells were observed. Free macrophages were detected in the faveolar lumen. The lung interstitium contained smooth muscle cells, fibrocytes, pigment cells, myelinated and unmyelinated nerves and intrapulmonary ganglia. Nerve terminals containing clear and dense-cored vesicles were observed in the adventitia of the blood vesicles and interspersed between the smooth muscle bands. The lung of the hibernating specimens showed a marked vacuolisation of pneumonocytes. In conclusion, the lung of Testudo graeca showed a complex histological organisation. Marked differences from mammalian lung were found. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 7 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:2606791

  10. Protein malnutrition in South India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Someswara; Swaminathan, M. C.; Swarup, S.; Patwardhan, V. N.

    1959-01-01

    A protein malnutrition survey was carried out in ten areas of four States of South India among children under 5 years of age in families with a monthly income of less than Rs 100, estimated to constitute 85% of the population. The agricultural situation and socio-economic conditions are described. The diets investigated consisted largely of cereals, with small quantities of pulses and green vegetables; milk, meat and eggs were little eaten. The survey covered investigation of infant care, feeding and weaning practices, clinical examinations, anthropometric measurements, determinations of haemoglobin and serum protein, and analysis of hospital records. Although infants were usually breast-fed for a long time, the quantity of breast milk was found to be low after 6 months, at which time supplementary foods were introduced, but these were usually inadequate. Extreme growth retardation was seen after weaning. Diarrhoea was complained of in some 20% of children. Such deficiency signs as dyschromotrichia, hepatomegaly, moon face, angular stomatitis and xerophthalmia were frequently seen. Frank cases of kwashiorkor and marasmus were observed in 1% and 1.7% respectively of children at home. These findings and others clearly show protein malnutrition to be a problem of very considerable magnitude in the poorer communities of South India. A comparison is made with the results of surveys conducted in Africa and in Central America. ImagesFIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 2 PMID:14436226

  11. Renal scintiscanning. A review

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E. Rhys

    1970-01-01

    Renal scintiscanning is a simple investigation that does not require special preparation and is well tolerated by patients. Radiopharmaceuticals used in linear scanning are accumulated in the renal cortex. This accumulation is diminished: (a) when the cortex is destroyed, e.g. by pyelonephritis, injury, etc.; and (b) when the amount available to the cortex is reduced, e.g. by ischaemia. The scintigram depicts the kidneys unimpeded by bowel contents, gives a qualitative assessment of renal function and shows the distribution of zones of normal function. Recent technical improvements show great promise in deriving a quantitative measure of renal function in some circumstances. The location of normally functioning cortex is often important in the management of renal diseases and the value of scintiscanning is then considerable. It is occasionally useful in planning surgery. The anatomy of the renal collecting system can be shown only by urography. High dose techniques achieve this even in the face of renal failure, and scintiscanning has few indications in investigating lesions that distort the renal anatomy, e.g. tumours and cysts. Renal scintiscanning is a very valuable additional method to urography, arteriography and renography in investigation of renal disorders. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4905447

  12. The fine structure of developing elastic cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, R W; Peacock, M A

    1977-01-01

    The fine structure of the elastic cartilage of the pinna has been examined in young rabbits aged from 1 day to 1108 days. Changes associated with growth and development are related not only to age but also to the actual situation in the pinna. In the midline, progressive changes are seen from the tip to the base. The changes in the chondroblasts with time are compared with those described in hyaline cartilage. Structures occur that, except for the presence of crystals, are apparently morphologically identical with the matrix vesicles of calcifying cartilage. These matrix vesicles, however, become very prominent with age, and aggregations of them appear to be released into the intercellular tissue from vacuoles at the periphery of the chondroblasts. There is no obvious association with calcification. Occasional single cilia, desmosomes and giant mitochondria are seen. Elastica is present at birth, and eventually every cell is separated from its neighbours by a partial investment of elastica. The quantity of matrix seems to increase with time, and with distance from the tip of the ear. This is accompanied by a marked increase in cell size with time. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:870470

  13. Idiopathic duodenal obstruction: an unappreciated complication of pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, E L; Clements, J L

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction as a complication of pancreatitis is infrequently recognized. Only four cases of idiopathic duodenal obstruction associated with pancreatitis have been previously reported. In a three-year study of 878 patients with pancreatitis, nine cases of idiopathic duodenal obstruction associated with pancreatitis have been found. Each of the nine cases was characterized by frank obstruction in the second or third portions of the duodenum and an intact mucosa in the area of stricture. Four patients gave an abrupt history of moderately severe pancreatitis. Resolution of the duodenal obstruction occurred by three weeks in each of these four cases. Surgical exploration in one of these patients revealed marked duodenal edema with intramural hematoma. The remaining five patients reported a chronic history of obstruction. Inadequate resolution of the obstruction after four weeks of hyperalimentation led to surgical bypass. Duodenal biopsy specimens revealed inflammation, muscle destruction, and extensive fibrosis. Duodenal involvement in the inflammatory process of moderately severe pancreatitis was discovered in 25% of the upper gastrointestinal studies, but was usually self-limiting and of a mild degree. Since contiguous duodenal edema is common and fibrosing pancreatoduodenitis only occurs in an occasional patient, surgical intervention for duodenal obstruction associated with pancreatitis should only be considered after demonstrated failure of conservative management. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:7235767

  14. An axosomatic and axodendritic multipolar neuron in the lizard cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Bernabeu, A; Martinez-Guijarro, F J; de la Iglesia, J A; Lopez-Garcia, C

    1994-01-01

    The morphology and synaptic organisation of a type of multipolar neuron of the lizard cerebral cortex were studied by Golgi impregnation, intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase, electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry. It is a GABA-immunoreactive interneuron and most likely parvalbumin-immunoreactive. Its conspicuous axonal arbor is characterised by an initial segment arising from the soma or from a juxtasomatic dendritic segment. The initial axon segment ramifies and gives rise to thick myelinated segments that terminate in short unmyelinated branches studded with thick boutons 'en passant' that (1) make axosomatic synapses on bipyramidal neuronal somata and (2) synapse on initial apical dendritic segments of bipyramidal neurons forming climbing-like cartridges. The dendrites extend throughout the thickness of the cortex, receiving synaptic input from a variety of sources of which the most prominent is that of zinc-positive boutons coming from granule cells of the medial cortex. According to its synaptology, this interneuron may play a role in regulating the activity of bipyramidal neurons by both feed-forward and feed-back inhibition mechanisms. From a comparative standpoint, it may be related to the sparsely spiny or nonspiny multipolar neurons of the stratum oriens of the mammalian hippocampus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7928645

  15. Viral hepatitis and tests for the Australia (hepatitis-associated) antigen and antibody*

    PubMed Central

    1970-01-01

    ”Australia” antigen has been shown to be closely associated with serum hepatitis. The presence of the antigen and its corresponding antiserum can be detected in human beings (and in certain primates) by a number of laboratory tests. This is of great potential importance to blood transfusion and similar services because detection and exclusion of blood donors carrying the antigen might significantly reduce the risk of hepatitis from transfusions and other procedures. In this paper the present state of knowledge of ”Australia” or ”hepatitis-associated” antigen is reviewed. The currently employed tests are described in detail and their use, interpretation and limitations are discussed. Though it appears from early studies that the application of routine screening tests to blood donors would only reduce the risk to recipients by less than 25%, the more sensitive tests becoming available may increase this percentage and it is recommended that where competent laboratory services are available steps should be taken to set up a scheme for testing donors—provided that the current limitations of such a scheme are clearly recognized. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 1FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:4991606

  16. Translational efficiency of polycistronic mRNAs and their utilization to express heterologous genes in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, R J; Murtha, P; Davies, M V

    1987-01-01

    The translation of polycistronic mRNAs in mammalian cells was studied. Transcription units, constructed to contain one, two or three open reading frames (ORFs), were introduced stably into Chinese hamster ovary cells and transiently into COS monkey cells. The analysis of mRNA levels and protein synthesis in these cells demonstrated that the mRNAs transcribed were translated to generate multiple proteins. The efficiency of translation was reduced approximately 40- to 300-fold by the insertion of an upstream ORF. The results support a modified 'scanning' model for translation initiation which allows for translation initiation at internal AUG codons. High-level expression of human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor was achieved utilizing a vector that contains a polycistronic transcription unit encoding an amplifiable dihydrofolate reductase marker gene in its 3' end. Thus, polycistronic expression vectors can be exploited to obtain high-level expression of foreign genes in mammalian cells. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3582359

  17. The regions of the retinoblastoma protein needed for binding to adenovirus E1A or SV40 large T antigen are common sites for mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Q J; Dyson, N; Harlow, E

    1990-01-01

    The protein product of the retinoblastoma (RB) gene is thought to function in a pathway that restricts cell proliferation. Recently, transforming proteins from three different classes of DNA tumor viruses have been shown to form complexes with the RB protein. Genetic studies suggest that these interactions with the RB protein are important steps in transformation by these viruses. In order to understand better the function of the RB-viral oncoprotein complexes, we have mapped the regions of the RB protein that are necessary for these associations. Two non-contiguous regions of RB were found to be essential for complex formation with adenovirus E1A or SV40 large T antigen. These two regions are found between amino acids 393 and 572 and 646 and 772. Interestingly, these binding sites on RB overlap with the positions of naturally occurring, inactivating mutations of the RB gene. These results strongly suggest that these viral oncoproteins are targeting a protein domain that is an important site in the normal function of the RB protein. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. PMID:2138977

  18. A mechanism for differential release of acrosomal enzymes during the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, D M; Oda, M N; Friend, D S; Huang, T T

    1991-01-01

    To study the organization of fertilization enzymes in the sperm acrosome, we isolated and characterized two physicochemically distinct acrosomal fractions of guinea-pig spermatozoa. A soluble fraction contained the 25,000-Mr acrosomal autoantigen, AA1, and most of the acrosomal hyaluronidase and dipeptidyl peptidase II activity. A particulate fraction, designated acrosomal matrix (AM), consisted of membraneless crescent-shaped structures, and contained most of the acrosomal proacrosin. The AM also contained a 28,000-Mr putative proacrosin-binding protein, and a very-high-Mr component which, on reduction, was dissociated into 48,000-Mr and 67,000-Mr subunits. Autoproteolytic dissolution of the AM correlated with proteolysis by acrosin of the 28,000-Mr and 48,000-Mr AM molecules. Components of both the AM and the soluble fraction were localized by immuno-electron microscopy to the electron-dense region of the guinea-pig sperm acrosome. We conclude that acrosomal molecules are segregated into soluble and matrix compartments. This segregation is a function of disulphide bonding and non-covalent interactions among the relatively few components of the AM. Association of acrosin with the AM may be the mechanism by which this enzyme's release from the spermatozoon during the acrosome reaction is delayed relative to the release of other acrosomal molecules. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1903927

  19. Management of adult choledochal cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C S; Sawyers, J L; Reynolds, V H

    1981-01-01

    A review of the English literature reveals a total of 1,337 patients with choledochal cysts. Improved diagnostic techniques to visualize the biliary system are demonstrating an increasing number of unsuspected choledochal cysts in adult patients. Either choledochal cysts remain clinically silent until adulthood or may develop in later life. Experience is reported with adult patients having type I, II, III, and IV choledochal cysts. Type I cysts are preferably managed by excision but cyst anatomy may necessitate choledochoenteric drainage. Type II cysts are treated by excision except for those located within the pancreatic portion of the common bile duct. These are best managed by transduodenal cystoduodenostomy. The type III cyst (choledochocele) should be excised carefully, identifying and preserving the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Type IV cysts include a combination of any one of the first three types of cyst plus the presence of intrahepatic cyst or cysts. Treatment of these cysts is dictated by the type and location of the extrahepatic cyst. Since choledochal cysts are being recognized with increased frequency in adults, surgeons need to be aware of the diagnostic and treatment modalities available for each type of biliary cyst. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:7235770

  20. Positive and negative functional interactions between promoter elements from different classes of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes.

    PubMed Central

    Parry, H D; Mattaj, I W

    1990-01-01

    Consensus tRNA gene promoter elements, A and B boxes, were introduced into the coding sequence of a Xenopus U6 gene. Combinations in which A and B boxes were coupled to wild-type or mutant U6 promoters were made. In this way information about both the functions of individual promoter elements and functional relationships between different classes of RNA polymerase III promoter element were obtained. Mutants in which the U6 PSE was non-functional were rescued by the presence of a B box, indicating a degree of functional relationship between these two elements. Moreover, the B box acted to increase the transcriptional activity and competitive strength of the wild-type U6 promoter. In contrast, no evidence was obtained to suggest that a tRNA A box can interact productively with U6 promoter elements in the absence of a B box. Data obtained suggest that the U6 PSE functions as an 'adaptor', being necessary to enable the basal U6 promoter to respond to upstream enhancement. Certain combinations of U6 and tRNA promoter elements are shown to be mutually antagonistic by a mechanism which is likely to involve blockage of transcription initiation. In summary, the U6 and tRNA promoters are shown to consist of functionally related, but distinct, promoter elements whose interactions shed new light on their normal roles in transcription. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2323333

  1. Infant malnutrition in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Oomen, H. A. P. C.

    1953-01-01

    Infant malnutrition, resulting frequently in the death of children of pre-school age, is a problem requiring urgent solution in Indonesia. Children suffering from malnutrition show a variety of symptoms, the most characteristic being emaciation, growth retardation, liver changes, dyspigmentation of skin and hair, other skin lesions, oedema, muscular wasting, anaemia, and xerophthalmia. The indicative value of xerophthalmia, which often leads to the development of keratomalacia, in the diagnosis of malnutrition is stressed by the author. Further research is required to determine the causes—and particularly the part played by diet—of the clinical differences observed in malnutrition cases. Far greater interest in the problem of malnutrition must be shown by the entire medical profession in Indonesia if treatment is to be carried out successfully. The specific symptom, xerophthalmia, is easily curable with cod-liver oil. General malnutrition can be prevented only if sufficient amounts, both quantitatively and qualitatively, of protein, vitamin A, and calories are provided for every child. The Indonesian must be taught, by practical example, the necessity of adequate feeding, and be encouraged to make maximum use of locally available foods. It is hoped that the centres to deal with malnutrition, envisaged by the Ministry of Health, will provide both curative and preventive treatment and facilities for propaganda and research. ImagesFIG. 1-2FIG. 3-4FIG. 5-6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13106702

