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Sample records for 6h-sic homoepitaxial layers

  1. Extended defects in 4H-silicon carbide homoepitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the structure of extended defects in 4H-SIC homoepitaxial layers, and to identify their nucleation mechanisms. Characteristics of basal plane dislocations in 4H-SiC epilayers were investigated in a comprehensive manner, including their morphologies, Burgers' vectors, positions, and correlation with the extended defects propagating from the substrate. Plan-view transmission x-ray topography was the major characterization technique used in this study. Complementary data was obtained by KOH etching and optical microscopy. Trace of glide was detected on every basal plane dislocation in the entire 3-inch epilayer. In the center area of the epi-wafer, the glide can extend to macroscopic distance and form edge-type dislocations at the epilayer/surface interface. During the motion, dislocation half loop arrays were found to nucleate at the growth front. The magnitude of the resolved shear stress was estimated based on the radius of curvature of the dislocation lines. It surpassed the critical resolved shear stress at the epitaxial growth temperature. The stress was identified to be compressive in the epilayer. Its origin was studied. Nitrogen-doping-difference-induced misfit strain was excluded as the source of the stress. The structures of two morphological defects, 'carrots' and 'arrows', were studied. Cross-section x-ray topography was used to image the structure of carrot defect in whole. The defect was found to nucleate at the epilayer/substrate interface on a threading screw dislocation propagating from the substrate. Its structure was mainly composed of a prismatic stacking fault and a Frank-type basal plane stacking fault. The arrow defect was found to be produced by a spheroid shape inclusion in the volume of the epilayer. Zone axis diffraction pattern under transmission electron microscope identified the nature of the inclusion as 3C-SIC. It was determined to nucleate at the substrate surface contaminations.

  2. Growth and optical properties of AlN homoepitaxial layers grown by ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Shiro; Nanjo, Yoshiyuki; Okuno, Toshihiro; Kurai, Satoshi; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

    2007-04-01

    We have performed the homoepitaxial growth of high-crystalline quality Aluminium nitride (AlN) epilayers by the ammonia-gas source (GS) molecular-beam epitaxy method using the hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) grown AlN thin layers as substrates. Surface morphologies and step-bunching structures of the homoepitaxially grown AlN epilayers were evaluated using in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns and scanning probe microscopy. It is noted that the step height of several monolayers was achieved on the surface of homoepitaxial layers. The homoepitaxial AlN thin films had the same or improved crystalline quality compared with the HVPE-grown AlN layers from X-ray rocking curve measurements, and its optical properties were investigated using cathodoluminescence measurements. Excitonic emission, which originates from the A free-exciton transition, was clearly observed in the present high-quality homoepitaxial AlN epilayers.

  3. Cathodoluminescence Study of the Properties of Stacking Faults in 4H-SiC Homoepitaxial Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence study of the properties of stacking faults in 4H- SiC homoepitaxial layers Serguei I. Maximenko,1,a Jaime A. Freitas, Jr.,1 Paul...2009 In-grown stacking faults in n-type 4H- SiC epitaxial layers have been investigated by real-color cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy...carried out at room and liquid helium temperatures. Stacking faults with 8H stacking order were observed, as well as double layer and multilayer 3C- SiC

  4. Characterization of V-shaped defects in 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lihua; Su, Dong; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric; Chung, Gil; Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Bernd; Sanchez, Edward K; Mueller, Stephan G.; Hansen, Darren; Loboda, Mark J.; Wu, Fangzhen; Wang, Huanhuan; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael

    2014-12-04

    Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography images show that faint needle-like surface morphological features observed on the Si-face of 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers using Nomarski optical microscopy are associated with V shaped stacking faults in the epilayer. KOH etching of the V shaped defect reveals small oval pits connected by a shallow line which corresponding to the surface intersections of two partial dislocations and the stacking fault connecting them. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens from regions containing the V shaped defects were prepared using focused ion beam milling, and stacking sequences of (85), (50) and (63) are observed at the faulted region with high resolution TEM. In order to study the formation mechanism of V shaped defect, low dislocation density 4H-SiC substrates were chosen for epitaxial growth, and the corresponding regions before and after epitaxy growth are compared in SWBXT images. It is found that no defects in the substrate are directly associated with the formation of the V shaped defect. Simulation results of the contrast from the two partial dislocations associated with V shaped defect in synchrotron monochromatic beam x-ray topography reveals the opposite sign nature of their Burgers vectors. Therefore, a mechanism of 2D nucleation during epitaxy growth is postulated for the formation of the V shaped defect, which requires elimination of non-sequential 1/4[0001] bilayers from the original structure to create the observed faulted stacking sequence.

  5. Characterization of V-shaped defects in 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Lihua; Su, Dong; Kisslinger, Kim; ...

    2014-12-04

    Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography images show that faint needle-like surface morphological features observed on the Si-face of 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layers using Nomarski optical microscopy are associated with V shaped stacking faults in the epilayer. KOH etching of the V shaped defect reveals small oval pits connected by a shallow line which corresponding to the surface intersections of two partial dislocations and the stacking fault connecting them. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens from regions containing the V shaped defects were prepared using focused ion beam milling, and stacking sequences of (85), (50) and (63) are observed at the faulted regionmore » with high resolution TEM. In order to study the formation mechanism of V shaped defect, low dislocation density 4H-SiC substrates were chosen for epitaxial growth, and the corresponding regions before and after epitaxy growth are compared in SWBXT images. It is found that no defects in the substrate are directly associated with the formation of the V shaped defect. Simulation results of the contrast from the two partial dislocations associated with V shaped defect in synchrotron monochromatic beam x-ray topography reveals the opposite sign nature of their Burgers vectors. Therefore, a mechanism of 2D nucleation during epitaxy growth is postulated for the formation of the V shaped defect, which requires elimination of non-sequential 1/4[0001] bilayers from the original structure to create the observed faulted stacking sequence.« less

  6. DEFECT SELECTIVE ETCHING OF THICK ALN LAYERS GROWN ON 6H-SIC SEEDS - A TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Nyakiti, Luke; Chaudhari, Jharna; Kenik, Edward A; Lu, Peng; Edgar, J H

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the type and densities of defects in AlN crystals grown on 6H-SiC seeds by the sublimation-recombination method were assessed. The positions of the defects in AlN were first identified by defect selective etching (DSE) in molten NaOH-KOH at 400 C for 2 minutes. Etching produced pits of three different sizes: 1.77 m, 2.35 m , and 2.86 m. The etch pits were either aligned together forming a sub-grain boundary or randomly distributed. The smaller etch pits were either isolated or associated with larger etch pits. After preparing crosssections of the pits by the focused ion beam (FIB) technique, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to determine which dislocation type (edge, mixed or screw) produced a specific etch pit sizes. Preliminary TEM bright field and dark field study using different zone axes and diffraction vectors indicates an edge dislocation with a Burgers vector 1/3[1120] is associated with the smallest etch pit size.

  7. A theoretical study of surfactant action in the layer-by-layer homoepitaxial growth of metals: the case of In on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Qiu, Min; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Cao, Pei-Lin

    1998-02-01

    A surfactant-mediated homoepitaxial metal system, Cu/In/Cu(111), is studied by using first-principles calculations and the kinetic Monte Carlo method. A new repulsion model is proposed for the Cu/In/Cu(111) system where surface-substitutional In atoms repel diffusing Cu adatoms and build a repulsion network. This repulsion network results in an average increase of terrace barriers for adatoms Cu and enhanced island density. The layer-by-layer growth for the Cu/In/Cu(111) system is achieved with a repulsion model in a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The importance of the additional barrier ΔE is confirmed in determining film morphology.

  8. Surfactant-mediated layer-by-layer homoepitaxial growth of Cu/In/Cu(100) and Ag/Sb/Ag(111) systems: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Cao, Pei-Lin

    1998-04-01

    Two typical surfactant-mediated homoepitaxial metal systems, Cu/In/Cu(100) and Ag/Sb/Ag(111), are studied by using first-principles calculations and a kinetic Monte Carlo method. Our results confirm the validity of the model that Zhang and Lagally suggested for Cu/In/Cu(100) system. A repulsion model is proposed for the Ag/Sb/Ag(111) system where surface-substitutional Sb atoms repel diffusing Ag adatoms. The layer-by-layer growth for Ag/Sb/Ag(111) system is achieved with a repulsion model in kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. By comparing the two different growth models, the importance of the additional barrier ΔE and effectiveness of two ways of reducing ΔE are confirmed in determining film morphology.

  9. Surface Evolution of Nano-Textured 4H–SiC Homoepitaxial Layers after High Temperature Treatments: Morphology Characterization and Graphene Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingfang; Chen, Yu; Sun, Changzheng; Guan, Min; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Guosheng; Zeng, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Nano-textured 4H–SiC homoepitaxial layers (NSiCLs) were grown on 4H–SiC(0001) substrates using a low pressure chemical vapor deposition technique (LPCVD), and subsequently were subjected to high temperature treatments (HTTs) for investigation of their surface morphology evolution and graphene growth. It was found that continuously distributed nano-scale patterns formed on NSiCLs which were about submicrons in-plane and about 100 nanometers out-of-plane in size. After HTTs under vacuum, pattern sizes reduced, and the sizes of the remains were inversely proportional to the treatment time. Referring to Raman spectra, the establishment of multi-layer graphene (MLG) on NSiCL surfaces was observed. MLG with sp2 disorders was obtained from NSiCLs after a high temperature treatment under vacuum at 1700 K for two hours, while MLG without sp2 disorders was obtained under Ar atmosphere at 1900 K.

  10. Properties of YBCO on LaMnO3-capped IBAD MgO-templates without Homo-epitaxial MgO layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Kim, Kyunghoon; Zhang, Yifei; Cantoni, Claudia; Zuev, Yuri L; Goyal, Amit; Thompson, James R; Christen, David K

    2009-01-01

    Previously, it has been well established that in an IBAD architecture for coated conductors, (1) LaMnO3 (LMO) buffer layers are structurally and chemically compatible with an underlying homo-epitaxial MgO layer and (2) high current density YBCO films can be grown on these LMO templates. In the present work, the homo-epi MgO layer has been successfully eliminated and a LMO cap layer was grown directly on the IBAD (MgO) template. The performance of the LMO/IBAD (MgO) samples has been qualified by depositing 1 m-thick YBCO coatings by pulsed laser deposition. Electrical transport measurements of YBCO films on the standard (with homo-epi MgO) and simplified (without homo-epi MgO) IBAD architectures were carried out. The angular dependencies of critical current density (Jc) are similar for both IBAD architectures. XRD measurements indicate good, c-axis aligned YBCO films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images reveal that microstructures of YBCO/LMO/IBAD (MgO) and YBCO/LMO/homo-epi MgO/IBAD (MgO) templates are similar. These results demonstrate the strong potential of using LMO as a single cap layer directly on IBAD (MgO) for the development of a simplified IBAD architecture.

  11. Evolution of planar defects during homoepitaxial growth of β-Ga2O3 layers on (100) substrates—A quantitative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewski, R.; Baldini, M.; Irmscher, K.; Fiedler, A.; Markurt, T.; Neuschulz, B.; Remmele, T.; Schulz, T.; Wagner, G.; Galazka, Z.; Albrecht, M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the homoepitaxial growth of β-Ga2O3 (100) grown by metal-organic vapour phase as dependent on miscut-angle vs. the c direction. Atomic force microscopy of layers grown on substrates with miscut-angles smaller than 2° reveals the growth proceeding through nucleation and growth of two-dimensional islands. With increasing miscut-angle, step meandering and finally step flow growth take place. While step-flow growth results in layers with high crystalline perfection, independent nucleation of two-dimensional islands causes double positioning on the (100) plane, resulting in twin lamellae and stacking mismatch boundaries. Applying nucleation theory in the mean field approach for vicinal surfaces, we can fit experimentally found values for the density of twin lamellae in epitaxial layers as dependent on the miscut-angle. The model yields a diffusion coefficient for Ga adatoms of D = 7 × 10-9 cm2 s-1 at a growth temperature of 850 °C, two orders of magnitude lower than the values published for GaAs.

  12. Effect of Threading Screw and Edge Dislocations on Transport Properties of 4H-SiC Homoepitaxial Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    across the sample and measuring the collected current as a function of e-beam position using a Keithley model 617 Electrometer. The experimental data were...electron-hole pairs excited by the e-beam, q is the electron charge, and w is the deple- tion layer width. The Wittry model assumes that recombina- tion...height. Their degree of magni- FIG. 1. !Color online" Schematic of the EBIC model used in this work for diffusion length measurements. 013708-2

  13. Strain-compensated AlGaN /GaN/InGaN cladding layers in homoepitaxial nitride devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernecki, R.; Krukowski, S.; Targowski, G.; Prystawko, P.; Sarzynski, M.; Krysko, M.; Kamler, G.; Grzegory, I.; Leszczynski, M.; Porowski, S.

    2007-12-01

    One of the most important problems in III-nitride violet laser diode technology is the lattice mismatch between the AlGaN cladding layers and the rest of the epitaxial structure. For efficiently working devices, it is necessary to have both a high Al content and thick claddings. This leads, however, to severe sample bowing and even cracking of the upper layer. In this work, we propose a cladding structure of strain-compensated AlGaN /GaN/InGaN superlattice grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on bulk GaN substrates. Various thicknesses and compositions of the layers were employed. We measured the radius of bowing, lattice mismatches, aluminum and indium contents, and densities of threading dislocations. The proposed cladding structures suppress bowing and cracking, which are the two parasitic effects commonly experienced in laser diodes with bulk AlGaN claddings. The suppression of cracking and bowing is shown to occur due to modified strain energy distribution of the superlattices structure.

  14. Critical impact of Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier on GaN surface morphology during homoepitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Nils. A. K.; Lahourcade, L.; Hourahine, B.; Martin, D.; Grandjean, N.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the impact of kinetics, and in particular the effect of the Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier (ESB), on the growth and surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN layers. The presence of an ESB can lead to various self-assembled surface features, which strongly affect the surface roughness. We present an in-depth study of this phenomenon on GaN homoepitaxial layers grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy. We show how a proper tuning of the growth parameters allows for the control of the surface morphology, independent of the growth technique.

  15. Evolution of pyramid morphology during InAs(001) homoepitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, J. Bubesh; Yoh, Kanji

    2010-08-16

    Growth of InAs(001) homoepitaxial layer has been carried out especially at the bistable region, where the coexistence of both In-stabilized (4x2) and As-stabilized (2x4) surface reconstruction are found to be predominant. The observation of pyramid morphology in this bistable region is reported here. Atomic force microscopy studies have been performed on such pyramids. The heights of the observed pyramids vary from 12 to 26 nm with their bases from 3.6x1.2 to 18x6.3 {mu}m{sup 2}. Formation of such pyramids in the bistable region is attributed to the unique anomalous As-desorption observed during the surface reconstruction.

  16. Optical functions of silicon from reflectance and ellipsometry on silicon-on-insulator and homoepitaxial samples

    SciTech Connect

    Humlíček, J.

    2015-11-21

    The optical properties of silicon have been determined from 0.2 to 6.5 eV at room temperature, using reflectance spectra of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and ellipsometric spectra of homoepitaxial samples. Optimized Fabry-Perot-type SOI resonators exhibit high finesse even in near ultraviolet. Very high precision values of the real part of the refractive index are obtained in infrared up to a photon energy of 1.3 eV. The spectra of the extinction coefficient, based on observations of light attenuation, extend to 3.2 eV due to measurements on SOI layers as thin as 87 nm. These results allowed us to correct spectroellipsometric data on homoepitaxial samples for the presence of reduced and stabilized surface layers.

  17. The homoepitaxial growth of Pt on Pt(111) studied with STM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bott, Michael; Michely, Thomas; Comsa, George

    The homoepitaxial growth of Pt on Pt(111) has been investigated by STM and the results have been compared to recent thermal He scattering (TEAS) data obtained on the same system. Additional information on the growth modes is obtained and the real space aspect of the growing surface, which results in TEAS and RHEED oscillations is evidenced. The three different growth modes, including the reentrant layer-by-layer growth at low temperatures, are confirmed. The limited diffusion along the adatom island edges, which causes their fractal aspect with dendritic structures, appears to play a significant role in the appearance of the low temperature layer-by-layer growth.

  18. Homoepitaxial ZnO Film Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, C-H; Lehoczky, S. L.; Harris, M. T.; Callahan, M. J.; McCarty, P.; George, M. A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    ZnO films have high potential for many applications, such as surface acoustic wave filters, UV detectors, and light emitting devices due to its structural, electrical, and optical properties. High quality epitaxial films are required for these applications. The Al2O3 substrate is commonly used for ZnO heteroepitaxial growth. Recently, high quality ZnO single crystals are available for grow homoepitaxial films. Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on the two polar surfaces (O-face and Zn-face) of (0001) ZnO single crystal substrates using off-axis magnetron sputtering deposition. As a comparison, films were also deposited on (0001) Al2O3 substrates. It was found that the two polar ZnO surfaces have different photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, surface structure and morphology, which strongly influence the epitaxial film growth. The morphology and structure of homoepitaxial films grown on the ZnO substrates were different from heteroepitaxial films grown on the Al2O3. An interesting result shows that high temperature annealing of ZnO single crystals will improve the surface structure on the O-face surface rather than the opposite surface. The measurements of PL, low-angle incident x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy of ZnO films indicate that the O-terminated surface is better for ZnO epitaxial film growth.

  19. Nearly stress-free substrates for GaN homoepitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, M.; Gogova, D.; Siche, D.; Schmidbauer, M.; Monemar, B.; Stutzmann, M.; Eickhoff, M.

    2006-08-01

    High-quality 300 μm thick GaN crack-free layers grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on c-plane sapphire without buffer layers and separated from the substrate by laser lift-off were investigated by high resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD), low-temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence. All these characterization techniques confirm the high structural quality of the resulting material. Lateral X-ray mapping of the free-standing bulk-like GaN shows a homogeneous compressive stress of less than 40 MPa and a heterogeneous stress of about 80 MPa. The formation of twin grains (domains) were observed both in the reciprocal space mapping of the (2 0 .5) reflection and in rocking curve measurements. The latter ones revealed an estimated lateral coherence length of about 1.2 μm. The crystallite size along the c-axis is estimated to be larger than 20 μm. An upper limit of the density of dislocations with a component of the Burgers vector along the c-axis (screw and mixed type) of 1.3×10 7 cm -2 was extracted from the XRD data, while transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed a dislocation density of 1.7×10 7 cm -2. Thus, these layers are suitable as lattice-parameter and thermal-expansion matched substrates for strain-free homoepitaxy of GaN-based device heterostructures.

  20. High quality (In)GaN films on homoepitaxial substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Yong; Yin, Yian

    2017-02-01

    High quality GaN and InGaN epitaxial thin films were deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Two sets of thin film samples were prepared by varying the substrates and temperatures under a proper condition for achieving better optical properties. The morphological, crystalline quality and optical property of epitaxial layers were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra, respectively. It was found that the epitaxial layers grown on GaN homoepitaxial substrate have higher quality than those grown on sapphire substrate. The root mean square (RMS) of GaN film and InGaN film in AFM morphological were 0.5 nm, 2.7 nm respectively. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (102) in GaN film on GaN substrate was 33arcsec and the FWHM of (002) in InGaN film on GaN substrate was 50.58arcsec by XRD. The PL peaks of GaN film and InGaN film were 361 nm, 458 nm respectively. The E2 (high) of GaN film and InGaN film in Raman were both 567.08 cm-1.

  1. Critical issues for homoepitaxial GaN growth by molecular beam epitaxy on hydride vapor-phase epitaxy-grown GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, D. F.; Hardy, M. T.; Katzer, D. S.; Nepal, N.; Downey, B. P.; Meyer, D. J.; McConkie, Thomas O.; Zhou, Lin; Smith, David J.

    2016-12-01

    While the heteroepitaxial growth of gallium nitride-based materials and devices on substrates such as SiC, sapphire, and Si has been well-documented, the lack of a cost-effective source of bulk GaN crystals has hindered similar progress on homoepitaxy. Nevertheless, freestanding GaN wafers are becoming more widely available, and there is great interest in growing GaN films and devices on bulk GaN substrates, in order to take advantage of the greatly reduced density of threading dislocations, particularly for vertical devices. However, homoepitaxial GaN growth is far from a trivial task due to the reactivity and different chemical sensitivities of N-polar (000_1) and Ga-polar (0001) GaN surfaces, which can affect the microstructure and concentrations of impurities in homoepitaxial GaN layers. In order to achieve high quality, high purity homoepitaxial GaN, it is necessary to investigate the effect of the ex situ wet chemical clean, the use of in situ cleaning procedures, the sensitivity of the GaN surface to thermal decomposition, and the effect of growth temperature. We review the current understanding of these issues with a focus on homoepitaxial growth of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on c-plane surfaces of freestanding GaN substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), as HVPE-grown substrates are most widely available. We demonstrate methods for obtaining homoepitaxial GaN layers by plasma-assisted MBE in which no additional threading dislocations are generated from the regrowth interface and impurity concentrations are greatly reduced.

  2. Homoepitaxial tunnel barriers with functionalized graphene-on-graphene for charge and spin transport.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Adam L; van 't Erve, Olaf M J; Li, Connie H; Robinson, Jeremy T; Jonker, Berend T

    2014-01-01

    The coupled imperatives for reduced heat dissipation and power consumption in high-density electronics have rekindled interest in devices based on tunnelling. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, layer uniformity, interface stability and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Two-dimensional materials such as graphene obviate these issues and offer a new paradigm for tunnel barriers. Here we demonstrate a homoepitaxial tunnel barrier structure in which graphene serves as both the tunnel barrier and the high-mobility transport channel. We fluorinate the top layer of a graphene bilayer to decouple it from the bottom layer, so that it serves as a single-monolayer tunnel barrier for both charge and spin injection into the lower graphene channel. We demonstrate high spin injection efficiency with a tunnelling spin polarization >60%, lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures and determine spin lifetimes with the Hanle effect.

  3. Lattice strains and polarized luminescence in homoepitaxial growth of a-plane ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Tabata, Hitoshi

    2012-12-01

    In-plane lattice strains in a-plane zinc oxide (ZnO) homoepitaxial layers were selectively introduced by changing substrate type and growth conditions. Strain-free layers were observed when using a Crystec ZnO substrate, which resulted in atomically flat surfaces with nano-facets consisting of the m-plane (10-10) at atomic scale. In contrast, ZnO layers on Goodwill ZnO substrates possessed in-plane lattice strains due to generation of basal-plane stacking faults. The degree of lattice strains was systematically changed by the oxygen pressure, which clarified the close correlation between photoluminescence (PL) polarization and lattice strains. The polarization ratio of PL enhanced with the lattice strains.

  4. Ultra-Low-Temperature Homoepitaxial Growth of Sb-Doped Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Hoenk, Michael E.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2005-01-01

    An ultra-low-temperature process for homoepitaxial growth of high-quality, surface-confined, Sb-doped silicon layers is presented. Non-equilibrium growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is used to achieve dopant incorporation in excess of 2x10(exp 14) per sq cm in a thin, surface-confined layer. Sb surface segregation larger than expected from theoretical models was observed, in agreement with other experimental works. Furthermore, this work details an entirely low-temperature process (less than 450 degree C) that can be applied to fully processed and aluminum-metallized silicon devices. One application of this process is the formation of a back-surface electrode for back-illuminated high-purity silicon imaging arrays.

  5. Homoepitaxial growth of MOD-YBCO thick films on evaporated and MOD templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, D.; Yamaguchi, I.; Sohma, M.; Tsukada, K.; Matsui, M.; Kumagai, T.; Manabe, T.

    2011-11-01

    We have prepared metal organic deposition (MOD)-YBCO thick films by repeating the coating-pyrolysis-crystallization procedure onto ∼100-nm-thick evaporated and MOD templates. Surface morphology of the template was found to strongly affect the homoepitaxial growth of MOD-YBCO layers on the template; namely, the epitaxial growth of MOD-YBCO on the evaporated template was much easier than that on the MOD template. A 220-nm-thick epitaxial MOD-YBCO film was successfully prepared on the 100-nm-thick evaporated-YBCO template to obtain a 320-nm-thick YBCO film, which exhibited Jc = 2.44 MA/cm2 and Ic = 78 A/cm. The Ic value has significantly increased from 37 A/cm for the evaporated-template.

  6. Homoepitaxial HVPE-GaN growth on non-polar and semi-polar seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amilusik, M.; Sochacki, T.; Lucznik, B.; Fijalkowski, M.; Smalc-Koziorowska, J.; Weyher, J. L.; Teisseyre, H.; Sadovyi, B.; Bockowski, M.; Grzegory, I.

    2014-10-01

    In this work homoepitaxial HVPE-GaN growth on non-polar and semi-polar GaN seeds was described. Two crystallization processes, in the same experimental conditions but using different carrier gases: N2 and H2, were performed. An influence of growth directions and growth conditions on the growth rate and properties (morphology, structural quality and oxygen and silicon contaminations) of obtained crystals were investigated and discussed. It was shown that the growth rate strongly depends on the growth direction and the carrier gas. It was demonstrated that for the semi-polar [20-21] direction it was possible to obtain high quality and highly conductive (without intentional doping) gallium nitride layers.

  7. Homoepitaxial growth of HVPE-GaN doped with Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwinska, M.; Sochacki, T.; Amilusik, M.; Kempisty, P.; Lucznik, B.; Fijalkowski, M.; Litwin-Staszewska, E.; Smalc-Koziorowska, J.; Khapuridze, A.; Staszczak, G.; Grzegory, I.; Bockowski, M.

    2016-12-01

    Results of growth of high structural quality gallium nitride single crystals doped with silicon are described in this paper. Dichlorosilane was used as precursor of silicon in the hydride vapor phase epitaxy method. Crystallization runs with different flows of dichlorosilane were performed and compared. One-inch free-standing HVPE-GaN crystals of high structural quality and high purity, previously grown on ammonothermal GaN substrates, were used as seeds. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of HVPE-GaN doped with silicon are presented and discussed in detail. A laser diode built on the homoepitaxially grown GaN is demonstrated.

  8. Homoepitaxial growth of metal halide crystals investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Pei; Kuttipillai, Padmanaban S.; Wang, Lili; ...

    2017-01-10

    Here, we report the homoepitaxial growth of a metal halide on single crystals investigated with in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Epitaxial growth of NaCl on NaCl (001) is explored as a function of temperature and growth rate which provides the first detailed report of RHEED oscillations for metal halide growth. Layer-by-layer growth is observed at room temperature accompanied by clear RHEED oscillations while the growth mode transitions to an island (3D) mode at low temperature. At higher temperatures (>100 °C), RHEED oscillations and AFM data indicate a transition to a step-flowmore » growth mode. To show the importance of such metal halide growth, green organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are demonstrated using a doped NaCl film with a phosphorescent emitter as the emissive layer. This study demonstrates the ability to perform in situ and non-destructive RHEED monitoring even on insulating substrates and could enable doped single crystals and crystalline substrates for a range of optoelectronic applications.« less

  9. Homoepitaxial Growth of Metal Halide Crystals Investigated by Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei; Kuttipillai, Padmanaban S.; Wang, Lili; Lunt, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    We report the homoepitaxial growth of a metal halide on single crystals investigated with in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Epitaxial growth of NaCl on NaCl (001) is explored as a function of temperature and growth rate which provides the first detailed report of RHEED oscillations for metal halide growth. Layer-by-layer growth is observed at room temperature accompanied by clear RHEED oscillations while the growth mode transitions to an island (3D) mode at low temperature. At higher temperatures (>100 °C), RHEED oscillations and AFM data indicate a transition to a step-flow growth mode. To show the importance of such metal halide growth, green organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are demonstrated using a doped NaCl film with a phosphorescent emitter as the emissive layer. This study demonstrates the ability to perform in situ and non-destructive RHEED monitoring even on insulating substrates and could enable doped single crystals and crystalline substrates for a range of optoelectronic applications. PMID:28071732

  10. Homoepitaxial Growth of Metal Halide Crystals Investigated by Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pei; Kuttipillai, Padmanaban S.; Wang, Lili; Lunt, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    We report the homoepitaxial growth of a metal halide on single crystals investigated with in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Epitaxial growth of NaCl on NaCl (001) is explored as a function of temperature and growth rate which provides the first detailed report of RHEED oscillations for metal halide growth. Layer-by-layer growth is observed at room temperature accompanied by clear RHEED oscillations while the growth mode transitions to an island (3D) mode at low temperature. At higher temperatures (>100 °C), RHEED oscillations and AFM data indicate a transition to a step-flow growth mode. To show the importance of such metal halide growth, green organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are demonstrated using a doped NaCl film with a phosphorescent emitter as the emissive layer. This study demonstrates the ability to perform in situ and non-destructive RHEED monitoring even on insulating substrates and could enable doped single crystals and crystalline substrates for a range of optoelectronic applications.

  11. Imaging pulsed laser deposition growth of homo-epitaxial SrTiO3 by low-energy electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Torren, A. J. H.; van der Molen, S. J.; Aarts, J.

    2016-12-01

    By combining low-energy electron microscopy with in situ pulsed laser deposition we have developed a new technique for film growth analysis, making use of both diffraction and real-space information. Working at the growth temperature, we can use: the intensity and profile variations of the specular beam to follow the coverage in a layer-by-layer fashion; real-space microscopy to follow e.g. atomic steps at the surface; and electron reflectivity to probe the unoccupied band structure of the grown material. Here, we demonstrate our methodology for homo-epitaxial growth of SrTiO3. Interestingly, the same combination of techniques will also be applicable to hetero-epitaxial oxide growth, largely extending the scope of research possibilities.

  12. Evolution of Mound Morphology in Reversible Homoepitaxy on Cu(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, J.; Wendelken, J.

    1997-04-01

    Evolution of mound morphology in reversible homoepitaxy on Cu(100) was studied via spot-profile-analysis (SPA) LEED and scanning tunneling microscopy. The mound separation shows coarsening vs growth time with L(t){approximately}t{sup 1/4}, in support of theory based on capillarity between mounds. The growth ultimately reaches a steady state characterized by a selected mound angle of {approximately}5.6{degree}. We suggest that this results from a downhill current driven by step edge line tension in balance with an uphill current due to the Schwoebel barrier effect. Also, we have clarified the interpretation for the evolution of the SPA-LEED profile from a ring structure to a single time-invariant peak. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Growth of Homoepitaxial ZnO Semiconducting Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Harris, M. T.; George, M. A.; McCarty, P.

    1999-01-01

    As a high temperature wide-band-gap (3.3 eV at room temperature) semiconductor, ZnO has been used for many applications such as wave-guides, solar cells, and surface acoustic wave devices, Since ZnO has a 60 meV excitonic binding energy that makes it possible to produce excitonic lasing at room temperature, a recent surge of interest is to synthesize ZnO films for UV/blue/green laser diodes. These applications require films with a smooth surface, good crystal quality, and low defect density. Thus, homoepitaxial film growth is the best choice. Homoepitaxial films have been studied in terms of morphology, crystal structure, and electrical and optical properties. ZnO single crystal substrates grown by the hydrothermal method are mechanically polished and annealed in air for four hours before the films are deposited. The annealing temperature-dependence on ZnO substrate morphology and electrical properties is investigated. Films are synthesized by off-axis reactive sputtering deposition. This produces films that have very smooth surfaces with roughness less than or equal to 5 nm on a 5 microns x 5 microns area. The full width at half maximum of film theta rocking curves measured by the x-ray diffraction is slightly larger than that of the crystal substrate. Films are also characterized by measuring resistivity, optical transmittance, and photoluminescence. The properties of ZnO films grown on (0001) ZnO and (0001) sapphire substrates will also be compared and discussed.

  14. Homoepitaxial Boron Doped Diamond Anvils as Heating Elements in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Jeffrey; Samudrala, Gopi; Smith, Spencer; Tsoi, Georgiy; Vohra, Yogesh; Weir, Samuel

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in designer-diamond technology have allowed for the use of electrically and thermally conducting homoepitaxially-grown layers of boron-doped diamond (grown at 1200 °C with a 2% mixture of CH4 in H, resulting in extremely high doping levels ~ 1020/cm3) to be used as heating elements in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). These diamonds allow for precise control of the temperature inside of the diamond anvil itself, particularly when coupled with a cryostat. Furthermore, the unmatched thermally conducting nature of diamond ensures that no significant lateral gradient in temperature occurs across the culet area. Since a thermocouple can easily be attached anywhere on the diamond surface, we can also measure diamond temperatures directly. With two such heaters, one can raise sample temperatures uniformly, or with any desired gradient along the pressure axis while preserving optical access. In our continuing set of benchmark experiments, we use two newly created matching heater anvils with 500 μm culets to analyze the various fluorescence emission lines of ruby microspheres, which show more complicated behavior than traditional ruby chips. We also report on the temperature dependence of the high-pressure Raman modes of paracetamol (C8H9NO2) up to 20 GPa.

  15. Self-organized homo-epitaxial growth of (001) vanadium assisted by oxygen surface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrieu, S.; Turban, P.; Kierren, B.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the effect of oxygen on the vanadium homoepitaxial growth process is analyzed by using Auger spectroscopy, electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. As the oxygen induced 1 × 5 surface structure got a lattice spacing 6% different from the pure V lattice, relaxation is observed by electron diffraction during the growth. The average in-plane lattice spacing is thus shown to be proportional to the oxygen surface concentration. The surface lattice relaxation is observed to exponentially vary with the number of deposited atomic planes. A kinetic model is proposed and allows us to explain these observations. Furthermore, it helps us to distinguish two regimes depending on growth temperature. At high temperature, the oxygen surface concentration during growth is due to oxygen upward diffusion from the underneath V layer. For lower temperature however, this upward diffusion is not efficient and another source of oxygen contamination is evidenced. When the oxygen surface concentration is sufficient, a spectacular self-organization is observed at the surface by surface microscopy. Ribbons shape islands are observed and are tentatively explained as a consequence of oxygen surface concentration and stress induced by the surface reconstruction.

  16. Donor and acceptor levels in ZnO homoepitaxial thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and doped with plasma-activated nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Muret, Pierre; Tainoff, Dimitri; Morhain, Christian; Chauveau, Jean-Michel

    2012-09-17

    Deep level transient spectroscopy of both majority and minority carrier traps is performed in a n-type, nitrogen doped homoepitaxial ZnO layer grown on a m-plane by molecular beam epitaxy. Deep levels, most of them being not detected in undoped ZnO, lie close to the band edges with ionization energies in the range 0.12-0.60 eV. The two hole traps with largest capture cross sections are likely acceptors, 0.19 and 0.48 eV from the valence band edge, able to be ionized below room temperature. These results are compared with theoretical predictions and other experimental data.

  17. Growth of Homoepitaxial ZnO Semiconducting Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Harris, M. T.; George, Michael A.; McCarty, P.

    1999-01-01

    As a high temperature semiconductor, ZnO has been used for many applications such as wave-guide, solar cells, and surface acoustic wave devices. Since the ZnO material has an energy gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature and an excitonic binding energy (60 meV) that is possible to make excitonic lasering at room temperature a recent surge of interest is to synthesize ZnO films for electro-optical devices. These applications require films with a smooth surface, good crystal quality, and low defect density. Homoepitaxial films have been studied in terms of morphology, crystal structure, and electrical and optical properties. ZnO single crystals are grown by the hydrothermal method. Substrates are mechanically polished and annealed in air for four hours before deposited films. The annealing temperature-dependence of ZnO substrates is studied. Films are synthesized by the off-axis reactive sputtering deposition. The films have very smooth surface with a roughness

  18. Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC films in a vertical hot-wall CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoguo, Yan; Feng, Zhang; Yingxi, Niu; Fei, Yang; Xingfang, Liu; Lei, Wang; Wanshun, Zhao; Guosheng, Sun; Yiping, Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC epilayers was performed on 4° off-axis 4H-SiC substrates in a home-made vertical hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system using H2-SiH4-C2H4-HCl. The effect of the SiH4/H2 ratio and reactor pressure on the growth rate of 4H-SiC epilayers has been studied successively. The growth rate increase in proportion to the SiH4/H2 ratio and the influence mechanism of chlorine has been investigated. With the reactor pressure increasing from 40 to 100 Torr, the growth rate increased to 52 μm/hand then decreased to 47 μm/h, which is due to the joint effect of H2 and HCl etching as well as the formation of Si clusters at higher reactor pressure. The surface root mean square (RMS) roughness keeps around 1 nm with the growth rate increasing to 49 μm/h. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrate that 96.7 μm thick 4H-SiC layers of good uniformity in thickness and doping with high crystal quality can be achieved. These results prove that chloride-based fast epitaxy is an advanced growth technique for 4H-SiC homoepitaxy. Project supported by the National High Technology R&D Program of China (No. 2014AA041402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474113, 61274007, 61574140), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 4132076, 4132074), the Program of State Grid Smart Grid Research Institute (No. SGRI-WD-71-14-004), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS.

  19. Tuning thermal conductivity in homoepitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films via defects

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Charles M.; Wilson, Richard B.; Cahill, David G.; Schäfer, Anna; Schubert, Jürgen; Mundy, Julia A.; Holtz, Megan E.; Muller, David A.; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2015-08-03

    We demonstrate the ability to tune the thermal conductivity of homoepitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films deposited by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy by varying growth temperature, oxidation environment, and cation stoichiometry. Both point defects and planar defects decrease the longitudinal thermal conductivity (k{sub 33}), with the greatest decrease in films of the same composition observed for films containing planar defects oriented perpendicular to the direction of heat flow. The longitudinal thermal conductivity can be modified by as much as 80%—from 11.5 W m{sup −1}K{sup −1} for stoichiometric homoepitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} to 2 W m{sup −1}K{sup −1} for strontium-rich homoepitaxial Sr{sub 1+δ}TiO{sub x} films—by incorporating (SrO){sub 2} Ruddlesden-Popper planar defects.

  20. Electrical mechanisms for carrier compensation in homoepitaxial nonpolar m-ZnO doped with nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, A.; Hierro, A.; Lopez-Ponce, M.; Tabares, G.; Chauveau, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    By combining photoluminescence, capacitance-voltage profiling and deep level optical spectroscopy, the optical and electrical signatures of the deep levels induced by N in MBE-grown homoepitaxial m-ZnO layers are identified and correlated to different physical origins. The films are electrically compensated, with carrier concentrations that decrease from ˜1 · 1016 cm-3 to ˜2 · 1015 cm-3 as a result of increasing N incorporation. Regardless of the presence of N, an intrinsic trap is found in all films at EV + 0.25 eV, most likely related to VZn defects. More interestingly, N induces three new deep levels close to the valence band whose bandgap position is electrically observed to be at EV + 0.48 eV, EV + 0.17 eV and EV + 0.12 eV. The deepest trap at EV + 0.48 eV correlates well with a N-induced level observed in previous studies on both ZnMgO and ZnO films. The EV + 0.17 eV trap behaves as a minority (hole) carrier trap, and can be uniquely correlated with the acceptor level involved in the N-induced DAP emission observed in the photoluminescence spectra. Finally, the shallowest level at EV + 0.12 eV shows an electrical signature completely distinguishable from the EV + 0.17 eV level, and dominates the deep level spectra after N-incorporation with a trap concentration of ˜1.2 · 1015 cm-3.

