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  1. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Yale: the first one hundred fifty years, from Nathan Smith to Lee Buxton.

    PubMed Central

    Kohorn, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    The persons who directed the academic teaching of women's health at Yale Medical School are presented by biographical sketches recounting their achievements and some of the difficulties they encountered. Three who provided particular catalysis were Nathan Smith, Herbert Thoms, and Lee Buxton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:8303913

  2. A Desktop Computer Based Workstation for Display and Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Bradley J.; Robb, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    While great advances have been made in developing new and better ways to produce medical images, the technology to efficiently display and analyze them has lagged. This paper describes design considerations and development of a workstation based on an IBM PC/AT for the analysis of three and four dimensional medical image data. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Central Nervous System—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Brant-Zawadzki, Michael; Norman, David; Newton, T. Hans; Kucharczyk, Walter

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has developed rapidly and now has superior ability to detect and to characterize disease in the central nervous system without any significant biologic hazard. It is becoming the screening method of choice in the diagnosis of neoplasm, ischemia, hemorrhage, infection and degenerative and demyelinating diseases involving the central nervous system. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:3976220

  4. Rubeosis iridis generated by insulin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Shabo, A L; Maxwell, D S; Kreiger, A E; Straatsma, B R

    1976-01-01

    There are important similarities between human and experimental monkey rubeosis iridis. We believe that we have developed a useful primate model to study iris neovascularization and that the possible role of immunity to insulin in the pathogenesis of human diabetic rubeosis iridis warrants further detailed consideration. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 1. 1 FIGURE 1. 2 FIGURE 1. 3 FIGURE 1. 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:405785

  5. Observations on chronic polyarthritis in monkeys1

    PubMed Central

    Bywaters, E G L

    1981-01-01

    Erosion and inflammatory changes in the carpus, fingers and toes of a rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta, are described; this was one of 152 animals in each of which four fixed limbs were available for examination. The histological changes resembled closely those found in adult human rheumatoid arthritis. The limited literature is reviewed (including cases with amyloid disease). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:7299780

  6. Giant Solitary Synovial Chondromatosis of the Temporomandibular Joint with Intracranial Extension

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Salú, José L.; Lázaro, Rafael; Aldasoro, José; Gonzalez-Darder, José M.

    1998-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis are rare entities but are well-described lesions in the literature that can affect many joint areas of the body. A case of tumoral synovial chondromatosis involving the temporomandibular joint with intracranial extension through mandibular fossa is reported. As long as there was significant infratemporal and extradural invasion of the middle and posterior fossa, a transtemporal and infratemporal approach was performed and total removal of the lesions was achieved. A brief review of skull base synovial chondromatosis is presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17171059

  7. Nonpenetrating Clips Successfully Replacing Sutures in Base of Skull Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Wolff M.; Zhu, Yong Hua; Hardesty, Robert A.; Petti, George; Furnas, David

    1993-01-01

    Reconstructive challenges engendered by skull base surgery are critical determinants of outcome. A novel nonpenetrating, arcuate-legged clip has proven to be both technically and biologically effective for management of these difficult closures. Clips have facilitated reconstructions associated with the surgical management of eight skull base cases: leiomyosarcoma of the orbit, middle fossa, ptyergopalatine fossa, two meningiomas (petrotentorial, cavernous sinus), vagus nerve paraganglioma, complex traumatic orbital dural tear, and one basilar and two vertebral artery aneurysms. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 14Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170909

  8. Pulmonary Complications of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Leon S.; Boylen, Thomas C.

    1974-01-01

    Complications resulting from drug abuse more frequently affect the lung than any other organ. The spectrum of pulmonary complications associated with drug abuse is wide. The current practice of using mixtures of drugs is mainly responsible for the increase in pulmonary complications. The chief complications observed in a series of 241 drug abuse patients were aspiration pneumonitis (12.9 percent), pulmonary edema (10.0 percent), and pneumonia (7.5 percent). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:4812215

  9. The XY female in sport: the controversy continues.

    PubMed Central

    Hipkin, L J

    1993-01-01

    The summer and winter Olympic Games have been accompanied by much press coverage of the controversy and confusion over sex tests for sportswomen. Much of this has centred on the eligibility of subjects with androgen insensitivity to compete in women's events. The purpose of this paper is to review the process of sex differentiation and its abnormalities, highlighting those conditions in which biologically active testosterone is secreted which might confer an advantage in women's sporting events. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8242269

  10. An outbreak of cysticercosis in feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bundza, Adam; Finley, Gordon G.; Easton, Kenneth L.

    1988-01-01

    An outbreak of cysticercosis (infestation with the larvae of Taenia saginata) occurred in feedlot cattle in Ontario in 1986. Two hundred and thirty-three of 271 steers were confirmed histologically to be positive for cysticerci. Nineteen (8.2%) animals had viable cysticerci, 87 (37.3%) had degenerated cysticerci, 77 (33.0%) had mineralized cysticerci, and 50 (21.5%) steers had lymphoid granulomas consistent with cysticercosis. Three viable cysticerci were partly evaginated and one degenerate cysticercus was fully evaginated. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6., Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9., F PMID:17423200

  11. Phalangeal and Navicular Bone Hypoplasia and Hoof Malformation in the Hind Limbs of a Foal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D. R. K.; Leach, D. H.; Bell, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Anatomical anomalies in the hind feet of a seven month old Appaloosa foal were identified and investigated through the use of gross anatomical dissection, radiography and angiography. Abnormalities were restricted to the distal aspect of both hind legs, the right hind leg being more severely affected. Anatomically the right foot resembled that of an equine fetus of approximately 120 days gestational age. Disruption of vascular perfusion to hoof structures was evident in both hind legs and was related to areas of abnormal bone conformation as well as to areas of abnormal ossification and calcification. Phalangeal and navicular bone hypoplasia were apparent as were soft tissue and joint anomalies. Although the etiology of the defects identified remains obscure, several theories are suggested, namely heritability, acquired defects and the possible teratogenic effects of clenbuterol. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422612

  12. Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Hemrend, Bernard; Altuna, Gurkan; Tompson, Bryan

    1989-01-01

    The authors of this article offer an introduction to the field of orthodontics. They present the latest advances in orthodontic appliances and some of the possible consequences of orthodontic treatment. They discuss a number of cases and offer examples of some of the more common problems that the orthodontist is asked to treat. Such cases include severe Class II, division 1 malocclusion, surgical orthodontics, “long-face” syndrome, adult orthodontics-TMJ-periodontics, late adult growth, and post-retention changes. Practical information useful to the physician who encounters patient with these disorders is balanced with good research data to support the various claims. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:21249042

  13. Derivation of ductlike cell lines from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma of the rat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, O. S.; Faris, R. A.; Bell, R. H.; Kuhlmann, E. T.; Longnecker, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Two cell lines were derived from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma that had been established from a primary carcinoma of the pancreas in an azaserine-treated Lewis rat. The cultured tumor cells initially produced amylase, but production of exocrine enzymes ceased after 1-2 weeks in culture. The cultured cells were tumorigenic in Lewis rats, and one line produced solid tumors composed of ductlike structures surrounded by dense fibrous tissue. The second cell line produced partially solid and partially cystic tumors with a mixed phenotype of squamous, mucinous, and glandular areas when it grew in vivo following regrafting. Both cell lines lost structural and immunohistochemical acinar cell markers while acquiring duct cell markers during culture and regrafting. These studies provide strong support for the hypothesis that ductlike carcinomas can arise from neoplastic pancreatic acinar cells in rats. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8391218

  14. The Middle Fossa Transpetrous Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Paul S.; Hankinson, Hal L.; Horn, Karl L.

    1997-01-01

    Surgical access to lesions of the temporal bone anterior to the internal auditory canal and medial to the petrous carotid artery has concerned surgeons for nearly a century. A variety of approaches have been developed to gain access to this region. We report our experience with the middle fossa transpetrous approach for the treatment of a variety of petroclival and/or prepontine lesions. Tentorial transection and the retrolabyrinthine approach to extend this technique is also discussed. In properly selected cases, the middle fossa transpetrous approach is successful in maintaining hearing, labyrinthine and facial function without compromising surgical exposure. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17171001

  15. A proposal for a standardized system of reporting human lymph node morphology in relation to immunological function

    PubMed Central

    Cottier, H.; Turk, J.; Sobin, L.

    1972-01-01

    This Memorandum proposes a standardized system of reporting the histology of human lymph nodes based on commonly used simple staining techniques. The purpose is to provide a uniform, internationally acceptable system by which the histological structure of lymph nodes can be correlated with other parameters of immunological status. The proposed protocols are intended to provide information that is not available in conventional written reports, that use such terms as “hyperplasia” or “nonspecific lymphadenitis”. ImagesFigure 22Figure 13Figure 5Figure 4Figure 3Figure 14Figure 15Figure 9Figure 21Figure 8Figure 12Figure 17Figure 16Figure 2Figure 7Figure 6Figure 20Figure 19Figure 11Figure 10Figure 18 PMID:4539822

  16. Maggots, mutilations and myth: Patterns of postmortem scavenging of the bovine carcass

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. Nick; Williams, Elisabeth S.

    1989-01-01

    Based upon what is known about the habits of common carrion eaters in Alberta, we review the patterns of postmortem scavenging of carcasses of cattle. We then compare with these patterns those reported in the lay press and by veterinarians investigating cattle mutilations in Alberta. We conclude that the so-called “mutilation” of cattle in Alberta was due to scavenging of carcasses and further conclude that claims of human involvement in such incidents require, as a first condition, that postmortem scavenging of the carcass be excluded. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11. PMID:17423422

  17. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  18. Chemotherapy of eyelid and peritorbital tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Luxenberg, M N; Guthrie, T H

    1985-01-01

    Eight patients with nine histologically proven BCC or SCC involving the eyelids and periorbital tissues were treated with systemic and/or local (iontophoresis) chemotherapy using cisplatin and doxorubicin. All patients had either refused surgery, would have required extensive procedures, or had medical problems contraindicating surgery. Systemic chemotherapy induced a CR or PR in eight of nine lesions. No patient has required maintenance chemotherapy and no significant toxic side effects were encountered. The length of follow-up ranges from 2 to 50 months. Iontophoretic therapy with cisplatin was used to treat five small foci of new, recurrent or persistent tumor(s) in three of these patients, and resulted in a partial response in all five lesions. Systemic or local chemotherapy offers an alternative to current standard forms of treatment for BCC and SCC in selected cases. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:3832525

  19. Recurrent Pneumothorax Associated with a Pulmonary Emphysematous Bulla in a Dog: Surgical Correction and Proposed Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Stogdale, L.; O'Connor, C.D.; Williams, M.C.; Smuts, M.M.S.

    1982-01-01

    A three year old dog was affected with recurrent dyspnea for two months, due to a recurrent pneumothorax. This followed an episode of mild blunt trauma to the thorax and transient strangulation. Conservative therapy of aspiration of air by repeated thoracentesis gave only temporary relief. Thoracic radiographs indicated the presence of a bulla in the right middle lung lobe. An exploratory thoracotomy confirmed the diagnosis, and a lobectomy was successfully performed. The pathogenesis of acquired pulmonary bullae is postulated. Reasons for the predisposition of the right middle lung lobe are outlined. These are related to the anatomy of the right middle bronchus, and include its position between the right pulmonary artery and vein, its oval shape, and the absence of cartilagenous support at its origin. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:17422186

  20. A morphologic study of unexplained hepatitis following halothane anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Wills, E. J.; Walton, B.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of postoperative jaundice throughout the United Kingdom allowed the detailed analysis of 76 patients with unexplained hepatitis following halothane anesthesia ("halothane hepatitis"). In 16 patients liver biopsy specimens were examined by light and/or electron microscopy to determine whether the liver morphology could aid the differentiation between "halothane" and "acute viral" hepatitis. The mitochondrial changes often claimed to be characteristic of holothane hepatitis were unremarkable in our patients. Since lipid vacuolation and a predominantly centrilobular distribution of necrosis are not classically described in fatal viral hepatitis, the presence of these features in some of our fatal cases was of some diagnostic interest. In general, however, the results of light and electron microscopy in patients with unexplained postoperative hepatitis is considered to have little differential diagnositc value. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:645815

  1. A clinical pathologic study of mercurialentis medicamentosus.

    PubMed Central

    Garron, L K; Wood, I S; Spencer, W H; Hayes, T L

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-one patients who used eye drops containing the preservative, phenylmercuric nitrate for from 3 to 15 years, developed a brownish pigmentation of the anterior capsule of the pupillary area. Light and electron microscopic studies on two lenses demonstrated deposits of dense particulate material resembling melanin pigment on and in the anterior capsule of the lens in the area of the pupil. Special studies, including electron microprobe analysis and neutron activation analysis established the presence of mercury in a lens with mercurialentis. No mercury was found in two lenses used as controls. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C PMID:867632

  2. A Malaysian Experience with Animal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Little, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    The report summarizes a one year period of investigation of death losses in West Malaysian livestock. Lesions and etiological agents are mentioned for cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry and companion animals as well as some miscellaneous species. Special observations related to a common paramphistome induced hepatic biliary infestation in cattle, a serious malignant head catarrh outbreak in which possible cattle to cow aerosol transmission occurred. Trismus observed in some cattle with malignant head catarrh was associated with arteriolitis and ganglioneuritis of the V cranial nerve. Parasitic, bacterial, viral toxic and neoplastic diseases are recorded in the various species. The occurrence of fatal chronic fluorosis in laboratory guinea pigs and cerebral nematodiasis in a Thoroughbred racehorse are documented. ImagesFigure 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 5.FIGURE 6.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 8.FIGURE 9.FIGURE 10.FIGURE 11. PMID:761153

  3. Effects of Microgravitation on Electrofusion of Plant Cell Protoplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Mehrle, Werner; Hampp, Rüdiger; Naton, Beatrix; Grothe, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    Electrofusion of evacuolated with vacuolated mesophyll protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum was performed as part of the German Sounding Rocket Program (TEXUS 17, 1988). The results indicate a significant increase not only in the yield of 1:1 hybrids, but also in homo- and multifusion products. Hybrids obtained under microgravity have been shown to be viable to a higher degree with respect to their ability for light-dependent O2-evolution (independent of other substrates than bicarbonate). This finding is of interest for fusion experiments were only limited numbers of fusion partners are available (e.g. protoplasts from embryogenic tissues) or where fusion yields are extemely low under 1 × gravity (e.g. protoplasts of different specific density). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:11537445

  4. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and biphenylenes after an electrical panel and transformer accident in an office building in Binghamton, NY.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T

    1985-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and tri- and tetrachlorinated benzene-containing electrical transformer was involved in an explosion and fire in a modern office building in Binghamton, New York, on February 5, 1981. Because of an unusual system of air shafts the entire building and adjacent garage became contaminated with toxic chemicals. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenylenes were formed as pyrolytic by-products. Before the extent of the chemical contamination was appreciated workers were exposed to these chemicals. Four years after the explosion and after the expenditure of over $22 million for cleaning and other expenses, the building remains closed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:3928358

  5. A historical perspective of thirteen unheralded contributors to medicodental progress.

    PubMed Central

    Dummett, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    Brief highlights of the careers of 13 Afro-American dentists have been presented. Their professional lives demonstrated both a commitment to the advancement of dentistry and a dedication to the betterment of humanity. Of the 13, three spent their professional lives exclusively in dental education, research, and public health. The remaining 10 were dental clinicians who served patients with competence, care, and concern. Additionally, they contributed to dentistry's image and progress by improving medicodental relations, pioneering in university dental education, engaging in philanthropy, qualifying for dental specialties, exerting leadership in dental professional organizations, integrating dentistry in hospital care, solving community health problems, and participating in all aspects of dental journalism. A sizable portion of their energies was expended in enhancing the quality of life in their communities and the nation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2651678

  6. Manipulative management of back pain in patients with spondyloisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, J. D.; Potter, G. E.; Kirkaldy-Willis, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    The authors see a large number of back problems, many with complicating features, and are involved in an ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of various treatment modalities, particularly spinal manipulation. This paper deals with spondylolisthesis. Included is a discussion of the definition, classification, etiology and epidemiology of spondylolisthesis. Pain mechanisms are discussed along with the role of conservative and surgical management. Results are presented in a series of cases managed by manipulative methods. The authors conclude that spinal manipulation is of great value in selected cases of back pain in which there is radiographic evidence of spondylolisthesis. No claim is made that such treatment is influencing the spondylolisthesis itself, but that in most cases the spondylolisthesis is an incidental finding, and no contraindication to manipulative therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10

  7. Indication for Interstitial Brachytherapy in Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Pradeep; Taylor, Judith; Scott, Joseph C.; Jacobs, Allan J.; Rojas, John

    1984-01-01

    More than 40 patients with gynecological, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal malignancies, both primary and recurrent but confined to the pelvis, were treated with interstitial irradiation over a four-year period. Interstitial irradiation was the choice of treatment for early carcinoma of the prostate, carcinoma of the anal canal less than T2, recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix, and carcinoma of the cervical stump. The authors' experience in treating recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix with interstitial irradiation is the basis for the indications for selecting the technique of interstitial irradiation presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10 PMID:6471113

  8. Methods in molecular cardiology: the polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemans, D.G.P.; de Windt, L.J.; de Muinck, E.D.; Doevendans, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques are described in this review to give insight into the potential applications for cardiovascular research. Although PCR can be performed in several ways, all applications are based on the same general principle, the amplification of DNA or RNA by the enzyme polymerase. This amplification provides the opportunity to detect, identify and multiply a single copy of DNA or RNA, in or outside the cell. This powerful technique can be used in several directions of DNA and RNA research resulting in the ability to specifically detect the presence and activity of genes. The use of these techniques in cardiovascular research is discussed here. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:25696037

  9. Pulmonary mineral dust. A study of ninety patients by electron microscopy, electron microanalysis, and electron microdiffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507

  10. Experimental lead nitrate poisoning: microscopic and ultrastructural study of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.).

    PubMed Central

    Roncero, V; Vincente, J A; Redondo, E; Gãzquez, A; Duran, E

    1990-01-01

    A microscopic, ultrastructural, and morphometric study was made of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.) subjected to acute experimental lead nitrate poisoning. Twenty-one adult tench were subjected to poisoning and a further 22 were used as controls. Lesions were characterized by the appearance of edema and epithelial hyperplasia and necrosis, both in cells forming part of the filtration barrier and in those in the interlamellar space. These processes developed in the course of the experiment, leading to the death of tench after 12 to 15 days of exposure to 75 ppm lead nitrate, at which point the concentrations of lead in the gills had reached their maximum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. PMID:2088740

  11. Anaerobic orbital cellulitis: a clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzynski, M S; Bullock, J D; McGuire, T W; Elder, B L; Bullock, J D

    1991-01-01

    In this article we have reviewed the clinical and bacteriologic aspects of anaerobic orbital cellulitis and have presented six patients to illustrate these points. Physicians who treat patients with orbital cellulitis should have a high index of suspicion for possible instances involving anaerobes, so that appropriate management can be started early. To investigate this problem further, we created an animal model of anaerobic orbital cellulitis. This model may be useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of this serious and often devastating disease. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:1808813

  12. Pitfalls in the investigation of children with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Smellie, J M; Rigden, S P

    1995-01-01

    The histories and imaging results are presented in 10 children in whom errors had been made in the interpretation of early investigations. Ultrasonography may not detect either vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) or renal scars or inflammation. The reduced nephrogram or renal swelling following a first attack of acute pyelonephritis may not be recognised without renal measurement on an intravenous urogram. Renal scarring may be diagnosed incorrectly on the basis of functional defects of isotope uptake on a technetium 99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid study. In the absence of VUR, the micturating cystogram will not visualise the kidneys. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 p254-b p254-c Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7741579

  13. Early chiropractic education in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2002-01-01

    Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24

  14. Computer Man Simulation of Incapacitation: An Automated Approach to Wound Ballistics and Associated Medical Care Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Clare, V.; Ashman, W.; Broome, P.; Jameson, J.; Lewis, J.; Merkler, J.; Mickiewicz, A.; Sacco, W.; Sturdivan, L.

    1981-01-01

    Wound ballistics assessments traditionally have been based on correlations between some quantification of “ballistic dose” and an empirical/subjective medical quantification of human functional degradation. Although complicated by the highly inhomogeneous nature of the human body and by the voluminous data handling requirements these correlation values were obtained by manual methods. The procedure required a substantial commitment of time and resources, thereby restricting the data base from which incapacitation evaluations were made. The obvious advantages of automated wound ballistics analyses have been realized in the ARRADCOM Computer Man System, capable of duplicating the results of the manual system while reducing the time required for each analysis from three months to less than one day. The versatility of the system also makes it readily adaptable to other ballistic, medical, and paramedical assessment tasks. ImagesFIGURE 1FIGURE 2FIGURE 3FIGURE 4FIGURE 5FIGURE 6FIGURE 7FIGURE 8FIGURE 9FIGURE 10FIGURE 11FIGURE 12FIGURE 13

  15. Variability of neuropathologic lesions in experimental methylmercurial encephalopathy in primates.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, C. M.; Mottet, N. K.; Body, R. L.; Luschei, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Acute and chronic intoxications of rhesus monkeys with methylmercury produced lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) with different distributions. Neuronal degeneration and astroglial proliferation predominated in the dentate nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, thalamus and pontine nuclei in 2 monkeys that received 2 mg/kg/day for 17 and 18 days, whereas pseudolaminar necrosis and astroglial proliferation were observed in the cerebral crotex, maximally in the calcarine and insular regions, in 4 monkeys that received 0.5 to 0.8 mg/kg/day for 3 to 8.5 months. Mercury concentrations in the CNS were much higher in the acutely intoxicated animals than in the chronically intoxicated animals, but the correlation between concentrations of mercury and the histologic destruction was not precise. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:821350

  16. Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Female Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Arrigo, Christopher; Andrews, James R.; Clancy, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the female athlete. In addition, we will discuss 8 unique characteristics identified in the female athlete and specific training drills to address and correct the potentially deleterious effects of these unique characteristics. Background: The female athlete appears to be more susceptible to noncontact ACL injuries than the male athlete. There seem to be many differences between the female and male athlete that may contribute to the increased injury rate in the female athlete. These variations include anatomical and neuromuscular considerations and differences. Description: Based on the unique characteristics of the female athlete and the anatomical and neuromuscular dissimilarities, a specially designed rehabilitation program has been established for the female athlete after ACL surgery. Clinical Advantages: The rehabilitation drills discussed in this article challenge the neuromuscular system through proprioception, kinesthesia, dynamic joint stability, neuromuscular control, and perturbation training activities. Improving the female athlete's neuromuscular system will, we believe, expedite the injured athlete's recovery after ACL injury or surgery. Although the concepts discussed are part of a postoperative rehabilitation program after ACL surgery, these concepts may also be implemented as a preventive program to assist in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries in the female athlete. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14.Figure 15.Figure 16.Figure 17.Figure 18.Figure 19.Figure 20.Figure 21.Figure 22.Figure 23. PMID:16558561

  17. The image and advocacy of public health in American caricature and cartoons from 1860 to 1900.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, B

    1997-01-01

    The decades just before and after the founding of the American Public Health Association in 1872 saw an efflorescence of political cartooning and caricature in national-circulation weeklies. Part of the political and social critique that cartoonists and their editors provided the public focused on needs or opportunities for preventing illness and accidents. This paper presents a small selection of editorial cartoons that agitated in support of public health activities over 4 decades. The goals are to illustrate several concerns that rose to national prominence in that era, to examine the kinds of imagery that newspapers and magazine editors offered their readers, and to observe how frequently the public was encouraged to see politicians and commercial interests as responsible for preventable health problems. This discussion focuses exclusively on propagandistic images, leaving aside the reportorial depictions of events in the news and the neutral illustrations of methods and machines in scientific and technical publications. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:9366637

  18. Inflammatory sequences in acute pulmonary radiation injury.

    PubMed Central

    Slauson, D. O.; Hahn, F. F.; Benjamin, S. A.; Chiffelle, T. L.; Jones, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    The histopathologic events in the developing acute pulmonary inflammatory reaction to inhaled particles of Yttrium 90 are detailed. In animals that died or were sacrificed during the first year after inhalation exposure, microscopic findings of acute inflammation predominated and included vascular congestion; stasis, focal hemorrhage; edema; various inflammatory cell infiltrates; cytolysis and desquamation of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium followed by regeneration; vascular injury and repair; and the eventual development of pulmonary fibrosis. Accumulation of alveolar fibrin deposits was an additional characteristic, though not a constant feature of the early stages of radiation pneumonitis. In addition to the direct effects of radiation on pulmonary cell populations, the histopathologic findings were suggestive of diverse activation of various cellular and humoral mediation systems in their pathogenesis. The potential interrelationships of systems responsible for increased vascular permeability, coagulation and fibrinolysis, chemotaxis, and direct cellular injury were discussed and related to the pathogenesis of the microscopic findings characteristic of early pulmonary radiation injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1258976

  19. The ultrastructure of spontaneous coronary arterial lesions in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    PubMed Central

    House, E. W.; Benditt, E. P.

    1981-01-01

    Electron-microscopic examination of spontaneously occurring coronary arterial lesions in adult spawning steelhead trout showed them to be subendothelial accumulations of modified smooth muscle cells covered by an intact endothelium. Some of the cells in the nodules appeared highly vacuolated and seemed to be associated with varying amounts of collagen and elastin. The internal elastic lamina was often doubled with smooth muscle cells between the layers. The thickness of the internal elastica was altered and, in some lesions, penetrated by smooth muscle cells. In the smallest lesions, smooth muscle cells appeared to be penetrating the internal elastic lamina and were usually close to a highly vacuolated intimal endothelial cell. The underlying medial layer frequently exhibited altered orientation of the cells, with the frequent appearance of increased collagen and amorphous extracellular material. No lipid was present in any lesion. Although vacuolation of endothelial cells suggested some alteration in endothelial cells, at least in developed lesions, no evidence of endothelial denudation over lesions was observed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:7294154

  20. Evolution of foam cells in subcutaneous rabbit carrageenan granulomas: I. Light-microscopic and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, C. J.; Ghidoni, J. J.; Kelley, J. L.; Sprague, E. A.; Valente, A. J.; Suenram, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    With an increasing interest in the role of the monocyte-macrophage in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and as a progenitor of plaque intimal foam cells, a model for the study of foam-cell differentiation in an extravascular environment has been developed. Granulomas were induced in 25 normocholesterolemic (NC) and 28 hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits by the subcutaneous injection of 15 ml of 1% carrageenan. Granuloma tissue was harvested at 4, 7, 14, and 28 days and studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Macrophages and foam cells were isolated by enzymic dispersion with collagenase and cultured for further characterization by scanning electron microscopy, nonspecific esterase (NSE), and oil red O (ORO) staining. Granuloma macrophages from NC rabbits were consistently ORO-negative, contrasting with those from HC rabbits which were strongly ORO-positive, even at 4 and 7 days. With an increasing duration of exposure to hypercholesterolemia, macrophages accumulated increasing amounts of stainable lipid, and in the 28-day HC granulomas, large foam cells distended by lipid inclusions accounted for 70% of the cells present. This model has established that NSE-positive macrophages in HC granulomas accumulate lipid and assume the morphologic characteristics of atheromatous intimal foam cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:3966533

  1. Familial canine dermatomyositis. Initial characterization of the cutaneous and muscular lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Hargis, A. M.; Haupt, K. H.; Hegreberg, G. A.; Prieur, D. J.; Moore, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Familial canine dermatomyositis is a recently identified disease of collie dogs that resembles human juvenile dermatomyositis. The lesions in the skin and muscles obtained by biopsy from two litters of dogs were characterized for the purpose of determining the similarity of the lesions to those of human dermatomyositis. The cutaneous lesions began between 7 and 11 weeks of age and were present on the face, lips, ears, and skin over bony prominences of the limbs, feet, sternum, and tip of the tail. Histologically the cutaneous lesions frequently consisted of vesicles, pustules, and ulcers on the lips, face, and ears. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, and macrophages were present throughout the dermis. Neutrophils and lymphocytes were also present in and around vessels. Between 13 and 19 weeks of age generalized muscle atrophy was noted. The muscle lesions consisted of interstitial lymphocyte, plasma cell, macrophage, and neutrophil accumulation; myofiber degeneration, regeneration, and atrophy; and fibrosis. Perivascular neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were also seen. Histologically, the lesions resembled those present in human juvenile dermatomyositis; and these observations, coupled with clinical, immunologic, and clinical pathologic observations presented elsewhere, suggest that familial canine dermatomyositis is an appropriate and potentially useful model for human juvenile dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:6465285

  2. Movement and self-control in protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, D L

    1980-01-01

    Purposeful switching among different conformational states exerts self-control in the construction and action of protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence, conceived to explain icosahedral virus structure, arises by differentiation of identical protein subunits into different conformations that conserve essential bonding specificity. Mechanical models designed to represent the energy distribution in the structure, rather than just the arrangement of matter, are used to explore flexibility and self-controlled movements in virus particles. Information about the assembly of bacterial flagella, actin, tobacco mosaic virus and the T4 bacteriophage tail structure show that assembly can be controlled by switching the subunits from an inactive, unsociable form to an active, associable form. Energy to drive this change is provided by the intersubunit bonding in the growing structure; this self-control of assembly by conformational switching is called "autostery", by homology with allostery. A mechanical model of the contractile T4 tail sheath has been constructed to demonstrate how self-controlled activation of a latent bonding potential can drive a purposeful movement. The gradient of quasi-equivalent conformations modelled in the contracting tail sheath has suggested a workable mechanism for self-determination of tail tube length. Concerted action by assemblies of identical proteins may often depend on individually differentiated movements. Images Figure 4 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6894706

  3. Physiological and toxicological aspects of smoke produced during the combustion of polymeric materials.

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, I N

    1975-01-01

    Normally one expects that flame contact is the major cause of injury and death during fires. Analysis of the factors involved in numerous fires has revealed that most deaths were not due to flame contact, but were a consequence of the production of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and other combustion products, such as aldehydes, low molecular weight alcohols, hydrogen cyanide, and other noxious species. The major emphasis within the scope of this paper relates to the physiological and toxicological aspects of smoke produced during the combustion of materials. Special emphasis is directed toward laboratory procedures which have been developed to determine the qualitative and quantitative analysis of smoke, factors pertaining to smoke development, and to measure the response of laboratory animals exposed to smoke. The effects that fire retardants, incorporated into polymeric materials as a means of improving flammability characteristics, may have on smoke development, the mechanism of polymer degradation, and on the survival response of laboratory animals are also considered. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. PMID:170077

  4. Chondrosarcoma of the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Tadashi; Sasaki, Tomio; Takakura, Kintomo; Ishida, Tsuyoshi

    1992-01-01

    Five patients with chondrosarcoma, grade I or II, and one with mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the skull base were treated at our clinic between 1967 and 1991. The patients were three men and three women who ranged in age from 21 to 39 years. The presenting symptoms were diplopia, decreased visual acuity, or symptoms of involvement of VIIIth and lower cranial nerves. The duration of the symptoms ranged from 18 months to 14 years. A plain skull x-ray and tomography of the skull, computed tomographic (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed a calcified mass. Angiograms showed an occlusion of the arteries or venous sinuses, or both, in four patients, and a distinct tumor stain in one. The tumors were subtotally removed in all six cases. Two patients received postoperative irradiation for the residual tumor. In one patient, extraocular movement was compromised postoperatively, although in the other five patients there was no aggravation of the neurologic signs. Follow-up CT scans and MRI demonstrated no recurrent tumors nor any enlargement of residual tumors. Based on these findings, we advocate aggressive surgical removal of these tumors, which should be augmented by radiation therapy if the postoperative CT scans or MRI reveal residual tumors. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10 PMID:17170863

  5. Nonpathogenicity of antiintestinal antibody in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, B. S.; Rogers, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Rabbits were immunized with intestinal extract prepared from rabbits, guinea pigs, and germ-free rats. The resultant serum antibody response to intestinal antigen was determined by gel precipitation and direct tissue immunofluorescence. Forty-eight hours prior to sacrifice of each immunized animal, a portion of the duodenum, ileum, and colon were traumatized to bring circulating antibody into contact with the tissue. Sections for histology and direct immunofluorescence were taken from the area of trauma, just adjacent to the area, and 10 cm from it. The humoral immune response, the presence of tissue bound immunoglobulin, and tissue histology were compared. The area of trauma in normal and immunized animals showed the same histologic changes. In each animal, tissue just adjacent to the area of trauma and 10 cm from it were histologically identical. The pathologic alterations in the immunized animals were similar to those associated with malabsorption in man. Direct immunofluorescence of the intestinal tissue revealed bound immunoglobulin in histologically normal and abnormal tissue. Precipitating antibody to intestine was present in the serum of rabbits with normal and abnormal histology. Thus, antiintestinal antibody as dected by precipitation in gel and direct tissue immunofluorescence does not appear to be a factor in the pathogenesis of this model of immunologically induced histologic changes in the intestine. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1266943

  6. Aquatic-Based Rehabilitation and Training for the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Thein, Jill M.; Brody, Lori Thein

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the application of aquatic rehabilitative exercise to injuries of the upper extremity. Background: Water has been used for centuries as a medium for rehabilitation, relaxation, and training. Athletes use the pool to rehabilitate specific injuries, as a training medium during injury recovery, and as an alternative training site. The pool can be used to rehabilitate a number of upper extremity impairments, as well as to restore functional movement patterns in a resistive medium. Description: Exercises can be modified to be performed in pools of varying size and depth. Well-chosen equipment will enhance the rehabilitative opportunities for the clinician and patient. Clinical Advantages: All aspects of the rehabilitation program, including passive stretching, resistive exercise, functional movement patterns, and cardiovascular training, can take place in the same location. The water's warmth and buoyancy enhance stretching, while the buoyancy allows initiation of resistive exercise at a low level. The water's viscosity provides resistance throughout a movement pattern in any plane. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:16558651

  7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes in long-term culture.

    PubMed Central

    Bour, E. S.; Ward, L. K.; Cornman, G. A.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Apoptosis occurs naturally in the liver and increases in specific pathogenic processes. We previously described the use of a chemically defined medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and dimethylsulfoxide to maintain rat hepatocytes in a highly differentiated state for more than 30 days (long-term culture). In this study, we showed that hepatocytes in long-term dimethylsulfoxide culture have definite advantages over using cells in short-term culture (cells in culture for 2 to 4 days) to study apoptosis. We demonstrated that treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induced apoptosis (detected morphologically and by formation of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder) only in hepatocytes that had been subjected to dimethylsulfoxide removal. Neither treatment with TNF-alpha alone or dimethylsulfoxide removal alone induced apoptosis. Apoptosis could be induced by concentrations as low as 500 U of TNF-alpha/ml. Although a DNA ladder was not detected by 12 hours after TNF-alpha treatment, it was easily identified by 24 hours. We conclude that this system can be used 1) to examine the underlying mechanism by which TNF-alpha causes apoptosis in hepatocytes and 2) to study induction of apoptosis in hepatocytes by other agents. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8579111

  8. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy of a superstructure of fluid dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Klösgen, B; Helfrich, W

    1997-01-01

    Using cryo-transmission electron microscopy, we have obtained abundant and reproducible evidence for a superstructure of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers. Dispersions of vesicles were prepared by gentle shaking of a 2% suspension of DOPC in water followed in part by extrusion through a porous technical membrane. Sampling and cryofixation took place at various times within 3 weeks after the preparation. From the micrographs we infer that the small fraction of vesicles enclosing one another develop passages (connections) between the bilayers. In contrast, the superstructure is basically a feature of disconnected membranes. Among its modifications are isolated membrane bends or folds and a grainy membrane texture with a minimal grain spacing of 4-6 nm. In the extruded dispersions the passages and the superstructure seem to be formed mostly within the first day. The fraction of smooth and unilamellar vesicles is large at all times and in all dispersions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:9414216

  9. Protein Energy Malnutrition and Fat Mobilization in Neonatal Calves

    PubMed Central

    Schoonderwoerd, Matt; Doige, Cecil E.; Wobeser, Gary A.; Naylor, Jonathan M.

    1986-01-01

    Fat stores and organ weights were assessed in calves at birth (n=5) and after seven days of milk (n=5) or electrolyte (n=5) feeding. Compared to newborn calves, milk-fed calves had a significant (p < 0.05) redistribution of fat from perirenal area to bone marrow. The thymus also involuted during milk feeding. In electrolyte-fed calves there was a significant loss of perirenal and bone marrow fat. The visible omental, mesenteric and subcutaneous fat stores were depleted. Epicardial fat stores were not visibly affected. There was a high correlation between bone marrow crude fat and bone marrow dry matter (R=0.92). This suggests that dry matter estimations can be used to assess bone marrow fat stores. Perirenal fat may be intermediate in type between brown and white adipose tissue because it is mobilized in response to fasting, and formalin fixed perirenal fat did not contain detectable levels of thermogenin. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5.Figure 6., Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9. PMID:17422704

  10. Cell and tissue distribution of synthetic oligonucleotides in healthy and tumor-bearing nude mice. An autoradiographic, immunohistological, and direct fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed Central

    Plenat, F.; Klein-Monhoven, N.; Marie, B.; Vignaud, J. M.; Duprez, A.

    1995-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides have the ability to inhibit individual gene expression in the potential treatment of cancer and viral diseases. However, the way parenterally administered oligonucleotides distribute themselves into healthy tissues or tumors is poorly understood. In this study, the cell and tissue distribution of two modified or unmodified phosphodiester pentadeca-beta-oligonucleotides intravenously administered to healthy or tumor-bearing nude mice was assessed by autoradiography as well as by direct fluorescence and immunoenzymatic histological methods. Resistance of oligonucleotides to degradation by nuclease activity was previously studied in vitro. Using these methods we were able to show the following: 1) within minutes, oligonucleotides permeate all cells and tissues with the exceptions of erythrocytes and intervertebral discs; 2) cell and tissue distribution does not depend on the sequence of the given oligonucleotide; 3) concentration of oligonucleotides is higher within the connective tissue cells than in the interstitial matrix; 4) after uptake, oligomers partition throughout all of the cellular compartments, including at the highest intracellular concentrations in the nuclei; 5) oligonucleotides penetrate easily the tumor cell compartments, oligonucleotide diffusion being unimpeded by the extracellular matrix. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7604874

  11. Comparative pathology of silicate pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Brambilla, C.; Abraham, J.; Brambilla, E.; Benirschke, K.; Bloor, C.

    1979-01-01

    A simple pneumoconiosis with lamellar birefringent crystals was observed in animals dying in the San Diego Zoo. We studied 100 autopsies from 11 mammalian and eight avian species. In mammals, mild pulmonary lesions comprised crystal-laden macrophages in alveoli and lymphatics. Interstitial fibrosis was present in 20% of cases. There were no nodules. In birds, dust retention produced large granulomas around tertiary bronchi without fibrosis. Mineralogic analysis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed most of the crystals to be silicates. Ninety percent were complex silicates, with aluminum-potassium silicates comprising 70% of the analyzed particles. Electron and x-ray diffraction showed the silicates to be muscovite mica and its hydrothermal degradation product, ie, illite clay. This mica was also present on filtration membranes of atmospheric air samples obtained from the San Diego Zoo. The amount of dust retention was related to the animal's age, anatomic or ecologic variances, and length of stay in the San Diego Zoo. Its semidesert atmosphere is rich in silicates, which are inhaled and deposited in the lungs. Similar mica-induced lesions are found in humans living in this region or the Southwest of the USA. This simple pneumoconiosis is likely to be widespread in human populations living in desert or semidesert climates. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:223447

  12. Field and laboratory studies of the etiology of liver neoplasms in marine fish from Puget Sound.

    PubMed Central

    Malins, D C; McCain, B B; Myers, M S; Brown, D W; Krahn, M M; Roubal, W T; Schiewe, M H; Landahl, J T; Chan, S L

    1987-01-01

    A series of field studies was conducted between 1979 and 1985 in Puget Sound, Washington State, to investigate etiological relationships between prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in bottom-dwelling marine fish species, with emphasis on English sole (Parophrys vetulus), and concentrations of toxic chemicals in sediments and affected fish. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) correlations have been found between the prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in English sole and the following parameters: sediment concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, and concentrations of the metabolites of aromatic compounds in the bile of affected sole. A significant difference (p less than 0.001) was also found between the relative concentrations of aromatic free radicals in the liver microsomes of English sole with liver lesions compared to sole without liver lesions. Laboratory studies designed to evaluate the etiology of the liver neoplasms in English sole have also yielded evidence that is consistent with the view that high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are hepatocarcinogens in English sole. The current status of a series of long-term (up to 18 months) exposures of English sole and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to selected fractions of Puget Sound sediment extracts, enriched with aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, and to individual carcinogens (e.g., BaP) is discussed. Images FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:3297664

  13. Reconstruction of the lids of a child with microblepharon and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Merriam, J C; Stalnecker, M C; Merriam, G R

    1988-01-01

    The initial stages in the rehabilitation of a male child with severe microblepharon, corneal opacities, bilateral facial clefts, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and unilateral syndactyly are described. Review of the literature suggests that severe microblepharon is associated with other craniofacial anomalies, and often the child is stillborn or retarded. Surviving children have been abandoned because of their appearance. The child described in this case appears to be unique because his intelligence is normal, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of penetrating keratoplasty after reconstruction of functional eyelids. The principal problems after corneal grafting appear to have been chronic partial exposure due to inadequate lid length and a poor Bell's reflex and the persistence of a rim of vascularized fibrous tissue around the corneal graft. Future reconstructive surgery is outlined. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:2979029

  14. Microsphere embolization of nerve capillaries and fiber degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Nukada, H.; Dyck, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Polystyrene microspheres, the size chosen to plug capillaries and precapillaries, were injected into the arterial supply of rat sciatic nerves. They produced widespread segmental occlusion of capillaries in lower limb nerves. The clinical and pathologic effect was dose-related. One million microspheres produced selective capillary occlusion but no nerve fiber degeneration; approximately 6 million microspheres also produced selective capillary occlusion and associated foot and leg weakness, sensory loss, and fiber degeneration, beginning in a central core of the distal sciatic nerve; 30 million microspheres caused both capillary and arterial occlusion and a greater neuropathologic deficit. From these observations it is inferred that 1) occlusion of isolated precapillaries and capillaries does not produce ischemic fiber degeneration; 2) occlusion of many microvessels results in central fascicular fiber degeneration, indicating that these cores are watershed regions of poor perfusion; and 3) stereotyped pathologic alterations of nerve fibers and Schwann cells are related to dose, anatomic site, and time elapsed since injection. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:6326580

  15. Intraoperative two-dimensional echocardiography and color flow Doppler imaging: a basic transesophageal single plane patient examination sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, T. D.; Lippmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have allowed application of transesophageal echocardiography to intraoperative care of critically ill patients. Early clinical application primarily involved evaluation of left ventricular regional wall motion. However, valid intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography should also encompass systematic assessment of the entire heart as well as the great vessels. This report describes a 10-step sequence of single plane, two-dimensional echocardiographic views which constitute a basic patient examination capable of being performed by a practitioner whose primary responsibility is the delivery of anesthesia care. A 5-step color flow Doppler examination sequence is also presented. These views complement the two-dimensional echocardiographic steps. Representations of methods for grading Doppler-defined valvular regurgitation complete the report. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 PMID:7825339

  16. Alignment and defect structures in oriented phosphatidylcholine multilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Asher, S A; Pershan, P S

    1979-01-01

    The alignment of dilauryl-, dimyristoyl-, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine at various water concentrations into large oriented monodomain multilayers by annealing at elevated temperatures (Powers and Clark, 1975, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:840; Powers and Pershan. 1977. Biophys. J. 20:137) is accompanied by the formation and subsequent dissolution of various defect structures. Some of these defects appear similar to those observed in thermotropic and other lyotropic liquid crystals, reflecting the lamellar structure of these materials. The formation and evolution of defects during the alignment of the lipids into the defect-free, monodomain, multilamellar geometry is studied using polarized microscopy. A combination of polarized and dark-field microscopy facilitated characterization of the defects; specific structural models are proposed. A new alignment technique involving compression and dilation of the lipid, which effects sample alignment at temperatures that are lower than those required by the Powers technique, is described. Lower temperature alignment avoids thermal decomposition that will sometimes occur if the lipid is maintained at elevated temperatures for prolonged periods. With this technique, samples (80 micrometer thick) of dilaurylphosphatidylcholine with 20% water by weight were aligned at room temperature. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 PMID:263691

  17. Spontaneous subcapsular and intrarenal hematoma demonstrated by various diagnostic modalities and monitored by ultrasonography until complete resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Shih, W. J.; Pulmano, C.; Han, J. K.; Lee, C.