  2. Reversal of methylcholanthrene-induced changes in mouse prostates in vitro by retinoic acid and its analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Lasnitzki, I.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of vitamin A-related compounds on hyperplasia and metaplasia induced by methylcholanthrene was studied in mouse prostate glands in organ culture. Methylcholanthrene was found to cause extensive hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia of the prostatic epithelium which persisted after withdrawal of the carcinogen. The retinoids included retinoic acid and 6 of its structural analogues synthesized in an attempt to enhance the anticarcinogenic action and reduce the toxicity of the parent compound. These where the cyclopentenyl analogus 7699, A2-retinoic acid, 13-cis-alpha-retinoic acid and 3 aromatic analogues. Administration of the compounds following the carcinogen reduced the extent and incidence of hyperplasia significantly and with the exception of one compound reversed the squamous metaplasia. Two of the aromatic analogues, one with a terminal ethylamide group (1430), and the other with a terminal ethylester group (9369), proved to be the most potent inhibitors, followed by compound 7699 and (9369), proved to be the most potent inhibitors, followed by compound 7699 and retinoic acid. A2-retinoic acid and 13-cis-alpha-retinoic acid showed the lowest activity. The inhibition of hyperplasia appeared to be mediated via a reduction of DNA synthesis. It seemed unrelated to either the biological growth-promoting activity of the compounds or their surface-active properties. It is tentatively suggested that vitamin A and its analogues may act as hormones. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:987794

  3. The effect of smoke inhalation on pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, G F; Clark, W R; Wax, S D; Webb, S R

    1980-01-01

    This paper details efforts to define the primary pathophysiology of acute smoke inhalation without the variables of infection, burns, or fluid resuscitation. A standard dose of smoke (wood and kerosene) was delivered at 37 C to mongrel dogs. The parameters studied included blood gases, carboxyhemoglobin, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics, surface tension area curves as an indication of surfactant activity, and in vivo photomicroscopy. The FiO2 of the smoke was 17 volumes per cent; the carbon monoxide 17,000 ppm. Immediately following smoke exposure, dense, nonsegmental atelectasis developed. Hemodynamic changes were insignificant, but the PaO2 fell to 49 mmHg; the right to left shunt rose from 5 to 41%. Surfactant reduction was significant: enough to cause an increase in the minimum surface tension from 7 to 22 dynes/cm. This surfactant loss may explain the atelectasis seen and the marked instability of subpleural alveolar walls. The data collected are consistent and support the acute inactivation of surfactant as one of the primary pathophysiologic events in smoke inhalation. The clinical correlation is good; surfactant loss may explain why victims of smoke inhalation are so vulnerable to fluid administration if they have thermal burns as well effectiveness of medical devices. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6892674

  4. Comparison of Body Weights, Organ Weights and Histological Features of Selected Organs of Gnotobiotic, Conventional and Isolator-reared Contaminated Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Waxler, G. L.; Drees, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-seven pigs from three litters were used in a comparison of body weights, organ weights, and selected histological features of germfree, conventional and isolator-reared contaminated pigs. At three weeks of age conventional pigs were heavier than pigs of the other two groups. The mandibular lymphnodes, stomachs, and small intestines of contaminated pigs were significantly heavier than the same organs of germfree pigs. This difference was not found in superficial inguinal or prefemoral lymph nodes. Other statistically significant organ weight differences were found. Histologically, the lymph nodes of conventional and contaminated pigs were much more active than those of germfree pigs, although secondary nodules were occasionally found in lymph nodes of germfree pigs. Greater quantities of iron-containing pigment were found in the spleens of germfree pigs than in spleens of the other two groups. Hepatic interlobular septa were somewhat more developed in conventional pigs than in germfree or contaminated pigs. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4261841

  5. Xenopus myc proto-oncogene during development: expression as a stable maternal mRNA uncoupled from cell division.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, M V; Gusse, M; Evan, G I; Dathan, N; Mechali, M

    1986-01-01

    A Xenopus cDNA clone highly homologous to the proto-oncogene c-myc has been isolated and used to derive a homologous probe to study myc expression during embryonic development. Myc RNA is identified as a member of the class of maternal mRNAs expressed before fertilisation. It is highly accumulated from early oogenesis and an unfertilised egg contains 8 pg, about 10(5)-fold the myc content of proliferative somatic cells. After fertilisation a post-transcriptional regulation of the gene is induced and the accumulated myc RNA is degraded (t1/2 = 4 h 20 min) to reach a level at gastrula of 10 transcripts per cell; a value maintained during subsequent embryonic development. The Xenopus myc protein has also been identified by both myc-specific antibodies and hybrid selection experiments. Translation in vitro of Xenopus myc RNA shows that it encodes a 62-kd protein which is also recognised by myc antibodies in oocyte extracts. This protein is accumulated in late oogenesis. The results indicate an unusual uncoupling of myc expression and cell proliferation linked to a stabilisation of the RNA product. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3549280

  6. Candida albicans Ultrastructure: Colonization and Invasion of Oral Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Julie A.; Squier, Christopher A.

    1980-01-01

    The colonization and invasion of various animal oral mucosae by Candida albicans were examined in an organ culture model. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the oral epithelium between 12 and 30 h after inoculation with the fungus revealed the morphological relationships between host and parasite. Examination of the fungi in thin sections showed five distinct layers in the cell wall of C. albicans within the epithelium, but changes were evident in the organization and definition of the outer cell wall layers in budding hyphae and in hyphae participating in colonization and invasion of the epithelial cells. Adherence of the fungus to the superficial cells of the oral mucosa appeared to involve intimate contact between the epithelial cell surface and the deeper layers of the fungal cell wall. During invasion a close seal was maintained between the invading hyphae and the surrounding epithelial cell envelope, there being no other evidence of damage to the host cell surface except at the site of entry. Within the epithelial cells there was only occasional loss of cytoplasmic components in the vicinity of the invading hyphae. These findings would suggest that enzymatic lysis associated with the invasive process is localized and that the mechanical support provided by surface adherence and the intimate association between the fungus and the epithelial cell envelope may permit growth of Candida on through the epithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6995338

  7. Some Observations on the Surgical Treatment of Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Millin, Terence

    1939-01-01

    Types: A. Essential. B. Paradoxical. C. False. D. True. True incontinence.—A. Congenital: (a) Developmental abnormalities. (b) Malformations of nervous system. B. Acquired: (a) Local abnormalities. (b) False passages. (c) Disturbance of innervation. Anatomy of sphincteric mechanism in male and female. Diagnosis: Need for careful investigation including cysto-urethroscopy, cysto-urethrography, and cysto-manometry. Treatment: A. Physiotherapy. B. Direct surgical repair. C. Surgical diversion of urine. Types of true incontinence amenable to direct surgical repair: A. Epispadias. B. Aberrant ureteric ostia. C. Fistulæ. D. Congenital or acquired defective sphincteric mechanism. Operative treatment of vesico-vaginal fistulæ. Transvesical operation for cure of congenitally defective sphincteric mechanism—report of seven cases. Stress incontinence.—Value of urethrograms to ascertain nature of defect. Operative treatment. Incontinence following prostatic surgery.—Types of operation advocated. New operative procedure utilizing ribbon catgut with demonstrative moving picture. ImagesFig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:19991939

  8. Detection of leptospiral antigen (L. interrogans serovar copenhageni serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae) by immunoelectron microscopy in the liver and kidney of experimentally infected guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    De Brito, T.; Prado, M. J.; Negreiros, V. A.; Nicastri, A. L.; Sakata, E. E.; Yasuda, P. H.; Santos, R. T.; Alves, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    Guinea-pigs were experimentally infected with L. interrogans serovar copenhageni serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae and their liver and kidney were studied by immunoelectron microscopy using the post embedding indirect immunogold labelling technique. Primary antibody was a purified rabbit anti-serum produced against the same leptospiral strain used in the inoculum. Gold-labelled leptospiral antigen (LAg) was found close to cell membranes of hepatocytes, kidney tubular cells and endothelial cells of the interstitial capillaries of the kidney. Afterwards it was internalized by hepatic and tubular cells, and eventually found in lysosomes. Phagolysosomes of Kupffer cells were also found to contain remnants of degraded leptospires and gold-labelled LAg. Gold-labelled intact leptospires were detected at the enlarged intercellular spaces between hepatocytes at the areas of hepatic cell plate disarray, showing the potential for leptospiral migration during the septicaemic phase of the disease potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the lesions. The affinity of leptospiral antigenic material for cell membranes suggests an initial interaction with cell surface proteins followed by its internalization and cell damage. The nature of antigenic material detected, however, remains undefined; it may be a toxin, an enzyme or any other factor/s involved in leptospiral virulence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1419779

  9. Arterial supply to the optic nerve and the retina of the sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, P; Ghoshal, N G

    1981-01-01

    The arterial supply of the optic nerve and the retina of four fetal and ten adult sheep was studied by various injection techniques and verified by histological examination in one neonatal lamb. The optic nerve was supplied by the rostral cerebral artery, including the rostral hypophysial artery, the internal ophthalmic artery and its chiasmatic rete, and recurrent branches from the choroidoretinal arteries. The retinal arterioles were supplied by the choroidoretinal arteries, which coursed rostrally in the external sheath of the optic nerve and perforated the area cribrosa of the sclera. The dorsal choroidoretinal artery arose variably from the external ophthalmic artery and its terminal branches. It supplied the rostral portion of the optic nerve, the choroid and, except in one sheep, all retinal arterioles. The ventral choroidoretinal artery arose variably from the anastomotic branch between the external and internal ophthalmic arteries. It supplied the rostral aspect of the optic nerve and the choroid and continued in the fetal lambs as the hyaloid artery. In one specimen it also supplied the lateral retinal arterioles. There was no evidence for a central retinal artery and a continuous arterial circle of the optic nerve. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7333956

  10. A novel upstream element compensates for an ineffectual octamer motif in an immunoglobulin V kappa promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Atchison, M L; Delmas, V; Perry, R P

    1990-01-01

    The octamer (or dc/cd) motif is considered to be a critical component of all immunoglobulin (Ig) promoters. Although the sequence of this motif is highly conserved among most Ig promoters, there are some notable examples in which efficiently expressed Ig genes contain divergent octamers with base substitutions that are demonstrably deleterious when tested with heterologous proximal promoter elements. To elucidate the mechanisms that enable these naturally occurring Ig genes to cope with divergent octamers, we analyzed two such promoters with regard to their ability to interact with relevant transcription factors. We found that the divergent octamer in the kappa O germline promoter strongly binds both Oct-1 and Oct-2 factors, presumably because of compensatory contributions by flanking DNA sequences. A more surprising result was obtained with the V kappa 19 promoter. In this case, the divergent octamer is a very weak Oct factor binding site and, without help from another upstream element, is inadequate for efficient promoter function. This additional element, termed kappa Y because of its high pyrimidine content (CTTCCTTA), serves as a binding site for a novel lymphoid-specific factor. When the divergent V kappa 19 octamer was converted to a strong Oct factor binding site by a single point mutation, the need for kappa Y was obviated. Interestingly, VH promoters that contain the same divergent octamer also contain an upstream element that is very similar to kappa Y. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2120037

  11. The ultrastructure of bovine ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells during the perinatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Asari, M; Kano, Y; Wakui, S; Nishita, T; Matsushita, H; Oshige, H

    1989-01-01

    The ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells in bovine fetuses and neonates were examined by light and electron microscopy. In 7-9 months old fetuses (68, 82 and 86 cm CRL) the dome epithelium was usually a little thinner than elsewhere and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. FAE cells were already distinguishable by their being more cuboidal and eosinophilic than the other epithelial cells. The cytoplasm of the FAE cells bulged noticeably into the lumen and contained numerous mitochondria and vacuoles. At 18 hours and 21 hours after birth, the dome epithelium was more columnar and eosinophilic than previously and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. The FAE cells showed characteristic bulging of large cytoplasmic processes into the lumen, as seen in the previous stage. In the cytoplasm, moderate numbers of mitochondria, numerous vesicles and microtubules could be seen. Frequently degenerated FAE cells could also be found among normal FAE cells in the epithelium. After this stage the cytoplasmic processes almost disappeared but distribution of the other organelles was similar to that seen at the previous stage except that multivesicular bodies were frequently seen in the apical cytoplasm. These histological results suggest that bovine ileal FAE cells are histologically and functionally mature by birth and that at birth they seem to be able to react against the penetration of pathogenic substances from the extrauterine environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2606783

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA showing negative regulation in v-src-transformed 3Y1 rat fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, T; Sakiyama, S

    1993-01-01

    A differential screening procedure was used to isolate genes that are specifically down-regulated in transformed cells. After screening a cDNA library derived from normal rat fibroblast (3Y1) cells, we obtained several independent cDNAs whose mRNA level was substantially lower in 3Y1 cells transformed with Rous sarcoma virus than in untransformed 3Y1 cells. Among them, N03 cDNA has been characterized extensively. N03 mRNA was also absent from v-mos- or simian virus 40-transformed 3Y1 cells but was present in v-Ha-ras-transformed 3Y1 cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the N03 protein is composed of 178 amino acid residues and does not have any sequence similarities with proteins in the data base. A putative zinc-finger domain is located in the central part of the sequence and a proline-rich domain is in the C-terminal region. N03 mRNA was detected by Northern blot analysis in several tissues, including lung, kidney, intestine, and brain, but not in liver. Genomic Southern blot hybridization revealed that the N03 gene exists as a single copy in the rat genome and that closely related, single-copy genes are also present in chicken and human. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8385338

  13. Abdominal trauma at the Southern Surgical Association, 1888-1987.

    PubMed Central

    Nance, F C

    1988-01-01

    Since 1888 98 papers have been presented to the Southern Surgical Association (SSA) dealing directly or indirectly with abdominal trauma. The papers reflect the progress over the century in the management of this injury. Almost two-thirds of the papers have originated from the major city hospitals of the south. An interest in abdominal trauma has been manifest among the officers of SSA. Twenty-two presidents have presented papers or taken part in discussions. Four 25-year eras were identified. In the earliest, exploration of abdominal wounds was firmly established as a principle. The second period was characterized by consolidation of principles and strengthening of supportive care. The third era encompassing World War II marked a nadir in productivity. In the last 25 years a reawakened interest has resulted in a marked increase in the number and quality of presentations, which have increasingly focused on specific organ injuries. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3291795