  1. Homoepitaxial SrTiO3(111) Film with High Dielectric Performance and Atomically Well-Defined Surface

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Li, Wentao; Zhang, Shuyuan; Lin, Chaojing; Li, Chao; Yao, Yuan; Li, Yongqing; Yang, Hao; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-01-01

    The six-fold symmetry possessed by the (111) surfaces of perovskite oxides allows the epitaxial growth of novel quantum materials such as topological insulators. The dielectric SrTiO3(111) thin film is an ideal buffer layer, providing the readily tunability of charge density in gate-controlled structures. But the high-quality film growth is challenging due to its strong surface polarity as well as the difficulty of obtaining the chemical stoichiometry. Here we show that the layer-by-layer growth of homoepitaxial SrTiO3(111) thin films can be achieved in molecular beam epitaxy method by keeping the growing surface reconstructed. And the cation stoichiometry is optimized precisely with the reflective high energy electron diffraction as the feedback signal that changes sensitively to the variation of metal concentration during growth. With atomically well-defined surfaces, the SrTiO3(111) films show high dielectric performance with the charge density modulated in the range of 2 × 1013/cm2 with the back gate voltage lower than 0.2 V. Methods of further broadening the range are also discussed. PMID:26073468

  2. Homoepitaxial growth of β-Ga2O3 thin films by low pressure chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Subrina; Han, Lu; Tadjer, Marko J.; Freitas, Jaime A.; Mahadik, Nadeemullah A.; Zhao, Hongping

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the homoepitaxial growth of phase pure (010) β-Ga2O3 thin films on (010) β-Ga2O3 substrate by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The effects of growth temperature on the surface morphology and crystal quality of the thin films were systematically investigated. The thin films were synthesized using high purity metallic gallium (Ga) and oxygen (O2) as precursors for gallium and oxygen, respectively. The surface morphology and structural properties of the thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Material characterization indicates the growth temperature played an important role in controlling both surface morphology and crystal quality of the β-Ga2O3 thin films. The smallest root-mean-square surface roughness of ˜7 nm was for thin films grown at a temperature of 950 °C, whereas the highest growth rate (˜1.3 μm/h) with a fixed oxygen flow rate was obtained for the epitaxial layers grown at 850 °C.

  3. Using the graphene Moiré pattern for the trapping of C60 and homoepitaxy of graphene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiong; Yeo, Pei Shan Emmeline; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Bao, Qiaoliang; Gan, Chee Kwan; Loh, Kian Ping

    2012-01-24

    The graphene Moiré superstructure offers a complex landscape of humps and valleys to molecules adsorbing and diffusing on it. Using C(60) molecules as the classic hard sphere analogue, we examine its assembly and layered growth on this corrugated landscape. At the monolayer level, the cohesive interactions of C(60) molecules adsorbing on the Moiré lattice freeze the molecular rotation of C(60) trapped in the valley sites, resulting in molecular alignment of all similarly trapped C(60) molecules at room temperature. The hierarchy of adsorption potential well on the Moiré lattice causes diffusion-limited dendritic growth of C(60) films, as opposed to isotropic growth observed on a smooth surface like graphite. Due to the strong binding energy of the C(60) film, part of the dentritic C(60) films polymerize at 850 K and act as solid carbon sources for graphene homoepitaxy. Our findings point to the possibility of using periodically corrugated graphene in molecular spintronics due to its ability to trap and align organic molecules at room temperature.

  4. Potential energy barriers for interlayer mass transport in homoepitaxial growth on fcc(111) surfaces: Pt and Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinggang; DePristo, Andrew E.

    1994-11-01

    The efficiency of interlayer mass transport determines the growth mode and film quality in molecular beam epitaxy. In this paper we report potential energy barriers (PEB) to interlayer diffusion for Pt and Ag homoepitaxial growth on fcc (111) surfaces, as calculated using the corrected effective medium theory. Various island structures were considered. The island sizes ranged from 3- to about 60-atom islands and to various steps ("infinite" large islands). We found that jumping directly over the island edge has a much higher PEB than does the so-called displacement-exchange mechanism. Exchange at edges with kink sites also had a higher or comparable PEB to those at the straight (perfect) edges, contrary to previous speculations [M. Henzler, T. Schmidt and E.Z. Luo, in: The Structure of Surfaces IV (World Scientific, Signapore, 1994)]. The PEB depended strongly on the local atomic arrangement but was insensitive to the global island size and shape as long as the island edges were at least five atoms long. For the displacement-exchange process, the PEB did not decrease monotonically with decreasing island size over the entire island size range. For very small islands of less than ten atoms the PEB increased abruptly by an order of magnitude. This qualitative behavior was exhibited by both Pt and Ag systems but the two differed quantitatively for island sizes above ten atoms. We discuss the relevance of these results to the experimental observations, i.e., the reentrant growth in Pt [R. Kunkel, B. Poelsema, L.K. Verheij and G. Comsa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65 (1990) 733], layer-by-layer growth in Ag induced by surfactant [H.A. van der Vegt, H.M. van Pinxteren, M. Lohmerier and E. Vlieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 (1992) 3335] or by high-density of islands [G. Rosenfeld, R. Servaty, C. Teichert, B. Poelsema and G. Comsa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 (1993) 895 ], as well as the different growth behaviors found in the two systems.

  5. Modeling RHEED intensity oscillations in multilayer epitaxy: Determination of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier in Ge(001) homoepitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Byungha; Aziz, Michael J.

    2007-10-15

    We report the study of submonolayer growth of Ge(001) homoepitaxy by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures, 100-150 deg. C, using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) intensity oscillations obtained for a range of low incidence angles, where the influence of the dynamical nature of electron scattering such as the Kikuchi features is minimized. We develop a model for the RHEED specular intensity in multilayer growth that includes the diffuse scattering off surface steps and the layer interference between terraces of different heights using the kinematic approximation. The model describes the measured RHEED intensity oscillations very well for the entire range of incidence angles studied. We show that the first intensity minimum occurs well above 0.5 ML (monolayer) of the total deposited coverage, which contradicts the common practice of assigning the intensity minimum to 0.5 ML. By using the model to interpret the measured RHEED intensity, we find the evolution of the coverage of the first 1-2 ML. We find that second-layer nucleation takes place at low coverage, 0.3 ML, implying a substantial Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier. The value inferred for the ES barrier height, 0.084{+-}0.019 eV, includes an analysis of the beam steering effect by step edges. Comparison is made with the value of the barrier height inferred from other measurements. The model for RHEED intensity and the method of inferring the ES barrier height can be applied to any system for which RHEED measurements can be obtained without interference from Kikuchi features.

  6. High-quality and high-purity homoepitaxial diamond (100) film growth under high oxygen concentration condition

    SciTech Connect

    Teraji, Tokuyuki

    2015-09-21

    Defect formation during diamond homoepitaxial growth was sufficiently inhibited by adding oxygen simultaneously in the growth ambient with high concentration of 2%. A 30-μm thick diamond films with surface roughness of <2 nm were homoepitaxially deposited on the (100) diamond single crystal substrates with reasonable growth rate of approximately 3 μm h{sup −1} under the conditions of higher methane concentration of 10%, higher substrate temperature of ∼1000 °C, and higher microwave power density condition of >100 W cm{sup −3}. Surface characteristic patterns moved to an identical direction with growth thickness, indicating that lateral growth was dominant growth mode. High chemical purity represented by low nitrogen concentration of less than 1 ppb and the highest {sup 12}C isotopic ratio of 99.998% of the obtained homoepitaxial diamond (100) films suggest that the proposed growth condition has high ability of impurity control.

  7. Submonolayer nucleation and growth and the initial stage of multilayer kinetic roughening during Ag/Ag (100) homoepitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.

    1996-08-01

    A comprehensive Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) study of submonolayer nucleation and growth of 2D islands in Ag/Ag(100) homoepitaxy for temperature between 295K and 370K is presented. The initial stages of multilayer kinetic roughening is also studied. Analysis of an appropriate model for metal (100) homoepitaxy, produces estimates of 350 meV for the terrace diffusion barrier, 400 meV for the adatom bond energy, and 25 meV for the additional Ehrlich-Schwoebel step-edge barrier.

  8. Growth rate and quality variation of homoepitaxial diamond grown at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, R. A.; Thorpe, T. P.; Snail, K. A.

    1995-01-01

    Homoepitaxial diamond films were grown at temperatures between 1000 and 1400 C with an oxy-acetylene torch. The growth rates of the (100) and (111) faces were observed to increase through 1400 C, while the (110) face did not grow above 1400 C. The quality of all faces deteriorated significantly between 1300 and 1400 C, as shown by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The transparency of a film as measured by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was type-IIa quality with very little C-H absorption.

  9. Hydrogenated Graphene as a Homoepitaxial Tunnel Barrier for Spin and Charge Transport in Graphene.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Adam L; van 't Erve, Olaf M J; Robinson, Jeremy T; Whitener, Keith E; Jonker, Berend T

    2015-07-28

    We demonstrate that hydrogenated graphene performs as a homoepitaxial tunnel barrier on a graphene charge/spin channel. We examine the tunneling behavior through measuring the IV curves and zero bias resistance. We also fabricate hydrogenated graphene/graphene nonlocal spin valves and measure the spin lifetimes using the Hanle effect, with spintronic nonlocal spin valve operation demonstrated up to room temperature. We show that while hydrogenated graphene indeed allows for spin transport in graphene and has many advantages over oxide tunnel barriers, it does not perform as well as similar fluorinated graphene/graphene devices, possibly due to the presence of magnetic moments in the hydrogenated graphene that act as spin scatterers.

  10. Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. J.; Perillat-Merceroz, G.; Sam-Giao, D.; Durand, C.; Eymery, J.

    2010-10-01

    The shape of c-oriented GaN nanostructures is found to be directly related to the crystal polarity. As evidenced by convergent beam electron diffraction applied to GaN nanostructures grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates: wires grown on nitridated sapphire have the N-polarity ([0001¯]) whereas pyramidal crystals have Ga-polarity ([0001]). In the case of homoepitaxy, the GaN wires can be directly selected using N-polar GaN freestanding substrates and exhibit good optical properties. A schematic representation of the kinetic Wulff's plot points out the effect of surface polarity.

  11. Homoepitaxial meso- and microscale crystal co-orientation and organic matrix network structure in Mytilus edulis nacre and calcite.

    PubMed

    Griesshaber, Erika; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Ubhi, Harbinder Singh; Huber, Julia; Nindiyasari, Fitriana; Maier, Bernd; Ziegler, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    New developments in high-resolution, low accelaration voltage electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) enable us to resolve and quantify the co-orientation of nanocrystals constituting biological carbonate crystals with a scan step resolution of 125 nm. This allows the investigation of internal structures in carbonate tablets and tower biocrystals in the nacre of mollusc shells, and it provides details on the calcite-aragonite polymorph interface in bivalves. Within the aragonite tablets of Mytilus edulis nacre we find a mesoscale crystallographic mosaic structure with a misorientation distribution of 2° full width at half maximum. Selective etching techniques with critical point drying reveal an organic matrix network inside the nacre tablets. The size scales of the visible aragonite tablet subunits and nanoparticles correspond to those of the open pore system in the organic matrix network. We further observe by EBSD that crystal co-orientation spans over tablet boundaries and forms composite crystal units of up to 20 stacked co-oriented tablets (tower crystals). Statistical evaluation of the misorientation data gives a probability distribution of grain boundary misorientations with two maxima: a dominant peak for very-small-angle grain boundaries and a small maximum near 64°, the latter corresponding to {110} twinning orientations. However, the related twin boundaries are typically the membrane-lined {001} flat faces of the tablets and not {110} twin walls within tablets. We attribute this specific pattern of misorientation distribution to growth by particle accretion and subsequent semicoherent homoepitaxial crystallization. The semicoherent crystallization percolates between the tablets through mineral bridges and across matrix membranes surrounding the tablets. In the "prismatic" calcite layer crystallographic co-orientation of the prisms reaches over more than 50 micrometers.

  12. Effect of substrate orientation on CdS homoepitaxy by molecular dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Almeida, S.; Chavez, J. J.; Zhou, X. W.; ...

    2016-02-10

    CdS homoepitaxy growth was performed by molecular dynamics using different substrate orientations and structures in order to analyze the CdS crystallinity. As anticipated from thermodynamics of homoepitaxy, highly crystalline films with only point defects were obtained on substrates with rectangular surface geometries, including View the MathML source[112¯] zinc blende (ZB), [101¯0] wurtzite (WZ), [112¯0] WZ, [110][110] ZB, [010][010] ZB, and View the MathML source[1101110] ZB. In contrast, films grown on substrates with hexagonal surface geometries, corresponding to the [0001][0001] WZ and [111][111] ZB growth directions, showed structures with a large number of defects including; anti-sites, vacancies, stacking faults, twinning, andmore » polytypism. WZ and ZB transitions and grain boundaries are identified using a lattice identification algorithm and represented graphically in a structural map. A dislocation analysis was performed to detect, identify, and quantify linear defects within the atomistic data. Systematic simulations using different temperatures, deposition rates, and substrate polarities were perform to analyze the trends of dislocation densities on [0001][0001] WZ direction and showed persistent polytypism. As a result, the polytypism observed in the films grown on the substrates with hexagonal surface geometry is attributed to the similar formation energies of the WZ and ZB phases.« less

  13. Nitrogen and silicon defect incorporation during homoepitaxial CVD diamond growth on (111) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Samuel L.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond growth on (111)-diamond surfaces has received increased attention lately because of the use of N-V related centers in quantum computing as well as application of these defect centers in sensing nano-Tesla strength magnetic fields. We have carried out a detailed study of homoepitaxial diamond deposition on (111)-single crystal diamond (SCD) surfaces using a 1.2 kW microwave plasma CVD (MPCVD) system employing methane/hydrogen/nitrogen/oxygen gas phase chemistry. We have utilized Type Ib (111)-oriented single crystal diamonds as seed crystals in our study. The homoepitaxially grown diamond films were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The nitrogen concentration in the plasma was carefully varied between 0 and 1500 ppm while a ppm level of silicon impurity is present in the plasma from the quartz bell jar. The concentration of N-V defect centers with PL zero phonon lines (ZPL) at 575nm and 637nm and the Si-defect center with a ZPL at 737nm were experimentally detected from a variation in CVD growth conditions and were quantitatively studied. As a result, altering nitrogen and oxygen concentration in the plasma was observed to directly affect N-V and Si-defect incorporation into the (111)-oriented diamond lattice and these findings are presented.

  14. Nitrogen and silicon defect incorporation during homoepitaxial CVD diamond growth on (111) surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Moore, Samuel L.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond growth on (111)-diamond surfaces has received increased attention lately because of the use of N-V related centers in quantum computing as well as application of these defect centers in sensing nano-Tesla strength magnetic fields. We have carried out a detailed study of homoepitaxial diamond deposition on (111)-single crystal diamond (SCD) surfaces using a 1.2 kW microwave plasma CVD (MPCVD) system employing methane/hydrogen/nitrogen/oxygen gas phase chemistry. We have utilized Type Ib (111)-oriented single crystal diamonds as seed crystals in our study. The homoepitaxially grown diamond films were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL), X-ray Photoelectronmore » Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The nitrogen concentration in the plasma was carefully varied between 0 and 1500 ppm while a ppm level of silicon impurity is present in the plasma from the quartz bell jar. The concentration of N-V defect centers with PL zero phonon lines (ZPL) at 575nm and 637nm and the Si-defect center with a ZPL at 737nm were experimentally detected from a variation in CVD growth conditions and were quantitatively studied. As a result, altering nitrogen and oxygen concentration in the plasma was observed to directly affect N-V and Si-defect incorporation into the (111)-oriented diamond lattice and these findings are presented.« less

  15. Effect of substrate orientation on CdS homoepitaxy by molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, S.; Chavez, J. J.; Zhou, X. W.; Zubia, D.

    2016-02-10

    CdS homoepitaxy growth was performed by molecular dynamics using different substrate orientations and structures in order to analyze the CdS crystallinity. As anticipated from thermodynamics of homoepitaxy, highly crystalline films with only point defects were obtained on substrates with rectangular surface geometries, including View the MathML source[112¯] zinc blende (ZB), [101¯0] wurtzite (WZ), [112¯0] WZ, [110][110] ZB, [010][010] ZB, and View the MathML source[1101110] ZB. In contrast, films grown on substrates with hexagonal surface geometries, corresponding to the [0001][0001] WZ and [111][111] ZB growth directions, showed structures with a large number of defects including; anti-sites, vacancies, stacking faults, twinning, and polytypism. WZ and ZB transitions and grain boundaries are identified using a lattice identification algorithm and represented graphically in a structural map. A dislocation analysis was performed to detect, identify, and quantify linear defects within the atomistic data. Systematic simulations using different temperatures, deposition rates, and substrate polarities were perform to analyze the trends of dislocation densities on [0001][0001] WZ direction and showed persistent polytypism. As a result, the polytypism observed in the films grown on the substrates with hexagonal surface geometry is attributed to the similar formation energies of the WZ and ZB phases.

  16. Thick homoepitaxial (110)-oriented phosphorus-doped n-type diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, Y.; Pobedinskas, P.; Janssens, S. D.; Sakr, G.; Jomard, F.; Turner, S.; Lu, Y.-G.; Dexters, W.; Soltani, A.; Verbeeck, J.; Barjon, J.; Nesládek, M.; Haenen, K.

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of n-type diamond is essential for the realization of electronic components for extreme environments. We report on the growth of a 66 μm thick homoepitaxial phosphorus-doped diamond on a (110)-oriented diamond substrate, grown at a very high deposition rate of 33 μm h-1. A pristine diamond lattice is observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, which indicates the growth of high quality diamond. About 2.9 × 1016 cm-3 phosphorus atoms are electrically active as substitutional donors, which is 60% of all incorporated dopant atoms. These results indicate that P-doped (110)-oriented diamond films deposited at high growth rates are promising candidates for future use in high-power electronic applications.

  17. Homoepitaxial n-core: p-shell gallium nitride nanowires: HVPE overgrowth on MBE nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Aric; Blanchard, Paul; Bertness, Kris; Brubaker, Matthew; Dodson, Christopher; Harvey, Todd; Herrero, Andrew; Rourke, Devin; Schlager, John; Sanford, Norman; Chiaramonti, Ann N; Davydov, Albert; Motayed, Abhishek; Tsvetkov, Denis

    2011-11-18

    We present the homoepitaxial growth of p-type, magnesium doped gallium nitride shells by use of halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on n-type gallium nitride nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Scanning electron microscopy shows clear dopant contrast between the core and shell of the nanowire. The growth of magnesium doped nanowire shells shows little or no effect on the lattice parameters of the underlying nanowires, as measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence measurements of the nanowires show the appearance of sub-bandgap features in the blue and the ultraviolet, indicating the presence of acceptors. Finally, electrical measurements confirm the presence of electrically active holes in the nanowires.

  18. Electric field breakdown of lateral-type Schottky diodes formed on lightly doped homoepitaxial diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraji, Tokuyuki; Koizumi, Satoshi; Koide, Yasuo; Ito, Toshimichi

    2008-07-01

    The reverse current of lateral-type Schottky diodes fabricated on p-type homoepitaxial diamond was analyzed by changing the distance between Schottky and Ohmic electrodes and the metal materials in the Schottky electrodes. The maximum electric field at breakdown was 0.56 MV cm -1 for the Au Schottky contact and less than 0.26 MV cm -1 for the Al Schottky contact. The breakdown voltage depended on the electrode distance when the diamond surface was revealed in vacuum, whereas the Schottky diodes sustained the applied voltage of 500 V, corresponding to 0.69 MV cm -1, after covering of the diamond surface with an insulating liquid. Diamond surface protection is an indispensable technique for fabrication of high-voltage Schottky diodes based on diamond.

  19. Surface preparation and homoepitaxial deposition of AlN on (0001)-oriented AlN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A.; Collazo, R.; Tweedie, J.; Dalmau, R.; Mita, S.; Xie, J.; Sitar, Z.

    2010-08-01

    Chemical surface treatments were conducted on mechanically polished (MP) and chemomechanically polished (CMP) (0001)-oriented single crystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) substrates to determine a surface preparation procedure for the homoepitaxial deposition of AlN epitaxial layers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. MP AlN substrates characterized by atomic force microscopy exhibited 0.5 nm rms roughness and polishing scratches, while CMP AlN substrates exhibited 0.1 nm rms roughness and were scratch-free. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of MP and CMP AlN substrates indicated the presence of a surface hydroxide layer composed of mixed aluminum oxide hydroxide and aluminum trihydroxide. Wet etching with sulfuric and phosphoric acid mixtures reduced the amount of surface hydroxide. Ammonia annealing at 1250 °C converted the substrate hydroxide layer to AlN and increased the rms roughness of MP and CMP AlN substrates to 2.2 nm and 0.2 nm, respectively. AlN epitaxial layers were deposited at 1100-1250 °C under 20 Torr total pressure with a V/III ratio of 180-300 in either N2 or H2 diluent. High-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements revealed that AlN epitaxial layers deposited on MP substrates were strained due to nucleation and coalescence of AlN grains on the mechanically damaged surfaces. AlN deposited on CMP substrates was epitaxial and strain-free. Thermodynamic models for nitridation and AlN deposition were also proposed and evaluated.

  20. Precise control of photoluminescence of silicon-vacancy color centers in homoepitaxial single-crystal diamond: evaluation of efficiency of Si doping from gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralchenko, Victor; Sedov, Vadim; Saraykin, Vladimir; Bolshakov, Andrey; Zavedeev, Evgeny; Ashkinazi, Evgeny; Khomich, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Ability to precisely control the Si-related color center abundance in diamond is important for the use of silicon-vacancy (SiV) defects with bright photoluminescence (PL) in quantum information technologies and optical biomarkers. Here, we evaluated the efficiency of Si incorporation in (100) plane of homoepitaxial diamond layers upon in situ doping by adding silane SiH4 in the course of diamond chemical vapor deposition in microwave plasma using CH4-H2 mixtures. Both the Si concentration in the doped samples, as determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and PL intensity of SiV centers at 738 nm wavelength, measured at excitation wavelength of 473 nm, demonstrate a linear increase with silane content in feed gas in the range. The incorporation efficiency f, defined as the ratio of Si concentration in diamond to that in gas, f = [Si/C]dia/[Si/C]gas is found to be (1.1 ± 0.5) × 10-3 for the silane concentrations explored, [SiH4/CH4] < 0.7 %; thus, the Si atoms are accommodated in (100) diamond face easier than nitrogen and phosphorus, but more difficult than boron. This finding allows a tailoring of the Si content and photoluminescence intensity of SiV centers in in situ doped CVD diamond.

  1. Nanoscale conductive pattern of the homoepitaxial AlGaN/GaN transistor.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tomás, A; Catalàn, G; Fontserè, A; Iglesias, V; Chen, H; Gammon, P M; Jennings, M R; Thomas, M; Fisher, C A; Sharma, Y K; Placidi, M; Chmielowska, M; Chenot, S; Porti, M; Nafría, M; Cordier, Y

    2015-03-20

    The gallium nitride (GaN)-based buffer/barrier mode of growth and morphology, the transistor electrical response (25-310 °C) and the nanoscale pattern of a homoepitaxial AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) have been investigated at the micro and nanoscale. The low channel sheet resistance and the enhanced heat dissipation allow a highly conductive HEMT transistor (Ids > 1 A mm(-1)) to be defined (0.5 A mm(-1) at 300 °C). The vertical breakdown voltage has been determined to be ∼850 V with the vertical drain-bulk (or gate-bulk) current following the hopping mechanism, with an activation energy of 350 meV. The conductive atomic force microscopy nanoscale current pattern does not unequivocally follow the molecular beam epitaxy AlGaN/GaN morphology but it suggests that the FS-GaN substrate presents a series of preferential conductive spots (conductive patches). Both the estimated patches density and the apparent random distribution appear to correlate with the edge-pit dislocations observed via cathodoluminescence. The sub-surface edge-pit dislocations originating in the FS-GaN substrate result in barrier height inhomogeneity within the HEMT Schottky gate producing a subthreshold current.

  2. Sequential pulsed laser deposition of homoepitaxial SrTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenendijk, D. J.; Gariglio, S.

    2016-12-01

    The control of thin film stoichiometry is of primary relevance to achieve desired functionality. Pulsed laser deposition ablating from binary-oxide targets (sequential deposition) can be applied to precisely control the film composition, offsetting the importance of growth conditions on the film stoichiometry. In this work, we demonstrate that the cation stoichiometry of SrTiO3 thin films can be finely tuned by sequential deposition from SrO and TiO2 targets. Homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films were deposited at different substrate temperatures and Ti/Sr pulse ratios, allowing the establishment of a growth window for stoichiometric SrTiO3. The growth kinetics and nucleation processes were studied by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy, providing information about the growth mode and the degree of off-stoichiometry. At the optimal (stoichiometric) growth conditions, films exhibit atomically flat surfaces, whereas off-stoichiometry is accommodated by crystal defects, 3D islands, and/or surface precipitates depending on the substrate temperature and the excess cation. This technique opens the way to precisely control stoichiometry and doping of oxide thin films.

  3. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Homoepitaxial diamond films on diamond anvils with metallic probes: the diamond/metal interface up to 74 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catledge, Shane A.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Weir, Samuel T.; Akella, Jagan

    1997-02-01

    A (100)-oriented natural type-Ia brilliant-cut diamond anvil with thin zirconium electrical probes sputtered onto the culet was coated with an insulating film of diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD). The critical issue in this high-pressure study is the quality of the homoepitaxial diamond film and its correlation with the mechanical strength of the diamond film/metallic probe interface. We report the first high-pressure study on a homoepitaxial diamond film and underlying zirconium probes to a pressure of 74 GPa. The metallic probes were observed through a transparent lithium fluoride sample with ruby serving as a pressure sensor. After decompression, Raman spectroscopy revealed that the homoepitaxial film was free from deformation and delamination despite the presence of some 0953-8984/9/7/001/img7-bonded carbon at the Zr/diamond interface and within the bulk of the film itself. The present study demonstrates that the presence of residual defects and graphitic impurities has no significant effect on high-pressure applications of homoepitaxial diamond films. This opens up new areas of research with diamond anvil cell devices including those of ohmic heating and electrical transport measurements at ultra-high pressures.

  4. Homoepitaxial and Heteroepitaxial Growth on Step-Free SiC Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the initial discovery and development of new approaches to SiC homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial growth. These approaches are based upon the previously unanticipated ability to effectively supress two-dimensional nucleation of 3C-SiC on large basal plane terraces that form between growth steps when epitaxy is carried out on 4H- and 6H-SiC nearly on-axis substrates. After subdividing the growth surface into mesa regions, pure stepflow homoeptixay with no terrace nucleation was then used to grow all existing surface steps off the edges of screw-dislocation-free mesas, leaving behind perfectly on-axis (0001) basal plane mesa surfaces completely free of atomic-scale steps. Step-free mesa surfaces as large as 0.4 mm x 0.4 mm were experimentally realized, with the yield and size of step-free mesas being initally limited by substrate screw dislocations. Continued epitaxial growth following step-free surface formation leads to the formation of thin lateral cantilevers that extend the step-free surface area from the top edge of the mesa sidewalls. By selecting a proper pre-growth mesa shape and crystallographic orientation, the rate of cantilever growth can be greatly enhanced in a web growth process that has been used to (1) enlarge step-free surface areas and (2) overgrow and laterally relocate micropipes and screw dislocations. A new growth process, named step-free surface heteroepitaxy, has been developed to achieve 3C-SiC films on 4H- and 6H-SiC substrate mesas completely free of double positioning boundary and stacking fault defects. The process is based upon the controlled terrace nucleation and lateral expansion of a single island of 3C-SiC across a step-free mesa surface. Experimental results indicate that substrateepilayer lattice mismatch is at least partially relieved parallel to the interface without dislocations that undesirably thread through the thickness of the epilayer. These results should enable realization of improved Si

  5. Lattice location of phosphorus in n-type homoepitaxial diamond films grown by chemical-vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Masataka; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Koizumi, Satoshi

    2001-11-01

    The lattice location of phosphorus dopant atoms in n-type homoepitaxial diamond {111} films grown by chemical-vapor deposition has been investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and particle-induced x-ray emission under ion-channeling conditions. It is found that phosphorus dopant atoms occupy the substitutional sites almost completely in the host diamond lattice. The substitutional fraction of phosphorus was more than 0.9 for <011> and <111> directions. Present observation implies that the deep ground-state energy level of phosphorus in diamond, which is at 0.6 eV below the bottom of the conduction band, is attributed to the relaxation of surrounding carbon atoms.

  6. Interplay of point defects, biaxial strain, and thermal conductivity in homoepitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedigen, S.; Kramer, T.; Knorr, I.; Nee, N.; Hoffmann, J.; Volkert, C. A.; Jooss, Ch.; Feuchter, M.; Kamlah, M.

    2012-02-06

    Separating out effects of point defects and lattice strain on thermal conductivity is essential for improvement of thermoelectric properties of SrTiO{sub 3}. We study relations between defects generated during deposition, induced lattice strain, and their impact on thermal conductivity {kappa} in homoepitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films prepared by ion-beam sputtering. Lowering the deposition temperature gives rise to lattice expansion by enhancement of point defect density which increases the hardness of the films. Due to a fully coherent substrate-film interface, the lattice misfit induces a large biaxial strain. However, we can show that the temperature dependence of {kappa} is mainly sensitive on the defect concentration.

  7. Effects of hydrogen addition and growth-etch cycling on the oxy-acetylene torch deposition of homoepitaxial diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, R. A.; Thorpe, T. P.; Snail, K. A.; Merzbacher, C. E.

    1995-09-01

    Homoepitaxial diamond films were deposited onto (110) single crystal substrates using oxy-acetylene torch deposition at a constant substrate temperature of 1150 °C. Growth-etch cycling of the deposition increased the linear growth rates of the (100) and (111) faces by a factor of 2. The growth-etch films were shown to be less transparent in the infrared than the reference depositions as determined by microfocus Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Using the growth-etch technique, the growth rates of the (100), (111), and (110) faces decreased with increasing hydrogen addition to the combustion flame for hydrogen flow rates up to 50% of the acetylene flow rate. The additional hydrogen did not improve the growth-etch films' transparency.

  8. On the phase shift of reflection high energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations during Ge(001) homoepitaxy by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Shin Byungha; Leonard, John P.; McCamy, James W.; Aziz, Michael J.

    2007-03-15

    The authors have conducted a systematic investigation of the phase shift of the reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) intensity oscillations during homoepitaxy of Ge(001) by molecular beam epitaxy for a wide range of diffraction conditions. Their results show that for small incidence angles with a beam azimuth several degrees away from the <110> crystallographic symmetry direction, the phase is independent of incidence angle; however, it starts to shift once the incidence angle is high enough that the (004) Kikuchi line appears in the RHEED pattern. Moreover, under some conditions they observe the oscillations from only the Kikuchi feature and not from the specular spot, and the oscillatory behavior of the Kikuchi feature is almost out of phase with that of the specular spot. They conclude that the phase shift is caused by the overlap of the specular spot and the Kikuchi features, in contrast to models involving dynamical scattering theory for the phase shift. They discuss necessary conditions for avoiding interference.

  9. In-situ x-ray scattering investigation of strain in thin-film morphological evolution of homoepitaxial Ag(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, S. T.; Kim, C.; Conrad, E. H.; Gramlich, M. W.; Miceli, P. F.

    2010-03-01

    Because it escapes detection in most experimental probes of surfaces, the role of strain during film growth has not been widely investigated. However, large strain fields arise from vacancy nano-clusters [C. Kim et al., APL 91, 093131 (2007)] that can be incorporated during film growth at lower temperatures. It has also been suggested that extreme surface morphologies, resulting from a deposition flux at grazing angles, might lead to significant strain [Y. Shim et. al., PRL 101, 11601 (2008)]. Because of its simultaneous sensitivity to both the surface and the subsurface, x-ray scattering is a particularly valuable technique for exploring the role of strain in epitaxial crystal growth. This talk will discuss our recent in-situ x-ray diffuse scattering and reflectivity measurements, performed at the Advanced Photon Source, which investigate the low temperature homoepitaxial growth of Ag(001).

  10. Properties of the State of the Art of Bulk III-V Nitride Substrates and Homoepitaxial Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Schwalter L J, Susterman Y, Wang R, Bhat I, Arunmozhi G and Slack G A 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 985 [25] Schwalter L J, Rojo J C, Slack G A, Susterman Y...Wang R, Bhat I and Arunmozhi G 2000 J. Cryst. Growth 211 78 [26] Rojo J C, Slack G A, Morgan K, Raghothamachar B, Dudley M and Schwalter L J 2000 J

  11. Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films by pulsed laser epitaxy in high vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Ambrose Seo, Sung S.; Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    In many transition metal oxides, oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most critical parameters that plays a key role in determining the structural, physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the material. However, controlling the growth to obtain high quality single crystal films having the right oxygen stoichiometry, especially in a high vacuum environment, has been viewed as a challenge. In this work, we show that, through proper control of the plume kinetic energy, stoichiometric crystalline films can be synthesized without generating oxygen defects even in high vacuum. We use a model homoepitaxial system of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on single crystal STO substrates. Physical property measurements indicate that oxygen vacancy generation in high vacuum is strongly influenced by the energetics of the laser plume, and it can be controlled by proper laser beam delivery. Therefore, our finding not only provides essential insight into oxygen stoichiometry control in high vacuum for understanding the fundamental properties of STO-based thin films and heterostructures, but expands the utility of pulsed laser epitaxy of other materials as well. PMID:26823119

  12. Analytic formulations for one-dimensional decay of rectangular homoepitaxial islands during coarsening on anisotropic fcc (110) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chi-Jen; Han, Yong; Walen, Holly; Russell, Selena M.; Thiel, Patricia A.; Evans, James W.

    2013-10-01

    Submonolayer homoepitaxial fcc (110) systems display behavior reflecting strong anisotropy at lower temperatures, including one-dimensional decay during Ostwald ripening of rectangular islands maintaining constant width in the (001) direction. To appropriately describe this behavior, we first develop a refined continuum Burton-Cabrera-Frank formalism, which accounts for a lack of equilibration of island shape and importantly also for inhibited incorporation of adatoms at almost-faceted (1¯10) island edges through effective kinetic coefficients. This formalism is shown to describe accurately the adatom diffusion fluxes between islands and thus island evolution for a complex experimental island configuration, as confirmed by matching results from realistic atomistic simulations for this configuration. This approach also elucidates basic dependencies of flux on island geometry and temperature. Second, a further refinement is presented incorporating separate terrace and edge adatom density fields either in a continuum setting or alternatively in a spatially discrete diffusion equation setting. The second approach allows more flexibility and accuracy in accounting for edge-diffusion kinetics including corner rounding, a lack of equilibration of the edge adatom density at (1¯10) island edges, and the effect of rare kinks on (1¯10) island edges. Finally and significantly, it suggests facile two-way corner rounding at the island periphery during island decay, contrasting the previous picture.

  13. Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films by pulsed laser epitaxy in high vacuum

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Ambrose Seo, Sung S.; Choi, Woo Seok; ...

    2016-01-29

    In many transition metal oxides, oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most critical parameters that plays a key role in determining the structural, physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the material. However, controlling the growth to obtain high quality single crystal films having the right oxygen stoichiometry, especially in a high vacuum environment, has been viewed as a challenge. In this work, we show that, through proper control of the plume kinetic energy, stoichiometric crystalline films can be synthesized without generating oxygen defects even in high vacuum. We use a model homoepitaxial system of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on singlemore » crystal STO substrates. Physical property measurements indicate that oxygen vacancy generation in high vacuum is strongly influenced by the energetics of the laser plume, and it can be controlled by proper laser beam delivery. Thus, our finding not only provides essential insight into oxygen stoichiometry control in high vacuum for understanding the fundamental properties of STO-based thin films and heterostructures, but it expands the utility of pulsed laser epitaxy of other materials as well.₃« less

  14. Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films by pulsed laser epitaxy in high vacuum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Ambrose Seo, Sung S; Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M

    2016-01-29

    In many transition metal oxides, oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most critical parameters that plays a key role in determining the structural, physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the material. However, controlling the growth to obtain high quality single crystal films having the right oxygen stoichiometry, especially in a high vacuum environment, has been viewed as a challenge. In this work, we show that, through proper control of the plume kinetic energy, stoichiometric crystalline films can be synthesized without generating oxygen defects even in high vacuum. We use a model homoepitaxial system of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on single crystal STO substrates. Physical property measurements indicate that oxygen vacancy generation in high vacuum is strongly influenced by the energetics of the laser plume, and it can be controlled by proper laser beam delivery. Therefore, our finding not only provides essential insight into oxygen stoichiometry control in high vacuum for understanding the fundamental properties of STO-based thin films and heterostructures, but expands the utility of pulsed laser epitaxy of other materials as well.

  15. Comparison of morphology evolution of Ge(001) homoepitaxial films grown by pulsed laser deposition and molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Shin Byungha; Leonard, John P.; McCamy, James W.; Aziz, Michael J.

    2005-10-31

    Using a dual molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE)-pulsed laser deposition (PLD) ultrahigh vacuum chamber, we have conducted the first experiments under identical thermal, background, and surface preparation conditions to compare Ge(001) homoepitaxial growth morphology in PLD and MBE. We find that in PLD with low kinetic energy and in MBE the film morphology evolves in a similar fashion: initially irregularly shaped mounds form, followed by pyramidal mounds with edges of the square-base along the <100> directions; the film roughness and mound separation increase with film thickness. In PLD with high kinetic energy, well-defined pyramidal mounds are not observed and the morphology rather resembles that of an ion-etched Ge(001) surface. The areal feature density is higher for PLD films than for MBE films grown at the same average growth rate and temperature. Furthermore, the dependence upon film thickness of roughness and feature separation differ for PLD and MBE. We attribute these differences to the higher yield of defect generation by energetic species in PLD.

  16. Seed layer technique for high quality epitaxial manganite films

    PubMed Central

    Graziosi, P.; Gambardella, A.; Calbucci, M.; O’Shea, K.; MacLaren, D. A.; Bergenti, I.; Homonnay, N.; Schmidt, G.; Pullini, D.; Busquets-Mataix, D.; Dediu, V.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an innovative approach to the simultaneous control of growth mode and magnetotransport properties of manganite thin films, based on an easy-to-implement film/substrate interface engineering. The deposition of a manganite seed layer and the optimization of the substrate temperature allows a persistent bi-dimensional epitaxy and robust ferromagnetic properties at the same time. Structural measurements confirm that in such interface-engineered films, the optimal properties are related to improved epitaxy. A new growth scenario is envisaged, compatible with a shift from heteroepitaxy towards pseudo-homoepitaxy. Relevant growth parameters such as formation energy, roughening temperature, strain profile and chemical states are derived. PMID:27648371

  17. Seed layer technique for high quality epitaxial manganite films.

    PubMed

    Graziosi, P; Gambardella, A; Calbucci, M; O'Shea, K; MacLaren, D A; Riminucci, A; Bergenti, I; Fugattini, S; Prezioso, M; Homonnay, N; Schmidt, G; Pullini, D; Busquets-Mataix, D; Dediu, V

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an innovative approach to the simultaneous control of growth mode and magnetotransport properties of manganite thin films, based on an easy-to-implement film/substrate interface engineering. The deposition of a manganite seed layer and the optimization of the substrate temperature allows a persistent bi-dimensional epitaxy and robust ferromagnetic properties at the same time. Structural measurements confirm that in such interface-engineered films, the optimal properties are related to improved epitaxy. A new growth scenario is envisaged, compatible with a shift from heteroepitaxy towards pseudo-homoepitaxy. Relevant growth parameters such as formation energy, roughening temperature, strain profile and chemical states are derived.