    2000-01-01

    A patient with acute right abdominal pain and nausea underwent various diagnostic imaging studies, including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), technetium-99m DTPA renal study, and contrast arteriogram. The 99mTc renal study showed a linear photopenic area along the lateral cortical aspect of the right kidney and a focal cortical defect in the left kidney. These lesions corresponded to the findings of US, CT, MRI, and contrast angiography. Because of a suspected malignant mass, a CT-guided aspiration biopsy of the right kidney was performed that resulted in bloody fluid without malignant cells. The patient's condition was diagnosed as intrarenal and subcapsular renal hematoma. The patient was treated conservatively and followed up with CT and US studies. Sequential CT and US demonstrated gradual reduction of the size of the hematoma, and complete resolution was confirmed by US 1.5 years later. As long as underlying pathology can be ruled out, conservative management of spontaneous renal subcapsular hematoma is recommended. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10976177

  18. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN) in the mouse: BrdU-labelling indices and histological damage.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, J.; Robertson, H.; Morley, A. R.; Appleton, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    In-vivo BrdU incorporation and visualization by immunohistochemistry, previously reported in normal mouse kidney, were applied to a mouse model of anti-GBM GN, induced by immunization with rabbit anti-mouse GBM antiserum, to assess the contribution of capsular cell proliferation in the development of crescents. A significant increase (P = 0.003) in the BrdU-labelling index (LI) for capsular cells was observed, as compared to normal mice (5.76 +/- 1.1 vs 0.70% +/- 0.12%). Elevated LI were also observed for tuft and tubular cells but these increases were not statistically significant. It was concluded that, in this model, capsular cell proliferation is a major contributory factor to the formation of cellular crescents. In addition, other pathological features, indicative of glomerular damage, were assessed semi-quantitatively alongside numbers of labelled capsular cells per glomerulus. It was found that podocyte vacuolation is strongly associated with, and may precede, proliferation, suggesting some common causative factor. Fibrin, when present, was confined within the tuft capillary loops and was only weakly associated with either podocyte vacuolation or capsular cell proliferation. It was concluded that this protein does not play a major role in the initiation of pathological damage. Finally, glomerular lesions were found to be randomly distributed. Thus, the idea of intraglomerular signalling, resulting in 'clustering' of damaged glomeruli, is not supported. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8471539

  19. Postmortem findings in four litters of dogs with familial canine dermatomyositis.

    PubMed Central

    Hargis, A. M.; Prieur, D. J.; Haupt, K. H.; Collier, L. L.; Evermann, J. F.; Ladiges, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Postmortem evaluations were performed on 20 juvenile to young adult collie and collie-Labrador retriever crossbred dogs with dermatomyositis and 10 neonatal collies. Cutaneous, muscular, and vascular lesions were present in the juvenile and adult dogs and were most severe in areas of the head and distal extremities. In more severely affected dogs, lesions were more generalized, including myositis of esophageal muscle and arteritis of skin, muscle, bladder, and spermatic cord. Although viruses were not isolated from muscle, crystalline viral-like structures were present in cytoplasm of endothelial cells within skeletal muscle. The dogs with dermatitis and myositis consistently had lymphoid hyperplasia, especially of peripheral lymph nodes. More severely affected dogs were smaller than less severely affected littermates, and the more severely affected males had reduced weight of testicles and prostate glands, compared with body weight. The reduced weight of genital organs correlated positively with reduced fertility. A few lymphoid aggregates were present in or around thyroid glands of 6 of the 20 dogs. There was no histologic evidence of glomerular disease in any of the dogs. The neonatal collies had no evidence of dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:3717301

  20. A novel theoretical approach to the analysis of dendritic transients.

    PubMed Central

    Agmon-Snir, H

    1995-01-01

    A novel theoretical framework for analyzing dendritic transients is introduced. This approach, called the method of moments, is an extension of Rall's cable theory for dendrites. It provides analytic investigation of voltage attenuation, signal delay, and synchronization problems in passive dendritic trees. In this method, the various moments of a transient signal are used to characterize the properties of the transient. The strength of the signal is measured by the time integral of the signal, its characteristic time is determined by its centroid ("center of gravity"), and the width of the signal is determined by a measure similar to the standard deviation in probability theory. Using these signal properties, the method of moments provides theorems, expressions, and efficient algorithms for analyzing the voltage response in arbitrary passive trees. The method yields new insights into spatiotemporal integration, coincidence detection mechanisms, and the properties of local interactions between synaptic inputs in dendritic trees. The method can also be used for matching dendritic neuron models to experimental data and for the analysis of synaptic inputs recorded experimentally. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 PMID:8580308

  1. Histogenesis of pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster: ultrastructural evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Flaks, B

    1984-01-01

    Pancreatic carcinogenesis in the Syrian hamster, induced by beta-oxidized derivatives of N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine, constitutes a valuable model of human cancer of the exocrine pancreas. In both species the majority of tumors are adenocarcinomas: superficially, on the basis of their histological appearance, these appear to be ductal in origin. However, sequential analysis, by electron microscopy, of the development of pancreatic neoplasia in the hamster model indicates that acinar cells may participate in the histogenesis of "ductal" adenomas and carcinomas. Acinar cells appear to undergo changes in differentiation, including pseudoductular transformation, giving rise to a new population of cells that resemble ductular or centroacinar types. This new population may then proliferate to form, first, cystic foci and subsequently cystadenomas and adenocarcinomas. Mucous metaplasia appears to develop at late stages of tumor development. Although the participation of ductular and centroacinar cells in pancreatic carcinogenesis cannot be excluded, very few tumors arise from the ductal epithelium. It is possible that some human pancreatic adenocarcinomas may also have their origin from dysplastic acinar cells, by analogy with the hamster model: focal acinar dysplasia being common in human pancreatic cancer patients. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. PMID:6383797

  2. An experimental mouse testicular teratoma as a model for neuroepithelial neoplasia and differentiation. II. Electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, M. M.; Sipe, J. C.; Rubinstein, L. J.; Vandenberg, S. R.; Spence, A. M.; Vraa-Jensen, J.

    1975-01-01

    The electron microscopic features of the stages of divergent neuroepithelial differentiation in the solid implants of a transplantable mouse testicular teratoma (OTT-6050) are presented and compared to the sequential stages of cytogenesis that have been described in the developing avian and mammalian central nervous system. Primitive neuroepithelial tumor cells showed the features of undifferentiated multipotential matrix (or ventricular) cells of the neural tube. They formed primitive medullary rosettes, from which various transitions were traced to more differentiated, cilia-containing ependymoblastomatous rosettes; the transitional features included increased granular endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli formation. Glial differentiation was characterized by the presence of mature ependymal rosettes and of astrocytes containing glial filaments. Neuronal differentiation included the development of synapses and the presence of dense-core vesicles in nerve cell processes. No intermediate cell forms were found that suggested multiple lines of differentiation occurring within a single cell. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 21 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:171962

  3. Localization of hepatitis B surface antigen in conventional paraffin sections of the liver. Comparison of immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, and orcein staining methods with regard to their specificity and reliability as antigen marker.

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, N. C.; Sachdeva, R.

    1975-01-01

    Hepatitis B antigen (HBAg) has been demonstrated in conventional formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver tissue by peroxidase and fluorescent immunostaining as well as by orcein. Complete locational and morphologic identity is seen between material stained by specific immunologic methods and by orcein. The antigen is restricted to the cytoplasm and is generally observed in the hepatocyte; it is present in three morphologic forms. Certain morphologic forms can even be identified in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue. Results of immunostaining procedures indicate that the antigen demonstrated in this study consists entirely of surface coat of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg). This seems to be the only component revealed by orcein staining. The latter is considered to be a good marker of the surface antigen and to have certain advantages over immunostaining. It is suggested that suitability of conventional paraffin sections for the detection of HBAg has wide and important implications. Images Figures 1-5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:55076

  4. Acute hyperuricemic nephropathy in rats. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Waisman, J.; Mwasi, L. M.; Bluestone, R.; Klinenberg, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Hyperuricemia and uricosuria were induced in rats fed uric acid and oxonic acid. Kidneys then were studied by light and electron microscopy. After 1 day of hyperuricemia, animals had deposits of uric acid and urate crystals within collecting tubules of the renal papillae, and tubular cells were altered. By 10 days, there was an exudative response with further injury to epithelium. Clear spaces within lumens, epithelium, and neutrophils suggested the presence of crystals; however, there was no direct ultrastructural evidence that neutrophils or epithelial cells ingested crystals and suffered injury. Presumably, crystals readily seen in frozen, unfixed tissue were lost during preparation for electron microscopy. Nonetheless, the ultrastructural findings indicated that hyperuricemic nephropathy was initiated in a fashion analogous to urate arthropathy. Urate crystals formed within collecting tubules, epithelial cells were altered, and most likely there was chemotaxis of neutrophils which underwent degranulation and vacuolation followed by lysis freeing any ingested urate. Release of ingested crystals plus precipitation of new crystals both might serve to sustain the nephritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:1190294

  5. Rehabilitation of a child with partial unilateral cryptophthalmos and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, H; Merriam, J C; Jones, I S

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: This paper describes the surgical rehabilitation of a child with craniofacial anomalies, unilateral syndactyly, and partial unilateral cryptophthalmos associated with inferior colobomata of the iris and optic nerve and agenesis of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The clinical presentation of cryptophthalmos is described. METHODS: The medical literature since the original description of cryptophthalmos in 1872 was reviewed to define patterns of inheritance and the incidence of associated anomalies. RESULTS: Including this patient, 149 case reports of cryptophthalmos were identified. In two families transmission from parent to child suggests dominant inheritance. None of the five dominant cases had any other anomalies, and all had bilateral complete cryptophthalmos. The incidence of cryptophthalmos in the remaining families is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. This group includes patients with bilateral, unilateral, and partial cryptophthalmos. Other anomalies are common, including those of the ear and nose, limbs, genitourinary system, and mouth and palate. Mortality in the perinatal period is associated with renal agenesis, laryngeal atresia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptophthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly with two patterns of inheritance. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8719680

  6. Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging—Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Cammoun, Driss; Davis, Kathleen A.; Hendee, William R.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has far-reaching real and possible clinical applications. Its usefulness has been best explored and realized in the central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa and brain stem, where most abnormalities are better identified than with computed tomography. Its lack of ionizing radiation and extreme sensitivity to normal and abnormal patterns of myelination make magnetic resonance imaging advantageous for diagnosing many neonatal and pediatric abnormalities. New, reliable cardiac gating techniques open the way for promising studies of cardiac anatomy and function. The ability to image directly in three orthogonal planes gives us new insight into staging and follow-up of pelvic tumors and other pelvic abnormalities. Exquisite soft tissue contrast, far above that attainable by other imaging modalities, has made possible the early diagnosis of traumatic ligamentous knee injury, avascular necrosis of the hip and diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of musculoskeletal neoplasms. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:3911592

  7. Helium-neon laser treatment transforms fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Pourreau-Schneider, N.; Ahmed, A.; Soudry, M.; Jacquemier, J.; Kopp, F.; Franquin, J. C.; Martin, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    The differentiation of myofibroblastic cells from normal human gingival fibroblasts in vitro has been established by transmission electron microscopy and quantitated by immunohistochemistry, using antigelsolin monoclonal antibodies. Untreated control cultures were compared to cultures exposed to Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation. A direct and massive transformation of the cultured fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was observed as early as 24 hours after laser treatment, whereas control cultures were comprised of only resting fibroblasts and active fibroblasts. This in vitro induction of myofibroblasts may be analogous to that which occurs in vivo. Therefore we undertook a similar study using biopsies from gingival tissues after wisdom tooth extraction. Myofibroblasts were present in the connective tissue of laser-treated gums 48 hours after irradiation, but not in untreated contralateral control tissues. These data provide evidence that the primary biologic effect of the Helium-Neon laser on connective tissue is the rapid generation of myofibroblasts from fibroblasts. The induction of a phenotype with contractile properties may have clinical significance in the acceleration of the wound-healing process. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2372040

  8. Malignant histiocytosis. A phenotypic and genotypic investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Cattoretti, G.; Villa, A.; Vezzoni, P.; Giardini, R.; Lombardi, L.; Rilke, F.

    1990-01-01

    Ten cases of malignant histiocytosis (MH) were evaluated for clinical and histopathologic features, phenotype, and rearrangement of T cell receptor (TCR) beta, gamma, and alpha and immunoglobulin (Ig) genes (7/10). All cases were HLA-DR+ and CD30-positive. Four cases had molecular evidence of T cell lineage such as TCR beta, gamma, and alpha rearrangements, and one additional case synthesized the cytoplasmic TCR beta chain. The remaining five cases did not show unequivocal T, B, natural killer (NK) cell, or macrophagic origin, and three of them had germline TCR and Ig genes. Ultrastructural analysis was not helpful for the definition of the cell lineage. Most myelomonocytic markers (MAC387, CD13, CD14, CD64, CD68) were either negative on the MH cells or were expressed on cells with rearranged TCR gene. Precursor (CD34, CD7) and NK (CD16, CD56, and CD57) cell markers were not found. The lineage of a number of cases of MH remains unresolved. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2349962

  9. The aesthetics of behavioral arrangements

    PubMed Central

    Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    With their origins in scientific validation, behavior-analytic applications have understandably been developed with an engineering rather than a crafting orientation. Nevertheless, traditions of craftsmanship can be instructive for devising aesthetically pleasing arrangements—arrangements that people will try, and having tried, will choose to continue living with. Pye (1968) provides suggestions for this, particularly through his distinctions between workmanship of risk versus workmanship of certainty, and the mating of functional precision with effective or otherwise pleasing variability. Close examination of woodworking tools as well as antique machines offers instructive analogues that show, for instance, that misplaced precision can be dysfunctional when precision is not essential to a design. Variability should be allowed or even encouraged. Thus, in the design of behavioral contingencies as well as of practical or purely aesthetic objects, “precise versus variable” is not necessarily a distinction between good and bad. More generally, behavior analysts would do well to look beyond their technical experience for ways to improve the aesthetics of contingency design while continuing to understand the resulting innovations in relation to behavior-analytic principles. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:22478437

  10. THE TREATMENT OF URINARY TRACT CALCULI

    PubMed Central

    Leadbetter, Wyland F.

    1958-01-01

    From review of recent information relative to calculus formation in the kidney, the conclusion reached that we do not yet understand, despite much effort, the basic physicochemical mechanisms involved. Since this is so, it has seemed best to the author for the present to rely, in treating patients with renal stones, on simple therapeutic concepts, which, if carefully and conscientiously applied, produce good results. The concepts are the elimination of known causes such as parathyroid adenomas and obstructive lesions, elimination or at least treatment of infections, diminution of urinary components which form the basis of calculi by limiting the oral intake or absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and maintenance of a dilute urine of desired pH. A plan for preoperative study is suggested to allow planned therapy. Indications for operative removal of calculi as well as some points of technique are discussed. It is emphasized that surgical removal of a calculus is but an incident in the care of patients with calculi and that treatment during the postoperative period and followup therapy is most important if success is to be achieved. Reports of cases to illustrate the application of these concepts are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16 PMID:13523394

  11. Phase-Specific Polypeptides and Poly(A)+ RNAs during the Cell Cycle in Synchronous Cultures of Catharanthus roseus Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Naoto; Watanabe, Akira; Komamine, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study shows an overall analysis of gene expression during the cell cycle in synchronous suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus cells. First, the cellular cytoplasmic proteins were fractionated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and visualized by staining with silver. Seventeen polypeptides showed qualitative or quantitative changes during the cell cycle. Second, the rates of synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins were also investigated by autoradiography by labeling cells with [35S]methionine at each phase of the cell cycle. The rates of synthesis of 13 polypeptides were found to vary during the cell cycle. The silverstained electrophoretic pattern of proteins in the G2 phase in particular showed characteristic changes in levels of polypeptides, while the rates of synthesis of polypeptides synthesized during the G2 phase did not show such phase-specific changes. This result suggests that posttranslational processing of polypeptides occurs during or prior to the G2 phase. In the G1 and S phases and during cytokinesis, several other polypeptides were specifically synthesized. Finally, the variation of mRNAs was analyzed from the autoradiograms of in vitro translation products of poly(A)+ RNA isolated at each phase. Three poly(A)+ RNAs increased in amount from the G1 to the S phase and one poly (A)+ RNA increased preferentially from the G2 phase to cytokinesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:16666641

  12. Immunopathology of glomerulonephritis associated with chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus infection in woodchucks (Marmota monax).

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D. N.; Steinberg, H.; Anderson, W. I.; Hornbuckle, W. E.; Cote, P. J.; Gerin, J. L.; Lewis, R. M.; Tennant, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of necropsy findings of 705 woodchucks was performed to determine the prevalence and morphology of immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, its relationship to woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection, and the presence of major WHV antigens. Twenty-six woodchucks had glomerular lesions. Renal tissue of the 26 animals was evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically for immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. Of these 26 animals, immune-mediated glomerulonephritis was diagnosed in six, all of which were chronic WHV carriers. Membranous glomerulonephritis was identified in three animals, two of which also had mesangial proliferation. Host immunoglobulin was present within the mesangium and along capillary loops in all three. Woodchuck hepatitis virus core antigen (WHcAg) was present along capillary loops of two of these animals, one membranous and one mixed, and in the mesangium of all three. Woodchuck hepatitis virus surface antigen (WHsAg) deposition was similar to WHcAg deposition but was only present along capillaries in those animals with mixed nephritis. The remaining three animals had mesangial proliferation. WHsAg and host immunoglobulin deposition were predominately mesangial; WHcAg was not detected. Transmission electron microscopy showed thickening of the capillary loop basement membranes and subepithelial electron-dense deposits in animal one, and deposits in the mesangium in animal six. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1632459

  13. Pathologic and ultrastructural changes of acute and chronic delta hepatitis in an experimentally infected chimpanzee.

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, S.; Fields, H. A.; Humphrey, C. D.; Margolis, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    A hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) chronic carrier chimpanzee experimentally superinfected with delta virus (DV) developed chronic DV infection. Over a period of 12 months, serologic and biochemical changes were correlated with morphologic abnormalities of the liver. Severe hepatic necrosis and inflammation accompanied the initial acute episode of hepatitis on Day 35 after inoculation, followed by complete resolution of these lesions over the next 3 months. A second episode of hepatitis occurred on Day 145, and severe necrosis and inflammation recurred along with the reappearance of delta antigen in the hepatocytes. Delta antigen persisted in the liver following the second episode of hepatitis and has remained positive throughout the observation period of 1 year. During the initial acute episode, the hepatocytes exhibited foamy cytoplasmic changes resembling microvesicular fat. However, ultrastructural studies of the same cells revealed only vacuolization of the cytoplasm without evidence of fat droplets. The inflammatory infiltrate during both episodes of hepatitis demonstrated a striking predominance of macrophages over lymphocytes. Hepatocyte abnormalities observed by electron microscopy included vacuoles, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum, and tubules similar to those seen in posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. However, the tubular and reticular abnormalities coincided with delta antigen expression in liver biopsies detected by direct immunoperoxidase staining and abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels in the serum, which suggests a possible causal relationship. Nuclear abnormalities were not seen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3511726

  14. Cellular localization of type I III and IV procollagen gene transcripts in normal and fibrotic human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Milani, S.; Herbst, H.; Schuppan, D.; Surrenti, C.; Riecken, E. O.; Stein, H.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have determined the cell types producing alpha 1 (I), alpha 2 (I), alpha 1 (III), and alpha 1 (IV) procollagen gene transcripts in adult human liver by in situ hybridization with [35S]-labeled RNA probes. The liver specimens comprised a total of 20 biopsies with normal histology and biopsies with fibrosis or cirrhosis at different clinical stages and of heterogeneous origins. In normal liver, procollagen type I, III, and IV transcripts were detected in stromal and vascular mesenchymal cells of portal tracts and central veins, as well as in some perisinusoidal cells of the lobule. In fibrotic liver, increased levels of these procollagen mRNAs were observed in the same locations, and particularly enhanced in stromal cells of fibrotic septa and portal tracts, as well as in perisinusoidal cells. Expression of alpha 1 (IV) procollagen RNA was additionally found in some vascular endothelial and bile duct epithelial cells. Although previously suggested as the major source of liver collagens, hepatocytes showed no significant procollagen transcript levels in any of our samples. Thus, procollagen synthesis does not appear to be a function of hepatocytes, but rather of mesenchymal, endothelial, and bile duct epithelial cells in adult human liver. These findings may have implications for the development of specifically targeted antifibrotic therapies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2372043

  15. The pathology of an epizootic of acquired immunodeficiency in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, K. G.; Prahalada, S.; Lowenstine, L. J.; Gardner, M. B.; Maul, D. H.; Henrickson, R. V.

    1984-01-01

    A syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency within a group of outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with unusually high mortality has been identified at the California Primate Research Center. The cause of death for most of the affected animals included septicemia and/or chronic diarrhea with wasting, often complicated by other problems. In many cases, multiple or unusual infectious agents were isolated or recognized, including cytomegalovirus, Cryptosporidium spp., and Candida albicans. Septicemias due to usually innocuous agents such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Alcaligenes faecalis were seen. Two animals developed cutaneous fibrosarcomas. Affected animals had generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, with depletion of T-cell populations, initially follicular hyperplasia followed by depletion, and absence of plasma cells. This spontaneous disease syndrome in nonhuman primates has similarities to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, providing an animal model for the study of the complex factors modulating the immune system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6691418

  16. Transmural progression of morphologic changes during ischemic contracture and reperfusion in the normal and hypertrophied rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P. G.; Bishop, S. P.; Digerness, S. B.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the functional and morphologic changes that occur during ischemic contracture and reperfusion in the normal and hypertrophied heart. Hearts from Sprague-Dawley, spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were evaluated using a modified Langendorff perfusion apparatus. After obtaining control data, hearts were potassium-arrested, made ischemic, and studied at various time points. Regional coronary flow was assessed with the use of radiolabeled microspheres or Microfil dye infusion, and morphologic changes were evaluated by means of light and electron microscopy. Sarcomere length changes and qualitative morphologic changes during global ischemia demonstrate a transmural progression of ischemic damage starting at the endocardium and extending, with time, epicardially. The progression of ischemic changes in hypertrophied hearts of SHRs was similar to that of normal hearts; however, hypertrophied hearts developed ischemic contracture sooner than normal hearts. In addition, the development of contraction band change after ischemic contracture occurred only when hearts were reperfused and was related to the development of no-reflow. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:2959155

  17. Surgical treatment of obesity: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Fobi, M. A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease due to excess fat storage, a genetic predisposition, and strong environmental contributions. This problem is worldwide, and the incidence is increasing daily. There are medical, physical, social, economic, and psychological comorbid conditions associated with obesity. There is no cure for obesity except possibly prevention. Nonsurgical treatment has been inadequate in providing sustained weight loss. Currently, surgery offers the only viable treatment option with longterm weight loss and maintenance for the morbidly obese. Surgeries for weight loss are called bariatric surgeries. There is no one operation that is effective for all patients. Gastric bypass operations are the most common operations currently used. Because there are inherent complications from surgeries, bariatric surgeries should be performed in a multidisciplinary setting. The laparoscopic approach is being used by some surgeons in performing the various operations. The success rate--usually defined as >50% excess weight loss that is maintained for at least five years from bariatric surgery--ranges from 40% in the simple to >70% in the complex operations. The weight loss from surgical treatment results in significant improvements and, in some cases, complete resolution of comorbid conditions associated with obesity. Patients undergoing surgery for obesity need lifelong nutritional supplements and medical monitoring. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:14746355

  18. Immunolocalization of entactin, a sulfated basement membrane component, in rodent tissues, and comparison with GP-2 (laminin).

    PubMed Central

    Bender, B. L.; Jaffe, R.; Carlin, B.; Chung, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Entactin is a sulfated glycoprotein in the extracellular basement membrane like matrix produced by M1536-B3 cells, a mouse endodermal line derived from an embryonal carcinoma. It has a molecular weight of 158,000 and is chemically and immunologically distinguishable from GP-2 (laminin) and fibronectin. Antibodies produced against entactin and GP-2 react with subepithelial and vascular basement membranes in rat lung, liver, spleen, and kidney and mouse placenta and kidney when examined by light microscopy. Both antibodies yield staining around the marginal sinus of the white pulp of the spleen. Antientactin reacts with basement membrane and mesangium in rat glomeruli, and anti-GP2 does not. Ultrastructurally, staining in kidneys is strongest at epithelial or endothelial cell membranes bordering basement membranes, with only moderate staining of the basement membrane proper. Intracellular staining is not present. The location of entactin suggests that it has a role in the interaction of cells with extracellular matrix, possibly in adhesion. Lack of intracellular staining suggests that the tissues studied are not actively producing entactin or GP-2 and that these substances may be fairly stable in adult organisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:6165248

  19. Age as a factor in the bacteriology and response to treatment of subperiosteal abscess of the orbit.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G J

    1993-01-01

    The clinical course of SPA of the orbit is associated with the age of the patient. That association might be explained through a series of intermediate relationships: the clinical course correlates with the bacterial constituency, the bacterial constituency is related to physiologic derangement within the sinuses, the physiologic derangement may vary with the degree of obstruction of the sinus ostia, and the ostial caliber relative to the volume of the cavity that must be drained decreases with patient age into late adolescence. The controversy between pediatricians and surgeons over the appropriate indications for drainage might be resolved with the acknowledgement that each side is correct on the basis of the patient populations treated. It is hoped that recognition of the age-related variations in SPA will permit a more systematic approach to the management of this complex infectious disease. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 PMID:8140703

  20. Glycosaminoglycans in the rat aorta. Ultrastructural localization with toluidine blue O and osmium--ferrocyanide procedure.

    PubMed Central

    Coltoff-Schiller, B.; Goldfischer, S.

    1981-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of sclerotic vascular disease. The localization of GAGs in the rat aorta was examined by two different ultrastructural cytochemical approaches. These procedures are believed to demonstrate 1) anionic sites, with fixatives that contain either toluidine blue or ruthenium red, both cationic dyes, and 2) polysaccharides, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins, with an osmium--ferrocyanide mixture that binds to vicinal diols. Both procedures stain a network of insoluble, 2--8-nm filaments that bridge collagen fibers, elastin, basement membranes, and plasma membranes. These structures resist digestion with chondroitinase ABC and appear to be identical to the filaments that have previously been demonstrated with ruthenium red. Focal 6--12-nm densities are present where filaments intersect. However, the large granules that are made visible with ruthenium red are not seen in toluidine blue or osmium--ferrocyanide preparations. A soluble and relatively amorphous component surrounds the tightly packed bundles of collagen in the media and is preserved and stained by toluidine blue and osmium--ferrocyanide mixtures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6172040

  1. Early lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men. An ultrastructural comparison with other vascular proliferations in skin.

    PubMed Central

    McNutt, N. S.; Fletcher, V.; Conant, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    An aggressive variant of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has appeared in young homosexual men with evidence of systemic immunosuppression. The ultrastructure in biopsy specimens from 8 KS cases in young homosexual men has been compared with that in biopsy specimens from 4 KS cases in elderly heterosexuals and with that in biopsy specimens from 23 cases of benign vascular disorders of skin. In all cases of KS the small blood vessels lacked a prominent investment of pericytes and their processes, had a fragmented and often absent basal lamina, had frequent discontinuities in the endothelial lining, and had only a few small junctional densities between endothelial cells. Some clinically aggressive cases of KS also had necrosis of individual endothelial cells and had prominent cytoplasmic processes entrapping individual collagen fibers. The benign disorders lacked these features. These differences in the structure of the small vessels may be of diagnostic value in some early cases of KS. The loss of dendritic pericytes in blood capillaries in KS might relate to the telangiectasia which is a prominent feature of the early lesions of KS. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6301283

  2. Light- and electron-microscopic histochemistry of Fabry's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faraggiana, T.; Churg, J.; Grishman, E.; Strauss, L.; Prado, A.; Bishop, D. F.; Schuchman, E.; Desnick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A histochemical study was performed on light- and electron-microscopic level in a case of Fabry's disease. The patient underwent kidney transplantation for renal failure and died of heart failure 6 months later. Patient's tissues were studied at the light- and electron-microscopic levels with various embedding and staining techniques for lipids and carbohydrates. Two peroxidase-labeled lectins (from Ricinus communis and from Bandeiraea simplicifolia) known to have affinity for alpha- and beta-D-galactose, were strongly reactive with the storage material on frozen sections. The ultrahistochemical and extraction tests showed that the typical granules had a variable reactivity and morphologic characteristics in different cells, probably reflecting different composition. A small number of typical deposits were also observed in the transplanted kidney. This is the first reported case of recurrence of the storage disease in the allograft. Of interest was also the fact that the patient's blood inhibited normal alpha-galactosidase activity, suggesting a possible inhibitor-related mechanism in the pathogenesis of the recurrence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:6786101

  3. Ultrastructural radioautography and cytochemistry of lead absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Parmley, R. T.; Barton, J. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Austin, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Lead is a universal environmental contaminant absorbed largely through the gastrointestinal tract by unknown mechanisms. Because lead absorption is influenced by iron content in the body and diet, we used ultrastructural radioautography and cytochemistry to study absorption of physiologic lead doses in the rat duodenal epithelial cell and compared these findings to those previously reported for iron absorption. Rat duodenal loops exposed in vivo to 210Pb for 1 minute demonstrated the majority of labels on the microvilli, terminal web, and apical cytoplasm. Specimens exposed to radiolead for 10 minutes demonstrated more abundant labeling with a relative increase in labeling of epithelial cell mitochondria, nuclei and basal cytoplasm, as well as phagocytic cells, endothelial cells, and circulating erythrocytes of the lamina propria. Timm's sulfide-silver method localized trace metals in epithelial cells. After administration of lead, a significant increase in staining was observed in microvilli, mitochondria, non-membrane-bound cytoplasm, and nuclear chromatin. The rapid appearance of absorbed lead in epithelial cell mitochondria and nuclei, as well as phagocytic cells in the lamina propria, was distinctly different from that reported for absorbed iron and suggests different mechanisms for the subcellular transport of these cations. The combination of radioautography and Timm's sulfide-silver staining provides the specificity and resolution needed for ultrastructural evaluation of lead absorption and should be useful in further studies of lead metabolism. Images Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figures 1-2 PMID:464028

  4. The relation of experimental arthritis to the distribution of streptococcal cell wall fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Dalldorf, F. G.; Cromartie, W. J.; Anderle, S. K.; Clark, R. L.; Schwab, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The intraperitoneal injection of peptidoglycan-carbohydrate fragments from Group A streptococci produces a chronic, polyarticular, erosive synovitis in rats. The cell wall material accumulates rapidly in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, where it causes little injury. At the same time, selective localization and persistence of the material in the synovial and periarticular tissues occurs. Its presence in the joint is associated with acute and recurrent inflammation with focal synotivitis, pannus formation, joint destruction, and ankylosis. Cell wall fragments become localized in the synovial and periarticular tissues at a time when there are leukocytes in the bloodstream, which appear to contain the material. During this early phase vascular lesions appear in the synovium and in periarticular tissues with collections of fibrin, neutrophils, macrophages, and cell wall fragments near the venules and capillaries. Recurrent episodes of inflammation and joint injury, associated with persistent cell wall antigen within macrophages, were observed over a period of 90 days. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:6996490

  5. Immunoreactivity of anti-streptococcal monoclonal antibodies to human heart valves. Evidence for multiple cross-reactive epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Gulizia, J. M.; Cunningham, M. W.; McManus, B. M.

    1991-01-01

    Association of group A streptococci with acute rheumatic fever and valvular heart disease is well established; however the basis of valve injury remains unclear. In this study, anti-streptococcal monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) cross-reactive with myocardium were reacted with sections from 22 rheumatic valves, nine normal, five endocarditic, one 'floppy,' and one Marfan valve. In immunohistochemical studies, MAb reactivity was observed with cardiac myocytes, smooth muscle cells, cell surface and cytoplasm of endothelial cells lining valves, and valvular interstitial cells. Endothelial basement membrane and elastin fibrils reacted with the MAbs, whereas collagen was unreactive. Similar reactivity was seen with sera from acute rheumatic fever patients. The anti-streptococcal MAbs reacted with intravalvular myosin and vimentin in Western blots, and purified elastin competitively inhibited the binding of the anti-streptococcal MAbs to whole group A streptococci. The data show that human heart valves have numerous sites of immunoreactivity with anti-streptococcal MAbs and acute rheumatic fever sera of potential importance in the pathogenesis of rheumatic valvular injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:1704188

  6. Pulmonary and generalized lysosomal storage induced by amphiphilic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Hruban, Z

    1984-01-01

    Administration of amphiphilic drugs to experimental animals causes formation of myelinoid bodies in many cell types, accumulation of foamy macrophages in pulmonary alveoli and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. These changes are the result of an interaction between the drugs and phospholipids which leads to an alteration in physicochemical properties of the phospholipids. Impairment of the digestion of altered pulmonary secretions in phagosomes of macrophages results in accumulation of foam cells in pulmonary alveoli. Impairment of the metabolism of altered phospholipids removed by autophagy induces an accumulation of myelinoid bodies. The administration of amphiphilic compounds thus causes pulmonary intra-alveolar histiocytosis which is a part of a drug-induced lysosomal storage or generalized lipidosis. The accumulation of drug-lipid complexes in myelinoid bodies and in pulmonary foam cells may lead to alteration of cellular functioning and to clinical disease. Currently over 50 amphiphilic drugs are known. Unique pharmacological properties necessitate clinical use of some of these drugs. The occurrence and severity of potential clinical side effects depend on the nature of each drug, dosage and duration of treatment, simultaneous administration of other drugs and foods, individual metabolic pattern of the patient and other factors. Further studies on factors preventing and potentiating adverse effects of amphiphilic drugs are indicated. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:6376111

  7. Scanning tunneling microscopy of mercapto-hexyl-oligonucleotides attached to gold.

    PubMed Central

    Rekesh, D; Lyubchenko, Y; Shlyakhtenko, L S; Lindsay, S M

    1996-01-01

    6-mercapto hexyl-oligonucleotides bind to a gold surface strongly enough to permit imaging by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). STM images showed worm-like chains that were approximately 12-(A-wide for single-stranded DNA and 20-(A-wide for double-stranded DNA. The chain lengths corresponded to 3.4 +/- 0.4 A per basepair for double-stranded DNA and 2.2 +/- 0.4 A per base for single-stranded DNA. This unexpectedly short length for single-stranded DNA was confirmed using oligomers with both single- and double-stranded regions. When the attachment of the samples was weakened (by imaging in water or scraping with the STM tip) the images changed to pairs of "blobs," apparently reflecting the attachment points of the molecules to the gold surface. Given this interpretation, images of DNA containing a five-base bulge imply that the bulge bends the oligomer by 90 degrees +/- 20 degrees. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:8842244

  8. Autopsy pathology in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, C. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Levens, D. L.; Simrell, C. R.; Macher, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new illness which appears to be sexually and parenterally transmissible. AIDS was first described in the male homosexual community; however, the disease has more recently been described among intravenous drug abusers, Haitians, hemophiliacs, and others. The etiologic agent is unknown. AIDS may represent an infection by a previously undescribed organism, a mutant of a known microorganism, or a multifactorial combination of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors. As a consequence of the disease's seemingly irreversible ablation of the cell-mediated immune system, AIDS victims succumb to a variety of infections and/or unusual neoplasms. In its fully developed form, mortality approaches 100%. At autopsy the gross and microscopic pathology of the syndrome can be divided into three general categories: 1) morphologic manifestations of profound lymphoid depletion; 2) infections, usually with mixed opportunistic pathogens; and 3) unusual neoplasms, most frequently Kaposi's sarcoma or high-grade lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 PMID:6311021

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging. Application to family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, R. H.; Somers, S.; Jurriaans, E.; Yu, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. MAIN MESSAGE: For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10509224

  10. Bay or baylike regions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were potent inhibitors of Gap junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, L M; Rummel, A M; Masten, S J; Trosko, J E; Upham, B L

    1998-01-01

    Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens, and a considerable amount of research has been devoted to predicting the tumor-initiating potential of PAHs based on chemical structure. However, there has been little research into the effects of PAHs on the epigenetic events of tumor promotion and no structural correlation has been made thereof. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) activity was used in this study as an epigenetic biomarker to determine the structure-activity relationships of twelve different PAHs. The PAHs used were naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, anthracene, 1-methylanthracene, 2-methylanthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 9, 10-dimethylanthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, 1-methylfluorene, and fluoranthene. Results showed that PAHs containing bay or baylike regions inhibited GJIC more than did the linear PAHs. The nonnaphthalene PAHs were not cytotoxic as determined by a vital dye uptake assay, but the naphthalene compounds were cytotoxic at the higher doses, indicating that the down regulation of GJIC by these naphthalenes could be a consequence of general membrane damage. Inhibition of GJIC by all the inhibitory PAHs was reversed when the cells were refreshed with PAH-free growth medium. Inhibition of GJIC occurred within 0.5-5 min and correlated with the aqueous solubility of the PAHs. The present study revealed that there are structural determinants of epigenetic toxicity as determined by GJIC activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9417772

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor beta isoforms in asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Jagirdar, J; Lee, T C; Reibman, J; Gold, L I; Aston, C; Bégin, R; Rom, W N

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a multifunctional cytokine and growth factor, plays a key role in scarring and fibrotic processes because of its ability to induce extracellular matrix proteins and modulate the growth and immune function of many cell types. These effects are important in inflammatory disorders with fibrosis and cancer. The asbestos-related diseases are characterized by fibrosis in the lower respiratory tract and pleura and increased occurrence of lung cancer and mesothelioma. We performed immunohistochemistry with isoform-specific antibodies to the three TGF-beta isoforms on 16 autopsy lungs from Quebec, Canada, asbestos miners and millers. There was increased immunolocalization of all three TGF-beta isoforms in the fibrotic lesions of asbestosis and pleural fibrosis. The hyperplastic type II pneumocytes contained all three isoforms. By contrast, there was differential spatial immunostaining for the TGF-beta isoforms in malignant mesothelioma, with TGF-beta 1 in the stroma but TGF-beta 2 in the tumor cells. These data are consistent with an important role for TGF-beta in accumulation of extracellular matrix and cell proliferation in asbestos-related diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. PMID:9400723

  12. Morphologic studies in the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:474720

  13. Cirrhosis of the liver induced by cupric nitrilotriacetate in Wistar rats. An experimental model of copper toxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Toyokuni, S.; Okada, S.; Hamazaki, S.; Fujioka, M.; Li, J. L.; Midorikawa, O.

    1989-01-01

    Rats intraperitoneally injected with a daily dose of cupric nitrilotriacetate (Cu-NTA), which contained 4 to 7 mg of copper/kg body weight, showed submassive liver necrosis, hemolytic anemia, and acute renal tubular necrosis at the beginning of the experiment and intermittently after 4 weeks of injections. All rats that survived over 8 weeks exhibited liver fibrosis with portal-portal, portal-central, and central-central bridging. In all rats that survived over 16 weeks, micronodular cirrhosis of the liver or extensive liver fibrosis was observed. The copper content of the cirrhotic/fibrotic liver was above 250 micrograms/g dry weight. Electron-microscopic x-ray analysis at day 93 revealed that copper stored in secondary lysosomes was always accompanied by a proportional amount of sulfur (correlation coefficient, 0.98; P less than 0.005). An experimental model of copper toxicosis in terms of copper-induced cirrhosis of the liver was established with exogenous copper chelated by nitrilotriacetate. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2757117

  14. Understanding Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Frank A.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the evaluation and treatment of the patient with multidirectional shoulder instability. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE for the years from 1980 to 2000 using the key words “shoulder joint,” “instability,” “dislocation,” “multidirectional shoulder instability,” and “inferior capsular shift.” Data Synthesis: Multidirectional instability is symptomatic glenohumeral subluxation or dislocation in more than 1 direction: anterior, inferior, or posterior. The primary pathology is a loose and patulous capsule, and the entity is more common than previously recognized. Multidirectional instability affects young, sedentary patients with generalized ligamentous laxity, often with bilateral symptoms and an atraumatic history, but it also affects athletes, many of whom have sustained injuries. Patients with multidirectional instability may also have Bankart lesions and humeral head impression defects. Conclusions/Recommendations: Patients with multidirectional instability must be identified before appropriate treatment can be initiated. If a course of rehabilitation fails to improve the patient's symptoms, an inferior capsular shift procedure has been demonstrated to be an effective surgical option. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:16558641

  15. An ultrastructural analysis of endothelial change paralleling platelet aggregation in a light/dye model of microvascular insult.

    PubMed Central

    Povlishock, J. T.; Rosenblum, W. I.; Sholley, M. M.; Wei, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Those microvascular endothelial events that parallel the evolution of platelet aggregation were evaluated in a well-controlled animal model. Cat pial microvessels were observed through a cranial window while local platelet aggregation was produced by intravenous injection of sodium fluorescein and simultaneous exposure of the pial vessels to light from a filtered mercury lamp that excited the fluorescein. The vessels were fixed in situ when the in vivo observations of a preselected vessel indicated early, intermediate, or advanced aggregation in that vessel. The preselected vessel was then harvested for ultrastructural study together with adjacent vessels from the illuminated field. These vessels and appropriate controls were compared in semiserial thin sections. The onset of platelet aggregation in both venules and arterioles was accompanied by focal endothelial lucency, vacuole formation, luminal membrane rupture, and swelling of the nuclear envelope. These changes were not found in control material. With intermediate aggregation these changes were more common, while with advanced aggregation these abnormalities occurred together with focal endothelial denudation. Thus, in this model denudation occurred only with advanced aggregation and was not a prerequisite for aggregation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6824062

  16. Neonatal Cardiac Distress—A Practical Approach to Recognition, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Cayler, Glen G.

    1968-01-01

    The death rate among neonates with cardiovascular disease is 50 percent during the first six months, with the majority dying during the first month. With early diagnosis most of these babies could be saved. In approaching the diagnosis of cardiac distress in the newborn, it is important to remember that the types of cardiovascular disease which cause symptoms and death early in life are quite different from those in older children. Lesions such as hypoplasia of the left heart, transposition of the great arteries, endocardial fibroelastosis, pulmonary atresia, mitral atresia, tricuspid atresia and truncus arteriosus are common, not rare, causes of cardiac distress in the newborn. A classification of neonatal cardiovascular diseases into seven pathophysiological groups is presented as a basis for an effective, practical approach to the differential diagnosis of the potentially lethal lesions. This approach is simplified further since over 90 percent of babies with cardiac distress have one of three lesions: (1) Large left-to-right shunt (characterized by the presence of massive plethora on the chest roentgenogram), (2) Large right-to-left shunt (association with intense cyanosis) or (3) Severe obstruction (including hypoplasia of the left heart, which is the most common cause of death due to cardiac distress during the first week of life). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:4867629

  17. Binding of normal human IgG to myelin sheaths, glia and neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Aarli, J A; Aparicio, S R; Lumsden, C E; Tönder, O

    1975-01-01

    The binding of normal human serum, purified IgG and IgG fragments to central nervous tissue was studied by the anti-globulin consumption (AGCT) and immunofluorescence (IF) techniques. In the AGCT, F(ab')2 fragments failed to react, whereas IgG and Fc fragments did so. In IF experiments, the binding was localized to myelin sheaths, glia and neurons; Fab monomers at a protein concentration of 1-3 mg/ml dod not react with the tissue, but purified Fc fragments at 0-0625 mg/ml did. The binding is neither tissue- nor species-specific. Lipid and protein extraction procedures indicated that the factor responsible for binding to myelin was basic protein. It was concluded that the binding of normal IgG to central nervous tissue is medicated by the Fc part of the molecule. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:803915

  18. Lymphoreticular and myeloid pathogenesis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D. H.; Harrison, A.; Murphy, K.; Flemister, M.; Murphy, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrastructural, histopathologic, and virologic studies of adult hamsters infected with virulent Venezuelan equine encelphalomyelitis (VEE) virus (Subtype I-B) demonstrated precise chronologic and topographic progression of lesions and viral replication in extraneural sites. Thymus contained the earliest lesions and the highest initial and subsequent viral titers. No particular cytotropism was observed as highly efficient viral replication and severe cytonecrosis proceded. Early cortical necrosis of splenic periarteriolar lymphocytic sheath was followed by lymphoblastoid repopulation of the peripheral zone. Massive bone marrow necrosis was accompained by ultrastructural evidence of VEE viral particle production in reticulum cells, rubricytes, myeloid cells, lymphoblastoid cells, and megakaryocytes. Speed, efficiency, destructiveness, and relative sensitivity of virtually all lymphoreticular and hematopoetic cells were hallmarks of virulent VEE infection in the hamster. Images Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 12A and B Figure 13 Figure 7 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:941983

  19. The mechanics of motility in dissociated cytoplasm.

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, M

    1986-01-01

    We stimulate the dynamical behavior of dissociated cytoplasm using the Reactive Flow Model (Dembo, M., and F. Harlow, 1986, Biophys. J., 50:109-121). We find that for the most part the predicted dynamical behavior of the cytoplasm is governed by three nondimensional numbers. Several other nondimensional parameters, the initial conditions, and boundary conditions are found to have lesser effects. Of the three major nondimensional parameters, one (D#) controls the percentage of ectoplasm, the second (C#) controls the sharpness of the endoplasm-ectoplasm boundary, and the third (R#) controls the topological complexity of the endoplasm-ectoplasm distribution. If R# is very small, then the cytoplasm contracts into a single uniform mass, and there is no bulk streaming. If R# is very large, then the cytoplasmic mass breaks up into a number of clumps scattered throughout the available volume. Between these clumps the solution undergoes turbulent or chaotic patterns of streaming. Intermediate values of R# can be found such that the mass of cytoplasm remains connected and yet undergoes coherent modes of motility similar to flares (Taylor, D.L., J.S. Condeelis, P.L. Moore, and R.D. Allen, 1973, J. Cell Biol., 59:378-394) and rosettes (Kuroda, K., 1979, Cell Motility: Molecules and Organization, 347-362). Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 1B FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:3801576

  20. Immunolocalization and gene expression of oxytocin receptors in carcinomas and non-neoplastic tissues of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    Bussolati, G.; Cassoni, P.; Ghisolfi, G.; Negro, F.; Sapino, A.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that oxytocin (OT), in addition to the induction of myometrial and myoepithelial cell contraction, can influence proliferation and differentiation in developing mammary glands and in breast cancer cells, hence the interest in detecting and locating OT receptors (OTRs). We produced rabbit antisera and a monoclonal antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxy terminus of the predicted OTR sequence. We tested their specificity in immunoblasts and immunocytochemical tests. All of the antibodies specifically stained myometrium (at term of pregnancy). In the human breast, OTRs were detected in myoepithelial cells along ducts of normal lobules and in sclerosing adenosis. Intraductal cells in benign hyperplastic lesions were also positive. OTRs were demonstrated in cases of primary and metastatic carcinomas of the breast. In the same tissues, OTR gene expression was shown by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction procedures detecting the specific mRNA. These results suggest that the interaction between OT and its receptors might play a role in the origin and evolution of non-neoplastic lesions and carcinomas of the breast. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8669475

  1. Structure of the extracellular surface of the gap junction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Hoh, J H; Sosinsky, G E; Revel, J P; Hansma, P K

    1993-01-01

    The extracellular surface of the gap junction cell-to-cell channels was imaged in phosphate-buffered saline with an atomic force microscope. The fully hydrated isolated gap junction membranes adsorbed to mica were irregular sheets approximately 1-2 microns across and 13.2 (+/- 1.3) nm thick. The top bilayer of the gap junction was dissected by increasing the force applied to the tip or sometimes by increasing the scan rate at moderate forces. The exposed extracellular surface revealed a hexagonal array with a center-to-center spacing of 9.4 (+/- 0.9) nm between individual channels (connexons). Images of individual connexons with a lateral resolution of < 3.5 nm, and in the best case approximately 2.5 nm, were reliably and reproducibly obtained with high-quality tips. These membrane channels protruded 1.4 (+/- 0.4) nm from the extracellular surface of the lipid membrane, and the atomic force microscope tip reached up to 0.7 nm into the pore, which opened up to a diameter of 3.8 (+/- 0.6) nm on the extracellular side. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8396452

  2. New Anatomical Description of the Cavernous Sinus Surface and Its Significance in Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Prescher, Andreas; Brors, Dominik; von Ammon, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    The anatomical and surgical approach to the sella region is of special interest for microsurgeons involved in ear, nose, and throat surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, maxillofacial surgery, and skull base surgery. We investigated the surface morphology of the cavernous sinus and the sella turcica in 48 adult and 2 neonate specimens. To simplify the morphometric recording, distances between anatomical landmarks were defined. In addition, three triangles—the preinfundibular, the parasellar, and the internal carotid artery triangle—are introduced. These triangles are defined in order to determine the location where cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI penetrate the dura with respect to the anterior and posterior clinoid processes and the tuberculum and dorsum sellae. The triangles were found to be symmetrical, with identical bilateral measurements, and the entry points of the cranial nerves were found to be constant. In 17 cases (34%), we found a dehiscence of the sellar diaphragm, and in 15 cases (30%), rope-like adhesions at the pituitary stalk. ImagesFigure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:17171029

  3. Inflammatory and immune processes in the human lung in health and disease: evaluation by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed Central

    Hunninghake, G. W.; Gadek, J. E.; Kawanami, O.; Ferrans, V. J.; Crystal, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage is an invaluable means of accurately evaluating the inflammatory and immune processes of the human lung. Although lavage recovers only those cells and proteins present on the epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract, comparison with open lung biopsies shows that these constituents are representative of the inflammatory and immune systems of the alveolar structures. With the use of these techniques, sufficient materials are obtained from normal individuals to allow characterization of not only the types of cells and proteins present but their functions as well. Such observations have been useful in defining the inflammatory and immune capabilities of the normal lung and provide a basis for the study of lung disease. Lavage methods have been used to characterize inflammatory and immune processes of the lower respiratory tract in destructive, infectious, neoplastic, and interstitial disorders. From the data already acquired, it is apparent that bronchoalveolar lavage will yield major insights into the pathogenesis, staging, and therapy decisions involved in these disorders. (Am J Pathol 97:149--206, 1979). Images Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 3 PMID:495693

  4. Chemically induced bidirectional differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Speers, W. C.; Birdwell, C. R.; Dixon, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    N,N-dimethylacetamide, hexamethylene bisacetamide, and Polybrene induced rapid and extensive differentiation in vitro in an otherwise slowly differentiating subline of embryonal carcinoma cells. The type of differentiated cell induced was dependent on the spatial organization of the stem cells during drug treatment. In monalayer culture "epithelial" cells were produced exclusively. However, treatment of aggregated suspension cultures yielded predominantly "fibroblast-like" cells. The undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells and the two differentiated cell types were morphologically distinct when examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; and they had differences in cell surface antigens. Both differential cell types produced large amounts of fibronectin, whereas the embryonal carcinoma cells produced only minimal amounts. This system provides a convenient way to induce relatively synchronous differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells into specific differentiated cell types. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:507191

  5. Alzheimer's disease. A double-labeling immunohistochemical study of senile plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, D. W.; Farlo, J.; Davies, P.; Crystal, H.; Fuld, P.; Yen, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The senile plaque is one of the histopathologic changes that characterizes Alzheimer's disease and the aging brain. The histopathology of senile plaques was studied using double-labeling immunohistochemistry and lectin histochemistry with thioflavin S fluorescent microscopy in 9 cases of Alzheimer's disease, 2 nondemented elderly individuals, and 3 individuals with non-Alzheimer primary degenerative dementias. Every plaque that was visualized with thioflavin also had amyloid, but not all thioflavin-positive plaques contained neurites that could be recognized with specific monoclonal antibodies to paired helical filament, tau, or neurofilament epitopes. Some neurofilament-positive neurites were not visualized with thioflavin, but almost all tau-positive neurites were colabeled with thioflavin. Microglia were associated with most plaques. Most plaques were also surrounded by fibrous astrocytes. These results suggest that amyloid may be the common feature that defines senile plaques, but that other elements may be more specific for Alzheimer's disease, because extensive neuritic degeneration was seen only in Alzheimer brains and not in either nondemented elderly individuals with senile plaques or in non-Alzheimer dementia cases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2456021

  6. Detection of HLA-DR on microglia in the human brain is a function of both clinical and technical factors.

    PubMed Central

    Mattiace, L. A.; Davies, P.; Dickson, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    Detection of HLA-DR, a class II major histocompatibility antigen, on glial cells is dependent not only on duration and type of tissue fixation and processing, but also on clinical factors. Glial cells labeled by anti-HLA-DR were consistent with microglia by light microscopic and ultrastructural criteria, and were colabeled with other microglial markers, including LN-1, Leu-M5, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA). In young and elderly subjects who died suddenly, anti-HLA-DR labeled microglia in the white matter, but far fewer cells in the gray matter. In subjects who died of chronic debilitating illness, such as Alzheimer's disease and carcinomatosis, anti-HLA-DR labeled numerous microglia throughout both the gray and white matter. In Alzheimer's disease, microglia were aggregated in compact senile plaques, but loosely associated with diffuse amyloid deposits. These results suggest that HLA-DR may be constitutively expressed in white matter, but induced in gray matter microglia in chronic disease states or in association with amyloid deposits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:1693471

  7. Astrocytes and microglia in human brain share an epitope recognized by a B-lymphocyte-specific monoclonal antibody (LN-1).