  14. The suspensory muscle of the duodenum and its nerve supply.

    PubMed Central

    Jit, I; Grewal, S S

    1977-01-01

    The gross anatomy, microscopic structure and nerve supply of the suspensory muscle of the duodenum and Hilfsmuskel have been studied in cadavers of 88 adults, 5 children, 1 infant and 6 neonates. The suspensory muscle of the duodenum, consisting of plain muscle fibres, arose from the connective tissue around the stems of the coeliac and superior mementeric arteries. It was inserted into the third and fourth parts of the duodenum in 53%, and into the duodeno-jejunal flexure in addition in 40%. It was innervated by non-myelinated fibres arising from the coeliac and superior mesenteric plexuses. Although both the longitudinal and circular muscle coats of the duodenum extended into the suspensory muscle, it was not supplied by Auerbach's plexus. The Halfsmuskel, which is a slip of the diaphragm is attached above to the margin of the oesophageal hiatus and below to the connective tissue in the region of the stem of the coeliac artery, sometimes extending to the stem of the superior mesenteric artery. The Hilfmuskel and the suspensory muscle of the duodenum are separate entities. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:870476

  15. Hypertension and Cerebral Hemorrhage: A Malpractice Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Stanley S.; Hunt, Marshall T.; Vogt, Thomas; Walsh, Gregory; Paglia, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The plaintiff alleged that failure of the attending physician to manage her husband's hypertension properly resulted in his death from intracerebral hemorrhage. Four lines of evidence supported the defendant: (1) In 1970 to 1971 there was uncertainty in the medical community whether mild hypertension should be treated with drugs; this uncertainty still existed at the time of the trial. (2) Severe hypertension and advanced age are the two most important predisposing factors leading to intracerebral hemorrhage; the deceased patient had neither. (3) Hemorrhage into the cerebral cortex and underlying white matter is not typical of hypertensive intracerebral bleeding; more likely, rupture of an arteriovenous malformation occurred. (4) A diagnosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage is not one of exclusion but requires objective evidence of vascular change in the brain, heart and kidney; these changes were not found in the deceased patient. In conclusion, an expert witness should testify objectively rather than be the advocate of a lawyer's theory of liability. ImagesFig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 9.Fig. 10. PMID:7233893

  16. Blood Vessel Tumorigenesis by 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine Dihydrochloride (Symmetrical)

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Bela; Wilson, Richard B.

    1971-01-01

    Administration of 0.001% 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, symmetrical, in the drinking water of 7-week-old randomly bred Swiss mice for the remainder of their lifetime induced blood vessel tumors and enhanced the incidence of lung neoplasms. Ninety-eight percent of the females and 92% of the males developed vascular lesions, whereas among the controls the incidence was 3% in the females and 1% in the males. In addition, the incidence of lung tumors rose from 12 to 44% in the females and from 10 to 24% in the males, as compared with the controls. The occurrence of the vascular tumors in order of decreasing frequency was as follows: muscle, pararenal, fat, liver, parametrial, paraepididymal tissues, etc. Gross, light and electron microscopic examinations of vascular lesions revealed the characteristic appearance of angiosarcomas. The type and extent of macroscopic and histologic involvements of the various tissues by the tumors are presented. The ultrastructural descriptions of hemorrhagic areas, vascular spaces, neoplastic endothelial cells, their cytoplasms and organelles are illustrated in detail. In conclusion, whereas hydrazine enhanced the development of lung tumors, when the dimethyl group was attached to it at symmetrical positions, it evoked vascular tumors. Thus, the present study provides evidence for the possible relationship between chemical structure and tumor induction at specific organ sites. ImagesFig 10Fig 9Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8 PMID:5133519

  17. Neuropeptide accretions in the endoplasmic reticulum of oxytocinergic neurons in cats, monkeys and rabbits: a widespread phenomenon.

    PubMed Central

    Pow, D V

    1992-01-01

    peptide export from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3-7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1294566

  18. The Nature of Experimental Second-set Kidney Transport Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    The detailed characteristics of a nephrogram are more meaningful if studied in relation to the corresponding arteriogram. The appearance of a nephrogram in several forms of acute renal failure, including the second-set kidney transplant reaction, can be explained by a diversity of function among the nephrons. Those nephrons derived from outer cortical glomeruli are considered to be mainly geared to excretion and reabsorption whereas those nephrons derived from inner cortical glomeruli, are mainly geared to reabsorption and concentration. A nephrogram appearing in a severely oliguric or anuric kidney can be explained on the basis that outer cortical filtration has been seriously reduced or has ceased while inner cortical filtration continues but the filtrate is concentrated and reabsorbed. A kidney involved in this haemodynamic upset would more precisely be diagnosed as being in a state of acute excretory renal failure. The severe interference with excretory function is compatible with a total renal blood flow reduced by only 20-40 per cent. After several hours involvement in the severe haemodynamic upset evoked by a second-set kidney transplant reaction, inner cortical perfusion fails and at this stage no nephrogram is observed. A similar lack of a nephrogram associated with inadequate cortical perfusion was observed at 24 hr after subjecting a kidney to 2 hr total warm ischaemia which causes cortical necrosis. These principles permit a review of intravenous pyelographic techniques to be made with the recommendation of using small physiological doses of anti-diuretic substances, about half the currently recommended dose of contrast and free but not excessive access to water because the above injected doses of anti-diuretic hormone act maximally during an established water diuresis. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 1Fig. 8Fig. 4 PMID:4944362

  19. Interaction between `sensitized lymphocytes' and antigen in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pick, E.; Krejči, J.; Čech, K.; Turk, J. L.

    1969-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate lymphocytes (PEL), purified on glass beads and lymph node (LN) cells from guinea-pigs immunized with tubercle bacilli were cultured for 24 hours, in serum-free medium, without and with various concentrations of Tuberculin PPD. Supernatants obtained from cultures with 10 μg PPD/107 lymphocytes provoked an intense inflammatory reaction, when injected into the skin of normal guinea-pigs. PEL were more active than LN cells from the same animals. The reaction was characterized by erythema and induration, with a peak between 3 and 6 hours and histologically a mixed polymorphonuclear—mononuclear infiltrate in the dermis was seen. When fractionated on Sephadex G-200, skin activity of both PEL and LN supernatants was concentrated in a peak corresponding to the molecular weight of serum albumin, while in LN material some activity was also present in a small molecular weight peak. The active material could be separated from albumin by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of skin reactive peaks detected a slow α-globulin in both PEL and LN supernatants. PPD in the form of a complex with a protein precipitated by anti-γG antiserum, was detected in the skin-active Sephadex peak III of LN supernatants, by radioimmunoelectrophoresis. Skin activity was precipitated with ammonium sulphate at 66 per cent saturation and was destroyed by pepsin treatment. Formation of the skin-active material was depressed by Puromycin and Actinomycin-D and the development of skin inflammation was suppressed by pretreatment of the recipient with anti-lymph node extract serum. Evidence for antigen induced specific synthesis and release of an α-globulin in PEL and LN cultures was found but its relation to the skin active material is unknown. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 6FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 12 PMID:4187522

  20. Tissue-specific ceruloplasmin gene expression in the mammary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, J L; Shimizu, N; Gitlin, J D

    1991-01-01

    Using a ceruloplasmin cDNA clone in RNA blot analysis, a single 3.7 kb ceruloplasmin-specific transcript was detected in rat mammary gland tissue from pregnant and lactating animals. Ceruloplasmin gene expression in the mammary gland was tissue-specific, with no evidence of expression in brain, heart or other extrahepatic tissues. Ceruloplasmin mRNA was also detected in mammary gland tissue from male, virgin female and non-pregnant/multiparous animals, and the abundance of ceruloplasmin-specific transcripts in virgin female rats was independent of their stage of oestrus. In virgin female mammary gland the content of ceruloplasmin mRNA was 20% of that in hepatic tissue from these animals and approx. 2-3-fold greater than that found in mammary gland tissue of pregnant or lactating animals. Development studies revealed ceruloplasmin gene expression in male and female mammary gland by only 2 weeks of age, prior to the onset of puberty. Biosynthetic studies indicated that the ceruloplasmin mRNA in mammary gland tissue was translated into a 132 kDa protein qualitatively similar to that synthesized in liver. By in situ hybridization, ceruloplasmin gene expression was localized to the epithelium lining the mammary gland alveolar ducts, without evidence of expression in the surrounding mesenchyme. Ceruloplasmin gene expression was also detected in a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line and in biopsy tissue from women with invasive ductal carcinoma. Taken together, these data indicate that the mammary gland is a prominent site of extrahepatic ceruloplasmin gene expression and add to the evidence that ceruloplasmin biosynthesis is associated with growth and differentiation in non-hepatic tissues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1764031

  1. Localization of the Antennapedia protein in Drosophila embryos and imaginal discs

    PubMed Central

    Wirz, Johannes; Fessler, Liselotte I.; Gehring, Walter J.

    1986-01-01

    Antibodies have been raised against a fusion protein containing the 3' region of the coding sequence of the Antennapedia (Antp) gene fused to β-galactosidase. The distribution of the protein on whole mount embryos and imaginal discs of third instar larvae was examined by immunofluorescence. In young embryos, expression of the Antp protein was limited to the thoracic segments in the epidermis, whereas it was found in all neuromeres of head, thorax and abdomen. At the end of embryogenesis, the Antp protein mainly accumulated in the ventral nervous system in certain parts of the thoracic neuromeres, from posterior T1 to anterior T3, with a gap in posterior T2. Comparison of Antp protein distribution in nervous systems from wild-type and Df P9 embryos, lacking the genes of the Bithorax-complex (BX-C), revealed a pattern of expression which indicated that the BX-C represses Antp in the posterior segments with the exception of the last abdominal neuromeres (A8-9) which are regulated independently. The protein pattern in nervous systems from Sex combs reduced(ScrxF9) mutant embryos was indistinguishable from that found in wild-type embryos; thus, neurogenic expression of Antp in T1 and the more anterior segments does not appear to be under the control of Scr+. All imaginal discs derived from the three thoracic segments express Antp protein. The distribution was distinct in each disc; strongest expression was observed in the proximal parts of the discs. In the leg discs the protein distribution seemed to be compartmentally restricted, whereas in the wing disc this was not the case. Antp protein was not detected in the eye-antennal disc. In embryos, as well as in imaginal discs, the protein is localized in the nucleus. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig.4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:16453732

  2. Expression dynamics of the pea rbcS multigene family and organ distribution of the transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Fluhr, Robert; Moses, Phyllis; Morelli, Giorgio; Coruzzi, Gloria; Chua, Nam-Hai

    1986-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of two members (rbcS-3A and -3C) of the pea nuclear gene family encoding the small subunit (rbcS) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Both rbcS-3A and -3C are interrupted by two introns located at the same positions as those of the other three pea rbcS genes. Compared with the other pea rbcS genes the rbcS-3C gene has the most divergent 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences while the rbcS-3A gene has a larger and highly divergent intron 1. All five pea rbcS genes are conserved in their coding regions but show considerable sequence differences in their 3'-untranslated portion. The 3' sequence divergence of the rbcS genes has allowed us to use S1 nuclease mapping procedures to compare their expression levels in different organs and during light induction. All the rbcS genes are differentially expressed in various organs of the pea plants; moreover, specific rbcS transcripts are under-represented in seeds and petals. In leaves there is a 10-fold difference between the highest and lowest specific rbcS transcript levels. By quantitating the distribution of rbcS transcripts during light, phytochrome and blue light induction of immature (etiolated), and mature (green), pea leaves, we show that the genes are differentially activated during leaf development. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:16453702

  3. The Aspergillus nidulans npeA locus consists of three contiguous genes required for penicillin biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    MacCabe, A P; Riach, M B; Unkles, S E; Kinghorn, J R

    1990-01-01

    Clones of Aspergillus nidulans genomic DNA spanning 20 kb have been isolated and shown by a combination of classical and molecular genetic means to represent the npeA locus, previously found to be one of four loci (npeA, npeB, npeC and npeD) involved in the synthesis of penicillin. As well as containing the gene encoding the second enzyme for penicillin biosynthesis, namely isopenicillin N synthetase (IPNS) (designated ipnA), our results show that these clones (pSTA200, pSTA201 and pSTA207) contain two more genes to form a cluster of three contiguous penicillin biosynthetic genes. Our evidence suggests that these genes encode delta (L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) and acyl transferase (ACYT) (designated acvA and acyA respectively), the first and third enzymes required for penicillin biosynthesis, with the gene order being acvA-ipnA-acyA. Transcripts have been identified for the three genes and their approximate sizes determined--acvA 9.5 kb, ipnA 1.4 kb and acyA 1.6 kb. All three mRNA species are observed in cells grown in fermentation medium but not in cells grown in minimal medium, suggesting that the control of penicillin biosynthesis is, in part, at the level of mRNA accumulation. Finally our results show that acvA and ipnA genes are divergently transcribed, whilst acyA is transcribed in the same orientation as ipnA. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2403928

  4. Localization of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its receptors in normal and psoriatic skin: epidermal cells express the 55-kD but not the 75-kD TNF receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, M; Chu, C Q; Eedy, D J; Feldmann, M; Brennan, F M; Breathnach, S M

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of TNF-alpha, p55 TNF receptor (TNF-R) and p75 TNF-R in normal skin and uninvolved and lesional skin from psoriasis patients has been investigated, using specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies. In normal skin, and uninvolved and lesional skin from psoriasis patients, p55 TNF-R is associated with epidermal keratinocytes and a network of upper dermal dendritic cells. This suggests that the actions of TNF-alpha on epidermal cells in vivo are mediated by binding to the p55 TNF-R. In lesional psoriasis skin, there was staining of the parakeratotic stratum corneum and increased expression of p55 TNF-R in association with upper dermal blood vessels. Staining for p75 TNF-R in normal skin was restricted to eccrine sweat ducts and dermal dendritic cells, and was absent from the epidermis. In lesional psoriasis skin, there was staining for p75 TNF-R in association with upper dermal blood vessels and perivascular infiltrating cells. TNF-alpha in normal skin was predominantly localized to the basal cell layers of the epidermis, and was seen in association with eccrine ducts and sebaceous glands. In lesional psoriasis skin, and to a lesser extent in uninvolved psoriasis skin, TNF-alpha was distributed throughout the epidermis, and was also specifically localized to upper dermal blood vessels. Up-regulation of TNF-alpha, p55 TNF-R and p75 TNF-R on dermal blood vessels in psoriasis may play an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition by promoting cutaneous recruitment of inflammatory cells. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8222328