  18. Seed layer technique for high quality epitaxial manganite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziosi, P.; Gambardella, A.; Calbucci, M.; O'Shea, K.; MacLaren, D. A.; Riminucci, A.; Bergenti, I.; Fugattini, S.; Prezioso, M.; Homonnay, N.; Schmidt, G.; Pullini, D.; Busquets-Mataix, D.; Dediu, V.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an innovative approach to the simultaneous control of growth mode and magnetotransport properties of manganite thin films, based on an easy-to-implement film/substrate interface engineering. The deposition of a manganite seed layer and the optimization of the substrate temperature allows a persistent bi-dimensional epitaxy and robust ferromagnetic properties at the same time. Structural measurements confirm that in such interface-engineered films, the optimal properties are related to improved epitaxy. A new growth scenario is envisaged, compatible with a shift from heteroepitaxy towards pseudo-homoepitaxy. Relevant growth parameters such as formation energy, roughening temperature, strain profile and chemical states are derived.

  19. Growth regimes during homoepitaxial growth of GaN by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrion, A. L.; Wu, F.; Speck, J. S.

    2012-09-01

    c-plane GaN films were grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on metal-organic chemical vapor deposition templates for a wide range of NH3:Ga flux ratios and growth temperatures, and the resulting films were characterized using atomic force microscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Three distinct nitrogen-rich growth regimes—unstable layer-by-layer, quasi-stable step flow, and dislocation-mediated pitting—were identified based on the growth mode and film properties. In addition, step flow growth was observed under conditions of gallium droplet accumulation. The results indicate the existence of two regimes for step-flow growth of GaN by ammonia MBE—both gallium-rich and nitrogen-rich. Growth mode instabilities and mound formation were observed and are discussed in the context of a step-edge energy barrier to adatom diffusion over a terrace.

  20. Enlargement of Step-Free SiC Surfaces by Homoepitaxial Web-Growth of Thin SiC Cantilevers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Powell, J. Anthony; Beheim, Glenn M.; Benavage, Emye L.; Abel, Phillip B.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Spry, David J.; Dudley, Michael; Vetter, William M.

    2002-01-01

    Lateral homoepitaxial growth of thin cantilevers emanating from mesa patterns that were reactive ion etched into on-axis commercial SiC substrates prior to growth is reported. The thin cantilevers form after pure stepflow growth removes almost all atomic steps from the top surface of a mesa, after which additional adatoms collected by the large step-free surface migrate to the mesa sidewall where they rapidly incorporate into the crystal near the top of the mesa sidewall. The lateral propagation of the step-free cantilevered surface is significantly affected by pregrowth mesa shape and orientation, with the highest lateral expansion rates observed at the inside concave comers of V-shaped pregrowth mesas with arms lengthwise oriented along the {1100} direction. Complete spanning of the interiors of V's and other mesa shapes with concave comers by webbed cantilevers was accomplished. Optical microscopy, synchrotron white beam x-ray topography and atomic force microscopy analysis of webbed regions formed over a micropipe and closed-core screw dislocations show that c-axis propagation of these defects is terminated by the webbing. Despite the nonoptimized process employed in this initial study, webbed surfaces as large as 1.4 x 10(exp -3) square centimeters, more than four times the pregrowth mesa area, were grown. However, the largest webbed surfaces were not completely free of bilayer steps, due to unintentional growth of 3C-SiC that occurred in the nonoptimized process. Further process optimization should enable larger step-free webs to be realized.

  1. Electron beam induced current study of minority carrier diffusion length in homoepitaxial GaN (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talin, A. Alec; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Léonard, François

    2016-09-01

    GaN is a promising material for a range of high power, high frequency, and high temperature device applications. The wide bandgap of GaN leads to high breakdown voltages and low switching losses. Recently, large HVPE grown GaN substrates have become available for homoepitaxial growth leading to 103 reduction in dislocation density compared to similarly grown heteroepitaxial films. Device performance, however, is ultimately limited by the transport properties of minority carriers. Measured values for minority carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in GaN vary widely1-3, and a recent report suggests flaws in the commonly adopted electron beam induced current (EBIC) method in the planar-collection geometry.1 Here we report on EBIC measurements performed on 8 micrometer thick GaN grown by MOCVD on 2 inch GaN substrates with a n-type dopant density of 5×1016 cm-3. We determine the carrier diffusion length using both the conventional EBIC method by varying the electron beam-to-contact lateral distance as well as by varying the electron beam penetration depth and find the extracted values differ by 10×, with the latter technique yielding the lower diffusion length. We rationalize these results in light of other materials characteristics including Raman and photoluminescence. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Mutual relation among lattice distortion, Hall effect property and band edge cathodoluminescence of heavily-boron-doped microwave-plasma CVD diamond films homoepitaxially grown on vicinal (001) high-pressure/high-temperature-synthesized Ib substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Reona; Maida, Osamu; Ito, Toshimichi

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated properties of heavily-B-doped diamond (HBD) films homoepitaxially grown with boron-to-carbon (B/C) mole ratios ranging from 1000 to 5000 ppm in the source gas mainly by using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), cathodoluminescence (CL), and Hall effect measurements. Each HBD layer was deposited on a vicinal (001) substrate of high-pressure/high-temperature synthesized Ib-type diamond with 5° misorientation angle by means of high-power-density microwave-plasma chemical-vapor-deposition method with a source gas composed of 4% CH4 in H2 and H2-diluted B(CH3)3. XRD data indicated that the lattice constant of the B-doped layer slightly decreased for the B/C ratios≤3000 ppm while slightly increasing for that of 5000 ppm, suggesting that for the latter HBD sample a part of the incorporated B atoms behaved differently from the remaining other B atoms. By contrast the Hall data indicated that all the HBD samples had a degenerate feature only at temperatures well below room temperature (RT), above which a semiconducting feature was evident, and that the density of the degenerate holes steeply increased from 1.3×1019 to 1.2×1021 cm-3 with increases in the incorporated B density, [B], from 1.2×1020 to 5.9×1020 cm-3. This drastic change in the hole density strongly suggested the presence of a [B]-dependent impurity band. Their evident near-band-edge CL spectra taken at RT and 85 K demonstrated that radiative transition features in the HBD layers considerably varied for the B/C ratios studied. The CL peaks were consistently assigned by assuming both the presence of an impurity band and a slight bandgap shrinkage. These observed features are discussed in relation to the energy separation between the low-mobility impurity band assumed and the valence band in the high-quality HBD layer which are not merged in energy.

  3. Homoepitaxial seeding and growth of bulk AlN by sublimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Carsten; Wollweber, Jürgen; Seitz, Christoph; Albrecht, Martin; Fornari, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    AlN boules, 35 mm in diameter and up to 25-mm long, were grown on TaC crucible lid in an inductively heated reactor. The growth rates range between 100 and 300 μm/h. The boules grown on TaC show a columnar structure mostly composed of <0 0 0 1> grains. The largest grains (4-5 mm in diameter) were sliced and used for subsequent growth runs. Successful epitaxial seeding and growth on the starting AlN wafer was demonstrated and confirmed by electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Crystals were grown on both Al and N surfaces of the seeds up to a maximum diameter of about 9 mm so far. Formation of oxy-nitride layers, very detrimental to the further AlN deposition, could be avoided when starting from pre-sintered source powder. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements on axial cuts revealed a relatively low oxygen content, with variable distribution along the growth direction (290 ppm near seed, 100 ppm near external surface).

  4. Observations of Screw Dislocation Driven Growth and Faceting During CVD Homoepitaxy on 4H-SiC On-Axis Mesa Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Picard, Yoosuf N.; Twigg, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of (0001) homoepitaxial growth carried out on arrays of small-area mesas etched into on-axis silicon-face 4H-SiC wafers have demonstrated that spiral growth emanating from at least one screw dislocation threading the mesa is necessary in order for a mesa to grow taller in the <0001> (c-axis vertical) direction while maintaining 4H stacking sequence [1]. However, even amongst mesas containing the screw dislocation step source necessary for vertical c-axis growth, we have observed striking differences in the height and faceting that evolve during prolonged homoepitaxial growths. This paper summarizes Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Electron Channeling Contrast Imaging (ECCI), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy observations of this phenomenon. These observations support our initially proposed model [2] that the observed large variation (for mesas where 3C-SiC nucleation has not occurred) is related to the lateral positioning of a screw dislocation step source within each etched mesa. When the screw dislocation step source is located close enough to the developing edge/sidewall facet of a mesa, the c-axis growth rate and facet angle are affected by the resulting interaction. In particular, the intersection (or near intersection) of the inward-sloping mesa sidewall facet with the screw dislocation appears to impede the rate at which the spiral provides new steps required for c-axis growth. Also, the inward slope of the sidewall facet during growth (relative to other sidewalls of the same mesa not near the screw dislocation) seems to be impeded by the screw dislocation. In contrast, mesas whose screw dislocations are centrally located grow vertically, but inward sloping sidewall facets shrink the area of the top (0001) growth surface almost to the point of vanishing.

  5. Step-structure dependent step-flow: models for the homoepitaxial growth at the atomic steps on Si(111)7 × 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Wataru; Tochihara, Hiroshi

    1994-05-01

    Step-flow models of homoepitaxial growth at atomic steps on Si(111)7 × 7 are considered within the framework of the dimer-adatom-stacking-fault (DAS) model with the aid of a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) image published by Köhler, Demuth and Hamers [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7 (1989) 2860]. The image was taken at room temperature for a surface epitaxially grown at 330°C. From the image around the growing step, we find that the step flow is separated into two processes; the initial growth on the end zone of the lower terrace where the (7 × 7) DAS reconstruction is not formed due to its insufficient space, and the subsequent growth where the (7 × 7) DAS reconstruction at the lower step-edge has to be canceled to grow epitaxially. For the initial growth we propose step-structure dependent step-flow models, according to our classification of the atomic steps. For the subsequent growth, in addition to our previously proposed model for the cancelation of the (7 × 7) DAS structure during homoepitaxial growth on terraces (termed as the coalescent destruction model), we postulate the following four guidelines to construct models. (i) The destruction of the faulted halves and dimers at lower step-edge is the rate-determining step for step-flow, (ii) The epitaxial growth on the unfaulted halves at the lower step-edge is rapid, (iii) The faulted half at the "macrokink" is much easier to be broken than that at the straight step. (iv) The advanced step grows faster than the receded step does. By using the guidelines and the coalescent destruction model, we propose models for the subsequent growth at the U and F steps whose outward normal of the risers are the [1¯1¯2] and [112¯] directions, respectively. As the step-flows proceed with increasing Si deposition, the proposed model naturally leads to the following change of macroscopic shapes of the atomic steps: The straight F step converts to a zigzag step consisting of the U steps, while the straight U step maintains

  6. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial δ-doped diamond layers

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup −}/p{sup ++}/p{sup −} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  7. Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films by pulsed laser epitaxy in high vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Ambrose Seo, Sung S.; Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    2016-01-29

    In many transition metal oxides, oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most critical parameters that plays a key role in determining the structural, physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the material. However, controlling the growth to obtain high quality single crystal films having the right oxygen stoichiometry, especially in a high vacuum environment, has been viewed as a challenge. In this work, we show that, through proper control of the plume kinetic energy, stoichiometric crystalline films can be synthesized without generating oxygen defects even in high vacuum. We use a model homoepitaxial system of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on single crystal STO substrates. Physical property measurements indicate that oxygen vacancy generation in high vacuum is strongly influenced by the energetics of the laser plume, and it can be controlled by proper laser beam delivery. Thus, our finding not only provides essential insight into oxygen stoichiometry control in high vacuum for understanding the fundamental properties of STO-based thin films and heterostructures, but it expands the utility of pulsed laser epitaxy of other materials as well.₃

  8. Configuration of a single grown-in dislocation corresponding to one etch pit formed on the surface of CVD homoepitaxial diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubouchi, Nobuteru; Mokuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed crystalline structure around one etch pit formed on the as-grown surface of a (001)-oriented chemical vapor deposition (CVD) homoepitaxial single crystal diamond film investigated using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). One threading dislocation corresponding to one pit is found, and it is shown that this dislocation line continuously runs from the apex of the pit to the deeper region in the film toward the substrate. The observed threading dislocation directs parallel to the approximate [001] film-growth direction, but is not a perfect straight line and propagates in a zig-zag manner. The contrast analysis of the dislocation in TEM micrographs is performed under several major two-beam reflections. These results suggest that the dislocation is composed of short segments of undissociated perfect dislocations with Burgers vectors b=1/2[110], 1/2[011] and 1/2[101] lying on the {111} glide plane and, as a whole, travels approximately parallel to the [001] direction.

  9. Self-organized homo-epitaxial growth in nonlinear optical BaAlBO3F2 crystal crossing lines patterned by laser in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, K.; Abe, S.; Honma, T.; Komatsu, T.

    2015-11-01

    Crystallization processing of glasses is important as a novel technique for the development of new optical materials, and laser-induced crystallization provides a new challenge in science and technology of materials. Nonlinear optical BaAlBO3F2 crystal lines with crossing, bending, and spiral shapes were patterned at the surface of 2NiO-49BaF2-24.5Al2O3-24.5B2O3 (mol%) and 2.9NiO-48.5BaF2-24.3Al2O3-24.3B2O3 (mol%) glasses by laser irradiation (Yb:YVO4 laser with a wavelength of 1080 nm) and the orientation state of BaAlBO3F2 crystals was examined from birefringence image observations. The birefringence images indicate that the growth of highly c-axis oriented BaAlBO3F2 crystals follows along the laser scanning direction even if the laser scanning direction changes, and in particular the direction of the c-axis of BaAlBO3F2 crystals changes gradually at the crossing and bending points. The model of "self-organized homo-epitaxial growth" is proposed for the crystal orientation at the crossing and bending points, as a new crystal growth science and engineering beyond the wise providence of nature.

  10. Influence of silicon dioxide capping layers on pore characteristics in nanocrystalline silicon membranes.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chengzhu; Striemer, Christopher C; Gaborski, Thomas R; McGrath, James L; Fauchet, Philippe M

    2015-02-06

    Porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si) membranes are a new class of membrane material with promising applications in biological separations. Pores are formed in a silicon film sandwiched between nm thick silicon dioxide layers during rapid thermal annealing. Controlling pore size is critical in the size-dependent separation applications. In this work, we systematically studied the influence of the silicon dioxide capping layers on pnc-Si membranes. Even a single nm thick top oxide layer is enough to switch from agglomeration to pore formation after annealing. Both the pore size and porosity increase with the thickness of the top oxide, but quickly reach a plateau after 10 nm of oxide. The bottom oxide layer acts as a barrier layer to prevent the a-Si film from undergoing homo-epitaxial growth during annealing. Both the pore size and porosity decrease as the thickness of the bottom oxide layer increases to 100 nm. The decrease of the pore size and porosity is correlated with the increased roughness of the bottom oxide layer, which hinders nanocrystal nucleation and nanopore formation.

  11. Nonmixing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Pierre; Giovangigli, Vincent; Matuszewski, Lionel

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the impact of nonideal diffusion on the structure of supercritical cryogenic binary mixing layers. This situation is typical of liquid fuel injection in high-pressure rocket engines. Nonideal diffusion has a dramatic impact in the neighborhood of chemical thermodynamic stability limits where the components become quasi-immiscible and ultimately form a nonmixing layer. Numerical simulations are performed for mixing layers of H2 and N2 at a pressure of 100 atm and temperature around 120-150 K near chemical thermodynamic stability limits.

  12. Spallanzani Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    31 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a layered, light-toned mesa among other layered materials exposed in a mound that covers much of the floor of Spallanzani Crater.

    Location near: 58.3oS, 273.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  13. Real-time ellipsometric modeling and characterization of the evolution of nanometer-scale Ge islands and pits in Ge homoepitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Housei

    2009-11-01

    Nanometer-scale Ge islands and pits are self-organized during GeH4 vacuum-ultraviolet-excited chemical vapor deposition on a Ge(001) substrate. We carried out simulation and fitting on real-time ellipsometric Ψ -Δ trajectories that reflect undergoing changes in the surface morphology. The islanded Ge epitaxial layer was optically represented by multiple stacked slabs with linearly varying graded indices from the bottom to the top of the islands. The dielectric function of each slab was calculated by mixing the dielectric functions of Ge with that of voids under Bruggeman effective medium approximation. The only model that could reproduce the roughening Ψ -Δ trajectory was preferential nucleation of Ge on the top surface of truncated pyramidal islands after almost 100% of the initial surface had been wet. The smoothing section was consistent with the model assuming nucleation on the sidewalls of islands as well as on the top surface, which led to simultaneous deepening and narrowing of the valleys or pits between the islands. This smoothing model was supported by atomic force microscopy images.

  14. Fabrication of CeO 2 buffer layer with high deposition rate on biaxially textured Ni-3%W substrate by electron beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. B.; Park, S. K.; Kim, B. J.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, S. S.; Moon, S. H.; Lee, H. G.; Hong, G. W.

    2011-11-01

    CeO2 has been used as a buffer layer of a coated conductor because of good chemical and structural compatibility with YBCO. But cracks were often observed at the surface for films thicker than 100 nm deposited at a high temperature because of a large difference in a thermal expansion coefficient between metal and CeO2. The deposition rate was limited to be slow for getting good epitaxy. In order to increase the film deposition rate, while maintaining the epitaxy till a final thickness, two-step deposition process was tested. The thin seed layer with a thickness less than 10 nm was deposited with a deposition rate of 3 Å/s, and the homo-epitaxial layer at a thickness more than 240 nm was deposited at a deposition rate of 30 Å/s. The resulting CeO2 films deposited at 600 °C showed a good texture with a Δφ of 5.3°, Δω of 4.2° and Ra of 2.2 nm. The two-step process may be option for a low cost buffer layer for Ni-3%W metal substrates for the coated conductor.

  15. Growing 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial layers on α-SiC substrate by vapour-liquid-solid mechanism from the Al-Ge-Si ternary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzzi, Jean; Ferro, Gabriel; Cauwet, François; Souliere, Véronique; Carole, Davy

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we present and compare the results obtained from different Si-based melts (Ge-Si, Al-Si and Al-Ge-Si) for growing SiC layers on α-SiC substrate by vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. It was found that, depending on melt composition, the deposit could be either a complete 3C or α-SiC layer or even a mixture of these polytypes. The binary Al-Si melt leads systematically to a highly p-type homoepitaxial α-SiC deposit while Ge-Si melt gives a non-intentional n-type doped layers of either 3C or 6H polytypes depending on growth conditions. However, highly p-type doped 3C heteroepitaxial deposit can be obtained if a small amount of Al is added to the Ge-Si binary liquid phase. This means that the VLS mechanism is very flexible and allows growing either n- or p-type SiC layers of 3C or 6H polytypes.

  16. High Performance Green LEDs by Homoepitaxial

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Christian; Schubert, E Fred

    2009-11-22

    This work's objective was the development of processes to double or triple the light output power from green and deep green (525 - 555 nm) AlGaInN light emitting diode (LED) dies within 3 years in reference to the Lumileds Luxeon II. The project paid particular effort to all aspects of the internal generation efficiency of light. LEDs in this spectral region show the highest potential for significant performance boosts and enable the realization of phosphor-free white LEDs comprised by red-green-blue LED modules. Such modules will perform at and outperform the efficacy target projections for white-light LED systems in the Department of Energy's accelerated roadmap of the SSL initiative.

  17. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  18. Ozone Layer Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Ozone Layer Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Ozone Layer Protection Welcome to EPA's ozone layer protection web ...

  19. Core layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, S. A.; Rubie, D. C.; Hernlund, J. W.; Morbidelli, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have created a planetary accretion and differentiation model that self-consistently builds and evolves Earth's core. From this model, we show that the core grows stably stratified as the result of rising metal-silicate equilibration temperatures and pressures, which increases the concentrations of light element impurities into each newer core addition. This stable stratification would naturally resist convection and frustrate the onset of a geodynamo, however, late giant impacts could mechanically mix the distinct accreted core layers creating large homogenous regions. Within these regions, a geodynamo may operate. From this model, we interpret the difference between the planetary magnetic fields of Earth and Venus as a difference in giant impact histories. Our planetary accretion model is a numerical N-body integration of the Grand Tack scenario [1]—the most successful terrestrial planet formation model to date [2,3]. Then, we take the accretion histories of Earth-like and Venus-like planets from this model and post-process the growth of each terrestrial planet according to a well-tested planetary differentiation model [4,5]. This model fits Earth's mantle by modifying the oxygen content of the pre-cursor planetesimals and embryos as well as the conditions of metal-silicate equilibration. Other non-volatile major, minor and trace elements included in the model are assumed to be in CI chondrite proportions. The results from this model across many simulated terrestrial planet growth histories are robust. If the kinetic energy delivered by larger impacts is neglected, the core of each planet grows with a strong stable stratification that would significantly impede convection. However, if giant impact mixing is very efficient or if the impact history delivers large impacts late, than the stable stratification can be removed. [1] Walsh et al. Nature 475 (2011) [2] O'Brien et al. Icarus 223 (2014) [3] Jacobson & Morbidelli PTRSA 372 (2014) [4] Rubie et al. EPSL 301

  20. Epitaxy of layered semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahim Otsmane, L.; Emery, J. Y.; Jouanne, M.; Balkanski, M.

    1993-03-01

    Epilayers of InSe on InSe(00.1) and GaSe(00.1) have been grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique. Raman spectroscopy was used for a characterization of the structure and crystallinity in InSe/InSe(00.1) (homoepitaxy) and InSe/GaSe(00.1) (heteroepitaxy). The Raman spectra of the InSe thin films are identical to those of polytype γ-InSe. An activation of the E(LO) mode at 211 cm -1 is observed in these films here. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is also used to investigate surfaces of these films.

  1. Large-roll growth of 25-inch hexagonal BN monolayer film for self-release buffer layer of free-standing GaN wafer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenping; Soomro, Abdul Majid; Sun, Feipeng; Wang, Huachun; Huang, Youyang; Wu, Jiejun; Liu, Chuan; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Na; Chen, Xiaohong; Kang, Junyong; Cai, Duanjun

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is known as promising 2D material with a wide band-gap (~6 eV). However, the growth size of h-BN film is strongly limited by the size of reaction chamber. Here, we demonstrate the large-roll synthesis of monolayer and controllable sub-monolayer h-BN film on wound Cu foil by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method. By winding the Cu foil substrate into mainspring shape supported by a multi-prong quartz fork, the reactor size limit could be overcome by extending the substrate area to a continuous 2D curl of plane inward. An extremely large-size monolayer h-BN film has been achieved over 25 inches in a 1.2” tube. The optical band gap of h-BN monolayer was determined to be 6.0 eV. The h-BN film was uniformly transferred onto 2” GaN or 4” Si wafer surfaces as a release buffer layer. By HVPE method, overgrowth of thick GaN wafer over 200 μm has been achieved free of residual strain, which could provide high quality homo-epitaxial substrate. PMID:27756906

  2. Large-roll growth of 25-inch hexagonal BN monolayer film for self-release buffer layer of free-standing GaN wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenping; Soomro, Abdul Majid; Sun, Feipeng; Wang, Huachun; Huang, Youyang; Wu, Jiejun; Liu, Chuan; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Na; Chen, Xiaohong; Kang, Junyong; Cai, Duanjun

    2016-10-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is known as promising 2D material with a wide band-gap (~6 eV). However, the growth size of h-BN film is strongly limited by the size of reaction chamber. Here, we demonstrate the large-roll synthesis of monolayer and controllable sub-monolayer h-BN film on wound Cu foil by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method. By winding the Cu foil substrate into mainspring shape supported by a multi-prong quartz fork, the reactor size limit could be overcome by extending the substrate area to a continuous 2D curl of plane inward. An extremely large-size monolayer h-BN film has been achieved over 25 inches in a 1.2” tube. The optical band gap of h-BN monolayer was determined to be 6.0 eV. The h-BN film was uniformly transferred onto 2” GaN or 4” Si wafer surfaces as a release buffer layer. By HVPE method, overgrowth of thick GaN wafer over 200 μm has been achieved free of residual strain, which could provide high quality homo-epitaxial substrate.

  3. Burning Graphene Layer-by-Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Victor A.; Alaferdov, Andrei V.; Vaz, Alfredo R.; Perim, Eric; Autreto, Pedro A. S.; Paupitz, Ricardo; Galvao, Douglas S.; Moshkalev, Stanislav A.

    2015-06-01

    Graphene, in single layer or multi-layer forms, holds great promise for future electronics and high-temperature applications. Resistance to oxidation, an important property for high-temperature applications, has not yet been extensively investigated. Controlled thinning of multi-layer graphene (MLG), e.g., by plasma or laser processing is another challenge, since the existing methods produce non-uniform thinning or introduce undesirable defects in the basal plane. We report here that heating to extremely high temperatures (exceeding 2000 K) and controllable layer-by-layer burning (thinning) can be achieved by low-power laser processing of suspended high-quality MLG in air in “cold-wall” reactor configuration. In contrast, localized laser heating of supported samples results in non-uniform graphene burning at much higher rates. Fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were also performed to reveal details of oxidation mechanisms leading to uniform layer-by-layer graphene gasification. The extraordinary resistance of MLG to oxidation paves the way to novel high-temperature applications as continuum light source or scaffolding material.

  4. Burning Graphene Layer-by-Layer

    PubMed Central

    Ermakov, Victor A.; Alaferdov, Andrei V.; Vaz, Alfredo R.; Perim, Eric; Autreto, Pedro A. S.; Paupitz, Ricardo; Galvao, Douglas S.; Moshkalev, Stanislav A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, in single layer or multi-layer forms, holds great promise for future electronics and high-temperature applications. Resistance to oxidation, an important property for high-temperature applications, has not yet been extensively investigated. Controlled thinning of multi-layer graphene (MLG), e.g., by plasma or laser processing is another challenge, since the existing methods produce non-uniform thinning or introduce undesirable defects in the basal plane. We report here that heating to extremely high temperatures (exceeding 2000 K) and controllable layer-by-layer burning (thinning) can be achieved by low-power laser processing of suspended high-quality MLG in air in “cold-wall” reactor configuration. In contrast, localized laser heating of supported samples results in non-uniform graphene burning at much higher rates. Fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were also performed to reveal details of oxidation mechanisms leading to uniform layer-by-layer graphene gasification. The extraordinary resistance of MLG to oxidation paves the way to novel high-temperature applications as continuum light source or scaffolding material. PMID:26100466

  5. Modelling Layer parallel stylolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Daniel; Pataki Rood, Daisy; Beaudoin, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We modeled the geometrical roughening of mainly layer-dominated stylolites in order to understand their structural evolution, to present an advanced classification of stylolite shapes and to relate this classification to chemical compaction and stylolite sealing capabilities. Our simulations show that layer-dominated stylolites can grow in three distinct stages, an initial slow nucleation, a fast layer-pinning phase and a final freezing stage if the layer dissolves completely during growth. Dissolution of the pinning layer and thus destruction of the compaction tracking capabilities is a function of the background noise in the rock and the dissolution rate of the layer itself. Low background noise needs a slower dissolving layer for pinning to be successful but produces flatter teeth than higher background noise. We present an advanced classification based on our simulations and separate stylolites into four classes: rectangular layer type, seismogram pinning type, suture/sharp peak type and simple wave-like type.

  6. Basic Ozone Layer Science

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the ozone layer and how human activities deplete it. This page provides information on the chemical processes that lead to ozone layer depletion, and scientists' efforts to understand them.

  7. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  8. Photonic layered media

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2002-01-01

    A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.

  9. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOEpatents

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  10. Piezoelectric Resonator with Two Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanou, Philip J. (Inventor); Black, Justin P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A piezoelectric resonator device includes: a top electrode layer with a patterned structure, a top piezoelectric layer adjacent to the top layer, a middle metal layer adjacent to the top piezoelectric layer opposite the top layer, a bottom piezoelectric layer adjacent to the middle layer opposite the top piezoelectric layer, and a bottom electrode layer with a patterned structure and adjacent to the bottom piezoelectric layer opposite the middle layer. The top layer includes a first plurality of electrodes inter-digitated with a second plurality of electrodes. A first one of the electrodes in the top layer and a first one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a first contact, and a second one of the electrodes in the top layer and a second one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a second contact.

  11. Electrochemical Atomic Layer Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-25

    where an atomic layer of an element is deposited , or removed, in a surface limited reaction. The potentials used are referred to as underpotentials in...the electrochemical literature. The atomic layer deposition process is referred to as underpotential deposition (UPD). 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15, NUMBER OF...reaction. The potentials used are referred to as underpotentials in the electrochemical literature. The atomic layer deposition process is referred to as

  12. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOEpatents

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  13. Layers and Erosion and more Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 4 November 2003

    This image is located within a set of eroded layered rocks known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. Careful inspection of this image reveals four separate layers. Starting at the bottom of the image, as well as the bottom of the sequence of layers, is a somewhat hilly, cratered plain. Above that is a mud or lava flow with a lobate edge that is characteristic of fluid flow. Above that is a layer with a spectacular rayed crater. This layer shows linear erosional patterns that are probably caused by persistent wind abrasion, typical of rocks in this area. And finally, a more blocky unit lies on top, mostly eroded away.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 3.6, Longitude 218.6 East (141.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  15. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  16. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennekes, Hendrik

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important parameters of the boundary layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that boundary-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)

  17. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  18. The Application of Layer Theory to Design: The Control Layer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Langton, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of design layers proposed by Gibbons ("An Architectural Approach to Instructional Design." Routledge, New York, 2014) asserts that each layer of an instructional design is related to a body of theory closely associated with the concerns of that particular layer. This study focuses on one layer, the control layer, examining…

  19. Compliant layer chucking surface

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, Kenneth L.; Spence, Paul A.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  20. Concentric layer ramjet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Burdette, G.W.; Francis, J.P.

    1988-03-08

    This patent describes a solid fuel ramjet grain comprising concentric layers of solid ramjet fuel having a perforation therethrough along the center axis of the grain. The performation is connected to a combustion after-chamber. The solid ramjet fuel layers comprises a pure hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hydrocarbon fuel or a mixture of a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hydrocarbon fuel and from about 5 to about 60 percent by weight of an additive to increase the fuel regression rate selected from the group consisting of magnesium, boron carbide, aluminum, and zirconium such that, when buried in the operation of the ramjet, each fuel layer produces a different level of thrust.

  1. Multi-layer coatings

    DOEpatents

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze'ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  2. Terby's Layered Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 March 2004 Layered rock outcrops are common all across Mars, and the Mars rover, Opportunity, has recently investigated some layered rocks in Meridiani Planum. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rocks in northern Terby Crater, located just north of the giant Hellas Basin near 27.5oS, 285.8oW. Hundreds of layers are exposed in a deposit several kilometers thick within Terby. A history of events that shaped the northern Hellas region is recorded in these rocks, just waiting for a person or robot to investigate. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  3. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  4. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  5. Tests on Double Layer Metalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    28 page report describes experiments in fabrication of integrated circuits with double-layer metalization. Double-layer metalization requires much less silicon "real estate" and allows more flexibility in placement of circuit elements than does single-layer metalization.

  6. EDITORIAL: Atomic layer deposition Atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Marek

    2012-07-01

    The growth method of atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced in Finland by Suntola under the name of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). The method was originally used for deposition of thin films of sulphides (ZnS, CaS, SrS) activated with manganese or rare-earth ions. Such films were grown for applications in thin-film electroluminescence (TFEL) displays. The ALE mode of growth was also tested in the case of molecular beam epitaxy. Films grown by ALD are commonly polycrystalline or even amorphous. Thus, the name ALE has been replaced by ALD. In the 80s ALD was developed mostly in Finland and neighboring Baltic countries. Deposition of a range of different materials was demonstrated at that time, including II-VI semiconductors (e.g. CdTe, CdS) and III-V (e.g. GaAs, GaN), with possible applications in e.g. photovoltaics. The number of publications on ALD was slowly increasing, approaching about 100 each year. A real boom in interest came with the development of deposition methods of thin films of high-k dielectrics. This research was motivated by a high leakage current in field-effect transistors with SiO2-based gate dielectrics. In 2007 Intel introduced a new generation of integrated circuits (ICs) with thin films of HfO2 used as gate isolating layers. In these and subsequent ICs, films of HfO2 are deposited by the ALD method. This is due to their unique properties. The introduction of ALD to the electronics industry led to a booming interest in the ALD growth method, with the number of publications increasing rapidly to well above 1000 each year. A number of new applications were proposed, as reflected in this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology. The included articles cover a wide range of possible applications—in microelectronics, transparent electronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and spintronics. Research papers and reviews on the basics of ALD growth are also included, reflecting a growing interest in precursor chemistry and growth

  7. Boundary layer simulator improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, Sarat C.; Schmitz, Craig P.; Nouri, Joseph A.

    1989-01-01

    Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMPJ) has been identified by the propulsion community as the rigorous boundary layer program in connection with the existing JANNAF reference programs. The improvements made to BLIMPJ and described herein have potential applications in the design of the future Orbit Transfer Vehicle engines. The turbulence model is validated to include the effects of wall roughness and a way is devised to treat multiple smooth-rough surfaces. A prediction of relaminarization regions is examined as is the combined effects of wall cooling and surface roughness on relaminarization. A turbulence model to represent the effects of constant condensed phase loading is given. A procedure is described for thrust decrement calculation in thick boundary layers by coupling the T-D Kinetics Program and BLIMPJ and a way is provided for thrust loss optimization. Potential experimental studies in rocket nozzles are identified along with the required instrumentation to provide accurate measurements in support of the presented new analytical models.

  8. North Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    3 December 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an exposure of finely-detailed layers in the martian north polar region. The polar ice cap, which is made up of frozen water (whereas the south polar cap is mostly frozen carbon dioxide), is underlain by a thick sequence of layers. Some have speculated that these layers may record the history of changes in martian climate during the past few hundreds of millions of years. This picture is located near 86.0oN, 30.2oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  9. MHD turbulent mixing layers

    SciTech Connect

    Esquivel, A.; Lazarian, A.; Benjamin, R.A.; Cho, J.; Leitner, S.N.

    2005-09-28

    Turbulent mixing layers have been proposed to explain observations of line ratios of highly ionized elements in the interstellar medium. We present preliminary results of numerical simulations of turbulent mixing layers in a magnetized medium. We developed a MHD code with radiative cooling. The magnetic field is expected to be a controlling factor by suppressing instabilities that lead to the turbulent mixing. Our results suggest that the difference in turbulent mixing in the unmagnetized case as compared to the case of a weak magnetic field, {beta} = Pgas/Pmag {approx} 10, is insignificant. With a more thorough exploration of parameter space, this work will provide more reliable diagnostics of turbulent mixing layers than those available today.

  10. South Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-516, 17 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, stair-stepped layers in the south polar region of Mars. These layers have been considered, for the past three decades, to consist of a mixture of dust and ice. The Mars Polar Lander (MPL) mission was designed to test this hypothesis. However, sadly, MPL was lost during descent in December 1999. This exposure of south polar layered material is located near 86.3oS, 187.7oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  11. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  12. Sedimentary Rock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers of sedimentary rock in a crater in western Arabia Terra. Layered rock records the history of a place, but an orbiter image alone cannot tell the entire story. These materials record some past episodes of deposition of fine-grained material in an impact crater that is much larger than the image shown here. The picture is located near 3.4oN, 358.7oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi.) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  13. Layers Inside 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view of rock layers exposed in the upper portion of the inner slope of 'Endurance Crater' was captured by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from the rover's position inside the crater during Opportunity's 134th sol on June 9, 2004. Scientists and engineers are assessing possible targets and routes among these rocks. The view is looking down into the crater, so the layers at the top of the image lie lower in the crater than the rocks in the foreground.

  14. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  15. Undoped Buffer Layer Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    boiled for several hours in aqua regia , followed by boiling for several more hours in deionized water before being dried in air and loaded into the...different from Report) 1S. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES it. IKy WORDS (Canal... an reverse 4aaIo It eesarav d Ientify by block nuinbr) Epitaxial layer MBE

  16. Teaching the Double Layer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests various methods for teaching the double layer in electrochemistry courses. Topics addressed include measuring change in absolute potential difference (PD) at interphase, conventional electrode potential scale, analyzing absolute PD, metal-metal and overlap electron PDs, accumulation of material at interphase, thermodynamics of electrified…

  17. Layer-Cake Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  18. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  19. Reactivity and applications of layered silicates and layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Thangaraj; Inayat, Alexandra; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2014-07-21

    Layered materials, such as layered sodium silicates and layered double hydroxides (LDHs), are well-known for their remarkable adsorption, intercalation and swelling properties. Their tunable interlayers offer an interesting avenue for the fabrication of pillared nanoporous materials, organic-inorganic hybrid materials and catalysts or catalyst supports. This perspective article provides a summary of the reactivity and applications of layered materials including aluminium-free layered sodium silicates (kanemite, ilerite (RUB-18 or octosilicate) and magadiite) and layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Recent developments in the use of layered sodium silicates as precursors for the preparation of various porous, functional and catalytic materials including zeolites, mesoporous materials, pillared layered silicates, organic-inorganic nanocomposites and synthesis of highly dispersed nanoparticles supported on silica are reviewed in detail. Along this perspective, we have attempted to illustrate the reactivity and transformational potential of LDHs in order to deduce the main differences and similarities between these two types of layered materials.

  20. Boundary layer transition studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1995-01-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated

  1. Boundary layer transition studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1995-02-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated

  2. Simulation of Pores Sealing During Homoepitaxy on Si(111) Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-23

    deposition rate. Simulation results of epitaxial growth on porous surface with 100 x 100 atomic sites (a.s.) at T = 1073 K [ , ] for different surface...s), v is vibration frequency (1/s), k is Boltzmann’s constant, T is substrate temperature (K). Taking v = 1013 s-1, Ed = 1.75 eV ],T = 1073 K for...surface at T = 1073 K for ndif = 10 (high deposition rate). Pores diameter is 10 atomic sites, height is 20 BL, surface porosity P• = 26 %. (a

  3. Simulation of multilayer homoepitaxial growth on Cu (100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng-Min; Lu, Hang-Jun; Wu, Zi-Qin

    2006-04-01

    The processes of multilayer thin Cu films grown on Cu (100) surfaces at elevated temperature (250-400 K) are simulated by mean of kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method, where the realistic growth model and physical parameters are used. The effects of small island (dimer and trimer) diffusion, edge diffusion along the islands, exchange of the adatom with an atom in the existing island, as well as mass transport between interlayers are included in the simulation model. Emphasis is placed on revealing the influence of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier on growth mode and morphology during multilayer thin film growth. We present numerical evidence that the ES barrier does exist for the Cu/Cu(100) system and an ES barrier EB>0.125 eV is estimated from a comparison of the KMC simulation with the realistic experimental images. The transitions of growth modes with growth conditions and the influence of exchange barrier on growth mode are also investigated.