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, D. W.; Mattiace, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    A B-lymphocyte-specific mouse monoclonal antibody, LN-1, recognizes two morphologic classes of glial cells in human brain. The nature and duration of tissue fixation and processing are critical in the detection of the two cell types. In tissue that is lightly fixed, LN-1 recognizes astrocytes. The astrocytic nature of the LN-1 reactive glial cell was confirmed by cytologic features, tissue distribution, immunoelectron microscopy, double labeling immunofluorescent microscopy, and staining of serial sections with antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein. In tissue that is fixed for longer periods or in Bouin's fixative, two glial cell types are recognized: astrocytes and microglia. The identity of the latter cell type as microglia was confirmed by morphologic features, tissue distribution, immunoelectron microscopy, and double staining with monoclonal antibodies or lectins to macrophage markers, including class II major histocompatibility antigens. The two cell types had different disposition in senile plaques of elderly individuals and of those with Alzheimer's disease. Astrocytes were present at the periphery of the plaques, whereas microglial cells were centrally placed, often in juxtaposition to amyloid. The results are discussed with respect to ontogeny of glial cells and the ability of monoclonal antibodies to recognize epitopes on unrelated proteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2476034

  8. Cytokeratin 20 in human carcinomas. A new histodiagnostic marker detected by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Moll, R.; Löwe, A.; Laufer, J.; Franke, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have recently identified a new cytokeratin (CK) polypeptide, CK 20, whose expression is almost entirely confined to the gastric and intestinal epithelium, urothelium, and Merkel cells. Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for CK 20 were raised and characterized by applying immunoblotting and immunocytochemical screening. All of them reacted on frozen tissue sections. A further MAb, IT-Ks20.8, recognized CK 20 in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. A total of 711 cases of primary and metastatic cancer, mostly carcinomas, were analyzed immunohistochemically for CK-20 expression, using CK-20 specific guinea-pig antibodies and MAbs. The expression spectrum of CK 20 in carcinomas resembled that seen in the corresponding normal epithelia of origin. CK-20 positivity was seen in the vast majority of adenocarcinomas of the colon (89/93 cases), mucinous ovarian tumors, transitional-cell and Merkel-cell carcinomas and frequently also in adenocarcinomas of the stomach, bile system, and pancreas. Most squamous cell carcinomas in general and most adenocarcinomas from other sites (breast, lung, endometrium), nonmucinous tumors of the ovary, and small-cell lung carcinomas were essentially or completely negative. The authors propose to use CK 20 as a diagnostic marker valuable in distinguishing different types of carcinomas, notably when presenting as metastases. Images Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1371204

  9. Management of Rotator Cuff and Impingement Injuries in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gerald R.; Kelley, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To review current concepts of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athlete. Data Sources: The information we present was compiled from a review of classic and recently published material regarding rotator cuff and impingement injuries. These materials were identified through a search of a personal literature database compiled by the authors, as well as by selective searching of the MEDLINE. In addition, much of the information presented represents observations and opinions of the authors developed over 8 to 10 years of treating shoulder injuries in athletes. Data Synthesis: Biomechanics of the normal shoulder and pathophysiology of rotator cuff injuries in the athletic population are discussed, followed by a summary of the important diagnostic features of rotator cuff and impingement injuries. The principles of rehabilitation are extensively presented, along with indications and important technical aspects of selected surgical procedures. General principles and specific protocols of postoperative rehabilitation are also summarized. Conclusions/Recommendations: Rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athletic population are multifactorial in etiology, exhibiting significant overlap with glenohumeral instability. Nonoperative treatment is successful in most athletic patients with rotator cuff and impingement injuries. When nonoperative treatment fails, arthroscopic surgical techniques such as rotator cuff repair and subacromial decompression may be successful in returning the athlete to competition. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:16558644

  10. Variations in polyoma virus genotype in relation to tumor induction in mice. Characterization of wild type strains with widely differing tumor profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, C. J.; Freund, R.; Mandel, G.; Ballmer-Hofer, K.; Talmage, D. A.; Benjamin, T. L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have explored the effects of variations in mouse polyoma virus genotype on patterns of tumor formation in the mouse. Four "wild type" virus strains were surveyed. Two were highly oncogenic, inducing multiple tumors of epithelial and mesenchymal origin, at high frequency and with short latency. The other two strains were weakly oncogenic, inducing fewer tumors, solely of mesenchymal origin, and after a long latency. These sharply contrasting tumor profiles were reproduced with virus stocks derived from molecularly cloned viral genomes. Though vastly different in their oncogenic properties, these cloned viruses proved equally effective in transforming established rat fibroblasts in culture and showed the same patterns of tumor antigen expression in cultured mouse cells. Complexes of polyoma middle T antigen and pp60c-src were demonstrated in extracts of epithelial tumors induced by a highly oncogenic virus strain. It is concluded that polyoma viral genetic determinants for tumor induction in the mouse are more complex than those previously defined by the use of cell transformation systems. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:2437801

  11. Rous-Whipple Award Lecture. Contributions to the physiology and pathology of the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Gonatas, N. K.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of the Golgi apparatus in the transport, processing, and targeting of proteins destined for secretion, plasma membranes, and lysosomes has emerged from numerous studies. In this paper we review studies from our laboratory dealing with 1) the Golgi apparatus during mitosis and the role of microtubules in maintaining the structure of the organelle, 2) the endocytosis of antibodies, exogenous lectins, and toxins into the Golgi apparatus of several cells including neurons in vivo and in vitro, 3) the traffic of MG-160, a membrane sialoglycoprotein of the medial cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, from the trans-Golgi network to the Golgi cisternae, and 4) the involvement of the Golgi apparatus of motor neurons in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We conclude with a summary of ongoing work on the primary structure of MG-160 and introduce evidence suggesting that this intrinsic membrane protein of the Golgi apparatus may be involved in the regulation of endogenous, autocrine, basic fibroblast growth factor. We hope that this review will stimulate studies on the Golgi apparatus of neurons, which may lead to the discovery of neuron-specific properties of this important organelle and its involvement in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:7943166

  12. A pathogenetic study of the early connective tissue lesions of viral caprine arthritis-encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D. S.; Crawford, T. B.; Klevjer-Anderson, P.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were designed to correlate morphologic lesions with the presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Twenty-one cesarean-derived goat kids were infected with 10(6) to 10(7) TCID50 of virus, killed sequentially, and examined for viral antigens by immunofluorescence, viral infectivity by isolation and titration, and morphologic changes by light microscopy. Fluorescent viral antigens were detected from 1 to 10 days postinoculation (DPI) and only in synovial cells. Virus was reisolated from several joints and from brain 0.5 to 79 DPI. Increases in synovial fluid cell counts were noted by 1 DPI, and morphologic changes in synovial membranes were present from 3 to 45 DPI. Joint lesions progressed from mild synovial cell hyperplasia and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration to severe synovial cell hyperplasia and mononuclear cell infiltration with villous hypertrophy. Lesions elsewhere were mild, consisting only of perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates. Eleven cesarean-derived control goats were negative for viral antigens, virus, and morphologic lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6990770

  13. Effects of nutrition on disease and life span. I. Immune responses, cardiovascular pathology, and life span in MRL mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mark, D. A.; Alonso, D. R.; Quimby, F.; Thaler, H. T.; Kim, Y. T.; Fernandes, G.; Good, R. A.; Weksler, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Mice of the autoimmune, lymphoproliferative strain MRL/lpr and the congenic, nonlymphoproliferative strain MRL/n were fed one of six diets from weaning on-ward. These mice were sacrificed at 3 or 5 months of age. Low fat diets resulted in lower cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels than did cholesterol-containing high-fat diets. Caloric restriction of MRL/lpr mice was associated with an increased plaque-forming cell response to trinitrophenylated polyacrylamide beads, less lymphoproliferation, and less severe glomerulonephritis. Diet did not affect the incidence of autoimmune vasculitis in MRL/lpr mice sacrificed at 5 months. MRL/lpr mice fed a low-fat, calorically restricted diet from 5 months of age to death lived longer than mice which were fed ad libitum a cholesterol-containing, high-fat diet. At death, MRL/lpr mice fed the former diet had the autoimmune vasculitis which had been evident in mice killed at 5 months, whereas mice fed the latter diet, in addition to the vasculitis, had a high incidence of atherosclerotic lesions of intrarenal and aortic branch arteries. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:6333184

  14. Potentiostatic deposition of DNA for scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, S M; Tao, N J; DeRose, J A; Oden, P I; Lyubchenko YuL; Harrington, R E; Shlyakhtenko, L

    1992-01-01

    We describe a procedure for reversible adsorption of DNA onto a gold electrode maintained under potential control. The adsorbate can be imaged by scanning probe microscopy in situ. Quantitative control of a molecular adsorbate for microscopy is now possible. We found a potential window (between 0 and 180 mV versus a silver wire quasi reference) over which a gold (111) surface under phosphate buffer is positively charged, but is not covered with a dense adsorbate. When DNA is present in these conditions, molecules adsorb onto the electrode and remain stable under repeated scanning with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). They become removed when the surface is brought to a negative charge. When operated at tunnel currents below approximately 0.4 nA, the STM yields a resolution of approximately 1 nm, which is better than can be obtained with atomic force microscopy (AFM) at present. We illustrate this procedure by imaging a series of DNA molecules made by ligating a 21 base-pair oligonucleotide. We observed the expected series of fragment lengths but small fragments are adsorbed preferentially. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:1617139

  15. Widespread histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin cell-surface collagen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Zutter, M. M.; Santoro, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    The alpha 2 beta 1 integrin (platelet membrane glycoprotein Ia-IIa, VLA-2, ECMR-II) functions as a cell surface receptor for collagen. The authors have determined the histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor in normal tissues by immunohistochemical technique. The studies revealed that the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor was expressed on fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells from multiple sites including skin, tonsil, breast, sweat gland, gastrointestinal tract, lung, bladder, cervix, and prostate. Follicular dendritic cells of the lymph node, tonsil, and spleen and dendritic cells of the thymus also expressed the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor. The receptor also was present on Schwann cells of ganglia and on neuroglia. Greatly enhanced expression of the receptor in regions of proliferating epithelium suggests that enhanced expression of alpha 2 beta 1 is associated with orderly, regulated cell proliferation. The circumferential staining pattern of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin within many epithelia is virtually identical to that observed for other adhesive receptors, such as the cadherins, which have been implicated in cell-cell adhesion. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:2164774

  16. Biochemical and cellular mechanisms of dust-induced lung fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, R J; Curtis, C G

    1984-01-01

    The sequence of cellular and biochemical events in response to the deposition of dust particles in lung tissue is described. Primary reactions at the lung surface include changes in the free cell population, the alveolar surface protein and in the quantity of pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein-rich material secreted by Type II cells. The relationship between these changes and lung fibrogenesis is discussed. It is suggested that such primary changes are protective mechanisms which may assist in the prevention of fibrogenesis rather than lead to an increase in collagen formation and deposition. If these primary defenses are overcome, then the interstitial fibroblastlike cell may have a prominent role in fibrogenesis. Therefore detailed observations of the interaction between lung fibroblasts and mineral dusts in vitro are described. As fibrogenesis may be arrested in vivo, or possibly reversed, and does not always progress to fibrosis, final consideration is given to the step from fibrogenesis to fibrosis. It is suggested that this step may involve other tissue proteins apart from collagen and that the irreversible nature of fibrosis can be explained by the formation of strong intermolecular crosslinks between different proteins. The types of crosslinks that may be involved are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the role of calcium-dependent transglutaminases in fibrosis, as these enzymes have hitherto received little attention. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 20. FIGURE 21. FIGURE 22. FIGURE 23. PMID:6376109

  17. XH1--a new cervical carcinoma cell line and xenograft model of tumour invasion, 'metastasis' and regression.

    PubMed Central

    Han, X.; Lyle, R.; Eustace, D. L.; Jewers, R. J.; Parrington, J. M.; Das, A.; Chana, T.; Dagg, B.; Money, S.; Bates, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    A new cell line, XH1, has been derived from an invasive focally keratinising adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix in a 32 year old patient. It has been maintained in long term monolayer culture for 26 months, and passaged over 100 times (much greater than 300 population doublings). It is aneuploid with a mean chromosome number of 78. Examination using two minisatellite hypervariable DNA probes has shown it to be different from other cell lines maintained in this laboratory and from HeLa. Two sublines, XH1a and XH1b, show marked differences in monolayer culture, growth in soft agar, and xenograft formation. XH1 and XH1a cells readily form subcutaneous xenografts, and lung colonies can be established by their intravenous injection. Subcutaneous injection of XH1b cells results in rapid cell growth for a few days after which the tumour undergoes degeneration and then regresses completely. The XH1 karyotype has many rearranged chromosomes. Parental XH1 cells and both sublines show integration of HPV16 into the genome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:1911212

  18. A brief history of historical scholarship in chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a cursory overview of attempts to discover, preserve and disseminate the history of the chiropractic profession, up to and including the organization of the Association for the History of Chiropractic (AHC). A surprisingly wide range of materials have been available for many decades, but sustained efforts at historical scholarship are more recent (past quarter century). The quality of these works has been uneven, but has improved with the emergence of chiropractic scholarly periodicals and interest from non-chiropractor investigators. Affiliates of the American-based AHC are located in Australia and Canada; organized historical scholarship in other regions of the world has yet to develop. Several substantial archival resources for historical investigations are available, and merit greater scrutiny and support within the profession. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25p136-ap136-bp136-cp136-dp136-e

  19. Anatomy of the thorax and shoulder girdle displayed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. D.; Shaver, M. L.; Batra, P.; Brown, K.

    1991-01-01

    In 1971, radiographic anatomy of the human body was added to the gross anatomy course at UCLA. Radiographic contrast studies and plain anatomical displays were formulated into teaching packages for all organ systems. Residents presented each package to first-year medical students in the dissection laboratory to augment the teaching of anatomy. In November 1984, magnetic resonance imaging was instituted in the radiology department. Imaging the chest produced coronal and axial planes which displayed the muscles and soft tissues of the thorax. In 1986, the authors presented their study of MR anatomy of the chest and shoulder girdle to the American Association of Anatomists. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate the anatomy of the thorax and shoulder girdle as displayed by magnetic resonance, correlated with regional anatomy, with emphasis on soft tissue structures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:1994062

  20. The isolated ciliary bilayer is useful for studies of aqueous humor formation.

    PubMed Central

    Sears, M L; Yamada, E; Cummins, D; Mori, N; Mead, A; Murakami, M

    1991-01-01

    An intact ciliary epithelial bilayer has been isolated from the rabbit eye by perfusion, microsurgical dissection, and recovery techniques. Vital subcellular organelles and intercellular junctions of this epithelial bilayer preparation are very well preserved. The total electrical resistance of the epithelial bilayer is 350 ohms, and the transepithelial potential is 650 microV, nonpigmented epithelium side negative. The electrical resistance is reduced by 0.2 mM EGTA and the transepithelial potential reduced by 0.1 mM ouabain. Bicarbonate depletion at a constant pH of 7.4 rapidly and significantly reduces the transepithelial potential. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease transmembrane potential by as much as 30%. These morphologic and physiologic experiments authenticate the validity of this bilayered epithelial preparation for future use in detailed studies of the mechanism of aqueous humor formation. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:1808804

  1. Susceptible periods during embryogenesis of the heart and endocrine glands.

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, T W

    2000-01-01

    One of the original principles of teratology states that, "Susceptibility to teratogenesis varies with the developmental stage at the time of exposure to an adverse influence" [Wilson JG. Environment and Birth Defects. New York:Academic Press, 1973]. The time of greatest sensitivity encompasses the period of organ formation during weeks 3-8 following fertilization in human gestation. At this time, stem cell populations for each organ's morphogenesis are established and inductive events for the initiation of differentiation occur. Structural defects of the heart and endocrine system are no exception to this axiom and have their origins during this time frame. Although the function and maturation of these organs may be affected at later stages, structural defects and loss of cell types usually occur during these early phases of development. Thus, to determine critical windows for studying mechanisms of teratogenesis, it is essential to understand the developmental processes that establish these organs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:10852854

  2. 16 CFR Figures 6 and 7 to Part 1512 - Toe Clearance and Chain Guard Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Toe Clearance and Chain Guard Requirements 6 Figures 6 and 7 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Figs. 6 and 7 Figures 6 and 7 to Part...

  3. 16 CFR Figures 6 and 7 to Part 1512 - Toe Clearance and Chain Guard Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Toe Clearance and Chain Guard Requirements 6 Figures 6 and 7 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Figs. 6 and 7 Figures 6 and 7 to Part...

  4. 16 CFR Figures 6 and 7 to Part 1512 - Toe Clearance and Chain Guard Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Toe Clearance and Chain Guard Requirements 6 Figures 6 and 7 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Figs. 6 and 7 Figures 6 and 7 to Part...

  5. 16 CFR Figures 6 and 7 to Part 1512 - Toe Clearance and Chain Guard Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Toe Clearance and Chain Guard Requirements 6 Figures 6 and 7 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Figs. 6 and 7 Figures 6 and 7 to Part...

  6. 16 CFR Figures 6 and 7 to Part 1512 - Toe Clearance and Chain Guard Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Toe Clearance and Chain Guard Requirements 6 Figures 6 and 7 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Figs. 6 and 7 Figures 6 and 7 to Part...

  7. Relationship of Chromosome Changes to Neoplastic Cell Transformation

    PubMed Central

    DiPaolo, Joseph A.; Popescu, Nicolae C.

    1976-01-01

    chromosome number or structure. Our studies indicate that chromosome changes are not essential for establishment of neoplasms but that karyotypic instability may result in response to selective growth pressures. ImagesFigure 2Figure 11Figure 3Figure 12Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 1Figure 10 PMID:826168

  8. Canine GM1-gangliosidosis. A clinical, morphologic, histochemical, and biochemical comparison of two different models.

    PubMed Central

    Alroy, J.; Orgad, U.; DeGasperi, R.; Richard, R.; Warren, C. D.; Knowles, K.; Thalhammer, J. G.; Raghavan, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The clinical, morphologic, histochemical, and biochemical features of GM1-gangliosidosis in two canine models, English Springer Spaniel (ESS) and Portuguese Water Dog (PWD), have been compared. The disease onset, its clinical course, and survival period of the affected dogs were similar in both models. Skeletal dysplasia was noted radiographically at 2 months of age, whereas at 4 1/2 months of age there was progressive neurologic impairment. However, dwarfism and coarse facial features were seen only in ESS. Both models had similar deficiency in activity of lysosomal beta-galactosidase, but possessed a normal protein activator for GM1-beta-galactosidase. Both models stored GM1-ganglioside, asialo-GM1, and oligosaccharides in brain. Furthermore, only the PWD stored glycoproteins containing polylactosaminoglycans in visceral organs, and neither model stored them in the brain. Morphologically, both models demonstrated similar storage material in multiple tissues and cell types. The ultrastructure of the storage material was cell-type specific and identical in both models. However, some differences in the lectin staining pattern were noted. Our clinical, biochemical, and histochemical findings indicate that PWD and ESS may represent two different mutations of the beta-galactosidase gene. Moreover, the authors conclude that it is difficult, and inappropriate, to apply the human classification of GM1-gangliosidosis (i.e. infantile, juvenile, and adult forms) to these canine models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1546746

  9. The association of viruses with urveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, D M

    1979-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination of 57 ocular melanomas (54 human, two feline and one canine) revealed the presence of viral particles in six specimens. Herpesviruses particles were observed in one human specimen and were passed in human fibroblasts (WI-38), where they gave rise to intranuclear inclusions. A-type oncornavirus particles (oncogenic RNA virus) were observed in a second case, both in cells of tumor directly removed from an enucleated eye as well as in cells grown in tissue culture. In three human specimens and one feline specimen, togavirus particles were observed. Rubella is a member of this group, and the possibility that the presence of togavirus in these tumors is the result of latent ocular infection by rubella virus is raised. Herpes virus and RNA tumor viruses are widely considered as having a possible etiologic role for certain human cancers. The observation of togavirus is unexpected, as this virus has not been previously implicated in human or animal tumors. Injection of an RNA tumor virus (Gardner strain feline sarcoma virus) into the anterior chamber of newborn kittens resulted in the development of iris and ciliary body melanomas, many of which showed invasion and, in one instance, metastasis. This is the first animal model of a viral-induced uveal melanoma, and the histology and ultrastructure are described. These results emphasize the need for the continued investigation of the role of these viruses in uveal melanoma. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:545833

  10. Analysis of T cell receptor-gamma gene rearrangements by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of GC-clamped polymerase chain reaction products. Correlation with tumor-specific sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, T. C.; Raffeld, M.; Lutz, C.; Dick, F.; Jaffe, E. S.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a modified denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) procedure with a 40-nucleotide GC clamp in the polymerase chain reaction to improve resolution in amplifying T cell receptor-gamma (TCR-gamma) rearrangements. DNA from 46 cases of lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, 5T cell lines, 2 B cell lines, 7 normal lymphocytes, and 3 cases of Hodgkin's disease was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. In addition, 20 cases of paraffin-embedded T cell lymphomas and 5 cases of reactive hyperplasia were also studied. Clonal TCR-gamma rearrangements were identified on DGGE by the presence of a predominant band. Results obtained from 5 T cell lines and 12 lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphomas containing known TCR-gamma gene rearrangements revealed 100% concordance in detecting clonal rearrangements between DGGE and traditional Southern blot analysis. Of the remaining 34 lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma cases studied by DGGE alone, 30 were positive. DGGE analysis of 10 lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma cases with known group IV gamma to J gamma 1 or J gamma 2 rearrangement sequences confirmed that the electrophoretic migration was dependent on the tumor-specific rearranged TCR-gamma sequence. In addition, 17 of 20 cases of paraffin-embedded T cell lymphomas were positive by DGGE, 6 of which had the clonal population also identified in fresh tissue DNA. DGGE analysis of GC-clamped polymerase chain reaction products can provide a way to more accurately detect TCR-gamma clonality of lymphoid tumors and can be applied to archival tissues. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7856738

  11. Sheep Pox: Experimental Studies with a West African Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, A.; Bundza, A.; Myers, D. J.; Dulac, G. C.; Thomas, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    Under conditions of a maximum security laboratory, four cross-bred sheep were inoculated intradermally only or intradermally and intratracheally with a West African isolate of sheep pox virus. All sheep had increased temperature and depression by the fourth or fifth day after infection. Nasal and lacrimal discharge and coughing occurred in all sheep but were more severe in sheep receiving the virus via the tracheal route. From the fifth day after infection, numerous papular erythematous skin lesions developed at the inoculation sites. These were 3-7 mm in diameter and gradually became nodular. Some of these lesions healed and others coalesced to form tumorlike masses. In one sheep, euthanized 14 days after intradermal and intratracheal inoculation, nodular lesions were found in the skin around the eyes, nostrils, oral and perianal regions, the mucosa of the rumen and throughout the lungs. Histologically, skin nodules were characterized by ischemic necrosis, vasculitis, microvesicualtion, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in the dermal epithelial cells and vacuolar nuclear degeneration. The pulmonary lesion was that of proliferative alveolitis with occasional cytoplasmic inclusions in the alveolar cells and macrophages. Ultrastructurally, large cuboidal virus particles were found both in the skin lesion and inoculated tissue cultures. The sheep pox virus structure was easily distinguished from contagious ecthyma virus, a parapoxvirus which causes sporadic disease in Canada. Serum neutralizing antibodies developed in all the sheep by 14 days postinfection. The clinical and pathological characteristics of experimental sheep pox produced with this West African isolate were similar to those caused by Neethling virus of lumpy skin disease in cattle. ImagesFigure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6.Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9., Figure 10.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:17422683

  12. Expression of epithelial adhesion proteins and integrins in chronic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Haapasalmi, K.; Mäkelä, M.; Oksala, O.; Heino, J.; Yamada, K. M.; Uitto, V. J.; Larjava, H.

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial cell behavior in chronic inflammation is poorly characterized. During inflammation of tooth-supporting structures (periodontal disease), increased proliferation of epithelial cells into the inflamed connective tissue stroma is commonly seen. In some areas ulceration and degeneration take place. We studied alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and integrins during chronic periodontal inflammation. In inflamed tissue, laminin-1 and type IV collagen were still present in the basement membrane and surrounding blood vessels, but they were also found extravascularly in inflamed connective tissue stroma. Type VII collagen and laminin-5 (also known as kalinin, epiligrin, or nicein) were poorly preserved in the basement membrane zone, but both were found in unusual streak-like distributions in the subepithelial connective tissue stroma in inflamed tissue. Both fibronectin and tenascin were substantially decreased in chronically inflamed connective tissue, showing only punctate staining at the basement membrane zone. Integrins of the beta 1 family showed two distinct staining patterns in epithelial cells during chronic inflammation; focal losses of beta 1 integrins (alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1) were found in most areas, while in other areas the entire pocket epithelium was found to be strongly positive for beta 1 integrins. No members of the alpha v integrin family were found in any epithelia studied. Expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was high in basal cells of healthy tissue, but weak in epithelium associated with chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation therefore involves alterations in both adhesion proteins and integrins expressed by epithelial cells. Basement membrane components found at abnormal sites in stroma in chronic inflammation might serve as new adhesive ligands for various cell types in inflamed stroma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7541610

  13. Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P A; Gates, T E

    1999-01-01

    The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10378999

  14. Characterization of indoor particle sources: A study conducted in the metropolitan Boston area.

    PubMed Central

    Abt, E; Suh, H H; Allen, G; Koutrakis, P

    2000-01-01

    An intensive particle monitoring study was conducted in homes in the Boston, Massachusetts, area during the winter and summer of 1996 in an effort to characterize sources of indoor particles. As part of this study, continuous particle size and mass concentration data were collected in four single-family homes, with each home monitored for one or two 6-day periods. Additionally, housing activity and air exchange rate data were collected. Cooking, cleaning, and the movement of people were identified as the most important indoor particle sources in these homes. These sources contributed significantly both to indoor concentrations (indoor-outdoor ratios varied between 2 and 33) and to altered indoor particle size distributions. Cooking, including broiling/baking, toasting, and barbecuing contributed primarily to particulate matter with physical diameters between 0.02 and 0.5 microm [PM((0.02-0.5))], with volume median diameters of between 0.13 and 0.25 microm. Sources of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters between 0.7 and 10 microm [PM((0.7-10))] included sautéing, cleaning (vacuuming, dusting, and sweeping), and movement of people, with volume median diameters of between 3 and 4.3 microm. Frying was associated with particles from both PM((0.02-0.5)) and PM((0.7-10)). Air exchange rates ranged between 0.12 and 24.3 exchanges/hr and had significant impact on indoor particle levels and size distributions. Low air exchange rates (< 1 exchange/hr) resulted in longer air residence times and more time for particle concentrations from indoor sources to increase. When air exchange rates were higher (> 1 exchange/hr), the impact of indoor sources was less pronounced, as indoor particle concentrations tracked outdoor levels more closely. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:10620522

  15. Dirofilaria immitis. 5. Immunopathology of filarial nephropathy in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Abramowsky, C. R.; Powers, K. G.; Aikawa, M.; Swinehart, G.

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen beagles infected with larvae (microfilariae) of Dirofilaria immitis, were randomly selected from another study in which the toxic effects of subfilaricidal doses of diethylcarbamazine were being evaluated. This group of 14 dogs, together with 4 uninfected control animals, were variably sacrificed between 14 and 25 months after larval inoculations, and the ensuing renal lesions were studied by light and ultrastructural microscopy and by immunofluorescence and antibody elution techniques. On the basis of these studies, two groups of animals were distinguished. The first group was characterized by a striking pattern of linear fluorescence and fine ultrastructural dense deposits along the glomerular basement membrane, poor antibody response, and an inability to clear microfilariae from the tissues and circulation. The second group, with a nonlinear pattern of fluorescence, was characterized by a strong immune response, efficient elimination of microfilariae, and immunofluorescence and ultrastructural evidence of predominantly mesangiopathic immune complex renal disease. In both groups, elution studies demonstrated tissue deposits of antiworm antibodies, suggesting a filaria-antibody immune-complex nephropathy. No evidence was found for the presence of anti-basement-membrane antibodies. On the basis of a previous experimental model, it is postulated that in the first group of animals with linear fluorescence, the observed lesions may represent a natural form of an immunopathogenic mechanism of glomerular damage in which filarial antigen becomes uniformly localized in the glomerulus and elicits an autologous antibody response. The possible role of the drug diethylcarbamazine in inducing this mechanism of immune injury is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7020425

  16. Podocytic cytoskeletal disaggregation and basement-membrane detachment in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, C. I.; Cameron, R.; Munk, S.; Levy, J.

    1993-01-01

    Puromycin aminonucleoside--(PAN) treated rats develop acute nephrotic syndrome, mimicking human minimal lesion disease. In PAN nephrosis, podocyte detachment from the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is the most likely cause of massive proteinuria in this model. To elucidate further the mechanisms of PAN-induced cellular dysfunction, new methods were employed to visualize podocyte cytoskeletal aggregation and to measure fibrillar attachment to the GBM. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 4/group) received a single tail-vein injection of PAN (75 mg/kg). On days 1, 2, 3, and 5 following injection, 24-hour urine collections were obtained for creatinine clearance, albuminuria, and total proteinuria. Then kidneys from each group were fixed by perfusion. Podocytic cytoskeleton was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Subepithelial GBM staining and attachment fiber number, observed on digitized images of transmission electron micrographs, were quantitated with computer-based density analysis. A significant reduction in attachment fiber number in the GBM lamina rara externa occurred by day 5. On scanning electron micrographs, the secondary and tertiary podocytic processes were observed to be formed by highly aggregated cytoskeleton, which became partially disaggregated by day 3, was totally absent by day 5, and normalized by day 20. Immunogold staining revealed that actin and vinculin localized to the tertiary podocytic processes in the normal state were dispersed into the cell body following PAN. Podocyte cytoskeletal disaggregation precedes, and detachment from the GBM occurs simultaneously with, the onset of massive proteinuria in the PAN model. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8494056

  17. Transitional features in human atherosclerosis. Intimal thickening, cholesterol clefts, and cell loss in human aortic fatty streaks.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1993-01-01

    The possible transition from a subset of fatty streaks to fibrous plaques in human atherosclerosis has long been postulated, but transitional features in lesions have rarely been demonstrated. We examined human aortic fatty streaks to determine whether significant tendencies toward intimal thickening and toward deep extracellular lipid deposition might be found. To provide accurate ultrastructural assessment of lipid, tissues were processed by new electron microscopic cytochemical techniques. Unilateral fatty streaks exhibited a 60% increase in intimal thickness when compared to contralateral control tissue. Fat droplets in intimal cells accounted for approximately half of the increase; nonfat portions of cells and extracellular matrix accounted for the remainder. Six of 32 fatty streaks (19%) contained cholesterol clefts, which were found in the musculo-elastic (deep) layer of the intima or in the tunica media. Volume fractions occupied by cells in deep intima were reduced when cholesterol clefts were evident, suggesting loss of cells in early core regions. Light and electron microscopy showed structures consistent with lipid-rich core regions in lesions with cholesterol clefts and in a few lesions without cholesterol clefts. The findings of intimal thickening, core region formation, and disappearance of intimal cells constitute new evidence that some fatty streaks are progressive lesions and sites of eventual fibrous plaque development. The findings also suggest that the lipid-rich core region does not originate primarily from the debris of dead foam cells in the superficial intima, but instead arises from lipids accumulating gradually in the extracellular matrix of the deep intima. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8238260

  18. Initial experience with transluminally placed endovascular grafts for the treatment of complex vascular lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, M L; Veith, F J; Cynamon, J; Sanchez, L A; Lyon, R T; Levine, B A; Bakal, C W; Suggs, W D; Wengerter, K R; Rivers, S P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Complex arterial occlusive, traumatic, and aneurysmal lesions may be difficult or impossible to treat successfully by standard surgical techniques when severe medical or surgical comorbidities exist. The authors describe a single center's experience over a 2 1/2-year period with 96 endovascular graft procedures performed to treat 100 arterial lesions in 92 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients had 36 large aortic and/or peripheral artery aneurysms, 48 had 53 multilevel limb-threatening aortoiliac and/or femoropopliteal occlusive lesions, and 11 had traumatic arterial injuries (false aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas). Endovascular grafts were placed through remote arteriotomies under local (16[17%]), epidural (42[43%]), or general (38[40%]) anesthesia. RESULTS: Technical and clinical successes were achieved in 91% of the patients with aneurysms, 91% with occlusive lesions, and 100% with traumatic arterial lesions. These patients and grafts have been followed from 1 to 30 months (mean, 13 months). The primary and secondary patency rates at 18 months for aortoiliac occlusions were 77% and 95%, respectively. The 18-month limb salvage rate was 98%. Immediately after aortic aneurysm exclusion, a total of 6 (33%) perigraft channels were detected; 3 of these closed within 8 weeks. Endovascular stented graft procedures were associated with a 10% major and a 14% minor complication rate. The overall 30-day mortality rate for this entire series was 6%. CONCLUSIONS: This initial experience with endovascular graft repair of complex arterial lesions justifies further use and careful evaluation of this technique for major arterial reconstruction. Images Figure 1. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 11. PMID:7574926

  19. Structural and biochemical changes in lungs of 3-methylindole-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, L. W.; Wilson, D. W.; Schiedt, M. J.; Giri, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of a single dose of 3-methylindole (3-MI) (250 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were studied at different times ranging from 12 hours to 2 weeks post-treatment (PT). Microscopic study revealed mild Clara cell injury 24 hours PT and mucus hyperplasia 24 hours to 2 weeks PT. Diffuse type I alveolar epithelial cell necrosis occurred at 48 hours, followed by type II cell hyperplasia. Septal edema and accumulation of interstitial and capillary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and perivascular mixed mononuclear inflammatory cells accompanied the injury and repair. A gradual resolution of lesions with persistent mononuclear inflammatory cellular clusters at septal junctions, focal septal fibrosis, and accumulation of alveolar macrophages was evident at 1 and 2 weeks PT. Collagen, measured as hydroxyproline, in 3-MI-treated rats was significantly increased to 130% and 139% of control (3.0 mg/lung) at 1 and 2 weeks PT, respectively. Biphasic peaks of plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha occurred at 12 to 24 hours and at 96 hours PT with 3-MI and thromboxane B2 was elevated 12, 48, and 96 hours PT. Right ventricular/left ventricular and septal weight was increased to 120% and 140% of the control 1 and 2 weeks PT. We concluded that 3-MI induces alveolar septal injury in the rat with relatively complete repair of the alveolar epithelium and residual mild focal septal fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension 2 weeks PT. Arachidonic acid-derived mediators and inflammation are associated with 3-MI-induced lung injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8424451

  20. Effects of coumestrol on estrogen receptor function and uterine growth in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Markaverich, B M; Webb, B; Densmore, C L; Gregory, R R

    1995-01-01

    Isoflavonoids and related compounds such as coumestrol have classically been categorized as phytoestrogens because these environmentally derived substances bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and increase uterine wet weight in immature rats and mice. Assessment of the binding affinities of isoflavonoids for ER and subsequent effects on uterine growth suggest these compounds are less active estrogens than estradiol and therefore may reduce the risk of developing breast or prostate cancer in humans by preventing estradiol binding to ER. With the renewed interest in the relationships between environmental estrogens and cancer cause and prevention, we assessed the effects of the phytoestrogen coumestrol on uterotropic response in the immature, ovariectomized rat. Our studies demonstrated that in this animal model, coumestrol is an atypical estrogen that does not stimulate uterine cellular hyperplasia. Although acute (subcutaneous injection) or chronic (multiple injection or orally via drinking water) administration of coumestrol significantly increased uterine wet and dry weights, the phytoestrogen failed to increase uterine DNA content. The lack of true estrogenic activity was characterized by the inability of this phytoestrogen to cause cytosolic ER depletion, nuclear ER accumulation, or the stimulation of nuclear type II sites which characteristically precede estrogenic stimulation of cellular DNA synthesis and proliferation. In fact, subcutaneous or oral coumestrol treatment caused an atypical threefold induction of cytosolic ER without corresponding cytosolic depletion and nuclear accumulation of this receptor, and this increased the sensitivity of the uterus to subsequent stimulation by estradiol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p574-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. PMID:7556010

  1. Carcinogenicity of Black Rock Harbor sediment to the eastern oyster and trophic transfer of Black Rock Harbor carcinogens from the blue mussel to the winter flounder.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, G R; Yevich, P P; Harshbarger, J C; Malcolm, A R

    1991-01-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) developed neoplastic disorders when experimentally exposed both in the laboratory and field to chemically contaminated sediment from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. Neoplasia was observed in oysters after 30 and 60 days of continuous exposure in a laboratory flow-through system to a 20 mg/L suspension of BRH sediment plus postexposure periods of 0, 30, or 60 days. Composite tumor incidence was 13.6% (49 neoplasms in 40, n = 295) for both exposures. Tumor occurrence was highest in the renal excretory epithelium, followed in order by gill, gonad, gastrointestinal, heart, and embryonic neural tissue. Regression of experimental neoplasia was not observed when the stimulus was discontinued. In field experiments, gill neoplasms developed in oysters deployed in cages for 30 days at BRH and 36 days at a BRH dredge material disposal area in Central Long Island Sound, and kidney and gastrointestinal neoplasms developed in caged oysters deployed 40 days in Quincy Bay, Boston Harbor. Oysters exposed to BRH sediment in the laboratory and in the field accumulated high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlorinated pesticides. Chemical analyses demonstrated high concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, chlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals in BRH sediment. Known genotoxic carcinogens, co-carcinogens, and tumor promoters were present as contaminants. The uptake of parent PAH and PCBs from BRH sediment observed in oysters also occurs in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Winter flounder fed BRH-contaminated blue mussels contained xenobiotic chemicals analyzed in mussels. The flounder developed renal and pancreatic neoplasms and hepatotoxic neoplastic precursor lesions, demonstrating trophic transfer of sediment-bound carcinogens up the food chain. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:2050083

  2. Lesions and distribution of viral antigen following an experimental infection of young seronegative calves with virulent bovine virus diarrhea virus-type II.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J A; West, K H; Cortese, V S; Myers, S L; Carman, S; Martin, K M; Haines, D M

    1998-01-01

    . Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. PMID:9684044

  3. Renal ultrastructural markers in AIDS-associated nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Chander, P.; Soni, A.; Suri, A.; Bhagwat, R.; Yoo, J.; Treser, G.

    1987-01-01

    Renal tissues from two groups of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were examined: Group A had severe proteinuria and varying degrees of renal insufficiency, designated AIDS-associated nephropathy (AAN), and Group B had no renal involvement. Control Group C consisted of patients with heroin-associated nephropathy (HAN) with proteinuria comparable to patients in Group A but without AIDS or its related complex (ARC). The most frequent finding, common to both AAN and HAN, was focal glomerular sclerosis. In contrast to HAN, AAN tissue showed mesangial hypocellularity, sparse interstitial infiltrates, severe tubular degenerative changes, tubular microcystic ectasia, Bowman's space dilatation, and presence of multiple complex inclusions both in the nuclei and cytoplasm in a variety of cells. Abundant tubuloreticular inclusions were found in the endothelial and occasionally in the interstitial cell cytoplasm. Nuclear bodies (NBs) were seen in greater frequency, complexity, size, and heterogeneity, and of budding configuration in Group A as compared with Groups B and C; NBs in Group C were mostly of simple types (I and II). In addition, a peculiar granulofibrillary transformation in many tubular and interstitial cell nuclei was observed in Group A. This transformation was rarely present in Group B and was never seen in Group C. Because complex NBs (Types III to V) and various intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions present in Group A are often associated with viral invasion, their presence in kidneys of AIDS patients with proteinuria suggests a viral etiology for AAN. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3548410

  4. A murine monoclonal antibody, MoAb HMSA-5, against a melanosomal component highly expressed in early stages, and common to normal and neoplastic melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Der, J. E.; Dixon, W. T.; Jimbow, K.; Horikoshi, T.

    1993-01-01

    The melanosome is a secretory organelle unique to the melanocyte and its neoplastic counterpart, malignant melanoma. The synthesis and assembly of these intracytoplasmic organelles is not yet fully understood. We have developed a murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against melanosomes isolated from human melanocytes (newborn foreskin) cultured in the presence of 12-O tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This MoAb, designated HMSA-5 (Human Melanosome-Specific Antigen-5) (IgG1), recognised a cytoplasmic antigen in both normal human melanocytes and neoplastic cells, such as common and dysplastic melanocytic nevi, and malignant melanoma. None of the carcinoma or sarcoma specimens tested showed positive reactivity with MoAb HMSA-5. Under immunoelectron microscopy, immuno-gold deposition was seen on microvesicles associated with melanosomes, and a portion of the ER-Golgi complexes. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that the HMSA-5 reactive antigen was a glycoprotein of M(r) 69 to 73 kDa. A pulse-chase time course study showed that the amount of antigen detected by MoAb HMSA-5 decreased over a 24 h period without significant expression on the cell surface, or corresponding appearance of the antigen in the culture supernatant. This glycoprotein appears to play a role in the early stages of melanosomal development, and the HMSA-5 reactive epitope may be lost during subsequent maturation processes. Importantly, HMSA-5 can be identified in all forms of human melanocytes, hence it can be considered a new common melanocytic marker even on routine paraffin sections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7678981

  5. Interleukin-8 production by the human colon epithelial cell line HT-29: modulation by interleukin-13.

    PubMed Central

    Kolios, G.; Robertson, D. A.; Jordan, N. J.; Minty, A.; Caput, D.; Ferrara, P.; Westwick, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have determined which cytokines induce and modulate the production of the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by the human colonic epithelial cell line HT-29. 2. Growth arrested cell cultures were stimulated with the human recombinant cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-13 (IL-13), interleukin-10 (IL-10) or vehicle added alone or in combination. The production of IL-8 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IL-8 messenger RNA expression by Northern blot analysis. 3. The production of IL-8 in unstimulated cells was undetectable by both ELISA and Northern blot analysis. 4. HT-29 cells produced IL-8 following stimulation with IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha in a time- and a concentration-dependent manner, while IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IL-13 did not induce IL-8 production by HT-29 cells. 5. IL-13 was found to up-regulate significantly (P < 0.01) the IL-1 alpha but not the TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 generation by HT-29 cells. In contrast, IL-10 had no effect on either IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 production. 6. Experiments using cycloheximide demonstrated that this synergistic effect of IL-13 and IL-1 alpha on IL-8 secretion was not through de novo protein synthesis. Using actinomycin-D, we demonstrated that the IL-13 up-regulation was at the level of transcription rather than messenger RNA stability. 7. These findings suggest that colonic epithelial cells have a functional IL-13 receptor, which is coupled to an up-regulation of IL-1 alpha, but not TNF-alpha induced IL-8 generation. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8886420

  6. Immunocytochemical patterns of islet cell tumors as defined by the monoclonal antibody HISL-19.

    PubMed Central

    Bordi, C.; Krisch, K.; Horvat, G.; Srikanta, S.