  5. The uterine response in pregnant inbred and non-inbred rats.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, J; Peel, S

    1991-01-01

    Comparisons were made between fetal, placental and metrial gland weights and the cellular composition of the placentae and metrial glands of pregnant inbred (Agus), outbred (Agus x Wistar) and random-bred (Wistar) rats. Fetal and placental weight differences between inbred and outbred rats provided evidence of hybrid vigour. Metrial gland weight differences between inbred and outbred rats showed that the Agus mothers responded to hybrid (Agus x Wistar) fetuses by producing heavier metrial glands than if they were carrying inbred fetuses, up to and included Day 18 of pregnancy. Histological examination revealed some differences between the 3 groups of rats at corresponding stages of pregnancy. Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells formed a larger proportion of cells in the metrial gland in Agus rats carrying hybrid fetuses than in Agus rats carrying inbred fetuses up to Day 14 of pregnancy, but the situation was reversed after Day 14. Degenerative changes were more apparent in the metrial glands from Agus rats carrying hybrid fetuses than in rats from the other 2 groups from Day 15 of pregnancy onwards. Clusters of lymphocytes were a prominent feature of the placental labyrinths of Agus rats (mated with Agus or Wistar males) around Day 15 of pregnancy. Examination of single cell suspensions of metrial gland showed variations in the proportion of immunoglobulin G (Fc gamma) receptor bearing cells during pregnancy and between rats in the 3 groups of corresponding stages of pregnancy. The significance of the differences occurring in the metrial gland during pregnancy and between the groups at corresponding stages of pregnancy may be related to the functional involvement of GMG cells in cytotoxic activity directed against placental trophoblast. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1839792

  6. Comparisons of the pathogenicity of long and short fibres of chrysotile asbestos in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. M.; Jones, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term inhalation and intraperitoneal injection studies were undertaken with laboratory rats treated with a specially prepared short-fibre sample of Canadian chrysotile asbestos. This was compared, at an equal mass dose, to dust generated from the same chrysotile batch so as to contain the highest possible number of long fibres. The long-fibre cloud contained roughly five times more fibres greater than 5 micron in length as seen by phase contrast optical microscopy (PCOM). For increasing lengths, the ratio between the dust clouds increased progressively, reaching over 80: 1 for fibres greater than 30 microns in length. Rats treated with long-fibre chrysotile developed six times more advanced interstitial fibrosis (asbestosis) than animals treated with short-fibre chrysotile and three times more pulmonary tumours. At the end of the 12-month dusting period, three times more short chrysotile than long had been retained in the rat lung tissues. During the following 6 months, however, the short-fibre chrysotile was removed from the lungs much more rapidly than the long. Following intraperitoneal injection at a mass dose of 25mg of dust, both long and short chrysotile produced mesotheliomas in more than 90% of rats. At a dose level of 2.5mg of dust, the short-fibre chrysotile produced mesotheliomas in only one-third as many rats as the long-fibre dust which still produced mesotheliomas in more than 90% of animals injected. At a dose level of 0.25mg of dust, the short-fibre chrysotile produced no mesotheliomas while the long-fibre chrysotile still produced these tumours in 66% of rats. In the two highest doses, where short-fibre chrysotile produced mesotheliomas, the mean tumour induction period was significantly longer than for tumours produced by long chrysotile. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2848570

  7. The pathology of Tangier disease. A light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrans, V. J.; Fredrickson, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    Tangier disease (deficiency of high density plasma lipoproteins) is characterized clinically by: low levels of plasma cholesterol; enlarged, orange-yellow to yellow-gray tonsils and, frequently, peripheral neuropathy. Histologic and ultrastructural studies were made of various tissues from 5 patients with Tangier disease, and comparisons were made of these findings with those in the 12 other patients thus far known to have this disease. Deposits of cholesteryl esters were found in: reticuloendothelial cells (foam cells) in tonsils, bone marrow, skin and jejunal submucosa; Schwann cells in peripheral nerves and myenteric plexus; and in nonvascular smooth muscle cells. These deposits appeared electron lucent and intensely birefringent, varied from spherical to crystalline in shape, often were extensively confluent throughout large areas of cytoplasm, and were not limited by membranes. Certain foam cells in bone marrow also contained membrane-limited clusters of lipid particles resembling chylomicrons. The foam cells in Tangier disease differ morphologically from those in numerous lysosomal enzyme deficiency states, particularly Wolman's disease and cholesteryl ester stroage disease, and in proliferative diseases of the reticuloendothelial system in which cholesteryl esters also accumulate in abnormal histiocytes. Morphologic and biochemical data suggest several hypotheses to explain the accumulation of cholesteryl esters in tissues of patients with Tangier disease. Among these hypotheses, the most likely are considered to be the presence in plasma of abnormal lipoprotein particles that are subject to phagocytic removal by reticuloendothelial cells, and the failure of a process that normally removes locally synthesized cholesterol from cells to plasma. (Am J Pathol 78:101-158, 1975) Images Fig 28 Fig 40 Figs 12-15 Fig 16 Figs 17 and 18 Figs 29 and 30 Fig 19 Fig 31 Fig 20 Fig 32 Fig 21 Fig 33 Fig 22 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3 and 4 Fig 34 Fig 35 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 36 Figs

  8. Haloalkylamine-induced renal papillary necrosis: a histopathological study of structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C. J.; Grasso, P.; Ioannides, C.; Wilson, J.; Bridges, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    The haloalkylamine 2-bromoethanamine (BEA) causes necrosis of renal papillae of rats within 24 h of a single intraperitoneal dose greater than or equal to 100 mg/kg. Nine structural analogues of BEA, differing by halide substitution, alkyl chain elongation or amine substitution, were tested for their ability to induce renal papillary lesions in rats. Three compounds (2-chloroethanamine, 3-bromopropanamine and 2-chloro-N,N-dimethylethanamine) induced lesions which were morphologically indistinguishable from those of BEA. All the molecular structural variations investigated reduced papillotoxicity compared with BEA, the parent compound. A variety of non-renal lesions including hepatic, adrenal, testicular and lymphoid necroses were also encountered. The most toxic compound was 2-fluorethanamine, a 5 mg/kg dose of which was lethal and induced renal corticomedullary mineralization and centrilobular hepatic necrosis. One analogue, 3-bromo-2-hydroxypropanamine, caused rapid and extensive necrosis of the adrenal pars fasciculata and reticularis, simulating human Waterhouse Friderichsen syndrome. The three newly identified renal papillotoxins are all theoretically capable of generating direct-acting alkylating species in solution and their activity as direct-acting mutagens in the Ames bacterial mutagenicity test with TA100 (indicating base pair substitution) closely correlated with their potency as papillotoxins. We therefore hypothesize that non-enzymically formed direct-acting alkylating species mediate these papillary lesions, and that the target selectivity of haloalkylamine toxicity most probably results from the accumulation of these alkylating species in papillary tissue. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1768609

  9. Innervation of the gall bladder and biliary pathways in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W Q; Gabella, G

    1983-01-01

    The innervation of the gall bladder and the biliary pathways was studied in guinea-pigs by means of histochemical methods for catecholamines and for acetylcholinesterase on whole mount preparations, on cryostat sections and on sections of plastic-embedded tissues. The gall bladder contains on average 367 neurons in a ganglionated plexus which lies at the outer surface of the muscle coat. The overall appearance of this plexus is rather similar to that of the submucosal plexus of the duodenum. From the gall bladder the plexus extends into the cystic duct, the hepatic duct and the common bile duct, but from the middle portion of the common bile duct downwards, it is positioned at or near the inner surface of the muscle coat. Concurrently with the marked increase in muscle thickness in the lower parts of the common bile duct, another ganglionated plexus appears, which is truly intramuscular. The latter plexus is highly developed, lies usually between longitudinal and circular muscle and resembles in appearance the myenteric plexus of the duodenum, with which it is in continuity. Throughout the biliary system, the extent of the ganglionated plexus is roughly related to the extent of the musculature. An exchange of adrenergic fibres between the ganglionated plexus and perivascular nerves is observed in the gall bladder. Another nerve plexus, without ganglia but rich in adrenergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive fibres, lies between the mucosa and the muscle coat. Very few nerve fibres run into the musculature of the gall bladder. On the other hand, in the thick musculature of the lower portion of the common bile duct, several intramuscular nerve fibres are found. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6833124

  10. The periepiglottic space: topographic relations and histological organisation.

    PubMed Central

    Reidenbach, M M

    1996-01-01

    Important aspects of histological organisation and topographic relations of the pre-epiglottic space are not fully understood. This region was therefore reinvestigated in plastinated serial sections of 19 human adult specimens. The cranial part of the pre-epiglottic space is homogenously filled with adipose tissue and extends around the epiglottis in a horseshoe fashion. Therefore, the term periepiglottic space (PES) is a more accurate description of this region. The cranial border of the PES is constituted by the hyoepiglottic membrane, which extends between the epiglottis and the tongue, and the hyoepiglottic ligament. The ligament consists of a cranial fibre layer anchored within the lingual muscles, and a caudal layer attached to the hyoid bone. Anterior to the lingual surface of the epiglottis, both fibre layers become apposed to form a dense collagenous mass, which may stabilise the epiglottis during deglutition. Contractions of the infrahyoid muscles will be transmitted to the thyrohyoid membrane anterior to the PES by numerous collagenous septa which originate from the membrane and radiate into the muscles. In contrast, the pre-epiglottic adipose tissue is not connected to the thyrohyoid membrane. The caudal part of the PES is subdivided by two paramedian sagittal collagenous septa. They include a medial compartment bordered by the epiglottis posteriorly and the thyroepiglottic ligament inferiorly. The two lateral subdivisions of the PES extend between the glands of the vestibular folds and towards the aryepiglottic folds, but a distinct confining collagenous layer is absent there. Posterolaterally, the PES is separated from the paraglottic space by the thyroarytenoid muscle and by a cranial extension of the fibrous sheet of the muscle. This collagenous tissue is often split into several layers and displays gaps which may facilitate the spread of malignancies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8655405

  11. Towards a rational terminology in the study of the gubernaculum testis: arguments in support of the notion that the cremasteric sac should be considered the gubernaculum in postnatal rats and other mammals.

    PubMed Central

    van der Schoot, P

    1996-01-01

    differences occur in the extent of initial development of an intra-abdominal conus inguinalis and later cremaster muscles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8771400

  12. The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H; Burns, S; Kaiser, C W

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and anatomic study of the spinal accessory, the eleventh cranial nerve, and trapezius muscle function of patients who had radical neck cancer surgery was conducted. This study was done not only to document the indispensibility of the trapezius muscle to shoulder-girdle stability, but also to clarify the role of the eleventh cranial nerve in the variable motor and sensory changes occurring after the loss of this muscle. Seventeen male patients, 49-69 years of age, (average of 60 years of age) undergoing a total of 23 radical neck dissections were examined for upper extremity function, particularly in regard to the trapezius muscle, and for subjective signs of pain. The eleventh nerve, usually regarded as the sole motor innervation to the trapezius, was cut in 17 instances because of tumor involvement. Dissection of four fresh and 30 preserved adult cadavers helped to reconcile the motor and sensory differences in patients who had undergone loss of the eleventh nerve. The dissections and clinical observations corroborate that the trapezius is a key part of a "muscle continuum" that stabilizes the shoulder. Variations in origins and insertions of the trapezius may influence its function in different individuals. As regards the spinal accessory nerve, it is concluded that varying motor and sensory connections form a plexus with the eleventh nerve, accounting, in part, for the variations in motor innervation and function of the trapezius, as well as for a variable spectrum of sensory changes when the eleventh nerve is cut. For this reason, it is suggested that the term "spinal accessory nerve plexus" be used to refer to the eleventh nerve when it is considered in the context of radical neck cancer surgery. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3056289

  13. Pathological changes in the brains of mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii: a histological, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. J.; Graham, D. I.; Hutchison, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The pathological changes in the brains of mice infected with T. gondii were studied at various intervals between 7 days and 22 months post-infection using histology, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Initially, a few single parasites were observed (day 7) but necrotic lesions and microglial and inflammatory nodules rapidly appeared (9-I4 days). The majority of the lesions between days 9 and I4 contained proliferating toxoplasma and early cyst formation but from 2I days onwards the vast majority of nodules contained neither parasites nor Toxoplasma antigen. Intact intracellular cysts persisted throughout the period of study eliciting no host response. A generalized meningoencephalitis developed by day II and persisted with varying degrees of severity throughout the 22 months studied. At first, the inflammatory cells consisted of lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages but during the chronic phase plasma cells predominated. In chronic infections, the number of microglial/inflammatory nodules was relatively constant with only a few containing toxoplasmic material resulting from recent cyst rupture. A few brains contained small nodules of dystrophic calcification. This study shows that in these asymptomatic animals, the major feature is perivascular cuffing by mononuclear cells and localized microglial/inflammatory nodules. After the development of the chronic state, there is no obvious increase or decrease in the severity of the pathological changes with time. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs. 8-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:1883744

  14. Muscle-spindle distribution in relation to the fibre-type composition of masseter in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Rowlerson, A; Mascarello, F; Barker, D; Saed, H

    1988-01-01

    The various parts of the masseter muscle complex (pars superficialis, pars profunda, zygomaticomandibularis, maxillomandibularis) in the rat, guinea-pig, rabbit, cat and macaque monkey were examined to discover whether they showed any relationship between the distribution of muscle spindles and extrafusal fibre types. Intrafusal (spindle) and extrafusal fibre types in masseter were compared with those in limb muscles and were identified by a combination of standard histochemical methods and indirect immunoperoxidase staining with antibodies specific for the various isoforms of myosin characteristic of fibre types in mammalian muscle. In general, the fibre-type properties of intrafusal fibres in masseter resembled those in limb muscle spindles, but the extrafusal fibre-type composition was unlike that in most limb muscles. In the rat masseter, most of the spindles were clustered together in a few very restricted areas. Extensive fusion of the external capsules of adjacent spindles, resulting in the formation of giant spindles, was seen in the cat and monkey masseter; this was sometimes accompanied by the enclosure of extrafusal fibres within the fused spindles. Common to all species, but strongest of all in the rat, was a close association between the distributions of muscle spindles and extrafusal Type I (slow twitch) fibres within the masseter complex. Muscle spindles and Type I fibres were either absent or rarest in the superficial part of masseter, but were most common in the deep layer (pars profunda) or zygomaticomandibularis. The functional significance of these observations is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2978294