  4. On the kinetic barriers of graphene homo-epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xinke; Xie, Ya-Hong; Cahyadi, Erica; Ratsch, Christian

    2014-12-01

    The diffusion processes and kinetic barriers of individual carbon adatoms and clusters on graphene surfaces are investigated to provide fundamental understanding of the physics governing epitaxial growth of multilayer graphene. It is found that individual carbon adatoms form bonds with the underlying graphene whereas the interaction between graphene and carbon clusters, consisting of 6 atoms or more, is very weak being van der Waals in nature. Therefore, small carbon clusters are quite mobile on the graphene surfaces and the diffusion barrier is negligibly small (∼6 meV). This suggests the feasibility of high-quality graphene epitaxial growth at very low growth temperatures with small carbon clusters (e.g., hexagons) as carbon source. We propose that the growth mode is totally different from 3-dimensional bulk materials with the surface mobility of carbon hexagons being the highest over graphene surfaces that gradually decreases with further increase in cluster size.

  5. Sedimentary Rock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-348, 2 May 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired in March 2003 shows dozens of repeated layers of sedimentary rock in a western Arabia Terra crater at 8oN, 7oW. Wind has sculpted the layered forms into hills somewhat elongated toward the lower left (southwest). The dark patches at the bottom (south) end of the image are drifts of windblown sand. These sedimentary rocks might indicate that the crater was once the site of a lake--or they may result from deposition by wind in a completely dry, desert environment. Either way, these rocks have something important to say about the geologic history of Mars. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  6. Layered seal for turbomachinery

    DOEpatents

    Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar; Morgan, Victor John; Weber, David Wayne

    2015-11-20

    The present application provides seal assemblies for reducing leakages between adjacent components of turbomachinery. The seal assemblies may include outer shims, and at least a portion of the outer shims may be substantially impervious. At least one of the outer shims may be configured for sealing engagement with seal slots of the adjacent components. The seal assemblies may also include at least one of an inner shim and a filler layer positioned between the outer shims. The at least one inner shim may be substantially solid and the at least one filler layer may be relatively porous. The seal assemblies may be sufficiently flexible to account for misalignment between the adjacent components, sufficiently stiff to meet assembly requirements, and sufficiently robust to operating meet requirements associated with turbomachinery.

  7. Layered Rocks in Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 June 2004 Exposures of layered, sedimentary rock are common on Mars. From the rock outcrops examined by the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, in Meridiani Planum to the sequence in Gale Crater's central mound that is twice the thickness of of the sedimentary rocks exposed by Arizona's Grand Canyon, Mars presents a world of sediment to study. This unusual example, imaged by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), shows eroded layer outcrops in a crater in Terra Tyrrhena near 15.4oS, 270.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past climates and events. Perhaps someday the story told by the rocks in this image will be known via careful field work. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  8. Layered Composite Analysis Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanaswami, R.; Cole, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Laminated composite material construction is gaining popularity within industry as an attractive alternative to metallic designs where high strength at reduced weights is of prime consideration. This has necessitated the development of an effective analysis capability for the static, dynamic and buckling analyses of structural components constructed of layered composites. Theoretical and user aspects of layered composite analysis and its incorporation into CSA/NASTRAN are discussed. The availability of stress and strain based failure criteria is described which aids the user in reviewing the voluminous output normally produced in such analyses. Simple strategies to obtain minimum weight designs of composite structures are discussed. Several example problems are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and user convenient features of the capability.

  9. Crack layer theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1984-01-01

    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  10. Origins of Igneous Layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Bruce

    Anyone who has ever seen a photo of a layered intrusion, let alone visited one first hand, or even seen a thin section from one, cannot help but be impressed by the stunning record of crystal growth and deposition. Such bodies stand as majestic monuments of undeniable evidence that intricate magmatic processes exist, processes that couple crystallization, convection, and crystal sorting to form rocks so highly ordered and beautiful that they are a wonder to behold. These are the altars to which petrologists must carry their conceived petrologic processes for approval.Although significant in number, the best layered intrusions seem to be found almost always in remote places. Their names, Bushveld, Muskox, Kiglapait, Stillwater, Duke Island, Skaergaard, Rhum, ring through igneous petrology almost as historic military battles (Saratoga, Antietam, Bull Run, Manassas, Gettysburg) do through American history. People who have worked on such bodies are almost folk heros: Wager, Deer, Brown, Jackson, Hess, Irvine, McBirney, Morse; these names are petrologic household words. Yet with all this fanfare and reverence, layered instrusions are nearly thought of as period pieces, extreme examples of what can happen, but not generally what does. This is now all changing with the increasing realization that these bodies are perhaps highly representative of all magmatic bodies. They are simply more dynamically complete, containing more of the full range of interactions, and of course, exposing a more complete record. They are one end of a spectrum containing lava flows, lava lakes, large sills, plutons, and layered intrusions. This book uniquely covers this range with an abundance of first-hand field observations and a good dose of process conceptualization, magma physics, and crystal growth kinetics.

  11. Boundary layer simulator improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, S. C.; Schmitz, C.; Frost, C.; Engel, C. D.; Fuller, C. E.; Bender, R. L.; Pond, J.

    1984-01-01

    High chamber pressure expander cycles proposed for orbit transfer vehicles depend primarily on the heat energy transmitted from the combustion products through the thrust wall chamber wall. The heat transfer to the nozzle wall is affected by such variables as wall roughness, relamarization, and the presence of particles in the flow. Motor performance loss for these nozzles with thick boundary layers is inaccurate using the existing procedure coded BLIMPJ. Modifications and innovations to the code are examined. Updated routines are listed.

  12. The atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Garratt, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book is aimed at researchers in the atmospheric and associated sciences who require a moderately advanced text on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in which the many links between turbulence, air-surface transfer, boundary-layer structure and dynamics, and numerical modeling are discussed and elaborated upon. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, with Chapters 2 and 3 dealing with the development of mean and turbulence equations, and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modelling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, and Chapters 4 and 5 deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL is treated in Chapter 6, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter 7 then extends the discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is seen as particularly relevant since the extensive stratocumulus regions over the sub-tropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic are now identified as key players in the climate system. Finally, Chapters 8 and 9 bring much of the book's material together in a discussion of appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes for the general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate simulation.

  13. Diversity in S-layers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaohua; Guo, Gang; Ma, Qiqi; Zhang, Fengjuan; Ma, Funing; Liu, Jianping; Xiao, Dao; Yang, Xiaolin; Sun, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Surface layers, referred simply as S-layers, are the two-dimensional crystalline arrays of protein or glycoprotein subunits on cell surface. They are one of the most common outermost envelope components observed in prokaryotic organisms (Archaea and Bacteria). Over the past decades, S-layers have become an issue of increasing interest due to their ubiquitousness, special features and functions. Substantial work in this field provides evidences of an enormous diversity in S-layers. This paper reviews and illustrates the diversity from several different aspects, involving the S-layer-carrying strains, the structure of S-layers, the S-layer proteins and genes, as well as the functions of S-layers.

  14. Protecting the ozone layer.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  15. The Keck keyword layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, A. R.; Lupton, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Each Keck instrument presents a consistent software view to the user interface programmer. The view consists of a small library of functions, which are identical for all instruments, and a large set of keywords, that vary from instrument to instrument. All knowledge of the underlying task structure is hidden from the application programmer by the keyword layer. Image capture software uses the same function library to collect data for the image header. Because the image capture software and the instrument control software are built on top of the same keyword layer, a given observation can be 'replayed' by extracting keyword-value pairs from the image header and passing them back to the control system. The keyword layer features non-blocking as well as blocking I/O. A non-blocking keyword write operation (such as setting a filter position) specifies a callback to be invoked when the operation is complete. A non-blocking keyword read operation specifies a callback to be invoked whenever the keyword changes state. The keyword-callback style meshes well with the widget-callback style commonly used in X window programs. The first keyword library was built for the two Keck optical instruments. More recently, keyword libraries have been developed for the infrared instruments and for telescope control. Although the underlying mechanisms used for inter-process communication by each of these systems vary widely (Lick MUSIC, Sun RPC, and direct socket I/O, respectively), a basic user interface has been written that can be used with any of these systems. Since the keyword libraries are bound to user interface programs dynamically at run time, only a single set of user interface executables is needed. For example, the same program, 'xshow', can be used to display continuously the telescope's position, the time left in an instrument's exposure, or both values simultaneously. Less generic tools that operate on specific keywords, for example an X display that controls optical

  16. Cooperating systems: Layered MAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

  17. Layered Manufacturing: Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014215 TITLE: Layered Manufacturing : Challenges and Opportunities ...Research Society LL1.4 Layered Manufacturing : Challenges and Opportunities Khershed P. Cooper Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research...Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5343, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Layered Manufacturing (LM) refers to computer-aided manufacturing processes in which parts are made

  18. Multiresonant layered plasmonic films

    SciTech Connect

    DeVetter, Brent M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Alvine, Kyle J.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-resonant nanoplasmonic films have numerous applications in areas such as nonlinear optics, sensing, and tamper indication. While techniques such as focused ion beam milling and electron beam lithography can produce high-quality multi-resonant films, these techniques are expensive, serial processes that are difficult to scale at the manufacturing level. Here, we present the fabrication of multi-resonant nanoplasmonic films using a layered stacking technique. Periodically-spaced gold nanocup substrates were fabricated using self-assembled polystyrene nanospheres followed by oxygen plasma etching and metal deposition via magnetron sputter coating. By adjusting etch parameters and initial nanosphere size, it was possible to achieve an optical response ranging from the visible to the near-infrared. Singly resonant, flexible films were first made by performing peel-off using an adhesive-coated polyolefin film. Through stacking layers of the nanofilm, we demonstrate fabrication of multi-resonant films at a fraction of the cost and effort as compared to top-down lithographic techniques.

  19. Turbulent boundary layer heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finson, M. L.; Clarke, A. S.; Wu, P. K. S.

    1981-01-01

    A Reynolds stress model for turbulent boundary layers is used to study surface roughness effects on skin friction and heat transfer. The issues of primary interest are the influence of roughness character (element shape and spacing) and the nature of roughness effects at high Mach numbers. Computations based on the model compare satisfactorily with measurements from experiments involving variations in roughness character, in low speed and modestly supersonic conditions. The more limited data base at hypersonic Mach numbers is also examined with reasonable success, although no quantitative explanation is offered for the reduction of heat transfer with increasing roughness observed by Holden at Me -9.4. The present calculations indicate that the mean velocity is approximately uniform over much of the height range below the tops of the elements, y less than or equal to k. With this constant (roughness velocity,) it is simple to estimate the form drag on the elements. This roughness velocity has been investigated by systematically exercising the present model over ranges of potential parameters. The roughness velocity is found to be primarily a function of the projected element frontal area per unit surface area, thus providing a new and simple method for predicting roughness character effects. The model further suggests that increased boundary layer temperatures should be generated by roughness at high edge Mach numbers, which would tend to reduce skin friction and heat transfer, perhaps below smooth wall levels.

  20. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  1. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  2. The multiple layer solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for obtaining numerical solutions for differential equations describing the performance of separate layers in a multiple layer solar collector. The configurations comprises heat transfer fluid entering at the top of the collector and travelling down through several layers. A black absorber plate prevents reemission of thermal radiation. The overall performance is shown to depend on the number of layers, the heat transfer coefficient across each layer, and the absorption properties of the working fluid. It is found that the multiple layer system has a performance inferior to that of flat plate selective surface collectors. Air gaps insulating adjacent layers do not raise the efficiency enough to overcome the relative deficiency.

  3. Liquefaction mechanism for layered soils

    SciTech Connect

    Fiegel, G.L.; Kutter, B.L. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    Results from four centrifuge model tests are presented. Three of the model tests involve layered soil deposits subject to base shaking; one model test involves a uniform soil deposit of sand subject to base shaking. The layered soil models consisted of fine sand overlain by a layer of relatively impermeable silica flour (silt). Pore-water pressures, accelerations, and settlements were measured during all four tests. Results from the model tests involving layered soils suggest that during liquefaction a water interlayer or very loose zone of soil may develop at the sand-silt interface due to the difference in permeabilities. In each layered model test, boils were observed on the surface of the silt layer. These boils were concentrated in the thinnest zones of the overlying silt layer and provided a vent for the excess pore-water pressure generated in the fine sand.

  4. Ferroelectrics based absorbing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jianping; Sadaune, Véronique; Burgnies, Ludovic; Lippens, Didier

    2014-07-01

    We show that ferroelectrics-based periodic structure made of BaSrTiO3 (BST) cubes, arrayed onto a metal plate with a thin dielectric spacer film exhibit a dramatic enhancement of absorbance with value close to unity. The enhancement is found around the Mie magnetic resonance of the Ferroelectrics cubes with the backside metal layer stopping any transmitted waves. It also involves quasi-perfect impedance matching resulting in reflection suppression via simultaneous magnetic and electrical activities. In addition, it was shown numerically the existence of a periodicity optimum, which is explained from surface waves analysis along with trade-off between the resonance damping and the intrinsic loss of ferroelectrics cubes. An experimental verification in a hollow waveguide configuration with a good comparison with full-wave numerical modelling is at last reported by measuring the scattering parameters of single and dual BST cubes schemes pointing out coupling effects for densely packed structures.

  5. ISDC Data Access Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D.; Borkowski, J.; Contessi, T.; Lock, T.; Rohlfs, R.; Walter, R.

    The ISDC Data Access Layer (DAL) is an ANSI C and \\fortran 90 compatible library under development in support of the ESA INTEGRAL mission data analysis software. DALs primary purpose is to isolate the analysis software from the specifics of the data formats while at the same time providing new data abstraction and access capabilities. DAL supports the creation and manipulation of hierarchical data sets which may span multiple files and, in theory, multiple computer systems. A number of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are supported by DAL that allow software to view and access data at different levels of complexity. DAL also allows data sets to reside on disk, in conventional memory or in shared memory in a way that is transparent to the user/application.

  6. Layer Outcrops and Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-561, 1 December 2003

    This October 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows dark, windblown sand dunes amid outcrops of light-toned, sedimentary rock in a crater in western Arabia Terra. The darkest material in the scene is windblown sand; the steep slopes--the slip faces--of the dunes face toward the southwest (lower left), indicating that wind transport of sand has been from the northeast (upper right). The layered mounds are the remains of sedimentary rock that were once more extensive across this crater floor. The image is located near 8.9oN, 1.2oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  7. Templated quasicrystalline molecular layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smerdon, Joe; Young, Kirsty; Lowe, Michael; Hars, Sanger; Yadav, Thakur; Hesp, David; Dhanak, Vinod; Tsai, An-Pang; Sharma, Hem Raj; McGrath, Ronan

    2014-03-01

    Quasicrystals are materials with long range ordering but no periodicity. We report scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) observations of quasicrystalline molecular layers on five-fold quasicrystal surfaces. The molecules adopt positions and orientations on the surface consistent with the quasicrystalline ordering of the substrate. Carbon-60 adsorbs atop sufficiently-separated Fe atoms on icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe to form a unique quasicrystalline lattice whereas further C60 molecules decorate remaining surface Fe atoms in a quasi-degenerate fashion. Pentacene (Pn) adsorbs at tenfold-symmetric points around surface-bisected rhombic triacontahedral clusters in icosahedral Ag-In-Yb. These systems constitute the first demonstrations of quasicrystalline molecular ordering on a template. EPSRC EP/D05253X/1, EP/D071828/1, UK BIS.

  8. Wireless physical layer security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  9. Wireless physical layer security

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments. PMID:28028211

  10. Templated, layered manganese phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G.; Bonhomme, Francois R.

    2004-08-17

    A new crystalline maganese phosphate composition having an empirical formula: O). The compound was determined to crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3c1 with a=8.8706(4) .ANG., c=26.1580(2) .ANG., and V (volume)=1783 .ANG..sup.3. The structure consists of sheets of corner sharing Mn(II)O.sub.4 and PO.sub.4 tetrahedra with layers of (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N and water molecules in-between. The pronated (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N molecules provide charge balancing for the inorganic sheets. A network of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the inorganic sheets holds the structure together.

  11. Wireless physical layer security.

    PubMed

    Poor, H Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F

    2017-01-03

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  12. South Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 July 2003

    Similar to ice cores taken from Greenland and Antarctica, Mars also has fine-scale layered deposits in both the north and south polar regions. In this image from the south pole, alternating light and dark bands represent varying amounts of dust or sand mixed in with carbon dioxide ice. These layers are related in part to climate cycles caused by variations in the tilt of Mars' rotational axis, as well as other orbital variations that occur on geologic time scales (tens of thousands of years).

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1, Longitude 260.4 East (99.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Ozone Layer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been monitoring the ozone layer from space using optical remote sensing techniques since 1970. With concern over catalytic destruction of ozone (mid-1970s) and the development of the Antarctic ozone hole (mid-1980s), long term ozone monitoring has become the primary focus of NASA's series of ozone measuring instruments. A series of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) instruments has produced a nearly continuous record of global ozone from 1979 to the present. These instruments infer ozone by measuring sunlight backscattered from the atmosphere in the ultraviolet through differential absorption. These measurements have documented a 15 Dobson Unit drop in global average ozone since 1980, and the declines in ozone in the antarctic each October have been far more dramatic. Instruments that measure the ozone vertical distribution, the SBUV and SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) instruments for example, show that the largest changes are occurring in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. The goal of ozone measurement in the next decades will be to document the predicted recovery of the ozone layer as CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) levels decline. This will require a continuation of global measurements of total column ozone on a global basis, but using data from successor instruments to TOMS. Hyperspectral instruments capable of measuring in the UV will be needed for this purpose. Establishing the relative roles of chemistry and dynamics will require instruments to measure ozone in the troposphere and in the stratosphere with good vertical resolution. Instruments that can measure other chemicals important to ozone formation and destruction will also be needed.

  14. Processes for multi-layer devices utilizing layer transfer

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Kim, Bongsang; Cederberg, Jeffrey; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2015-02-03

    A method includes forming a release layer over a donor substrate. A plurality of devices made of a first semiconductor material are formed over the release layer. A first dielectric layer is formed over the plurality of devices such that all exposed surfaces of the plurality of devices are covered by the first dielectric layer. The plurality of devices are chemically attached to a receiving device made of a second semiconductor material different than the first semiconductor material, the receiving device having a receiving substrate attached to a surface of the receiving device opposite the plurality of devices. The release layer is etched to release the donor substrate from the plurality of devices. A second dielectric layer is applied over the plurality of devices and the receiving device to mechanically attach the plurality of devices to the receiving device.

  15. CLARAty Functional-Layer Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesnas, Issa; Volpe, Richard; Das, Hari; Mutz, Darren; Petras, Richard; Estlin, Tara

    2003-01-01

    Functional-layer software for the Coupled Layer Architecture for Robotics Autonomy (CLARAty) is being developed. [CLARAty was described in Coupled-Layer Architecture for Advanced Software for Robots (NPO-21218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 12 (December 2002), page 48. To recapitulate: CLARAty was proposed to improve the modularity of robotic software while tightening the coupling between planning/execution and control subsystems. Whereas prior robotic software architectures have typically contained three levels, the CLARAty architecture contains two layers: a decision layer and a functional layer.] Just as an operating system provides abstraction from computational hardware, the CLARAty functional-layer software provides for abstraction for the different robotic systems. The functional-layer software establishes interrelated, object-oriented hierarchies that contain active and passive objects that represent the different levels of system abstrations and components. The functional-layer software is decomposed into a set of reusable core components and a set of extended components that adapt the reusable set to specific hardware implementations. The reusable components (a) provide behavior and interface definitions and implementations of basic functionality, (b) provide local executive capabilities, (c) manage local resources, and (d) support state and resource queries by the decision layer. Software for robotic systems can be built by use of these components.

  16. Boundary-Layer & health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costigliola, V.

    2010-09-01

    It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate

  17. Nanostructure Neutron Converter Layer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Thibeault, Sheila A. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods for making a neutron converter layer are provided. The various embodiment methods enable the formation of a single layer neutron converter material. The single layer neutron converter material formed according to the various embodiments may have a high neutron absorption cross section, tailored resistivity providing a good electric field penetration with submicron particles, and a high secondary electron emission coefficient. In an embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by sequential supercritical fluid metallization of a porous nanostructure aerogel or polyimide film. In another embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by simultaneous supercritical fluid metallization of a porous nanostructure aerogel or polyimide film. In a further embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by in-situ metalized aerogel nanostructure development.

  18. Spray coated nanosilver functional layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzemiński, J.; Szałapak, J.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, L.; Jakubowska, M.

    2016-09-01

    Silver coatings are highly conductive functional layers. There are many different ways to product the silver coating but most of them need vacuum or high temperature. Spray coating is a technique that is free of this disadvantages - it doesn't need a cleanroom or high temperature. What's more the layer thickness is about 10 μm. In this article the spray coating process of silver nanolayer is described. Four different inks were tested and measured. The layer resistance was measured and show as a graph. After the layer resistance was measured the adhesion test was performed. The pull-off test was performed on testing machine with special self made module. To conclude the article include the test and measurements of spray coated nanosilver functional layers. The layers was examined for the current conductivity and adhesion force.

  19. Excited waves in shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  20. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  1. Outer layer effects in wind-farm boundary layers: Coriolis forces and boundary layer height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2015-11-01

    In LES studies of wind-farm boundary layers, scale separation between the inner and outer region of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is frequently assumed, i.e., wind turbines are presumed to fall within the inner layer and are not affected by outer layer effects. However, modern wind turbine and wind farm design tends towards larger rotor diameters and farm sizes, which means that outer layer effects will become more important. In a prior study, it was already shown for fully-developed wind farms that the ABL height influences the power performance. In this study, we use the in-house LES code SP-Wind to investigate the importance of outer layer effects on wind-farm boundary layers. In a suite of LES cases, the ABL height is varied by imposing a capping inversion with varying inversion strengths. Results indicate the growth of an internal boundary layer (IBL), which is limited in cases with low inversion layers. We further find that flow deceleration combined with Coriolis effects causes a change in wind direction throughout the farm. This effect increases with decreasing boundary layer height, and can result in considerable turbine wake deflection near the end of the farm. The authors are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). Computations were performed on VSC infrastructiure (Flemish Supercomputer Center), funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government-department EWI.

  2. A POROUS, LAYERED HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Swisdak, M.; Drake, J. F.; Opher, M. E-mail: drake@umd.edu

    2013-09-01

    The picture of the heliopause (HP)-the boundary between the domains of the Sun and the local interstellar medium (LISM)-as a pristine interface with a large rotation in the magnetic field fails to describe recent Voyager 1 (V1) data. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the global heliosphere reveal that the rotation angle of the magnetic field across the HP at V1 is small. Particle-in-cell simulations, based on cuts through the MHD model at V1's location, suggest that the sectored region of the heliosheath (HS) produces large-scale magnetic islands that reconnect with the interstellar magnetic field while mixing LISM and HS plasma. Cuts across the simulation reveal multiple, anti-correlated jumps in the number densities of LISM and HS particles, similar to those observed, at the magnetic separatrices. A model is presented, based on both the observations and simulations, of the HP as a porous, multi-layered structure threaded by magnetic fields. This model further suggests that contrary to the conclusions of recent papers, V1 has already crossed the HP.

  3. The Martian surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Moore, Henry J.

    1992-01-01

    The global characteristics of the Martian surface layer are discussed on the basis of thermal, albedo, color, and radar data for the region between approximately 60 deg S and 60 deg N. Thermal data reveal the presence of large low- and high-inertia regions of the northern hemisphere, with much of the south covered by material of moderate inertia. There is a strong anticorrelation between inertia and albedo, a correlation between inertia and rock abundance, and, over much of the planet, a correlation of radar-derived density with inertia. Viking Orbiter color data indicate the presence of three major surface materials: low-inertia, bright-red material that is presumably dust; high-inertia, dark-grey material interpreted to be lithic material mixed with palagonitelike dust; and moderate-inertia, dark-red material that is rough at subpixel scales and interpreted to be indurated. Observations from the Viking landing sites show rocks, fines of varying cohesion and crusts. These sites have indications of aeolian erosion and deposition in the recent past.

  4. Secondary polymer layered impregnated tile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy K. (Inventor); Rasky, Daniel J. (Inventor); Szalai, Christine E. (Inventor); Carroll, Joseph A. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-ta S. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A low density organic polymer impregnated preformed fibrous ceramic article includes a plurality of layers. A front layer includes ceramic fibers or carbon fibers or combinations of ceramic fibers and carbon fibers, and is impregnated with an effective amount of at least one organic polymer. A middle layer includes polymer impregnated ceramic fibers. A back layer includes ceramic fibers or carbon fibers or combinations of ceramic fibers and carbon fibers, and is impregnated with an effective amount of at least one low temperature pyrolyzing organic polymer capable of decomposing without depositing residues.

  5. Two-layer Tripole Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskiy, M. A.; Verron, J.; Yakovenko, O. I.

    Three-vortex filament problem for the case of both zero average circulation and im- pulse in a 2D two-layer incompressible fluid is investigated. In this framework, a model of tripolar structures is constructed with one vortex located in the upper layer and two vortices situated in the lower layer. Two special cases of the intensity dis- tribution were studied: (-2; 1, 1) ­ a strong central vortex is over two week vortices placed in the lower layer; (-1; 2, -1) ­ a strong central vortex is in the lower layer, and the week vortices are located one in the upper, and the second in the lower layers. The results give two types of stationary axially symmetrical configurations in the first case: a) an ordinary roundabout ­ two lower-layer vortices are rotating in the direction in- duced by the central vortex; b) an inversed roundabout ­ the lower-layer vortices are rotating in the direction opposite to the central upper layer vortex because of the in- tralayer interaction prevalence. In the second case, all three vortices form a colinear configuration and always rotate around the common vorticity center in the direction implied by the stronger vortex. Such configuration received the name of eccentric roundabout. Comparison of calcu- lation results for discrete and finite-core vortices is made. Support of RFBR (Grant 01-05-64646) is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-xing; Bao, Lin-fei; Fan, Mei-hua; Li, Xiao-min; Wu, Chang-wen; Xia, Shu-wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment. PMID:26218932

  7. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Liao, Zhi; Wang, Xin-Xing; Bao, Lin-Fei; Fan, Mei-Hua; Li, Xiao-Min; Wu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment.

  8. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Enzymes on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-06-01

    The use of Layer-by-layer techniques for immobilizing several types of enzymes, e.g. glucose oxidase (GOx), horse radish oxidases(HRP), and choline oxidase(CHO) on carbon nanotubes and their applications for biosenseing are presented. The enzyme is immobilized on the negatively charged CNT surface by alternatively assembling a cationic polydiallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (PDDA) layer and a enzyme layer. The sandwich-like layer structure (PDDA/enzyme/PDDA/CNT) formed by electrostatic assembling provides a favorable microenvironment to keep the bioactivity of enzyme and to prevent enzyme molecule leakage. The morphologies and electrocatalytic acitivity of the resulted enzyme film were characterized using TEM and electrochemical techniques, respectively. It was found that these enzyme-based biosensors are very sensitive, selective for detection of biomolecules, e.g. glucose, choline.

  9. Natural melanin composites by layer-by-layer assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Taesik; Shim, Bong Sub

    2015-04-01

    Melanin is an electrically conductive and biocompatible material, because their conjugated backbone structures provide conducting pathways from human skin, eyes, brain, and beyond. So there is a potential of using as materials for the neural interfaces and the implantable devices. Extracted from Sepia officinalis ink, our natural melanin was uniformly dispersed in mostly polar solvents such as water and alcohols. Then, the dispersed melanin was further fabricated to nano-thin layered composites by the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique. Combined with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), the melanin nanoparticles behave as an LBL counterpart to from finely tuned nanostructured films. The LBL process can adjust the smart performances of the composites by varying the layering conditions and sandwich thickness. We further demonstrated the melanin loading degree of stacked layers, combination nanostructures, electrical properties, and biocompatibility of the resulting composites by UV-vis spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM), multimeter, and in-vitro cell test of PC12, respectively.

  10. Advanced double layer capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarangapani, S.; Lessner, P.; Forchione, J.; Laconti, A. B.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for large amounts of power to be delivered rapidly in a number of airborne and space systems. Conventional, portable power sources, such as batteries, are not suited to delivering high peak power pulses. The charge stored at the electrode-electrolyte double layer is, however, much more assessible on a short time scale. Devices exploiting this concept were fabricated using carbon and metal oxides (Pinnacle Research) as the electrodes and sulfuric acid as the electrolyte. The approach reported, replaces the liquid sulfuric acid electrolyte with a solid ionomer electrolyte. The challenge is to form a solid electrode-solid ionomer electrolyte composite which has a high capacitance per geometric area. The approach to maximize contact between the electrode particles and the ionomer was to impregnate the electrode particles using a liquid ionomer solution and to bond the solvent-free structure to a solid ionomer membrane. Ruthenium dioxide is the electrode material used. Three strategies are being pursued to provide for a high area electrode-ionomer contact: mixing of the RuOx with a small volume of ionomer solution followed by filtration to remove the solvent, and impregnation of the ionomer into an already formed RuOx electrode. RuOx powder and electrodes were examined by non-electrochemical techniques. X-ray diffraction has shown that the material is almost pure RuO2. The electrode structure depends on the processing technique used to introduce the Nafion. Impregnated electrodes have Nafion concentrated near the surface. Electrodes prepared by the evaporation method show large aggregates of crystals surrounded by Nafion.

  11. Midlatitude sporadic-E layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. L.; Smith, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    The partially transparent echo from midlatitude sporadic E layers was recorded by ionosondes between the blanketing frequency and the maximum frequency. The theory that the midlatitude sporadic E layers are not uniform in the horizontal plane but contain localized regions of high electron density was evaluated using data obtained by incoherent scatter radar and found to provide a satisfactory explanation. The main features of midlatitude sporadic E layers are consistent with the convergence of metallic ions as described by the wind shear theory applied to gravity waves and tides. The interference of gravity waves with other gravity waves and tides can be recognized in the altitudes of occurrence and the structure of the layers. Small scale horizontal irregularities are attributed in some cases to critical level effects and in others to fluid instabilities. The convergence of a meteor trail can, under some circumstances, account for localized enhancement of the electron density in the layer.

  12. Fragmentation of drying paint layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, Katinka; Dombi, András; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-11-01

    Fragmentation of thin layers of drying granular materials on a frictional surface are studied both by experiments and computer simulations. Besides a qualitative description of the fragmentation phenomenon, the dependence of the average fragment size as a function of the layer thickness is thoroughly investigated. Experiments are done using a special nail polish, which forms characteristic crack structures during drying. In order to control the layer thickness, we diluted the nail polish in acetone and evaporated in a controlled manner different volumes of this solution on glass surfaces. During the evaporation process we managed to get an instable paint layer, which formed cracks as it dried out. In order to understand the obtained structures a previously developed spring-block model was implemented in a three-dimensional version. The experimental and simulation results proved to be in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. An earlier suggested scaling relation between the average fragment size and the layer thickness is reconfirmed.

  13. Improved CLARAty Functional-Layer/Decision-Layer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Rabideau, Gregg; Gaines, Daniel; Johnston, Mark; Chouinard, Caroline; Nessnas, Issa; Shu, I-Hsiang

    2008-01-01

    Improved interface software for communication between the CLARAty Decision and Functional layers has been developed. [The Coupled Layer Architecture for Robotics Autonomy (CLARAty) was described in Coupled-Layer Robotics Architecture for Autonomy (NPO-21218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 12 (December 2002), page 48. To recapitulate: the CLARAty architecture was developed to improve the modularity of robotic software while tightening coupling between planning/execution and basic control subsystems. Whereas prior robotic software architectures typically contained three layers, the CLARAty contains two layers: a decision layer (DL) and a functional layer (FL).] Types of communication supported by the present software include sending commands from DL modules to FL modules and sending data updates from FL modules to DL modules. The present software supplants prior interface software that had little error-checking capability, supported data parameters in string form only, supported commanding at only one level of the FL, and supported only limited updates of the state of the robot. The present software offers strong error checking, and supports complex data structures and commanding at multiple levels of the FL, and relative to the prior software, offers a much wider spectrum of state-update capabilities.

  14. Lear jet boundary layer/shear layer laser propagation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, K.

    1980-01-01

    Optical degradations of aircraft turbulent boundary layers with shear layers generated by aerodynamic fences are analyzed. A collimated 2.5 cm diameter helium-neon laser (0.63 microns) traversed the approximate 5 cm thick natural aircraft boundary layer in double pass via a reflective airfoil. In addition, several flights examined shear layer-induced optical degradation. Flight altitudes ranged from 1.5 to 12 km, while Mach numbers were varied from 0.3 to 0.8. Average line spread function (LSF) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) data were obtained by averaging a large number of tilt-removed curves. Fourier transforming the resulting average MTF yields an LSF, thus affording a direct comparison of the two optical measurements. Agreement was good for the aerodynamic fence arrangement, but only fair in the case of a turbulent boundary layer. Values of phase variance inferred from the LSF instrument for a single pass through the random flow and corrected for a large aperture ranged from 0.08 to 0.11 waves (lambda = .63 microns) for the boundary layer. Corresponding values for the fence vary from 0.08 to 0.16 waves. Extrapolation of these values to 10.6 microns suggests negligible degradation for a CO2 laser transmitted through a 5 cm thick, subsonic turbulent boundary layer.

  15. The Effect of Nonlinear Critical Layers on Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.

    1995-01-01

    Asymptotic methods are used to describe the nonlinear self-interaction between pairs of oblique instability modes that eventually develops when initially linear and spatially growing instability waves evolve downstream in nominally two-dimensional and spanwise periodic laminar boundary layers. The first nonlinear reaction takes place locally within a so-called 'critical layer' with the flow outside this layer consisting of a locally parallel mean flow plus an appropriate superposition of linear instability waves. The amplitudes of these waves are determined by either a single integro-differential equation or by a pair of integro-differential equations with quadratic to quartic-type nonlinearities.

  16. Nanoengineering Catalyst Supports via Layer-by Layer Surface Functionalization

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Wenfu; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H; Dai, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Recent progress in the layer-by-layer surface modification of oxides for the preparation of highly active and stable gold nanocatalysts is briefly reviewed. Through a layer-by-layer surface modification approach, the surfaces of various catalyst supports including both porous and nonporous silica materials and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were modified with monolayers or multilayers of distinct metal oxide ultra-thin films. The surface-modified materials were used as supports for Au nanoparticles, resulting in highly active nanocatalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation. Good stability against sintering under high-temperature treatment was achieved for a number of the Au catalysts through surface modification of the support material. The surface modification of supports can be a viable route to control both the composition and structure of support and nanoparticle interfaces, thereby tailoring the stability and activity of the supported catalyst systems.

  17. The role of nonlinear critical layers in boundary layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    Asymptotic methods are used to describe the nonlinear self-interaction between pairs of oblique instability modes that eventually develops when initially linear spatially growing instability waves evolve downstream in nominally two-dimensional laminar boundary layers. The first nonlinear reaction takes place locally within a so-called 'critical layer', with the flow outside this layer consisting of a locally parallel mean flow plus a pair of oblique instability waves - which may or may not be accompanied by an associated plane wave. The amplitudes of these waves, which are completely determined by nonlinear effects within the critical layer, satisfy either a single integro-differential equation or a pair of integro-differential equations with quadratic to quartic-type nonlinearities. The physical implications of these equations are discussed.

  18. D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

  19. On Multiple-Layered Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.

  20. Layer-by-Layer Insight into Electrostatic Charge Distribution of Few-Layer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokni, Hossein; Lu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In few-layer graphene (FLG) systems on a dielectric substrate such as SiO2, the addition of each extra layer of graphene can drastically alter their electronic and structural properties. Here, we map the charge distribution among the individual layers of finite-size FLG systems using a novel spatial discrete model that describes both electrostatic interlayer screening and fringe field effects. Our results reveal that the charge density in the region very close to the edges is screened out an order of magnitude more weakly than that across the central region of the layers. Our discrete model suggests that the interlayer charge screening length in 1–8 layer thick graphene systems depends mostly on the overall gate/molecular doping level rather than on temperature, in particular at an induced charge density >5 × 1012 cm‑2, and can reliably be determined to be larger than half the interlayer spacing but shorter than the bilayer thickness. Our model can be used for designing FLG-based devices, and offers a simple rule regarding the charge distribution in FLG: approximately 70%, 20%, 6% and 3% (99% overall) of the total induced charge density reside within the four innermost layers, implying that the gate-induced electric field is not definitely felt by >4th layer.

  1. Layer-by-Layer Insight into Electrostatic Charge Distribution of Few-Layer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Rokni, Hossein; Lu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    In few-layer graphene (FLG) systems on a dielectric substrate such as SiO2, the addition of each extra layer of graphene can drastically alter their electronic and structural properties. Here, we map the charge distribution among the individual layers of finite-size FLG systems using a novel spatial discrete model that describes both electrostatic interlayer screening and fringe field effects. Our results reveal that the charge density in the region very close to the edges is screened out an order of magnitude more weakly than that across the central region of the layers. Our discrete model suggests that the interlayer charge screening length in 1–8 layer thick graphene systems depends mostly on the overall gate/molecular doping level rather than on temperature, in particular at an induced charge density >5 × 1012 cm−2, and can reliably be determined to be larger than half the interlayer spacing but shorter than the bilayer thickness. Our model can be used for designing FLG-based devices, and offers a simple rule regarding the charge distribution in FLG: approximately 70%, 20%, 6% and 3% (99% overall) of the total induced charge density reside within the four innermost layers, implying that the gate-induced electric field is not definitely felt by >4th layer. PMID:28220816

  2. Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)

  3. WEATHER_Layered-Precipitable-Water

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-23

    ... TOVS (HIRS) clear sky radiances Radiosonde GPS (after 1995) AIRS Level 2 TPW and Layered PW Spatial ... Parameters:  Precipitable Water Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Earthdata Search SCAR-B ...

  4. Theory of nonmonotonic double layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.Y.

    1987-12-01

    A simple graphic method of solving the Vlasov--Poisson system associated with nonlinear eigenvalue conditions for arbitrary potential structures is presented. A general analytic formulation for nonmonotonic double layers is presented and illustrated with some particular closed form solutions. This class of double layers satisfies the time stationary Vlasov--Poisson system while requiring a Sagdeev potential, which is a double-valued function of the physical potential. It follows that any distribution function having a density representation as any integer or noninteger power series of potential can never satisfy the nonmonotonic double-layer boundary conditions. A Korteweg--de Vries-like equation is found showing a relationship among the speed of the nonmonotonic double layer, its scale length, and its degree of asymmetry.