    1988-01-01

    A series of 51 islet cell tumors removed from 28 patients was investigated immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibody HISL-19. The antibody was produced after immunization of BALB/c mice with human islet cells and was found to react with a wide range of neuroendocrine and neural cells. All tumors presented positive immunoreaction showing various combinations of 2 basic patterns. The first pattern reflected the immunostaining of the secretory granules of the tumor cells. This "granular" staining was predominantly associated with benign neoplasms and with the tumoral production of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), while it was absent or inconsistent in most insulin-secreting tumors. The second pattern consisted of focal immunoreactive aggregates located in a peri- (and, in polarized cells, supra-) nuclear position. This "cluster-type" staining showed a good morphologic and topographic correspondence with the Golgi apparatus of the cells of the same tumors, as shown by electron microscopy. The latter pattern was well represented in all types of islet cell tumors except those producing PP. Moreover, it was more apparent in less differentiated tumors in which the granular pattern was often absent or inconsistent. Cluster-type (but not granular) immunoreactivity was frequently found in some nonendocrine, nontumoral pancreatic structures, particularly in the epithelium of small ducts. However, the immunoreactive aggregates of nonendocrine cells were distinctly less prominent than those of endocrine cells. On the basis of a comparison with other immunohistochemical markers for neuroendocrine cells, it is concluded that the HISL-19 monoclonal antibody presents specific staining characteristics useful for the cytologic analysis of islet cell tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2840831

  7. Skeletal Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, I. Ross

    1979-01-01

    Skeletal scintigraphy, using phosphates or diphosphonates labeled with technetium 99m, is a sensitive method of detecting bone abnormalities. The most important and most frequent role of bone scanning is evaluating the skeletal areas in patients who have a primary cancer, especially a malignant condition that has a tendency to spread to bone areas. The bone scan is superior to bone radiographs in diagnosing these abnormalities; 15 percent to 25 percent of patients with breast, prostate or lung cancer, who have normal roentgenograms, also have abnormal scintigrams due to metastases. The majority of bone metastases appear as hot spots on the scan and are easily recognized. The incidence of abnormal bone scans in patients with early stages (I and II) of breast cancer varies from 6 percent to 26 percent, but almost invariably those patients with scan abnormalities have a poor prognosis and should be considered for additional therapies. Progression or regression of bony lesions can be defined through scanning, and abnormal areas can be identified for biopsy. The incidence of metastases in solitary scan lesions in patients with known primary tumors varies from 20 percent to 64 percent. Bone scintigraphy shows positive uptake in 95 percent of cases with acute osteomyelitis. Stress fractures and trauma suspected in battered babies can be diagnosed by scanning before there is radiological evidence. The procedure is free from acute or long-term side effects and, except in cases of very young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Although the test is sensitive, it is not specific and therefore it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and scanning correlation in each patient. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:390886

  8. In vivo expression of monokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimentally induced pulmonary granulomatous inflammation. Evidence for sequential production of interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, M.; Dimov, V. B.; Yoshida, T.

    1995-01-01

    The present study examined the temporal pattern and localization of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in lung tissue undergoing foreign body granuloma formation. Pulmonary granulomas were induced by the intratracheal injection of dextran beads into genetically high granuloma responder, carrying Bcgs (BALB/c), and low responder, carrying Bcgr (C3H/HeJ and DBA/2), mice. There was a pattern of sequential expression of these molecules in BALB/c mice. Thus, interleukin-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase were induced mostly in the cells accumulated around the beads and also in some bronchiolar epithelial cells during the early phase (1 to 3 days), whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha was induced in the cells around the beads at the later resolution phase (3 to 7 days). By contrast, in low responder mice, an increase in the expression of interleukin-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase was detected in lung macrophages as well as in alveolar cells and bronchiolar epithelial cells on day 1, but that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was not detected throughout the period. These results together with our previous findings on cytokine activity in granuloma extract suggest that interleukin-1 and nitric oxide produced by recruited macrophages may take part in the early, macrophage-dependent phase of granuloma formation whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be more crucial as a mediator responsible for the difference in innate resistance or susceptibility to granuloma formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7573346

  9. Long-term effects of bone marrow transplantation in dogs with mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    PubMed Central

    Breider, M. A.; Shull, R. M.; Constantopoulos, G.

    1989-01-01

    The therapeutic effects of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in a canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) were investigated. Long-term post-BMT pathologic and biochemical studies were performed on three groups of dogs: 1) MPS I-affected dogs that did not receive BMT, 2) MPS I-affected dogs that received total body irradiation followed by an allogeneic BMT, and 3) normal, unaffected dogs that served as BMT donors. All dogs were necropsied at approximately 20 months after BMT. The severity of MPS I-related lesions in the dogs receiving BMT was greatly diminished. These dogs had only slight cardiac valvular thickening, no meningeal thickening, no renal tubular epithelial vacuolation, decreased neuronal vacuolation, decreased corneal stromal vacuolation, and greatly diminished arterial medial thickening. The severity and incidence of degenerative arthropathy also were decreased in BMT dogs, however, vertebral lesions were similar to nontransplanted, affected dogs. Chondrocytes of both MPS I-BMT and MPS I-no BMT groups had similar marked cytoplasmic vacuolation, except for MPS I-BMT chondrocytes near the articular surface, which had more normal morphology. Ultrastructurally, the liver and kidney tissue in BMT recipients had no appreciable lysosomal accumulation of GAGs. These morphologic findings were supported by near normal levels and electrophoretic patterns of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in most tissues of BMT recipient dogs. This study demonstrates that BMT is capable of substantially diminishing the severity of MPS I-related lesions in this canine model. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2493739

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis in SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Persidsky, Y.; Limoges, J.; McComb, R.; Bock, P.; Baldwin, T.; Tyor, W.; Patil, A.; Nottet, H. S.; Epstein, L.; Gelbard, H.; Flanagan, E.; Reinhard, J.; Pirruccello, S. J.; Gendelman, H. E.

    1996-01-01

    -infected subjects with cognitive and motor dysfunction. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:8780406

  11. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate--a new renal carcinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Y; Maekawa, A; Takahashi, M; Hayashi, Y

    1990-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive, mainly in the bread-making process. Although adverse effects are not evident in animals fed bread-based diets made from flour treated with KBrO3, the agent is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. It has been demonstrated that KBrO3 induces renal cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the peritoneum, and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid. In addition, experiments aimed at elucidating the mode of carcinogenic action have revealed that KBrO3 is a complete carcinogen, possessing both initiating and promoting activities for rat renal tumorigenesis. However, the potential seems to be weak in mice and hamsters. In contrast to its weak mutagenic activity in microbial assays, KBrO3 showed relatively strong potential inducing chromosome aberrations both in vitro and in vivo. Glutathione and cysteine degrade KBrO3 in vitro; in turn, the KBrO3 has inhibitory effects on inducing lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney. Active oxygen radicals generated from KBrO3 were implicated in its toxic and carcinogenic effects, especially because KBrO3 produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the rat kidney. A wide range of data from applications of various analytical methods are now available for risk assessment purposes. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:2269236

  12. Assaying estrogenicity by quantitating the expression levels of endogenous estrogen-regulated genes.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, M; Vendelbo, B; Skakkebaek, N E; Leffers, H

    2000-01-01

    Scientific evidence suggests that humans and wildlife species may experience adverse health consequences from exposure to environmental chemicals that interact with the endocrine system. Reliable short-term assays are needed to identify hormone-disrupting chemicals. In this study we demonstrate that the estrogenic activity of a chemical can be evaluated by assaying induction or repression of endogenous estrogen-regulated "marker genes" in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. We included four marker genes in the assay--pS2, transforming growth factor beta3 (TGFbeta3), monoamine oxidase A, and [alpha]1-antichymotrypsin--and we evaluated estrogenic activity for 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), diethylstilbestrol, [alpha]-zearalanol, nonylphenol, genistein, methoxychlor, endosulphan, o,p-DDE, bisphenol A, dibutylphthalate, 4-hydroxy tamoxifen, and ICI 182.780. All four marker genes responded strongly to the three high-potency estrogens (E(2), diethylstilbestrol, and [alpha]-zearalanol), whereas the potency of the other chemicals was 10(3)- to 10(6)-fold lower than that of E(2). There were some marker gene-dependent differences in the relative potencies of the tested chemicals. TGFbeta3 was equally sensitive to the three high-potency estrogens, whereas the sensitivity to [alpha]-zearalanol was approximately 10-fold lower than the sensitivity to E(2) and diethylstilbestrol when assayed with the other three marker genes. The potency of nonylphenol was equal to that of genistein when assayed with pS2 and TGFbeta3, but 10- to 100-fold higher/lower with monoamine oxidase A and [alpha]1-antichymotrypsin, respectively. The results are in agreement with results obtained by other methods and suggest that an assay based on endogenous gene expression may offer an attractive alternative to other E-SCREEN methods. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10811566

  13. Pathology of aging female SENCAR mice used as controls in skin two-stage carcinogenesis studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J M; Quander, R; Devor, D; Wenk, M L; Spangler, E F

    1986-01-01

    The pathology of 60 aged female SENCAR mice used as acetone controls in skin painting studies was studied. Fifty percent of the mice survived past 96 weeks of age. The major contributing causes of death identified in 42 mice were glomerulonephritis (8 mice), histiocytic sarcoma (7 mice), and other tumors (8 mice). Glomerulonephritis was found in the majority of mice and was associated with thymic hyperplasia, focal vasculitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. Necropsy of 58 mice surviving past 50 weeks of age revealed that 41 had an average of 1.36 tumors per mouse. The most common tumors included histiocytic sarcoma (13 mice), pulmonary adenoma or adenocarcinoma (11 mice), mammary tumors (11 mice), follicular center cell lymphoma (4 mice), and hepatocellular adenoma (4 mice). The 13 histiocytic sarcomas appeared to arise in the uterus and metastasized to liver (9 mice), lung (4 mice), kidney (3 mice), and other tissues. Lung tumors were of the solid and papillary types, and tumor cells frequently contained surfactant apoprotein (SAP) but did not contain Clara cell antigens, suggesting their origin from alveolar Type II cells. A variety of nonneoplastic lesions, similar to those observed in other mouse strains, were seen in other tissues of these mice. Amyloid-like material was seen only in nasal turbinates and thyroid gland. In a group of 28 mice exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for up to 88 weeks, as a control for other treatment groups, 7 (25%) had papillomas and 5 (17.8%) had squamous cell carcinomas of the skin at necropsy, although many other induced papillomas regressed during the study. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. PMID:3780636

  14. Immature sinus histiocytosis. Light- and electron-microscopic features, immunologic phenotype, and relationship with marginal zone lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    van den Oord, J. J.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.; De Vos, R.; Desmet, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    The light-microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features of immature sinus histiocytosis were studied in 10 lymph nodes with the histologic picture of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis and compared with the features of lymphoid cells present in the marginal zone of the splenic white pulp. Areas of immature sinus histiocytosis consisted largely of medium-sized lymphoid cells with markedly irregular nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the predominating lymphoid cells were found to carry the B-cell phenotype B1+Ba1-sIgM+sIgD-OKIa1+. Admixed were variable numbers of larger, blastic lymphoid cells, small lymphocytes, histiocytic elements, and polymorphonuclear granulocytes. The marginal zone of the splenic white pulp was composed of a similar mixture of cells, and marginal-zone lymphocytes demonstrated an analogous immunohistochemical phenotype. Our results indicate that immature sinus histiocytes are B-lymphoid cells that are closely related to marginal zone lymphocytes. As such, immature sinus histiocytes may have a role similar to that of marginal-zone lymphocytes, which have been claimed to transport antigens or immune complexes toward the follicular center or to serve as precursors of plasma cells. We suggest that immature sinus histiocytosis represents an abnormal expansion of the marginal zone, normally present at the sinusoidal pole of lymphoid follicles. The reason for this marginal-zone hyperplasia, recognized as immature sinus histiocytosis in a variety of reactive lymph node conditions, may be a maturation arrest in the normal development of immature sinus histiocytes into small, sIgM+ sIgD+ lymphocytes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3970140

  15. Survey of the Distribution of a Newly Characterized Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Jerold; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Yan, Shi Du; Zou, Yu Shan; Weidman, Elliott; Pinsky, David; Nowygrod, Roman; Neeper, Michael; Przysiecki, Craig; Shaw, Alan; Migheli, Antonio; Stern, David

    1993-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), the final products of nonenzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, are found in the plasma and accumulate in the tissues during aging and at an accelerated rate in diabetes. A novel integral membrane protein, termed receptor for AGE (RAGE), forms a central part of the cell surface binding site for AGEs. Using monospecific, polyclonal antibody raised to human recombinant and bovine RAGE, immunostaining of bovine tissues showed RAGE in the vasculature, endothelium, and smooth muscle cells and in mononuclear cells in the tissues. Consistent with these data, RAGE antigen and mRNA were identified in cultured bovine endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, and monocyte-derived macrophages. RAGE antigen was also visualized in bovine cardiac myocytes as well as in cultures of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and in neural tissue where motor neurons, peripheral nerves, and a population of cortical neurons were positive. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of RAGE mRNA in the tissues, and studies with rat PC12 pheochromocytes indicated that they provide a neuronal-related cell culture model for examining RAGE expression. Pathological studies of human atherosclerotic plaques showed infiltration of RAGE-expressing cells in the expanded intima. These results indicate that RAGE is present in multiple tissues and suggest the potential relevance of AGE-RAGE interactions for modulating properties of the vasculature as well as neural and cardiac function, prominent areas of involvement in diabetes and in the normal aging process. ImagesFigure 9Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 10 PMID:8256857

  16. Intraluminal fibrosis in interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Basset, F.; Ferrans, V. J.; Soler, P.; Takemura, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Crystal, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    involved. Under these circumstances, intraluminal organization can mediate the fusion of adjacent alveolar structures by intraluminal connective tissue. Images Figure 15 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 18 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3953768

  17. Immunopathology of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Z. A.; Reed, S. G.; Roters, S. B.; Sadigursky, M.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively susceptible BALB/c and relatively resistant A/J mice were infected subcutaneously in the right hind footpad with promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. A large localized lesion developed within 2 months after infection in the BALB/c mice, while A/J mice exhibited a small discrete fibrotic nodule. Sequential immunologic and histologic examination demonstrated that BALB/c mice developed a nodular foam-cell type of lesion and progressive depression of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to leishmania antigen, while the A/J mice had a mixed cellular fibrosing and encapsulating reaction and developed and maintained positive DTH responses to leishmania antigen. Anti-leishmania antibody responses were positive at similar levels in both strains. The lesions in BALB/c mice were found in bone marrow, tendon, skin appendages, and regional lymph nodes, with a tendency toward cutaneous metastases. Lesions in A/J mice remained localized. Fibrosis, focal fibrinoid necrosis, and lymphocytic and macrophagic infiltration were the outstanding features. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies indicated that no outstanding destruction of leishmanias seemed to occur within macrophages of either mouse strain. In the more resistant A/J mice, however, parasitized macrophages were frequently necrotic, and degenerating leishmanias were often seen free in the interstitial tissue. These observations help the interpretation of the histologic features, as well as the pathogenesis, of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in man. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6691411

  18. Automated detection and tracking of individual and clustered cell surface low density lipoprotein receptor molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, R N; Webb, W W

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a technique to detect, recognize, and track each individual low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) molecule and small receptor clusters on the surface of human skin fibroblasts. Molecular recognition and high precision (30 nm) simultaneous automatic tracking of all of the individual receptors in the cell surface population utilize quantitative time-lapse low light level digital video fluorescence microscopy analyzed by purpose-designed algorithms executed on an image processing work station. The LDL-Rs are labeled with the biologically active, fluorescent LDL derivative dil-LDL. Individual LDL-Rs and unresolved small clusters are identified by measuring the fluorescence power radiated by the sub-resolution fluorescent spots in the image; identification of single particles is ascertained by four independent techniques. An automated tracking routine was developed to track simultaneously, and without user intervention, a multitude of fluorescent particles through a sequence of hundreds of time-lapse image frames. The limitations on tracking precision were found to depend on the signal-to-noise ratio of the tracked particle image and mechanical drift of the microscope system. We describe the methods involved in (i) time-lapse acquisition of the low-light level images, (ii) simultaneous automated tracking of the fluorescent diffraction limited punctate images, (iii) localizing particles with high precision and limitations, and (iv) detecting and identifying single and clustered LDL-Rs. These methods are generally applicable and provide a powerful tool to visualize and measure dynamics and interactions of individual integral membrane proteins on living cell surfaces. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8061186

  19. Serial nonenhancing magnetic resonance imaging scans of high grade glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed Central

    Moore-Stovall, J.; Venkatesh, R.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from clinical experience has proven to be superior to all other diagnostic imaging modalities, including computed tomography (CT) in the detection of intracranial neoplasms. Although glioblastoma multiforme presents a challenge for all diagnostic imaging modalities including MRI, MRI is paramount to CT in detecting subtle abnormal water accumulation in brain tissue caused by tumor even before there is disruption of the blood brain barrier. Currently, clinical research and investigational trials on nonionic gadolinium contrast agents have proven that nonionic gadolinium HP-DO3A (ProHance) contrast agents have lower osmolality and greater stability, which make them superior compounds to gadolinium diethylenetriamine-pentacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Therefore, the nonionic gadolinium contrasts have been safely administered more rapidly, in higher or multiple doses for contrast enhanced MRI without adverse side effects or changes in serum iron or total bilirubin, and the intensity of the area of enhancement and number of lesions detected were superior to that of Gd-DTPA (Magnevist) at the standard dose (0.1 mmol/Kg). Perhaps if the nonionic gadolinium contrast agent, ProHance, had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) when this MRI was performed in 1990 it would have aided in providing contrast enhancement and visualization of the tumor lesion to assist in patient diagnosis and management. Magnetic resonance imaging also provides unique multiplanar capabilities that allow for optimal visualization of the temporal and occipital lobes of the brain without bone interference.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9A Figure 9B Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:8382751

  20. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the orbit: a clinicopathologic study of eight cases.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobiec, F A; Font, R L; Zimmerman, L E

    1985-01-01

    Eight adult patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the orbit are described. Only two of the patients were known to have von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. The typical clinical history included the development of a mass in the superonasal quadrant of the orbit, which was palpable immediately beneath the skin of the lid. There was a definite tendency for the lesions to arise in, or grow along, the supraorbital nerve--including posteriorly through the superior orbital fissure to the Gasserian ganglion, and even as far posteriorly along the trigeminal rootlets to the pons. Delays in pathologic diagnosis, which beclouded the true nature of the process, led to multiple recurrences, eventuating in five known fatalities out of the eight patients. In addition to intracranial extension, pulmonary metastases and regional cervical metastases were encountered. Once recognized for their diagnostic value, the histopathologic patterns are highly distinctive: biphasic populations of spindled and epithelioid cells; sheets of epithelioid cells or clusters demarcated by delicate reticulin fibers or thicker collagenous trabeculae; malignant plexiform patterns; and neurotubular patterns. Pure spindle cell populations were encountered only in the two patients with von Recklinghausen's disease, and in each, either a pre-existent benign neurofibroma or a coexistent plexiform neurofibroma was found in the pathology specimens. The best management of this condition depends upon early clinical and pathological recognition, leading to radical surgery, which usually consists of orbital exenteration combined with intracranial extirpation of as much of the trigeminal nerve as possible. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy after radical surgery might also be advisable. Images FIGURE 16 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:3938581

  1. Characterization of α-Amylase-Inhibitor, a Lectin-Like Protein in the Seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Joaquin; Altabella, Teresa; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1990-01-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, contains a glycoprotein that inhibits the activity of mammalian and insect α-amylases, but not of plant α-amylases. It is therefore classified as an antifeedant or seed defense protein. In P. vulgaris cv Greensleeves, α-amylase inhibitor (αAl) is present in embryonic axes and cotyledons, but not in other organs of the plant. The protein is synthesized during the same time period that phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin are made and also accumulates in the protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies). Purified αAl can be resolved by SDS-PAGE into five bands (Mr 15,000-19,000), four of which have covalently attached glycans. These bands represent glycoforms of two different polypeptides. All the glycoforms have complex glycans that are resistant to removal by endoglycosidase H, indicating transport of the protein through the Golgi apparatus. The two different polypeptides correspond to the N-terminal and C-terminal halves of a lectin-like protein encoded by an already identified gene or a gene closely related to it (LM Hoffman [1984] J Mol Appl Genet 2: 447-453; J Moreno, MJ Chrispeels [1989] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:7885-7889). The primary translation product of αAl is a polypeptide of Mr 28,000. Immunologically cross-reacting glycopolypeptides of Mr 30,000 to 35,000 are present in the endoplasmic reticulum, while the smaller polypeptides (Mr 15,000-19,000) accumulate in protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies). Together these data indicate that αAl is a typical bean lectin-type protein that is synthesized on the rough endoplasmlc reticulum, modified in the Golgi, and transported to the protein storage vacuoles. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:16667338

  2. Podoplanin, novel 43-kd membrane protein of glomerular epithelial cells, is down-regulated in puromycin nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Breiteneder-Geleff, S.; Matsui, K.; Soleiman, A.; Meraner, P.; Poczewski, H.; Kalt, R.; Schaffner, G.; Kerjaschki, D.

    1997-01-01

    Puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), a rat model of human minimal change nephropathy, is characterized by extensive flattening of glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) foot processes and by severe proteinuria. For comparison of expression of glomerular membrane proteins of normal and PAN rats, a membrane protein fraction of isolated rat glomeruli was prepared and monoclonal antibodies were raised against it. An IgG-secreting clone designated LF3 was selected that specifically immunolabeled podocytes of normal but not of PAN rats. The antigen of LF3 IgG was identified as a 43-kd glycoprotein. Molecular cloning of its cDNA was performed in a delta gt11 expression library prepared from mRNA of isolated rat glomeruli. The predicted amino acid sequence indicated a 166-amino-acid integral membrane protein with a single membrane-spanning domain, two potential phosphorylation sites in its short cytoplasmic tail, and six potential O-glycosylation sites in the large ectodomain. High amino acid sequence identities were found to membrane glycoproteins of rat lung and bone and mouse thymus epithelial cells as well as to a phorbol-ester-induced protein in a mouse osteoblast cell line and to a canine influenza C virus receptor. In PAN, expression of this 43-kd protein was selectively reduced to < 30%, as determined by quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, immunoblotting, and Northern blotting. These data provide evidence that transcription of the 43-kd transmembrane podocyte glycoprotein is specifically down-regulated in PAN. To indicate that this protein could be associated with transformation of arborized foot processes to flat feet (Latin, pes planus) we have called it podoplanin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:9327748

  3. Subendocardial ischemic myocardial lesions associated with severe coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Geer, J. C.; Crago, C. A.; Little, W. C.; Gardner, L. L.; Bishop, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    atherosclerosis are distinctive and can be distinguished from myocardial necrosis or fibrosis associated with acute total occlusion of a coronary artery. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7361850

  4. Substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 310 in type II collagen produces achondrogenesis II, and substitution of serine at position 805 produces hypochondrogenesis: analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventure, J; Cohen-Solal, L; Ritvaniemi, P; Van Maldergem, L; Kadhom, N; Delezoide, A L; Maroteaux, P; Prockop, D J; Ala-Kokko, L

    1995-01-01

    mutation yet reported in type II procollagen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7741714

  5. Cytoskeletal changes in podocytes associated with foot process effacement in Masugi nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Shirato, I.; Sakai, T.; Kimura, K.; Tomino, Y.; Kriz, W.

    1996-01-01

    4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8644869

  6. Interferon-inducible protein-10 is highly expressed in rats with experimental nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Chiarri, M.; Ortiz, A.; González-Cuadrado, S.; Serón, D.; Emancipator, S. N.; Hamilton, T. A.; Barat, A.; Plaza, J. J.; González, E.; Egido, J.

    1996-01-01

    Interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10 is a small glycoprotein member of a family of chemotactic cytokines structurally related to interleukin-8. We have recently described the induction of IP-10 mRNA in mouse mesangial cells stimulated with lipopolysacharide, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. To further evaluate a possible role for this chemokine in renal injury, we have studied IP-10 in an experimental model of nephrosis induced in rats by adriamycin. High levels of glomerular IP-10 mRNA expression and glomerular and tubulointerstitial IP-10 protein were seen on day 21, coinciding with maximal proteinuria, glomerular tumor necrosis factor mRNA expression, and interstitial cellular infiltrates. Maintenance on a low protein diet not only delayed the appearance of proteinuria and interstitial cellular infiltrate but also decreased glomerular IP-10 mRNA expression. Isolated normal glomeruli and cultured glomerular epithelial and mesangial cells from normal rats expressed IP-10 mRNA upon stimulation with 100 U/ml interferon or 1 microgram/ml lipopolysaccharide for 3 hours. IP-10 mRNA expression was also inducible by lipopolysaccharide and cytokines in NRK 49F renal interstitial fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, in NRK 52E tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, IP-10 protein was inducible in murine mesangial cells. We conclude that IP-10 is highly inducible in vitro and in vivo in resident glomerular and tubulointerstitial cells. IP-10 may participate in the modulation of renal damage in experimental nephrosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8546219

  7. The mechanism of lamellar-to-inverted hexagonal phase transitions: a study using temperature-jump cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, D P; Green, W J; Talmon, Y

    1994-01-01

    The lamellar/inverted hexagonal (L alpha/HII) phase transition can be very fast, despite the drastic change in the topology of the lipid/water interfaces. The first structures to form in this transition may be similar to those that mediate membrane fusion in many lipid systems. To study the transition mechanism and other dynamic phenomena in membrane dispersions, we constructed an apparatus to rapidly trigger the transition and then vitrify the specimens to preserve the structure of transient intermediates. The apparatus applies millisecond-long temperature jumps of variable size to aqueous dispersions of lipids on electron microscope grids at times 9-16 ms before specimen vitrification. The vitrified specimens are then examined by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. Dispersions of egg phosphatidylethanolamine completed the transition within 9 ms when superheated by 20 K. Similar transition times have been observed in dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine via time-resolved x-ray diffraction. N-monomethylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine dispersions superheated to lesser extent exhibited slower transitions and more complex morphology. The structure of the first intermediates to form in the transition process could not be determined, probably because the intermediates are labile on the time scale of sample cooling and vitrification (< 1 ms) and because of the poor contrast developed by some of these small structures. However, the results are more compatible with a transition mechanism based on "stalk" intermediates than a mechanism involving inverted micellar intermediates. Temperature-jump cryo-transmission electron microscopy should be useful in studying dynamic phenomena in biomembranes, large protein complexes, and other colloidal dispersions. It should be especially helpful in studying the mechanism of protein-induced membrane fusion. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8161694

  8. Mouse gastric mucin: cloning and chromosomal localization.

    PubMed Central

    Shekels, L L; Lyftogt, C; Kieliszewski, M; Filie, J D; Kozak, C A; Ho, S B

    1995-01-01

    Mucins protect gastric epithelium by maintaining a favourable pH gradient and preventing autodigestion. The purpose of this study was to clone a mouse gastric mucin which would provide a foundation for analysis of mucin gene regulation. Mucin was purified from the glandular portion of gastric specimens and deglycosylated by HF solvolysis. Antibodies against native and deglycosylated mouse gastric mucin (MGM) were raised in chickens. Screening of a mouse stomach cDNA library with the anti-(deglycosylated MGM) antibody yielded partial clones containing a 48 bp tandem repeat and 768 bp of non-repetitive sequence. The 16-amino-acid tandem repeat has a consensus sequence of QTSSPNTGKTSTISTT with 25% serine and 38% threonine. The MGM tandem repeat sequence bears no similarity to previously identified mucins. The MGM non-repetitive region shares sequence similarity with human MUC5AC and, to a lesser extent, human MUC2 and rat intestinal mucin. Northern blot analysis reveals a polydisperse message beginning at 13.5 kb in mouse stomach with no expression in oesophagus, trachea, small intestine, large intestine, caecum, lung or kidney. Immunoreactivity of antibodies against deglycosylated MGM and against a synthetic MGM tandem repeat peptide was restricted to superficial mucous cells, antral glands and Brunner's glands in the pyloric-duodenal region. DNA analysis shows that MGM recognizes mouse and rat DNA but not hamster, rabbit or human DNA. The MGM gene maps to a site on mouse chromosome 7 homologous to the location of a human secretory mucin gene cluster on human chromosome 11p15. Due to sequence similarity and predominant expression in the stomach, the MGM gene may be considered a MUC5AC homologue and named Muc5ac. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7487932

  9. Tumour-localising and -photosensitising properties of a novel zinc(II) octadecylphthalocyanine.

    PubMed Central

    Ometto, C.; Fabris, C.; Milanesi, C.; Jori, G.; Cook, M. J.; Russell, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-Octadecylphthalocyaninato zinc(II), ZnODPc, incorporated into a Cremophor emulsion, was assayed for its pharmacokinetic and phototherapeutic properties in Balb/c mice bearing an intramuscularly transplanted MS-2 fibrosarcoma. The phthalocyanine was injected intravenously (i.v.) in three doses, i.e. 1.46, 0.73 and 0.37 mumol kg-1 body weight. In all cases, the octadecyl-substituted phthalocyanine showed an unusually high affinity for serum low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and a high efficiency and selectivity of tumour targeting: the maximum accumulation in the tumour occurred at 24 h after injection, whereas no detectable amount of phthalocyanine was recovered from the muscle, i.e. the peritumoral tissue, between 1 h and 1 week after injection. At the same time, low amounts of phthalocyanine were recovered from skin and then only at short times after injection, with skin photosensitivity rapidly disappearing and the phthalocyanine present in the serum only. Tumour photosensitisation studies were carried out at 24 h after administration of 1.46 mumol kg-1 ZnODPc and showed that this phthalocyanine has a very high phototherapeutic efficiency; this is probably a consequence of the multiple mechanisms by which the phthalocyanine induces tumour damage, involving both direct modification of malignant cells and impairment of blood flow, as well as the alteration of a variety of subcellular components, such as mitochondria, the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the perinuclear membrane and, occasionally, cell nuclei. Tumour necrosis appears to be the consequence of both random cell death and apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:8980387

  10. Heavy Metal-Activated Synthesis of Peptides in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 1

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Gregg; Merchant, Sabeeha

    1992-01-01

    In this study, we have addressed the capacity of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to produce metal-binding peptides in response to stress induced by the heavy metals Cd2+, Hg2+, and Ag+. Cells cultured in the presence of sublethal concentrations of Cd2+ synthesized and accumulated oligopeptides consisting solely of glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine in an average ratio of 3:3:1. Cadmium-induced peptides were isolated in their native form as higher molecular weight peptide-metal complexes with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 6.5 × 103. The isolated complex bound cadmium (as evidenced by absorption spectroscopy) and sequestered (with a stoichiometry of 0.7 moles of cadmium per mole of cysteine) up to 70% of the total cadmium found in extracts of cadmium-treated cells. In Hg2+-treated cells, the principal thiol-containing compound induced by Hg2+ ions was glutathione. It is possible that glutathione functions in plant cells (as it does in animal cells) to detoxify heavy metals. Cells treated with Ag+ ions also synthesized a sulfur-containing component with a charge to mass ratio similar to Cd2+-induced peptides. But, in contrast to the results obtained using Cd2+ as an inducer, these molecules did not accumulate to significant levels in Ag+-treated cells. The presence of physiological concentrations of Cu2+ in the growth medium blocked the synthesis of the Ag+-inducible component(s) and rendered cells resistant to the toxic effects of Ag+, suggesting competition between Cu2+ and Ag+ ions, possibly at the level of metal uptake. ImagesFigure 2Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11 PMID:16668603

  11. Influence of phosphorylation on isoform composition and function of a microtubule-associated protein from developing Artemia.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Macrae, T H

    1995-01-01

    A novel 49 kDa protein, which exhibits nucleotide-dependent cross-linking of microtubules in vitro and localizes to ordered microtubule arrays by immunofluorescent staining, has been purified to apparent homogeneity from the brine shrimp, Artemia. Electrophoretic analysis involving isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional gels, supplemented by staining of Western blots with affinity-purified antibody, revealed that the 49 kDa protein consists of five isoforms with pI values of 6.0-6.2. The amount of 49 kDa protein increased slightly, but its isoform composition did not change significantly, during development of Artemia gastrula to third-instar larvae. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase caused the 49 kDa protein to undergo a mobility shift on gel electrophoresis, and, by use of an antibody to phosphoserine, at least two isoforms of the protein were shown to be phosphorylated. The serine phosphate, presumably added by a post-translational mechanism, did not influence binding of the 49 kDa protein to microtubules. Under conditions in which microtubules were cross-linked, the 49 kDa protein failed to interact with actin filaments. Our results demonstrate that the 49 kDa protein, like other structural microtubule-associated proteins such as tau and MAP2, is composed of several isoforms, some of which are phosphorylated. This protein has the potential to regulate the spatial distribution of microtubules within cells but does not link microfilaments to one another or to microtubules. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7733878

  12. An evaluation of the utility of anti-granulocyte and anti-leukocyte monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, R. F.; Gatter, K. C.; Pulford, K. A.; Mason, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The immunoreactivity of six different monoclonal antigranulocyte antibodies (Leu M1, TG1, 3C4, BY/87a, BY/37a, and 3CD1) has been evaluated in 23 cases of Hodgkin's disease (7 lymphocyte predominant, 12 nodular sclerosing, and 5 mixed cellularity); in a variety of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and in a series of reactive and benign lesions of lymph nodes. Applying a monoclonal antibody (PD7/26) to leukocyte common antigen (T200), we have also investigated reports that the L&H variants in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's disease are strongly immunoreactive for leukocyte common antigen in contrast to the lack of reactivity of Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells and variants thereof in other forms of Hodgkin's disease. All six monoclonal anti-granulocyte antibodies reacted against RS cells and "Hodgkin's cells" in the nodular sclerosing (NSHD) and mixed cellularity (MCHD) types, with strong cell membrane and juxtanuclear (Golgi) staining. In contrast an anti-leukocyte antibody PD7/26 was unreactive with RS cells and variants thereof in NSHD and MCHD. On the other hand, RS cells and L&H variants thereof in the nodular L&H form of Hodgkin's disease (nodular lymphocyte predominant type) showed reactivity with PD7/26 but not with the anti-granulocyte markers. Rare L&H cells in 2 cases of diffuse lymphocyte predominant type showed reactivity with some, but not all, of the anti-granulocyte antibodies. These findings provide further support for the concept that the nodular L&H type of Hodgkin's disease represents an entity distinct from other forms of this disorder. Our studies also demonstrate the usefulness of these immunoperoxidase techniques when applied to formalinfixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5A and B Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3717303

  13. Vimentin metaplasia in renal cortical tubules of preneoplastic, neoplastic, aging, and regenerative lesions of rats and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J. M.; Stevens, J. L.; Konishi, N.; Kurata, Y.; Uno, H.; Diwan, B. A.; Ohmori, T.

    1992-01-01

    Vimentin expression was studied immunohistochemically in renal cortical tubules of untreated male rats of various ages, rats exposed to toxins (barbital sodium, folic acid) and carcinogens (streptozotocin, N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine, barbital sodium, and in humans of various ages with or without renal epithelial tumors. Fetal, neonatal, and young adult rats did not express vimentin in renal cortical tubules. Regenerative renal tubular lesions from rats with aging nephropathy and from rats with toxic nephropathy both expressed vimentin. Mitogenic lesions induced by folic acid at 24 hours, however, were not immunoreactive for vimentin. Carcinogen-induced preneoplastic renal cortical tubular lesions in rats were most often focally immunoreactive whereas strong vimentin expression was found in almost all induced renal tumors. In kidneys of three children (younger than 2 years of age), vimentin was not found in renal cortical tubular cells except in rare individual cells in one case. Vimentin was abundant in basophilic regenerative tubules in kidneys of aged individuals, however. Most (7/10) human renal carcinomas and latent preneoplastic or neoplastic renal tubular lesions found incidentally at autopsy (2/4) showed vimentin expression. The authors suggest that the switching to vimentin expression in phenotypically normal renal cortical tubular cells in rats and humans, which do not usually express the intermediate filament protein vimentin, should be considered vimentin metaplasia. Vimentin expression is dissociated from increased cell proliferation in hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions, however. Instead the degree of dedifferentiation of the tubule cells and changes in phenotype were associated with vimentin expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1415487

  14. Hazard evaluation of chemicals that cause accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin, hyaline droplet nephropathy, and tubule neoplasia in the kidneys of male rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hard, G C; Rodgers, I S; Baetcke, K P; Richards, W L; McGaughy, R E; Valcovic, L R

    1993-01-01

    This review paper examines the relationship between chemicals inducing excessive accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin (alpha 2u-g) (CIGA) in hyaline droplets in male rat kidneys and the subsequent development of nephrotoxicity and renal tubule neoplasia in the male rat. This dose-responsive hyaline droplet accumulation distinguishes CIGA carcinogens from classical renal carcinogens. CIGA carcinogens also do not appear to react with DNA and are generally negative in short-term tests for genotoxicity, CIGA or their metabolites bind specifically, but reversibly, to male rat alpha 2u-g. The resulting complex appears to be more resistant to hydrolytic degradation in the proximal tubule than native, unbound alpha 2u-g. Single cell necrosis of the tubule epithelium, with associated granular cast formation and papillary mineralization, is followed by sustained regenerative tubule cell proliferation, foci of tubule hyperplasia in the convoluted proximal tubules, and renal tubule tumors. Although structurally similar proteins have been detected in other species, including humans, renal lesions characteristic of alpha 2u-g nephropathy have not been observed. Epidemiologic investigation has not specifically examined the CIGA hypothesis for humans. Based on cancer bioassays, hormone manipulation studies, investigations in an alpha 2u-g-deficient strain of rat, and other laboratory data, an increased proliferative response caused by chemically induced cytotoxicity appears to play a role in the development of renal tubule tumors in male rats. Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that the renal effects induced in male rats by chemicals causing alpha 2u-g accumulation are unlikely to occur in humans. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. PMID:7686485

  15. The Molecular Basis of Canavan (Aspartoacylase Deficiency) Disease in European Non-Jewish Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shaag, A.; Anikster, Y.; Christensen, E.; Glustein, J. Z.; Fois, A.; Michelakakis, H.; Nigro, F.; Pronicka, E.; Ribes, A.; Zabot, M. T.; Elpeleg, O. N.

    1995-01-01

    Canavan disease is an infantile neurodegenerative disease that is due to aspartoacylase deficiency. The disease has been reported mainly in Ashkenazi Jews but also occurs in other ethnic groups. Determination of enzymatic activity for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis is considered unreliable. In the present study, nine mutations were found in the aspartoacylase gene of 19 non-Jewish patients. These included four point mutations (A305E [39.5% of the mutated alleles], C218X [15.8%], F295S [2.6%], and G274R [5.3%]); four deletion mutations (827delGT [5.3%], 870del4 [2.6%], 566del7 [2.6%], and 527del6 [2.6%]); and one exon skip (527del108 [5.3%]). The A305E mutation is pan-European and probably the most ancient mutation, identified in patients of Greek, Polish, Danish, French, Spanish, Italian, and British origin. In contrast, the G274R and 527del108 mutations were found only in patients of Turkish origin, and the C218X mutation was identified only in patients of Gypsy origin. Homozygosity for the A305E mutation was identified in patients with both the severe and the mild forms of Canavan disease. Mutations were identified in 31 of the 38 alleles, resulting in an overall detection rate of 81.6%. All nine mutations identified in non-Jewish patients reside in exons 4–6 of the aspartoacylase gene. The results would enable accurate genetic counseling in the families of 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients, in whom two mutations were identified in the aspartoacylase cDNA. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:7668285

  16. Reproducible acquisition of Escherichia coli porin surface topographs by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Schabert, F A; Engel, A

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline membranes reconstituted from Escherichia coli OmpF porin and phospholipids were adsorbed to freshly cleaved mica and imaged in solution by the atomic force microscope. The extracellular as well as the periplasmic side of the porin trimers could be identified and the conditions to record topographs at 1-nm lateral and 0.1-nm vertical resolution were established. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:7696479

  17. Primary Schwannoma of the Petrous Apex

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Karl L.; Hankinson, Hal L.; Nissen, Alan J.; McDaniel, Shawna L.

    1995-01-01

    We present two patients with primary petrous apex schwannoma. These tumors were centered on the petrous carotid artery and are thought to have originated from the deep petrosal nerve. This would account for the paucity of neurologic deficits in these patients. Imaging findings and surgical treatment of primary petrous apex schwannomas are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:17170967

  18. Adolescent Athletic Injuries: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    White, G. N.

    1986-01-01

    Adolescents are becoming involved in athletic activities at an ever-increasing rate, with the result that more adolescents are presenting to the family physician with athletic injuries. The most frequent type of sports injury involves the soft tissues. This paper discusses the diagnosis and management of soft-tissue injuries and identifies some of the behavioural characteristics of the injured adolescent athlete. ImagesFigure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21267223

  19. The ophthalmic implications of the correction of late enophthalmos following severe midfacial trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Iliff, N T

    1991-01-01

    enophthalmos for which measurements were available produced an improvement; in 1 case the enophthalmos was thought to be worse postoperatively. Dystopia operations resulted in improvement in 40 of 48 operations; in 2 instances dystopia was worse postoperatively. Diplopia was unchanged by 33 operations, improved by 11 procedures, and worsened by 6. If patients are considered before and after their total reconstruction course, diplopia was improved in 9 of the 29 patients. In seven of these nine, diplopia was eliminated. There was no change in or production of diplopia in 19 patients, and 5 patients had worsening of their double vision.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE20 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:1808816

  20. Fish models for environmental carcinogenesis: the rainbow trout.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, G S; Williams, D E; Hendricks, J D

    1996-01-01

    fish models can serve as highly useful adjuncts to conventional rodent models in the study of environmental carcinogenesis and its modulation. For some problems, fish models can provide wholly unique approaches. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. PMID:8722107

  1. Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of human type XIX defines a novel class of basement membrane zone collagens.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, J. C.; Li, D.; Bageris, A.; Abraham, V.; Dion, A. S.; Amenta, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    -stromal interactions, the pronounced vascular association suggests involvement of these related collagen types with angiogenic and pathological processes. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:9403723

  2. Kinetics of acute inflammation induced by Escherichia coli in rabbits. II. The effect of hyperimmunization, complement depletion, and depletion of leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kopaniak, M. M.; Movat, H. Z.

    1983-01-01

    demonstrable in lesions. Histologically more neutrophils were present in the hyperimmunized than in the normal rabbits, but this difference was striking when normal animals were compared with leukopenic animals, in some of which only very occasional small accumulations of neutrophils were present. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6336905

  3. Pattern of stress protein expression in human lung cell-line A549 after short- or long-term exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Croute, F; Beau, B; Arrabit, C; Gaubin, Y; Delmas, F; Murat, J C; Soleilhavoup, J P

    2000-01-01

    maximum allowable biologic exposure limit should be lowered. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10620524

  4. Tissue repair processes in healing chronic pressure ulcers treated with recombinant platelet-derived growth factor BB.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, G. F.; Tarpley, J. E.; Allman, R. M.; Goode, P. S.; Serdar, C. M.; Morris, B.; Mustoe, T. A.; Vande Berg, J.

    1994-01-01

    Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7992843

  5. Transforming growth factor-alpha promotes mammary tumorigenesis through selective survival and growth of secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. H.; Sharp, R.; Kordon, E. C.; Jhappan, C.; Merlino, G.

    1995-01-01

    prolonging survival during involution. These points support the notion that TGF-alpha can act as a mitogen and also as a differentiation factor in mammary epithelium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7573353

  6. Binding of myosin subfragment 1 to glycerinated insect flight muscle in the rigor state.

    PubMed Central

    Goody, R S; Reedy, M C; Hofmann, W; Holmes, K C; Reedy, M K

    1985-01-01

    The binding of rabbit muscle myosin subfragment 1 (S1) to glycerinated insect flight muscle fibers has been studied by low-angle x-ray diffraction, quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, quantitative interference microscopy, and electron microscopy. Changes induced in the rigor x-ray diffraction pattern are consistent with the idea that vacant myosin-binding sites on thin filaments are filled by exogenous S1. Electron microscopy indicates that S1 permeates and labels fibers and fibrils completely. Electron micrographs also show that cross-bridges are not displaced by exogenous S1 under the conditions used, and this is supported by the unchanged mechanical stiffness of the S1-labeled fibers. The amount of bound S1, as measured by gel electrophoresis and interference microscopy, together with the magnitude of the intensity changes in the x-ray diffraction pattern, is consistent with a thick filament structure that contains four molecules of endogenous myosin per 14.5 nm of its length, but does not agree well with earlier estimates of six myosins per crown. Lack of information on possible inhibition of S1-binding by factors other than the presence of cross-bridges, e.g., troponin, render uncertain calculations of the number of attached cross-bridges in the rigor state. However, it appears that at least 75% of the endogenous myosin heads are attached. Occupancy of binding sites on thin filaments after incubation with S1 is high, probably greater than 85%, so that x-ray scattering from those parts of the structure that adhere to the symmetry of the thin filaments can be treated as diffraction from S1-decorated thin filaments. In addition, we show in thin flared X cross sections that exo-S1 heads bind to actin with the geometry described in decorated actin by Taylor, K.A., and L.A. Amos. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:3978197

  7. Hydrogen peroxide changes in ischemic and reperfused heart. Cytochemistry and biochemical and X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Slezak, J.; Tribulova, N.; Pristacova, J.; Uhrik, B.; Thomas, T.; Khaper, N.; Kaul, N.; Singal, P. K.

    1995-01-01

    support a significant increase in myocardial H2O2 during both the phase of ischemia and the first few minutes of reperfusion. A stronger reaction on the sarcolemma and abluminal side of endothelial cells may also indicate enhanced H2O2 accumulation as well as vulnerability of these sites to oxidative stress injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7677188

  8. Tumor necrosis factor induces glomerular damage in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, T.; Abbate, M.; Zoja, C.; Corna, D.; Perico, N.; Ghezzi, P.; Remuzzi, G.

    1989-01-01

    macrophage-dependent damage in glomerulonephritis. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2916653

  9. The origins and insertions of the extraocular muscles: development, histologic features, and clinical significance.

    PubMed Central

    Sevel, D

    1986-01-01

    for muscle adjustments should be assessed from the limbus rather than from the sites of insertion of these tendons. In the series of patients with esotropia, no mechanical abnormalities were noted in relationship to the insertions of the medial or lateral recti muscles. Furthermore, no correlation was found between the site of insertion of the medial rectus muscle and the degree of esotropia. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 PMID:3590478

  10. Mesangial cell hillocks. Nodular foci of exaggerated growth of cells and matrix in prolonged culture.

    PubMed Central

    Sterzel, R. B.; Lovett, D. H.; Foellmer, H. G.; Perfetto, M.; Biemesderfer, D.; Kashgarian, M.