  15. The role of transforming growth factor alpha in rat craniofacial development and chondrogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, L; Solursh, M; Sandra, A

    1996-01-01

    To explore the possible role of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in craniofacial development, its expression in the craniofacial region of rat embryos from embryonic day (d) 9 to d 20 was examined by in situ hybridisation and immunostaining. The TGF-alpha transcripts were first detected in the neural fold of embryonic d 9 and 10 embryos. In the craniofacial region, the TGF-alpha transcripts were not detected until embryonic d 16 in mesenchyme surrounding the olfactory bulb, within the olfactory bulb, the nasal capsule, vomeronasal organ, and vibrissal follicle. In addition, TGF-alpha message was detected in mesenchyme in the vicinity of Meckel's cartilage, and in the dental epithelium and lamina. This expression pattern of TGF-alpha transcripts persisted until embryonic d 17 but disappeared by d 18. The presence of TGF-alpha protein largely coincided with TGF-alpha message although, unlike the message, it persisted throughout later embryogenesis in the craniofacial region. The possible function of TGF-alpha in chondrogenesis was explored by employing the micromass culture technique. Cartilage nodule formation in mesenchymal cells cultured from rat mandibles in the presence of TGF-alpha was significantly inhibited. This inhibitory effect of TGF-alpha on chondrogenesis was reversed by addition of antibody against the EGF receptor, which crossreacts with the TGF-alpha receptor. The inhibitory effect of TGF-alpha on chondrogenesis in vitro was further confirmed by micromass culture using mesenchymal cells from rat embryonic limb bud. Taken together, these results demonstrate the involvement of TGF-alpha in chondrogenesis during embryonic development, possibly by way of a specific inhibition of cartilage formation from mesenchymal precursor cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 PMID:8771398

  16. Treatment of spontaneous tumours by temporary local ligation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Frederick M.; Kaplan, Martin M.; Meranze, David R.; Gradess, Morton

    1960-01-01

    Previous work in some human cases and in laboratory animals has indicated that temporary local ligation of spontaneous tumours has a selective destructive effect on these tumours, with only temporary inflammation resulting in normal tissues. In the experiments described in this paper, 49 spontaneous accessible tumours in dogs were treated by this method, with periods of ligation of from 4 to 11 hours. Success, as measured by selective necrosis of tumour tissue as compared with normal tissue, was achieved in 29 out of 41 benign tumours, including lipomas, angiomas, adenomas and mixed mammary tumours. Treatment failures were encountered in two cases each of papillomas and fibromas, six mixed mammary tumours and two testicular tumours. Total necrosis of tumour cells occurred in all eight malignant tumours encountered in this series. The outstanding feature was the specific destruction of tumour tissue by a bodily process without participation of any outside agent. Emphasis was placed on an adequate inflammatory response following temporary anoxia, although a precise definition of this inflammation could not be offered. Post-ligation bacterial multiplication, which may be expected to occur in necrotic tumour tissue, is considered to be a secondary effect rather than a possible primary cause of regression and disappearance of the tumour. If ligation treatment can be shown to be successful for a particular type of tumour, it may be possible to apply it to human patients for the treatment of areas not amenable to surgery. The results reported here warrant new experimental approaches to the study of neoplasms at the cellular level to define more precisely the anoxic and inflammatory processes involved in the selective lethal effect on tumour tissues; and the authors suggest that trials should be undertaken of combinations of chemotherapy or irradiation with ligation to reduce ligation time and extend the possible benefits. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7

  17. Simultaneous visualization of cortical barrels and horseradish peroxidase-injected layer 5b vibrissa neurones in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, M

    1992-01-01

    played by direct inputs from multi-whisker thalamic ventrobasal neurones was discussed. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1282157

  18. Characterization of new polyclonal antibodies specific for 40 and 42 amino acid-long amyloid beta peptides: their use to examine the cell biology of presenilins and the immunohistochemistry of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy cases.

    PubMed Central

    Barelli, H.; Lebeau, A.; Vizzavona, J.; Delaere, P.; Chevallier, N.; Drouot, C.; Marambaud, P.; Ancolio, K.; Buxbaum, J. D.; Khorkova, O.; Heroux, J.; Sahasrabudhe, S.; Martinez, J.; Warter, J. M.; Mohr, M.; Checler, F.

    1997-01-01

    demonstrated that FAD-linked presenilins similarly affect both p342 and A beta 42, suggesting that these mutations misroute the beta APP to a compartment where gamma-secretase, but not alpha-secretase, cleavages are modified. Overall, these antibodies should prove useful for fundamental and diagnostic approaches, as suggested by their usefulness for biochemical, cell biological, and immunohistochemical techniques. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:9392006

  19. From Osler to Olafson. The evolution of veterinary pathology in North America.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, L Z

    1987-01-01

    of instruction. However, by 1884, Osler had already left his indelible imprint on the students (both medical and veterinary) he had taught in Montreal, one of whom took over the teaching of pathology in the veterinary college. Another, who followed Osler's example and also studied in Berlin with Virchow, wrote the first book in the English language on veterinary post mortem technique in 1889.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:3552167

  20. Protection of Hamster Lung Cultures by L-Cysteine or Vitamin C Against Carcinogenic Effects of Fresh Smoke from Tobacco or Marihuana Cigarettes*

    PubMed Central

    Leuchtenberger, C.; Leuchtenberger, R.

    1977-01-01

    growth and malignant transformation occurring either in aged controls (1-2 years old) or in young cultures (3-6 months old) after repeated exposure to smoke from tobacco or marihuana cigarettes. The increase of lysosomes after L-cysteine or vitamin C also points to the possible importance of lysosomes in protecting the cultures against the enhancement of carcinogenesis by smoke. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8a, bFig. 9a, bFig. 10 PMID:607984

  1. Molecular cloning of chicken aggrecan. Structural analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, L; Tanzer, M L

    1992-01-01

    domain. Thus different variants of chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate domains may have evolved separately to fulfil specific biochemical and physiological functions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1339285

  2. The Otosclerosis Problem: including Reports of Two Cases Pathologically Examined (Dalby Memorial Lecture)

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Albert A.

    1934-01-01

    other nerve-structures in the body. If, therefore, structural changes occur as a result of defective functioning of those nerves, such structural changes will naturally be bilaterally symmetrical in their distribution. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:19989872

  3. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  4. Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, R.M.; Drummond, T.J.; Gourley, P.L.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-08-31

    A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration. 8 figs.

  5. Associated production of hypernuclei with (. pi. /sup plus/,k/sup plus/) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Status of associated production of hypernuclei is discussed. Recent (..pi../sup +/,K/sup +/) results from AGS to study the spectroscopy of ..lambda.. single particle states in heavy systems are presented. 38 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W.G. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1990-11-01

    The development of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is described, with emphasis on massively-parallel simulations involving the motion of millions, soon to be billions, of atoms. Corresponding continuum simulations are also discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes by an ovary-specific GATA factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lossky, M.; Wensink, P.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report investigates the expression of the genes for yolk protein of Drosophila melanogaster and the tissue specific function of the regulatory element which activates transcription in vivo. 70 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Low density lipoprotein fraction assay for cardiac disease risk

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, R.M.; Blanche, P.J.; Orr, J.

    1999-07-20

    A variable rate density gradient electrophoric gel is described which separates LDL subfractions with the precision of ultracentrifugation techniques. Also, an innovative bottom inlet mixing chamber particularly useful for producing these gels is described. 8 figs.

  9. Ion implantation method for preparing polymers having oxygen erosion resistant surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.; Heatherly, L. Jr.

    1995-04-18

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them are generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface, improved wear resistance, and improved oxygen erosion resistance. 8 figs.

  10. Slow-to-fast transformation of denervated soleus muscles by chronic high-frequency stimulation in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Gorza, L; Gundersen, K; Lømo, T; Schiaffino, S; Westgaard, R H

    1988-01-01

    the muscle fibres also increased in length (35%) maximum intrinsic shortening velocity (fibre lengths/s) was only incompletely transformed (55%). The increase in Vmax occurred between 7 and 14 days after the onset of stimulation. 7. All the fibres stimulated intermittently at 100 Hz were strongly labelled with anti-fast myosin and more than 90% were in addition weakly labelled by anti-slow myosin. Weak and variable labelling with anti-fast myosin was first detected 7 days after the onset of stimulation. In contrast, essentially all the fibres stimulated at 10 or 15 Hz showed no binding of anti-fast but strong binding of anti-slow myosin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:3236251

  11. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  12. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: zooplankton responses. Progress report, June 1985-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.

    1985-12-20

    The effects of wind forcing on water displacement from the near- to the offshore environment of the southeastern continental shelf are discussed. This report presents information on zooplankton abundance and distribution in relation to hydrographic variables. 7 figs. (ACR)

  13. Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Bhinde, M.V.

    1998-06-23

    Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins are disclosed, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides. 7 figs.

  14. Porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Bhinde, M.V.

    1997-03-04

    Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides. 7 figs.

  15. Method for the chromatographic separation of cations from aqueous samples

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.

    1997-07-29

    An extraction chromatographic material is described for extracting metal cations from a liquid stream. The extraction chromatographic material is prepared by adsorbing a diesterified methanediphosphonic acid on an inert particulate support. 7 figs.

  16. Pleasant Prairie Power Plant air quality control upgrade project, Pleasant Praire, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhart, S.; Pennline, D.; Brodsky, I.; Bichler, D.

    2007-10-15

    We Energies recently completed a multiyear project at its Pleasant Prairie Power Plant to add a selective catalytic reduction system to one of its two units and a scrubber to both. These projects are described. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Cotranscriptional splicing of a group I intron is facilitated by the Cbp2 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, A.S.; Thomas, J. Jr.; Tirupati, H.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report investigates the coupling between transcription and splicing of a mitochondrial group I intron in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the effect of the Cbp2 protein on splicing. 65 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Solid hosts for dye laser rods: Part 2, Some experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts and problems encountered in producing high quality polymer dye laser rods are discussed. Purification methods used on the monomer materials, curing agent problems, and gamma radiation curing are considered. 7 figs.

  19. Graphene Oxide Annealing Procedures for Graphene-Based Supercapacitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    and 45th (dashed) CV cycles are shown to give an idea of how stable the capacitance is with cycling . The large increase in capacitance between a) and...6 Fig. 3 Specific capacitance as a function of CV cycling for

  20. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-11-24

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

  1. Properties of doped boiler steel after controlled rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Bobylev, M.V.; Kireev, V.B.; Koreshkova, A.M.

    1992-03-01

    The article shows that the structural strength of carbon boiler steel type 20K can be enhanced by doping with vanadium or niobium and by controlled rolling and controlled cooling. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.

    1997-03-25

    A modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase is disclosed. The modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase. 6 figs.

  3. Method of producing stable metal oxides and chalcogenides and power source

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1996-10-22

    A method is described for making chemically and electrochemically stable oxides or other chalcogenides for use as cathodes for power source applications, and of making batteries comprising such materials. 6 figs.

  4. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

  5. K meson-nucleus interactions: strangeness and nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is provided of some straightforward K-nuclear and ..lambda..-hypernuclear systems. A discussion of less straightforward speculations on H-dibaryons and strange quark matter by many authors, is also given. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Kahl, W.K.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III; Marlar, T.A.; Cunningham, J.P.

    1998-05-19

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays. 6 figs.

  7. Critique of practical methods for computer evaluation of the hadron spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, P.B.

    1989-12-01

    I review Monte Carlo algorithms for lattice QCD including the dynamical effects of quarks, emphasizing scaling behavior of the algorithms with lattice spacing, volume, and quark mass. 59 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The parton distributions in nuclei and in polarized nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Close, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    The emerging information was reviewed on the way quark and anti-quark, and gluon distributions are modified in nuclei relative to free nucleons. Some implications of the recent data on polarized leptoproduction are discussed. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Bridge permeameter

    DOEpatents

    Graf, D.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1996-08-13

    A system is described for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock which utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors. 8 figs.

  10. High efficiency diffraction grating designs for rhomb configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Wantuck, Paul J.; Appert, Quentin D.; Gratix, E. C.; Hopkins, A.

    1988-01-01

    A diffraction grading rhomb is an excellent candidate for both supressing sideband instabilities in a free electron laser and outcoupling the optical beam. A rhomb incorporating sinusoidal profile grating exhibits many of the required performance characteristics for such an application. We present in some detail a description of such a rhomb alignment sensitivity analysis. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Methods for microbial filtration of fluids

    DOEpatents

    Carman, M.L.; Jackson, K.J.; Knapp, R.B.; Knezovich, J.P.; Shah, N.N.; Taylor, R.T.

    1996-01-30

    Novel methods for purifying contaminated subsurface groundwater are disclosed. The method is involves contacting the contaminated subsurface groundwater with methanotrophic or heterotrophic microorganisms which produce contaminant-degrading enzymes. The microorganisms are derived from surface cultures and are injected into the ground so as to act as a biofilter. The contaminants which may be treated include organic or metallic materials and radionuclides. 8 figs.

  12. Molecular assemblies as protective barriers and adhesion promotion interlayer

    DOEpatents

    King, D.E.; Czanderna, A.W.; Kennedy, C.E.

    1996-01-30

    A protective diffusion barrier having adhesive qualities for metalized surfaces is provided by a passivating agent having the formula HS--(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}--COOH which forms a very dense, transparent organized molecular assembly or layer that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack metal surfaces. 8 figs.

  13. Telerobotic technology for nuclear and space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Hamel, W.R.

    1987-03-01

    Telerobotic development efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are extensive and relatively diverse. Current efforts include development of a prototype space telerobot system for the NASA Langley Research Center and development and large-scale demonstration of nuclear fuel cycle teleoperators in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This paper presents an overview of the efforts in these major programs. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  14. An analytical tool for PIN contact incident of LMFBR fuel-subassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Haga, Kazuo

    1997-12-01

    A subchannel computer code COBRA-41 was modified for LMFBR local faults analysis. Calculational results to a pin contact condition were compared with experimental ones and trial calculations were made to an LMFBR fuel-subassembly geometry. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOEpatents

    Pines, A.; Samoson, A.