  5. The plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Peterson, W. K.; Lennartsson, W.

    1984-01-01

    A spatially distinct, temporally variable, transition region between the magnetotail lobes and the central plasma sheet designated the plasma sheet boundary layer has been identified from a survey of particle spectra and three-dimensional distributions as sampled by the ISEE 1 LEPEDEA. The instrumentation and data presentation are described, and the signatures of the magnetotail plasma regimes are presented and discussed for the central plasma sheet and lobe and the plasma sheet boundary layer. Comparisons of plasma parameters and distribution fucntions are made and the evolution of ion velocity distributions within the plasma sheet boundary layer is discussed. The spatial distribution of the plasma sheet boundary layer is considered and ion composition measurements are presented.

  6. Inversion layer MOS solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Fat Duen

    1986-01-01

    Inversion layer (IL) Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) solar cells were fabricated. The fabrication technique and problems are discussed. A plan for modeling IL cells is presented. Future work in this area is addressed.

  7. Design of superlattice termination layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, D. D.; Sorar, E.

    1990-01-01

    Problems associated with quantum mechanical reflection of miniband carriers at the ends of superlattices are examined. Moebius transformations which map miniband Bloch wave reflectivity into plane wave reflectivity and vice versa are derived. These transformations facilitate the design of blocking and antiblocking layers which are analogous to reflective and antireflective coatings on optical elements. An example of termination layer design which is easy to implement is given. Applications include superlattice infrared detector design.

  8. Smear Layer Outcome on Healing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-31

    tetraacetic-acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI). Smear layer removal is not the standard of care and its removal is debated. Currently, there are...ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic-acid sodium hypochlorite micrometers scanning electron microscopy computed tomography periapical 15 16 Chapter I...ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL). The layer was unevenly distributed within the canal with the least amount was found in

  9. Modeling the urban boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A summary and evaluation is given of the Workshop on Modeling the Urban Boundary Layer; held in Las Vegas on May 5, 1975. Edited summaries from each of the session chairpersons are also given. The sessions were: (1) formulation and solution techniques, (2) K-theory versus higher order closure, (3) surface heat and moisture balance, (4) initialization and boundary problems, (5) nocturnal boundary layer, and (6) verification of models.

  10. Removing Boundary Layer by Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackeret, J

    1927-01-01

    Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface.

  11. Mixing in straight shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasso, P. S.; Mungal, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements were performed in a liquid plane mixing layer to extract the probability density function (pdf) of the mixture fraction of a passive scalar across the layer. Three Reynolds number (Re) cases were studied, 10,000, 33,000 and 90,000, with Re based on velocity difference and visual thickness. The results show that a non-marching pdf (central hump invariant from edge to edge of the layer) exists for Re = 10,000 but that a marching type pdf characterizes the Re = 33,000 and Re = 90,000 cases. For all cases, a broad range of mixture fraction values is found at each location across the layer. Streamwise and spanwise ramps across the layer, and structure-to-structure variation were observed and are believed to be responsible for the above behavior of the composition field. Tripping the boundary layer on the high-speed side of the splitter plate for each of the above three cases resulted in increased three-dimensionality and a change in the composition field. Average and average mixed fluid compositions are reported for all cases.

  12. Dynamics of Polyelectrolyte Chains within Layer-by-Layer Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhishvili, Svetlana

    2015-03-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of charged polymers/nanoparticles finds diverse industrial applications ranging from NIR reflective heat-reduction to multi-stage drug delivery. Internal layering of film components lies at the heart of their performance. I will discuss experiments aimed to unravel relationships between center-of-mass diffusion of polyelectrolyte (PE) chains within LbL films, PE molecular characteristics, environmental conditions (salt concentration), and film structure. Upon film annealing in salt solutions, chain diffusion is highly anisotropic (as probed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and neutron reflectometry), and is strongly coupled with film structure. For layered LbL films, PE diffusion in the direction parallel to the substrate reveals quasi-Rouse scaling with molecular weight (D ~ M-1) , even for long chains, suggesting that chains disentangle upon adsorption. Finally, I will discuss quantitative aspects of salt-induced PE chain diffusion in directions parallel and perpendicular to the substrate, and their consequences for persistent layering within LbL films. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Award DMR-0906474.

  13. Double-diffusive layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaussinger, Florian; Kupka, Friedrich; Hücker, Sebastian; Egbers, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Double-diffusive convection plays an important role in geo- and astrophysical applications. The special case, where a destabilising temperature gradient counteracts a stabilising solute gradient leads to layering phenomena under certain conditions. Convectively mixed layers sandwiched in diffusive interfaces form a so-called stack. Well-known double-diffusive systems are observed in rift lakes in Africa and even from the coffee drink Latte Macciatto. Stacks of layers are also predicted to occur inside massive stars and inside giant planets. Their dynamics depend on the thermal, the solute and the momentum diffusivities, as well on the ratio of the gradients of the opposing stratifications. Since the layering process cannot be derived from linear stability analysis, the full nonlinear set of equations has to be investigated. Numerical simulations have become feasible for this task, despite the physical processes operate on a vast range of length and time scales, which is challenging for numerical hydrodynamical modelling. The oceanographically relevant case of fresh and salty water is investigated here in further details. The heat and mass transfer is compared with theoretical results and experimental measurements. Additionally, the initial dynamic of layering, the transient behaviour of a stack and the long time evolution are presented using the example of Lake Kivu and the interior of a giant planet.

  14. Mars Surface Layers in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 29 May 2002) Infrared imaging from NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows signs of layering exposed at the surface in a region of Mars called Terra Meridiani. The brightness levels show daytime surface temperatures, which range from about minus 20 degrees to zero degrees Celsius (minus 4 degrees to 32 degrees Fahrenheit). Many of the temperature variations are due to slope effects, with sun-facing slopes warmer than shaded slopes. However, several rock layers can be seen to have distinctly different temperatures, indicating that physical properties vary from layer to layer. These differences suggest that the environment on this part of Mars varied through time as these layers were formed. The image is a mosaic combining four exposures taken by the thermal emission imaging system aboard Odyssey during the first two months of the Odyssey mapping mission, which began in February 2002. The area shown is about 120 kilometers (75 miles) across, at approximately 358 degrees east (2 degrees west) longitude and 3 degrees north latitude.

  15. Mars Surface Layers in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Infrared imaging from NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows signs of layering exposed at the surface in a region of Mars called Terra Meridiani.

    The brightness levels show daytime surface temperatures, which range from about minus 20 degrees to zero degrees Celsius (minus 4 degrees to 32 degrees Fahrenheit). Many of the temperature variations are due to slope effects, with sun-facing slopes warmer than shaded slopes. However, several rock layers can be seen to have distinctly different temperatures, indicating that physical properties vary from layer to layer. These differences suggest that the environment on this part of Mars varied through time as these layers were formed.

    The image is a mosaic combining four exposures taken by the thermal emission imaging system aboard Odyssey during the first two months of the Odyssey mapping mission, which began in February 2002. The area shown is about 120 kilometers (75 miles) across, at approximately 358 degrees east (2 degrees west) longitude and 3 degrees north latitude.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. 'Blueberry' Layers Indicate Watery Origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic image, taken at the outcrop region dubbed 'El Capitan' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, reveals millimeter-scale (.04 inch-scale) layers in the lower portion. This same layering is hinted at by the fine notches that run horizontally across the sphere-like grain or 'blueberry' in the center left. The thin layers do not appear to deform around the blueberry, indicating that these geologic features are concretions and not impact spherules or ejected volcanic material called lapilli. Concretions are balls of minerals that form in pre-existing wet sediments. This image was taken by the rover's microscopic imager on the 29th martian day, or sol, of its mission. The observed area is about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  17. Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    This final report was concerned with the ideas that: (1) magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system together; and (2) global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding its internal linking mechanisms and those with the solar wind. The research project involved simultaneous research on the global-, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers, which included the bow shock, the magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical, and simulation projects were performed on these subjects, as well as comparisons of theoretical results with observational data. Other related activity included in the research included: (1) prediction of geomagnetic activity; (2) global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations; (3) Alfven resonance heating; and (4) Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. In the appendixes are list of personnel involved, list of papers published; and reprints or photocopies of papers produced for this report.

  18. Layered Architecture for Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, N. Cody; Van Meter, Rodney; Fowler, Austin G.; McMahon, Peter L.; Kim, Jungsang; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2012-07-01

    We develop a layered quantum-computer architecture, which is a systematic framework for tackling the individual challenges of developing a quantum computer while constructing a cohesive device design. We discuss many of the prominent techniques for implementing circuit-model quantum computing and introduce several new methods, with an emphasis on employing surface-code quantum error correction. In doing so, we propose a new quantum-computer architecture based on optical control of quantum dots. The time scales of physical-hardware operations and logical, error-corrected quantum gates differ by several orders of magnitude. By dividing functionality into layers, we can design and analyze subsystems independently, demonstrating the value of our layered architectural approach. Using this concrete hardware platform, we provide resource analysis for executing fault-tolerant quantum algorithms for integer factoring and quantum simulation, finding that the quantum-dot architecture we study could solve such problems on the time scale of days.

  19. Layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown of hexagonal boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Nagashio, Kosuke

    2015-01-27

    Hexagonal boron nitride (BN) is widely used as a substrate and gate insulator for two-dimensional (2D) electronic devices. The studies on insulating properties and electrical reliability of BN itself, however, are quite limited. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the dielectric breakdown characteristics of BN using conductive atomic force microscopy. The electric field strength was found to be ∼ 12 MV/cm, which is comparable to that of conventional SiO2 oxides because of the covalent bonding nature of BN. After the hard dielectric breakdown, the BN fractured like a flower into equilateral triangle fragments. However, when the applied voltage was terminated precisely in the middle of the dielectric breakdown, the formation of a hole that did not penetrate to the bottom metal electrode was clearly observed. Subsequent I-V measurements of the hole indicated that the BN layer remaining in the hole was still electrically inactive. On the basis of these observations, layer-by-layer breakdown was confirmed for BN with regard to both physical fracture and electrical breakdown. Moreover, statistical analysis of the breakdown voltages using a Weibull plot suggested the anisotropic formation of defects. These results are unique to layered materials and unlike the behavior observed for conventional 3D amorphous oxides.

  20. Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    sketched in figure 1 . The model design is des- • cribed in more detail in reference 2. At measuring station 1 the turbulent boundary layer is very...layer methods are increasingly important as their use for design purposes increases. Specific recommendations for future work include the following. 1 ...MEMBERS M. 1 ’Ing. G&n C.Cap~lier Prof. Dr. Jr. J.L. van Ingen Directeur de l’A~rodynamique Department of Aerospace B.P. 72 Engineering% ONERA Delf

  1. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  2. Nonlinear Convection in Mushy Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worster, M. Grae; Anderson, Daniel M.; Schulze, T. P.

    1996-01-01

    When alloys solidify in a gravitational field there are complex interactions between solidification and natural, buoyancy-driven convection that can alter the composition and impair the structure of the solid product. The particular focus of this project has been the compositional convection within mushy layers that occurs in situations where the lighter component of the alloy is rejected into the melt during solidification by cooling from below. The linear stability of such a situation was previously described and has been further elucidated in a number of published articles. Here we describe some recent developments in the study of nonlinear evolution of convection in mushy layers.

  3. Current driven weak double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanteur, Gerard

    1987-01-01

    Double layers in plasmas can be created by different means. For example, a potential difference forms between two plasmas with different temperatures, in a plasma jet flowing along a converging magnetic field, in a quiescent plasma submitted to an external difference of potential, or in a turbulent plasma carrying an electric charge. The first three cases can be current-free, but not necessarily, although the numerical simulations were made under such conditions for the first two points. Apart from the third case, which is mainly of interest for laboratory experiments, these double layers are good candidates for accelerating the auroral electrons to the few kiloelectron volts observed.

  4. Preparation of luminescent layered zirconium phosphate nanocomposites by the layer-by-layer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qun; Liu, Meitang; Ma, Hongwen; Wang, Tianlei; Kuai, Yuqing

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, photoactive cation N, N‧-Dimenthyl-9, 9'-bisacridinium nitrate (BNMA) was assembled with exfoliated layered α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) via an electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly method. As a result, the luminescent films which were well-aligned and periodical had been successfully fabricated. Surprisingly, the lifetimes of (BNMA/ZrP)n were found to be prolonged by 16-fold for the first time, due to the isolation effect of inorganic nanosheets and hydrogen ion migration between the interlayers. Therefore, it is testified that α-ZrP can be used as the laminate and has remarkable influences on enhancing the lifetimes of chromophores. We expect that this new discovered effect can enable α-ZrP a kind of new potential material to develop novel light-emitting materials and optical devices.

  5. Space Wire Upper Layer Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard; Gilley, Daniel; Parkes, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses efforts to provide a streamlined approach for developing SpaceWire Upper layer protocols which allows industry to drive standardized communication solutions for real projects. The presentation proposes a simple packet header that will allow flexibility in implementing a diverse range of protocols.

  6. Layering Literacies and Contemporary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Sandra Schamroth; Russo, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how adolescents layer literacies in and outside school. Findings from a longitudinal study of gaming in a public library, as well as data related to the use of Portal 2 in a New York City middle school classroom, reveal how the students created, showcased, analyzed, and experimented with online and offline artifacts and…

  7. Simulation of Layered Magma Chambers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthorn, Richard Grant

    1991-01-01

    The principles of magma addition and liquid layering in magma chambers can be demonstrated by dissolving colored crystals. The concepts of density stratification and apparent lack of mixing of miscible liquids is convincingly illustrated with hydrous solutions at room temperature. The behavior of interstitial liquids in "cumulus" piles…

  8. Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.

    1993-01-01

    The central ideas of this grant are that the magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere together, and the global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding the linking mechanisms. Accordingly the present grant includes simultaneous research on the global, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers. These boundary layers include the bow shock, magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical and simulation projects have been performed on these subjects, as well as comparison of theoretical results with observational data. Very good progress has been made, with four papers published or in press and two additional papers submitted for publication during the six month period 1 June - 30 November 1993. At least two projects are currently being written up. In addition, members of the group have given papers at scientific meetings. The further structure of this report is as follows: section two contains brief accounts of research completed during the last six months, while section three describes the research projects intended for the grant's final period.

  9. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Samuel J.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies where in the scheme of modern chromatography high performance thin layer chromatography (TLC) fits and why in some situations it is a viable alternative to gas and high performance liquid chromatography. New TLC plates, sample applications, plate development, and instrumental techniques are considered. (JN)

  10. Stability of Boundary Layer Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    and Teske (1975). We can conclude (as in the case of ducting) that theoretical models of boundary layer structure and associated radar structure...FI33 (Secret). Hitney, (1978) "Surface Duct Effects," Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif., Report No. TD144. Lewellen, W. S., and M. E. Teske

  11. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  12. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    DOEpatents

    Rand, Barry P.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2011-05-24

    A photosensitive device includes a series of organic photoactive layers disposed between two electrodes. Each layer in the series is in direct contact with a next layer in the series. The series is arranged to form at least one donor-acceptor heterojunction, and includes a first organic photoactive layer comprising a first host material serving as a donor, a thin second organic photoactive layer comprising a second host material disposed between the first and a third organic photoactive layer, and the third organic photoactive layer comprising a third host material serving as an acceptor. The first, second, and third host materials are different. The thin second layer serves as an acceptor relative to the first layer or as a donor relative to the third layer.

  13. Rapid Prototyping Of Layered Composite Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Edwin D.

    1992-01-01

    Numerically controlled cutting accelerates fabrication of layers. Proposed method derived from stereoscopic lithography. CATIA or CAEDS computer program used to generate three-dimensional mathematical model of prototype part. In model, geometry of part specified in layers, as in stereoscopic lithography. Model data for each layer fed to computer-numerically-controlled ultrasonic cutting machine. Sheet of prepreg (uncured composite material) of specified layer thickness placed in machine and cut, under control of model data, to specified shape of layer.

  14. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    SciTech Connect

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  15. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  16. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  17. Spraying asymmetry into functional membranes layer-by-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogman, Kevin C.; Lowery, Joseph L.; Zacharia, Nicole S.; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Hammond, Paula T.

    2009-06-01

    As engineers strive to mimic the form and function of naturally occurring materials with synthetic alternatives, the challenges and costs of processing often limit creative innovation. Here we describe a powerful yet economical technique for developing multiple coatings of different morphologies and functions within a single textile membrane, enabling scientists to engineer the properties of a material from the nanoscopic level in commercially viable quantities. By simply varying the flow rate of charged species passing through an electrospun material during spray-assisted layer-by-layer deposition, individual fibres within the matrix can be conformally functionalized for ultrahigh-surface-area catalysis, or bridged to form a networked sublayer with complimentary properties. Exemplified here by the creation of selectively reactive gas purification membranes, the myriad applications of this technology also include self-cleaning fabrics, water purification and protein functionalization of scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  18. The Lowest Atmosphere: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Including Atmospheric Surface Layer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    troposphere" as a result of frictional forces. A good definition of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) (provided to me by the late Dr. Rudy...wind extends light flag. Raises dust and loose paper; small branches are moved. Small trees in leaf begin to sway; crested wavelets form on inland...Calm. Sea like a mirror. Light air Ripples like scales, no foam crest. Light breeze Small wavelets ; crests have glassy appearance, do not break

  19. Layer-by-layer microcapsules templated on erythrocyte ghost carriers.

    PubMed

    Shaillender, Mutukumaraswamy; Luo, Rongcong; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Neu, Björn

    2011-08-30

    This work reports the fabrication of layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules that provide a simple mean for controlling the burst and subsequent release of bioactive agents. Red blood cell (RBC) ghosts were loaded with fluorescently labeled dextran and lysozyme as model compounds via hypotonic dialysis with an encapsulation efficiency of 27-31%. It is demonstrated that these vesicles maintain their shape and integrity and that a uniform distribution of the encapsulated agents within these carriers is achieved. The loaded vesicles were then successfully coated with the biocompatible polyelectrolytes, poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and dextran sulfate. It is demonstrated that the release profiles of the encapsulated molecules can be regulated over a wide range by adjusting the number of polyelectrolyte layers. In addition, the LbL shell also protects the RBC ghost from decomposition thereby potentially preserving the bioactivity of encapsulated drugs or proteins. These microcapsules, consisting of an RBC ghost coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer, provide a simple mean for the preparation of loaded LbL microcapsules eliminating the core dissolution and post-loading of bioactive agents, which are required for conventional LbL microcapsules.

  20. Mars South Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 8, 2003

    Remarkable layered deposits covering older, cratered surfaces near Mars' south pole dominate this mosaic of images taken by the camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft between Nov. 8 and Nov. 26, 2003. The margin of these layered deposits appears to be eroding poleward, exposing a series of layers in the retreating cliff.

    The mosaic, stitched from eight visible-wavelength images from Odyssey's thermal emission imaging system, covers an area more than 325 kilometers (200 miles) long and 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide. The pictured area lies between 78 degrees and 82 degrees south latitude and between 90 degrees and 104 degrees east longitude.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    A zoom shows details in an area about 75 kilometers (47 miles) by 100 kilometers (62 miles), centered at about 80 degrees south latitude and 99 degrees east longitude. An older impact crater in the left part of the scene is filled with younger deposits from the layered terrain.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    A further zoom emphasizes a small, fresh crater about 350 meters (1,150 feet) in diameter near the center of the scene. The adjacent cliff contains numerous individual layers. An unusual set of small mesas, seen in the lower right part of the image, is being eroded from the polar layered material. The images making up this mosaic have a spatial resolution of 36 meters (118 feet) per pixel, allowing detection of features as small as 75 to 100 meters (246 to 328 feet) across.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington. The thermal emission imaging system on Odyssey was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built

  1. Nonlinear Instability of Liquid Layers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhouse, Lori Ann

    The nonlinear instability of two superposed viscous liquid layers in planar and axisymmetric configurations is investigated. In the planar configuration, the light layer fluid is bounded below by a wall and above by a heavy semiinfinite fluid. Gravity drives the instability. In the first axisymmetric configuration, the layer is confined between a cylindrical wall and a core of another fluid. In the second, a thread is suspended in an infinite fluid. Surface tension forces drive the instability in the axisymmetric configurations. The nonlinear evolution of the fluid-fluid interface is computed for layers of arbitrary thickness when their dynamics are fully coupled to those of the second fluid. Under the assumption of creeping flow, the flow field is represented by an interfacial distribution of Green's functions. A Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the strength of the distribution is derived and then solved using an iterative technique. The Green's functions produce flow fields which are periodic in the direction parallel to the wall and have zero velocity on the wall. For small and moderate surface tension, planar layers evolve into a periodic array of viscous plumes which penetrate into the overlying fluid. The morphology of the plumes depends on the surface tension and the ratio of the fluid viscosities. As the viscosity of the layer increases, the plumes change from a well defined drop on top of a narrow stem to a compact column of rising fluid. The capillary instability of cylindrical interfaces and interfaces in which the core thickness varies in the axial direction are investigated. In both the unbounded and wall bounded configurations, the core evolves into a periodic array of elongated fluid drops connected by thin, almost cylindrical fluid links. The characteristics of the drop-link structure depend on the core thickness, the ratio of the core radius to the wall radius, and the ratio of the fluid viscosities. The factors controlling the

  2. Boundary layer receptivity and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    Receptivity processes initiate natural instabilities in a boundary layer. The instabilities grow and eventually break down to turbulence. Consequently, receptivity questions are a critical element of the analysis of the transition process. Success in modeling the physics of receptivity processes thus has a direct bearing on technological issues of drag reduction. The means by which transitional flows can be controlled is also a major concern: questions of control are tied inevitably to those of receptivity. Adjoint systems provide a highly effective mathematical method for approaching many of the questions associated with both receptivity and control. The long term objective is to develop adjoint methods to handle increasingly complex receptivity questions, and to find systematic procedures for deducing effective control strategies. The most elementary receptivity problem is that in which a parallel boundary layer is forced by time-harmonic sources of various types. The characteristics of the response to such forcing form the building blocks for more complex receptivity mechanisms. The first objective of this year's research effort was to investigate how a parallel Blasius boundary layer responds to general direct forcing. Acoustic disturbances in the freestream can be scattered by flow non-uniformities to produce Tollmien-Schlichting waves. For example, scattering by surface roughness is known to provide an efficient receptivity path. The present effort is directed towards finding a solution by a simple adjoint analysis, because adjoint methods can be extended to more complex problems. In practice, flows are non-parallel and often three-dimensional. Compressibility may also be significant in some cases. Recent developments in the use of Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) offer a promising possibility. By formulating and solving a set of adjoint parabolized equations, a method for mapping the efficiency with which external forcing excites the three

  3. A laboratory investigation of potential double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Philip

    1987-01-01

    In a triple plasma device, the injection of electron current from the source chamber to the target chamber causes the formation of a potential double layer. At a low current density, the space charge of the injected current produces a virtual cathode-type potential double layer. This double layer is stable, and various wave instabilities are observed to associate with this double layer. As the current density is increased, the double layer becomes unstable, and a moving double layer results. As the current density is increased further, the enhanced ionization causes the neutralization of the space charge of the electron beam, and the beam plasma discharge is ignited.

  4. A laboratory investigation of potential double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Philip

    1987-01-01

    In a triple plasma device, the injection of electron current from the source chamber to the target chamber causes the formation of a potential double layer. At a low current density, the space charge of the injected current produces a virtual cathode-type potential double layer. This double layer is stable and various wave instabilities are observed to associate with this double layer. As the current density is increased, the double layer becomes unstable and a moving double layer results. As the current density is increased further, the enhanced ionization causes the neutralization of the space charge of the electron beam and the 'beam plasma discharge' is ignited.

  5. Layer by layer etching of LaAlSiOx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hisataka

    2016-09-01

    In order to fabricate a gate transistor with high-k oxide materials, removal of high-k oxide films after gate electrode etching is necessary for the formation of ohmic contacts on source and drain regions. It is crucial that the removal process of high-k oxide film by dry etching is highly selective to and low in damage to the Si substrate in order to avoid the degradation of device performances. Sasaki et al. have achieved a high LaAlSiOx-to-Si selectivity of 6.7 using C4F8/Ar/H2 plasma. In the LaAlSiOx etching process using C4F8/Ar/H2 plasma, H2 plays a role in breaking the metal-oxygen bond to enhance etching of LaAlSiOx. Based on this result, the process was decomposed into two steps: a surface modification step using H2 plasma to break the metal-oxygen bond, and a removal step using C4F8/Ar plasma. A sequential layer by layer etching could realize low damage etching, similar to atomic layer etching. Therefore, a sequential LaAlSiOx etching process using a H2 surface modification step followed by a removal step using C4F8/Ar plasma is investigated. Experiments were carried out on 300 mm diameter wafers using the 100/13.56 MHz dual frequency superimposed capacitively coupled plasma reactor. The etching gases were H2 and C4F8/Ar for each step, respectively. Plasma process conditions were 100 MHz power of 1000 W (plasma generation), 13.56MHz power varied from 0 W to 300W (ion energy control). The substrate temperature was 40 °C. 15nm thick LaAlSiOx blanket film was used for evaluation of the etched amount. Film thickness was measured by X-ray fluorescent analysis thickness meter before and after plasma exposure. The etched amount of LaAlSiOx by the C4F8/Ar plasma step doubled with H2 modification. It is confirmed that when the C4F8/Ar plasma treatment time is sufficient to remove the surface modification layer, a self-limiting reaction is realized. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the etched amount per step can be controlled by control of the ion energy of H2

  6. Layers over layer-by-layer assemblies: silanization of polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Dirani, Ali; Fernandes, Antony E; Wong, Diana Ramirez; Lipnik, Pascale; Poleunis, Claude; Nysten, Bernard; Glinel, Karine; Jonas, Alain M

    2014-08-26

    The functionalization of poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAH/PAA) polyelectrolyte multilayers by silanes reacted from the gas phase is studied depending on reaction time and temperature, pH of multilayer assembly, and nature of the reacting silane group. Whereas monochlorosilanes only diffuse in the multilayer and graft in limited amount, trichloro- and triethoxysilanes form rapidly a continuous gel layer on the surface of the multilayer, with a thickness of ca. 10-20 nm. The reactivity is lower in the strongly paired regime of the multilayers (neutral assembly conditions) but otherwise is not affected by the pH of multilayer assembly. Silanization considerably broadens the range of possible functionalities for (PAH/PAA) multilayers: hydrophobicity, surface-initiated polymerization, and grafting of fluorescent probes by the formation of disulfide bridges are demonstrated. Conversely, our results also broaden the range of substrates that can be functionalized by silanes, using (PAH/PAA) multilayers as ubiquitous anchoring layers.

  7. Osteotropic therapy via targeted Layer-by-Layer nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Stephen W.; Shah, Nisarg J.; Quadir, Mohiuddin A.; Deng, Zhou J.; Poon, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment options for debilitating bone diseases such as osteosarcoma, osteoporosis, and bone metastatic cancer are suboptimal and have low efficacy. New treatment options for these pathologies require targeted therapy that maximizes exposure to the diseased tissue and minimizes off-target side effects. This work investigates an approach for generating functional and targeted drug carriers specifically for treating primary osteosarcoma, a disease in which recurrence is common and the cure rate has remained around 20%. Our approach utilizes the modularity of Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly to generate tissue-specific drug carriers for systemic administration. This is accomplished via surface modification of drug-loaded nanoparticles with an aqueous polyelectrolyte, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), side-chain functionalized with alendronate, a potent clinically-used bisphosphonate. Nanoparticles coated with PAA-Alendronate are observed to bind and internalize rapidly in human osteosarcoma 143B cells. Encapsulation of doxorubicin, a front-line chemotherapeutic, in an LbL-targeted liposome demonstrates potent toxicity in vitro. Active targeting of 143B xenografts in NCR nude mice with the LbL-targeted doxorubicin liposomes promotes enhanced, prolonged tumor accumulation and significantly improved efficacy. This report represents a tunable approach towards the synthesis of drug carriers, in which LbL can enable surface modification of nanoparticles for tissue-specific targeting and treatment. PMID:24124132

  8. Ultrathin-layer chromatography nanostructures modified by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Jim, S R; Foroughi-Abari, A; Krause, K M; Li, P; Kupsta, M; Taschuk, M T; Cadien, K C; Brett, M J

    2013-07-19

    Stationary phase morphology and surface chemistry dictate the properties of ultrathin-layer chromatography (UTLC) media and interactions with analytes in sample mixtures. In this paper, we combined two powerful thin film deposition techniques to create composite chromatography nanomaterials. Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) produces high surface area columnar microstructures with aligned macropores well-suited for UTLC. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables precise fabrication of conformal, nanometer-scale coatings that can tune surfaces of these UTLC films. We coated ∼5μm thick GLAD SiO2 UTLC media with <10nm thick ALD metal oxides (Al2O3, ZrO2, and ZnO) to decouple surface chemistry from the underlying GLAD scaffold microstructure. The effects of ALD coatings on GLAD UTLC media were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), gas adsorption porosimetry, and lipophilic dye separations. The results collectively show that the most significant changes occur over the first few nanometers of ALD coating. They further demonstrate independent control of film microstructure and surface characteristics. ALD coatings can enhance complex GLAD microstructures to engineer new composite nanomaterials potentially useful in analytical chromatography.

  9. Layer-by-layer assemblies for antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoying; Jun Loh, Xian

    2015-12-01

    The adhesion and proliferation of bacteria on various artificial surfaces affects the functionality of these specific interfaces. To overcome the problems caused by bacterial growth on these surfaces, various antibacterial coatings were developed. In this review, we summarized most of the antibacterial surfaces prepared by the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly approach and classified these LbL films based on their antibacterial mechanisms. In the first group, the bactericidal LbL assemblies which incorporate various biocides including heavy metals, antibiotics, cationic molecules, antimicrobial peptides and enzymes are able to kill surrounding or contacted bacteria. In the second group, we focused on the physical aspects of film surfaces. Bacterial adhesion resistant LbL films have been fabricated to adjust the substrate surface properties such as surface free energy (or wettability), roughness, and surface charge which may affect the adhesion of bacteria. Furthermore, as an enhancement in the antibacterial efficiency, multifunctional LbL assemblies combining both bactericidal and adhesion resistant functionalities were discussed. The advantages and limitations of these antibacterial LbL assemblies were summarized and subsequently directions for future development were proposed.

  10. Layer-by-Layer Assemblies for Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi Qiu; Picart, Catherine

    2016-02-10

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was introduced in the early 1990s. Since then, it has undergone a series of technological developments, making it possible to engineer various theranostic platforms, such as films and capsules, with precise control at the nanometer and micrometer scales. Recent progress in the applications of LbL assemblies in the field of cancer therapy, diagnosis, and fundamental biological study are highlighted here. The potential of LbL-based systems as drug carriers is discussed, especially with regard to the engineering of innovative stimuli-responsive systems, and their advantageous multifunctionality in the development of new therapeutic tools. Then, the diagnostic functions of LbL assemblies are illustrated for detection and capture of rare cancer cells. Finally, LbL-mimicking extracellular environments demonstrate the emerging potential for the study of cancer cell behavior in vitro. The advantages of LbL systems, important challenges that need to be overcome, and future perspectives in clinical practice are then highlighted.

  11. Layer-by-layer assemblies for cancer treatment and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi Qiu; Picart, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was introduced in the early 90s by Profs Moehwald, Lvov and Decher. Since then, it has undergone a series of technological developments, making it possible to engineer various theranostic platforms such as films and capsules, with precise control at the nanometer and micrometer scales. This Research News article highlights recent progress in the applications of LbL assemblies in the field of cancer therapy, diagnosis and fundamental biology study. The potentials of LbL-based systems as drug carriers are discussed, especially with regard to the engineering of innovative stimuli-responsive systems, and their advantageous multifunctionality in the development of new therapeutic tools. Then, the diagnostic functions of LbL assemblies are illustrated for detection and capture of rare cancer cells. Finally, LbL mimicking extracellular environments demonstrate the emerging potential for the study of cancer cell behaviors in vitro. We conclude by highlighting the advantages of LbL systems, important challenges that need to be overcome, and future perspectives in clinical practice. PMID:26390356

  12. Nanomechanical cleavage of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dai-Ming; Kvashnin, Dmitry G; Najmaei, Sina; Bando, Yoshio; Kimoto, Koji; Koskinen, Pekka; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Yakobson, Boris I; Sorokin, Pavel B; Lou, Jun; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-04-03

    The discovery of two-dimensional materials became possible due to the mechanical cleavage technique. Despite its simplicity, the as-cleaved materials demonstrated surprising macro-continuity, high crystalline quality and extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties that triggered global research interest. Here such cleavage processes and associated mechanical behaviours are investigated by a direct in situ transmission electron microscopy probing technique, using atomically thin molybdenum disulphide layers as a model material. Our technique demonstrates layer number selective cleavage, from a monolayer to double layer and up to 23 atomic layers. In situ observations combined with molecular dynamics simulations reveal unique layer-dependent bending behaviours, from spontaneous rippling (<5 atomic layers) to homogeneous curving (~ 10 layers) and finally to kinking (20 or more layers), depending on the competition of strain energy and interfacial energy.

  13. Nanomechanical cleavage of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dai-Ming; Kvashnin, Dmitry G.; Najmaei, Sina; Bando, Yoshio; Kimoto, Koji; Koskinen, Pekka; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Yakobson, Boris I.; Sorokin, Pavel B.; Lou, Jun; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-04-01

    The discovery of two-dimensional materials became possible due to the mechanical cleavage technique. Despite its simplicity, the as-cleaved materials demonstrated surprising macro-continuity, high crystalline quality and extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties that triggered global research interest. Here such cleavage processes and associated mechanical behaviours are investigated by a direct in situ transmission electron microscopy probing technique, using atomically thin molybdenum disulphide layers as a model material. Our technique demonstrates layer number selective cleavage, from a monolayer to double layer and up to 23 atomic layers. In situ observations combined with molecular dynamics simulations reveal unique layer-dependent bending behaviours, from spontaneous rippling (<5 atomic layers) to homogeneous curving (~ 10 layers) and finally to kinking (20 or more layers), depending on the competition of strain energy and interfacial energy.

  14. Applications of strained layer superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Laurich, B. K.; Mailhiot, C.

    1990-04-01

    Because of different band edge lineups, strain conditions, and growth orientations, various strained layer superlattice (SLS) materials can exhibit qualitatively new physical behavior in their optical properties. Two examples are given of new physical behavior in SLS: strain generated electric fields in polar growth axis superlattices and strained type 2 superlattices. In SLS, large electric fields can be generated by the piezoelectric effect. The fields are largest for SLS with a (111) growth axis; they vanish for SLS with a (100) growth axis. The strain generated electric fields strongly modify the optical properties of the superlattice. Photogenerated electron-hole pairs screen the fields leading to a large nonlinear optical response. Application of an external electric field leads to a large linear electrooptical response. The absorption edge can be either red or blue shifted. Optical studies of (100), (111), and (211) oriented GaInAs/GaAs superlattices confirm the existence of the strain generated electric fields. Small band gap semiconductors are useful for making intrinsic long wavelength infrared detectors. Arbitrarily small band gaps can be reached in the type 2 superlattice InAs/GaSb. However, for band gaps less than 0.1 eV, the layer thicknesses are large and the overlap of electron and hole wavefunctions are small. Thus, the absorption coefficient is too small for useful infrared (IR) detection. Including In in the GaSb introduces strain in he InAs/GaInSb superlattice which shifts the band edges so that small band gaps can be reached in thin layer superlattices. Good absorption at long IR wavelengths is thus achieved.

  15. Bioactivity of polycrystalline silicon layers.

    PubMed

    Pramatarova, Lilyana; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Petrov, Todor; Toth, Attila L; Dimitrova, Magdalena

    2008-02-01

    After oxygen, silicon is the second most abundant element in the environment and is present as an impurity in most materials. The widespread occurrence of siliceous biominerals as structural elements in lower plants and animals suggests that Si plays a role in the production and maintenance of connective tissue in higher organisms. It has been shown that the presence of Si is necessary in bones, cartilage and in the formation of connective tissue, as well as in some important metabolic processes. In this work, polycrystalline silicon layers are tested in terms of bioactivity, i.e., their ability to induce hydroxyapatite formation from simulated body fluid. Hydroxyapatite is a biologically compatible material with chemical similarity to the inorganic part of bones and teeth. Polycrystalline silicon layers are obtained by aluminum induced crystallization of Al and amorphous Si thin films deposited sequentially on glass substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and subsequently annealed in different atmospheres. The hydroxyapatite formation is induced by applying a method of laser-liquid-solid interaction. The method consists of irradiating the samples with laser light while immersed in a solution that is supersaturated with respect to Ca and P. As a result, heterogeneous porous sponge-like carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite is grown on the polysilicon surfaces. Crystals that are spherical in shape, containing Ca, P and O, Na, Cl, Mg, Al, Si and S, as well as well-faceted NaCl crystals are embedded in the hydroxyapatite layer. Enhancement of the hydroxyapatite growth and increased crystallinity is observed due to the applied laser-liquid-solid interaction.

  16. Bursts in inclined layer convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, F. H.; Clever, R. M.

    2000-08-01

    A new instability of longitudinal rolls in an inclined fluid layer heated from below is analyzed in the case of the Prandtl number P=0.71. The instability assumes the form of subharmonic undulations and evolves into a spatially chaotic pattern when the angle of inclination is of the order of 20°. The chaotic state rapidly decays and longitudinal rolls recover until the next burst of chaotic convection occurs. The theoretical findings closely correspond to recent experimental observations by Daniels et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published)].

  17. Multiple-Dynode-Layer Microchannel Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    1990-01-01

    Improved microchannel-plate electron image amplifier made of stack of discrete microchannel-plate layers. New plates easier to manufacture because no need to etch long, narrow holes, to draw and bundle thin glass tubes, or to shear plates to give microchannels curvatures necessary for reduction of undesired emission of ions. Discrete dynode layers stacked with slight offset from layer to layer to form microchannel plate with curved channels. Provides for relatively fast recharging of microchannel dynodes, with consequent enhancement of performance.

  18. Assembly of 1D nanofibers into a 2D bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with different functionalities at the two layers via layer-by-layer electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zijiao; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Li, Dan; Xi, Xue; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2016-12-21

    A two-dimensional (2D) bi-layered composite nanofibrous film assembled by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers with trifunctionality of electrical conduction, magnetism and photoluminescence has been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer electrospinning. The composite film consists of a polyaniline (PANI)/Fe3O4 nanoparticle (NP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) tuned electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer on one side and a Tb(TTA)3(TPPO)2/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) photoluminescent layer on the other side, and the two layers are tightly combined face-to-face together into the novel bi-layered composite film of trifunctionality. The brand-new film has totally different characteristics at the double layers. The electrical conductivity and magnetism of the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer can be, respectively, tunable via modulating the PANI and Fe3O4 NP contents, and the highest electrical conductivity can reach up to the order of 10(-2) S cm(-1), and predominant intense green emission at 545 nm is obviously observed in the photoluminescent layer under the excitation of 357 nm single-wavelength ultraviolet light. More importantly, the luminescence intensity of the photoluminescent layer remains almost unaffected by the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer because the photoluminescent materials have been successfully isolated from dark-colored PANI and Fe3O4 NPs. By comparing with the counterpart single-layered composite nanofibrous film, it is found that the bi-layered composite nanofibrous film has better performance. The novel bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with trifunctionality has potential in the fields of nanodevices, molecular electronics and biomedicine. Furthermore, the design conception and fabrication technique for the bi-layered multifunctional film provide a new and facile strategy towards other films of multifunctionality.