    1986-01-01

    of matrix similar to that seen in the mesangium of diseased glomeruli. It is concluded that the in vitro model of prolonged MC outgrowth may facilitate the investigation of factors that govern mesangial matrix production. Such a model could be used in examining the response of the mesangium to defined inflammatory or metabolic stimuli. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:3535527

  11. Biosynthesis, surface expression and function of the fibronectin receptor after rat liver cell transformation to tumorigenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Decastel, M; Doyennette-Moyne, M A; Gouet, E; Aubery, M; Codogno, P

    1993-01-01

    . Furthermore, both the abnormal mature 130-kDa and precursor 100-kDa beta 1-subunits were detected on the surface of Zajdela hepatoma cells, associated with the alpha 5-subunit. The relationship between these structural alterations in the fibronectin receptor and the impaired Zajdela hepatoma cell binding to soluble fibronectin or to a coated fibronectin matrix that was observed in this study is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8471041

  12. A twin study on age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, S M

    1994-01-01

    ; this included the one dizygotic pair which was discordant for basal laminar drusen. The data of this study strongly suggest a genetic predisposition to AMD. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 1 (cont.) FIGURE 2 FIGURE 2 (cont.) FIGURE 2 (cont.) FIGURE 3 FIGURE 3 (cont.) FIGURE 3 (cont.) FIGURE 3 (cont.) FIGURE 4 FIGURE 4 (cont.) FIGURE 5 FIGURE 5 (cont.) FIGURE 5 (cont.) FIGURE 6 FIGURE 6 (cont.) FIGURE 7 FIGURE 7 (cont.) FIGURE 8 FIGURE 8 (cont.) FIGURE 9 FIGURE 9 (cont.) FIGURE 9 (cont.) FIGURE 10 FIGURE 10 (cont.) FIGURE 11 FIGURE 11 (cont.) FIGURE 11 (cont.) FIGURE 12 FIGURE 12 (cont.) FIGURE 12 (cont.) PMID:7886884

  13. Tumor vascularity and hematogenous metastasis in experimental murine intraocular melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, H E

    1998-01-01

    metastasizes through regional lymphatics. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:10360307

  14. Transgenic hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Hully, J. R.; Su, Y.; Lohse, J. K.; Griep, A. E.; Sattler, C. A.; Haas, M. J.; Dragan, Y.; Peterson, J.; Neveu, M.; Pitot, H. C.

    1994-01-01

    stainable amounts of the p53 gene product; by contrast, normal hepatocytes express only very low levels of the T antigen within their nuclei and no demonstrable p53. All of the animals develop hepatic lesions, and approximately one-third also develop adenomas and carcinomas derived from the islet cells of the pancreas. Although there are differences in the morphology, biology, and genetic expression in early and late hepatic lesions in this strain of transgenic rat, many similarities also occur, making this a potential model system with which to study the interactions of environmental factors with a genetic program for hepatocarcinogenesis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8053496

  15. Defect of Fc receptors and phenotypical changes in sinusoidal endothelial cells in human liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Muro, H.; Shirasawa, H.; Kosugi, I.; Nakamura, S.

    1993-01-01

    .e., capillarization of the sinusoids. These phenotypical changes in SECs may reduce the capacity of FcR-mediated IgG-IC metabolism in diseased livers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7686339

  16. Joshua N Haldeman, DC: the Canadian Years, 1926-1950

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C; Haldeman, Scott

    1995-01-01

    aviator and explorer. Although he died in 1974, the values he instilled in his son, Scott Haldeman, D.C., Ph.D., M.D. continue to influence the profession. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10

  17. Reactive oxygen species cause direct damage of Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Riedle, B.; Kerjaschki, D.

    1997-01-01

    -linking bityrosine groups. ROS scavengers pinpointed to the hydroxyl radical as the most damaging radical species. Protease inhibitor experiments suggested that degradation of matrix proteins was caused primarily by the direct action of ROS and not by proteolysis by potentially contaminating proteases. Collectively, these results provide evidence that EHS matrix proteins show differential sensitivity to ROS-induced damage in a reproducible, sequential pattern, in the order entactin > laminin > type IV collagen, and that ROS cause partial dissociation and cross-linking of the EHS matrix. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:9212747

  18. Classification and morphometric quantitation of insoluble materials from the lungs of patients with alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, L. B.; Talley, F. A.; Hook, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    alveoli and distal airways of patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3189505

  19. Ley specific antibody with potent anti-tumor activity is internalized and degraded in lysosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Garrigues, J.; Garrigues, U.; Hellström, I.; Hellström, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    after 6 hours of chase, a maximum of 53% of the radiolabel is located within the intracellular pool. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicates that 84% of this fraction is nondegraded. BR96 probably cycles between the medium and intracellular pools because the remainder of the radiolabel is in the medium as intact MAb. By 24 hours of chase, the intracellular fraction drops to 30%, while the remaining 70% is present in the culture medium, mostly as low molecular weight degradation products. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 p614-a Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8434651

  20. Temporal expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental acute Chagasic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, B.; Melby, P. C.; Troyer, D. A.; Colston, J. T.; Freeman, G. L.

    1998-01-01

    To characterize the kinetics of myocardial cytokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in acute Chagasic cardiomyopathy, we studied a rat model of acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Rats were euthanized 36 hours and 5, 10, and 15 days after infection, and hearts were collected for histology, mRNA, and protein analyses. Histological analysis of myocardium showed a progressive increase in the number of amastigotes and mononuclear inflammatory cells. Organisms were first detected 5 days after intraperitoneal inoculation as isolated nests and became numerous by day 15. Northern blot analysis of total RNA revealed no signal for interleukin (IL)-1beta or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and a weak signal for IL-6 in control hearts. High levels of expression for the three genes were detected in the infected animals at 36 hours after infection. Although IL-1beta and IL-6 levels increased steadily up to 10 days, TNF-alpha levels were the highest at 5 days, remained high at 10 days, and declined thereafter. Western blot analysis showed similar results to that of mRNA expression. No signal was detected for iNOS in the controls, but both its mRNA and protein were found in the infected animals, with levels being highest at 15 days after infection. Immunohistochemistry revealed no iNOS immunoreactivity in uninfected animals, but intense iNOS staining was detected in blood vessels of infected animals, which decreased progressively with period of infection. Positive staining for iNOS in cardiomyocytes was first detected at 36 hours after infection (at a time when there was no histological inflammatory reaction), which steadily increased, being the highest at 15 days after infection. These results indicate that, in addition to mechanical damage by T. cruzi, substantial pro-inflammatory cytokine production within the myocardium is likely to participate in the pathophysiology of acute Chagasic cardiomyopathy. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

  1. Ice-binding mechanism of winter flounder antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, A; Merz, K M

    1997-01-01

    effect play in ice binding are also highlighted. For the latter it is demonstrated that the surface of ice has a clathratelike structure which favors the partitioning of hydrophobic groups to the surface of ice. It is suggested that mutations that involve the deletion of hydrophobic residues (e.g., the Leu residues) will provide insight into the role the hydrophobic effect plays in partitioning these peptides to the surface of ice. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 11 PMID:9414201

  2. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    a newly recognized, often fatal disease, with a spectrum of microscopic morphological changes, which may be an important cause of severe and fatal illness presenting as adult respiratory distress syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:7887439

  3. The Pathogenesis of Experimentally Induced Trypanosoma brucei Infection in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, W. I.; Murray, Max; Sayer, P. D.; Preston, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    polymorphonuclear leukocytes, along with extensive deposition of fibrin, were commonly found in the subcapsular sinuses. During this period, foci of erythropoietic cells were present throughout the red pulp of the spleen. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19 PMID:6110341

  4. Chronic hemodynamic unloading regulates the morphologic development of newborn mouse hearts transplanted into the ear of isogeneic adult mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    months after transplantation, the myocytes of heterotopic hearts were smaller in size in comparison to those after 2 or 6 months. The graft cells were separated from each other by fibrous tissue and mononuclear cells and were not aligned in parallel within the tissue; often, they appeared to have lost their connections with adjacent cells. The myofibrils within cells were strikingly disorganized, coursing in different directions. Severely degenerated myocytes were commonly seen. These results, without precluding the possible role of neural and hormonal stimuli, clearly indicate that hemodynamic work load regulates the developmental growth of newborn mouse heart transplanted into the pinna of the ear of isogeneic adult recipient mice. In other words, the mass of cardiac tissue would be adjusted to meet the prevailing hemodynamic demands.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:1632462

  5. Alzheimer's neurofibrillary tangles contain unique epitopes and epitopes in common with the heat-stable microtubule associated proteins tau and MAP2.

    PubMed Central

    Yen, S. H.; Dickson, D. W.; Crowe, A.; Butler, M.; Shelanski, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    pathogenesis of ANT formation, requires further investigation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2433949

  6. Renal extracellular matrix accumulation in acute puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C. L.; Buch, S.; Post, M.; McCulloch, L.; Liu, E.; Eddy, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    tubulointerstitial ECM accumulation occurs in rats with acute PAN nephrosis because of the activation of genes encoding several matrix proteins and inhibition of matrix degradation mediated by TIMP. These events are reversed during the phase of recovery from nephrotic syndrome. Increased mRNA levels for TGF-beta, possibly originating from inflammatory interstitial monocytes, are likely to be one of the mediators of the molecular events observed. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1281619

  7. Rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine continuously administered at low doses. From basophilic areas of hepatocytes to hepatocellular tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Cortinovis, C.; Klimek, F.; Nogueira, E.

    1991-01-01

    application of some carcinogens at high doses, they are not obligatory precursors of hepatocellular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 PMID:1951631

  8. Same admission colostomy closure (SACC). A new approach to rectal wounds: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Renz, B M; Feliciano, D V; Sherman, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this project were to study the healing of protected rectal wounds (RWs) using contrast enemas (CEs) and to establish the safety of same admission colostomy closure (SACC) in terms of colostomy closure (CC) and rectal wound-related outcomes, for selected patients with radiologically healed RWs. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Traditional treatment of RWs has included a diverting colostomy that is closed 2 or more months later during a readmission. METHODS: All patients admitted with a rectal injury were entered into this prospective study, treated with a diverting colostomy and presacral drainage, and managed according to a postoperative protocol that included a CE per anus to detect healing of the RW. Patients with no leaking on their first CE, no infection, and anal continence underwent SACC. RESULTS: From 1990 to 1993, 30 consecutive patients had rectal injuries, 90% of which resulted from gunshot wounds. The first CE was performed in 29 patients 5 to 10 days after injury. In this group, 21 patients did not and 8 did have leakage from their RWs. The proportions of RWs radiologically healed at 7 and 10 days after injury were 55.2% and 75%, respectively. Sixteen patients with a normal CE underwent SACC 9 to 19 days after injury (mean, 12.4 days). There were two fecal fistulas (2 of 7; 28.6%) after simple suture closure, none (0 of 9) after resection of the stoma with end-to-end anastomosis, and no RW-related complications after SACC. The mean hospitalization time was 17.4 days. CONCLUSIONS: The following conclusions were drawn: (1) CE confirmed healing of RWs in 75% of patients by 10 days after injury; (2) 60% of patients with RWs were candidates for SACC, and 53% were discharged with their colostomies closed; (3) SACC was performed without complications in 87.5% of patients with radiologically healed RWs; and (4) there were no RW-related complications after SACC. Images Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. PMID:8373271

  9. Geographical Aspects of Cancer in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, George A.

    1983-01-01

    Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to the Tanzanian Cancer Registry, which records all histologically confirmed malignant tumors, the number of reported cancer cases has increased significantly over the past three decades. The most commonly diagnosed tumors are cervix cancer, skin cancer, primary liver cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and Burkitt's lymphoma. Geographical and tribal variations exist in disease frequency. Environmental factors appear to have a major role in the distribution. Through elimination of these factors, cancer in Tanzania could be reduced if not totally prevented. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:6631988

  10. Radiation damage in tripalmitin layers studied by means of infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Baumeister, W; Fringeli, U P; Hahn, M; Kopp, F; Seredynski, J

    1976-01-01

    Structural deteriorations in biomembranes, as inevitably induced while structural information is gathered by electron optical methods, were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy. Tripalmitin model membranes were irradiated with 100 keV-electrons in an electron microscope. The intensity decay of group vibrations over the dose reveals the sequence of damage in the polar and nonpolar part of the molecule. The C-C backbone, being the most important structural feature, shows a significant latency effect up to 0.6 e-/A2 and is completely disordered by 3 e-/A2, corresponding to about three inelastic processes per molecule. Images FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 3 PMID:938719

  11. BLACK LESIONS OF THE SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Becker, S. William

    1958-01-01

    Benign melanocytic lesions include lentigo, ephelid (freckle), pigmented nevus, sacral spot, blue nevus, and combined nevus and blue nevus. Malignant melanocytic lesions are melanomas, which arise from melanocytes at the epidermodermal junction, or, rarely, from blue nevi. They usually originate in brown plaques known as lentigo maligna, in pigmented nevi, or in normal skin. Melanoma is diagnosed clinically in less than 50 per cent of instances. Biopsy is therefore of great importance, since practically all melanoma can be cured by adequate early resection. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:13511215

  12. Advanced Coats' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Haik, B G

    1991-01-01

    further study. Specimens from patients with intraocular hemorrhage should be viewed cautiously, since erythrocytes contain high levels of enolase. Analysis of subretinal aspirates is an extremely accurate method of confirming the diagnosis of Coats' disease. The key diagnostic findings are the presence of cholesterol crystals and pigment-laden macrophages and the absence of tumor cells on fresh preparations. The technique should be reserved for patients where retinoblastoma has been ruled out by all noninvasive means and massive subretinal drainage is anticipated. The natural progression in advanced Coats' disease is toward the development of a blind, painful eye. Spontaneous regression does rarely occur, and some eyes quietly progress to a phthisical state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 A FIGURE 34 B FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 A FIGURE 46 B FIGURE 47 A FIGURE 47 B FIGURE 48 A FIGURE 48 B FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 54 (cont.) FIGURE 55 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 A FIGURE 66 B FIGURE 67 A FIGURE 67 B PMID:1808814

  13. Acquired mitochondrial impairment as a cause of optic nerve disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sadun, A

    1998-01-01

    . ( Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURES 24 FIGURES 25 FIGURES 26 FIGURES 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 PMID:10360310

  14. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74 PMID:3524254

  15. Evolution of neoplastic development in the liver of transgenic mice co-expressing c-myc and transforming growth factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Santoni-Rugiu, E.; Nagy, P.; Jensen, M. R.; Factor, V. M.; Thorgeirsson, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    contained small dysplastic hepatocytes and oval-like cells, similar to those found in the tumors. Transplantation of the transgenic liver tissues harboring only dysplasia with or without vascular lesions onto nude mice was able to yield HCCs composed of small diploid cells, suggesting that initiated cells are generated during the early dysplastic phase and can progress to HCC. It is therefore likely that large dysplastic hepatocytes undergo apoptosis, which may be closely associated with the up-regulation of TGF-beta 1 and uPA, whereas other cells evolve into the precursor population for HCC. Due to the simultaneous presence of c-myc, TGF-alpha, and dysplasia in premalignant human liver diseases, our transgenic mouse system appears to be an appropriate model for studying human hepatocarcinogenesis. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Fogire 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8701981

  16. The ultrastructure of conjunctival melanocytic tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobiec, F A

    1984-01-01

    melanocytes and exhibited more haphazard arrangements of the melanofilaments, which were only partially melaninized. Mitochondria were more numerous than in dendritic melanocytes, and monoribosomes predominated over polyribosomes. Cytoplasmic filaments were inconspicuous. Cells in the immediate subepithelial connective tissue zone had features identical to those of the cells within the junctional nests. Smaller, lymphocytoid cells with less numerous and more rudimentary melanosomes were found in the middle and deeper portions of the lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 67 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 47 FIGURE 48 FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 56 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 FIGURE 68 FIGURE 69 FIGURE 70 FIGURE 71 FIGURE 72 FIGURE 73 FIGURE 74 FIGURE 75 FIGURE 76 FIGURE 77 FIGURE 78 FIGURE 79 FIGURE 80 FIGURE 81 FIGURE 82 FIGURE 83 FIGURE 84 FIGURE 85 FIGURE 86 FIGURE 87 FIGURE 88 FIGURE 89 PMID:6398936

  17. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52

  18. Dietary lead intakes for mother/child pairs and relevance to pharmacokinetic models.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Vidal, M; Jameson, C W; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Smith, A J; Korsch, M J

    1997-01-01

    the absorption or uptake of lead from dietary sources is similar in adult females and children of the age in this study. In spite of lower bone lead and faster bone remodeling and recycling in children compared with adult females, we see no differences between the mothers and their children in overall contribution of tissue lead to blood lead. Results from this study suggest that fractional absorption of ingested lead by children 6-11 years of age is comparable with absorption patterns observed among adult females in the 29-37-year-old age range. Because pharmacokinetic models apply a 40-50% absorption even for 7-year-old children, further investigations on fractional absorption of ingested lead by young children are warranted.Further investigations are especially needed in younger children than those who were subjects in the current study, particularly children in the 1-3-year-old age range. In addition, the effect of nutritional status and patterns of food intake on children's lead absorption require investigation, particularly given the increased prevalence of marginal nutritional status among low-income populations that are at increased risk of elevated blood lead levels. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. PMID:9405326

  19. Interactive effects of environmentally relevant polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on [3H]phorbol ester binding in rat cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, P R; Ward, T R

    1998-01-01

    of synergism in any of the combinations studied. These results suggest that the biological effects of binary mixtures of PCB congeners fit a dose-additive model, indicating that there is a specific site of action for these PCB congeners which is independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Environmental mixtures contain mostly noncoplanar PCB congeners, and because they appear to be biologically active, the potential human health risk by this group of chemicals should be considered in the risk assessment of PCBs. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9681975

  20. Advances in corneal preservation.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, R L

    1990-01-01

    view of the fact that anterior chamber environment limits cell regeneration of the endothelium, and supports wound healing via cell migration. In vivo, it is the complex interaction of the HCE cell and the extracellular matrix that signal the cell to respond to cell loss in this manner. As our knowledge of human corneal endothelium has increased so has our anticipation of developing the "optimum" medium. Thus additional components have been added to this basic medium to address specific complications encountered with 4 degrees C corneal preservation. Antioxidants, additional energy sources, and other nutritive substrates have been used to supplement and further define a chondroitin sulfate-based medium. These changes have been a part of our new awareness that, even at 4 degrees C, the cornea is metabolically active.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 9 E FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 12 D FIGURE 12 E FIGURE 12 F FIGURE 13 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 18 C FIGURE 18 D FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 A FIGURE 23 B FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24 B FIGURE 24 C FIGURE 24 D FIGURE 24 E FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 33 A FIGURE 33 B PMID:1710084

  1. The eighth Frederick H. Verhoeff Lecture. presented by saiichi mishima, MD Behçet's disease in Japan: ophthalmologic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, S; Masuda, K; Izawa, Y; Mochizuki, M; Namba, K

    1979-01-01

    largely in the uveal tract and the retina; the latter is severely affected and loss of visual cells and other neural elements results. The etiology of this disease still remains unknown but genetic predisposition is suggested since this disease is strongly linked with HL-A-B5. Environmental factors are also considered. Various abnormalities are found in the blood chemistry, blood cells (particularly in neutrophil leucocytes), immunologic mechanism, fibrinolytic and blood clotting system, and hormonal system. Chemotractic factors are found in the aqueous humor. These changes are particulary enhanced just before and during the ocular attacks. Systemic corticosteroids are deleterious to the visual prognosis, but cyclophosphamide and colchicine appear to suppress attacks and help patients maintain the visual acuity. However, these drugs are toxic, particulary to the reproductive organs, and the patients must be informed of this side effect and be allowed to make a decision before they are used. Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:397657

  2. Antioxidant gene expression in rat lung after exposure to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Gilks, C. B.; Price, K.; Wright, J. L.; Churg, A.

    1998-01-01

    most of these antioxidant enzymes and scavengers show prominent bronchial expression but that MnSOD shows a unique pattern, with intense hot spots in the epithelium of the small airways. This pattern is similar to the phenomenon of clonal heterogeneity described in other tissues but not previously reported in the lung. We conclude that cigarette smoke, like other forms of oxidant attack, transiently increases expression of MnSOD, and up-regulation of MnSOD expression appears to occur particularly in bronchial epithelial cells, which normally express MnSOD at relatively low levels. MT expression is also transiently increased by smoke whereas GPX expression increases after prolonged (7 to 14 days) exposure to cigarette smoke. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9422544

  3. Connexin43 gap junctions in normal, regenerating, and cultured mouse bone marrow and in human leukemias: their possible involvement in blood formation.

    PubMed Central

    Krenacs, T.; Rosendaal, M.

    1998-01-01

    their membrane replicas. In normocellular human bone marrow, gap junctions were as rare as in adult mouse and similarly distributed, except that they were also on adipocytic membranes. In a few leukemic samples, characterized by an increased stromal/hematopoietic cell ratio, there were two- to fourfold more Cx43 (2.8 x 10(5) to 3.9 x 10(5)/mm3) than in the normal (1.0 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(5)/mm3). The cases included a hypoplastic acute lymphoblastic leukemia, an acute myeloid leukemia (French-American-British classification M4-5), a case of myelodysplastic syndrome with elevated number of megakaryocytes, and a CD34+ acute hemoblastosis, probably acute myeloid leukemia (French-American-British classification M7). Taken together, our results indicate that direct cell-cell communication may be involved in hematopoiesis, ie, in developmentally active epiphyseal bone marrow and when there is a demand for progenitors in regeneration. However, gap junctions may not play as important a role in resting adult hematopoiesis and in leukemias. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:9546360

  4. The Knobbed Acrosome Defect in Beef Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Albert D.

    1986-01-01

    The knobbed acrosome defect was found at levels of 25 to 100 percent of spermatozoa from 16 of 2054 beef bulls. The incidence of this defect appeared to be particularly high in the Charolais breed. Pedigree analysis of some of the affected Charolais bulls indicated there may be a genetic predisposition for this sperm defect. In eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears the most common form of the abnormality was a flattened or indented apex of the sperm head. A refractile bead at the apex of the sperm head was seen less commonly. Electron microscopy of the spermatozoa from one bull showed that the abnormality was similar to the knobbed sperm defect previously described in Friesian bulls. A breeding trial confirmed that bulls producing spermatozoa with a high incidence of knobbed acrosomes are infertile. ImagesFigure 2 and 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6 and 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422706

  5. Echocardiography as a Research and Clinical Tool in Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Echocardiography is the accepted term for the study of cardiac ultrasound. Although a relatively new tool for the study of the heart in man it has already found wide acceptance in the area of cardiac research and in the study of clinical cardiac disease. Animals had often been used in the early experiments with cardiac ultrasound, but only recently has echocardiography been used as a research and clinical tool in veterinary medicine. In this report echocardiography is used in the research of anesthetic effects on ventricular function and clinically in the diagnosis of congestive cardiomyopathy in a cat, ventricular septal defect in a calf, and pericardial effusion in a dog. Echocardiography is now an important adjunct to the field of veterinary cardiology. ImagesFigure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422196

  6. Pulmonary ultrastructure of the late aspects of human paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Dearden, L. C.; Fairshter, R. D.; McRae, D. M.; Smith, W. R.; Glauser, F. L.; Wilson, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The pulmonary ultrastructure of the late aspects of a case of human paraquat poisoning is investigated and compared with normal human pulmonary ultrastructure. Alveoli in the paraquat patient are numerically reduced in comparison to the control. They are filled with edematous proteinaceous plasma-like fluid containing erythrocytes, macrophages, leukocytes, fibroblast-like cells, platelets, and fibrin. These alveoli are lined by granular pneumocytes. Interstitial areas in the paraquat patient are greatly expanded and there are no alveolar septums. Interstitial areas contain proteinaceous plasma-like material, collagen, fibrin, platelets, mature fibroblasts, plasma cells, many leukocytes, numerous erythrocytes, and capillaries. Capillary permeability seems to be enhanced in the paraquat patient either by vesicles forming transendothelial channels or pores or by disruption of endothelial cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figures 3-7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:213978

  7. Modification of calcite crystal growth by abalone shell proteins: an atomic force microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, D A; Smith, B L; Belcher, A M; Paloczi, G T; Stucky, G D; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    1997-01-01

    A family of soluble proteins from the shell of Haliotis rufescens was introduced over a growing calcite crystal being scanned in situ by an atomic force microscope (AFM). Atomic step edges on the crystal surface were altered in shape and speed of growth by the proteins. Proteins attached nonuniformly to the surface, indicating different interactions with crystallographically different step edges. The observed changes were consistent with the habit modification induced by this family of proteins, as previously observed by optical microscopy. To facilitate further studies in this area, AFM techniques and certain AFM imaging artifacts are discussed in detail. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:9138588

  8. The history and evolution of surgical instruments. VI. The surgical blade: from finger nail to ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, J.

    1995-01-01

    Elective surgery requires planned incisions and incisions require appropriate blades. In the prehistoric era, division of the umbilical cord and other minor procedures were probably undertaken with human teeth and nails, and later with plant, animal and mineral substitutes, as witnessed by studies of primitive societies still surviving or recently extinct. More efficient metallic blades appeared in historic times and ultimately generated five specific shapes which are analysed in detail. Today, as minimally invasive techniques, endoscopes, laser and ultrasound sources evolve, many hallowed incisions of surgical access diminish in length or disappear entirely. In historical terms, elective surgery of the twentieth century will be recalled as an interlude characterised by maximally invasive incisions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7486768

  9. Confirmation of destruction of salmonellae within murine peritoneal exudate cells by immunocytochemical technique.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, F R; Hsu, H S; Mumaw, V R; Moncure, C W

    1989-01-01

    A procedure was developed with which peritoneal exudate cell (PEC) preparations were fixed in a glutaraldehyde-picric acid mixture, post-fixed with osmium tetroxide, embedded in LR White resin and then stained with immunogold probe. It provided tissue sections showing both well-defined ultrastructures as well as specifically labelled Salmonella O antigens by electron microscopy. Inbred, male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 2 x 10(7) virulent Salmonella typhimurium. Peritoneal exudate cells were harvested at 16 and 20 hr after infection. Disintegrating intracellular bacteria were identified as salmonellae by the immunogold markers. Deposition of gold particles in the cytoplasm of phagocytes also indicated that intracellular debris contained digested pathogen. This investigation therefore confirms previous findings of the destruction of salmonellae within inflammatory polymorphs and macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2668159

  10. Trauma on the Isle of Man.

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, R G; Varley, G; Stevens, D; Green, A

    1993-01-01

    The Isle of Man Tourist Trophy motorcycle races remain one of the most popular venues for motorcycle races. This is despite the reduced status of the event. The reason for the loss of world championship and formula one status is the nature of the road racing circuit itself. The twisting narrow roads are only closed to the public at certain times during the practice and race weeks. Motorcycling visitors to the event attempt to emulate their heroes on machines capable of high speeds. Casualties from both visitors and racers are dealt with efficiently by an expanded medical service. This includes the use of an aeromedical evacuation helicopter. Casualties from the visitors exceeded those from the racers themselves during the period reported. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8457818

  11. Musical Stimulation in the Developmentally Delayed Child: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nanelle Lavina; Molnar, Eva T.; Knasel, Anne L.

    1987-01-01

    Music is a convenient way of bypassing barriers of communication and eliciting responses that may be helpful in the diagnoses and treatment of illness. The use of background music in elevators, in doctors' offices, and in stores are good examples of how music can be used to affect the subconscious mind. In this pilot study drums were used to better define the effects of particular elements of music and sound. When repetitive rhythms are presented as background music to a group of severely developmentally delayed children, three out of four subjects show a definite change in level of development in the unstructured task of free drawing. To discover more about the effects of the various elements of music and to better identify patterns in the environment that are conducive to optimal functioning, further studies are indicated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:2468780

  12. Ultrasonographic scan in knee pain in athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, N; Regine, R; Carrillo, F; Minelli, S; Beaconsfield, T

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-two knees were examined using real-time high-definition ultrasonography with a 7.5 MHz probe. The extra-articular structures were easily visualized and diagnosis of patellar tendon lesions and Baker's cysts formulated. While the meniscal cartilages were shown as a homogeneous triangular structure between the femoral condyle and the tibial plateau, no lesions were detected. Deeper intra-articular structures, such as the cruciate ligaments, were not shown by the scan, thus their evaluation was not possible. Given its low cost, wide availability, non-invasiveness and patients' acceptability of the technique, ultrasonography may play an important role in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions in and around the knee joint. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1623366

  13. Inhibitors of adriamycin-induced histamine release in vitro limit adriamycin cardiotoxicity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Klugmann, F. B.; Decorti, G.; Candussio, L.; Grill, V.; Mallardi, F.; Baldini, L.

    1986-01-01

    The activity of theophylline and disodium cromoglycate was tested on adriamycin-induced histamine release in vitro and on adriamycin cardiotoxicity in vivo. Both substances significantly inhibited the release of histamine induced by 100 micrograms ml-1 of adriamycin on rat peritoneal cells and produced significant protection against adriamycin-mediated acute and chronic cardiotoxicity in mice. N-acetylcysteine, a free radical scavenger, successfully used in the prevention of the cardiomyopathy, was also found to be an inhibitor of histamine release induced by adriamycin and compound 48/80 on rat peritoneal cells. This study further supports the hypothesis that the release of histamine may be involved in the pathogenesis of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2432914

  14. Roentgen Examination of Soft Tissues of the Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Charles D.

    1964-01-01

    With meticulous preparation of the patient and with careful technique, the soft tissues of the pelvis are identifiable in most cases. Search should be made for the traces of abnormal pelvic structures on plain-film studies. Once the normal is recognized, any variations are easily identified. The fundamental differences between various radiologic densities—air, fat, fluid, muscle, calcium, bone and metal—should be observed. Special procedures can be used to enhance the contrasts after adequate evaluation of the simplest and, on many occasions, the invaluable, plain-film study of the soft tissues of the pelvis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:14232160

  15. Neural migration disorders studied by cerebral ultrasound and colour Doppler flow imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Pellicer, A.; Cabañas, F.; Pérez-Higueras, A.; García-Alix, A.; Quero, J.

    1995-01-01

    Cerebral ultrasound and colour Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) were used to diagnose a wide spectrum of anomalies of cell migration (17 patients): presumed lissencephaly (n = 12); schizencephaly of both fused (n = 2) and open lips (n = 2); hemimegalencephaly (n = 1); and subependymal type grey matter heterotopia (n = 12). The patients with grey matter heterotopia had irregular ventricular margins (n = 10), periventricular hyperechogenic bands (n = 12), and/or periventricular hyperechogenic nodules (n = 7). Some patients had more than one type of migration disorder as well as other central nervous system malformations. Cerebral ultrasound diagnoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or necropsy. It is concluded that colour Doppler flow imaging is a worthwhile addition to the assessment of brain surface anomalies. Images Figure 7 Figure 1 Figures 5 and 6 Figures 3 and 4 Figure 2 PMID:7583607

  16. The Catheter—How to Use and When Not to Use

    PubMed Central

    Prentiss, R. J.; Mullenix, R. B.; Feeney, M. J.; Howe, G. E.; Steel, J. F.; Cole, J. W.; Flynn, V. J.; Walther, A. B.; Sorensen, M. B.

    1969-01-01

    Catheterization should not be used without true indication. Careful control of hydration, sedation, anesthesia and use of anticholinergic agents before, during and after operation can do a great deal to prevent the need for catheterization. When the procedure is necessary, simple, inexpensive measures of care usually are sufficient. Prophylactic antisepsis before and after, with reexamination of the urine after discontinuance of antiseptic drugs to make sure there is no recrudescence, prevents acute and chronic infections. The catheter recommended for routine male and female catheterization is the 14-16 (French) olive tip coude (Tieman) catheter or the Tieman-Foley. Closed drainage systems are the best. Continuous irrigation is without value. Water is an excellent irrigant. Calcium deposits are prevented by Renacidin® instillation and acetic acid irrigation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:5347199

  17. Covalent binding of biological samples to solid supports for scanning probe microscopy in buffer solution.

    PubMed Central

    Karrasch, S; Dolder, M; Schabert, F; Ramsden, J; Engel, A

    1993-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy allows imaging of biological molecules in their native state in buffer solution. To this end samples have to be fixed to a flat solid support so that they cannot be displaced by the scanning tip. Here we describe a method to achieve the covalent binding of biological samples to glass surfaces. Coverslips were chemically modified with the photoactivatable cross-linker N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide. Samples are squeezed between derivatized coverslips and then cross-linked to the glass surface by irradiation with ultraviolet light. Such samples can be imaged repeatedly by the scanning force microscope without loss of image quality, whereas identical but not immobilized samples are pushed away by the stylus. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8312482

  18. The histopathology of rat lung following exposure to zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke or installation with zinc chloride followed by treatment with 70% oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R F; Marrs, T C; Rice, P; Masek, L C

    1990-01-01

    The effects of inhaled zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke (11,580 mg x min/m3) and intratracheally instilled zinc chloride (2.5 mg/kg body weight) have been studied in rat lung. The effects of subsequent treatment with 70% oxygen have been studied after both procedures. Both the inhalation of the smoke and instillation of zinc chloride produced similar effects that included pulmonary edema, alveolitis and, at a later stage, some fibrosis. After zinc chloride instillation, the pathological changes largely spared the periphery of the lung, while following smoke inhalation they were more diffuse. Subsequent oxygen administration had little effect on the development or progression of the pathological changes. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2384070

  19. Regulatory ozone modeling: status, directions, and research needs.

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, P G

    1995-01-01

    ) the improvement of the model-based ozone-attainment demonstration process are presented to identify future directions in this area. Images Figure 7. Figure 7. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. PMID:7614934

  20. Lung injury mediated by antibodies to endothelium. II. Study of the effect of repeated antigen-antibody interactions in rabbits tolerant to heterologous antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Camussi, G.; Caldwell, P. R.; Andres, G.; Brentjens, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of repeated interactions of antibodies with cell surface antigens have been examined in in vitro, but not in in vivo systems. In this study are described the results of multiple antibody-cell surface antigen interactions in vivo. Rabbits were given repeated intravenous injections of goat antibodies to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), an antigen expressed on the surface of lung endothelial cells. For prevention of anaphylactic reactions, which would have been induced by multiple injections of heterologous immune or nonimmune IgG, the rabbits were made neonatally tolerant to goat IgG. Divalent immune IgG given daily for 21 days induced chronic antigenic modulation (antigen disappearance) with resistance to antibody-mediated inflammatory lesions. The rabbits, however, developed degenerative changes of alveolar endothelial and epithelial cells. Administration of immune IgG every other day for 43 days allowed partial reexpression of ACE and was associated with intravascular, but not interstitial, inflammatory changes. In contrast, repeated administration of monovalent immune Fab did not induce antigenic modulation but caused severe, lethal, interstitial pneumonitis. Thus, in this experimental model the development of acute interstitial inflammatory changes correlates with persistence of antigen and is abrogated by disappearance of antigen induced by divalent antibodies. Further, repeated endothelial antigen antibody interactions fail to induce chronic inflammatory or sclerosing lung lesions. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:3034065

  1. Transvitreal endocyclophotocoagulation.

    PubMed Central

    Haller, J A

    1996-01-01

    Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 PMID:8981713

  2. The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, J F

    1998-01-01

    and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of little consequence. Effective solutions for either the prevention or treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis have not been developed in this country but are under intensive and continuing investigation. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5C FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20A FIGURE 20B FIGURE 20C FIGURE 20D FIGURE 20E FIGURE 20F FIGURE 20G FIGURE 20H FIGURE 20J FIGURE 20K FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24B FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:10360309

  3. Brown's syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K W

    1999-01-01

    forced duction testing by observing the pattern of strabismus including torsion. Because of the chance for spontaneous resolution, conservative management, not surgery, should be the first line of treatment for acquired Brown's syndrome. If surgery is indicated, a novel procedure, the silicone tendon expander, is an effective option with excellent long-term outcomes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:10703149

  4. Orbital blow-out fractures: correlation of preoperative computed tomography and postoperative ocular motility.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G J; Garcia, G H; Logani, S C; Murphy, M L; Sheth, B P; Seth, A K

    1998-01-01

    intrinsic damage and subsequent fibrosis, appear to result in poorer motility outcomes. Although this retrospective study does not conclusively prove its benefit, an urgent surgical approach to selected injuries should be considered. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:10360296

  5. Transient Gene Expression in Maize, Rice, and Wheat Cells Using an Airgun Apparatus 1

    PubMed Central

    Oard, James H.; Paige, David F.; Simmonds, John A.; Gradziel, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    An airgun apparatus has been constructed for transient gene expression studies of monocots. This device utilizes compressed air from a commercial airgun to propel macroprojectile and DNA-coated tungsten particles. The β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was used to monitor transient expression in three distinct cell types of maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). The highest level of GUS activity in cultured maize cells was observed when distance between stopping plate and target cells was adjusted to 4.3 centimeters. Efficiency of transformation was estimated to be 4.4 × 10−3. In a partial vacuum of 700 millimeters Hg, velocity of macroprojectile was measured at 520 meters per second with a 6% reduction in velocity at atmospheric pressure. A polyethylene film placed in the breech before firing contributed to a 12% increase in muzzle velocity. A 700 millimeters Hg level of vacuum was necessary for maximum number of transfornants. GUS expression was also detected in wheat leaf base tissue of microdissected shoot apices. High levels of transient gene expression were also observed in hard, compact embryogenic callus of rice. These results show that the airgun apparatus is a convenient, safe, and low-cost device for rapid transient gene expression studies in cereals. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:16667278

  6. A Workstation for Interactive Display and Quantitative Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16

  7. The lipid-rich core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. Prevalence of small lipid droplets and vesicles by electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1989-01-01

    Abundant extracellular lipid deposits are associated with cell necrosis and tissue weakening in the core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. The ultrastructural morphology of the core region, previously undefined because of lipid extraction artifacts, was studied with the aid of new osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium and osmium-tannic acid-paraphenylenediamine sequences for tissue processing. Small droplets of neutral lipid (30 to 400 nm profile diameter) and lipid vesicles with aqueous centers accounted for more than 90% of the area occupied by lipid-rich structures in the core region. No foam cells were present. Cholesterol crystals, lipid droplets of a size similar to those in foam cells (0.4 to 6 mu), and larger neutral lipid deposits (greater than 6 mu) together occupied less than 10% of the total area of lipid structures. Abundant lipid vesicles were associated with the nearby presence of cholesterol crystals, whereas small lipid droplets were predominant in areas without crystals. Many droplets had surface defects in the form of pits and vesicular blebs. These morphologic findings are explained most concisely by postulating direct accumulation of extracellular lipid from interstitial lipoproteins as a major process in core region formation. Moreover, a dynamic state of ongoing physical/metabolic transformation of extracellular lipid deposits is suggested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2646938

  8. Soft tissue calcification in chronic dialysis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzela, D. C.; Huffer, W. E.; Conger, J. D.; Winter, S. D.; Hammond, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    Autopsy protocols and microscopic slides of 56 dialyzed and 18 nondialyzed chronically uremic patients were reviewed to assess the presence, extent, and severity of extraosseous soft tissue calcification. Calcification was identified in 79% of the dialysis patients and 44% of the nondialysis patients (P iss less than .025). Soft tissue calcification most frequently involved the heart, lungs, stomach, and kidneys. Lesions were severe in 36% of the dialysis patients and, when strategically located within the myocardium, were life-threatening. The deaths of 6 dialysis patients were attributed to severe calcification of the cardiac conduction system and/or myocardium. The presence and severity of soft tissue calcification was not related to duration of dialysis, patients' age, degree of parathyroid gland hyperplasia, radiographic evidence of soft tissue calcification, serum calcium and phosphate levels, Ca X P products, or type or severity of metabolic bone disease. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:836675

  9. Kinematics of red cell aspiration by fluorescence-imaged microdeformation.

    PubMed Central

    Discher, D E; Mohandas, N

    1996-01-01

    Maps of fluorescing red cell membrane components on a pipette-aspirated projection are quantitated in an effort to elucidate and unify the heterogeneous kinematics of deformation. Transient gradients of diffusing fluorescent lipid first demonstrate the fluidity of an otherwise uniform-density bilayer and corroborate a "universal" calibration scale for relative surface density. A steep but smooth and stable gradient in the densities of the skeleton components spectrin, actin, and protein 4.1 is used to estimate large elastic strains along the aspirated skeleton. The deformation fields are argued to be an unhindered response to loading in the surface normal direction. Density maps intermediate to those of the compressible skeleton and fluid bilayer are exhibited by particular transmembrane proteins (e.g., Band 3) and yield estimates for the skeleton-connected fractions. Such connected proteins appear to occupy a significant proportion of the undeformed membrane surface and can lead to steric exclusion of unconnected integral membrane proteins from regions of network condensation. Consistent with membrane repatterning kinematics in reversible deformation, final vesiculation of the projection tip produces a cell fragment concentrated in freely diffusing proteins but depleted of skeleton. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:8889146

  10. Ultrastructural evaluation of parathyroid glands and thyroid C cells of cattle fed Solanum malacoxylon.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, W. T.; Capen, C. C.; Döbereiner, J.; Tokarnia, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    Fine structural alterations of thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells were evaluated after feeding dried leaves of the calcinogenic plant, Solanum malacoxylon, to cattle for 1, 6 and 32 days. Thyroid C cells initially were degranulated in response to the hypercalcemia, and parathyroid chief cells accumulated secretory granules. There was hypertrophy of thyroid C cells with well-developed secretory organelles but few secretory granules in the cytoplasm after 6 days of feeding S. malacoxylon. Inactive chief cells with dispersed profiles of endoplasmic reticulum and increased lysosomal bodies predominated in the parathyroid glands. Multiple foci of soft tissue mineralization were present in the heart, lung, and kidney. Thyroid C cells underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia after 32 days of S. malacoxylon, and parathyroid chief cells were inactive or atrophic in response to the long-term hypercalcemia. Severe soft tissue mineralization was present throughout the cardiovascular system, lung, kidney, and spleen. These ultrastructural changes in thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells plus the widespread soft tissue mineralization observed after feeding cattle small amounts of S. malacoxylon are consistent with the recent evidence that leaves of this plant are a potent source of the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, of vitamin D. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:869016

  11. Deformation and flow of red blood cells in a synthetic lattice: evidence for an active cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, J P; Han, Y; Austin, R H; Bitensky, M

    1995-01-01

    We introduce the use of microfabrication techniques to construct on a silicon wafer a synthetic capillary bed with 2.5- to 4-micron (mu)-wide channels. Establishment of a fluid pressure gradient allowed us to observe simultaneously using optical microscopy hundreds of cells flowing through the bed at physiological speeds. We find a large distribution of mobilities among red cells flowing through the structure; smaller channels provide a greater impedance to flow than larger ones, indicating that kinetic drag variations provide the origin of the distribution. The mobility of a particular cell is not correlated with the cell diameter but appears to be inversely correlated with intracellular calcium concentration of the cell, as determined by fluorescence of the calcium-binding dye fluo-3 AM. Also, we are able to use the parallel processing nature of our arrays to observe isolated events where the rigidity of the red cell seems to change suddenly over several orders of magnitude as it blocks a channel in the array. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:7647230

  12. Metaplastic and mitotic activity of the ischemic (endocrine) kidney in experimental renal hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, M.; Solymoss, B.; Benchimol, S.; Desormeaux, Y.; Langlais, J.; Ballak, M.

    1979-01-01

    Partial ligation of the aorta between the renal arteries in the rat induces malignant hypertension, metaplasia of smooth-muscle cells of arterioles and arteries into juxtaglomerular cells, and a complex series of events in tubular cells at all levels of the ischemic kidney. The tubular cells of the outer cortex, particularly the proximal convoluted cells, show a very rapid and progressive simple atrophy. In contrast, necrosis of individual cells is followed by mitotic activity in atrophic tubular cells of the inner cortex, medulla, and papilla. Subsequently, polyploidy and hyperplasia occur in the inner cortex. At the same time, hypertrophy of the protein-synthesizing apparatus and an increase in protein, DNA, and RNA, followed by a decrease in the protein content, are seen in the tubular cells of the inner cortex. In the medulla and papilla, necrosis of individual cells proceeds side by side with waves of mitotic activity. These events take place, albeit to a lesser degree, even in cases of very mild renal ischemia. While they may by unrelated to hypertension, these changes are probably involved in the increase in hydrolytic enzyme activity characteristic of the ischemic renal cortex. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:474709

  13. Mechanisms of neutropenia involving myeloid maturation arrest in burn sepsis.

    PubMed Central

    Shoup, M; Weisenberger, J M; Wang, J L; Pyle, J M; Gamelli, R L; Shankar, R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanisms that lead to the decrease in bone marrow production of neutrophils during burn sepsis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Impaired bone marrow granulopoiesis during burn sepsis often results in neutropenia despite elevated circulating levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). To date, neither the specific stages of neutrophil maturation involved in the bone marrow suppression nor the mechanisms for the impairment have been determined. METHODS: Peripheral blood absolute neutrophil count and G-CSF levels were determined in mice 3 days after randomization to control, burn alone, or burn plus a topical inoculation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1000 colony-forming units). Bone marrow aspirates were analyzed for their neutrophil differentiation patterns by Gr-1 antigen expression and their G-CSF receptor status. Histologic analysis of liver, lung, spleen, and wound site was performed. RESULTS: In burn sepsis, absolute neutrophil count was reduced whereas plasma G-CSF levels were elevated, and myeloid differentiation was significantly shifted toward the immature mitotic myeloid cells. Bone marrow G-CSF receptor mRNA levels and G-CSF-stimulated proliferation were substantially decreased in burn sepsis. Histologic analysis revealed no significant neutrophil infiltration into the tissues. CONCLUSIONS: In thermal injury with superimposed sepsis, neutropenia and myeloid maturation arrest, despite the elevated levels of G-CSF, correlate with the reduction in bone marrow G-CSF receptor expression. These observations may provide a potential mechanism for neutropenia in sepsis. Images Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 8. Figure 9. PMID:9671075

  14. The differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, G B

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: Classification schemes are useful in the formulation of differential diagnoses. Thoughtful commentary has been devoted to the classification of blepharoptosis, but the causes of eyelid retraction have received less attention in published reports. Although eyelid retraction most frequently is associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy, numerous other entities may cause the sign. This study was undertaken to provide a more comprehensive differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction. METHODS: A series of patients with eyelid retraction was studied, and pertinent published reports were reviewed. RESULTS: Forty-four patients with different causes for eyelid retraction are described. Normal thyroid function and regulation were confirmed in all patients in whom Graves' ophthalmopathy could not be excluded by clinical, biochemical, or historical criteria. CONCLUSION: Based on a series of patients and reported cases, a differential diagnosis for eyelid retraction is proposed using a classification system comprising three categories (neurogenic, myogenic, and mechanistic). Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B PMID:8719687

  15. Iron metabolism and cell membranes. III. Iron-induced alterations in HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, H. O.; Bradford, W. D.; Arstila, A. U.; Kinney, T. D.; Trump, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    The morphologic characteristics of acute iron loading were studied in HeLa cells incubated in an iron-enriched Eagle's medium containing 500 mug/ml of iron. Chemical studies showed that ferritin synthesis was rapidly induced and the concentration of intracellular ferritin increased up to 72 hours. Closely coupled with an increase in HeLa cell ferritin was a marked decrease in the rate of cell multiplication. The significant ultrastructural findings of iron-induced HeLa cell injury are characterized by the appearance of both autophagic multivesicular and residual bodies over the first 72 hours of iron incubation. The prominence of multivesicular bodies was noted after only 4 hours' incubation, with iron and myelin figures first appearing after 6 hours. Thus, the partial arrest of cell multiplication was associated with an increase in cytoplasmic residual bodies containing iron and other debris. The distribution of intracellular ferritin within HeLa cells differs significantly from the distribution described previously in hepatic parenchymal cells. In HeLa cells, ferritin particles were confined to lysosomal vesicles and were not identified in cell sap, endoplasmic reticulum, or Golgi apparatus. Images Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1155583

  16. Multiparameter analyses of spontaneous nonthymic lymphomas occurring in NFS/N mice congenic for ecotropic murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, T. N.; Morse, H. C.; Yetter, R. A.; Rowe, W. P.; Hartley, J. W.; Pattengale, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse strains congenic for ecotropic retrovirus genes have a much higher frequency of spontaneous lymphomas than the background NFS/N strain. In this study, most of these lymphomas have been identified as B-cell in origin by morphologic features, identification of immunoglobulin class, and cell-surface antigens. The classification suggested by Pattengale and Taylor proved to be applicable to the lymphomas studied. Most were of large follicular center cells and are considered typical of the type formerly designated as "reticulum cell sarcoma, type B." Many lymphomas contained a large proportion of nonneoplastic cells which partially obscured their neoplastic component. The role of ecotropic murine leukemia viruses as etiologic agents for B-cell lymphomas remains equivocal. However, because the only difference between the NFS/N and congenic mice is the expression of viruses in the latter, it appears that these viruses are somehow involved in induction of B-cell lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2998195

  17. Carcinoma of type II pneumocytes: immunodiagnosis of a subtype of "bronchioloalveolar carcinomas".

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.; Torikata, C.