    1990-02-06

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero. 8 figs.

  16. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters

    DOEpatents

    Peters, R.W.; Frank, J.R.; Feng, X.

    1998-06-23

    An in situ method is described for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal. 8 figs.

  17. Calculations of physical and chemical reactions with DNA in aqueous solution from Auger cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Sastry, K.S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations are performed of the physical and chemical interactions in liquid water by electrons produced during Auger cascades resulting from the decay of various radionuclides. Estimates are also made of the number of direct physical and indirect chemical interactions that would be produced on DNA located near the decay site. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Limits to the resolution of beam size measurement from fluorescent screens due to the thickness of the phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.D.

    1988-07-20

    This paper discusses the use of fluorescent screens for the measurement of beam profiles on non-circulating particle beams. An expression for the intensity of the beam profile as a function of phosphor thickness is given. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Isolated gene encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities from Cyclotella cryptica

    DOEpatents

    Jarvis, E.E.; Roessler, P.G.

    1999-07-27

    The present invention relates to a cloned gene which encodes an enzyme, the purified enzyme, and the applications and products resulting from the use of the gene and enzyme. The gene, isolated from Cyclotella cryptica, encodes a multifunctional enzyme that has both UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities. 8 figs.

  20. Lumped transmission line avalanche pulser

    DOEpatents

    Booth, R.

    1995-07-18

    A lumped linear avalanche transistor pulse generator utilizes stacked transistors in parallel within a stage and couples a plurality of said stages, in series with increasing zener diode limited voltages per stage and decreasing balanced capacitance load per stage to yield a high voltage, high and constant current, very short pulse. 8 figs.

  1. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

  2. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  3. Shapes and textures for rendering coral

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.L. ); Wyvill, G. )

    1990-10-18

    A growth algorithm has been developed to build coral shapes out of a tree of spheres. A volume density defined by the spheres is contoured to give a soft object.'' The resulting contour surfaces are rendered by ray tracing, using a generalized volume texture to produce shading and bump mapped'' normal perturbations. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Design and testing of a thermal liquid level sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, A.E.; Schneider, A.; Harris, J.D.; Pfeifer, H.; Croft, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid level detection is of extreme importance in nuclear reactor systems. In the event of a loss of coolant, plant operators should be able to ascertain quickly whether there is danger of the core becoming uncovered. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Applying expertise to data in the Geologist's Assistant expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Berkbigler, K.P.; Papcun, G.J.; Marusak, N.L.; Hutson, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Geologist's Assistant combines expert system technology with numerical pattern-matching and online communication to a large database. This paper discusses the types of rules used for the expert system, the pattern-matching technique applied, and the implementation of the system using a commercial expert system development environment. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Cw operation of the FMIT RFQ accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelius, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, we have achieved reliable cw operation of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator. In addition to the operational experiences in achieving this status, some of the modifications of the vacuum system, cooling system, and rf structure are discussed. Preliminary beam-characterization results are presented. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Experimental Setup for the Investigation of Superconducting Persistent Current

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    This documentation is intended to support future investigations of coated conductors in either tape or wire form or for bulk superconductors in an...by tapes with a co-axial solenoid of copper wires placed inside .................................................................8 Fig. 10 The...12 Fig. 12 Drawings of cryostat magnet dimensions (left) and sample chamber (right

  9. Magnetic field applications in modern technology and medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1985-05-01

    A brief summary is given of several major applications of magnetism. A description of the range of magnetic field intensities to which humans are exposed in technologies that utilize large stationary magnetic fields is given. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Contact sensing palm for the Salisbury robot hand

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, D.L. )

    1990-07-18

    This report summarizes work performed on Tasks 5 and 6 under Sandia Contract Number 75-2608. Task 5 involves the design and development of a palm for the Salisbury robot hand and Task 6 is an investigation and incorporation of contact sensors into the palm design. 19 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  12. Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Combustor Test Setup for a US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Liquid-Fueled Thermophotovoltaic Power Source Demonstrator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    to approach this is to take advantage of the large energy content of hydrocarbons or alcohols. Conversion efficiencies of only a few percent can...8 Fig. 11 Heat generation rate, inlet flows, and static outlet pressure...content of hydrocarbons or alcohols. Conversion efficiencies of only a few percent can provide comparable energy density to battery technology with

  13. Laser vaporization/ionization interface for coupling microscale separation techniques with mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, Y.C.

    1999-06-29

    The present invention provides a laser-induced vaporization and ionization interface for directly coupling microscale separation processes to a mass spectrometer. Vaporization and ionization of the separated analytes are facilitated by the addition of a light-absorbing component to the separation buffer or solvent. 8 figs.

  14. Double bevel construction of a diamond anvil

    DOEpatents

    Moss, W.C.

    1988-10-11

    A double or multiple bevel culet geometry is used on a diamond anvil in a high pressure cell apparatus to provide increased sample pressure and stability for a given force applied to the diamond tables. Double or multiple bevel culet geometries can also be used for sapphire or other hard crystal anvils. Pressures up to and above 5 Megabars can be reached. 8 figs.

  15. Enhanced use of clips at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Duerre, K.H.; Parkinson, W.J.; Osowski, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    Early efforts in producing Expert Systems for engineering applications used a limited subset of CLIPS features. We discuss implementation details of previous Expert Systems and the current Expert System used for training operators in the control of the Isotope Separation System. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Method for the addition of vulcanized waste rubber to virgin rubber products

    DOEpatents

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.

    1997-01-28

    The invention is a method of using enzymes from thiophyllic microbes for selectively breaking the sulfur rubber cross-link bonds in vulcanized rubber. The process is halted at the sulfoxide or sulfone step so that a devulcanized layer is reactive with virgin rubber. 8 figs.

  17. Method of making a wooden wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, C.

    1984-08-14

    A wooden wind turbine blade is formed by laminating wood veneer in a compression mold having the exact curvature needed for one side of the blade, following which the other side of the blade is ground flat along its length but twisted with respect to the blade axis. 8 figs.

  18. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  19. Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, R.A.; Peck, K.

    1992-02-25

    A fluorescent scanner is designed for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier. The scanner includes a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from the volume to provide a display of the separated sample. 8 figs.

  20. Directly induced swing for closed loop control of electroslag remelting furnace

    DOEpatents

    Damkroger, B.

    1998-04-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace, imposing a periodic fluctuation on electrode drive speed and thereby generating a predictable voltage swing signal. The fluctuation is preferably done by imposition of a sine, square, or sawtooth wave on the drive dc offset signal. 8 figs.

  1. Natural gas applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Resonator design for a visible wavelength free-electron laser (*)

    SciTech Connect

    Bhowmik, A.; Lordi, N. . Rocketdyne Div.); Ben-Zvi, I.; Gallardo, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Design requirements for a visible wavelength free-electron laser being developed at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented along with predictions of laser performance from 3-D numerical simulations. The design and construction of the optical resonator, its alignment and control systems are also described. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  4. Integrated method for chaotic time series analysis

    DOEpatents

    Hively, L.M.; Ng, E.G.

    1998-09-29

    Methods and apparatus for automatically detecting differences between similar but different states in a nonlinear process monitor nonlinear data are disclosed. Steps include: acquiring the data; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; and determining by comparison whether differences between similar but different states are indicated. 8 figs.

  5. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P. ); Gatti, E. )

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  7. IR keeps coal miners safe and reduces downtime

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, L.G.

    2009-01-15

    Infrared (IR) cameras can inspect the direct current trolley system that powers mantrips and locomotives that transport men and supplies to an underground mine. If trolley insulators become shorted or electrically leaky they can heat the roof and cause a fire or cave-in. The article explains how IR inspection works and describes typical problems that can be identified by thermograms. 8 figs.

  8. Process for biological material carbon-carbon bond formation

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, R.I.; Jung, S.; Mindock, C.A.

    1998-12-22

    A process for providing vicinal dimethyl long chain between alkyl groups of organic compounds is described. The process uses intact or disrupted cells of various species of bacteria, particularly Thermoanaerobacter sp., Sarcina sp. and Butyrivibrio sp. The process can be conducted in an aqueous reaction mixture at room temperatures. 8 figs.

  9. A temperature dependent SPICE macro-model for power MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The power MOSFET SPICE Macro-Model has been developed suitable for use over the temperature range {minus}55 to 125 {degrees}C. The model is comprised of a single parameter set with temperature dependence accessed through the SPICE .TEMP card. SPICE parameter extraction techniques for the model and model predictive accuracy are discussed. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1986 are presented and general trends are discussed. Topics include radiation monitoring, wastewater discharge monitoring, dose distribution estimates, and ground water monitoring. 9 refs., 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  11. Radio frequency and infrared drying of sized textile warp yarns

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddick, H.G. )

    1990-11-01

    Drying sized textile warp yarns without contacting the warp is easily accomplished by either radio frequency or infrared techniques. Although the process is more expensive than conventional drying, the substantial savings accrued during subsequent weaving and finishing of the cloth can help keep the US textile industry competitive and support electrical load. 5 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  13. Uses of particle identification for supercollider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1989-05-01

    I summarize the basic characteristics of the Superconducting Super Collider and describe the experimental environment of its high- luminosity interaction regions. I then review some of the discovery possibilities opened by the SSC, with special attention to the advantages conferred by particle identification. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Method and system for measuring gate valve clearances and seating force

    DOEpatents

    Casada, D.A.; Haynes, H.D.; Moyers, J.C.; Stewart, B.K.

    1996-01-30

    Valve clearances and seating force, as well as other valve operational parameters, are determined by measuring valve stem rotation during opening and closing operations of a translatable gate valve. The magnitude of the stem rotation, and the relative difference between the stem rotation on opening and closing provides valuable data on the valve internals in a non-intrusive manner. 8 figs.

  15. Apparatus for supporting a cryogenic fluid containment system within an enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, B.X.; Ganni, V.; Stifle, K.E.

    1995-01-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for supporting at least one inner cryogenic fluid containment system within an outer isolating enclosure to retard heat transfer into the inner containment system comprising a plurality of supports serially interconnected and laterally spaced by lateral connections to extend the heat conduction path into the inner containment system. 8 figs.

  16. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  17. Spherical explosions and the equation of state of water

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    We have successfully calculated an experiment in which a sphere of detonated nitromethane expands into water. The calculations are sensitive to both the nitromethane and water equations of state. For water, the most important aspect of the equation of state is the Hugoniot. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, T.W.

    1996-08-06

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos. 7 figs.

  19. Minimize NOx using only combustion control

    SciTech Connect

    Penterson, C.A.; Hules, K.R.

    2005-10-01

    The retrofit of a 600 MW opposed wall-fired utility boiler with low-NOx, dual air zone burners and overfire air cut the Wyoming PRB coal burner's NOx output by nearly half. The key to the project's success from the design stage through final testing and boiler tuning was CFD modeling. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Three-dimensional structure of flow in coal-cleaning cyclones: Technical progress report No. 6, December 1, 1986-February 28, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, C.C.; Chiu, C.L.

    1987-03-30

    During the sixth report period, major tasks included: (1) analysis of experimental data available in literature by using a digitizer and re-plotting by computer graphics, (2) design and fabrication of a model hydrocyclone with the vertex angle of 11 degrees. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  2. Li-alloy electrode for Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-16

    A method of making a negative electrode is described, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Lithium, silicon and nickel is alloyed in a prescribed proportion forming an electroactive material, to provide an improved electrode and cell. 7 figs.

  3. Tests of track segment and vertex finding with neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Denby, B.; Lessner, E. ); Lindsey, C.S. )

    1990-04-01

    Feed forward neural networks have been trained, using back-propagation, to find the slopes of simulated track segments in a straw chamber and to find the vertex of tracks from both simulated and real events in a more conventional drift chamber geometry. Network architectures, training, and performance are presented. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  5. ARL Support and Analysis to the Army Public Health Command Kabul Air Quality Data Collection (Spring 2014)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    5 Fig. 4 HYSPLIT back trajectory 01 MAR 2014 ..................................7 Fig. 5...309 Fig. D-3 Aethalometer measured black carbon: 28 Feb 2014.................. 310 Fig. D-4 Kabul weather summary: 01 Mar 2014...312 Fig. D-5 HYSPLIT back trajectory 01 Mar 2014 ................................ 313 Fig. D-6 Aethalometer measured black carbon: 01 Mar

  6. NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, D.

    2009-11-15

    Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Development of immobilization technology for Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dodson, K.E.; Trotter, D.R.

    1989-08-01

    The leachabilities of technetium and nitrate wastes immobilized in cement-based materials (i.e., grouts) have been investigated using ANS -- 16.1 test procedures. Factors found to affect the leachabilities include grout/mix ratio, grout fluid density, dry/solid blends (including ground blast-furnace slag), and waste concentration. 10 refs., 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. The hepatitis B virus X protein increases the cellular level of TATA-binding protein, which mediates transactivation of RNA polymerase III genes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Horng-Dar; Johnson, D.L.; Yuh, Chio-Hwa

    1995-12-01

    This report decribes the mechanism by which the hepatitis B virus X gene product induces RNA polymerase III genes. The RNA pol III transcription system serves as model for understanding the mechanism of X in the transactivation of cellular genes in both Drosophila and rat cell lines. 53 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Dielectric relaxations of small carbohydrate molecules in the liquid and glassy states

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, T.R.; Ring, S.G.; Whittam, M.A.

    1992-06-25

    Dielectric relaxations of several vitreous and liquid monosaccharides were measured at 100 - 10{sup 5} Hz and -100 to 150 {degrees}C. Depending upon the molecule, one or two relaxations were observed. Primary alcohol moieties on the monosaccharide conferred higher activation energies than those without, such as xylitol and glucitol. 19 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. MHD computations for stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.L.

    1985-12-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of computational techniques for studying the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and stability properties of three-dimensional configurations. Several different approaches have evolved to the point where comparison of results determined with different techniques shows good agreement. 55 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  12. Same-Side Platinum Electrodes for Metal Assisted Etching of Porous Silicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    inhomogeneous PSi thickness that has been achieved using the sacrificial Pt approach .......................7 Fig. 7 Cross-sectional drawing of the...etch, which is a simplified etch procedure that does not require a potentiostat or external wires to the wafer. In this approach, a metal (e.g

  13. Chemistry of bimetallic linked cyclopentadienyl complexes: Progress report, 1 December 1986--30 November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, R.R.