  19. Biaxially textured metal substrate with palladium layer

    DOEpatents

    Robbins, William B [Maplewood, MN

    2002-12-31

    Described is an article comprising a biaxially textured metal substrate and a layer of palladium deposited on at least one major surface of the metal substrate; wherein the palladium layer has desired in-plane and out-of-plane crystallographic orientations, which allow subsequent layers that are applied on the article to also have the desired orientations.

  20. Computer Program Re-layers Engineering Drawings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosby, Dewey C., III

    1990-01-01

    RULCHK computer program aids in structuring layers of information pertaining to part or assembly designed with software described in article "Software for Drawing Design Details Concurrently" (MFS-28444). Checks and optionally updates structure of layers for part. Enables designer to construct model and annotate its documentation without burden of manually layering part to conform to standards at design time.

  1. Motor cortex layer 4: less is more

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, Helen; García-Cabezas, Miguel Á.

    2015-01-01

    The stratified motor cortex is variously thought to either lack or contain layer 4. Yamawaki et al. described a functional layer 4 in mouse motor cortex with properties and connections similar to layer 4 in sensory areas. Their results bolster a theoretical framework suggesting all primary cortical areas are equivalent. PMID:25868984

  2. The Hole in the Ozone Layer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamers, Jeanne S.; Jacob, Anthony T.

    This document contains information on the hole in the ozone layer. Topics discussed include properties of ozone, ozone in the atmosphere, chlorofluorocarbons, stratospheric ozone depletion, effects of ozone depletion on life, regulation of substances that deplete the ozone layer, alternatives to CFCs and Halons, and the future of the ozone layer.…

  3. Multilayer article having stabilized zirconia outer layer and chemical barrier layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor); Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multilayer article includes a substrate that includes at least one of a ceramic compound and a Si-containing metal alloy. An outer layer includes stabilized zirconia. Intermediate layers are located between the outer layer and the substrate and include a mullite-containing layer and a chemical barrier layer. The mullite-containing layer includes 1) mullite or 2) mullite and an alkaline earth metal aluminosilicate. The chemical barrier layer is located between the mullite-containing layer and the outer layer. The chemical barrier layer includes at least one of mullite, hafnia, hafnium silicate and rare earth silicate (e.g., at least one of RE.sub.2 SiO.sub.5 and RE.sub.2 Si.sub.2 O.sub.7 where RE is Sc or Yb). The multilayer article is characterized by the combination of the chemical barrier layer and by its lack of a layer consisting essentially of barium strontium aluminosilicate between the mullite-containing layer and the chemical barrier layer. Such a barium strontium aluminosilicate layer may undesirably lead to the formation of a low melting glass or unnecessarily increase the layer thickness with concomitant reduced durability of the multilayer article. In particular, the chemical barrier layer may include at least one of hafnia, hafnium silicate and rare earth silicate.

  4. Layer-to-layer compression and enhanced optical properties of few-layer graphene nanosheet induced by ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhen; Tan, Yang; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng

    2016-08-01

    We report on the first experimental study of the layer-to-layer compression and enhanced optical properties of few-layer graphene nanosheet by applying ion irradiation. The deformation of graphene layers is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. It is observed that after the irradiation of energetic ion beams, the space between separate graphene layers is reduced due to layer-to-layer compression, resulting in tighter contact of the graphene sheet with the surface of the substrate. This processing enables enhanced interaction of the graphene with the evanescent-field wave near the surface, which induces reinforced polarization-dependent light absorption of the graphene. Utilizing the ion-bombarded graphene nanosheets as saturable absorbers, we have realized efficient Q-switched waveguide lasing with enhanced performance through the interaction of the graphene and evanescent field.

  5. 2-Shock layered tuning campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Laurent; Dittrich, T.; Khan, S.; Kyrala, G.; Ma, T.; MacLaren, S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J.; Tipton, R.; Los Alamos Natl Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab Team

    2016-10-01

    The 2-Shock platform has been developed to maintain shell sphericity throughout the compression phase of an indirect-drive target implosion and produce a stagnating hot spot in a quasi 1D-like manner. A sub-scale, 1700 _m outer diameter, and thick, 200 _m, uniformly Silicon doped, gas-filled plastic capsule is driven inside a nominal size 5750 _m diameter ignition hohlraum. The hohlraum fill is near vacuum to reduce back-scatter and improve laser/drive coupling. A two-shock pulse of about 1 MJ of laser energy drives the capsule. The thick capsule prevents ablation front feed-through to the imploded core. This platform has demonstrated its efficiency to tune a predictable and reproducible 1-D implosion with a nearly round shape. It has been shown that the high foot performance was dominated by the local defect growth due to the ablation front instability and by the hohlraum radiation asymmetries. The idea here is to take advantage of this 2-Shock platform to design a 1D-like layered implosion and eliminates the deleterious effects of radiation asymmetries and ablation front instability growth. We present the design work and our first experimental results of this near one-dimensional 2-Shock layered design. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Dispersal, settling and layer formation.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, James R; Hughes, Barry D; Landman, Kerry A

    2011-07-01

    Motivated by examples in developmental biology and ecology, we develop a model for convection-dominated invasion of a spatial region by initially motile agents which are able to settle permanently. The motion of the motile agents and their rate of settling are affected by the local concentration of settled agents. The model can be formulated as a nonlinear partial differential equation for the time-integrated local concentration of the motile agents, from which the instantaneous density of settled agents and its long-time limit can be extracted. In the limit of zero diffusivity, the partial differential equation is of first order; for application-relevant initial and boundary-value problems, shocks arise in the time-integrated motile agent density, leading to delta-function components in the motile agent density. Furthermore, there are simple solutions for a model of successive layer formation. In addition some analytic results for a one-dimensional system with non-zero diffusivity can also be obtained. A case study, both with and without diffusion, is examined numerically. Some important predictions of the model are insensitive to the specific settling law used and the model offers insight into biological processes involving layered growth or overlapping generations of colonization.

  7. Boundary Layer Heights from CALIOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, R.; Ackerman, S. A.; Holz, R.; Roubert, L.

    2012-12-01

    This work is focused on the development of a planetary boundary layer (PBL) height retrieval algorithm for CALIOP and validation studies. Our current approach uses a wavelet covariance transform analysis technique to find the top of the boundary layer. We use the methodology similar to that found in Davis et. al. 2000, ours has been developed to work with the lower SNR data provided by CALIOP, and is intended to work autonomously. Concurrently developed with the CALIOP algorithm we will show results from a PBL height retrieval algorithm from profiles of potential temperature, these are derived from Aircraft Meteorological DAta Relay (AMDAR) observations. Results from 5 years of collocated AMDAR - CALIOP retrievals near O'Hare airport demonstrate good agreement between the CALIOP - AMDAR retrievals. In addition, because we are able to make daily retrievals from the AMDAR measurements, we are able to observe the seasonal and annual variation in the PBL height at airports that have sufficient instrumented-aircraft traffic. Also, a comparison has been done between the CALIOP retrievals and the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) PBL height retrievals acquired during the GoMACCS experiment. Results of this comparison, like the AMDAR comparison are favorable. Our current work also involves the analysis and verification of the CALIOP PBL height retrieval from the 6 year CALIOP global data set. Results from this analysis will also be presented.

  8. Heat generation in double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Julia; Linzen, Dirk; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    Thermal management is a key issue concerning lifetime and performance of double layer capacitors and battery technologies. Double layer capacitor modules for hybrid vehicles are subject to heavy duty cycling conditions and therefore significant heat generation occurs. High temperature causes accelerated aging of the double layer capacitors and hence reduced lifetime. To investigate the thermal behavior of double layer capacitors, thermal measurements during charge/discharge cycles were performed. These measurements show that heat generation in double layer capacitors is the superposition of an irreversible Joule heat generation and a reversible heat generation caused by a change in entropy. A mathematical representation of both parts is provided.

  9. Dense, layered membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOEpatents

    Roark, Shane E.; MacKay, Richard; Mundschau, Michael V.

    2006-02-21

    This invention provides hydrogen-permeable membranes for separation of hydrogen from hydrogen-containing gases. The membranes are multi-layer having a central hydrogen-permeable layer with one or more catalyst layers, barrier layers, and/or protective layers. The invention also relates to membrane reactors employing the hydrogen-permeable membranes of the invention and to methods for separation of hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gas using the membranes and reactors. The reactors of this invention can be combined with additional reactor systems for direct use of the separated hydrogen.

  10. Linear instability of curved free shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, William W.

    1993-01-01

    The linear inviscid hydrodynamic stability of slightly curved free mixing layers is studied in this paper. The disturbance equation is solved numerically using a shooting technique. Two mean velocity profiles that represent stably and unstably curved free mixing layers are considered. Results are shown for cases of five curvature Richardson numbers. The stability characteristics of the shear layer are found to vary significantly with the introduction of the curvature effects. The results also indicate that, in a manner similar to the Goertler vortices observed in a boundary layer along a concave wall, instability modes of spatially developing streamwise vortex pairs may appear in centrifugally unstable curved mixing layers.

  11. Five layers in a turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinyoung; Ahn, Junsun; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-11-01

    The scaling laws governing the five layers of the mean velocity distribution of a turbulent pipe flow were characterized using the available DNS data (Reτ = 544 , 934, 3008). Excluding the very near-wall and core regions, the buffer, meso- and log layers were identified by examining the streamwise mean momentum equation and the net force spectra. The (outer) log layer was located in the overlap region where the viscous force was negligible. Another (inner) log layer was observed in the buffer layer, in which the viscous force was directly counterbalanced by the turbulent inertia. A meso-layer between the buffer and outer log layers was found to feature viscous effects. The acceleration force of the large-scale motions (LSMs) penetrated the outer log layer at higher Reynolds numbers, as observed in the net force spectra. The acceleration force of the LSMs became strong and was counterbalanced by the deceleration force of the small-scale motions (SSMs), indicating that the inner and outer length scales contributed equally to the meso-layer. The outer log layer was established by forming an extended connection link between the meso- and outer layers. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP) and partially supported by KISTI under the Strategic Supercomputing Support Program.

  12. Holographic recording medium employing a photoconductive layer and a low molecular weight microcrystalline polymeric layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  13. S-layers: principles and applications

    PubMed Central

    Sleytr, Uwe B; Schuster, Bernhard; Egelseer, Eva-Maria; Pum, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Monomolecular arrays of protein or glycoprotein subunits forming surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most commonly observed prokaryotic cell envelope components. S-layers are generally the most abundantly expressed proteins, have been observed in species of nearly every taxonomical group of walled bacteria, and represent an almost universal feature of archaeal envelopes. The isoporous lattices completely covering the cell surface provide organisms with various selection advantages including functioning as protective coats, molecular sieves and ion traps, as structures involved in surface recognition and cell adhesion, and as antifouling layers. S-layers are also identified to contribute to virulence when present as a structural component of pathogens. In Archaea, most of which possess S-layers as exclusive wall component, they are involved in determining cell shape and cell division. Studies on structure, chemistry, genetics, assembly, function, and evolutionary relationship of S-layers revealed considerable application potential in (nano)biotechnology, biomimetics, biomedicine, and synthetic biology. PMID:24483139

  14. S-Layer Protein Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Pum, Dietmar; Toca-Herrera, Jose Luis; Sleytr, Uwe B.

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline S(urface)-layers are the most commonly observed cell surface structures in prokaryotic organisms (bacteria and archaea). S-layers are highly porous protein meshworks with unit cell sizes in the range of 3 to 30 nm, and thicknesses of ~10 nm. One of the key features of S-layer proteins is their intrinsic capability to form self-assembled mono- or double layers in solution, and at interfaces. Basic research on S-layer proteins laid foundation to make use of the unique self-assembly properties of native and, in particular, genetically functionalized S-layer protein lattices, in a broad range of applications in the life and non-life sciences. This contribution briefly summarizes the knowledge about structure, genetics, chemistry, morphogenesis, and function of S-layer proteins and pays particular attention to the self-assembly in solution, and at differently functionalized solid supports. PMID:23354479

  15. Simulation of plasma double-layer structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, J. E.; Joyce, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic plasma double layers are numerically simulated by means of a magnetized 2 1/2 dimensional particle in cell method. The investigation of planar double layers indicates that these one dimensional potential structures are susceptible to periodic disruption by instabilities in the low potential plasmas. Only a slight increase in the double layer thickness with an increase in its obliqueness to the magnetic field is observed. Weak magnetization results in the double layer electric field alignment of accelerated particles and strong magnetization results in their magnetic field alignment. The numerical simulations of spatially periodic two dimensional double layers also exhibit cyclical instability. A morphological invariance in two dimensional double layers with respect to the degree of magnetization implies that the potential structures scale with Debye lengths rather than with gyroradii. Electron beam excited electrostatic electron cyclotron waves and (ion beam driven) solitary waves are present in the plasmas adjacent to the double layers.

  16. S-layers: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Sleytr, Uwe B; Schuster, Bernhard; Egelseer, Eva-Maria; Pum, Dietmar

    2014-09-01

    Monomolecular arrays of protein or glycoprotein subunits forming surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most commonly observed prokaryotic cell envelope components. S-layers are generally the most abundantly expressed proteins, have been observed in species of nearly every taxonomical group of walled bacteria, and represent an almost universal feature of archaeal envelopes. The isoporous lattices completely covering the cell surface provide organisms with various selection advantages including functioning as protective coats, molecular sieves and ion traps, as structures involved in surface recognition and cell adhesion, and as antifouling layers. S-layers are also identified to contribute to virulence when present as a structural component of pathogens. In Archaea, most of which possess S-layers as exclusive wall component, they are involved in determining cell shape and cell division. Studies on structure, chemistry, genetics, assembly, function, and evolutionary relationship of S-layers revealed considerable application potential in (nano)biotechnology, biomimetics, biomedicine, and synthetic biology.

  17. Vortex boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, P.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric studies to identify a vortex generator were completed. Data acquisition in the first chosen configuration, in which a longitudinal vortex pair generated by an isolated delta wing starts to merge with a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate fairly close to the leading edge is nearly completed. Work on a delta-wing/flat-plate combination, consisting of a flow visualization and hot wire measurements taken with a computer controlled traverse gear and data logging system were completed. Data taking and analysis have continued, and sample results for another cross stream plane are presented. Available data include all mean velocity components, second order mean products of turbulent fluctuations, and third order mean products. Implementation of a faster data logging system was accomplished.

  18. Layer Precipitable Water (LPW) Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, John; Kidder, Stan; Fuell, Kevin; LeRoy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) provides soundings of specific humidity from a variety of instruments and is combined with AIRS infrared soundings to create a Layered Precipitable Water (LPW) composite product. The LPW provides vertical moisture information in the column instead of just upper levels via WV imagery, or a single column value via TPW products. LPW is created every 3 hours using the last 12 hours worth of data and has a delivery latency of 40 minutes. Weaknesses include discontinuities in the composite. Strengths include seeing through clouds, over land usage, and greater spatial coverage of vertical moisture profiles. Applications of LPW include analysis of horizontal and vertical moisture gradients, verification of NWP moisture, and analysis of atmospheric rivers and other moisture advection. Operational testbed is ongoing to determine viability of wider distribution.

  19. Tracer diffusion inside fibrinogen layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieśla, Michał; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Sagués, Francesc; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the obstructed motion of tracer (test) particles in crowded environments by carrying simulations of two-dimensional Gaussian random walk in model fibrinogen monolayers of different orientational ordering. The fibrinogen molecules are significantly anisotropic and therefore they can form structures where orientational ordering, similar to the one observed in nematic liquid crystals, appears. The work focuses on the dependence between level of the orientational order (degree of environmental crowding) of fibrinogen molecules inside a layer and non-Fickian character of the diffusion process of spherical tracer particles moving within the domain. It is shown that in general particles motion is subdiffusive and strongly anisotropic, and its characteristic features significantly change with the orientational order parameter, concentration of fibrinogens, and radius of a diffusing probe.

  20. Fundamentals of thin layer chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Geiss, F.

    1987-01-01

    This comprehensive book on the theory and practice of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is largely translated from the German original. The text contains a number of appendices, including a list of key equations, a short glossary of terms, and a list of symbols and acronyms. It also contains a list of figures that is perhaps a trifle superfluous. The book lists 299 references and has a four-page subject index. The index may be a little small for a book of nearly 500 pages. This book is a valuable addition to the texts on TLC. It is recommended to those with good mathematics backgrounds and, in particular, to those interested in chromatography theory. It will also be useful to those who employ TLC as an aid in solvent choice for LC.

  1. NDAS Hardware Translation Layer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazaretian, Ryan N.; Holladay, Wendy T.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) project is aimed to replace all DAS software for NASA s Rocket Testing Facilities. There must be a software-hardware translation layer so the software can properly talk to the hardware. Since the hardware from each test stand varies, drivers for each stand have to be made. These drivers will act more like plugins for the software. If the software is being used in E3, then the software should point to the E3 driver package. If the software is being used at B2, then the software should point to the B2 driver package. The driver packages should also be filled with hardware drivers that are universal to the DAS system. For example, since A1, A2, and B2 all use the Preston 8300AU signal conditioners, then the driver for those three stands should be the same and updated collectively.

  2. Boundary layer theory and subduction

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, A.C.

    1993-12-01

    Numerical models of thermally activated convective flow in Earth`s mantle do not resemble active plate tectonics because of their inability to model successfully the process of subduction, other than by the inclusion of artificial weak zones. Here we show, using a boundary layer argument, how the `rigid lid` style of convection favored by thermoviscous fluids leads to lithospheric stresses which may realistically exceed the yield stress and thus cause subduction ot occur through the visoc-plastic failure of lithospheric rock. An explicit criterion for the failure of the lid is given, which is sensitive to the internal viscosity eta(sub a) below the lid. For numbers appropriate to Earth`s mantle, this criterion is approximately eta(sub a) greater than 10(exp 21) Pa s.

  3. Sensor layers and waveguide layers produced in sol-gel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasinski, Pawel; Zielonka, Iwona

    2003-04-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation studies on the application of sol-gel technology for the production of sensor layers and waveguide layers for the system of planar waveguide sensors. The sensor layers are made up by silica SiO2, which is playing the role of a matrix fixing bromocresol purpole. These layers are sensitive to ammonia. The waveguide layers are produced in a two-component system SiO2:TiO2.

  4. Process Conditions of Forming the Surface Layer of Aluminum Powder Product by Layer-by-layer Laser Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents data on state of the art in selective laser sintering of products. Layer-by-layer sintering is shown to be a future-oriented technology, making it possible to synthesize products of metal powder materials. Factors, influencing the quality of a sintered product, are revealed in the paper. It presents outcomes of experiments, focused on the dependence of surface layer thickness of sintered aluminum powder PA-4 on laser processing conditions. Basic factors, influencing the quality of a sintered surface layer include laser power, speeds of scanning and moving the laser beam on the layer of powder. Thickness of the sintered layer varies from 0.74 to 1.55 mm, as the result of changing the laser processing conditions.

  5. Inter-layer synchronization in non-identical multi-layer networks

    PubMed Central

    Leyva, I.; Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; Sendiña-Nadal, I.; Gutiérrez, R.; Buldú, J.M.; Boccaletti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Inter-layer synchronization is a dynamical process occurring in multi-layer networks composed of identical nodes. This process emerges when all layers are synchronized, while nodes in each layer do not necessarily evolve in unison. So far, the study of such inter-layer synchronization has been restricted to the case in which all layers have an identical connectivity structure. When layers are not identical, the inter-layer synchronous state is no longer a stable solution of the system. Nevertheless, when layers differ in just a few links, an approximate treatment is still feasible, and allows one to gather information on whether and how the system may wander around an inter-layer synchronous configuration. We report the details of an approximate analytical treatment for a two-layer multiplex, which results in the introduction of an extra inertial term accounting for structural differences. Numerical validation of the predictions highlights the usefulness of our approach, especially for small or moderate topological differences in the intra-layer coupling. Moreover, we identify a non-trivial relationship connecting the betweenness centrality of the missing links and the intra-layer coupling strength. Finally, by the use of multiplexed layers of electronic circuits, we study the inter-layer synchronization as a function of the removed links. PMID:28374802

  6. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  7. Instabilities in a Layer-Multiplying Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollogoub, Cyrille; Grandmontagne, Anne; Guinault, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The application of a layer-multiplying device to coextrusion has resulted in a process, called microlayer coextrusion, producing films with ten to thousands of layers of two different polymers. It was shown that this device is quite versatile and can be used to produce new layered systems with improved mechanical, optical, electrical and barrier properties. However, instabilities may occur in the feedblock and/or the layer multiplying unit, affecting the uniformity and the continuity of the created layers. Those instabilities have been widely studied for classical systems with three to five layer structures, while very few studies deal with microlayer coextrusion process. The aim of this paper is to study the flow instabilities in multilayered films. In particular, the role of polymer properties and the effect of some parameters, such as the viscosity ratio, will be investigated.

  8. Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

  9. Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

    2005-08-01

    The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

  10. LDV measurements of turbulent baroclinic boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Neuwald, P.; Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-07-01

    Described here are shock tube experiments of nonsteady, turbulent boundary layers with large density variations. A dense-gas layer was created by injecting Freon through the porous floor of the shock tube. As the shock front propagated along the layer, vorticity was created at the air-Freon interface by an inviscid, baroclinic mechanism. Shadow-schlieren photography was used to visualize the turbulent mixing in this baroclinic boundary layer. Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry (LDV) was used to measure the streamwise velocity histories at 14 heights. After transition, the boundary layer profiles may be approximated by a power-law function u {approximately} u{sup {alpha}} where {alpha} {approx_equal} 3/8. This value lies between the clean flat plate value ({alpha} = 1/7) and the dusty boundary layer value ({alpha} {approx_equal} 0.7), and is controlled by the gas density near the wall.

  11. Manganese containing layer for magnetic recording media

    DOEpatents

    Lambeth, David N.; Lee, Li-Lien; Laughlin, David E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides for a magnetic recording media incorporating Mn-containing layers between a substrate and a magnetic layer to provide media having increased coercivity and lower noise. The Mn-containing layer can be incorporated in a rotating, translating or stationary recording media to operate in conjunction with magnetic transducing heads for recording and reading of magnetic data, as well as other applications. The magnetic recording medium of the invention preferably includes a Co or Co alloy film magnetic layer, and Mn-containing layer, preferably comprised of VMn, TiMn, MnZn, CrMnMo, CrMnW, CrMnV, and CrMnTi, and most preferably a CrMn alloy, disposed between the substrate and the magnetic layer to promote an epitaxial crystalline structure in the magnetic layer. The medium can further include seed layers, preferably polycrystalline MgO for longitudinal media, underlayers, and intermediate layers. Underlayers and intermediate layers are comprised of materials having either an A2 structure or a B2-ordered crystalline structure disposed between the seed layer and the magnetic layer. Materials having an A2 structure are preferably Cr or Cr alloys, such as CrV, CrMo, CrW and CrTi. Materials having a B2-ordered structure having a lattice constant that is substantially comparable to that of Cr, such as those preferably selected from the group consisting of NiAl, AILCo, FeAl, FeTi, CoFe, CoTi, CoHf, CoZr, NiTi, CuBe, CuZn, A-LMn, AlRe, AgMg, and Al.sub.2 FeMn.sub.2, and is most preferably FeAl or NiAl.

  12. Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H.

    1996-04-01

    Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, it`s virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.

  13. Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xin D.; Muenchausen, Ross E.

    1993-01-01

    A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure.

  14. Method to fabricate layered material compositions

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2004-11-02

    A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

  15. Method to fabricate layered material compositions

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2002-01-01

    A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

  16. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  17. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-09-14

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  18. Unified Parameterization of the Marine Boundary Layer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2 . REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010...boundary layer closure for the convective boundary layer 2 . An EDMF approach to the vertical transport of TKE in convective boundary layers 3. EDMF in...4 implementation and extension to shallow cumulus parameterization is in progress. 2   An integrated TKE-based eddy-diffusivity/mass-flux

  19. Photovoltaic cell with thin CS layer

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.F.; Albright, S.P.

    1994-01-18

    An improved photovoltaic panel and method of forming a photovoltaic panel are disclosed for producing a high efficiency CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell. The photovoltaic panel of the present invention is initially formed with a substantially thick CdS layer, and the effective thickness of the CdS layer is substantially reduced during regrowth to both form larger diameter CdTe crystals and substantially reduce the effective thickness of the CdS layer. 4 figures.

  20. Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.

  1. Generalized approach to design multi-layer stacks for enhanced optical detectability of ultrathin layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutzler, A.; Matthus, C. D.; Rommel, M.; Frey, L.

    2017-01-01

    The optical detectability of ultrathin conductive films (down to one atomic layer) can be enhanced by choosing distinct layer-stacks. A simple analytical approach using the transfer matrix method is applied for calculating the reflectance of arbitrary multi-layer stack systems with and without the ultrathin layer of interest on top in a wide wavelength range, including both the visible spectrum and the ultraviolet spectrum. Then, the detectability defined by the Michelson contrast was calculated. Performing these calculations for thickness variations of the individual layers in the stack allows determining optimum layer thicknesses, e.g., maximum overall contrast or maximum contrast for a given wavelength. To demonstrate the validity of the methodology, two thin film stacks were investigated, which use p-type silicon as a substrate material and partially covered by a single-layer graphene as a top layer. For each stack, two samples with different layer thicknesses were fabricated and their experimentally determined reflectance was compared to the calculated values. The first system consists of a single SiO2 layer with a thickness of 147 nm and 304 nm, respectively, and the second is a double layer stack consisting of a Si3N4 layer with a thickness of 54 nm and 195 nm, respectively, on top of an 11 nm SiO2 film. The Michelson contrast of single-layer graphene flakes on the latter layer stacks becomes very high (absolute value of more than 0.3) in the visible wavelength range. Additionally, in the UV-B range a large difference in the reflection of selected SiO2 layer thicknesses on silicon substrates with and without single-layer graphene on top is found with a decrease in the measured reflectance of up to 33%. The measured and calculated values showed a high conformity suggesting this approach usable for the calculation of reflectance and transmittance properties of arbitrary layer stack systems including thin conductive layers.

  2. The Martian Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, A.; Galperin, B.; Larsen, S. E.; Lewis, S. R.; Määttänen, A.; Read, P. L.; Renno, N.; Rogberg, L. P. H. T.; Savijärvi, H.; Siili, T.; Spiga, A.; Toigo, A.; Vázquez, L.

    2011-09-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere that is strongly influenced by the presence of the underlying surface and mediates the key interactions between the atmosphere and the surface. On Mars, this represents the lowest 10 km of the atmosphere during the daytime. This portion of the atmosphere is extremely important, both scientifically and operationally, because it is the region within which surface lander spacecraft must operate and also determines exchanges of heat, momentum, dust, water, and other tracers between surface and subsurface reservoirs and the free atmosphere. To date, this region of the atmosphere has been studied directly, by instrumented lander spacecraft, and from orbital remote sensing, though not to the extent that is necessary to fully constrain its character and behavior. Current data strongly suggest that as for the Earth's PBL, classical Monin-Obukhov similarity theory applies reasonably well to the Martian PBL under most conditions, though with some intriguing differences relating to the lower atmospheric density at the Martian surface and the likely greater role of direct radiative heating of the atmosphere within the PBL itself. Most of the modeling techniques used for the PBL on Earth are also being applied to the Martian PBL, including novel uses of very high resolution large eddy simulation methods. We conclude with those aspects of the PBL that require new measurements in order to constrain models and discuss the extent to which anticipated missions to Mars in the near future will fulfill these requirements.

  3. Two-layer tubes from cubic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, R. V.; Gorodtsov, V. A.; Lisovenko, D. S.; Volkov, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Effective Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of two-layer tubes from cubic crystals have been analyzed theoretically. It is shown (using derived formulas for numerical estimates) that the mechanical properties of two-layer tube composites from auxetics and nonauxetics are not described by the mixture rule. It is demonstrated that the deviation of the effective modulus from the mixture rule predictions rapidly increases with an increase in Young's modulus of the nonauxetic components of a composite. It is established that, combining auxetics and nonauxetics in layered tubes, one can obtain, depending on the packing order in layers, either a strong increase or a decrease in auxeticity.

  4. Organizing Principles of Cortical Layer 6

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Farran

    2009-01-01

    Neurons in the deepest layer of mammalian cerebral cortex are morphologically and physiological diverse and are situated in a strategic position to modulate neuronal activity locally and in other structures. The variety of neuronal circuits within which layer 6 neurons participate differs across species and cortical regions. However even amidst this diversity, common organizational features emerge. Examination of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of different classes of layer 6 neuron, each specialized to participate in distinct circuits, provides insight into the functional contributions of layer 6 neurons toward cortical information processing. PMID:20179784

  5. Enhanced Densification of SDC Barrier Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-09-12

    This technical report explores the Enhanced Densification of SCD Barrier Layers A samaria-doped ceria (SDC) barrier layer separates the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode from the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to prevent the formation of electrically resistive interfacial SrZrO{sub 3} layers that arise from the reaction of Sr from the LSCF with Zr from the YSZ. However, the sintering temperature of this SDC layer must be limited to {approx}1200 C to avoid extensive interdiffusion between SDC and YSZ to form a resistive CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution. Therefore, the conventional SDC layer is often porous and therefore not as impervious to Sr-diffusion as would be desired. In the pursuit of improved SOFC performance, efforts have been directed toward increasing the density of the SDC barrier layer without increasing the sintering temperature. The density of the SDC barrier layer can be greatly increased through small amounts of Cu-doping of the SDC powder together with increased solids loading and use of an appropriate binder system in the screen print ink. However, the resulting performance of cells with these barrier layers did not exhibit the expected increase in accordance with that achieved with the prototypical PLD SDC layer. It was determined by XRD that increased sinterability of the SDC also results in increased interdiffusivity between the SDC and YSZ, resulting in formation of a highly resistive solid solution.

  6. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan; Rand, Barry P.

    2011-09-06

    A photosensitive device includes a plurality of organic photoconductive materials disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode, including a first continuous layer of donor host material, a second continuous layer of acceptor host material, and at least one other organic photoconductive material disposed as a plurality of discontinuous islands between the first continuous layer and the second continuous layer. Each of these other photoconductive materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor host material and the acceptor host material. Preferably, each of the discontinuous islands consists essentially of a crystallite of the respective organic photoconductive material, and more preferably, the crystallites are nanocrystals.

  7. Development of perturbations in the boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dovgal, A. V.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Kozlov, V. V.; Levchenko, V. Y.; Maksimov, V. P.

    1986-01-01

    The transition of laminar flows into turbulent flows in a boundary layer is discussed. The individual aspects of the transition process, observed under controllable model conditions are examined. The aspect of this problem, namely the development or excitation of the natural oscillations in the boundary layer, the so-called Tollmin-Schlichting waves is covered. Three types of excitation of these waves are considered: (1) distributed generation throughout the boundary layer; (2) generation in the vicinity of the forward edge of a model, having either a sharp edge or an edge with a large radius or curvature, and (3) generation in a developed boundary layer by means of a focused effect.

  8. Spray Layer-by-Layer Assembled Clay Composite Thin Films as Selective Layers in Reverse Osmosis Membranes.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Jason R; Liu, Chaoyang; Hammond, Paula T

    2015-06-24

    Spray layer-by-layer assembled thin films containing laponite (LAP) clay exhibit effective salt barrier and water permeability properties when applied as selective layers in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Negatively charged LAP platelets were layered with poly(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDAC), poly(allylamine) (PAH), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in bilayer and tetralayer film architectures to generate uniform films on the order of 100 nm thick that bridge a porous poly(ether sulfone) support to form novel RO membranes. Nanostructures were formed of clay layers intercalated in a polymeric matrix that introduced size-exclusion transport mechanisms into the selective layer. Thermal cross-linking of the polymeric matrix was used to increase the mechanical stability of the films and improve salt rejection by constraining swelling during operation. Maximum salt rejection of 89% was observed for the tetralayer film architecture, with an order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to commercially available TFC-HR membranes. These clay composite thin films could serve as a high-flux alternative to current polymeric RO membranes for wastewater and brackish water treatment as well as potentially for forward osmosis applications. In general, we illustrate that by investigating the composite systems accessed using alternating layer-by-layer assembly in conjunction with complementary covalent cross-linking, it is possible to design thin film membranes with tunable transport properties for water purification applications.

  9. Ordered poly(p-phenylene)/layered double hydroxide ultrathin films with blue luminescence by layer-by-layer assembly.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongpeng; Lu, Jun; Wei, Min; Han, Jingbin; Ma, Jing; Li, Feng; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2009-01-01

    Lavender layers: A poly(p-phenylene) anionic derivate and exfoliated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide monolayers were assembled into ultrathin films with well-defined blue fluorescence (see picture; the numbers indicate the number of bilayers), long-range order, and high photostability. These films work as multiple quantum-well structures for valence electrons.

  10. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O.; McInnes, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  11. Mesoporous layer-by-layer ordered nanohybrids of layered double hydroxide and layered metal oxide: highly active visible light photocatalysts with improved chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Gunjakar, Jayavant L; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Hyo Na; Kim, In Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2011-09-28

    Mesoporous layer-by-layer ordered nanohybrids highly active for visible light-induced O(2) generation are synthesized by self-assembly between oppositely charged 2D nanosheets of Zn-Cr-layered double hydroxide (Zn-Cr-LDH) and layered titanium oxide. The layer-by-layer ordering of two kinds of 2D nanosheets is evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution-transmission electron microscopy. Upon the interstratification process, the original in-plane atomic arrangements and electronic structures of the component nanosheets remain intact. The obtained heterolayered nanohybrids show a strong absorption of visible light and a remarkably depressed photoluminescence signal, indicating an effective electronic coupling between the two component nanosheets. The self-assembly between 2D inorganic nanosheets leads to the formation of highly porous stacking structure, whose porosity is controllable by changing the ratio of layered titanate/Zn-Cr-LDH. The resultant heterolayered nanohybrids are fairly active for visible light-induced O(2) generation with a rate of ∼1.18 mmol h(-1) g(-1), which is higher than the O(2) production rate (∼0.67 mmol h(-1) g(-1)) by the pristine Zn-Cr-LDH material, that is, one of the most effective visible light photocatalysts for O(2) production, under the same experimental condition. This result highlights an excellent functionality of the Zn-Cr-LDH-layered titanate nanohybrids as efficient visible light active photocatalysts. Of prime interest is that the chemical stability of the Zn-Cr-LDH is significantly improved upon the hybridization, a result of the protection of the LDH lattice by highly stable titanate layer. The present findings clearly demonstrate that the layer-by-layer-ordered assembly between inorganic 2D nanosheets is quite effective not only in improving the photocatalytic activity of the component semiconductors but also in synthesizing novel porous LDH-based hybrid materials with improved chemical

  12. Sequential imposed layer epitaxy of cuprate films

    SciTech Connect

    Laguees, M.; Tebbji, H.; Mairet, V.; Hatterer, C.; Beuran, C.F.; Hass, N.; Xu, X.Z. ); Cavellin, C.D. )

    1994-02-01

    Layer-by-layer epitaxy has been used to grow cuprate films since the discovery of high-Tc compounds. This deposition technique is in principle suitable for the growth of layered crystalline structures. However, the sequential deposition of atomic layer by atomic layer of cuprate compounds has presently not been optimized. Nevertheless, this deposition process is the only one which allows one to build artificial cell structures such as Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]Ca[sub (n[minus]1)]Cu[sub n]O[sub y] with n as large as 10. This process will also be the best one to grow films of the so-called infinite layer phase compounds belonging to the Sr[sub 1[minus]x]Ca[sub x]CuO[sub 2] family, in order to improve the transport properties and the morphological properties of the cuprate films. When performed at high substrate temperature (typically more than 600[degree]C), the layer-by-layer epitaxy of cuprates exhibits usually 3D aggregate nucleation. Then the growth of the film no longer obeys the layer-by-layer sequence imposed during the deposition. We present here two experimental situations of true 2D sequential imposed layer epitaxy; the growth at 500[degree]C under atomic oxygen pressure of Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CuO[sub 6] and of Sr[sub 1[minus]x]Ca[sub y]CuO[sub 2] phases. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Snow Model for the F-Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasbleis, M.; Hernlund, J. W.; Labrosse, S.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic observations of the Earth's core reveal a complex structure: radial and lateral heterogeneities in seismic anisotropy and attenuation in the solid inner core, but also discrepancies between observed P-wave velocity and homogeneous PREM model in the deep liquid outer core. In this work, we focus on the 200km anomalous layer at the bottom of the outer core that exhibits seismic velocities lower than the PREM model. It has been interpreted as a layer depleted in light elements, whereas the usual model considers that light elements are expelled at the surface of the inner core by freezing of the outer core alloy. Recent models of core formation argued for an early stratified liquid core, and the stratified layers at the top and bottom of the outer core would be a vestige of this primordial stratification. However, freezing of the inner core at the inner core boundary releases light elements that provide buoyancy fluxes that would mix the stratified liquid above with small scale buoyant plumes. To model the F-layer, we consider that the freezing of the iron alloy and the release of light elements have to occur in the bulk of the layer. Iron snow forms and settles in the layer, buffering the thermal and chemical profile to the liquidus. We show that this dynamics can both sustain and stabilize the stratified layer in the liquid outer core while simultaneously matching the seismic observations. However, the expected layer is stable only for a given set of parameters, in particular when a high thermal diffusivity (>100 W/m/K) is employed. If freezing of the iron alloy of the outer core occurs in the bulk of the layer, several assumptions for both the outer and inner core has to be discussed: the F-layer acts as a boundary layer for both composition and temperature, and modifies the quantity of light elements expelled into the outer core as well as the composition that freezes to form the inner core.

  14. Polar Layers in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image again illustrates the oranger/bluer nature of the polar layers.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.6, Longitude 70.2 East (289.8 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, Coimbatore R.; Milau, Julius S.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.

  16. Experimental investigation on fracture of layered plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnihotri, Servesh; Parameswaran, Venkitanarayanan

    2015-03-01

    Layered structures, used in many applications such as windshields, thermal protection systems, heavy armor etc., are comprised of layers having different elastic and fracture properties. Present study focuses on understanding the behavior of cracks in a layered plate oriented in such a way that there are property jumps across the crack front. Two layer plates were fabricated by joining Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and epoxy sheets using an epoxy based adhesive (Araldite). Single edge notched specimens were subjected to mixed mode loading using the asymmetric four point bending configuration. The results of the study indicated that the failure in two layer plates is progressive in nature. Crack extension starts in the most vulnerable layer (epoxy) first and the crack grows in a sequence of jumps and arrests in this layer. Once this crack reaches a particular length the crack in the second layer starts extending resulting in final failure of the plate. Similar sequence of events was observed in the case of dynamically loaded samples. The predictions of the load at which epoxy crack starts growing and the angle at which the crack grows using the maximum tensile stress criteria were in reasonable agreement with the experimentally observed values.