    1981-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from North American (N = 12) and Japanese (N = 11) patients with lung carcinomas were stained by the immunoperoxidase method for surfactant-specific apoprotein. Cytoplasmic and focal nuclear staining was seen in three "bronchioloalveolar carcinomas" occurring in Japanese patients. We refer to these three tumors as carcinomas of Type II pneumocytes. These neoplasms formed discrete masses with minimal growth along the alveolar septa at margins of the tumors. Papillary growth with lymphocytic infiltrates in the stalks of the papillary processes was the usual growth pattern. Focal noncaseating granulomas were seen in the stroma of 2 cases, and similar granulomas in the draining lymph nodes were noted in 1. The abundant cytoplasm was foamy, and the nuclei were generally vacuolated with frequent eosinophilic inclusions in the vacuoles. By electron microscopy, osmiophilic lamellar bodies or whorled lamellas were seen in the cytoplasm of the 3 tumors staining for surfactant apoprotein. The nuclei in 2 of the 3 cases contained tubular inclusions; the tubules had a diameter of 60 nm and a 20-nm core. Images Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 and 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6258440

  18. Transient functional expression of alphaVbeta 3 on vascular cells during wound repair.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R. A.; Tonnesen, M. G.; Gailit, J.; Cheresh, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    During early granulation tissue formation of wound repair, new capillaries invade the fibrin clot, a process that undoubtedly requires an interaction of vascular cells with the wound provisional matrix composed mainly of fibrin, fibronectin, and vitronectin. Integrin alphaVbeta3 is the vascular cell receptor for these wound-associated adhesive proteins. Therefore, we investigated the expression of this receptor on new capillaries of healing full-thickness cutaneous porcine wounds. During granulation tissue formation, alphaVbeta3 was expressed specifically on capillary sprouts invading the central fibrin clot whereas the closely related integrin alphaVbeta5 failed to localize to these cells. Cyclic peptides or antibody antagonists of alphaVbeta3 specifically inhibited granulation tissue formation in a transient manner during the period of invasive angiogenesis. Immunolocalization studies revealed that alphaVbeta3 became aggregated and lost from sprouting vessels after treatment with a peptide antagonist. In contrast, beta 1 integrins were not modulated by this treatment. Once granulation tissue filled the wound and invasive angiogenesis terminated, the alphaVbeta3 showed little or no expression in the granulation tissue microvasculature. These data demonstrate that integrin alphaVbeta3 plays a fundamental, but transient, role during invasive angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation in a healing wound. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8623913

  19. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  20. Some properties of dendritic macrophages from peripheral lymph.

    PubMed Central

    Barfoot, R; Denham, S; Gyure, L A; Hall, J G; Hobbs, S M; Jackson, L E; Robertson, D

    1989-01-01

    Peripheral lymph was collected from the skin and liver of sheep, and from the intestine of rats. The dendritic macrophages contained in it were isolated by centrifuging the lymph over a layer of 'Nycodenz'. Similar cells were produced by culturing mononuclear cells from venous blood, but the yields were very small. The numbers of dendritic cells in the lymph from the legs of sheep increased five-fold after xylene had been applied to the skin. Dendritic macrophages displayed abundant class II histocompatibility antigens on their surfaces, as well as immunoglobulins. Although the latter were probably acquired passively, they remained present for several days on cells cultured in vitro. When in vitro, dendritic cells could be shown to phagocytose marker particles, such as latex beads, but their performance was unimpressive compared to macrophages from the peritoneal cavities of rats. In contrast, their ability to phagocytose rapidly T4 phage or influenza viruses unequivocal and striking. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2807381

  1. Human inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate type-1 receptor, InsP3R1: structure, function, regulation of expression and chromosomal localization.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, N; Makino, Y; Clark, R A; Pearson, D W; Mattei, M G; Guénet, J L; Ohama, E; Fujino, I; Miyawaki, A; Furuichi, T

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (InsP3R1) from human uteri and a leukaemic cell line, HL-60. Northern-blot analysis showed that approx. 10 kb of InsP3R1 mRNA is expressed in human uteri, oviducts and HL-60 cells. The predicted amino acid sequence of human InsP3R1 (2695 amino acids) has 99% identity with that of the mouse SI-/SII- splicing counterpart. Western-blot analysis with anti-(mouse InsP3R1) antibodies showed that InsP3R1 protein of human uteri and oviducts of approx 220 kDa is immunostained. Northern-blot analysis of HL-60 cell differentiation along the neutrophilic lineage induced by retinoic acid or dimethylsulphoxide showed an accompanying enhanced expression of InsP3R1 mRNA. Immunohistochemical analysis of the cerebella of spinocerebellar degeneration patients showed a variable loss of Purkinje cells with an altered pattern of immunostaining. The InsP3R1 gene (Insp3r1) was localized to the 3P25-26 region of human chromosome 3. The data presented here clearly show that InsP3R1 exists widely in human tissues and may play critical roles in various kinds of cellular functions. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7945203

  2. Transport of particles of colloidal gold within and from rat lung after local deposition by alveolar microinjection.

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, G; Stirling, C

    1992-01-01

    Because inhalation and intratracheal instillation deposit particles throughout the respiratory tract, these methods of administration give little information on the movement of particles within the lung and no direct information on the clearance kinetics from locally defined sites within alveolar tissue. Approximately 0.05 microL of 195Au-labeled gold colloid was administered to 32 rats by microinjection into a small volume of subpleural alveoli. Its fate was studied by whole-body counting and serial sacrifice over 15 months. The kinetics of clearance from the subpleural deposition site showed that there was no rapid removal of particles, and the main clearance process was defined by an exponential term with a half-time averaging 583 days. There was a wide variation between individual animals. The distribution of 195Au at sacrifice showed that the gold colloid was nearly all retained within the respiratory tract. The particles were not appreciably redistributed throughout the lung volume, so most of the material not cleared from the lung remained close to the deposition site. At the later times after microinjection, much of the gold colloid was associated with thickened pleura and adjoining septae. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:1327738

  3. The avian respiratory system: a unique model for studies of respiratory toxicosis and for monitoring air quality.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R E; Brain, J D; Wang, N

    1997-01-01

    There are many distinct differences (morphologic, physiologic, and mechanical) between the bird's lung-air-sac respiratory system and the mammalian bronchoalveolar lung. In this paper, we review the physiology of the avian respiratory system with attention to those mechanisms that may lead to significantly different results, relative to those in mammals, following exposure to toxic gases and airborne particulates. We suggest that these differences can be productively exploited to further our understanding of the basic mechanisms of inhalant toxicology (gases and particulates). The large mass-specific gas uptake by the avian respiratory system, at rest and especially during exercise, could be exploited as a sensitive monitor of air quality. Birds have much to offer in our understanding of respiratory toxicology, but that expectation can only be realized by investigating, in a wide variety of avian taxa, the pathophysiologic interactions of a broad range of inhaled toxicants on the bird's unique respiratory system. Images p188-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9105794

  4. Neurotrophin and Neurotrophin Receptors in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Michael J.; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Kraemer, Rosemary; McCaffrey, Timothy A.; Tessarollo, Lino; Mahadeo, Debbie; Sharif, Setareh; Kaplan, David R.; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Parada, Luis; Toran-Allerand, C. Dominique; Hajjar, David P.; Hempstead, Barbara L.

    1995-01-01

    The neurotrophins, a family of related polypeptide growth factors including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-3 and NT-4/5 promote the survival and differentiation of distinctive sets of embryonic neurons. Here we define a new functional role for neurotrophins, as autocrine or local paracrine mediators of vascular smooth muscle cell migration. We have identified neurotrophins, and their cognate receptors, the trk tyrosine kinases, in human and rat vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo. In vitro, cultured human smooth muscle cells express BDNF; NT-3; and trk A, B, and C Similarly, rat smooth muscle cells expressed all three trk receptors as well as all four neurotrophins. Moreover, NGF induces cultured human smooth muscle cell migration at subnanomolar concentrations. In the rat aortic balloon deendothelialization model of vascular injury, the expression of NGF, BDNF, and their receptors trk A and trk B increased dramatically in the area of injury within 3 days and persisted during the formation of the neointima. In human coronary atherosclerotic lesions, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4/5, and the trk B and trk C receptors could be demonstrated in smooth muscle cells. These findings suggest that neurotrophins play an important role in regulating the response of vascular smooth muscle cells to injury. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:7639328

  5. HHF35, a muscle actin-specific monoclonal antibody. II. Reactivity in normal, reactive, and neoplastic human tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukada, T.; McNutt, M. A.; Ross, R.; Gown, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody HHF35 has previously been characterized biochemically as recognizing isotypes of actin (alpha and gamma) which are specific to muscle cells. In this study, the authors have investigated the normal and pathologic tissue distribution of HHF35-positive cells using the avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method on methacarn-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of human tissue. In addition to muscle tissues (smooth, skeletal, and cardiac) the antibody localizes to myoepithelium, as well as most of the capsular cells of several parenchymal organs, including liver, kidney, and spleen, with extension of the latter cells into the splenic trabeculaes. In pathologic tissues, the antibody localizes to cells, identified by some investigators as "myofibroblasts," in the stroma of certain tumors, within hyperplastic fibrous tissue responses ("fibromatoses") such as Dupuytren's contracture, and within fibrotic lung tissue. HHF35 also localizes to cells that proliferate within the intima in lesions of atherosclerosis and to a unique population of reactive mesothelial and submesothelial cells. Among tumors, it is positive only on leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas, and rhabdomyosarcomas, and negative on all nonmuscle sarcomas. This antibody thus shows great potential utility as a diagnostic reagent in various pathologic conditions, most especially in the diagnosis of tumors of muscle origin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 p392-a Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 p397-a p398-a Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3555106

  6. The Signal Peptide of a Vacuolar Protein Is Necessary and Sufficient for the Efficient Secretion of a Cytosolic Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Dale C.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1991-01-01

    A cytosolic pea (Pisum sativum) seed albumin (ALB) and a chimeric protein (PHALB) consisting of the signal peptide and first three amino acids of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and the amino acid sequence of ALB were expressed in parallel suspension cultures of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells and their intracellular fates examined. PHALB was efficiently secreted by the cells whereas ALB remained intracellular. These experiments show that the information contained in the signal peptide of a vacuolar protein is both necessary and sufficient for efficient secretion, and define secretion as a default or bulk-flow pathway. Entry into the secretory pathway was accompanied by glycosylation and the efficient conversion of the high mannose glycans into complex glycans indicating that transported glycoproteins do not need specific recognition domains for the modifying enzymes in the Golgi. Tunicamycin depressed the accumulation of the unglycosylated polypeptide in the culture medium much less than the accumulation of other glycoproteins. We interpret this as evidence that glycans on proteins that are not normally glycosylated do not have the same function of stabilizing and protecting the polypeptide as on natural glycoproteins. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:16668149

  7. Effects of in utero exposure to nonsteroidal estrogens on mouse testis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martínez, C; Ferreras-Estrada, M C; García-Iglesias, M J; Bravo-Moral, A M; Espinosa-Alvarez, J; Escudero-Diez, A

    1997-01-01

    Male mice exposed in utero to alpha-zearalanol (zeranol) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) were analyzed postnatally to evaluate the possible changes on their testicular morphology as part of an examination of the effects of transplacental exposure to non-steroidal estrogens on sensitive tissues. Pregnant NMRI mice were injected subcutaneously with ethyl oleate (0.1 mL) alone (negative control) or with 150 micrograms/kg of body weight of zeranol or DES (positive control) on days 9 and 10 of gestation. Experimental and control male offspring were euthanized at days 45 (n = 47), 90 (n = 44), 180 (n = 40) and 365 (n = 26) after birth and their gonads were examined by light and electron microscopy. The results suggested that prenatal zeranol or DES exposure induced more severe and earlier (at 45 d) testicular abnormalities than in negative control (at 6 mo). These age-related alterations were characterized by regressive changes in the germinal epithelium and Sertoli's cells as well as foci of Leydig's cells around atrophied seminiferous tubules and dysplasia of the rete testis epithelium. On the contrary, the presence of Leydig's cells with immature morphology and their arrangement in sheet could be attributable exclusively to estrogen treatment. The presence of no neoplasm was confirmed. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9114959

  8. Identification of source of oscillations in apparent sarcomere length measured by laser diffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, K; Huxley, A F

    1995-01-01

    The most widely used technique for dynamic estimates of sarcomere length in muscle is laser light diffraction. We have identified conditions under which artifactual oscillations can arise in apparent sarcomere length measured by this technique and report methods to reduce the effect. Altringham et al. (1984) first reported that the diffraction angle can exhibit one cycle of oscillation for each sarcomere length displacement of the illuminated portion of the fiber. We find that the amplitude of similar oscillations is strongly dependent on the intensity of light scattered from objects near the fiber and on the spacing between fiber and scatterer. The oscillations can be eliminated by minimizing scattered light and positioning the fiber a few millimeters from sources of scattering. A theoretical description shows that oscillations of this kind are expected from interference of scattered and diffracted light. Interference fringes were observed along the meridian of the pattern, and these moved during translation of either a fiber or a grating. The movement of fringes across the diffraction order shifts the centroid back and forth and, when associated with steady shortening, can give rise to "steps" and "pauses" in apparent striation spacing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:7647247

  9. Clinicopathologic features of young and old sphha/sphha mice. Mutants with congenital hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed Central

    Maggio-Price, L.; Russell, R.; Wolf, N. S.; Alpers, C. E.; Engel, D.

    1988-01-01

    A colony of mice with congenital hemolytic anemia, sphha/sphha, were evaluated over a 3-year period. Prominent findings included decreased survivability, reticulocytosis, increased peripheral blood leukocytes, extramedullary hematopoiesis in liver and spleen, lymphoid hyperplasia and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Older (12 to 21 months) anemic animals had elevated serum levels of IgG1 and IgA. There was deposition of C3, IgG, IgM, and IgA in renal glomeruli of both control and anemic mice, but deposition of IgM and IgA was more prominent and widely distributed in anemic animals and correlated with mesangial expansion and the presence of electron dense deposits in the mesangium and in glomerular capillary walls. Prominent renal tubular hemosiderosis was noted in young and old anemic mice. The relation between the hemolytic anemia and glomerular disease is unclear but these mice may be an animal model useful for exploration of changes attendant with chronic hemolysis and evaluation of renal disease that accompanies hemolytic anemia. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3414779

  10. Biochemical and Histochemical Localization of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in the Glandular Trichomes of Spearmint (Mentha spicata) 12

    PubMed Central

    Gershenzon, Jonathan; Maffei, Massimo; Croteau, Rodney

    1989-01-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (−)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C10 isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (−)-limonene, hydroxylation to (−)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16666709

  11. Spontaneous apoptosis in human thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tiso, M.; Gangemi, R.; Bargellesi Severi, A.; Pizzolitto, S.; Fabbi, M.; Risso, A.

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis seems to be involved in different stages of immune cell development. In particular, experimental evidence suggests that it is a major form of cell death in the thymus. The present analysis of human thymocytes reveals that a fraction of these cells, cultured in vitro, undergoes spontaneous apoptosis. This observation is based both on molecular (DNA fragmentation) and morphological (electron microscopic) investigations of the cells. The apoptotic thymocytes are CD3- or CD3lo, CD4lo, and CD8lo and do not express Bcl-2 protein. Furthermore, thymocytes die by apoptosis when exposed to pharmacological stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, dexamethasone, ATP, or Ca++ ionophore. Thus the apoptotic machinery in thymocytes can be triggered by an imbalance in growth factors in the in vitro culture media and can be modulated by various biochemical signals. The process of spontaneous apoptosis is independent of mRNA or protein synthesis, as actinomycin D and cycloheximide fail to inhibit this phenomenon. Furthermore, apoptosis seems to require active oxidative phosphorylation, as it is prevented by incubation of the cells with inhibitors of the respiratory chain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7639336

  12. The intra-examiner reliability of manual muscle testing of the hip and shoulder with a modified sphygmomanometer: a preliminary study of normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Perossa, Daniel R; Dziak, Martin; Vernon, Howard T; Hayashita, Kaye

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intrarater reliability of manual muscle assessment of the hip and shoulder using a modified sphygmomanometer. In addition, it was intended to establish a preliminary database of values from normal, healthy male and female volunteers. Eighty subjects participated in the test sessions, 40 males and 40 females between the ages of 19-22. Forty subjects participated in each of the hip and shoulder test sessions. Each examiner tested different paired movements on the subjects in one single session for the two separate joints. The tested movements consisted of hip extension, flexion and abduction and shoulder abduction, extension, flexion, internal and external rotation. All movements were tested by the patient-initiated method. Each movement was repeated twice, with a 30-35 second rest interval between the trials. The results showed that the intratester reliability coefficients for the hip ranged from 0.94-0.97, while, for the shoulder, the range was 0.86-0.97. Norms are expressed as mean (SD) values. These data conformed to previously established expectations, in that side-to-side differences were less than 10% and test values for males were larger than females in all tests. It was concluded that manual muscle assessment using a modified sphygmomanometer has acceptable intra-examiner reliability for the hip and shoulder when using the patient-initiated method. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8

  13. Disseminated BK type polyomavirus infection in an AIDS patient associated with central nervous system disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vallbracht, A.; Löhler, J.; Gossmann, J.; Glück, T.; Petersen, D.; Gerth, H. J.; Gencic, M.; Dörries, K.

    1993-01-01

    A 27-year-old man with hemophilia type A and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developed a subacute meningoencephalitis, associated with a normotensive internal hydrocephalus, 14 weeks before his death. From cerebrospinal fluid and brain autopsy material, a virus could be isolated and was classified by Southern blot analysis and restriction endonuclease reactions as the human polyomavirus BK. The postmortem findings of polyomavirus antigen and BK virus DNA in various cell types of the kidneys, lungs, and central nervous system strongly suggest that BK virus was the causative agent of a tubulointerstitial nephropathy, an interstitial desquamative pneumonitis, and a subacute meningoencephalitis with accentuation of the ventricular and meningeal surfaces of the brain. Besides distinctive cytopathic effects, the presence of intranuclear inclusions was a prominent histopathological feature. Therefore, the human polyomavirus BK should be regarded as a new candidate on the still growing list of opportunistic pathogens in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8391217

  14. Histochemical and immunocytochemical evidence of early, selective bile canaliculi injury after 1,1-dichloroethylene in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Moslen, M. T.; Dunsford, H. A.; Karnasuta, C.; Chieco, P.; Kanz, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    Canalicular and mitochondrial membranes were investigated as early foci of hepatocyte injury in fed and fasted male Sprague-Dawley rats given 50 mg of 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE)/kg. Staining of the bile canaliculi localized enzymes, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), and Mg++-dependent ATPase (Mg++-ATPase), was examined by histochemistry in frozen sections. Mitochondrial membrane enzymes, including succinate dehydrogenase, also were examined by histochemistry. Staining of two monoclonal antibodies, C-1 and 9-B1, whose binding is localized in the bile canalicular region, was examined by immunofluorescence in frozen sections. Fasted rats treated with DCE developed moderate liver damage by 4 hours as evidenced by increases in serum transaminase and bilirubin, whereas fed rats developed only slight cell damage. Centrolobular loss of immunocytochemical and histochemical canalicular staining, especially for C-1 and Mg++-ATPase, was evident as early as 1 hour after DCE and was striking by 2 hours in both fed and fasted rats. Decreases in mitochondrial enzymes were not evident histochemically in fed animals at any time after DCE and were found only at the later times in fasted animals given the toxin. Thus, DCE administration to fed rats provides a new model system of selective bile canaliculi injury. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2541611

  15. Immunological Characterization of a Tapetal Protein in Developing Anthers of Lilium longiflorum 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Co-Shine; Walling, Linda L.; Eckard, Kathleen J.; Lord, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    Antiserum was raised in rabbits against a lily (Lilium longiflorum) anther-specific protein (LLA-15). Monospecific anti-LLA-15 antibodies were prepared to investigate the distribution of LLA-15 during anther development in a variety of flowering plants. Immunoblot analyses of total protein from floral and vegetative organs confirmed that LLA-15 or LLA-15-like proteins accumulated to detectable levels only in a discrete stage of anther development. In situ localization using anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated with gold particles confirmed that LLA-15 was specifically localized in the tapetal tissue of lily anthers. The maximal level of LLA-15 was strictly coincident with the peak of tapetal secretory functions. Immunoblots of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels of lily anther proteins indicated that the seven LLA-15 isoforms ranged from isoelectric point 5.6 to 6.1. In vitro translation of lily anther mRNAs showed that four of these isoforms were primary products, the additional three being a result of posttranslational processing of the primary translation products. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:16669007

  16. Equine phacoclastic uveitis: the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and therapy of 7 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Grahn, B H; Cullen, C L

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective clinical study describes the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic lens rupture in the horse. Rupture of the lens capsule in the horse usually results in a chronic, blinding inflammation (phacoclastic uveitis) unless prompt surgical and medical therapies are implemented. The clinical manifestations of acute lens capsule rupture included: cataract; intralenticular displacement of iridal pigment; lens cortical fragments attached to the perforated lens capsule, iris, and corneal endothelium; miosis; aqueous flare; and usually a corneal or scleral perforation with ulceration or focal full thickness corneal edema and scarring. The clinical signs of chronic phacoclastic uveitis include blindness, phthisis bulbi, and generalized corneal opacification related to scarring, vascularization, pigmentation, and edema. In one horse, acute phacoclastic uveitis was successfully treated with phacoemulsification to remove the ruptured lens and medical therapy to control the accompanying inflammation. The affected eyes of the horses with chronic phacoclastic uveitis were enucleated because of persistent clinical signs of nonulcerative keratitis and uveitis, despite long-term medical management. The clinical manifestations and lack of improvement with medical therapy are similar in the horse, dog, cat, and rabbit. However, the histologic findings in equine phacoclastic uveitis differ significantly from those in the dog, and rabbit. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:10816830

  17. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 in experimental autoimmune neuritis. Cellular localization and time course.

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, R.; Funa, K.; Schweitzer, T.; Jung, S.; Bourde, O.; Toyka, K. V.; Hartung, H. P.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a monophasic inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system that resolves spontaneously by molecular mechanisms as yet unknown. We have investigated whether the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) might be endogenously expressed in the peripheral nervous system of Lewis rats with actively induced and adoptive transfer EAN. TGF-beta 1 mRNA was upregulated to high levels in sensory and motor roots, spinal ganglia, and sciatic nerve as revealed by quantitative Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization histochemistry, with peak levels just preceding the first signs of clinical recovery. TGF-beta 1 mRNA was localized to scattered round cells and dense cellular infiltrates, but only rarely to Schwann cell profiles. Double labeling studies revealed macrophages and subpopulations of T cells as the major cellular source of TGF-beta 1 mRNA. TGF-beta 1 protein was visualized immunocytochemically and localized to infiltrating mononuclear cells with peak expression around the same time as mRNA, in addition to some constitutive expression in axons and Schwann cells. Our studies suggest that the spontaneous recovery observed in Lewis rat EAN might be mediated by the endogenous elaboration of TGF-beta 1 within the peripheral nerve, and that macrophages might control their own cytotoxicity by expressing TGF-beta 1. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8546208

  18. Tonoplast-Bound Protein Kinase Phosphorylates Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth D.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1992-01-01

    Tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) is a member of a family of putative membrane channels found in bacteria, animals, and plants. Plants have seed-specific, vegetative/reproductive organ-specific, and water-stress-induced forms of TIP. Here, we report that the seed-specific TIP is a phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation can be monitored in vivo by allowing bean cotyledons to take up [32P]orthophosphate and in vitro by incubating purified tonoplasts with γ-labeled [32P]ATP. Characterization of the in vitro phosphorylation of TIP indicates that a membrane-bound protein kinase phosphorylates TIP in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The capacity of the isolated tonoplast membranes to phosphorylate TIP declined markedly during seed germination, and this decline occurred well before the development-mediated decrease in TIP occurs. Phosphoamino acid analysis of purified, radiolabeled TIP showed that serine is the major, if not only, phosphorylated residue, and cyanogen bromide cleavage yielded a single radioactive peptide peak on a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatogram. Estimation of the molecular mass of the cyanogen bromide phosphopeptide by laser desorption mass spectroscopy led to its identification as the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of TIP. The putative phosphate-accepting serine residue occurs in a consensus phosphorylation site for serine/threonine protein kinases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16653198

  19. Apoptosis during an early stage of nephrogenesis induces renal hypoplasia in bcl-2-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, M.; Nakauchi, H.; Nakayama, K.; Nakayama, K.; Loh, D.; Watanabe, T.

    1996-01-01

    Renal development in bcl-2-deficient mice was monitored to examine the temporal and spatial function of this gene during nephrogenesis in vivo. Extensive apoptosis occurred during abnormal nephrogenesis in bcl-2-deficient mice. In embryos and newborn mice, the sequence of morphological events was monitored by morphology in conjunction with morphometry, and bcl-2 -/-, bcl-2 +/-, and bcl-2 +/+ mice were compared. In bcl-2 -/- mice, initial induction of nephrons was detected by embryonic day 13 (E-13) as normal. Then, apoptotic cells became five times more frequent at E-13 to E-16 with a significant reduction (1/5) in nephron number at E-17 to E-19 in bcl-2 -/- mice compared with bcl-2 +/+ mice. No morphological difference was evident between bcl-2 +/- mice and bcl-2 +/+ mice by morphometry. Apoptotic cells were found mainly among the mesenchyme and less frequently in tubuli. Little apoptosis among ureteric buds was noted. In bcl-2 -/- mice at E-17 to E-19, inactive branching and insufficient convolution of ureteric buds were accompanied by fulminant apoptosis in the mesenchyme. Neonatal bcl-2 -/- mice lacked the nephrogenic zone, exhibiting renal hypoplasia. Thus, bcl-2 seems to inhibit apoptosis in renal stem cells during the induction of nephrons in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8623928

  20. A Kinetic Chain Approach for Shoulder Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, John; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To introduce an approach to shoulder rehabilitation that integrates the kinetic chain throughout the rehabilitation program while providing the theoretical rationale for this program. Background: The focus of a typical rehabilitation program is to identify and treat the involved structures. However, in activities of sport and daily life, the body does not operate in isolated segments but rather works as a dynamic unit. Recently, rehabilitation programs have emphasized closed kinetic chain exercises, core-stabilization exercises, and functional programs. These components are implemented as distinct entities and are used toward the end of the rehabilitation program. Description: Kinetic chain shoulder rehabilitation incorporates the kinetic link biomechanical model and proximal-to-distal motor-activation patterns with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and closed kinetic chain exercise techniques. This approach focuses on movement patterns rather than isolated muscle exercises. Patterns sequentially use the leg, trunk, and scapular musculature to activate weakened shoulder musculature, gain active range of motion, and increase strength. The paradigm of kinetic chain shoulder rehabilitation suggests that functional movement patterns and closed kinetic chain exercises should be incorporated throughout the rehabilitation process. Clinical Advantages: The exercises in this approach are consistent with biomechanical models, apply biomechanical and motor control theory, and work toward sport specificity. The exercises are designed to stimulate weakened tissue by motion and force production in the adjacent kinetic link segments. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:16558646

  1. Structural characterization of the mesangial cell type IV collagenase and enhanced expression in a model of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, D. H.; Johnson, R. J.; Marti, H. P.; Martin, J.; Davies, M.; Couser, W. G.

    1992-01-01

    Secretion of glomerular cell-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors, TIMP-1,2, may play an important role in the turnover of the glomerular extracellular matrix under basal and pathologic conditions. A 66-68 kd MMP secreted by cultured mesangial cells (MC) with activity against Type IV collagen and gelatin was purified and shown by amino-acid sequence analysis to be identical with a Type IV collagenase/gelatinase secreted by certain transformed tumor cell lines. The expression of the mesangial MMP in vivo was limited within the kidney to a small subset of the intrinsic glomerular mesangial cell population. After induction of acute anti-Thy 1.1 glomerulonephritis, there was a large increment in the number of Type IV collagenase-secreting MC, temporally coincident with the development of mesangial hypercellularity. The expression of the MMP inhibitor protein, TIMP-1, was not changed over this period. Ultrastructural studies localized the mesangial MMP to areas of evolving mesangiolysis and at sites of glomerular basement membrane disruption. Enhanced expression of the mesangial cell-derived Type IV collagenase may contribute to the evolution of glomerular injury in this model of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis or may be involved in the extensive matrix remodeling process that accompanies this form of glomerular injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 and Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:1321565

  2. Macrophages migration through the brain parenchyma to the perivascular space following particle ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, P. E.; Balentine, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Forty-eight rats received intracerebral injections of sterile colloidal carbon. At intervals between 10 minutes and 31 days after carbon injection, the rats were perfused with glutaraldehyde, and autopsies were performed. Between 10 minutes and 3 hours after injection, carbon particles were extracellular and located strictly within the needle track. During the first few days the carbon was ingested by macrophages. Initially absent, carbon-laden macrophages spread to the neuropil immediately surrounding the injection site at 7 to 31 days following injection. These carbon-laden macrophages frequently were elongated within the neuropil and resembled microglia. Carbon-laden macrophages eventually accumulated around local vessels and in perivascular spaces. Many macrophages containing carbon remained in the injection site at the longest sampling interval of 31 days. Results indicate two macrophage responses to colloidal carbon in the central nervous system: a) an indolent population remains in the injection site for at least 1 month and b) a second population of macrophages emigrates through the neuropil. They eventually surround local vessels and enter the perivascular space. The migrating macrophages offer an explanation for the peculiar perivascular cells in Krabbe's disease and may provide a link between the CNS parenchyma and immunocompetent cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:696802

  3. Reactive oxygen species: their relation to pneumoconiosis and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Vallyathan, V; Shi, X; Castranova, V

    1998-01-01

    Occupational exposures to mineral particles cause pneumoconiosis and other diseases, including cancer. Recent studies have suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a key role in the mechanisms of disease initiation and progression following exposure to these particles. ROS-induced primary stimuli result in the increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and other mediators, promoting events that appear to be important in the progression of cell injury and pulmonary disease. We have provided evidence supporting the hypothesis that inhalation of insoluble particles such as asbestos, agricultural dusts, coal, crystalline silica, and inorganic dust can be involved in facilitating multiple pathways for persistent generation of ROS, which may lead to a continuum of inflammation leading to progression of disease. This article briefly summarizes some of the recent findings from our laboratories with emphasis on the molecular events by which ROS are involved in promoting pneumoconiosis and carcinogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9788890

  4. Patient fat biopsies for chemical analysis and liver biopsies for ultrastructural characterization after exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, furans and PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T; Schaffner, F; Taylor, M; Gitlitz, G; VanNess, G F; Garrett, J H; Wagel, D J

    1985-01-01

    A subset of workers was followed after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and furans in an occupational medicine clinic setting. Patterns of PCBs found in adipose tissue resembled the pattern seen when soot from the incident or Aroclor 1254 was examined by GC-MS. Adipose tissue also revealed levels of hepta- and octachlorinated furans and dioxins as high as 8400 ppt in one repeatedly exposed worker. Control fat from patients with no known exposure to furans or dioxins was usually in the several hundred parts per trillion range for these isomers, but slightly over 2000 ppt in one sample. Electron microscopic analysis of liver biopsies from three patients who developed mild elevations of hepatic enzymes in their serum revealed morphologic alterations in some ways similar to those seen in animals after feeding experiments with PCBs, dioxins or the Binghamton State Office Building soot. These include pleomorphic mitochondria, giant mitochondria, prominent dense mitochondrial granules, cristae parallel to the long axis of the mitochondria and crystalline structure within same mitochondria as well as lipid droplets in liver cells and slightly dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. PMID:3928350

  5. Before Nugent took charge: early efforts to reform chiropractic education, 1919-1941

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2003-01-01

    John J. Nugent, D.C. is remembered by many as either the “Abraham Flexner of Chiropractic” or the “anti-Christ of Chiropractic.” From 1941 until his forced retirement in 1959, the Irish-born Palmer graduate was one of the most important factors in the profession's educational reforms. Yet Nugent's work as the National Chiropractic Association's (NCA's) director of research was not the beginning of the campaign to upgrade chiropractic education. This paper looks at earlier influences and events which set the stage for Nugent's campaign. Among these were the introduction of licensure for chiropractors, the self-defeating actions of B.J. Palmer, the introduction of basic science legislation, the lethargy of the schools, and the struggle for control of education between the schools, on the one hand, and the NCA and the Council of State Chiropractic Examining Boards on the other ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25Figure 26Figure 28Figure 29Figure 30Figure 31Figure 32Figure 33Figure 34Figure 35Figure 36Figure 37Figure 38

  6. Amyloid deposits in bioprosthetic cardiac valves after long-term implantation in man. A new localization of amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Y. A.; Gruys, E.; Sorenson, G. D.; Wellens, F.

    1984-01-01

    Congo red staining with microscopic examination under polarized light was performed in 30 porcine bioprosthetic cardiac valves and one autologous fascia lata valve explanted from 31 patients in order to detect the presence of amyloid. Microdeposits of amyloid were present in the sewing ring of the fascia lata valve and in 10 porcine bioprostheses, and this finding was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy in 3 porcine bioprostheses. All amyloid-laden porcine valves had been implanted for at least 33 months before removal, and all except two showed dysfunction and/or severe degeneration of cuspal tissue. Statistical analyses failed to establish any correlation between the presence of amyloid and patient-related factors. In a majority of porcine bioprostheses amyloid was permanganate-sensitive and tryptophan-positive. The pathogenesis of this new form of heart valve amyloidosis might consist in penetration of human macrophages in deteriorated bioprosthetic cusps and their interaction with blood-borne amyloid precursors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:6421168

  7. Immunohistologic and ultrastructural study of the sclerotic skin in chronic graft-versus-host disease in man.

    PubMed Central

    Janin-Mercier, A.; Devergie, A.; Van Cauwenberge, D.; Saurat, J. H.; Bourges, M.; Lapiere, C. M.; Gluckman, E.

    1984-01-01

    Thirteen skin biopsies were performed on 8 patients at different stages of skin sclerosis in chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). On the same skin biopsies an immunostaining with antibodies directed against Types I and III procollagen, Types I, III, IV, V collagen, and laminin, and an ultrastructural study were performed. Alterations were observed at the dermal-epidermal junction and in the superficial dermis with a large deposit on Type III procollagen in the incipient scleroses and of Type I procollagen in the oldest ones. In this sclerotic superficial dermis, collagen fibers of irregular diameter were associated with mast cells and active fibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes in close contact. The skin sclerosis in chronic GVHD might be considered a form of cutaneous fibrosis with features of excessive tissue repair related to an immunologic reaction between lymphocytes of the graft and tissue host cells. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 8 PMID:6372497

  8. Focal arteriolar insudation. A response of arterioles to chronic nonspecific irritation.

    PubMed Central

    Cuénoud, H. F.; Joris, I.; Langer, R. S.; Majno, G.

    1987-01-01

    The subcutaneous insertion of sterile, inert plastic pellets over the cremaster muscles of rats induces characteristic focal lesions of the arterioles at a distance from the pellets. These lesions appear with a delay of about 6 hours; by light microscopy they are characterized by a focal dilatation accompanied by endothelial damage and increased permeability. They are more severe if the pellets are loaded with histamine and are inhibited if the pellets are loaded with serotonin. Electron microscopy shows interendothelial gaps; the media is massively infiltrated with blood components and fibrin. The medial smooth muscle cells are stretched and at times necrotic; inflammatory cells are scarce. On the basis of these features the lesion was named focal arteriolar insudation (FAI). Although its pathogenesis is not yet clear, the data at hand suggest that it is caused by endogenous mediators affecting the smooth muscle cells and/or the endothelium. FAI appears to be a specific arteriolar response to chronic nonspecific irritation. Images Figure 7 Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:3296773

  9. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha up-regulates decay-accelerating factor gene expression in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, A; Fujiyama, Y; Sumiyoshi, K; Sakumoto, H; Okabe, H; Bamba, T

    1997-01-01

    The increased expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) has been detected in intestinal epithelial cells at the inflamed mucosa. In this study, we examined the effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on DAF expression in three intestinal epithelial cell lines. DAF mRNA expression was evaluated by Northern blot analysis, and DAF protein expression was analysed by biotin labelling and immunoprecipitation. TNF-alpha induced a marked increase in DAF mRNA and protein expression in HT-29, T84 and Caco-2 cells. In HT-29 cells, the effects of TNF-a on DAF mRNA accumulation were observed in a dose-dependent manner; DAF mRNA accumulation reached a maximum at 3-6 hr, and then gradually decreased. These effects of TNF-alpha required de novo protein synthesis. Messenger RNA stability studies suggested that TNF-alpha partially regulated DAF gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Moreover, the combination of TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-4 induced an additive increase in DAF mRNA accumulation in HT-29 and T84 cells. In human intestinal epithelial cells, TNF-alpha acts as a potent inducer of DAF mRNA expression, indicating an important role for TNF-alpha in the regulation of DAF expression at the inflamed mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9155641

  10. Association between air pollution and intrauterine mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, L A; Loomis, D; Conceição, G M; Braga, A L; Arcas, R M; Kishi, H S; Singer, J M; Böhm, G M; Saldiva, P H

    1998-01-01

    The associations among daily counts of intrauterine mortality and pollutant concentrations (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particulate matter (3/4)10 microm) were investigated for the period ranging from January 1991 to December 1992 in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We used Poisson regression techniques, adjusted for season and weather. The association between intrauterine mortality and air pollution was strong for NO2 (coefficient = 0.0013/ microg/m3; p<0.01) but lesser for SO2 (coefficient = 0.0005/ microg/m3; p<0.10) and CO (coefficient = 0.0223/ppm; p<0.10). A significant association was observed when an index that combined these three pollutants was considered in the models instead of considering each pollutant individually (p<0.01). These associations exhibited a short time lag, not over 5 days. In addition, some evidence of fetal exposure to air pollution was obtained by disclosing a significant association between the levels of carboxyhemoglobin of blood sampled from the umbilical cord and ambient CO levels in children delivered by nonsmoking pregnant women in the period from May to July 1995. Our results suggest that air pollution in São Paulo may promote adverse health effects on fetuses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9618348

  11. Giant papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Donshik, P C

    1994-01-01

    Giant papillary conjunctivitis is a syndrome found frequently as a complication of contact lenses. Many variables can affect the onset and severity of the presenting signs and symptoms. Rigid gas permeable contact lenses appear to result in less severe signs and symptoms, with a longer time before the development of giant papillary conjunctivitis. Nonionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses tend to produce less severe signs and symptoms than ionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses. Enzymatic treatment appears to lessen the severity of signs and symptoms. The association of an allergy appears to play a role in the onset of the severity of the signs and symptoms but does not appear to affect the final ability of the individual to wear contact lenses. Using multiple treatment options, such as changing the polymer to a glyceryl methyl methacrylate or a rigid lens, or utilizing a soft lens on a frequent-replacement basis, can result in a success rate of over 90%. In individuals who still have a return of symptoms, the use of topical mast cell stabilizers or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an adjunctive therapy offers the added possibility of keeping these patients in contact lenses. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D PMID:7886881

  12. Stability and dynamics of G-actin: back-door water diffusion and behavior of a subdomain 3/4 loop.

    PubMed Central

    Wriggers, W; Schulten, K

    1997-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on solvated G-actin bound to ADP and ATP, starting with the crystal structure of the actin-DNase 1 complex, including a Ca2+ or Mg2+ ion at the high-affinity divalent cation-binding site. Water molecules have been found to enter the nucleotide-binding site (phosphate vicinity) along two pathways, from the side where the nucleotide base is exposed to water, as well as from the opposite side. The water channels suggest a "back-door" mechanism for ATP hydrolysis in which the phosphate is released to a side opposite that of nucleotide binding and unbinding. The simulations also reveal a propensity of G-actin to alter its crystallographic structure toward the filamentous structure. Domain movement closes the nucleotide cleft, the movement being more pronounced for bound Mg2+. The conformational change is interpreted as a response of the system to missing water molecules in the crystal structure. The structures arising in the simulations, classified according to nucleotide cleft separation and radius of gyration of the protein, fall into two distinct clusters: a cluster of states that are similar to the G-actin crystal structure, and a cluster of states with small cleft separation and with the subdomain 3/4 loop 264-273 detached from the protein. The latter states resemble the putative filamentous structure of actin, in which the loop connects the two strands of the actin filament. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 PMID:9251782

  13. Flavonoids inhibit cytokine-induced endothelial cell adhesion protein gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, M. E.; Carley, W. W.; Ranges, G. E.; Shen, C. P.; Phan, S. A.; Ligon, G. F.; Perry, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interferon-gamma induces the expression of specific leukocyte adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell surface. Interfering with either leukocyte adhesion or adhesion protein upregulation is an important therapeutic target as evidenced by the potent anti-inflammatory actions of neutralizing antibodies to these ligands in various animal models and in patients. In the present study we report that cotreatment of human endothelial cells with certain hydroxyflavones and flavanols blocks cytokine-induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin expression on human endothelial cells. One of the most potent flavones, apigenin, exhibited a dose- and time-dependent, reversible effect on adhesion protein expression as well as inhibiting adhesion protein upregulation at the transcriptional level. Apigenin also inhibited IL-1 alpha-induced prostaglandin synthesis and TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production, suggesting that the hydroxyflavones may act as general inhibitors of cytokine-induced gene expression. Although apigenin did not inhibit TNF-alpha-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B(p50(NFKB1)/p65(RelA)) we found this flavonoid did inhibit TNF-alpha induced beta-galactosidase activity in SW480 cells stably transfected with a beta-galactosidase reporter construct driven by four NF-kappa B elements, suggesting an action on NF-kappa B transcriptional activation. Adhesion of leukocytes to cytokine-treated endothelial cells was blocked in endothelial cells cotreated with apigenin. Finally, apigenin demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and delayed type hypersensitivity in the mouse. We conclude that flavonoids offer important therapeutic potential for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases involving an increase in leukocyte adhesion and trafficking. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:7543732

  14. Repopulation of murine Kupffer cells after intravenous administration of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T.; Naito, M.; Moriyama, H.; Umezu, H.; Matsuo, H.; Kiwada, H.; Arakawa, M.