    1986-12-01

    Research continued on the chemistry and preparation of bimetallic cyclopentadienyl complexes containing up to two tungsten or one tungsten and a cobalt, rhodium, or ruthenium. The general method for preparation and analysis of polyenes is also discussed. 7 figs., 2 tabs. (CBS)

  14. Android: Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    mechanism to call embedded C native codes , which are used to increase the performance of a computationally intensive application. This step-by-step...Vu a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code ) 301-394-5324 Standard... codes to add 2 integer numbers......................................................7 Fig. 7 Native library Java class

  15. Automated saturated standard cell intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, B.E.; Deitesfeld, C.A.

    1987-10-05

    A cost effective, highly efficient, and automatic method of intercomparing standard cells has been sought after and implemented, utilizing computer control and a commercially available scanner. This system reduces intercomparison time from 4 hours to 30 minutes using the standard National Bureau of Standard (NBS) 4 x 4 design. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. An Attitude Control System for a Large Geosynchronous Earth-Pointing Satellite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-05

    oriented to corres- pond to the array of normals to the faces of a dodecahedron . This is shown in Fig. 7. (?) Fig. 7. Gyro axes with respect to a...regular dodecahedron , 23 This arrangement yields a unique symmetry in which all instrument lA’s are at a spherical angle of 2<J> from each other

  17. Online capacitive densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Porges, K.G.

    1988-01-21

    This invention is an apparatus for measuring fluid density of mixed phase fluid flow. The apparatus employs capacitive sensing of the mixed phased flow combined with means for uniformizing the electric field between the capacitor plates to account for flow line geometry. From measurement of fluid density, the solids feedrate can be ascertained. 7 figs.

  18. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOEpatents

    Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

    1996-12-31

    Coatings and sensors are disclosed having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided. 7 figs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-28

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

  20. Radiochemistry of ruthenium

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, W W; Metcalf, S G; Barney, G S

    1984-06-01

    Information on ruthenium is presented. Topics include the following; isotopes and nuclear properties of ruthenium; review of the chemistry of ruthenium including metal and alloys, compounds of ruthenium, and solution chemistry; separation methods including volatilization of RuO{sub 4}, precipitation and coprecipitation, solvent extraction, chromatographic techniques, and analysis for radioruthenium. 445 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, J.R.; Staskawicz, B.J.; Bent, A.F.; Innes, R.W.

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described. 7 figs.

  2. Sensing applications of rare-earth doped luminescent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Simpson, M.L.; Noel, B.W.; Turley, D.; Gillies, G.T.

    1988-01-01

    We are developing sensing techniques using phosphors and luminescing crystals. While their use in temperature sensing is becoming well known, there exists the potential to exploit them for other diagnostics. Examples are stress/strain, heat flux, skin friction, pressure, laser-beam profiling, aerodynamic flow, and radiation. We describe our recent results in these areas. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Ceramic tamper-revealing seals

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Sheen, S.H.

    1992-12-08

    A flexible metal or ceramic cable is described with composite ceramic ends, or a U-shaped ceramic connecting element attached to a binding element plate or block cast from alumina or zirconium, and connected to the connecting element by shrink fitting. 7 figs.

  4. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.; Feldman, M.

    1992-12-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10[sup 8]. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing. 7 figs.

  5. Nuclear interlevel transfer driven by collective outer shell electron oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, G.A.; Solem, J.G.; Biedenharn, L.C.

    1986-10-20

    The general problem of dynamic electron-nucleus coupling is discussed, and the possibility of using this mechanism to initiate gamma-ray lasing. Single-particle and collective mechanisms are considered. The problems associated with accurate calculation of these processes are discussed, and some numerical results are given. Work in process in described. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.

    1999-05-04

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents. 7 figs.

  7. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, A.F.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  8. The efficiency of a bremsstrahlung interrogator: Beam Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, W.A.

    1987-08-01

    One can estimate the energetics of using gamma radiation produced by a high energy electron beam as a means of ascertaining the mass of distant objects. Several approaches to converting beam energy to radiation are compared, including a nonmaterial ''beamsstrahlung'' converter. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-30

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  10. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    DOEpatents

    Ross, J.; Escher, C.

    1988-06-07

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction. 7 figs.

  11. p53 inhibits DNA replication in vitro in a DNA-binding-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.D.; Farmer, G.; Prives, C.

    1995-12-01

    This report discusses new findings that the tumor supressor gene product p53 may play a role as a DNA-binding-dependent regulator of DNA replication. The results were obtained using polyomavirus in replication assays. Details regarding effects on cell growth arrest and transcriptional activation are discussed. 61 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Active Well Coincidence Counter measurements of enriched uranium fuel assemblies in scanning and stationary modes

    SciTech Connect

    Krick, M.S.; Cowder, L. ); Maltsev, V.; Chernikov, A.; Mokeenko, P.; D'yadkov, K.; Ivanov, V. Nuclear Power Plant, Zarechnyy ); Lagattu, A.; Lopatin, Y.; Czock, K.; Rundquist, D.; Pedraza, L. )

    1991-01-01

    Enriched uranium fuel assemblies were measured with an Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) at the Beloyarskaya Nuclear Power Plant. Special AWCC inserts, electronics, and software were used. Stationary and scanning measurements were performed to establish calibrations and performance specifications for the assay of {sup 235}U and {sub 235}U/cm for BN600 fuel. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. Tangent map analysis of the beam-beam interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Tepikian, S.

    1989-01-01

    We studied the tangent map of the beam-beam interaction and found no evidence of beam-beam instability for /epsilon/ = 0.04. Tracking study with tune modulation shows however large emittance growth due to the sum resonances. The emittance growth is due to the multiple crossing of the sum resonances. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Optical chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Milonni, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental status of chaos in nonlinear optics and laser physics will be reviewed. Attention will then be focused on the possibility of chaotic behavior in individual atoms and molecules driven by intense radiation fields. 46 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, D.R.; Shen, D.S.; Tuck, M.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Grafe, V.G.

    1998-06-23

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas. 7 figs.

  17. SLC positron source: Simulation and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pitthan, R.; Braun, H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Ecklund, S.D.; Helm, R.H.; Kulikov, A.V.; Odian, A.C.; Pei, G.X.; Ross, M.C.; Woodley, M.D.

    1991-06-01

    Performance of the source was found to be in good general agreement with computer simulations with S-band acceleration, and where not, the simulations lead to identification of problems, in particular the underestimated impact of linac misalignments due to the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Beam-beam tuneshift during the TEVATRON squeeze

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.

    1988-11-01

    We calculate the beam-beam tuneshift during the squeeze of the beam in the Tevatron from injection to mini-beta. We find that for the beam emittances typically used, there is little variation of the tuneshift, in either plane, during the squeeze. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. CCD Camera

    DOEpatents

    Roth, R.R.

    1983-08-02

    A CCD camera capable of observing a moving object which has varying intensities of radiation emanating therefrom and which may move at varying speeds is shown wherein there is substantially no overlapping of successive images and wherein the exposure times and scan times may be varied independently of each other. 7 figs.

  20. Method and apparatus for de-superheating refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Zess, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.

    1997-11-25

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim. 7 figs.

  1. Experience gained from treating facial injuries due to civil unrest

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, R I H

    1981-01-01

    During the past 10 years of civil unrest in Northern Ireland a wide variety of facial injuries have been treated at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast. The causes and nature of these injuries are described and the experience gained in their management is reviewed. Imagesp[35]-ap[42]-aFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:7247260

  2. Stretchable Conductive Elastomers for Soldier Biosensing Applications: Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    interfacing to the human body to collect brain electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. We present a carbon -nanofiber-filled polydimethylsiloxane...6 Fig. 5 Resistance values of EEG electrodes as a function of carbon nanofiber grade and concentration...vol %, yellow; 4 vol %, red; 7 vol % orange. NA scan at 10 Hz of impedance magnitude vs. compressive strain over a single loading/unloading cycle

  3. Modular structure of chromosomal proteins HMG-14 and HMG-17: Definition of a transcriptional enhancement domain distinct from the nucleosomal binding domain

    SciTech Connect

    Trieschmann, L.; Postnikov, Y.V.; Rickers, A.; Bustin, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes how deletion mutants and peptides were used to identify the transcriptional enhancement domain and the nucleosome binding domain of two chromosomal proteins, HMG-14 and HMG-17. The research indicates that mutations involving C-terminal amino acids significantly reduces the ability of the nucleoproteins to enhance transcription from chromatin templates. 42 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Biomedical and environmental sciences programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.; Johnson, C.A.

    1988-02-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences Programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the major organizational units. Following the accounts of research programs, is a list of publications and awards to its members. 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Smooth Constrained Heuristic Optimization of a Combinatorial Chemical Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Proving Ground, MD 21005 primary author’s email: . Several algorithms for optimizing a combinatorial subspace of... algorithm ...............................................................6 Fig. 3 Best candidate found...Stopping criteria? d = n? Stop d = 1, λ = 0 yes no d = 1 yes no d = d+ 1 Fig. 2 Flowchart of algorithm • Algorithm 1: Complete a full sweep of all

  6. A fast calorimeter simulation for SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) detector design

    SciTech Connect

    Newman-Holmes, C.; Freeman, J.

    1987-12-01

    We have developed a fast and easily varied simulation of a ''generic'' 4..pi.. calorimeter. The program enables one to study the gross features of detector response for various physics processes. The simulation program is described and some examples of its use are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Ground- and excited-state tautomerism in 2-(3{prime}-hydroxy-2{prime}-pyridyl)benzimidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Prieto, F.R.; Rodriguez, M.C.R.; Gonzalez, M.M.; Fernandez, M.A.R.

    1994-09-01

    Ground-state HPyBI is determined to have keto-enol equilibrium in water, and the enol form predominates in nonaqueous solutions. The keto form is the only excited form in all the solvents considered. Ultrafast intramolecular proton transfer creates the enol form from the keto form. 47 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Investigation of a Technique for Clearing and/or Modifying a Military Smoke Cloud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    wire fixed on a metallic rod which is set into oscillating motion (along its main axis) by a level (2) which is connected with an electromotor (1...electrostatic charge generator and model holder. I , 6 Fig. 10 Model Vibrating Device: 1- electromotor ; 2- adjustable level for model vibration; 3- model; 4

  9. WIPP marker development

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    This article discusses the development of permanent, passive markers for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and presents some preliminary concepts in drawings and a table of components for the markers. The panel, convened by Sandia National Laboratories, was charged with developing design characteristics for permanent markers and judging the efficacy of markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Development of data acquisition and analysis software for multichannel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes the development of data acquisition and analysis software for Apple Macintosh computers, capable of controlling two multichannel detectors. With the help of outstanding graphics capabilities, easy-to-use user interface, and several other built-in convenience features, this application has enhanced the productivity and the efficiency of data analysis. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Cerebral involvement in multiple myeloma: case report.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, J; Proctor, S J

    1978-01-01

    Cerebral myeloma in a 49-year-old white man took the form of diffuse arachnoid infiltration, intracerebral perivascular cuffing, and frank intracerebral invasion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:417093

  12. The vertical alignment of the D0 overpass in the Fermilab Main Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.D.

    1989-03-01

    The DO overpass was recently reconfigured in order to reduce the vertical dispersion in the Main Ring. The relationship between the global arrangement of the Main Ring Quadrupoles and the placement of the quads in the overpass is described. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Studies of thunderstorm transport processes with aircraft using tracer techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Detwiler, A.G.; Smith, P.L.; Stith, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    Instrumented aircraft can provide in situ measurements of winds and turbulence useful for studying transport and dispersion in clouds. Using inert artificial gases as tracers, and fast response analyzers on aircraft, time-resolved observations of transport and dispersion have been obtained. Examples are shown of these types of observations in and around cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Reductive photocarboxylation of phenanthrene: A mechanistic investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaitchik, A.V.; Rodgers, M.A.J.; Neckers, D.C.

    1996-02-09

    Mechanistic aspects of photochemicl reactions between phenathrene and carbon dioxide while in the presence of N,N-dimethylaniline was studied. Five products were produced as characterized by NMR and GC-MS. The authors related changes in product yields to changes in reaction conditions. 31 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Structure maps in the search for new intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Pettifor, D.G. . Dept. of Mathematics)

    1989-01-01

    The data base on the crystal structures of binary compounds may be ordered within two-dimensional structure maps using the recently proposed Mendeleev number which places all the elements in sequential order. This paper reviews the progress made and problems encountered in using the maps as a guide in the search for new pseudobinaries with a required crystal structure. 37 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1996-01-16

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water. 6 figs.

  17. Titanium Cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, D. S.; Blair, G. A. S.

    1974-01-01

    The technique of repairing defects of the skull with titanium is described. The skull contour can be accurately reproduced. The technique is simpler than wiring or suturing methods. The material is inert, radiolucent, and rigid. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4834099

  18. Analytical review of structure and regulation of hemopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    The development of knowledge on the structure of hemopoiesis and its regulation can be divided into four broad areas: descriptive morphology, kinetics of cell proliferation, regulation of rates of cell proliferation through interaction of molecular regulators and their cell surface receptors, and clinical applications. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Plasma emission spectroscopy method of tumor therapy

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, K.J.

    1997-03-11

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for performing photon diagnostics using a portable and durable apparatus which incorporates the use of a remote sensing probe in fiberoptic communication with an interferometer or spectrometer. Also disclosed are applications for the apparatus including optically measuring high velocities and analyzing plasma/emission spectral characteristics. 6 figs.

  20. Flow cytometry apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, D.

    1987-11-30

    An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one-dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the obstruction directs flat cells near to the area of one-dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates. 6 figs.

  1. Optogalvanic intracavity quantitative detector and method for its use

    DOEpatents

    Zalewski, E.F.; Keller, R.A.; Apel, C.T.

    1983-09-06

    The disclosure relates to an optogalvanic intracavity detector and method for its use. Measurement is made of the amount of light absorbed by atoms, small molecules and ions in a laser cavity utilizing laser-produced changes in plasmas containing the same atoms, molecules, or ions. 6 figs.