  17. Low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy of AlN ultrathin films by layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Lee, Wei-Hao; Kao, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Yung-Chuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Lin, Hsin-Chih; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-01-01

    Low-temperature epitaxial growth of AlN ultrathin films was realized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) together with the layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing (ALA), instead of a high growth temperature which is needed in conventional epitaxial growth techniques. By applying the ALA with the Ar plasma treatment in each ALD cycle, the AlN thin film was converted dramatically from the amorphous phase to a single-crystalline epitaxial layer, at a low deposition temperature of 300 °C. The energy transferred from plasma not only provides the crystallization energy but also enhances the migration of adatoms and the removal of ligands, which significantly improve the crystallinity of the epitaxial layer. The X-ray diffraction reveals that the full width at half-maximum of the AlN (0002) rocking curve is only 144 arcsec in the AlN ultrathin epilayer with a thickness of only a few tens of nm. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy also indicates the high-quality single-crystal hexagonal phase of the AlN epitaxial layer on the sapphire substrate. The result opens a window for further extension of the ALD applications from amorphous thin films to the high-quality low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy, which can be exploited in a variety of fields and applications in the near future. PMID:28045075

  18. Reassembly of S-layer proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B.

    2014-08-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) represent the outermost cell envelope component in a broad range of bacteria and archaea. They are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. They are highly porous protein mesh works with unit cell sizes in the range of 3 to 30 nm, and pore sizes of 2 to 8 nm. S-layers are usually 5 to 20 nm thick (in archaea, up to 70 nm). S-layer proteins are one of the most abundant biopolymers on earth. One of their key features, and the focus of this review, is the intrinsic capability of isolated native and recombinant S-layer proteins to form self-assembled mono- or double layers in suspension, at solid supports, the air-water interface, planar lipid films, liposomes, nanocapsules, and nanoparticles. The reassembly is entropy-driven and a fascinating example of matrix assembly following a multistage, non-classical pathway in which the process of S-layer protein folding is directly linked with assembly into extended clusters. Moreover, basic research on the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly, and function of S-layer proteins laid the foundation for their application in novel approaches in biotechnology, biomimetics, synthetic biology, and nanotechnology.

  19. Recent advances in thin-layer chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Dallas, F.A.A.; Read, H.; Ruane, R.J.; Wilson, I.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book is a collection of proceedings from the 1987 Chromatographic Society International Symposium on Thin-Layer Chromatography in Brighton. The book is divided into four sections: Instrumentation, Radio-Thin-Layer Chromatography, Sorbents and Modifiers, and Applications. References date from the 1970s to the mid-1980s. Compounds and subject indexes are included.

  20. Sound transmission through a poroelastic layered panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, Loris; Rong, Ping; Schanz, Martin; von Estorff, Otto

    2014-04-01

    Multi-layered panels are often used to improve the acoustics in cars, airplanes, rooms, etc. For such an application these panels include porous and/or fibrous layers. The proposed numerical method is an approach to simulate the acoustical behavior of such multi-layered panels. The model assumes plate-like structures and, hence, combines plate theories for the different layers. The poroelastic layer is modelled with a recently developed plate theory. This theory uses a series expansion in thickness direction with subsequent analytical integration in this direction to reduce the three dimensions to two. The same idea is used to model either air gaps or fibrous layers. The latter are modeled as equivalent fluid and can be handled like an air gap, i.e., a kind of `air plate' is used. The coupling of the layers is done by using the series expansion to express the continuity conditions on the surfaces of the plates. The final system is solved with finite elements, where domain decomposition techniques in combination with preconditioned iterative solvers are applied to solve the final system of equations. In a large frequency range, the comparison with measurements shows very good agreement. From the numerical solution process it can be concluded that different preconditioners for the different layers are necessary. A reuse of the Krylov subspace of the iterative solvers pays if several excitations have to be computed but not that much in the loop over the frequencies.

  1. Physics and chemistry of layered chalcogenide superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Keita; Takano, Yoshihiko; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Structural and physical properties of layered chalcogenide superconductors are summarized. In particular, we review the remarkable properties of the Fe-chalcogenide superconductors, FeSe and FeTe-based materials. Furthermore, we introduce the recently discovered BiS2-based layered superconductors and discuss their prospects. PMID:27877516

  2. OSI Upper Layers Support for Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Wayne

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how various Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) application layer protocols can be used together, along with the Presentation and Session protocols, to support the interconnection requirements of applications. Application layer protocol standards that are currently available or under development are reviewed, and the File, Transfer,…

  3. Double layers and circuits in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, Hannes

    1986-01-01

    As the rate of energy release in a double layer with voltage delta V is P approx I delta V, a double layer must be treated as a part of a circuit which delivers the current I. As neither double layer nor circuit can be derived from magnetofluid models of a plasma, such models are useless for treating energy transfer by means of double layers. They must be replaced by particle models and circuit theory. A simple circuit is suggested which is applied to the energizing of auroral particles, to solar flares, and to intergalactic double radio sources. Application to the heliospheric current systems leads to the prediction of two double layers on the Sun's axis which may give radiations detectable from Earth. Double layers in space should be classified as a new type of celestial object (one example is the double radio sources). It is tentatively suggested in X-ray and Gamma-ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers (although annihilation is an alternative energy source). A study of how a number of the most used textbooks in astrophysics treat important concepts like double layers, critical velocity, pinch effects and circuits is made.

  4. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  5. Low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy of AlN ultrathin films by layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Lee, Wei-Hao; Kao, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Yung-Chuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Lin, Hsin-Chih; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-01-01

    Low-temperature epitaxial growth of AlN ultrathin films was realized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) together with the layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing (ALA), instead of a high growth temperature which is needed in conventional epitaxial growth techniques. By applying the ALA with the Ar plasma treatment in each ALD cycle, the AlN thin film was converted dramatically from the amorphous phase to a single-crystalline epitaxial layer, at a low deposition temperature of 300 °C. The energy transferred from plasma not only provides the crystallization energy but also enhances the migration of adatoms and the removal of ligands, which significantly improve the crystallinity of the epitaxial layer. The X-ray diffraction reveals that the full width at half-maximum of the AlN (0002) rocking curve is only 144 arcsec in the AlN ultrathin epilayer with a thickness of only a few tens of nm. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy also indicates the high-quality single-crystal hexagonal phase of the AlN epitaxial layer on the sapphire substrate. The result opens a window for further extension of the ALD applications from amorphous thin films to the high-quality low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy, which can be exploited in a variety of fields and applications in the near future.

  6. Electron temperature differences and double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C.; Hershkowitz, N.; Lonngren, K. E.

    1983-01-01

    Electron temperature differences across plasma double layers are studied experimentally. It is shown that the temperature differences across a double layer can be varied and are not a result of thermalization of the bump-on-tail distribution. The implications of these results for electron thermal energy transport in laser-pellet and tandem-mirror experiments are also discussed.

  7. Analytical steam injection model for layered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abdual-Razzaq; Brigham, W.E.; Castanier, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    Screening, evaluation and optimization of the steam flooding process in homogeneous reservoirs can be performed by using simple analytical predictive models. In the absence of any analytical model for layered reservoirs, at present, only numerical simulators can be used. And these are expensive. In this study, an analytical model has been developed considering two isolated layers of differing permeabilities. The principle of equal flow potential is applied across the two layers. Gajdica`s (1990) single layer linear steam drive model is extended for the layered system. The formulation accounts for variation of heat loss area in the higher permeability layer, and the development of a hot liquid zone in the lower permeability layer. These calculations also account for effects of viscosity, density, fractional flow curves and pressure drops in the hot liquid zone. Steam injection rate variations in the layers are represented by time weighted average rates. For steam zone calculations, Yortsos and Gavalas`s (1981) upper bound method is used with a correction factor. The results of the model are compared with a numerical simulator. Comparable oil and water flow rates, and breakthrough times were achieved for 100 cp oil. Results with 10 cp and 1000 cp oils indicate the need to improve the formulation to properly handle differing oil viscosities.

  8. Performance Evaluation Model for Application Layer Firewalls

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Jiangchuan

    2016-01-01

    Application layer firewalls protect the trusted area network against information security risks. However, firewall performance may affect user experience. Therefore, performance analysis plays a significant role in the evaluation of application layer firewalls. This paper presents an analytic model of the application layer firewall, based on a system analysis to evaluate the capability of the firewall. In order to enable users to improve the performance of the application layer firewall with limited resources, resource allocation was evaluated to obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in terms of throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. The proposed model employs the Erlangian queuing model to analyze the performance parameters of the system with regard to the three layers (network, transport, and application layers). Then, the analysis results of all the layers are combined to obtain the overall system performance indicators. A discrete event simulation method was used to evaluate the proposed model. Finally, limited service desk resources were allocated to obtain the values of the performance indicators under different resource allocation scenarios in order to determine the optimal allocation scheme. Under limited resource allocation, this scheme enables users to maximize the performance of the application layer firewall. PMID:27893803

  9. Performance Evaluation Model for Application Layer Firewalls.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Shichang; Yang, Wu; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Jiangchuan

    2016-01-01

    Application layer firewalls protect the trusted area network against information security risks. However, firewall performance may affect user experience. Therefore, performance analysis plays a significant role in the evaluation of application layer firewalls. This paper presents an analytic model of the application layer firewall, based on a system analysis to evaluate the capability of the firewall. In order to enable users to improve the performance of the application layer firewall with limited resources, resource allocation was evaluated to obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in terms of throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. The proposed model employs the Erlangian queuing model to analyze the performance parameters of the system with regard to the three layers (network, transport, and application layers). Then, the analysis results of all the layers are combined to obtain the overall system performance indicators. A discrete event simulation method was used to evaluate the proposed model. Finally, limited service desk resources were allocated to obtain the values of the performance indicators under different resource allocation scenarios in order to determine the optimal allocation scheme. Under limited resource allocation, this scheme enables users to maximize the performance of the application layer firewall.

  10. Structure of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, O.; Patwardhan, Saurabh

    2014-11-01

    Relaminarization of a turbulent boundary layer in a strongly accelerated flow has received a great attention in recent times. It has been found that such relaminarization is a general and regularly occurring phenomenon in the leading-edge region of a swept wing of an airplane (van Dam et al., 1993). In this work, we investigate the effect of initial Reynolds number on the process of relaminarization in turbulent boundary layers. The experimental and numerical investigation of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers undergoing same history reveals that the boundary layer with higher initial Reynolds number relaminarizes at a lower pressure gradient value compared to the one with lower Reynolds number. This effect can be explained on the inviscid theory proposed earlier in the literature. Further, various parameter criteria proposed to predict relaminarization, are assessed and the structure of relaminarizing boundary layers is investigated. A mechanism for stabilization of near-wall low speed streaks is proposed.

  11. Leidenfrost Vapor Layer Stabilization on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakarelski, Ivan; Patankar, Neelesh; Marston, Jeremy; Chan, Derek; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2012-11-01

    We have performed experiments to investigate the influence of the wettability of a superheated metallic sphere on the stability of a thin vapor layer during the cooling of a sphere immersed in water. For high enough sphere temperatures, a continuous vapor layer (Leidenfrost regime) is observed on the surface of non-superhydrophobic spheres, but below a critical sphere temperature the layer becomes unstable and explosively switches to nuclear boiling regime. In contrast, when the sphere surface is textured and superhydrophobic, the vapor layer is stable and gradually relaxes to the sphere surface until the complete cooling of the sphere, thus avoiding the nuclear boiling transition altogether. This finding could help in the development of heat exchange devices and of vapor layer based drag reducing technologies.

  12. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    DOEpatents

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  13. Surface layering properties of Intralipid phantoms.

    PubMed

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Krauter, Philipp; Foschum, Florian; Nothelfer, Steffen; Liemert, André; Simon, Emanuel; Kröner, Sabrina; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-02-07

    Intralipid has become an extensively studied and widely used reference and calibration phantom for diffuse optical imaging technologies. In this study we call attention to the layering properties of Intralipid emulsions, which are commonly assumed to have homogeneous optical properties. By measurement of spatial frequency domain reflectance in combination with an analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for two-layered media, we make quantitative investigations on the formation of a surface layer on different dilutions of Intralipid. Our findings are verified by an independent spatially resolved reflectance setup giving evidence of a time dependent, thin and highly scattering surface layer on top of Intralipid-water emulsions. This layer should be considered when using Intralipid as an optical calibration or reference phantom.

  14. Surface layering properties of Intralipid phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Krauter, Philipp; Foschum, Florian; Nothelfer, Steffen; Liemert, André; Simon, Emanuel; Kröner, Sabrina; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-02-01

    Intralipid has become an extensively studied and widely used reference and calibration phantom for diffuse optical imaging technologies. In this study we call attention to the layering properties of Intralipid emulsions, which are commonly assumed to have homogeneous optical properties. By measurement of spatial frequency domain reflectance in combination with an analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for two-layered media, we make quantitative investigations on the formation of a surface layer on different dilutions of Intralipid. Our findings are verified by an independent spatially resolved reflectance setup giving evidence of a time dependent, thin and highly scattering surface layer on top of Intralipid-water emulsions. This layer should be considered when using Intralipid as an optical calibration or reference phantom.

  15. Visualizing Evaluation Structures using Layered Graph Drawings.

    PubMed

    Onoue, Yosuke; Kukimoto, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naohisa; Misue, Kazuo; Koyamada, Koji

    2016-03-18

    We propose a method for visualizing evaluation structures that is based on layered graph drawing techniques. An evaluation structure is a hierarchical structure of human cognition extracted from interviews based on the evaluation grid method. An evaluation structure can be defined as a directed acyclic graph (DAG). The Sugiyama framework is a popular method for constructing DAGs. A new layer assignment method that is a part of the Sugiyama framework is proposed to satisfy the requirements for drawing evaluation structures. We formulate a layer assignment problem by considering the sum of squares of arc lengths to be an integer quadratic programming (IQP) problem. Moreover, we transform the IQP problem into an equivalent integer linear programming (ILP) problem for computational efficiency. Evaluations demonstrate that the layered graph drawing with the proposed layer assignment method is preferred by users and aids in the understanding of evaluation structures.

  16. Traveling Lamb wave in elastic metamaterial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Haisheng; Xu, Lihuan; Shi, Xiaona; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The propagation of traveling Lamb wave in single layer of elastic metamaterial is investigated in this paper. We first categorized the traveling Lamb wave modes inside an elastic metamaterial layer according to different combinations (positive or negative) of effective medium parameters. Then the impacts of the frequency dependence of effective parameters on dispersion characteristics of traveling Lamb wave were studied. Distinct differences could be observed when comparing the traveling Lamb wave along an elastic metamaterial layer with one inside the traditional elastic layer. We further examined in detail the traveling Lamb wave mode supported in elastic metamaterial layer, when the effective P and S wave velocities were simultaneously imaginary. It was found that the effective modulus ratio is the key factor for the existence of special traveling wave mode, and the main results were verified by FEM simulations from two levels: the level of effective medium and the level of microstructure unit cell.

  17. Energy gap structure of layered superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.H.; Klemm, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    We report the energy gap structure and density-of-states (DOS) of a model layered superconductor with one superconducting layer and one normal layer in a unit cell along the c-axis. In the physically interesting parameter range where the interlayer hopping strengths of the quasiparticles are comparable to the critical temperature, the peaks in the DOS curve do not correspond to the order parameter (OP) of the superconducting layer, but depend on the OP and the band dispersion in the c-direction in a complex manner. In contrast to a BCS superconductor, the DOS of layered systems have logarithmic singularities. Our simulated tunneling characteristics bear close resemblance to experimental results.

  18. Intra-layer synchronization in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, L. V.; Frasca, M.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.

    2015-04-01

    We study synchronization of N oscillators indirectly coupled through a medium which is inhomogeneous and has its own dynamics. The system is formalized in terms of a multilayer network, where the top layer is made of disconnected oscillators and the bottom one, modeling the medium, consists of oscillators coupled according to a given topology. The different dynamics of the medium and the top layer is accounted for by including a frequency mismatch between them. We show a novel regime of synchronization as intra-layer coherence does not necessarily require inter-layer coherence. This regime appears under mild conditions on the bottom layer: arbitrary topologies may be considered, provided that they support synchronization of the oscillators of the medium. The existence of a density-dependent threshold as in quorum-sensing phenomena is also demonstrated.

  19. Layer aware source mask target optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ao; Foong, Yee Mei; Schramm, Jessy; Ji, Liang; Hsu, Stephen; Guerrero, James; Li, Xiaoyang; Shaw, Joe; Wang, Joe

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present the approach and results of layer-aware source mask target optimization. In this approach, the design target is co-optimized during source mask optimization (SMO) by considering inter-layer constraints. We tested the method on a 2x nm node metal layer by using both standard and customized cost functions for source optimization. Variable targets were defined for two process window limiting critical pattern cells, with contact-to-metal and metal-tovia coverage rules taken into consideration. The results indicate that layer-aware source mask target optimization gives consistent process window improvement over conventional SMO. The optimized targets prove to be a good balance between lithography process window and post-etch inter-layer coverage margin.

  20. Shear layer excitation, experiment versus theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.; Stahl, B.

    1984-01-01

    The acoustical excitation of shear layers is investigated. Acoustical excitation causes the so-called orderly structures in shear layers and jets. Also, the deviations in the spreading rate between different shear layer experiments are due to the same excitation mechanism. Measurements in the linear interaction region close to the edge from which the shear layer is shed are examined. Two sets of experiments (Houston 1981 and Berlin 1983/84) are discussed. The measurements were carried out with shear layers in air using hot wire anemometers and microphones. The agreement between these measurements and the theory is good. Even details of the fluctuating flow field correspond to theoretical predictions, such as the local occurrence of negative phase speeds.

  1. Steady incompressible variable thickness shear layer aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    A shear flow aerodynamic theory for steady incompressible flows is presented for both the lifting and non lifting problems. The slow variation of the boundary layer thickness is considered. The slowly varying behavior is treated by using multitime scales. The analysis begins with the elementary wavy wall problem and, through Fourier superpositions over the wave number space, the shear flow equivalents to the aerodynamic transfer functions of classical potential flow are obtained. The aerodynamic transfer functions provide integral equations which relate the wall pressure and the upwash. Computational results are presented for the pressure distribution, the lift coefficient, and the center of pressure travel along a two dimensional flat plate in a shear flow. The aerodynamic load is decreased by the shear layer, compared to the potential flow. The variable thickness shear layer decreases it less than the uniform thickness shear layer based upon equal maximum shear layer thicknesses.

  2. Lidar observation of marine mixed layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamagishi, Susumu; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Marine mixed layer is known to play an important role in the transportation of pollution exiting ship funnels. The application of a diffusion model is critically dependent upon a reliable estimate of a lid. However, the processes that form lids are not well understood, though considerable progress toward marine boundary layer has been achieved. This report describes observations of the marine mixed layer from the course Ise-wan to Nii-jima with the intention of gaining a better understanding of their structure by a shipboard lidar. These observations were made in the summer of 1991. One interesting feature of the observations was that the multiple layers of aerosols, which is rarely numerically modeled, was encountered. No attempt is yet made to present a systematic analysis of all the data collected. Instead we focus on observations that seem to be directly relevant to the structure of the mixed layer.

  3. Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells incorporating a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells which incorporate a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer adjacent to the junction forming metal layer exhibit increased open circuit voltages compared to standard rectifying junction metal devices, i.e., Schottky barrier devices, and rectifying junction metal insulating silicon devices, i.e., MIS devices.

  4. Thermoelectric material including conformal oxide layers and method of making the same using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jung Young; Ahn, Dongjoon; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2016-06-07

    A thermoelectric material includes a substrate particle and a plurality of conformal oxide layers formed on the substrate particle. The plurality of conformal oxide layers has a total oxide layer thickness ranging from about 2 nm to about 20 nm. The thermoelectric material excludes oxide nanoparticles. A method of making the thermoelectric material is also disclosed herein.

  5. The Ocean Boundary Layer beneath Hurricane Frances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasaro, E. A.; Sanford, T. B.; Terrill, E.; Price, J.

    2006-12-01

    The upper ocean beneath the peak winds of Hurricane Frances (57 m/s) was measured using several varieties of air-deployed floats as part of CBLAST. A multilayer structure was observed as the boundary layer deepened from 20m to 120m in about 12 hours. Bubbles generated by breaking waves create a 10m thick surface layer with a density anomaly, due to the bubbles, of about 1 kg/m3. This acts to lubricate the near surface layer. A turbulent boundary layer extends beneath this to about 40 m depth. This is characterized by large turbulent eddies spanning the boundary layer. A stratified boundary layer grows beneath this reaching 120m depth. This is characterized by a gradient Richardson number of 1/4, which is maintained by strong inertial currents generated by the hurricane, and smaller turbulent eddies driven by the shear instead of the wind and waves. There is little evidence of mixing beneath this layer. Heat budgets reveal the boundary layer to be nearly one dimensional through much of the deepening, with horizontal and vertical heat advection becoming important only after the storm had passed. Turbulent kinetic energy measurements support the idea of reduced surface drag at high wind speeds. The PWP model correctly predicts the degree of mixed layer deepening if the surface drag is reduced at high wind speed. Overall, the greatest uncertainty in understanding the ocean boundary layer at these extreme wind speeds is a characterization of the near- surface processes which govern the air-sea fluxes and surface wave properties.

  6. Uncertainties in Surface Layer Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergrass, W.

    2015-12-01

    A central problem for micrometeorologists has been the relationship of air-surface exchange rates of momentum and heat to quantities that can be predicted with confidence. The flux-gradient profile developed through Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) provides an integration of the dimensionless wind shear expression where is an empirically derived expression for stable and unstable atmospheric conditions. Empirically derived expressions are far from universally accepted (Garratt, 1992, Table A5). Regardless of what form of these relationships might be used, their significance over any short period of time is questionable since all of these relationships between fluxes and gradients apply to averages that might rarely occur. It is well accepted that the assumption of stationarity and homogeneity do not reflect the true chaotic nature of the processes that control the variables considered in these relationships, with the net consequence that the levels of predictability theoretically attainable might never be realized in practice. This matter is of direct relevance to modern prognostic models which construct forecasts by assuming the universal applicability of relationships among averages for the lower atmosphere, which rarely maintains an average state. Under a Cooperative research and Development Agreement between NOAA and Duke Energy Generation, NOAA/ATDD conducted atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) research using Duke renewable energy sites as research testbeds. One aspect of this research has been the evaluation of legacy flux-gradient formulations (the ϕ functions, see Monin and Obukhov, 1954) for the exchange of heat and momentum. At the Duke Energy Ocotillo site, NOAA/ATDD installed sonic anemometers reporting wind and temperature fluctuations at 10Hz at eight elevations. From these observations, ϕM and ϕH were derived from a two-year database of mean and turbulent wind and temperature observations. From this extensive measurement database, using a

  7. Oxygen inhibition layer of composite resins: effects of layer thickness and surface layer treatment on the interlayer bond strength.

    PubMed

    Bijelic-Donova, Jasmina; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-02-01

    An oxygen inhibition layer develops on surfaces exposed to air during polymerization of particulate filling composite. This study assessed the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer of short-fiber-reinforced composite in comparison with conventional particulate filling composites. The effect of an oxygen inhibition layer on the shear bond strength of incrementally placed particulate filling composite layers was also evaluated. Four different restorative composites were selected: everX Posterior (a short-fiber-reinforced composite), Z250, SupremeXT, and Silorane. All composites were evaluated regarding the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer and for shear bond strength. An equal amount of each composite was polymerized in air between two glass plates and the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer was measured using a stereomicroscope. Cylindrical-shaped specimens were prepared for measurement of shear bond strength by placing incrementally two layers of the same composite material. Before applying the second composite layer, the first increment's bonding site was treated as follows: grinding with 1,000-grit silicon-carbide (SiC) abrasive paper, or treatment with ethanol or with water-spray. The inhibition depth was lowest (11.6 μm) for water-sprayed Silorane and greatest (22.9 μm) for the water-sprayed short-fiber-reinforced composite. The shear bond strength ranged from 5.8 MPa (ground Silorane) to 36.4 MPa (water-sprayed SupremeXT). The presence of an oxygen inhibition layer enhanced the interlayer shear bond strength of all investigated materials, but its absence resulted in cohesive and mixed failures only with the short-fiber-reinforced composite. Thus, more durable adhesion with short-fiber-reinforced composite is expected.

  8. Optical property measurement from layered biological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Matthew R.

    1998-12-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photon reflectance spectroscopy is applied to measurement of blood concentration and its oxygen saturation within biological tissue. The measurement relies upon the changes in photon absorption of hemoglobin in the tissue as changes occur in the hemoglobin concentration and oxygen content. In the present study, NIR light is introduced at the skin surface and the optical properties (absorption and scattering) within the underlying tissue are determined from the resulting surface reflectance. Typically the tissue is modeled as a homogeneous mixture of bloodless tissue and blood, and the model incorporates the physical relationship between the surface reflectance and the optical properties of the tissue. The skin and underlying tissue, although heterogeneous, have a characteristic layered structure. These layers can be differentiated optically. The modeling and the inverse problem of measuring the optical properties in each of the tissue layers from the surface reflectance have been the subject of much attention by a number of investigators. Nonetheless, quantification of the relationship between surface reflectance and the optical properties of layered tissue has not been well understood nor well described. In the forward problem, tissue optical properties yield surface reflectance profiles (SRPs). Surface reflectance profiles, or SRPs, from diffusive media consisting of two layers are calculated using numerical solutions to the Boltzmann equation. Experimental SRPs are also measured in vitro from a test medium and in vivo from the calf of human subjects. This study provides a new approach to solving the inverse problem of determining optical properties from SRPs. To solve the inverse problem, an effective diffusion constant (Ke) is determined for the layered media. The Ke is the diffusion constant of an equivalent homogeneous medium which best fits the SRP of the layered medium. The departure from Ke of the SRP for a layered media is captured

  9. Error Control with Perfectly Matched Layer or Damping Layer Treatments for Computational Aeroacoustics with Jet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show by means of numerical experiments that the error introduced in a numerical domain because of a Perfectly Matched Layer or Damping Layer boundary treatment can be controlled. These experimental demonstrations are for acoustic propagation with the Linearized Euler Equations with both uniform and steady jet flows. The propagating signal is driven by a time harmonic pressure source. Combinations of Perfectly Matched and Damping Layers are used with different damping profiles. These layer and profile combinations allow the relative error introduced by a layer to be kept as small as desired, in principle. Tradeoffs between error and cost are explored.

  10. Layer-by-Layer Assembly Onto Gold Nanoparticles of Various Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilroy, Andrew; Kessler, Sarah; Dobbins, Tabbetha

    This research focuses on the potential applications of coated gold nanoparticles in medicine. By coating gold nanoparticles in layers of polyelectrolytes, with a final layer of antibodies which targets chemicals uniquely exhibited by cancer cells, we eventually hope to selectively attach the nanoparticles to the cancer cells. The coated nanoparticles are assembled through layer-by-layer coulombic attraction due to the passive zeta potential of the particle and the charged nature of the polyelectrolytes. This poster will explore the potential usefulness of variously sized nanoparticles with various thickness of polyelectrolyte layers.

  11. S-Layer Based Bio-Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-09

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0161 S-Layer Based Bio-Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers Dietmar Pum ZENTRUM FUER NANOBIOTECHNOLOGIE Final Report 07/09...COVERED (From - To)      01-06-2012 to 31-05-2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE S-Layer Based Bio-Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT...the reassembled S-layer protein lattice. The start of the project focused on the selection, composition and chemical modification of suitable polymers

  12. Electronic energy loss spectra from mono-layer to few layers of phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Brij; Thakur, Rajesh; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    Using first principles calculations, electronic and optical properties of few-layers phosphorene has been investigated. Electronic band structure show a moderate band gap of 0.9 eV in monolayer phosphorene which decreases with increasing number of layers. Optical properties of few-layers of phosphorene in infrared and visible region shows tunability with number of layers. Electron energy loss function has been plotted and huge red shift in plasmonic behaviours is found. These tunable electronic and optical properties of few-layers of phosphorene can be useful for the applications of optoelectronic devices.

  13. Electric fields and double layers in plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Various mechanisms for driving double layers in plasmas are briefly described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Some dynamical features of the double layers are discussed. These features, as seen in simulations, laboratory experiments, and theory, indicate that double layers and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations which are determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which double layers form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a double layer, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion, whenever the ion flux into the double is disrupted. The generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials is also discussed. Two different situations were considered; in one, a low-density hot plasma is sandwiched between high-density cold plasmas, while in the other a high-density current sheet permeates a low-density background plasma. Perpendicular electric fields develop near the contact surfaces. In the case of the current sheet, the creation of parallel electric fields and the formation of double layers are also discussed when the current sheet thickness is varied. Finally, the generation of electric fields and double layers in an expanding plasma is discussed.

  14. Electric fields and double layers in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1987-05-01

    Various mechanisms for driving double layers in plasmas are briefly described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Some dynamical features of the double layers are discussed. These features, as seen in simulations, laboratory experiments, and theory, indicate that double layers and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations which are determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which double layers form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a double layer, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion, whenever the ion flux into the double is disrupted. The generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials is also discussed. Two different situations were considered; in one, a low-density hot plasma is sandwiched between high-density cold plasmas, while in the other a high-density current sheet permeates a low-density background plasma. Perpendicular electric fields develop near the contact surfaces. In the case of the current sheet, the creation of parallel electric fields and the formation of double layers are also discussed when the current sheet thickness is varied. Finally, the generation of electric fields and double layers in an expanding plasma is discussed.

  15. Instrument platforms for thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bernard-Savary, Pierre; Poole, Colin F

    2015-11-20

    High performance column and thin-layer chromatography are both instrumental techniques but differ in that column chromatography requires a fully integrated instrument platform with high pressure capability while for thin-layer chromatography separate devices are used for each unit operation, usually at or close to atmospheric pressure, and afford higher flexibility supporting on-line or off-line operation. The unit operations of thin-layer chromatography are defined as sample application, development and evaluation with derivatization as an optional step. The diversity of equipment for each operation contributes to the flexibility of analysis by thin-layer chromatography and supports manual, semi-automated or full-automation of the separation process. Instrument platforms are more than a convenience as they affect performance, repeatability, sample detectability, and time management. The current trend in thin-layer chromatography is to make the unit operations independent of the user so that analysts can perform other tasks while each step is performed. In addition, in thin-layer chromatography it is general practice to separate several samples simultaneously, and instrument platforms are required to accommodate this feature. In this article, we review contemporary instrumentation employed in thin-layer chromatography for sample application, development, derivatization, photodocumentation, densitometric evaluation, and hyphenation with spectroscopic detectors with an emphasis on the variety and performance of commercially available systems. Some suggestions for best practices and avoidance of common mistakes are included.

  16. Nanoscale buckling deformation in layered copolymer materials

    PubMed Central

    Makke, Ali; Perez, Michel; Lame, Olivier; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    In layered materials, a common mode of deformation involves buckling of the layers under tensile deformation in the direction perpendicular to the layers. The instability mechanism, which operates in elastic materials from geological to nanometer scales, involves the elastic contrast between different layers. In a regular stacking of “hard” and “soft” layers, the tensile stress is first accommodated by a large deformation of the soft layers. The inhibited Poisson contraction results in a compressive stress in the direction transverse to the tensile deformation axis. The hard layers sustain this transverse compression until buckling takes place and results in an undulated structure. Using molecular simulations, we demonstrate this scenario for a material made of triblock copolymers. The buckling deformation is observed to take place at the nanoscale, at a wavelength that depends on strain rate. In contrast to what is commonly assumed, the wavelength of the undulation is not determined by defects in the microstructure. Rather, it results from kinetic effects, with a competition between the rate of strain and the growth rate of the instability. PMID:22203970

  17. Evolution and formation of shear layers in a developing turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junghoon; Monty, Jason; Hutchins, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    The evolution and formation mechanism of shear layers in the outer region of a turbulent boundary layer are investigated using time-resolved PIV datasets of a developing turbulent boundary layer from inception at the trip up to Reτ = 3000 . An analysis of a sequence of instantaneous streamwise velocity fluctuation fields reveals that strong streamwise velocity gradients are prevalent along interfaces where low- and high-speed regions interact. To provide an insight on how such regions are associated with the formation of shear layers in the outer regions, we compute conditional averages of streamwise velocity fluctuations based on a strong shear layer. Our results reveal that one possible mechanism for the generation of shear layers in the outer region is due to the mismatch in the convection velocities between low- and high-speed regions. The results also indicate that the angle of the inclined shear layer is developing in time. In addition, the conditionally averaged velocity fluctuations exhibit a local instability along these shear layers, leading to a shear layer roll-up event as the layers evolve in time. Based on these findings, we propose a conceptual model which describes dynamic interactions of shear layers and their associated large-scale coherent motions. The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support of the Australian Research Council.

  18. Nanolaminates with Novel Properties Fabricated Using Atomic Layer Deposition Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    ALD can be deposited on the A120 3 ALD layer to form a conducting layer . Subsequently, an...additional A120 3 ALD layer can be deposited on the W ALD layer to form an additional insulating layer . This A120 3/W/ A120 3 layer on the carbon nanotube...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This AFOSR grant worked on the development, understanding and applications of atomic layer deposition ( ALD ) for nanolaminates. ALD

  19. The neutral surface layer above rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Sahlee, Erik

    2014-05-01

    It is generally accepted that turbulent fluxes (momentum and scalar fluxes) are approx. constant with height above horizontal surfaces with low roughness. But what will happen when the roughness sub-layer is large as found over cities, forests and rough seas? In a study of the kinematic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, Högström, Hunt and Smedman, 2002, it was demonstrated that a model with detached eddies from above the surface layer impinging on to the surface (Hunt and Morison, 2000) could explain some of the observed features in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer. Thus the detached eddy model proved successful in explaining the dynamic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, especially the shape of the spectra of the wind components and scalars and corresponding fluxes. Here we make the hypothesis that the detached-eddy model can also be used to explain the experimental results related to the 3-dimensional turbulence structure above rough surfaces. Measurements are taken both over land (grass and forest) and over sea (Baltic Sea and hurricane Fabian in the Atlantic) above the roughness sub-layer. Analysis of the turbulence structure shows a striking similarity between the different sites. Hunt, J.C.R and Morrison, J.F., 2000: Eddy structure in turbulent boundary layers, Euro. J. Mech. B-Fluids, 19, 673-694. Högström, U., Hunt, J.C.R., and Smedman, A., 2002: Theory and measurements for turbulence spectra and variances in the atmospheric neutral surface layer, Bound.-Layer Meteorol., 103,101-124.

  20. Method for forming a barrier layer

    DOEpatents

    Weihs, Timothy P.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  1. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Marston, Jeremy O.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  2. Drag reduction by Leidenfrost vapor layers.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-05-27

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  3. Inversion layer solar cell fabrication and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Call, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Inversion layer solar cells have been fabricated by etching through the diffused layer on p-type silicon wafers in a comb-like contact pattern. The charge separation comes from an induced p-n junction at the surface. This inverted surface is caused by a layer of transparent material applied to the surface that either contains free positive ions or that creates donor states at the interface. Cells have increased from 3 ma Isc to 100 ma by application of sodium silicate. The action is unstable, however, and decays with time.

  4. Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Calculation procedures for non-reacting compressible two- and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers were reviewed. Integral, transformation and correlation methods, as well as finite difference solutions of the complete boundary layer equations summarized. Alternative numerical solution procedures were examined, and both mean field and mean turbulence field closure models were considered. Physics and related calculation problems peculiar to compressible turbulent boundary layers are described. A catalog of available solution procedures of the finite difference, finite element, and method of weighted residuals genre is included. Influence of compressibility, low Reynolds number, wall blowing, and pressure gradient upon mean field closure constants are reported.

  5. Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer

    DOEpatents

    Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

    1993-11-16

    A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure. 7 figures.

  6. Strained layer Fabry-Perot device

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Fritz, Ian J.; Hammons, Burrell E.

    1994-01-01

    An asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflectance modulator (AFPM) consists of an active region between top and bottom mirrors, the bottom mirror being affixed to a substrate by a buffer layer. The active region comprises a strained-layer region having a bandgap and thickness chosen for resonance at the Fabry-Perot frequency. The mirrors are lattice matched to the active region, and the buffer layer is lattice matched to the mirror at the interface. The device operates at wavelengths of commercially available semiconductor lasers.

  7. Layered phenomena in the mesopause region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Bailey, S. M.; Baumgarten, G.; Rapp, M.

    2015-05-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics comprises a collection of papers which were mostly presented at the 11th Layered Phenomena in the Mesopause Region (LPMR) Workshop, held at the University of Leeds between 29th July 2013 and 1st August 2013. The topics covered at the workshop included atmospheric dynamics, mesospheric ice clouds, meteoric metal layers, meteoric smoke particles, and airglow layers. There was also a session on the potential of planned sub-orbital spacecraft for making measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT).

  8. Single layer multi-color luminescent display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, James B. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a multi-color luminescent display comprising an insulator substrate and a single layer of host material which may be a phosphor deposited thereon that hosts one or more differential impurities, therein forming a pattern of selected and distinctly colored phosphors such as blue, green, and red phosphors in a single layer of host material. Transparent electrical conductor means may be provided for subjecting selected portions of the pattern of colored phosphors to an electric field thereby forming a multi-color, single layer electroluminescent display.

  9. Numerical methods for hypersonic boundary layer stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, M. R.

    1990-01-01

    Four different schemes for solving compressible boundary layer stability equations are developed and compared, considering both the temporal and spatial stability for a global eigenvalue spectrum and a local eigenvalue search. The discretizations considered encompass: (1) a second-order-staggered finite-difference scheme; (2) a fourth-order accurate, two-point compact scheme; (3) a single-domain Chebychev spectral collocation scheme; and (4) a multidomain spectral collocation scheme. As Mach number increases, the performance of the single-domain collocation scheme deteriorates due to the outward movement of the critical layer; a multidomain spectral method is accordingly designed to furnish superior resolution of the critical layer.

  10. The Detached Haze Layer in Titan's Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavvas, P.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.

    2008-12-01

    The Cassini observations reveal the presence of a detached haze layer in Titan's mesosphere at an altitude of 520 km, well above the stratosphere. Observations of scattered light made by the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) reveal a clearly defined layer encircling low and mid-latitude regions. The aerosol layer is also detected in stellar occultation measurements of UV extinction by the UltraViolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS). The haze is a global and permanent feature of Titan's atmosphere. Furthermore the location of the detached haze layer is coincident with and the likely cause of a local maximum in the temperature profile measured by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI). This temperature inversion is also permanent and global, having been detected in ground-based stellar occultations. The correlation between the extinction profile and the temperature maximum imply that the detached haze cannot be due to condensation, as previously suggested. Previously, Voyager high phase angle images at 500 nm revealed a detached haze layer near 350 km, more than 150 km lower than the Cassini layer. Close examination of the Voyager images suggests that the Cassini detached layer at 520 km is a separate phenomenon rather than a change in the Voyager detached layer. Analysis of the observed optical properties suggests that the average size of particles in the Cassini detached layer is < 45 nm, with an imaginary index k < 0.3 at 187.5 nm, while Non-LTE calculations of the temperature perturbation induced by the detached haze show that the average particle size must be greater than 35 nm for reproducing the heating rate implied by the HASI temperature profile. Calculation of the sedimentation velocity of the particles, coupled with the derived number density, imply a mass flux of 1.9-3.2 × 10-14 g cm-2 s-1. This is approximately equal to the mass flux required to explain the main haze layer and suggests that the stratospheric haze is formed primarily by

  11. Aqueous oxidation reaction enabled layer-by-layer corrosion of semiconductor nanoplates into single-crystalline 2D nanocrystals with single layer accuracy and ionic surface capping.