    1996-01-01

    Kupffer cells were selectively eliminated in mice by the intravenous administration of liposome-entrapped dichloromethylene diphosphonate. At 5 days, small peroxidase-negative and acid-phosphatase-weakly-positive macrophages appeared, increased in number, and differentiated into peroxidase- and acid-phosphatase-positive Kupffer cells. Repopulating small macrophages actively proliferated, and the number of Kupffer cells returned to the normal level by day 14. The numbers of macrophage precursors in the liver as detected by the monoclonal antibodies ER-MP20 and ER-MP58 increased after liposome-entrapped dichloromethylene diphosphonate injection. ER-MP58-positive cells proliferated and differentiated into ER-MP20-positive cells and eventually into BM8-positive Kupffer cells in the liver. Bone-marrow-derived ER-MP58-positive cells were also detectable in the liver and differentiated into ER-MP20-positive cells, but they did not become BM8-positive macrophages. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA expression was enhanced in the liver 1 day after injection. The administration of macrophage colony-stimulating factor did not shorten the period of Kupffer cell depletion but increased the number and the proliferative capacity of repopulating Kupffer cells. These findings implied that repopulating Kupffer cells are derived from a macrophage precursor pool in the liver rather than from bone-marrow-derived monocytes. Local production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the liver plays a crucial role in the differentiation, maturation, and proliferation of Kupffer cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 12 Figure 18 PMID:8863675

  15. An elastic network model based on the structure of the red blood cell membrane skeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J C; Skalak, R; Chien, S; Hoger, A

    1996-01-01

    A finite element network model has been developed to predict the macroscopic elastic shear modulus and the area expansion modulus of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane skeleton on the basis of its microstructure. The topological organization of connections between spectrin molecules is represented by the edges of a random Delaunay triangulation, and the elasticity of an individual spectrin molecule is represented by the spring constant, K, for a linear spring element. The model network is subjected to deformations by prescribing nodal displacements on the boundary. The positions of internal nodes are computed by the finite element program. The average response of the network is used to compute the shear modulus (mu) and area expansion modulus (kappa) for the corresponding effective continuum. For networks with a moderate degree of randomness, this model predicts mu/K = 0.45 and kappa/K = 0.90 in small deformations. These results are consistent with previous computational models and experimental estimates of the ratio mu/kappa. This model also predicts that the elastic moduli vary by 20% or more in networks with varying degrees of randomness. In large deformations, mu increases as a cubic function of the extension ratio lambda 1, with mu/K = 0.62 when lambda 1 = 1.5. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 FIGURE A1 FIGURE A2 FIGURE A3 PMID:8770194

  16. The secretory granule matrix-electrolyte interface: a homologue of the p-n rectifying junction.

    PubMed Central

    Marszalek, P E; Markin, V S; Tanaka, T; Kawaguchi, H; Fernandez, J M

    1995-01-01

    When placed at the tip of a glass micropipette electrode the polymeric matrix of the secretory granule behaves like a diode. The measured current was 100-fold greater at negative potentials compared to positive potentials, and up to sixfold greater than that measured with the pipette alone. By manipulating the geometry of the electric field we show that these electrical properties result from focusing an electric field at the gel-electrolyte interface. We also show, by using pulsed-laser imaging with fluorescein as the ionic probe, that there is a rapid accumulation and depletion of ions at the gel-electrolyte interface. A voltage pulse of -9 V applied to the gel caused a severalfold increase in the fluorescence intensity within 5 ms. This correlated with an increase in the measured current (approximately 1 microA). In contrast, within 5 ms of applying +9 V we recorded a decrease in the fluorescence intensity, which paralleled the twofold decrease in the measured current. This is similar to a p-n junction where an applied voltage causes the accumulation and depletion of charge carriers. Using synthetic gels (diameter 3-6 microns) with different charge characteristics we observed no rectification of the current with neutral gels and confirmed that rectification and amplification of the current were dependent on the fixed charge within a gel. In addition, we modeled the conduction at the gel-electrolyte interface using the Nernst-Planck electrodiffusion equation and accurately fitted the experimental current-voltage relationships. This study provides some insight into how biological interfaces may function. For example, we suggest that neurotransmitter release during exocytosis could be regulated by voltage-induced accumulation and depletion of ions at the interface between the secretory granule and the fusion pore. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:8534793

  17. Lipid interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A. Acid-triggered permeabilization and aggregation of lipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Menestrina, G; Pederzolli, C; Forti, S; Gambale, F

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the interaction of Pseudomonas exotoxin A with small unilamellar vesicles comprised of different phospholipids as a function of pH, toxin, and lipid concentration. We have found that this toxin induces vesicle permeabilization, as measured by the release of a fluorescent dye. Permeabilization is due to the formation of ion-conductive channels which we have directly observed in planar lipid bilayers. The toxin also produces vesicle aggregation, as indicated by an increase of the turbidity. Aggregation and permeabilization have completely different time course and extent upon toxin dose and lipid composition, thus suggesting that they are two independent events. Both time constants decrease by lowering the pH of the bulk phase or by introducing a negative lipid into the vesicles. Our results indicate that at least three steps are involved in the interaction of Pseudomonas exotoxin A with lipid vesicles. After protonation of one charged group the toxin becomes competent to bind to the surface of the vesicles. Binding is probably initiated by an electrostatic interaction because it is absolutely dependent on the presence of acidic phospholipids. Binding is a prerequisite for the subsequent insertion of the toxin into the lipid bilayer, with a special preference for phosphatidylglycerol-containing membranes, to form ionic channels. At high toxin and vesicle concentrations, bound toxin may also induce aggregation of the vesicles, particularly when phosphatidic acid is present in the lipid mixture. A quenching of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the protein, which is induced by lowering the pH of the solution, becomes more drastic in the presence of lipid vesicles. However, this further quenching takes so long that it cannot be a prerequisite to either vesicle permeabilization or aggregation. Pseudomonas exotoxin A shares many of these properties with other bacterial toxins like diphtheria and tetanus toxin. Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 12

  18. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, D. H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence. Images Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014432

  19. Insulin-like growth factor I activates the invasion suppressor function of E-cadherin in MCF-7 human mammary carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, M. E.; Vyncke, B. M.; Bruyneel, E. A.; Vermeulen, S. J.; De Bruyne, G. K.; Van Larebeke, N. A.; Vleminckx, K.; Van Roy, F. M.; Mareel, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    The calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin has been shown to counteract invasion of epithelial neoplastic cells. Using three monoclonal antibodies, we have demonstrated the presence of E-cadherin at the surface of human MCF-7/6 mammary carcinoma cells by indirect immunofluorescence coupled to flow cytometry and by immunocytochemistry. Nevertheless, MCF-7/6 cells failed to aggregate in a medium containing 1.25 mM CaCl2, and they were invasive after confrontation with embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture. Treatment of MCF-7/6 cells with 0.5 microgram ml-1 insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) led to homotypic aggregation within 5 to 10 min and inhibited invasion in vitro during at least 8 days. The effect of IGF-I on cellular aggregation was insensitive to cycloheximide. However, monoclonal antibodies that interfered with the function of either the IGF-I receptor (alpha IR3) or E-cadherin (HECD-1, MB2) blocked the effect of IGF-I on aggregation. The effects of IGF-I on aggregation and on invasion could be mimicked by 1 microgram ml-1 insulin, but not by 0.5 microgram ml-1 IGF-II. The insulin effects were presumably not mediated by the IGF-I receptor, since they could not be blocked by an antibody against this receptor (alpha IR3). Our results indicate that IGF-I activates the invasion suppressor role of E-cadherin in MCF-7/6 cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:8347483

  20. Accumulated body burden and endogenous release of lead in employees of a lead smelter.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, D E; Boulay, D; Richard, N S; Robin, J P; Gordon, C L; Webber, C E; Chettle, D R

    1997-01-01

    Bone lead levels for 367 active and 14 retired lead smelter workers were measured in vivo by X-ray fluorescence in May-June 1994. The bone sites of study were the tibia and calcaneus; magnitudes of concentration were used to gauge lead body burden. Whole blood lead readings from the workers generated a cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) that approximated the level of lead exposure over time. Blood lead values for 204 of the 381 workers were gathered from workers returning from a 10-month work interruption that ended in 1991; their blood level values were compared to their tibia and calcaneus lead levels. The resulting relations allowed constraints to be placed on the endogenous release of lead from bone in smelter works. Calcaneus lead levels were found to correlate strongly with those for tibia lead, and in a manner consistent with observations from other lead industry workers. Relations between bone lead concentration and CBLI demonstrated a distinctly nonlinear appearance. When the active population was divided by date of hire, a significant difference in the bone lead-CBLI slope emerged. After a correction to include the component of CBLI existing before the workers' employment at the smelter was made, this difference persisted. This implies that the transfer of lead from blood to bone in the workers has changed over time, possibly as a consequence of varying exposure conditions. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. Figure 6. A Figure 6. B Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. A Figure 9. B PMID:9105798

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and computer-stimulated structural analyses of a heptapeptide sequence found around the N-glycosylation site of a proline-rich glycoprotein from human parotid saliva.

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, R E; Bhandary, K K; Tseng, C C; Bergey, E J; Levine, M J

    1987-01-01

    The proline-rich glycoprotein from human parotid saliva has a common heptapeptide sequence around four of six N-glycosylation sites (Maeda, N., H. S. Kim, E. A. Azen, and O. J. Smithies, 1985, J. Biol. Chem., 20:11123-11130). A synthetic model of the heptamer protein sequence, NH2-Q(1)-G(2)-G(3)-N(4)-Q(5)-S(6)-Q(7)-CONH2, was examined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and the ECEPP/2-VAO4A (Empirical Conformation Energy Program for Peptides) energy minimization computer algorithm (Scheraga, H. A., 1982, Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange, 454; Powell, M. J. D., 1964, Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange, 60). The NMR spectrum was almost completely assigned in dimethylsulfoxide-d6 (DMSO), and the amide chemical shift temperature dependence, phi dihedral angles, and chi 1 rotamer populations elucidated. These data indicated that a significant population of the heptamer could exist as a type I beta-turn [4----1 between Q(5) and G(2)] and/or a type II' beta-turn [4----1 between (Q)5 and G(2) and/or a gamma-turn [3----1 between Q(5) and G(3)] with the amino acid chi 1 torsion angles weighted toward the gauche- conformation. Starting from these three possible conformations, the ECEPP/2-VAO4A rigid geometry energy minimization program was used to find the localized predominant in vacuo structures of this heptapeptide sequence. The type II' beta-turn conformation best fits the data based on internuclear hydrogen-bonding distances, minimum potential energy considerations, and the NMR parameters. Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:3828456

  2. Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D; Barone, S

    2000-01-01

    Vulnerable periods during the development of the nervous system are sensitive to environmental insults because they are dependent on the temporal and regional emergence of critical developmental processes (i.e., proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and apoptosis). Evidence from numerous sources demonstrates that neural development extends from the embryonic period through adolescence. In general, the sequence of events is comparable among species, although the time scales are considerably different. Developmental exposure of animals or humans to numerous agents (e.g., X-ray irradiation, methylazoxymethanol, ethanol, lead, methyl mercury, or chlorpyrifos) demonstrates that interference with one or more of these developmental processes can lead to developmental neurotoxicity. Different behavioral domains (e.g., sensory, motor, and various cognitive functions) are subserved by different brain areas. Although there are important differences between the rodent and human brain, analogous structures can be identified. Moreover, the ontogeny of specific behaviors can be used to draw inferences regarding the maturation of specific brain structures or neural circuits in rodents and primates, including humans. Furthermore, various clinical disorders in humans (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism) may also be the result of interference with normal ontogeny of developmental processes in the nervous system. Of critical concern is the possibility that developmental exposure to neurotoxicants may result in an acceleration of age-related decline in function. This concern is compounded by the fact that developmental neurotoxicity that results in small effects can have a profound societal impact when amortized across the entire population and across the life span of humans. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 14 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:10852851

  3. Non-averaged human brain potentials in somatic attention: the short-latency cognition-related P40 component.

    PubMed Central

    Tomberg, C; Desmedt, J E

    1996-01-01

    1. Non-averaged scalp-recorded brain potentials were studied in humans during selective attention to randomly intermixed series of stimuli to fingers. Physiological tests were use for validating the presence or absence of the short-latency cognition-related P40 electrogeneses in parietal cortex in the response to a single-target stimulus (P40 signifies a positive polarity of about 40 ms peak latency). 2. To minimize interference from the electroencephalogram and noise we mapped single brain responses over the scalp and identified P40 topographies by an updated form of the numerical estimator Z for assessment of recorded potentials over time. We found that Z should exceed 0.96 for at least 15 ms for validation of the topographical congruity between the single P40 and an averaged P40 template. 3. Individual responses to 145 target finger stimuli correctly identified by the subject were analysed. P40 occurred only intermittently (34.5%) in a series of targets, but its voltage was unexpectedly large, exceeding the P40 voltage in averaged responses by a factor of about 10. 4. The usual assumption in the averaging method that the single brain responses combined in the average are stable but merely contaminated by unrelated noise was shown to be false for the cognition-related P40, which was considerably underestimated because of its intermittency in the averaged single trials. 5. The reaction time of the subject was on average 19% shorter in the trials in which a P40 was present, thus suggesting that P40 can influence subsequent perceptual processing by the brain in the same trial. 6. The feasibility of identifying specific cognition-related electrogeneses in single brain responses opens up the study of momentary shifts in brain processing strategies thereby allowing the neurophysiology of cognition to be based in real time. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8910238

  4. Strain differences in Shope fibroma virus. An immunopathologic study.

    PubMed Central

    Strayer, D. S.; Skaletsky, E.; Sell, S.

    1984-01-01

    The pathogenic effects of plaque-purified Boerlage and Patuxent strains of Shope fibroma virus (SFV) in neonatal rabbits are compared with results of previous reports which used nonpurified SFV. Clinically, the Boerlage strain produced large tumors; whereas the same dose of Patuxent strain SFV induced much smaller tumors locally. Neither virus caused metastatic or extensively invasive local spread in our study. Some Patuxent recipients died of respiratory infections prior to sacrifice. However, both groups of rabbits handled the tumor well; the tumor began regressing 15-20 days after inoculation. Histologically, the tumors produced by those viruses were identical. Patuxent strain recipients were otherwise normal. Boerlage strain recipients showed increased persistence of extramedullary hematopoiesis and scattered foci of parenchymal necrosis in their livers. They also showed considerable cell death in thymic lobules. In rabbits given Patuxent strain SFV, virus antigens were detected only in the tumor by immunohistologic examination. Boerlage viral antigens were found in the tumor and overlying skin. We also detected virus systemically in Boerlage recipients: it was present in fixed tissue phagocytes in the spleen and liver and also in parenchymal cells of the lungs, liver, and kidney. Boerlage strain SFV recipients also showed detectable virus in their thymus, both at the periphery of the thymic lobules and in the connective tissue separating thymic lobules from each other. Despite the disseminated nature of the infection, rabbits that received the latter strain fared as well as those receiving Patuxent strain SFV. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 p[353]-a Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 p345-a Figure 6 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:6087669

  5. Nonlinearity of radiation health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Pollycove, M

    1998-01-01

    The prime concern of radiation protection policy since 1959 has been to protect DNA from damage. In 1994 the United Nations Scientific Community on the Effects of Atomic Radiation focused on biosystem response to radiation with its report Adaptive Responses to Radiation of Cells and Organisms. The 1995 National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements report Principles and Application of Collective Dose in Radiation Protection states that because no human data provides direct support for the linear nonthreshold hypothesis (LNT), confidence in LNT is based on the biophysical concept that the passage of a single charged particle could cause damage to DNA that would result in cancer. Several statistically significant epidemiologic studies contradict the validity of this concept by showing risk decrements, i.e., hormesis, of cancer mortality and mortality from all causes in populations exposed to low-dose radiation. Unrepaired low-dose radiation damage to DNA is negligible compared to metabolic damage. The DNA damage-control biosystem is physiologically operative on both metabolic and radiation damage and effected predominantly by free radicals. The DNA damage-control biosystem is suppressed by high dose and stimulated by low-dose radiation. The hormetic effect of low-dose radiation may be explained by its increase of biosystem efficiency. Improved DNA damage control reduces persistent mis- or unrepaired DNA damage i.e., the number of mutations that accumulate during a lifetime. This progressive accumulation of gene mutations in stem cells is associated with decreasing DNA damage control, aging, and malignancy. Recognition of the positive health effects produced by adaptive responses to low-dose radiation would result in a realistic assessment of the environmental risk of radiation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:9539031

  6. The morphologic characteristics of intercellular junctions between normal human liver cells and cells from patients with extrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed Central

    Robenek, H.; Herwig, J.; Themann, H.

    1980-01-01

    Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7395970

  7. Inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth in the brain. Suppression of endothelial cell turnover by penicillamine and the depletion of copper, an angiogenic cofactor.

    PubMed Central

    Brem, S. S.; Zagzag, D.; Tsanaclis, A. M.; Gately, S.; Elkouby, M. P.; Brien, S. E.

    1990-01-01

    Microvascular proliferation, a hallmark of malignant brain tumors, represents an attractive target of anticancer research, especially because of the quiescent nonproliferative endothelium of the normal brain. Cerebral neoplasms sequester copper, a trace metal that modulates angiogenesis. Using a rabbit brain tumor model, normocupremic animals developed large vascularized VX2 carcinomas. By contrast, small, circumscribed, relatively avascular tumors were found in the brains of rabbits copper-depleted by diet and penicillamine treatment (CDPT). The CDPT rabbits showed a significant decrease in serum copper, copper staining of tumor cell nuclei, microvascular density, the tumor volume, endothelial cell turnover, and an increase in the vascular permeability (breakdown of the blood-brain barrier), as well as peritumoral brain edema. In non-tumor-bearing animals, CDPT did not alter the vascular permeability or the brain water content. CDPT also inhibited the intracerebral growth of the 9L gliosarcoma in F-344 rats, with a similar increase of the peritumoral vascular permeability and the brain water content. CDPT failed to inhibit tumor growth and the vascularization of the VX2 carcinoma in the thigh muscle or the metastases to the lung, findings that may reflect regional differences in the responsiveness of the endothelium, the distribution of copper, or the activity of cuproenzymes. Metabolic and pharmacologic withdrawal of copper suppresses intracerebral tumor angiogenesis; angiosuppression is a novel biologic response modifier for the in situ control of tumor growth in the brain. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1700617

  8. Calculated coupling of electron and proton transfer in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, C R; Michel, H; Honig, B; Gunner, M R

    1996-01-01

    Based on new Rhodopseudomonas (Rp.) viridis reaction center (RC) coordinates with a reliable structure of the secondary acceptor quinone (QB) site, a continuum dielectric model and finite difference technique have been used to identify clusters of electrostatically interacting ionizable residues. Twenty-three residues within a distance of 25 A from QB (QB cluster) have been shown to be strongly electrostatically coupled to QB, either directly or indirectly. An analogous cluster of 24 residues is found to interact with QA (QA cluster). Both clusters extend to the cytoplasmic surface in at least two directions. However, the QB cluster differs from the QA cluster in that it has a surplus of acidic residues, more strong electrostatic interactions, is less solvated, and experiences a strong positive electrostatic field arising from the polypeptide backbone. Consequently, upon reduction of QA or QB, it is the QB cluster, and not the QA cluster, which is responsible for substoichiometric proton uptake at neutral pH. The bulk of the changes in the QB cluster are calculated to be due to the protonation of a tightly coupled cluster of the three Glu residues (L212, H177, and M234) within the QB cluster. If the lifetime of the doubly reduced state QB2- is long enough, Asp M43 and Ser L223 are predicted to also become protonated. The calculated complex titration behavior of the strongly interacting residues of the QB cluster and the resulting electrostatic response to electron transfer may be a common feature in proton-transferring membrane protein complexes. Images FIGURE 2 p2482-a FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 PMID:8744288

  9. Nuclear Inclusions in Alveolar Epithelium of Patients With Fibrotic Lung Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kawanami, Oichi; Ferrans, Victor J.; Fulmer, Jack D.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    1979-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of pulmonary biopsy specimens from patients with fibrotic lung disease disclosed the presence of nuclear inclusions in 1% or less of cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells in 9 of 19 patients, including 6 of 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 2 of 3 patients with collagen-vascular disease, and 1 of 3 patients with sarcoidosis. Nuclear inclusions were not observed by ultrastructural study in 5 control patients. The inclusions consisted of masses or aggregates of tubules which probably were derived from the inner nuclear membranes. These tubules were smooth-walled, showed branchings and bifurcations, were composed of single trilaminar membranes, usually had a clear content, and ranged from 500 to 1000 Å in diameter. They resembled nuclear tubules which occur in other cell types under conditions of rapid growth or specific hormonal stimulation. Statistically significant differences between the groups of patients with and without nuclear inclusions in cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells were not found with respect to smoking history, degree of fibrosis in the lung biopsy specimen, or the degree of pulmonary physiologic impairment. However, the average age of the patients having nuclear inclusions was significantly greater than that of patients not having nuclear inclusions. In addition, the frequency of indentations in the nuclei of cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells was greater in patients with nuclear inclusions than in patients without nuclear inclusions. Highly significant correlations were observed between the presence of nuclear inclusions and the presence of a) anchoring fibrils and hemidesmosomes along the basal surfaces of alveolar epithelial cells and b) multilayering of the alveolar epithelium. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 13Figure 14Figure 10Figure 8Figure 9Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figures 11 and 12Figure 15Figure 16Figure 6Figures 17 through 20 PMID:426030

  10. Harlequin ichthyosis (ichq): a juvenile lethal mouse mutation with ichthyosiform dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, J. P.; Boggess, D.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, B. A.; Rourk, M. H.; Harris, B.; Johnson, K.; Dunstan, R. W.; Davisson, M. T.

    1997-01-01

    Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:9212754

  11. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun Ping; Swain, Elisabeth; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I′, II, II′) were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, Km, Vmax) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:16652959

  12. Health effects of indoor fluoride pollution from coal burning in China.

    PubMed Central

    Ando, M; Tadano, M; Asanuma, S; Tamura, K; Matsushima, S; Watanabe, T; Kondo, T; Sakurai, S; Ji, R; Liang, C; Cao, S

    1998-01-01

    The combustion of high fluoride-content coal as an energy resource for heating, cooking, and food drying is a major exhaust emission source of suspended particulate matter and fluoride. High concentrations of these pollutants have been observed in indoor air of coal-burning families in some rural areas in China. Because airborne fluoride has serious toxicological properties, fluoride pollution in indoor air and the prevalence of fluorosis have been analyzed in a fluorosis area and a healthy nonfluorosis area in China and in a rural area in Japan. For human health, fluoride in indoor air has not only been directly inhaled by residents but also has been absorbed in stored food such as corn, chilies, and potatoes. In the fluorosis area in China, concentrations of urinary fluoride in the residents have been much higher than in the nonfluorosis area in China and in the rural area in Japan. In the fluorosis area, almost all elementary and junior high school students 10-15 years of age had dental fluorosis. Osteosclerosis in the skeletal fluorosis patients was very serious. Urinary deoxypyridinoline in rural residents in China was much higher than in rural residents in Japan. Data suggest that bone resorption was extremely stimulated in the residents in China and that fluoride may stimulate both bone resorption and bone formation. Because indoor fluoride from combustion of coal is easily absorbed in stored food and because food consumption is a main source of fluoride exposure, it is necessary to reduce airborne fluoride and food contamination to prevent serious fluorosis in China. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9518433

  13. M cells and granular mononuclear cells in Peyer's patch domes of mice depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ermak, T. H.; Steger, H. J.; Strober, S.; Owen, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture of Peyer's patches that were depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was examined with particular attention to the effects on M cells in the follicle epithelium and on mononuclear cells in follicle domes underlying the epithelium. Five-month-old, specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice were irradiated with 200-250 rad/day, five times a week to a total dose of 3400-4250, and their Peyer's patches were either fixed for electron microscopy or frozen for immunohistochemistry 1-4 days after completion of irradiation. Control mice were examined at the same time intervals. Follicle domes of TLI mice had approximately one fourth the epithelial surface area of domes of control mice. Within the epithelium, lymphoid cells were virtually depleted after TLI, and yet the epithelium contained M cells. In control mice, most M cells were accompanied by lymphoid cells in invaginations of the apical-lateral cell membrane. In TLI mice, most M cells did not have such apical-lateral invaginations and were columnar shaped. Other than lacking lymphocytes, these cells appeared to be mature M cells. Some M cells did have lymphoid cells or granular mononuclear cells below their basal membranes, adjacent to the basal lamina. Below the epithelium, the proportion of granular mononuclear cells was greatly increased following TLI. The retention of M cells and the increase in proportion of granular mononuclear cells in follicle domes are consistent with selective depletion of lymphocytes following TLI. Persistence of M cells without lymphocytic invaginations after TLI suggests that M cells can differentiate in the absence of, or at least in the presence of very few, lymphocytes, and that invagination by lymphocytes is not necessary to maintain mature M cell morphology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2923183

  14. Liver allograft rejection in sensitized recipients. Observations in a clinically relevant small animal model.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, K.; Murase, N.; Becich, M. J.; Furuya, T.; Todo, S.; Fung, J. J.; Starzl, T. E.; Demetris, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    consequences of early damage to the biliary tree are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8494042

  15. Induction of mortality and malformation in Xenopus laevis embryos by water sources associated with field frog deformities.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, J G; Helgen, J C; Fort, D J; Gallagher, K; Bowers, D; Propst, T L; Gernes, M; Magner, J; Shelby, M D; Lucier, G

    1998-01-01

    Water samples from several ponds in Minnesota were evaluated for their capacity to induce malformations in embryos of Xenopus laevis. The FETAX assay was used to assess the occurrence of malformations following a 96-hr period of exposure to water samples. These studies were conducted following reports of high incidences of malformation in natural populations of frogs in Minnesota wetlands. The purpose of these studies was to determine if a biologically active agent(s) was present in the waters and could be detected using the FETAX assay. Water samples from ponds with high incidences of frog malformations (affected sites), along with water samples from ponds with unaffected frog populations (reference sites), were studied. Initial experiments clearly showed that water from affected sites induced mortality and malformation in Xenopus embryos, while water from reference sites had little or no effect. Induction of malformation was dose dependent and highly reproducible, both with stored samples and with samples taken at different times throughout the summer. The biological activity of the samples was reduced or eliminated when samples were passed through activated carbon. Limited evidence from these samples indicates that the causal factor(s) is not an infectious organism nor are ion concentrations or metals responsible for the effects observed. Results do indicate that the water matrix has a significant effect on the severity of toxicity. Based on the FETAX results and the occurrence of frog malformations observed in the field, these studies suggest that water in the affected sites contains one or more unknown agents that induce developmental abnormalities in Xenopus. These same factors may contribute to the increased incidence of malformation in native species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9831545

  16. Testicular obstruction: clinicopathological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, W. F.; Levison, D. A.; Parkinson, M. C.; Parslow, J. M.; Royle, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Genital tract reconstruction has been attempted in subfertile men with obstructive azoospermia (370 patients) or unilateral testicular obstruction (80 patients), and in vasectomised men undergoing reversal for the first (130 patients) or subsequent (32 patients) time. Histopathological changes in the obstructed testes and epididymes, and immunological responses to the sequestered spermatozoa have been studied to gain insight into possible causes of failure of surgical treatment. The results of surgery have been assessed by follow-up sperm counts and occurrence of pregnancies in the female partners. The best results were obtained with vasectomy reversal (patency 90%, pregnancy 45%), even after failed previous attempts (patency 87%, pregnancy 37%). Epididymovasostomy gave good results with postinfective caudal blocks (patency 52%, pregnancy 38%), while postinfective vasal blocks were better corrected by total anatomical reconstruction (patency 73%, pregnancy 27%) than by transvasovasostomy (patency 9%, no pregnancies). Poor results were obtained with capital blocks (patency 12%, pregnancy 3%), in which substantial lipid accumulation was demonstrated in the ductuli efferentes; three-quarters of these patients had sinusitis, bronchitis or bronchiectasis (Young's syndrome). There is circumstantial evidence to suggest that this syndrome may be a late complication of mercury intoxication in childhood. After successful reconstruction, fertility was relatively reduced in those men who had antibodies to spermatozoa, particularly amongst the postinfective cases. Similarly, impaired fertility was found in men with unilateral testicular obstruction and antibodies to spermatozoa. Mononuclear cell infiltration of seminiferous tubules and rete testis was noted occasionally, supporting a diagnosis of autoimmune orchitis; although rare, this was an important observation as the sperm output became normal with adjuvant prednisolone therapy. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 10

  17. Ocular toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gagliuso, D J; Teich, S A; Friedman, A H; Orellana, J

    1990-01-01

    We describe 16 cases of ocular and, in some patients, associated CNS toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients. T gondii is commonly associated with infection in the immunocompromised host. The lesions are most often seen in the CNS and eyes; involvement in the brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes may be observed. CNS involvement by toxoplasmosis may be an initial manifestation of AIDS and may be associated with discrete or diffuse lesions. CT scan and MR imaging may demonstrate a multitude of lesions often displaying the characteristic ring-shaped enhancement after contrast injection. Ocular involvement by toxoplasmosis, though less common than CNS involvement, is characterized by several features. These may be manifested as single or multifocal retinal lesions in one or both eyes or massive areas of retinal necrosis. Invariably these lesions are unassociated with a pre-existing retinochoroidal scar suggesting that the lesions are a manifestation of acquired rather than congenital disease. Presence of IgM antibodies may support this observation although antibody levels in AIDS patients may not reflect the magnitude of disease. Vitreous reaction is often minimal. Anterior uveitis has been reported in one case. Treatment of the ocular infection with pyrimethamine, clindamycin and sulfadiazine is effective in over 75% of patients. Once resolution of the ocular infection is observed, maintenance therapy is continued as relapses occur in the absence of treatment. Corticosteroid treatment is unnecessary and its use has been associated with the development of CMV retinitis. Other retinal infections in AIDS patients which should be considered in the differential diagnosis include CMV, herpetic-associated ARN and syphilis. Concomitant CMV and toxoplasmosis in the same eye have been seen. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C PMID

  18. The origins and early history of the National Chiropractic Association

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C; Rehm, William S

    1993-01-01

    Figure 6Figure 7Figure 9

  19. Studies on the activation by ATP of the 26 S proteasome complex from rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dahlmann, B; Kuehn, L; Reinauer, H

    1995-01-01

    The 26 S proteasome complex is thought to catalyse the breakdown of ubiquitinated proteins within eukaryotic cells. In addition it has been found that the complex also degrades short-lived proteins such as ornithine decarboxylase in a ubiquitin-independent manner. Both proteolytic processes are paralleled by the hydrolysis of ATP. Here we show that ATP also affects the hydrolytic activity towards fluorigenic peptide substrates by the 26 S proteasome complex from rat skeletal muscle tissue. Low concentrations of ATP (about 25 microM) optimally activate the so-called chymotryptic and tryptic activity by increasing the rate of peptide hydrolysis but not peptidylglutamylpeptide hydrolysis. Activation of the enzyme by ATP is transient but this effect can be enhanced and prolonged by including in the assay an ATP-regenerating system, indicating that ATP is hydrolysed by the 26 S proteasome complex. Although ATP cannot be substituted for by adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-methylene]triphosphate or AMP, hydrolysis of the phosphoanhydride bond of ATP seems not to be necessary for the activation process of the proteasome complex, a conclusion drawn from the findings that ATP analogues such as adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate, adenosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, adenosine 5'-O-[beta-thio]-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-[alpha,beta-methylene]triphosphate give the same effect as ATP, and vanadate does not prevent ATP activation. These effects are independent of the presence of Mg2+. Thus, ATP and other nucleotides may act as allosteric activators of peptide-hydrolysing activities of the 26 S proteasome complex as has also been found with the lon protease from Escherichia coli. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7619056

  20. Glomerular lesions induced in the rabbit by physicochemically altered homologous IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalot, F.; Miyata, M.; Vladutiu, A.; Terranova, V.; Dubiski, S.; Burlingame, R.; Tan, E.; Brentjens, J.; Milgrom, F.; Andres, G.

    1992-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous or even autologous IgG induces formation of antibodies combining with IgG of rabbit and of foreign species. Cardiac but not renal lesions were reported in such animals. This study examined the nephritogenic potential of the immune response to cationized or heat-aggregated homologous IgG of b9 or b4 allotype in rabbits of the b4 allotype. Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 cationized IgG produced antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and with histones; they also developed abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 corresponding to alterations of the glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 aggregated IgG developed antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 in the GBM and in the mesangium with subendothelial and mesangial electron-dense deposits. Some rabbits in both groups had proliferative and exudative glomerulonephritis and proteinuria. The results showed that immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous IgG induces an immune response to rabbit and human IgG and to histones as well as glomerular deposits of autologous IgG and C3 and other glomerular lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 PMID:1546743

  1. Immediate breast reconstruction-impact on radiation management.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Ravi A.; Nibhanupudy, J. Rao; Sridhar, Rajagopalan; Ashton, Cori; Goldson, Alfred L.

    2003-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is an option for women undergoing modified radical mastectomy due to a diagnosis of breast cancer. In certain patients, breast reconstruction is performed by insertion of a temporary tissue expander prior to the placement of permanent breast implants. Some of these patients, following mastectomy, may require chest wall irradiation to prevent loco regional relapse. The compatibility of radiation and tissue expanders placed in the chest wall is of major concern to the radiation oncologist. Clinically undetectable changes can occur in the tissue expander during the course of radiation therapy. This can lead to radiation treatment set-up changes, variation in tissue expansion resulting in unwanted cosmesis, and deviation from the prescribed radiation dose leading to over and/or under dosing of tumor burden. At Howard University hospital, a CT scan was utilized to evaluate the status of the temporary tissue expander during radiation treatment to enable us to prevent radiation treatment related complications resulting from dosimetric discrepancies. CT images of the tissue expander were obtained through the course of treatment. To avoid a 'geographic miss' the amount of fluid injected into the tissue expander was kept constant following patient's satisfaction with the size of the breast mound. The CT scans allowed better visualization of the prosthesis and its relation to the surrounding tumor bed. This technique ensured that anatomical changes occurring during radiation treatment, if any, were minimized. Repeated dosimetry evaluations showed no changes to the prescribed dose distribution. A CT of the reconstructed breast provides an important quality control. Further studies with greater number of patients are required for confirming this impact on radiation treatment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:12749619

  2. Islet amyloid polypeptide in proliferating pancreatic B cells during development, hyperplasia, and neoplasia in humans and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rindi, G.; Terenghi, G.; Westermark, G.; Westermark, P.; Moscoso, G.; Polak, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The occurrence of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) immunoreactivity was investigated in fetal pancreas, islet cell hyperplasia, and tumors in humans and mice. Transgenic mice heritably developing endocrine tumors of the pancreas (AVP/SV40, Rip 1 Tag2/Rip2PyST1 and Glu2-Tag strains) were used as murine models of islet cells proliferative disease. In the mouse, IAPP immunoreactivity was found in B cells at embryonic day 12 (E12), paralleling the onset of insulin immunoreactivity. In hyperplastic/dysplastic islets and in B-cell tumors of transgenic mice (n = 16), IAPP immunoreactivity was localized consistently to insulin-immunoreactive cells. Ultrastructural single- and double-immunogold labeling of transgenic mice B-cell tumors (n = 3) showed insulin and IAPP to be colocalized in beta granules. In human fetuses, IAPP immunoreactivity was found in insulin-immunoreactive B cells, but at a later gestational age than the onset of insulin immunoreactivity. In pancreatic specimens of infantile/neonatal persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (11 cases) and in pancreatic endocrine tumors (21 cases, 10 of which were functioning insulinomas), IAPP immunoreactivity was found consistently in insulin-immunoreactive B cells. Congo-red-positive amyloid deposits present in tumors also were IAPP immunoreactive. Ultrastructural single and double immunogold labeling of infantile/neonatal persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia cases (n = 3) and functioning insulinomas (n = 2) showed IAPP and insulin to be colocalized in beta granules. In addition, IAPP immunoreactivity was observed in amyloidlike fibrils. These findings indicate that IAPP is a constitutive component of B cells. Possible relationships between IAPP and insulin expression and interspecies differences are suggested and discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1647136

  3. Expression of precursor and mature carnitine palmitoyltransferase II in Escherichia coli and in vitro: differential behaviour of rat and human isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, N F; Sen, A; Soltis, D A; Jones, B; Foster, D W; McGarry, J D

    1993-01-01

    cDNAs corresponding to the precursor and mature forms of rat carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) were found to be readily expressed in Escherichia coli. In both cases, catalytically active immunoreactive protein was produced and became largely membrane-associated. The precursor form of the enzyme was not proteolytically processed. Removal of 126 bp from the 5' end of the cDNA coding region allowed expression of a truncated CPT II (lacking the N-terminal 17 residues of the mature protein), but this product was inactive. cDNAs encoding the precursor and mature forms of human CPT II resisted direct expression in E. coli. However, the impediment was overcome when the latter cDNA was ligated in-frame 3' to sequence encoding a glutathione S-transferase. This construct yielded abundant quantities of the corresponding fusion protein, a portion of which was soluble and catalytically active. In vitro transcription and translation of the various cDNAs established that the lower mobility on SDS/PAGE of rat CPT II compared with its human counterpart (despite their identical numbers of amino acids) is an intrinsic property of the primary sequences of the proteins themselves. Also, the human cDNA was found to contain an artifactual termination signal for T3 RNA polymerase that could be bypassed by the T7 polymerase. Thus rat CPT II can be expressed in active form in E. coli with characteristics similar to those of the enzyme in mitochondria, opening the way to future location of active sites within the molecule. An alternative expression system will be needed for similar studies on human CPT II. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8363589

  4. Expression of the human nephron differentiation molecules in renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Droz, D.; Zachar, D.; Charbit, L.; Gogusev, J.; Chrétein, Y.; Iris, L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors tested frozen sections from 28 renal cell carcinomas (RCC)--21 clear, 1 eosinophilic, 4 basophilic, and 2 spindle-shaped cell type--with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) reacting against cytokeratin, vimentin, CD24, CALLA/CD10, villin, CD26, and HLA class I and class II molecules. These molecules are markers of specific segments of the mature kidney, and their loss or acquisition reflects the different steps of human nephrogenesis. KI67 MAb was used to evaluate cell-proliferating activity. All RCC cases expressed cytokeratin. Coexpression of vimentin was observed in 21 of 28 cases. Whether of clear or chromophilic type, all tumoral cells strongly expressed CD24 molecule, present on primitive blastema cells. All clear-type RCCs expressed CALLA/CD10 and 60% were also villin positive; some were faintly positive for CD26. CALLA, villin, and CD26 were not detected in basophilic cell type. HLA class I molecules were variably expressed in almost all cases, but HLA class II were never detected on tumoral cells. Except for the spindle-shaped population, cell-proliferating activity was low. These results favor the hypothesis that RCCs derive from cells that have 'recovered' the different options of metanephric differentiation. Clear cells show evidence of maturation toward proximal type, while basophilic cells do not. It would be of interest to evaluate the usefulness of serum measurements of villin and/or CALLA as markers in clear cell-type RCC. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1699423

  5. How Chlamydomonas keeps track of the light once it has reached the right phototactic orientation.

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, K; David, R; Uhl, R

    1997-01-01

    By using a real-time assay that allows measurement of the phototactic orientation of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas with millisecond time resolution, it can be shown that single photons not only induce transient direction changes but that fluence rates as low as 1 photon cell(-1) s(-1) can already lead to a persistent orientation. Orientation is a binary variable, i.e., in a partially oriented population some organisms are fully oriented while the rest are still at random. Action spectra reveal that the response to a pulsed stimulus follows the Dartnall-nomogram for a rhodopsin while the response to a persistent stimulus falls off more rapidly toward the red end of the spectrum. Thus light of 540 nm, for which chlamy-rhodopsin is equally sensitive as for 440-nm light, induces no measurable persistent orientation while 440-nm light does. A model is presented which explains not only this behavior, but also how Chlamydomonas can track the light direction and switches between a positive and negative phototaxis. According to the model the ability to detect the direction of light, to make the right turn and to stay oriented, is a direct consequence of the helical path of the organism, the orientation of its eyespot relative to the helix-axis, and the special shielding properties of eyespot and cell body. The model places particular emphasis on the fact that prolonged swimming into the correct direction not only requires making a correct turn initially, but also avoiding further turns once the right direction has been reached. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:9284323

  6. Smooth muscle and skeletal muscle myosins produce similar unitary forces and displacements in the laser trap.

    PubMed Central

    Guilford, W H; Dupuis, D E; Kennedy, G; Wu, J; Patlak, J B; Warshaw, D M

    1997-01-01

    Purified smooth muscle myosin in the in vitro motility assay propels actin filaments at 1/10 the velocity, yet produces 3-4 times more force than skeletal muscle myosin. At the level of a single myosin molecule, these differences in force and actin filament velocity may be reflected in the size and duration of single motion and force-generating events, or in the kinetics of the cross-bridge cycle. Specifically, an increase in either unitary force or duty cycle may explain the enhanced force-generating capacity of smooth muscle myosin. Similarly, an increase in attached time or decrease in unitary displacement may explain the reduced actin filament velocity of smooth muscle myosin. To discriminate between these possibilities, we used a laser trap to measure unitary forces and displacements from single smooth and skeletal muscle myosin molecules. We analyzed our data using mean-variance analysis, which does not rely on scoring individual events by eye, and emphasizes periods in the data with constant properties. Both myosins demonstrated multiple but similar event populations with discrete peaks at approximately +11 and -11 nm in displacement, and 1.5 and 3.5 pN in force. Mean attached times for smooth muscle myosin were longer than for skeletal-muscle myosin. These results explain much of the difference in actin filament velocity between these myosins, and suggest that an increased duty cycle is responsible for the enhanced force-generating capacity of smooth over skeletal-muscle myosin. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:9138552

  7. Examination of the thoracic cavity and lung lobectomy by means of thoracoscopy in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    García, F; Prandi, D; Peña, T; Franch, J; Trasserra, O; de la Fuente, J

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of thoracoscopy for viewing the chest cavity and performing pulmonary lobectomy was assessed in 8 mongrel dogs. Previously, selective intubation had been performed in another group of dogs (n = 8) in order to monitor respiratory physiology and assess its safety. Each hemithorax was intubated using a double-barrelled endotracheal tube with one barrel placed in the left main bronchus and the other in the bifurcation of the trachea. The thoracoscope was introduced through a cannula inserted through a 2-cm incision at the ventral third of the left 5th intercostal space. The cranial, dorsal, and caudal surfaces of the pleura, lobes of the left lung, and the mediastinum were examined. A 2nd cannula was located in the dorsal 3rd of the 5th intercostal space with a prior incision and used for the introduction of forceps to separate the viscera. To biopsy, a 3rd cannula was inserted at the dorsal third of the 8th intercostal space with a prior incision, through which a 12-mm diameter stapler was introduced. Should a lobectomy be necessary, a 4th cannula is located in the middle third of the 4th intercostal space. Excision of the left caudal pulmonary lobe was performed through the incision made for the 12-mm diameter cannula (8th intercostal space); a twisting movement facilitated removal. Thoracoscopy is a procedure that can be used in dogs and is particularly suitable for examination, collection of biopsy specimens, and even lung lobectomies. Images Figure 2.1. Figure 2.2. Figure 2.3. Figure 2.4. Figure 2.5. Figure 2.6. Figure 2.7. Figure 2.8. PMID:9592615

  8. Estrogenic activity assessment of environmental chemicals using in vitro assays: identification of two new estrogenic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Lascombe, I; Beffa, D; Rüegg, U; Tarradellas, J; Wahli, W

    2000-01-01

    Environmental chemicals with estrogenic activities have been suggested to be associated with deleterious effects in animals and humans. To characterize estrogenic chemicals and their mechanisms of action, we established in vitro and cell culture assays that detect human estrogen receptor [alpha] (hER[alpha])-mediated estrogenicity. First, we assayed chemicals to determine their ability to modulate direct interaction between the hER[alpha] and the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and in a competition binding assay to displace 17ss-estradiol (E(2)). Second, we tested the chemicals for estrogen-associated transcriptional activity in the yeast estrogen screen and in the estrogen-responsive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The chemicals investigated in this study were o,p'-DDT (racemic mixture and enantiomers), nonylphenol mixture (NPm), and two poorly analyzed compounds in the environment, namely, tris-4-(chlorophenyl)methane (Tris-H) and tris-4-(chlorophenyl)methanol (Tris-OH). In both yeast and MCF-7 cells, we determined estrogenic activity via the estrogen receptor (ER) for o,p'-DDT, NPm, and for the very first time, Tris-H and Tris-OH. However, unlike estrogens, none of these xenobiotics seemed to be able to induce ER/SRC-1 interactions, most likely because the conformation of the activated receptor would not allow direct contacts with this coactivator. However, these compounds were able to inhibit [(3)H]-E(2) binding to hER, which reveals a direct interaction with the receptor. In conclusion, the test compounds are estrogen mimics, but their molecular mechanism of action appears to be different from that of the natural hormone as revealed by the receptor/coactivator interaction analysis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:10903615

  9. Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

  10. Meta-stability of the hemifusion intermediate induced by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored influenza hemagglutinin.

    PubMed Central

    Nüssler, F; Clague, M J; Herrmann, A

    1997-01-01

    Fusion between influenza virus and target membranes is mediated by the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). Replacement of the transmembrane domain of HA with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor allows lipid mixing but not the establishment of cytoplasmic continuity. This observation led to the proposal that the fusion mechanism passes through an intermediate stage corresponding to hemifusion between outer monolayers. We have used confocal fluorescence microscopy to study the movement of probes for specific bilayer leaflets of erythrocytes fusing with HA-expressing cells. N-Rh-PE and NBD-PC were used for specific labeling of the outer and inner membrane leaflet, respectively. In the case of GPI-HA-induced fusion, different behaviors of lipid transfer were observed, which include 1) exclusive movement of N-Rh-PE (hemifusion), 2) preferential movement of N-Rh-PE relative to NBD-PC, and 3) equal movement of both lipid analogs. The relative population of these intermediate states was dependent on the time after application of a low pH trigger for fusion. At early time points, hemifusion was more common and full redistribution of both bilayers was rare, whereas later full redistribution of both probes was frequently observed. In contrast to wild-type HA, the latter was not accompanied by mixing of the cytoplasmic marker Lucifer Yellow. We conclude that 1) the GPI-HA-mediated hemifusion intermediate is meta-stable and 2) expansion of an aqueous fusion pore requires the transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic domain of HA. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:9370425

  11. Ultrastructural, Cytochemical, and Radioautographic Localization of Placental Iron

    PubMed Central

    Parmley, Richard T.; Barton, James C.; Conrad, Marcel E.

    1981-01-01

    , endothelial cell junctions, and cytoplasm. ImagesFigure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 1 and 2Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:7294155

  12. Expression of thrombospondins by endothelial cells. Injury is correlated with TSP-1.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, M. J.; Iruela-Arispe, L.; O'Brien, E. R.; Truong, T.; LaBell, T.; Bornstein, P.; Sage, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    The thrombospondins (TSP-1, -2, and -3) comprise a family of proteins that are homologous at the carboxy terminus but have unique sequences at the amino terminus that might be correlated with the regulation of cell behavior. To investigate the expression of TSP-1, -2, and -3 in endothelial cells, we examined developing murine blood vessels and human atherosclerotic plaques by in situ hybridization. The expression of TSP-1 was also characterized in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Expression of TSP-2 was seen in the dorsal aorta as early as embryonic day 10; TSP-1 was not detected in endothelial cells until later stages, and TSP-3 was not apparent in the vasculature. In atherosclerotic specimens, TSP-1 mRNA was detected in many intraplaque microvessels and in the endothelium lining the atheromatous plaque; TSP-2 was absent from these regions. Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells did not transcribe TSP-2 mRNA at detectable levels. There were high steady-state levels of TSP-1 mRNA in subconfluent bovine aortic endothelial cells before confluence and at the wound edge after injury of the cell monolayer, with maximal expression of TSP-1 in cultures at a time during which approximately 35% of the cells were in S phase. As the majority of these cells subsequently undergo mitosis, these data are consistent with TSP-1 as an inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation that functions in G1. These results support the conclusion that, despite sequence homology, the TSPs have distinct functions in vascular biology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7573352

  13. Canine cutaneous epitheliotropic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) is a proliferative disorder of CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P. F.; Olivry, T.; Naydan, D.