  2. Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, S.R.; Laymon, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

    1996-07-16

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol. 6 figs.

  3. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (LSP)

  4. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Strain-optic voltage monitor wherein strain causes a change in the optical absorption of a crystalline material

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, J.D.

    1997-01-14

    A voltage monitor which uses the shift in absorption edge of crystalline material to measure strain resulting from electric field-induced deformation of piezoelectric or electrostrictive material, providing a simple and accurate means for measuring voltage applied either by direct contact with the crystalline material or by subjecting the material to an electric field. 6 figs.

  8. Sandia software guidelines: Volume 5, Tools, techniques, and methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. This volume describes software tools and methodologies available to Sandia personnel for the development of software, and outlines techniques that have proven useful within the Laboratories and elsewhere. References and evaluations by Sandia personnel are included. 6 figs.

  9. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1987-06-30

    A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

  10. X-ray holographic microscopy: Improved images of zymogen granules

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, C.; Howells, M.; Kirz, J.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.

    1988-10-01

    Soft x-ray holography has long been considered as a technique for x-ray microscopy. It has been only recently, however, that sub-micron resolution has been obtained in x-ray holography. This paper will concentrate on recent progress we have made in obtaining reconstructed images of improved quality. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Apparatus and method for oxidizing organic materials

    DOEpatents

    Surma, J.E.; Bryan, G.H.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Butner, R.S.

    1998-01-13

    The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell. 6 figs.

  12. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOEpatents

    Skogmo, D.

    1997-03-18

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system. 6 figs.

  13. PINEX (Pinhold Neutron Experiment) fluor characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, H.; Kammeraad, J.; Davis, B.; Burns, E.

    1988-07-01

    This report will describe recent experiments to characterize four fluors: BC-400, 408, 422, 430. Each fluor sample was 0.5 cm thick commensurate with our standard Electronic Pinhole Neutron Experiment (EL-PINEX) fluors. The important results are that the neutron-gamma sensitivity ratios did not change significantly, although the absolute gamma and neutron sensitivities decreased. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Ion implantation of highly corrosive electrolyte battery components

    DOEpatents

    Muller, R.H.; Zhang, S.

    1997-01-14

    A method of producing corrosion resistant electrodes and other surfaces in corrosive batteries using ion implantation is described. Solid electrically conductive material is used as the ion implantation source. Battery electrode grids, especially anode grids, can be produced with greatly increased corrosion resistance for use in lead acid, molten salt, and sodium sulfur. 6 figs.

  15. Tanning facility regulations - the South Carolina experience

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, B.B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the regulation of the tanning industry in South Carolina. Statistics on facility types, registration, inspections, and violations are provided and discussed. Violations include non-equipment violations, equipment violations, and vendor violations. Complaints filed against facilities and problems in the regulatory process are also described. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  17. NDT80, a meiosis-specific gene required for exit from pachytene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liuzhong; Ajimura, M.; Padmore, R.; Klein, C.; Kleckner, N.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes the identification of a new meiosis-specific gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae called NDT80. DNA cloning and molecular analysis revealed that the NDT80 gene maps on the right arm of chromosome 8 and is transcribed during middle meiotic prophase. 82 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Terminalization of chiasmata: Analysis of the phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Vysotskaya, L.V.

    1995-05-01

    On the basis of my own and published data, a conclusion was made that meiotic terminalization of chiasmata, which was postulated by Darlington, does not occur. The chiasmata remain in the sites where they appear until the disjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiotic anaphase I. The disjunction of homologues is accounted for by repulsion of the sister chromatids. 87 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-02-20

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

  20. Surface grid generation in a parameter space

    SciTech Connect

    Samareh-Abolhassani, J.; Stewart, J.E. )

    1994-07-01

    A robust and efficient technique is discussed for surface-grid generation on a general curvilinear surface. This technique is based on a nonuniform parameter space and allows for the generation of surface grids on highly skewed and nonuniform spaced background surface-grids. This method has been successfully integrated into the GRIDGEN software system. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to synthetic pyrethroids and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, L.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.; Van Emon, J.M.; Bigbee, C.L.

    1992-04-28

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies which may be used in a sensitive immunoassay for detection of synthetic pyrethroids in foods and environmental samples. Appropriate sample preparation and enzyme amplification of the immunoassay for this widely-used class of pesticides permits detection at low levels in laboratory and field tested samples. 6 figs.

  2. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOEpatents

    Glowka, D.A.

    1994-09-06

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drill string in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drill string at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone. 6 figs.

  3. General, Unified, Multiscale Modeling to Predict the Sensitivity of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-05

    changes in formal charges measured from Mulliken charges using overpopulation analysis. The formal charge, as obtained from the atomic number minus the... overpopulation in the particular atom, is calculated for the systems under consideration (Fig. 6, Fig. 7). We observe that the behavior is highly

  4. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 9, Number 2. February 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    Machine-ry," The Inst. of Mech. Engrs., Univ. of Cambridge, Stalled Flutter Sept. 15-17, 1976, pp 181-185, 6 figs, 3 refs R A. Arnoldi, F.O. Carta, R H...field theory. For tunnels and flat rooms, the predic- Acceptance Criteria for Compresors and Turbines tions are verified by direct measurements taken

  6. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Neutzler, J.K.

    1998-07-07

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprises corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant. 6 figs.

  7. Mechanical and electromagnetic analysis of 50 millimeter designs for the SSC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Jayakumar, J.; Leung, K.; Nobrega, F.; Orrell, D.; Sanger, P.; Snitchler, G.; Spigo, G.; Turner, J. ); Goodzeit, C.; Gupta, R.; Kahn, S.; Morgan, G.; Willen, E. ); Kerby, J.; Strait, J. ); Schermer, R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (Uni

    1990-09-01

    Several designs for the Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnet have been analyzed. This note discusses the mechanical and electromagnetic features of each design. Electromagnetic and Mechanical analyses were performed using hand, computer programs and finite element techniques to evaluate the design. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  9. Solid state NMR methods for coal science. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1985. [(CH/sub 2/O)n; crotonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1985-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project during the last quarter. Areas that we have concentrated on in the last three months include carbon-13/proton chemical shift correlation in model systems, some crucial decoupling experiments, and setting up our high field /sup 2/D NMR capability. 6 figs.

  10. Beam-beam studies for the proposed SLAC/LBL/LLNL B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    We present a summary of beam-beam dynamics studies that have been carried out to date for the proposed SLAC/LBL/LLNL B Factory. Most of the material presented here is contained in the proposal's Conceptual Design Report, although post-CDR studies are also presented. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Coal distribution, January--September 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-15

    This issue presents information for January through September 1990. Coal distribution data are shown by coal-producing state of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and state of destination. All data in this report for 1990 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  12. Characterization of Metal/Dielectric Multilayers with in-situ Ellipsometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-04

    cylindrical hyperlens works like a hyperlens in radial direction, while in cylinder axis direction it works like a cascaded superlens. As shown in the...cylindrical hyperlens. 6 Fig. 6. Image of an annular ring with inner radius of 35 nm and outer radius of 65 nm (left); images of a cross with line

  13. Simulation test of aerosol generation from vessels in the pre-treatment system of fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Fujine, Sachio; Kitamura, Koichiro; Kihara, Takehiro

    1997-08-01

    Aerosol concentration and droplet size are measured in off-gas of vessel under various conditions by changing off-gas flow rate, stirring air flow rate, salts concentration and temperature of nitrate solution. Aerosols are also measured under evaporation and air-lift operation. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Focused ion beam micromilling and articles therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, B.C.; Stutz, R.A.

    1998-06-30

    An ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromilling apparatus and process are disclosed. Additionally, a durable data storage medium using the micromilling process is disclosed, the durable data storage medium capable of storing, e.g., digital or alphanumeric characters as well as graphical shapes or characters. 6 figs.

  15. Seismic hazard studies at the Department of Energy owned Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.E.; Brock, W.R.; Hunt, R.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Seismic hazard levels for free-field rock motion are defined and presented in this paper as annual exceedance probabilities versus peak acceleration and as uniform hazard response spectra. The conclusions of an independent review are also summarized. Based on the seismic hazard studies, peak horizontal acceleration values and uniform hazard response spectra for rock conditions are recommended. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Progress report on nuclear structure studies

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.B.

    1991-08-31

    In this report, new results are reported for the decay and nuclear orientation of {sup 114,116}I and {sup 114}Sb as well as data for the structure of daughter nuclides {sup 114,116}Te. New results for IBM-2 calculations for the structure of {sup 126}Xe are also reported. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. The sensitivity of energetic materials to friction, impact, and electrostatic stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Vannet, M.D.

    1992-09-24

    Friction, impact, and electrostatic tests were conducted on materials that had not previously been tested at Mound, including PETN, BTF, HNS-IV, and pyrotechnic and thermite powders. Results are presented. Tables and charts including previous results are also included. 6 figs, 8 refs, 8 tabs.

  18. Weldon Spring, Missouri, Raffinate Pits 1, 2, 3, and 4: Preliminary grout development screening studies for in situ waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E.W.; Gilliam, T.M.; Dole, L.R.; West, G.A.

    1987-04-01

    Results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's initial support program to develop a preliminary grout formula to solidify in situ the Weldon Spring waste are presented. The screening study developed preliminary formulas based on a simulated composite waste and then tested the formulas on actual waste samples. Future data needs are also discussed. 1 ref., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Liquid chromatographic assay of diatrizoic acid and its diiodo degradation products in radio-opaque solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Farag, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the analysis of diatrizoic acid (2,4,6-triiodo-3,5-diacetamidobenzoic acid) and its 2,4- and 2,6-diiodo degradation products in radio-opaque injection solutions. The method is accurate, precise, and linear at a concentration range of 5-50 ppm. 12 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Performance of multiple tasks by an autonomous robot using visual and ultrasound sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Beckerman, M.; Barnett, D.L.; Dickens, M. ); Weisbin, C.R. )

    1990-01-01

    While there have been many successful mobile robot experiments, only a few papers have addressed issues pertaining to the range of applicability, or robustness, of robotic systems. The purpose of this paper is to report results of a series of benchmark experiments done to determine and quantify the robustness of an integrated hardware and software system of a mobile robot. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Order, chaos and nuclear dynamics: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1990-08-01

    This is an introductory lecture illustrating by simple examples the anticipated effect on collective nuclear dynamics of a transition from order to chaos in the motions of nucleons inside an idealized nucleus. The destruction of order is paralleled by a transition from a rubber-like to a honey-like behaviour of the independent-particle nuclear model. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  2. QCD subgroup on diffractive and forward physics

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, M.G.; Baker, W.; Bhatti, A.

    1996-10-01

    The goal is to understand the pomeron, and hence the behavior of total cross sections, elastic scattering and diffractive excitation, in terms of the underlying theory, QCD. A description of the basic ideas and phenomenology is followed by a discussion of hadron-hadron and electron-proton experiments. An appendix lists recommended diffractive-physics terms and definitions. 44 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOEpatents

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  4. SALE-SPRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, H.

    1981-03-01

    The SALE code is modified to permit the injection and flow of droplets through a channel containing obstacles. The droplets are assumed not to alter the fluid flow nor to interact with each other. An UPDATE package to alter the basic SALE code for a particular obstacle configuration is included. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Time optimal paths for a constant speed unicycle

    SciTech Connect

    Reister, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed unicycle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of arcs of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduced concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  6. New results in perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.K.

    1985-11-01

    Three topics in perturbative QCD important for Super-collider physics are reviewed. The topics are: (2 2) jet phenomena calculated in O( sT); new techniques for the calculation of tree graphs; and colour coherence in jet phenomena. 31 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    SciTech Connect

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Debugging Fortran on a shared memory machine

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.R.; Padua, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Debugging on a parallel processor is more difficult than debugging on a serial machine because errors in a parallel program may introduce nondeterminism. The approach to parallel debugging presented here attempts to reduce the problem of debugging on a parallel machine to that of debugging on a serial machine by automatically detecting nondeterminism. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromill and articles therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, B.C.; Stutz, R.A.

    1998-02-24

    An ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromilling apparatus and process are disclosed. Additionally, a durable data storage medium using the micromilling process is disclosed, the durable data storage medium capable of storing, e.g., digital or alphanumeric characters as well as graphical shapes or characters. 6 figs.

  10. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, R.

    1988-04-25

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Cesium iodide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kim, H.E.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1992-12-15

    A transparent, strong CsI alloy is described having additions of monovalent iodides. Although the preferred iodide is AgI, RbI and CuI additions also contribute to an improved polycrystalline CsI alloy with outstanding multispectral infrared transmittance properties. 6 figs.

  12. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

    1983-07-26

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

  13. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, U.B.; Gazula, G.K.M.; Hasham, A.

    1996-06-18

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements. 6 figs.

  14. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  15. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, C.E.; Boothe, R.W.

    1996-01-23

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements. 6 figs.

  16. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

    1994-09-27

    A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

  17. Top search at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, M.; The CDF Collaboration

    1991-10-01

    We review top quark searches carried out at CDF with data collected during the 1988--1989 Collider Run. The latest analyses give a lower limit on the top quark mass of 91 GeV/c{sup 2} at the 95% confidence level, assuming Standard Model decays. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Improving Large Cetacean Implantable Satellite Tag Designs to Maximize Tag Robustness and Minimize Health Effects to Individual Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    dolphin (Delphinus delphis) carcass at stations that are exposed to the air during normal cetacean swimming. A reciprocating...transdermal satellite tag and 1/7th scaled dolphin dummy tag. Inset shows dummy at a larger scale. Scales in cm. Fig. 4 – Experimental system for...repeated oscillation of dolphin cadaver. 8 Fig. 5 – Measurement of angle between needle inserted into blubber only versus, though blubber into muscle of a common dolphin .

  19. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-06-30

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card. 8 figs.

  20. Implications of ecological energetics and biophysical and developmental constraints for life history variation in dinosaurs

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, A.E.; Overall, K.L.; Forster, C.A.; Porter, W.P.

    1988-01-01

    There has been much recent speculation concerning the nature of life history variation in dinosaurs (Case, 1978; Bakker, 1986; Horner, 1982, 1984a). The purpose of this paper is to review the data on dinosaur life histories and to examine the nature and magnitude of the demographic and physiological factors that must have constrained life history variation in this group. 145 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.