    1994-01-01

    Canine epitheliotropic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides [MF]) is a spontaneous neoplasm of skin and mucous membranes that occurs in old dogs (mean age 11 years) and has no breed predilection. The lesions evolve from a patch-plaque stage with prominent epitheliotropism into a tumor stage in which distant metastasis is observed. Unlike human MF, epitheliotropism of the lymphoid infiltrate is still prominent in tumor stage lesions. Tropism of the lymphoid infiltrate for adnexal structures, especially hair follicles and apocrine sweat glands, was marked in all clinical stages of canine MF. Twenty-three cases of MF were subjected to extensive immunophenotypic analysis in which reagents specific for canine leukocyte antigens and fresh frozen tissue sections of the canine lesions were used. Canine MF proved to be a T cell lymphoma in which the epitheliotropic lymphocytes consistently expressed CD3 (22 cases) and CD8 (19 cases); CD3+CD4-CD8- lymphocytes predominated in the remaining 4 cases. In this regard, canine MF clearly differed from human MF in which a CD4 immunophenotype predominates in the T cell infiltrate. Lack of expression of CD45RA by epitheliotropic T cells and intense expression of a beta 1 integrin (VLA-4-like) suggested that T cells in canine MF belonged to the memory subpopulation, as has been suggested for T cells in human MF. Pan-T cell antigen loss or discordant expression also proved useful as phenotypic indicators of neoplasia in canine MF. Loss of CD5 was observed in epitheliotropic T cells in 63% of cases. Discordance of neoplastic T cell Thy-1 expression was frequently observed between epithelial and dermal or submucosal compartments. We conclude that canine MF still represents a useful spontaneous animal disease model of human cutaneous T cell lymphoma, despite the immunophenotypic differences, which may reflect operational differences between human and canine skin-associated lymphoid tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure

  14. Pathophysiology of the thalassemias. The Albion Walter Hewlett Award presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, S L

    1997-01-01

    The Albion Walter Hewlett Award (named for Professor of Medicine and Chair of the Stanford Department of Medicine 1916-1925) recognizes a role model, accomplished in discovery of the biological sciences and at the same time a consummate and compassionate physician. In introductory remarks, Dr. Stanley L. Schrier, Professor of Medicine (Hematology), the tenth recipient of the Award, indicated that the person so identified is no longer a viable model in academic medicine. The loss of this sort of person is serious because this appropriately trained physician-investigator was uniquely positioned to study pathophysiology, defined as the processes by which disordered biology produces disease. He used his own studies on the clinical manifestations of the thalassemias to clarify what he meant by pathophysiology. Thus he and his colleagues first defined membrane material properties of alpha and beta thalassemic RBC membranes and the states of hydration of alpha and beta thalassemic RBC and found them to be strikingly divergent. The biochemical counterparts of these alterations proved to be the accumulation of the excess unmatched partially oxidized globin chains on the membrane skeleton. In vitro studies with chemical oxidants selectively oxidized alpha and beta globin chains which then attached to the RBC membrane skeleton and reproduced the membrane material properties characteristic of beta and alpha thalassemia respectively. Many of these alterations had occurred prior to the reticulocyte stage so that pursuit of pathophysiology shifted to studies of marrow erythroid precursors, and it was shown that in beta thalassemia major there was accelerated programmed cell death as well as defective assembly of the membrane skeleton. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9291745

  15. Evidence of cardiocyte apoptosis in myocardium of dogs with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, V. G.; Sabbah, H. N.; Shimoyama, H.; Goussev, A. V.; Lesch, M.; Goldstein, S.

    1996-01-01

    It is often speculated that progressive deterioration of left ventricular function in heart failure is due to ongoing loss of viable cardiocytes. In this study, we examined the possibility that cardiocyte loss in heart failure may be due, in part, to apoptosis, an active process of gene-directed cellular self-destruction. Studies were performed in left ventricular tissue obtained from 10 dogs with chronic heart failure produced by multiple intracoronary microembolizations (left ventricular ejection fraction 27 +/- 1%) and from 5 normal dogs. Evidence for cardiocyte apoptosis was based on transmission electron microscopy criteria and on in situ immunohistochemical labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation. There was no evidence of apoptotic cardiocytes in normal dogs. Features of cardiocyte apoptosis were observed in dogs with heart failure primarily in regions bordering old infarcts. Electron microscopic features of cardiocyte apoptosis included (1) intact sarcolemma and inner organelles in the presence of compaction and segregation of nuclear chromatin into sharply delineated masses that about the nuclear envelope, (2) intact sarcolemma in the presence of cytoplasm shrinkage, blebbing, and nuclear fragmentation, and (3) intact sarcolemma in the presence of complete disorganization of inner organelles and disappearance of nucleolemma. A count of all of the apoptotic bodies positively labeled for nuclear DNA fragments showed that 11% were of cardiocyte origin confirmed by positive labeling with striated muscle antimyosin antibody. We conclude that morphological and biochemical features of cardiocyte apoptosis exist in the left ventricular myocardium of dogs with chronic heart failure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8546201

  16. Virtual reality applied to hepatic surgery simulation: the next revolution.

    PubMed Central

    Marescaux, J; Clément, J M; Tassetti, V; Koehl, C; Cotin, S; Russier, Y; Mutter, D; Delingette, H; Ayache, N

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article describes a preliminary work on virtual reality applied to liver surgery and discusses the repercussions of assisted surgical strategy and surgical simulation on tomorrow's surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Liver surgery is considered difficult because of the complexity and variability of the organ. Common generic tools for presurgical medical image visualization do not fulfill the requirements for the liver, restricting comprehension of a patient's specific liver anatomy. METHODS: Using data from the National Library of Medicine, a realistic three-dimensional image was created, including the envelope and the four internal arborescences. A computer interface was developed to manipulate the organ and to define surgical resection planes according to internal anatomy. The first step of surgical simulation was implemented, providing the organ with real-time deformation computation. RESULTS: The three-dimensional anatomy of the liver could be clearly visualized. The virtual organ could be manipulated and a resection defined depending on the anatomic relations between the arborescences, the tumor, and the external envelope. The resulting parts could also be visualized and manipulated. The simulation allowed the deformation of a liver model in real time by means of a realistic laparoscopic tool. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional visualization of the organ in relation to the pathology is of great help to appreciate the complex anatomy of the liver. Using virtual reality concepts (navigation, interaction, and immersion), surgical planning, training, and teaching for this complex surgical procedure may be possible. The ability to practice a given gesture repeatedly will revolutionize surgical training, and the combination of surgical planning and simulation will improve the efficiency of intervention, leading to optimal care delivery. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9833800

  17. Multiparameter digitized video microscopy of toxic and hypoxic injury in single cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lemasters, J J; Gores, G J; Nieminen, A L; Dawson, T L; Wray, B E; Herman, B

    1990-01-01

    There is no clear picture of the critical events that lead to the transition from reversible to irreversible injury. Many studies have suggested that a rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ initiates plasma membrane bleb formation and a sequence of events that lead ultimately to cell death. In recent studies, we have measured changes in cytosolic free Ca2+, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic pH, and cell surface blebbing in relation to the onset of irreversible injury and cell death following anoxic and toxic injury to single hepatocytes by using multiparameter digitized video microscopy (MDVM). MDVM is an emerging new technology that permits single living cells to be labeled with multiple probes whose fluorescence is responsive to specific cellular parameters of interest. Fluorescence images specific for each probe are collected over time, digitized, and stored. Image analysis and processing then permits quantitation of the spatial distribution of the various parameters with the single living cells. Our results indicate the following: The formation of plasma membrane blebs accompanies all types of injury in hepatocytes. Cell death is a rapid event initiated by rupture of a plasma membrane bleb, and it is coincident with the onset of irreversible injury. An increase of cytosolic free Ca2+ is not the stimulus for bleb formation or the final common pathway leading to cell death. A decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential precedes the loss of cell viability. Cytosolic pH falls by more than 1 pH unit during chemical hypoxia. This acidosis protects against the onset of cell death. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 15. PMID:2190822

  18. Electron diffraction studies of molecular ordering and orientation in phospholipid monolayer domains.

    PubMed Central

    Hui, S W; Yu, H

    1993-01-01

    The molecular order and orientation of phase separated domains in monolayers of DP(Me)PE and DP(Me)2PE were determined by electron diffraction. Dark and bright fluorescent domains at the air-water interface were observed by fluorescence microscopy. The monolayers were transferred to Formvar coated electron microscope grids for electron diffraction studies. The positions of domains on the marker grids were recorded in fluorescence micrographs, which were used as guide maps to locate these domains in the electron microscope. Selected area electron diffraction patterns were obtained from predetermined areas within and outside the dark domains. Sharp hexagonal diffraction patterns were recorded from dark domains, and diffuse diffraction rings from bright areas in between dark domains. The diffraction results indicated that the dark domains and bright areas were comprised of lipid molecules in solid and fluid states, respectively. The orientation of diffraction patterns from adjacent locations within a dark domains changed gradually, indicating a continuous bending of the molecular packing lattice vector within these domains. Orientation directors in U-shaped DP(Me)2PE domains followed the turn of the arm; no vortex nor branching was indicated by electron diffraction. Directors branching from the "stem" of highly invaginated DP(Me)PE domains usually occurred at twinning angles of n pi/3 from the stem director, which would minimize packing defects in the development of thinner branches. Electron diffraction from local areas of individual domains proved that dark fluorescent domains were solid ones, and that pseudo-long range order existed in these solid domains. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8431539

  19. Quantitative spatially resolved measurements of mass transfer through laryngeal cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J V; O'Hare, D; Unwin, P R; Winlove, C P

    1997-01-01

    The scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) is a scanned probe microscope that uses the response of a mobile ultramicroelectrode (UME) tip to determine the reactivity, topography, and mass transport characteristics of interfaces with high spatial resolution. SECM strategies for measuring the rates of solute diffusion and convection through samples of cartilage, using amperometric UMEs, are outlined. The methods are used to determine the diffusion coefficients of oxygen and ruthenium(III) hexamine [Ru(NH3)6(3+)] in laryngeal cartilage. The diffusion coefficient of oxygen in cartilage is found to be approximately 50% of that in aqueous electrolyte solution, assuming a partition coefficient of unity for oxygen between cartilage and aqueous solution. In contrast, diffusion of Ru(NH3)6(3+) within the cartilage sample cannot be detected on the SECM timescale, suggesting a diffusion coefficient at least two orders of magnitude lower than that in solution, given a measured partition coefficient for Ru(NH3)6(3+) between cartilage and aqueous solution, Kp = [Ru(NH3)6(3+)]cartilage/[RU(NH3)6(3+)]solution = 3.4 +/- 0.1. Rates of Ru(NH3)6(3+) osmotically driven convective transport across cartilage samples are imaged at high spatial resolution by monitoring the current response of a scanning UME, with an osmotic pressure of approximately 0.75 atm across the slice. A model is outlined that enables the current response to be related to the local flux. By determining the topography of the sample from the current response with no applied osmotic pressure, local transport rates can be correlated with topographical features of the sample surface, at much higher spatial resolution than has previously been achieved. Images FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:9370471

  20. Retrospective on community dentistry and public health at the University of Southern California (1966-1976), Part 2.

    PubMed Central

    Dummett, C. O.

    1998-01-01

    The authorization of departments of community dentistry and public health in the nation's dental schools is a relatively recent innovation in dental education. Such a department was established at the University of Southern California School of Dentistry in 1966, as part of the School of Medicine's effort to share responsibility in providing both access and availability of health services in inner-city Los Angeles, California. Dentistry was included in the protocol submitted to the US Office of Economic Opportunity to build a neighborhood health center in Watts, operated under the joint jurisdiction of the medical and dental schools. The dental division of the health center was designated a satellite of the community dentistry department. The department envisioned future changes during the revolutionary 1960s when all aspects of the nation were experiencing upheaval as traditional concepts were challenged by new attitudes. The nation's leaders in government and education as well as in the health professions were stimulated by scientific and technologic discoveries. Dentistry had come of age, having gained the respect of other health-care disciplines. It was a time of expanded exploration of means toward a healthier populace and a more sensitive ethical provider of health care. In one decade, the USC community dentistry department accomplished a major shift in attitude about the specialty from one of pervasive opposition and antipathy to that of acceptance and even enthusiasm. The department became competitive with similar units nationwide in educating dental students and practitioners to fulfill their responsibilities at the highest level of proficiency and to be true to the trust bestowed on them by the public. In pursuit of these goals, the department reflected credit on dentistry and the University of Southern California. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9617072

  1. Induction of cell death by stimulation of protein kinase C in human epithelial cells expressing a mutant ras oncogene: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Jackson, C. A.; Jones, T.; Eccles, N. G.; Dawson, T. P.; Bond, J. A.; Gescher, A.; Wynford-Thomas, D.

    1998-01-01

    Ras oncogene activation is a key genetic event in several types of human cancer, making its signal pathways an ideal target for novel therapies. We previously showed that expression of mutant ras sensitizes human thyroid epithelial cells to induction of cell death by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and other phorbol esters. We have now investigated further the nature and mechanism of this cell death using both primary and cell line models. The cytotoxic effect of PMA could be blocked by bisindolylmaleimide (GF 109203X), a well-characterized inhibitor of c and n protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, and by prior down-regulation of PKC, indicating that it is mediated by acute stimulation, rather than down-regulation. Western analysis identified two candidate isoforms--alpha and epsilon--both of which showed PMA-induced subcellular translocation, either or both of which may be necessary for PMA-induced cell death. Immunofluorescence showed that PMA induced a rapid nuclear translocation of p42 MAP kinase of similar magnitude in the presence or absence of mutant ras expression. Cell death exhibited the microscopic features (chromatin condensation, TdT labelling) and DNA fragmentation typical of apoptosis but after a surprising lag (4 days). Taken together with recent models of ras-modulated apoptosis, our data suggest that activation of the MAPK pathway by PMA tips the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic signals generated by ras in favour of apoptosis. The high frequency of ras mutations in some cancers, such as cancer of the pancreas, which are refractory to conventional chemotherapy, together with the potential for stimulating PKC by cell-permeant pharmacological agents, makes this an attractive therapeutic approach. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:9744505

  2. Establishment of two new scirrhous gastric cancer cell lines: analysis of factors associated with disseminated metastasis.

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, M.; Chung, Y. S.; Nishimura, S.; Inoue, T.; Sowa, M.

    1995-01-01

    Determination of the differences between cell lines which are derived from a primary tumour and a disseminated metastatic lesion from the same patient may aid in elucidating the factors associated with disseminated metastases. We report on the establishment and characterisation of two new scirrhous gastric cancer cell lines, designated OCUM-2M and OCUM-2D, derived from a 49-year-old female. OCUM-2M was derived from a primary gastric tumour, and OCUM-2D was derived from a sample of disseminated metastasis. The two cell lines were derived from the same patient. We investigated biological differences between the two cell lines to study mechanisms involved in disseminated metastasis. The growth activity of OCUM-2D cells as determined by doubling time and tumorigenicity was greater than that of OCUM-2M cells. The level of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in OCUM-2D cells was about twice that of OCUM-2M cells and the growth of OCUM-2D cells was stimulated more by epidermal growth factor (EGF) than that of OCUM-2M cells. The invasive activity of OCUM-2D cells was higher than that of OCUM-2M cells and was increased after addition of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). An increase in the number of attached and spreading cells was found following the addition of 10 ng ml-1 TGF-beta 1. These findings suggest that high growth and invasive activity may play an important role in disseminated metastasis and that EGF and TGF-beta 1, which affect the growth and invasive activity of OCUM-2D cells, might be factors associated with metastasis in scirrhous gastric carcinoma. The two cell lines OCUM-2M and OCUM-2D should be beneficial for analysing mechanisms of tumour progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 10 PMID:7577468

  3. Genetic predisposition and parameters of malignant progression in K14-HPV16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Coussens, L. M.; Hanahan, D.; Arbeit, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Reproducible multi-stage progression to invasive squamous carcinoma of the epidermis has been achieved in transgenic mice expressing the HPV16 early-region genes, including the E6/E7 oncogenes, under the control of the human keratin-14 promoter/enhancer. Although 100% of K14-HPV16 transgenic animals develop hyperplastic and/or dysplastic lesions in several inbred backgrounds, including C57BL/6, BALB/c, and SSIN/SENCAR, only mice backcrossed into the FVB/n background progress to malignant squamous cell carcinomas of two pathological grades, well differentiated and moderate/poorly differentiated (WDSC or MPDSC, respectively), each displaying characteristic patterns of malignant behavior. WDSCs typically arise within the epidermis of the ear and invade deeply into the underlying dermis but fail to metastasize, whereas MPDSCs develop on the chest and truncal skin and invariably metastasize to regional lymph nodes. The transition to the malignant state, in 21% of FVB/n transgenic mice, is characterized by alteration of the repertoire of keratin intermediate filament proteins expressed within neoplastic epidermis, such that WDSCs maintain expression of keratins common to terminally differentiating stratified keratinocytes (K10), whereas MPDSCs are distinguished from WDSCs by activation of embryonic and mucosal keratins (K13, K8, and K19). Precursor hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions are characterized by a progressively increased proliferative index, striking morphological alterations in keratinocyte cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and extensive remodeling of the underlying dermal stroma. Remarkably, this extensive stromal remodeling, which may facilitate both angiogenesis and eventual tumor cell invasion, develops early at the dysplastic stage in all animals well before malignant conversion. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8952526

  4. Identification of differentially expressed genes in rat aortic allograft vasculopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Myllärniemi, M.; Akyürek, L. M.; Häyry, P.; Marsden, P. A.; Paul, L. C.

    1996-01-01

    the graft vessel wall and dispersed in the intima, media, and adventitia. The question remains as to which of these genes are critically relevant in the pathogenesis of graft vasculopathy and whether they serve as targets for therapeutic interventions. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8701998

  5. A unique phenotype of skin-associated lymphocytes in humans. Preferential expression of the HECA-452 epitope by benign and malignant T cells at cutaneous sites.

    PubMed Central

    Picker, L. J.; Michie, S. A.; Rott, L. S.; Butcher, E. C.

    1990-01-01

    lymphocytes, the preferential expression of the HECA-452 determinant by cutaneous T cells supports the hypothesis that the skin constitutes a immunologically unique lymphoid tissue and suggests that this molecule may play a role in either lymphocyte homing to skin or in lymphocyte interactions with the epidermis. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:1693467

  6. Pattern formation in icosahedral virus capsids: the papova viruses and Nudaurelia capensis beta virus.

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, C J; Day, L A

    1993-01-01

    give the T = 4 pattern of Nudaurelia capensis beta virus. In all cases examined so far, the MU orientations are correctly found. Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:8312492

  7. An age-specific kinetic model of lead metabolism in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, R W

    1993-01-01

    with data on human subjects exposed to lead under a variety of experimental and natural conditions. Images p598-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. A Figure 7. B Figure 7. D Figure 7. E Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 10. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 11. Figure 12. p613-a PMID:8143593

  8. Changes in the spectral properties of a plasma membrane lipid analog during the first seconds of endocytosis in living cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C S; Martin, O C; Pagano, R E

    1997-01-01

    receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that the spectral properties of C5-DMB-SM can be used to distinguish unique populations of early endosomes from one another and to record dynamic changes in their number and distribution within living cells. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:8994591

  9. Mesenchymal cell activation is the rate-limiting step of granulation tissue induction.

    PubMed Central

    McClain, S. A.; Simon, M.; Jones, E.; Nandi, A.; Gailit, J. O.; Tonnesen, M. G.; Newman, D.; Clark, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    control wounds. Thus, fibroblast activation is a limiting step of granulation tissue formation, and continued cell stimulation is required for accelerated development. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8863674

  10. Early accumulation of heparan sulfate in neurons and in the beta-amyloid protein-containing lesions of Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Snow, A. D.; Mar, H.; Nochlin, D.; Sekiguchi, R. T.; Kimata, K.; Koike, Y.; Wight, T. N.

    1990-01-01

    indicates a possible interaction between these two macromolecules that may be important in lesion development in these two diseases. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 2 Figure 7 Figure 5 Figure 3 PMID:2146882

  11. Vision in albinism.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, C G

    1996-01-01

    acuity (P < .01). III. Mean recognition acuity in patients with albinism and melanin pigment in their maculas (20/47) was significantly better than measured recognition acuity in Project I (P < .001). All had foveal hypoplasia, but 8 patients had an incompletely developed annular reflex in the macula, 6 patients showed stereoacuity, and 3 patients had no nystagmus. CONCLUSIONS: I. Grating acuity development in albinism seems to progress along a curve that is asymptotic to visual development in a normal population. II. Increasing illumination does not reduce grating acuity in patients with albinism. Grating acuity overestimates recognition acuity in these patients. III. Ophthalmoscopic detection of melanin pigment in the macula in patients with albinism is associated with better vision. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10A FIGURE 10B FIGURE 13A FIGURE 13B PMID:8981720

  12. Immunocytochemical and biochemical characterization of the Heymann nephritis antigenic complex in rat L2 yolk sac cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, M.; Orlando, R. A.; Saedi, M. S.; Woodward, L.; Kurihara, H.; Farquhar, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    into the Heymann nephritis antigenic complex are similar in both L2 cells and rat kidney. They also provide new information on the intracellular processing of these two molecules and their delivery to the cell surface. Thus, the L2 cell system should facilitate further characterization of the functions and interactions of gp330 and RAP, which may shed light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Heymann nephritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8238258

  13. Distribution and origin of the basement membrane component perlecan in rat liver and primary hepatocyte culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rescan, P. Y.; Loréal, O.; Hassell, J. R.; Yamada, Y.; Guillouzo, A.; Clément, B.

    1993-01-01

    vitro attachment assay of hepatocytes on purified perlecan substrate indicated that these cells may interact with the proteoglycan through integrins which belong to the beta 1 family. These data suggest that deposition of perlecan in the space of Disse requires cellular cooperation. This article on perlecan, the third major component of hepatic basement membranes, shows a unique cellular origin in the liver and, as found for both collagen IV and laminin, an expression in adult hepatocytes when place in culture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7678718

  14. Taurine protects hamster bronchioles from acute NO2-induced alterations. A histologic, ultrastructural, and freeze-fracture study.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, R. E.; Shaked, A. A.; Solano, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    injury. Taurine may also be effective in preventing lung injury induced by other oxidant gases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 p597-a PMID:3541644

  15. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte migration through human dermal fibroblast monolayers is dependent on both beta 2-integrin (CD11/CD18) and beta 1-integrin (CD29) mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, J X; Issekutz, A C

    1995-01-01

    is virtually all CD18 dependent with no significant role for beta 1-integrins. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7558139

  16. Ovarian angiogenesis. Phenotypic characterization of endothelial cells in a physiological model of blood vessel growth and regression.

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, H. G.; Braun, K.; Telemenakis, I.; Modlich, U.; Kuhn, W.

    1995-01-01

    -galactoside alpha 2,6-sialyltransferase and alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase mRNA expression during the angiogenic stages of CL formation. These data establish the ovarian angiogenesis model as a suitable experimental system to study the functional and phenotypic properties of endothelial cells in sprouting and regressing blood vessels and provide additional evidence for the importance of endothelial cell surface glycoconjugates during angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7543733

  17. Immune adherence in renal glomeruli. Complement receptor sites on glomerular capillary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, P. M.; Oberley, T. D.; Barber, T. A.; Beacom, A.; Koehler, C.

    1977-01-01

    immune-adherence phenomenon in glomeruli of other vertebrate animals suggests among other things that more investigation is necessary before ascribing a unique or universal significance to the C3 receptors identified in human glomeruli. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:842614

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 stimulates glomerular mesangial cell synthesis of the 72-kd type IV collagenase.

    PubMed Central

    Marti, H. P.; Lee, L.; Kashgarian, M.; Lovett, D. H.

    1994-01-01

    role in the extensive glomerular matrix remodeling that accompanies these disorders. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8291614

  19. Identification and quantitation of asbestos in talc

    PubMed Central

    Rohl, Arthur N.; Langer, Arthur M.

    1974-01-01

    homogeneously dispersed particles. Tremolite may be determined at levels as low as 0.10% by weight, chrysotile 0.25%, and anthophyllite at 2.0% by weight occurrence in talc. The variance of these values depends upon many factors, including the mass absorption coefficient of the fiber types as compared to talc and selected diagnostic reflections and their relative intensities. Each of the above techniques is described in detail. A method for routine analysis of consumer talcum products is suggested. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 6.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 8. PMID:4470959

  20. Stimulation by the nucleotides, ATP and UTP of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EAhy 926 endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, A.; McLees, A.; Kennedy, C.; Gould, G. W.; Plevin, R.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have investigated the characteristics of activation of the 42kDa isoform of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in response to various nucleotides in the endothelial cell line EAhy 926. 2. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the concentration range 0.1-100 microM stimulated the rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the 42 kDa isoform of MAP kinase in EAhy 926 endothelial cells which peaked at 2 min and returned to basal values by 60 min. ATP also stimulated a similar response in primary cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. 3. Uridine 5' triphosphate (UTP) also stimulated the 42 kDa isoform of MAP kinase with similar potency to ATP (EC50 values 5.1 +/- 0.2 microM for UTP; 2.9 +/- 0.8 microM for ATP), whilst the selective P2Y-purinoceptor agonist, 2-methylthioATP (2-meSATP) was without effect up to concentrations of 100 microM. In bovine aortic endothelial cells however, UTP and 2-meSATP both stimulated MAP kinase. 4. Pretreatment of cells for 24 h with 12-O tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate resulted in the loss of the alpha and epsilon isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) and virtual abolition of nucleotide-stimulated MAP kinase activity (> 90% inhibition). 5. Preincubation for 30 min with the PKC inhibitor, Ro-31 8220 (10 microM) reduced MAP-kinase activation at 2 min but potentiated the response at 60 min. 6. Removal of extracellular calcium in the presence of EGTA reduced the MAP kinase activation in response to UTP by approximately 30-50%. 7. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (18 h, 50 ng ml-1) did not significantly affect the UTP-mediated activation of pp42 MAP kinase. 8. These results show that in the EAhy 926 endothelial cell line, nucleotides stimulate activation of MAP kinase in a protein kinase C-dependent manner through interaction with a P2U-purinoceptor. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8882634

  1. Analysis of chronic rejection and obliterative arteriopathy. Possible contributions of donor antigen-presenting cells and lymphatic disruption.

    PubMed Central

    Demetris, A. J.; Murase, N.; Ye, Q.; Galvao, F. H.; Richert, C.; Saad, R.; Pham, S.; Duquesnoy, R. J.; Zeevi, A.; Fung, J. J.; Starzl, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    hypothesis that direct presentation of alloantigen by donor antigen-presenting cells is required for long-term, chronic-rejection-free allograft acceptance. In addition, chronic intermittent lymphatic disruption is implicated as a possible mechanism for the association between chronic interstitial allograft inflammation and the development of obliterative arteriopathy. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9033271

  2. Visceral glomerular epithelial cells can proliferate in vivo and synthesize platelet-derived growth factor B-chain.

    PubMed Central

    Floege, J.; Johnson, R. J.; Alpers, C. E.; Fatemi-Nainie, S.; Richardson, C. A.; Gordon, K.; Couser, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8434653

  3. In situ microscopic analysis of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fibers retained in hamster lungs following inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, R A; Antonini, J M; Brismar, H; Lai, J; Hesterberg, T W; Oldmixon, E H; Thevenaz, P; Brain, J D

    1999-01-01

    retention and also fiber lengths and burdens in good agreement with ashing/SEM results. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:10210692

  4. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1203 - Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength 8 Figure 8 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1203 - Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength 8 Figure 8 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1203 - Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength 8 Figure 8 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1203 - Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength 8 Figure 8 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1203 - Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength 8 Figure 8 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633—Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane ER15MR06.007...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633—Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane ER15MR06.007...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633—Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane ER15MR06.007...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633—Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane ER15MR06.007...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 7 Figure...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 7 Figure...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1203 - Typical Test Apparatus for Positional Stability Test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Typical Test Apparatus for Positional Stability Test 7 Figure 7 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 7 Figure...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 7 Figure...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 7 Figure...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1203 - Typical Test Apparatus for Positional Stability Test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Typical Test Apparatus for Positional Stability Test 7 Figure 7 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1203 - Typical Test Apparatus for Positional Stability Test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Typical Test Apparatus for Positional Stability Test 7 Figure 7 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 7 Figure...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1203 - Typical Test Apparatus for Positional Stability Test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Typical Test Apparatus for Positional Stability Test 7 Figure 7 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 7 Figure...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1203 - Typical Test Apparatus for Positional Stability Test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical Test Apparatus for Positional Stability Test 7 Figure 7 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300—Western...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 679 - Length Overall of Vessel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Length Overall of Vessel 6 Figure 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 679 - Length Overall of Vessel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Length Overall of Vessel 6 Figure 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart A of... - Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to Portable Frame Allowing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  18. Starting to Explore Wind Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Described is a simple, cheap and versatile homemade windmill and electrical generator suitable for a school class to use to explore many aspects and practicalities of using wind to generate electrical power. (Contains 8 figures.)

  19. Using Student-Made Games to Learn Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos, Irene; Flores, Alfinio

    2010-01-01

    First-year university students design and play their own games, including board, computer, and other kinds of games, to learn mathematical concepts and practice procedures for their pre-calculus and calculus courses. (Contains 2 tables and 8 figures.)

  20. Phase measurement system using a dithered clock

    DOEpatents

    Fairley, C.R.; Patterson, S.R.

    1991-05-28

    A phase measurement system is disclosed which measures the phase shift between two signals by dithering a clock signal and averaging a plurality of measurements of the phase differences between the two signals. 8 figures.

  1. Can the Full Moon and the Sun Be Observed on the Same Side of the Sky?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

    2010-01-01

    An ordinary flight became an interesting and amusing event when a look through the window of the plane revealed unusual light spots on the winglet. This article discusses the occurance we saw. Two possible explanations are presented. (Contains 8 figures.)

  2. Revision Process and Practice: A Kindergarten Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    Many educators teach students that are reluctant about the revisions process in writing. However, this longitudinal study follows a group of students from kindergarten through 8th grade who embraced the importance of the revision process. (Contains 8 figures.)

  3. Vanishing Boundaries between Science and Art: Modelling Effective Middle Years of Schooling Practice in Pre-Service Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Kathryn; Whitney, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an innovation in science pre-service education that endeavours to increase student engagement in learning and doing science in the middle years through integrating science, mathematics and art. (Contains 8 figures.)

  4. Result Summary for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Performance Assessment Model Version 4.110

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-07-20

    intruder scenario results comply with all performance objectives (Tables 6 and 7, Figures 5 and 6). The acute construction result for the SLB disposal units decreases significantly with this version. The maximum acute intruder dose occurs at 1,000 y for the SLB disposal units under the acute construction scenario. The acute intruder dose is caused by multiple radionuclides including U-238 (31 percent), Th-229 (28 percent), plutonium-239 (8.6 percent), U-233 (7.8 percent), and U-234 (6.7 percent). All results for radon-222 (Rn-222) flux density comply with the performance objective (Table 8, Figure 7). The mean Pit 13 RaDU flux density is close to the 0.74 Bq m{sup -2} s{sup -1} limit.

  5. Strengthening Connections between Elementary Classroom Mathematics and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Enjoyable literacy strategies help elementary teachers reinforce students' mathematics knowledge. This article shares a number of literacy strategies that can easily connect with mathematics. These strategies include word associations, multimeaning word cards, and games. (Contains 7 figures.)

  6. Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: a disease characterized by epithelial-like endothelial cells which influence management and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Krachmer, J H

    1985-01-01

    endothelial rejection, three because of glaucoma, one because of a retrocorneal membrane, two from both a retrocorneal membrane and glaucoma, and one from both an endothelial rejection and glaucoma. Thus, glaucoma was involved in six of the nine failures (27% of all grafts). Clinically visible retrocorneal membranes formed in 4 of the 22 grafts. All four eyes had preoperative slit lamp-visible iridocorneal adhesions. The factor that most prominently influences keratoplasty prognosis is the presence of iridocorneal adhesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 PMID:3914130

  7. Mitochondrial membrane potential in single living adult rat cardiac myocytes exposed to anoxia or metabolic inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Di Lisa, F; Blank, P S; Colonna, R; Gambassi, G; Silverman, H S; Stern, M D; Hansford, R G

    1995-01-01

    . Since under these experimental conditions intracellular [Ca2+] and pH are fairly stable, the increase in [Mg2+]i was likely to be produced by a decrease in ATP content. 6. The inhibition of mitochondrial ATPase induced by oligomycin during anoxia was associated with a rapid and simultaneous change of both the components of JC-1 fluorescence, suggesting that delta psi m, instead of producing ATP, is generated by glycolytic ATP during anoxia. 7. The readmission of oxygen induced a rapid decrease of the monomer emission and a slower increase of the aggregate emission. These fluorescence changes were not necessarily associated with the recovery of mechanical function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7562625

  8. Non-NMDA glutamate receptor occupancy and open probability at a rat cerebellar synapse with single and multiple release sites.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, R A; Cull-Candy, S G; Takahashi, T

    1996-01-01

    that practically all of the non-NMDA receptors were occupied by glutamate at the peak of EPSC. The channel open probability (Po = 0.84 +/- 0.03, n = 5) at these 'saturated' multi-site synapses will therefore equal the open probability of the channel when bound by transmitter (Po,max). 5. Non-stationary fluctuation analysis of EPSCs from 'saturating' multi-site synapses indicated that 170 +/- 40 postsynaptic non-NMDA channels were exposed to transmitter at the peak of the EPSC. The mean conductance of the synaptic channels was 10 +/- 2 pS (n = 5) at 34 degrees C. 6. At synapses with multiple release sites the EPSC decay time became faster when release probability was lowered (by reducing the external [Ca2+]/[Mg2+] ratio), indicating that the transmitter concentration profile depended on release probability. No such speeding of the EPSC decay was observed at single-site synapses. 7. Our results suggest that release of a packet of transmitter from a single release site does not saturate postsynaptic non-NMDA receptors at cerebellar mossy fibre-granule cell synapses. However, at multi-site synapses transmitter released from neighbouring sites can overlap, changing the transmitter concentration profile in the synaptic cleft. We conclude that the level of postsynaptic receptor occupancy can depend on the probability of transmitter release at individual multi-site synapses. Images Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 10 PMID:8814618

  9. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA and oncoprotein overexpression are associated with distinct morphological patterns of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, S. P.; Lin, B. T.; Xie, Y.; Paz, I. B.

    1998-01-01

    oncoproteins on the cellular protein. The morphology of the HPV-positive tumors suggests that HPV may have a predilection for a population of nonkeratinizing squamous cells or that the virally transformed cells inhibit keratinization of the tumor cells. Well keratinized tonsillar SCCs lack HPV DNA and are associated with overexpression of cyclin D1 protein and/or p53, suggesting that mechanisms that alter the cell cycle regulatory proteins, either by interaction with viral oncoproteins or by changes in the cellular proteins themselves, is critical for tumorigenesis of tonsillar SCC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9422532

  10. Coupled Coils, Magnets and Lenz's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Great scientists in the past have experimented with coils and magnets. Here we have a variation where coupling occurs between two coils and the oscillatory motion of two magnets to give somewhat surprising results. (Contains 6 figures and 1 footnote.)

  11. Reporting Research for Practitioners: Proposed Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Daniel J.; Tarr, James E.; Hollebrands, Karen F.; Walker, Erica N.; Berry, Robert Q., III; Baltzley, Patricia C.; Rasmussen, Chris L.; King, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    The NCTM Research Committee developed this article to address a distinctly important activity that links research and practice: writing research-based articles for practitioner journals. Six guiding principles are described. (Contains 6 figures.)

  12. Time-of-Flight Measurement of Sound Speed in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a set of simple experiments with a very low cost using a notebook as a measuring instrument without external hardware. The major purpose is to provide demonstration experiments for schools with very low budgets. (Contains 6 figures.)

  13. Elastic, Cottage Cheese, and Gasoline: Visualizing Division of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Sallie; Wood, Japheth

    2008-01-01

    Teachers must be prepared to recognize valid alternative representations of arithmetic problems. Challenging examples involving mixed fractions and division are presented along with teacher's discussion from a professional development workshop. (Contains 6 figures and 1 table.)

  14. The Humble Pie--Half-Baked or Well Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Neville; Mashhoudy, Houshang

    2008-01-01

    This article re-examines the much maligned piechart and provides justification for its use. It identifies common pitfalls when drawing piecharts in Microsoft Excel and offers advice on how to avoid them. (Contains 6 figures and 5 tables.)

  15. Radiation field associated with Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    Accuracy of dosimetric estimates can determine the value of the atomic bomb survivor experience in establishing radiation risks. The status of a major revision of this dosimetry, initiated in 1980, is assessed. 3 references, 6 figures.

  16. Design and biological properties of iodine-123 labeled. beta. -methyl-branched fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The synthetic strategy, synthesis, preclinical evaluation and potential clinical applications of 3-methyl-branched radioiodinated iodophenyl- and iodovinyl-substituted fatty acids are reviewed for use as myocardial imaging agents. 50 references, 6 figures. (ACR)

  17. The Introduction of Fields in Relation to Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of force at age 14-16 years is considered, starting with elementary student experiments using magnetic force fields. The meaningless use of terms such as "action" and "reaction", or "agent" and "receiver" is discussed. (Contains 6 figures.)

  18. An Easy Classroom Experiment on the Supercooling of Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianino, Concetto

    2007-01-01

    The change from the state of supercooling to the solid state of ice is called superfreezing. This process is not uncommon and takes place in domestic freezers. It is also easy to reproduce in the laboratory. (Contains 6 figures.)

  19. Using Digital Photography to Enhance Student Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help students develop their digital photography skills and see the world through new eyes. An emphasis is placed on using digital photography to communicate ideas and feelings. (Contains 6 figures and 2 tables.)

  20. Videodisc technology

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, F.E. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    An overview of the technology of videodiscs is given. The emphasis is on systems that use reflection or transmission of laser light. Possible use of videodiscs for storage of bibliographic information is considered. 6 figures, 3 tables. (RWR)

  1. Angles, Time, and Proportion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an investigation making connections between the time on an analog clock and the angle between the minute hand and the hour hand. It was posed by a middle school mathematics teacher. (Contains 8 tables and 6 figures.)

  2. Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide

    DOEpatents

    Natesan, K.

    1994-12-27

    An iron-based alloy is described containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100 C. 8 figures.

  3. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt....

  4. Investigating the Investigative Task: Testing for Skewness--An Investigation of Different Test Statistics and Their Power to Detect Skewness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Josh

    2010-01-01

    On the 2009 AP[c] Statistics Exam, students were asked to create a statistic to measure skewness in a distribution. This paper explores several of the most popular student responses and evaluates which statistic performs best when sampling from various skewed populations. (Contains 8 figures, 3 tables, and 4 footnotes.)

  5. True Serials: A True Solution for Electronic Resource Management Needs in a Medium-Size Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milczarski, Vivian; Garofalo, Denise A.

    2011-01-01

    A desire for more functionality seemed to clash with the fiscal reality of limited funds, but after investigating alternatives, Mount Saint Mary College was able to provide its faculty and students with a more useful and function-rich electronic resource management through a move to a hosted open source service. (Contains 8 figures.)

  6. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...

  7. The Seasons Explained by Refutational Modeling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frede, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the principles and investigation of a small-group laboratory activity based on refutational modeling to teach the concept of seasons to preservice elementary teachers. The results show that these teachers improved significantly when they had to refute their initial misconceptions practically. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  8. Some Problems of Extremes in Geometry and Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanovsky, Levi

    2008-01-01

    Two original problems in geometry are presented with solutions utilizing to differential calculus: (a) rectangle inscribed in a sector; (b) point on the ray of the angle. The possibility of applying mathematics in general and differential calculus in particular for solution of practical problems is discussed. (Contains 8 figures.)

  9. Complex Characters Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Sidney F. A.

    2009-01-01

    The physical significance of complex characters is explored with particular reference to the C[subscript 4] point group. While a diagrammatic representation of these characters in this group is possible, the extension to higher groups C[subscript n], n greater than 4 is left as a problem for discussion. (Contains 3 tables, 8 figures, and 1 note.)

  10. On the Competition Problems of IPhO 39 in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoi, Nguyen The; Tu, Pham Quy; Don, Dam Trung

    2009-01-01

    We report on the competition problems given at the 39th International Physics Olympiad held in Hanoi, Vietnam, which consist of three theoretical and one experimental problems. The abbreviated solutions are presented. The distribution of marks for the problems is also shown. (Contains 2 tables and 8 figures.)

  11. Trinomial Formula, Pascal- and Sierpinski-Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitler, H.

    2002-01-01

    Stimulated by a picture of a Sierpinski-pyramid and an article by Stewart, students were asked about a connection between this pyramid and the well-known trinomial formula. The results of all the work done with students are presented in this note. (Contains 8 figures.)

  12. Using Your Inner Voice to Guide Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Doris J.; Walcott, Crystal Y.; Kastberg, Signe E.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a tool teachers can use to analyze student work and provides activity suggestions to guide instruction based on their findings. By integrating the voice of the child and the voice of the discipline, teachers can use their inner voice to build a model of the child's understanding. (Contains 8 figures.)

  13. Applications of digital image restoration to photographic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Trussell, H.J.; Cannon, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the cepstral method of blur determination for motion blur and out-of-focus lens blur is given. A review of the maximum a posteriori restoration (MAP) method is given. The reasons why this method produces few artifacts are discussed. Results of the complete image restoration process are given. 8 figures.

  14. The Pizza Problem: A Solution with Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Kathryn G.; Mast, Caleb J.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issues of coaching and assessing. A preservice middle school teacher's unique solution to the Pizza problem was not what the professor expected. The student's solution strategy, based on sequences and a reinvention of Pascal's triangle, is explained in detail. (Contains 8 figures.)

  15. Water quality management plan for Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The management plan provides an assessment of Cherokee Reservoir's current water quality, identifies those factors which affect reservoir water quality, and develops recommendations aimed at restoring or maintaining water quality at levels sufficient to support diverse beneficial uses. 20 references, 8 figures, 15 tables. (ACR)

  16. Structure of classical trajectories in multidimensional bound molecular systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, C.J.; Muckerman, J.T.

    1983-07-21

    A computational method is described which enables visualization of the coordinate space envelopes of classical trajectories in multidimensional bound molecular systems. The method is exemplified by application to a realistic three-dimensional model of the vibrating water molecule, and its utility in the application of semiclassical quantization techniques is emphasized. 8 figures.

  17. Efficiency Measurement Using a Motor-Dynamo Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pun-hon; Wong, Siu-ling; Mak, Se-yuen

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a simple method which can be used to measure the efficiency of a low power dc motor, a motor-converted dynamo and a coupled motor-dynamo module as a function of the speed of rotation. The result can also be used to verify Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. (Contains 1 table and 8 figures.)

  18. Distortion in Perspective Projection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelso, Robert P., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a unique approach in associating perspective projection with the image beheld by the eye and demonstrates that all graphical and photographic perspective projections must contain distortion when compared to the image beheld by the eye. (Contains 8 figures.)

  19. A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)

  20. It's a Holiday!!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Michael I.; Mc Shane, Janet M.

    2008-01-01

    This article studies various holiday distributions, the most interesting one being Easter. Gauss' Easter algorithm and Microsoft Excel are used to determine that the Easter distribution can be closely approximated by the convolution of two well-known uniform distributions. (Contains 8 figures.)

  1. Prehensile apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.M.

    1993-10-12

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  2. Isoelectric Point, Electric Charge, and Nomenclature of the Acid-Base Residues of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Andres A.; Ribeiro, Joao M.; Sillero, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The main object of this work is to present the pedagogical usefulness of the theoretical methods, developed in this laboratory, for the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) and the net electric charge of proteins together with some comments on the naming of the acid-base residues of proteins. (Contains 8 figures and 4 tables.)

  3. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J.S.

    1993-09-21

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process. 8 figures.

  4. Application of permanent magnets in accelerators and electron storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.

    1984-09-01

    After an explanation of the general circumstances in which the use of permanent magnets in accelerators is desirable, a number of specific magnets will be discussed. That discussion includes magnets needed for the operation of accelerators as well as magnets that are employed for the utilization of charged particle beams, such as the production of synchrotron radiation. 15 references, 8 figures.

  5. Teaching Motion with the Global Positioning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budisa, Marko; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2003-01-01

    We have used the GPS receiver and a PC interface to track different types of motion. Various hands-on experiments that enlighten the physics of motion at the secondary school level are suggested (visualization of 2D and 3D motion, measuring car drag coefficient and fuel consumption). (Contains 8 figures.)

  6. Pythagorean Theorem Proofs: Connecting Interactive Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cheng-Yao

    2007-01-01

    There are over 400 proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem. Some are visual proofs, others are algebraic. This paper features several proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem in different cultures--Greek, Chinese, Hindu and American. Several interactive websites are introduced to explore ways to prove this beautiful theorem. (Contains 8 figures.)

  7. A Safe and Effective Modification of Thomson's Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschke, Felix; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The electrical circuit of the jumping ring experiment based on discharging a capacitor is optimized. The setup is scoop proof at 46 V and yet the ring jumps more than 9 m high. The setup is suitable for both lectures and student laboratory work in higher education. (Contains 1 table, 8 figures and 3 footnotes.)

  8. Defying Gravity Using Jenga[TM] Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how Jenga[TM] blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  9. Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers? Technical Appendix. NCEE 2011-4016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Max, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This appendix describes the methods and provides further detail to support the evaluation brief, "Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers?" (Contains 8 figures, 6 tables and 5 footnotes.) [For the main report, "Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers? NCEE Evaluation Brief.…

  10. Smoke Ring Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of smoke rings, tornados, and quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has many features in common. These features can be described by the same mathematics we use when introducing Ampere's law in an introductory physics course. We discuss these common features. (Contains 7 figures.)

  11. Detecting Halo Effects in Performance-Based Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Maris, Gunter; Hsiao, Ya Ping

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how halo effects may be detected and quantified using two independent ratings of the same person. A practical illustration is given to show how halo effects can be avoided. (Contains 2 tables, 7 figures, and 2 notes.)

  12. Thermal Imaging in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal cameras are useful tools for use in scientific investigation and for teaching scientific concepts to students in the classroom. Demonstrations of scientific phenomena can be greatly enhanced visually by the use of this cutting-edge technology. (Contains 7 figures.)

  13. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Part 679 - Location of Trawl Gear Test Areas in the GOA and the BSAI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of Trawl Gear Test Areas in the GOA and the BSAI 7 Figure 7 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig....

  14. 50 CFR Figures 7-9b to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 7 Figures 7-9b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 7-9b to Part 223...

  15. 50 CFR Figures 7-9b to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 7 Figures 7-9b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 7-9b to Part 223...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Part 679 - Location of Trawl Gear Test Areas in the GOA and the BSAI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of Trawl Gear Test Areas in the GOA and the BSAI 7 Figure 7 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF...

  17. 50 CFR Figures 7-9b to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 7 Figures 7-9b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 7-9b to Part 223...

  18. 50 CFR Figures 7-9b to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 7 Figures 7-9b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 7-9b to Part 223...

  19. The Use of Conjugate Charts in Transfer Reactions: A Unified Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allnutt, Michael I.

    2007-01-01

    Redox reactions can be conveniently discussed in terms of the relative strengths of the oxidant, the reductant, and their conjugates; a conjugate chart is a most convenient and useful way of doing this. A similar chart for acids and bases is proposed, which can be applied in the same manner. (Contains 7 figures and 2 tables.)

  20. Illuminating the Mathematics of Lamp Shades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Michael E.; Gross, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The problem of creating lamp shades to specific design parameters allows rich and interesting explorations in the mathematics of circles and triangles. This interactive project helps students build their spatial reasoning and is especially appropriate during a unit on either the Pythagorean theorem or similar triangles. (Contains 7 figures and 1…