    PubMed

    Ji, Muwei; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Jiatao

    2016-02-25

    A controllable aqueous oxidation reaction enabled layer-by-layer corrosion has been proposed to prepare high-quality two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor nanocrystals with single layer accuracy and well-retained hexagonal shapes. The appropriate oxidizing agent, such as H2O2, Fe(NO3)3, and HNO3, could not only corrode the layered-crystalline-structured Bi2Te3 nanoplates layer-by-layer to be a single quintuple layer, but also replace the organic barriers to be ionic ligands on the surface synergistically. AFM analysis was used to confirm the layer-by-layer exfoliation from the side to the center. Together with precise XRD, LRTEM and HRTEM characterizations, the controllable oxidation reaction enabled aqueous layer-by-layer corrosion mechanism has been studied.

  12. Cryogenic target system for hydrogen layering

    SciTech Connect

    Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Atkinson, D.; Baisden, P.; Bertolini, L.; Boehm, K; Chernov, A.; Coffee, K.; Coffield, F.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edwards, O.; Fair, J.; Fedorov, M.; Fry, J.; Gibson, C.; Haid, B.; Holunga, D.; Kohut, T.; Lewis, T.; Malsbury, T.; Mapoles, E.; Sater, J.; Skulina, K.; Trummer, D.; Walters, C.

    2015-11-24

    Here, a cryogenic target positioning system was designed and installed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber. This instrument incorporates the ability to fill, form, and characterize the NIF targets with hydrogen isotopes needed for ignition experiments inside the NIF target bay then transport and position them in the target chamber. This effort brought to fruition years of research in growing and metrologizing high-quality hydrogen fuel layers and landed it in an especially demanding operations environment in the NIF facility. D-T (deuterium-tritium) layers for NIF ignition experiments have extremely tight specifications and must be grown in a very highly constrained environment: a NIF ignition target inside a cryogenic target positioner inside the NIF target bay. Exquisite control of temperature, pressure, contaminant level, and thermal uniformity are necessary throughout seed formation and layer growth to create an essentially-groove-free single crystal layer.

  13. A new hydrodynamic analysis of double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hora, Heinrich

    1987-01-01

    A genuine two-fluid model of plasmas with collisions permits the calculation of dynamic (not necessarily static) electric fields and double layers inside of plasmas including oscillations and damping. For the first time a macroscopic model for coupling of electromagnetic and Langmuir waves was achieved with realistic damping. Starting points were laser-produced plasmas showing very high dynamic electric fields in nonlinear force-produced cavitous and inverted double layers in agreement with experiments. Applications for any inhomogeneous plasma as in laboratory or in astrophysical plasmas can then be followed up by a transparent hydrodynamic description. Results are the rotation of plasmas in magnetic fields and a new second harmonic resonance, explanation of the measured inverted double layers, explanation of the observed density-independent, second harmonics emission from laser-produced plasmas, and a laser acceleration scheme by the very high fields of the double layers.

  14. Boundary-layer control for drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, William D.

    1988-01-01

    Although the number of possible applications of boundary-layer control is large, a discussion is given only of those that have received the most attention recently at NASA Langley Research Center to improve airfoil drag characteristics. This research concerns stabilizing the laminar boundary layer through geometric shaping (natural laminar flow, NLF) and active control involving the removal of a portion of the laminar boundary layer (laminar flow control, LFC) either through discrete slots or a perforated surface. At low Reynolds numbers, a combination of shaping and forced transition has been used to achieve the desired run of laminar flow and control of laminar separation. In the design of both natural laminar flow and laminar flow control airfoils and wings, boundary layer stability codes play an important role. A discussion of some recent stability calculations using both incompressible and compressible codes is given.

  15. Multi-layer waste containment barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Nickelson, David F.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for constructing an underground containment barrier for containing an in-situ portion of earth. The apparatus includes an excavating device for simultaneously (i) excavating earthen material from beside the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming an open side trench defined by opposing earthen sidewalls, and (ii) excavating earthen material from beneath the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming a generally horizontal underground trench beneath the in-situ portion defined by opposing earthen sidewalls. The apparatus further includes a barrier-forming device attached to the excavating device for simultaneously forming a side barrier within the open trench and a generally horizontal, multi-layer barrier within the generally horizontal trench. The multi-layer barrier includes at least a first layer and a second layer.

  16. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A; Thomas, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  17. Double layers and circuits in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, Hannes

    1986-01-01

    A simple circuit is applied to the energizing of auroral particles, to solar flares, and to intergalactic double radio sources. Application to the heliospheric current systems leads to the prediction of two double layers on the Sun's axis which may give radiations detectable from earth. Double layers in space should be classified as a new type of celestial object. It is suggested that X-ray and gamma-ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers (although annihilation is an alternative energy source). The way the most used textbooks in astrophysics treat concepts like double layers, critical velocity, pinch effects and circuits was studied. It is found that students using these textbooks remain essentially ignorant of even the existence of these, although some of the phenomena were discovered 50 yr ago.

  18. Dynamics of Josephson pancakes in layered superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.; Snapiro, I.B.

    1994-03-01

    We consider a pointlike vortex in a layered superconductor with linear defects in the superconducting layers. We treat these defects as Josephson junctions with high critical current density. We consider the electrodynamics of these junctions within the framework of nonlocal Josephson electrodynamics. We show that Josephson current through a linear defect in a superconducting layer results in a pointlike vortex with a superconducting core residing in this layer (Josephson pancake). We find the mobility of a Josephson pancake. We consider a small amplitude wave in a Josephson junction with nonlocal electrodynamics. We treat a bending wave for an infinite stack of Josephson pancakes. We find the dispersion relation for these waves. We show that their velocities tend to a certain finite limit when the wavelength tends to infinity.

  19. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOEpatents

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  20. Reflection and transmission for layered composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graglia, Roberto D.; Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.

    1991-01-01

    A layered planar structure consisting of different bianisotropic materials separated by jump-immittance sheets is considered. Reflection and transmission coefficients are determined via a chain-matrix algorithm. Applications are important for radomes and radar-absorbing materials.

  1. Streamline curvature effects on turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. C.; Chambers, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical tool has been developed for predicting, in a nonempirical manner, effects of streamline curvature and coordinate-system rotation on turbulent boundary layers. The second-order closure scheme developed by Wilcox and Traci has been generalized for curved streamline flow and for flow in a rotating coordinate system. A physically based straightforward argument shows that curvature/rotation primarily affects the turbulent mixing energy; the argument yields suitable curvature/rotation terms which are added to the mixing-energy equation. Singular-perturbation solutions valid in the wall layer of a curved-wall boundary layer and a fully developed rotating channel flow demonstrate that, with the curvature/rotation terms, the model predicts the curved-wall and the rotating coordinate system laws of the wall. Results of numerical computations of curved-wall boundary layers and of rotating channel flow show that curvature/rotation effects can be computed accurately with second-order closure.

  2. Double layers and circuits in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-01-01

    A simple circuit is applied to the energizing of auroral particles, to solar flares, and to intergalactic double radio sources. Application to the heliospheric current systems leads to the prediction of two double layers on the Sun's axis which may give radiations detectable from Earth. Double layers in space should be classified as a new type of celestial object. It is suggested that X-ray and gamma-ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers (although annihilation is an alternative energy source). The way the most used textbooks in astrophysics treat concepts like double layers, critical velocity, pinch effects and circuits was studied. It is found that students using these textbooks remain essentially ignorant of even the existence of these, although some of the phenomena were discovered 50 yr ago.

  3. Layer resolved capacitive probing of graphene bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibrov, Alexander; Parmentier, François; Li, Jia; Wang, Lei; Hunt, Benjamin; Dean, Cory; Hone, James; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Young, Andrea

    Compared to single layer graphene, graphene bilayers have an additional ``which-layer'' degree of freedom that can be controlled by an external electric field in a dual-gated device geometry. We describe capacitance measurements capable of directly probing this degree of freedom. By performing top gate, bottom gate, and penetration field capacitance measurements, we directly extract layer polarization of both Bernal and twisted bilayers. We will present measurements of hBN encapsulated bilayers at both zero and high magnetic field, focusing on the physics of the highly degenerate zero-energy Landau level in the high magnetic field limit where spin, valley, and layer degeneracy are all lifted by electronic interactions.

  4. Cryogenic target system for hydrogen layering

    DOE PAGES

    Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Atkinson, D.; ...

    2015-11-24

    Here, a cryogenic target positioning system was designed and installed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber. This instrument incorporates the ability to fill, form, and characterize the NIF targets with hydrogen isotopes needed for ignition experiments inside the NIF target bay then transport and position them in the target chamber. This effort brought to fruition years of research in growing and metrologizing high-quality hydrogen fuel layers and landed it in an especially demanding operations environment in the NIF facility. D-T (deuterium-tritium) layers for NIF ignition experiments have extremely tight specifications and must be grown in a very highlymore » constrained environment: a NIF ignition target inside a cryogenic target positioner inside the NIF target bay. Exquisite control of temperature, pressure, contaminant level, and thermal uniformity are necessary throughout seed formation and layer growth to create an essentially-groove-free single crystal layer.« less

  5. Ozone Layer Research and Technical Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on research and technical resources related to ozone layer science. This page provides links to research efforts led by organizations such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the United Nations Environment Program, an

  6. Composite S-layer lipid structures

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Bernhard; Sleytr, Uwe B.

    2010-01-01

    Designing and utilization of biomimetic membrane systems generated by bottom-up processes is a rapidly growing scientific and engineering field. Elucidation of the supramolecular construction principle of archaeal cell envelopes composed of S-layer stabilized lipid membranes led to new strategies for generating highly stable functional lipid membranes at meso- and macroscopic scale. In this review, we provide a state of the art survey how S-layer proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides may be used as basic building blocks for the assembly of S-layer supported lipid membranes. These biomimetic membrane systems are distinguished by a nanopatterned fluidity, enhanced stability and longevity and thus, provide a dedicated reconstitution matrix for membrane-active peptides and transmembrane proteins. Exciting areas for application of composite S-layer membrane systems concern sensor systems involving specific membrane functions. PMID:19303933

  7. Hydrothermal regimes of the dry active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Mamoru; Zhang, Yinsheng; Kadota, Tsutomu; Ohata, Tetsuo

    2006-04-01

    Evaporation and condensation in the soil column clearly influence year-round nonconductive heat transfer dynamics in the dry active layer underlying semiarid permafrost regions. We deduced this from heat flux components quantified using state-of-the-art micrometeorological data sets obtained in dry and moist summers and in winters with various snow cover depths. Vapor moves easily through large pores, some of which connect to the atmosphere, allowing (1) considerable active layer warming driven by pipe-like snowmelt infiltration, and (2) direct vapor linkage between atmosphere and deeper soils. Because of strong adhesive forces, water in the dry active layer evaporates with great difficulty. The fraction of latent heat to total soil heat storage ranged from 26 to 45% in dry and moist summers, respectively. These values are not negligible, despite being smaller than those of arctic wet active layer, in which only freezing and thawing were considered.

  8. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2013-02-25

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  9. An insolation activated dust layer on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beule, Caroline; Wurm, Gerhard; Kelling, Thorben; Koester, Marc; Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2015-11-01

    The illuminated dusty surface of Mars acts like a gas pump. It is driven by thermal creep at low pressure within the soil. In the top soil layer this gas flow has to be sustained by a pressure gradient. This is equivalent to a lifting force on the dust grains. The top layer is therefore under tension which reduces the threshold wind speed for saltation. We carried out laboratory experiments to quantify the thickness of this activated layer. We use basalt with an average particle size of 67 μm. We find a depth of the active layer of 100-200 μm. Scaled to Mars the activation will reduce threshold wind speeds for saltation by about 10%.

  10. Helicity in supercritical temporal mixing layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Okong'o, N.

    2003-01-01

    Databases of transitional states obtained from Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of temporal, supercritical mixing layers for two species systems, 02/H2 and C7Hle/N2, are analyzed to elucidate species-specific turbulence aspects.

  11. Complex oxides: Creative tension in layered crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalan, Venkatraman; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2016-09-01

    New findings suggest that the mechanical stretching of layered crystals can transform them from a polar to a nonpolar state. This could spur the design of multifunctional materials controlled by an electric field.

  12. Observations of the magnetopause current layer: Cases with no boundary layer and tests of recent models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence for the probable existence of magnetospheric boundary layers was first presented by Hones, et al. (1972), based on VELA satellite plasma observations (no magnetic field measurements were obtained). This magnetotail boundary layer is now known to be the tailward extension of the high-latitude boundary layer or plasma mantle (first uniquely identified using HEOS 2 plasma and field observations by Rosenbauer et al., 1975) and the low-latitude boundary layer (first uniquely identified using IMP 6 plasma and field observations by Eastman et al., 1976). The magnetospheric boundary layer is the region of magnetosheath-like plasma located Earthward of, but generally contiguous with the magnetopause. This boundary layer is typically identified by comparing low-energy (less than 10 keV) ion spectra across the magnetopause. Low-energy electron measurements are also useful for identifying the boundary layer because the shocked solar wind or magnetosheath has a characteristic spectral signature for electrons as well. However, there are magnetopause crossings where low-energy electrons might suggest a depletion layer outside the magnetopause even though the traditional field-rotation signature indicates that this same region is a boundary layer Earthward of the current layer. Our analyses avoided crossings which exhibit such ambiguities. Pristine magnetopause crossings are magnetopause crossings for which the current layer is well defined and for which there is no adjoining magnetospheric boundary layer as defined above. Although most magnetopause models to date apply to such crossings, few comparisons between such theory and observations of pristine magnetopause crossings have been made because most crossings have an associated magnetospheric boundary layer which significantly affects the applicable boundary conditions for the magnetopause current layer. Furthermore, almost no observational studies of magnetopause microstructure have been done even though key

  13. Single-layer behavior and its breakdown in twisted graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luican-Mayer, Adina

    2013-03-01

    Stacking order plays a major role in the electronic properties of graphene layers because hopping between carbon atoms in neighboring layers is a key ingredient in their band structure. Twisting the layers away from the equilibrium Bernal stacking, which produces the superstructures known as Moiré patterns in scanning tunneling microscopy, decreases the overlap between atoms in adjacent layers and therefore significantly alters their electronic properties. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we obtained direct evidence for the electronic structure of twisted graphene layers.[2] The samples were membranes of CVD grown graphene and graphite crystals which contain areas with various twist angles. In topographic images the regions where layers are twisted away from Bernal stacking exhibit Moiré patterns with periods which depend on the twist angle. We find that the density of states on the twisted layers develops two Van Hove singularities that symmetrically flank the Dirac point at an energy that depends on the twist angle. High magnetic field scanning tunneling microscopy and Landau level spectroscopy of twisted graphene layers reveal that for twist angles exceeding ~3 degrees the low energy carriers exhibit Landau level spectra characteristic of massless Dirac fermions. Above 20 degrees the layers effectively decouple and the electronic properties are indistinguishable from those in single-layer graphene, while for smaller angles we observe a slowdown of the carrier velocity which is strongly angle dependent.[3] These results are compared with theoretical predictions. DOE-FG02-99ER45742, NSF DMR 1207108, Alcatel-Lucent

  14. Forced free-shear layer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed three-dimensional three-component phase averaged measurements of the spanwise and streamwise vorticity formation and evolution in acoustically forced plane free-shear flows have been obtained. For the first time, phase-averaged measurements of all three velocity components have been obtained in both a mixing layer and a wake on three-dimensional grids, yielding the spanwise and streamwise vorticity distributions without invoking Taylor's hypothesis. Initially, two-frequency forcing was used to phase-lock the roll-up and first pairing of the spanwise vortical structures in a plane mixing layer. The objective of this study was to measure the near-field vortical structure morphology in a mixing layer with 'natural' laminar initial boundary layers. For the second experiment the second and third subharmonics of the fundamental roll-up frequency were added to the previous two-frequency forcing in order to phase-lock the roll-up and first three pairings of the spanwise rollers in the mixing layer. The objective of this study was to determine the details of spanwise scale changes observed in previous time-averaged measurements and flow visualization of unforced mixing layers. For the final experiment, single-frequency forcing was used to phase-lock the Karman vortex street in a plane wake developing from nominally two-dimensional laminar initial boundary layers. The objective of this study was to compare measurements of the three-dimensional structure in a wake developing from 'natural' initial boundary layers to existing models of wake vortical structure.

  15. Symmetry breaking in few layer graphene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostwick, Aaron; Ohta, Taisuke; McChesney, Jessica L.; Emtsev, Konstantin V.; Seyller, Thomas; Horn, Karsten; Rotenberg, Eli

    2007-10-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that the quasiparticle dynamics, the layer-dependent charge and potential, and the c-axis screening coefficient could be extracted from measurements of the spectral function of few layer graphene films grown epitaxially on SiC using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). In this paper we review these findings, and present detailed methodology for extracting such parameters from ARPES. We also present detailed arguments against the possibility of an energy gap at the Dirac crossing ED.

  16. Surface layering effect of diluted Intralipid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foschum, F.; Bodenschatz, N.; Krauter, P.; Nothelfer, S.; Liemert, A.; Simon, E.; Kröner, S.; Kienle, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study the formation of a surface layer on top of an Intralipid dilution was studied. By use of spatial frequency reflectance and spatially resolved reflectance the surface layer could be characterized. The influence on the determination of the optical properties assuming a semi-infinite medium in the theory was investigated. By use of an angularly resolved reflectance device the formation even on a horizontally orientated glass slide could be shown.

  17. Boundary-layer theory for blast waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. B.; Berger, S. A.; Kamel, M. M.; Korobeinikov, V. P.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    It is profitable to consider the blast wave as a flow field consisting of two regions: the outer, which retains the properties of the inviscid solution, and the inner, which is governed by flow equations including terms expressing the effects of heat transfer and, concomitantly, viscosity. The latter region thus plays the role of a boundary layer. Reported here is an analytical method developed for the study of such layers, based on the matched asymptotic expansion technique combined with patched solutions.

  18. Temporal identity in axonal target layer recognition.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Milan; Hummel, Thomas

    2008-12-11

    The segregation of axon and dendrite projections into distinct synaptic layers is a fundamental principle of nervous system organization and the structural basis for information processing in the brain. Layer-specific recognition molecules that allow projecting neurons to stabilize transient contacts and initiate synaptogenesis have been identified. However, most of the neuronal cell-surface molecules critical for layer organization are expressed broadly in the developing nervous system, raising the question of how these so-called permissive adhesion molecules support synaptic specificity. Here we show that the temporal expression dynamics of the zinc-finger protein sequoia is the major determinant of Drosophila photoreceptor connectivity into distinct synaptic layers. Neighbouring R8 and R7 photoreceptors show consecutive peaks of elevated sequoia expression, which correspond to their sequential target-layer innervation. Loss of sequoia in R7 leads to a projection switch into the R8 recipient layer, whereas a prolonged expression in R8 induces a redirection of their axons into the R7 layer. The sequoia-induced axon targeting is mediated through the ubiquitously expressed Cadherin-N cell adhesion molecule. Our data support a model in which recognition specificity during synaptic layer formation is generated through a temporally restricted axonal competence to respond to broadly expressed adhesion molecules. Because developing neurons innervating the same target area often project in a distinct, birth-order-dependent sequence, temporal identity seems to contain crucial information in generating not only cell type diversity during neuronal division but also connection diversity of projecting neurons.

  19. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D [Dover, MA; Cabalu, Jasper S [Cary, NC

    2012-08-07

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  20. Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

    2013-11-26

    A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

  1. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D [Dover, MA; Cabalu, Jasper S [Cary, NC

    2011-10-11

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  2. Boundary-layer stability and airfoil design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeffrey K.

    1986-01-01

    Several different natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils have been analyzed for stability of the laminar boundary layer using linear stability codes. The NLF airfoils analyzed come from three different design conditions: incompressible; compressible with no sweep; and compressible with sweep. Some of the design problems are discussed, concentrating on those problems associated with keeping the boundary layer laminar. Also, there is a discussion on how a linear stability analysis was effectively used to improve the design for some of the airfoils.

  3. Solute boundary layer on a rotating crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinelli, Michelle L.; Korpela, Seppo A.; Chait, Arnon

    1994-11-01

    A perturbation analysis has been carried out for the solutal boundary layer next to a rotating crystal. Our aim is to extend the classical results of Burton, Prim and Slicher [1] in order to obtain higher order terms in asymptotic expansions for the concentration field and boundary-layer thickness. Expressions for the effective segregation coefficient are directly obtained from the concentration solution in the two limits that correspond to weak and strong rotation.

  4. Backcalculation of Composite Pavement Layer Moduli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    pavement system. Figure 1 illustrates some of the differences between a typical idealized model and a real pavement system. In general, the properties of...the real and idealized systems are not the same. Use of nondestructive test data to backcalculate layer properties implies that equivalent deflection...assumed idealized model. If layer properties from the idealized model are to be used in a 5 subsequent overlay design or remaining life prediction, it

  5. Symmetry Breaking in Few Layer Graphene Films

    SciTech Connect

    Bostwick, A.; Ohta, T.; McChesney, J.L.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller,Th.; Horn, K.; Rotenberg, E.

    2007-05-25

    Recently, it was demonstrated that the quasiparticledynamics, the layer-dependent charge and potential, and the c-axisscreening coefficient could be extracted from measurements of thespectral function of few layer graphene films grown epitaxially on SiCusing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). In this articlewe review these findings, and present detailed methodology for extractingsuch parameters from ARPES. We also present detailed arguments againstthe possibility of an energy gap at the Dirac crossing ED.

  6. Push It to the Max! Thinking in Layers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project using acetate sheets. This project was to have at least two layers: (1) the first layer is a more detailed front layer of the acetate sheet; and (2) the second layer is a piece of painted paper behind the acetate. This lesson presents an opportunity to help students think in "layers," which will be…

  7. Intercalation of Layered Silicates, Layered Double Hydroxides, and Lead Iodide: Synthesis, Characterization and Properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrotra, Vivek

    Layered silicates, layered double hydroxides, and lead iodide are lamellar solids that can incorporate guest species into the galleries between their layers. Various intercalated forms of these layered materials have been synthesized and their properties studied. The dielectric behavior of pristine fluorohectorite, a typical layered silicate, and Zn-Al layered double hydroxide is explained by considering the structural ordering and mobility of the intercalated water molecules, as well as models invoking fractal time processes and fractal structure. Intercalative polymerization of aniline and pyrrole into fluorohectorite leads to a multilayered structure consisting of single polymer chains alternately stacked with the 9.6 A thick silicate layers. The polymer chains are confined to the quasi two-dimensional interlayer space between the rigid host layers. The hybrid films exhibit highly anisotropic properties. The optical, electrical and mechanical behavior is discussed in terms of the molecular confinement of the polymer chains. Ethylenediamine functionalized C _{60} clusters have also been intercalated into fluorohectorite via an ion-exchange procedure. Intercalation results in an improved thermal stability of the functionalized C_{60} clusters. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry has been used to elucidate the mechanism of intercalative ion exchange of silver in muscovite mica, a layered silicate with a layer charge density of 2e per unit cell. It is proposed that ion-exchange progresses by intercalating successive galleries through the edges of the mica layers. Guest-host interactions have been studied in the system aniline-PbI_2. The optical and structural effects of aniline intercalation in lead iodide thin films is discussed. Intercalation leads to a large shift in the optical band gap of PbI_2. The observed change in band gap is not only due to the increased separation between the PbI_2 layers but also because of an electrostatic interaction between the

  8. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-01-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation–best described as an atomic scale ripple–was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain. PMID:27640724

  9. Cylindrical Mixing Layer Model in Stellar Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Seung-Urn; Yu, Kyoung Hee

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a cylindrical mixing layer model of a stellar jet including cooling effect in order to understand an optical emission mechanism along collimated high velocity stellar jets associated with young stellar objects. The cylindrical results have been calculated to be the same as the 2D ones presented by Canto & Raga(1991) because the entrainment efficiency in our cylindrical model has been obtained to be the same value as the 2D model has given. We have discussed the morphological and physical characteristics of the mixing layers by the cooling effect. As the jet Mach number increases, the initial temperature of the mixing layer goes high because the kinetic energy of the jet partly converts to the thermal energy of the mixing layer. The initial cooling of the mixing layer is very severe, changing its outer boundary radius. A subsequent change becomes adiabatic. The number of the Mach disks in the stellar jet and the total radiative luminosity of the mixing layer, based on our cylindrical calculation, have quite agreed with the observation.

  10. Physical characteristics of the oceanic skin layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafin, J.; Minnett, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    On the liquid side of the ocean-atmosphere interface lies the oceanic skin layer. Its ubiquitous presence is a consequence of ocean-atmosphere heat flux, which in turn it regulates as the heat and gas fluxes through the skin layer are supported by molecular conduction, which is much less effective at vertical transport than turbulence in the fluids above and below. The skin layer also modulates air-sea exchanges of gases and momentum. While it displays complex structure on millimeters to meters, the skin layer can be represented on horizontal scales of meters and more in terms of mean properties. Accurate spectro-radiometric measurements of the skin temperature and its variation with depth on sub-millimeter scales have revealed a thinner mean skin than previously anticipated from laboratory measurements; ship-based measurements indicate a skin layer an order of magnitude thinner than those measured in an open-air laboratory using the same instruments, which at a thickness of O(1mm) agree with measurements in the literature. Examples of the skin layer behavior based on measurements at sea under a range of natural forcing (winds, net heat flux and net infrared radiative flux) will be presented.

  11. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-09-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation–best described as an atomic scale ripple–was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain.

  12. Electric Field Induced Superconductivity in Layered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, J. T.; Craciun, M. F.; Russo, S.; Morpurgo, M. F.; Kasahara, Y.; Yuan, H. T.; Shimotani, H.; Iwasa, Y.

    2011-03-01

    Using electric double layer (EDL) gating, large amount of carriers can be accumulated on a broad range of materials, which provides new opportunities in effectively manipulating their electronic properties in complementary with the chemical doping. In searching for novel transport phenomena, layered materials are advantageous because atomically flat surface can be easily fabricated using the graphene techniques. We used layered material: ZrNCl and graphite to act as the channel of EDL transistors. For both ZrNCl and graphene, we achieved high carrier density up to 1014 cm-2 , electrostatically. For graphene, we studied the high carrier density transport for graphene of 1-3 layers. Transport properties at the high carrier density exhibit clear layer dependence governed by the intrinsic band structures of graphene and its multi-layers. For ZrNCl EDL transistor, we observed metallic states at gate voltage higher than 3.5 V followed by gate-induced superconductivity after metal-insulator transition when the transistor was cooled down to about 15 K.

  13. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.

    1993-12-31

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties.

  14. Epitaxial growth of group III nitrides on silicon substrates via a reflective lattice-matched zirconium diboride buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolle, J.; Roucka, R.; Tsong, I. S. T.; Ritter, C.; Crozier, P. A.; Chizmeshya, A. V. G.; Kouvetakis, J.

    2003-04-01

    Growth of metallic and reflecting ZrB2 films is conducted on Si(111) substrates at 900 °C using a single-source unimolecular precursor Zr(BH4)4 in a molecular beam epitaxy chamber. Epitaxial growth of ZrB2(0001) is accomplished despite the very large lattice mismatch between ZrB2 and Si(111). High-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images of the sharp ZrB2/Si(111) interface show a heteroepitaxial relationship involving a "magic mismatch" of coincidence lattices. The GaN films grown on the ZrB2/Si(111) template is virtually homoepitaxy because of the very small lattice mismatch, 0.6%, between the in-plane lattice parameters of ZrB2(0001) and GaN(0001).

  15. A Two-layer Model for the Simulation of the VARTM Process with Resin Distribution Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Wen-Bin

    2013-12-01

    Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is one of the important processes to fabricate high performance composites. In this process, resin is drawn into the mold to impregnate the fiber reinforcement to a form composite. A resin distribution layer with high permeability was often introduced on top of the fiber reinforcement to accelerate the filling speed. Due to the difference of the flow resistance in the resin distribution layer and the reinforcement as well as the resulting through thickness transverse flow, the filling flow field is intrinsically three-dimensional. This study developed a two-layer model with two-dimensional formulation to simulate the filling flow of the VARTM process with a resin distribution layer. Two-dimensional flow was considered in each layer and a transverse flow in the thickness direction was estimated between the two layers. Thermal analysis including the transverse convection was also performed to better simulate the temperature distribution.

  16. Fabrication of double layer optical tissue phantom by spin coating method: mimicking epidermal and dermal layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihoon; Bae, Yunjin; Bae, Youngwoo; Kang, Heesung; Lee, Kyoung-Joung; Jung, Byungjo

    2013-02-01

    Methodologies to fabricate a solid optical tissue phantom (OTP) mimicking epidermal thin-layer have been developed for in vitro human skin experiment. However, there are cumbersome and time-consuming efforts in fabrication process such as a custom-made casting and calculation of solvent volume before curing process. In a previous study, we introduced a new methodology based on spin coating method (SCM) which is utilized to fabricate a thin-layer OTP analogous to epidermal thickness. In this study, a double layer solid OTP which has epidermal and dermal layers was fabricated to mimic the morphological and optical similarity of human tissue. The structural characteristic and optical properties of fabricated double layer OTP were measured using optical coherence tomography and inverse adding doubling algorithms, respectively. It is expected that the new methodology based on the SCM may be usefully used in the fabrication of double layer OTP.

  17. Learning layer-specific edges for segmenting retinal layers with large deformations

    PubMed Central

    Karri, S. P. K.; Chakraborthi, Debjani; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2016-01-01

    We present an algorithm for layer-specific edge detection in retinal optical coherence tomography images through a structured learning algorithm to reinforce traditional graph-based retinal layer segmentation. The proposed algorithm simultaneously identifies individual layers and their corresponding edges, resulting in the computation of layer-specific edges in 1 second. These edges augment classical dynamic programming based segmentation under layer deformation, shadow artifacts noise, and without heuristics or prior knowledge. We considered Duke’s online data set containing 110 B-scans of 10 diabetic macular edema subjects with 8 retinal layers annotated by two experts for experimentation, and achieved a mean distance error of 1.38 pixels whereas that of the state-of-the-art was 1.68 pixels. PMID:27446714

  18. Polysaccharide-based polyelectrolytes hollow microcapsules constructed by layer-by-layer technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Chen, Cong; Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Lina

    2013-07-25

    Two water-soluble polysaccharide derivatives, carboxymethylated and quarternized glucans (CMGP and QGP) were synthesized for the first time from water-insoluble polysaccharides (GP) extracted from Ganoderma lucidum. Hollow microspheres were constructed using electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of the CMGP and QGP polyelectrolytes onto colloidal ZnO particles followed by the core decomposition with an acid solution. The structures of the multilayered CMGP/QGP microspheres were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results revealed that the multilayer thickness increased regularly from 48 to 145 nm as the number of deposited CMGP/QGP layers was increased from two to seven, and the mean increment of thickness was ∼25 nm per layer, reflecting the high regularity of the layer-by-layer assembly. This work provided an easy method to construct hollow microcapsules with biocompatibility and controlled dimensions.

  19. Illustrating the processability of magnetic layered double hydroxides: layer-by-layer assembly of magnetic ultrathin films.

    PubMed

    Coronado, E; Martí-Gastaldo, C; Navarro-Moratalla, E; Ribera, A; Tatay, S

    2013-05-20

    We report the preparation of single-layer layered double hydroxide (LDH) two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets by exfoliation of highly crystalline NiAl-NO3 LDH. Next, these unilamellar moieties have been incorporated layer-by-layer (LbL) into a poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/LDH nanosheet multilayer ultrathin film (UTF). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles have been used to follow the uniform growth of the UTF. The use of a magnetic LDH as the cationic component of the multilayered architecture enables study of the resulting magnetic properties of the UTFs. Our magnetic data show the appearance of spontaneous magnetization at ∼5 K, thus confirming the effective transfer of the magnetic properties of the bulk LDH to the self-assembled film that displays glassy-like ferromagnetic behavior. The high number of bilayers accessible-more than 80-opens the door for the preparation of more-complex hybrid multifunctional materials that combine magnetism with the physical properties provided by other exfoliable layered inorganic hosts.

  20. Selective layer disordering in III-nitrides with a capping layer

    DOEpatents

    Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2016-06-14

    Selective layer disordering in a doped III-nitride superlattice can be achieved by depositing a dielectric capping layer on a portion of the surface of the superlattice and annealing the superlattice to induce disorder of the layer interfaces under the uncapped portion and suppress disorder of the interfaces under the capped portion. The method can be used to create devices, such as optical waveguides, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, solar cells, modulators, laser, and amplifiers.

  1. Layered Organization in the Coastal Ocean: 4-D Assessment of Thin Layer Structure, Dynamics and Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    maintenance and dissipation of layers; (2) to understand the spatial coherence and spatial properties of thin layers in the coastal ocean (especially in...ORCAS profilers at K1 South and K2 had a Nortek ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocity meter) for simultaneously measuring centimeter- scale currents and...year will be used to (1) detect the presence, intensity, thickness, temporal persistence, and spatial coherence of thin optical and acoustical layers

  2. INDIVIDUAL TURBULENT CELL INTERACTION: BASIS FOR BOUNDARY LAYER ESTABLISHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Boundary layers are important in determining the forces on objects in flowing fluids, mixing characteristics, and other phenomena. For example, benthic boundary layers are frequently active resuspension layers that determine bottom turbidity and transniissivity. Traditionally, bo...

  3. Two-layer anti-reflection strategies for implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.; Smith, Tamara; Kato, Masakazu; Kimura, Shigeo; Enomoto, Tomoyuki

    2006-03-01

    A two-layer bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) concept in which a layer that develops slowly is coated on top of a bottom layer that develops more rapidly was demonstrated. Development rate control was achieved by selection of crosslinker amount and BARC curing conditions. A single-layer BARC was compared with the two-layer BARC concept. The single-layer BARC does not clear out of 200-nm deep vias. When the slower developing single-layer BARC was coated on top of the faster developing layer, the vias were cleared. Lithographic evaluation of the two-layer BARC concept shows the same resolution advantages as the single-layer system. Planarization properties of a two-layer BARC system are better than for a single-layer system, when comparing the same total nominal thicknesses.

  4. Layer coefficients for NHDOT pavement materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoo, Vincent C.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992, the New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) experimented with the use of reclaimed asphalt concrete as a base course material, identified by NHDOT as reclaimed stabilized base (RSB). The RSB and a control test section were placed on Interstate 93 between exits 18 and 19. The RSB test section was designed to the same structural number (SN) as the control. To evaluate the structural capacity of these test sections, the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) conducted deflection tests using a Dynatest 8000 falling weight deflectometer (FWD). Preliminary analysis of the results by NHDOT personnel showed higher deflection in the reclaimed asphalt concrete test sections. The explanation was that the layer coefficient used for the RSB layer in the design was probably incorrect. A total of 10 test sections constituting the base course materials used by NHDOT were built near Bow, New Hampshire. CRREL evaluated and estimated the layer coefficients of the base course materials. The test program was developed to characterize the material in more than one way. Tests were conducted with the heavy weight deflectometer (HWD), dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and the Clegg hammer. In situ California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were also conducted. The deflection from the HWD were used with the WESDEF back calculation program to determine the layer moduli. The moduli were than used with the AASHTO Design Guide to calculate the layer coefficients. The layer coefficients were also determined with the method proposed by Rohde. The CBR values from the Clegg hammer, in situ CBR and DCP tests were also used in the relationships in the HDM model to determine the layer coefficients.

  5. Development of new layered selenide oxides with perovskite-type oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushiyama, Koichi; Ogino, Hiraku; Kishio, Kohji; Shimoyama, Jun-Ichi

    2010-03-01

    Several Fe-based superconductors with perovskite-type oxide layers, such as Sr2ScFePO3 (Tc ˜ 17 K)^[1], were discovered in our previous study. These compounds are composed of alternate stacking of superconducting layers with antifluorite structure and perovskite-type blocking layers. Since both layers are flexible in terms of chemical composition, development of various new functional materials can be expected from this family. In the present study, we have attempted to synthesize new layered selenide oxides with CuSe layers and discovered more than ten compounds, such as Sr2MCu2Se2O2 (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) and Sr2MCuSeO3 (M = Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ga, In), thus far. These indicated that the CuSe layer can accommodate various types of blocking layers, which may lead various functions. Among them, Sr2Cu3Se2O2 has a potential as for the mother compound of superconductor, if appropriate concentration of carrier is introduced to the CuO2 layer. Crystal structure and physical properties of these newly found compounds will be reported. [1] H. Ogino et al., Supercond. Sci. Technol. 22 (2009) 075008

  6. Characterization of CZTSSe photovoltaic device with an atomic layer-deposited passivation layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei Cao, Yanyan; Caspar, Jonathan V.; Guo, Qijie; Johnson, Lynda K.; Mclean, Robert S.; Malajovich, Irina; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy

    2014-07-28

    We describe a CZTSSe (Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S{sub 1−x},Se{sub x}){sub 4}) photovoltaic (PV) device with an ALD (atomic layer deposition) coated buffer dielectric layer for CZTSSe surface passivation. An ALD buffer layer, such as TiO{sub 2}, can be applied in order to reduce the interface recombination and improve the device's open-circuit voltage. Detailed characterization data including current-voltage, admittance spectroscopy, and capacitance profiling are presented in order to compare the performance of PV devices with and without the ALD layer.

  7. Industrial-scale spray layer-by-layer assembly for production of biomimetic photonic systems.

    PubMed

    Krogman, K C; Cohen, R E; Hammond, P T; Rubner, M F; Wang, B N

    2013-12-01

    Layer-by-layer assembly is a powerful and flexible thin film process that has successfully reproduced biomimetic photonic systems such as structural colour. While most of the seminal work has been carried out using slow and ultimately unscalable immersion assembly, recent developments using spray layer-by-layer assembly provide a platform for addressing challenges to scale-up and manufacturability. A series of manufacturing systems has been developed to increase production throughput by orders of magnitude, making commercialized structural colour possible. Inspired by biomimetic photonic structures we developed and demonstrated a heat management system that relies on constructive reflection of near infrared radiation to bring about dramatic reductions in heat content.

  8. Glancing shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interaction with boundary layer suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhart, P. J.; Greber, I.; Hingst, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    Tests conducted to ascertain the stagnation pressure and flow angularity profiles of a turbulent boundary layer subjected to boundary layer suction (BLS) as it crosses a glancing sidewall shock wave have determined that the boundary layer does not separate upon crossing the shock wave. Without BLS, the upstream influence of the shock wave-induced wall static pressure rise was extensive, of the order of four bloundary layer thicknesses; for the same case, with suction, the extent of upstream influence was 50 percent lower. In addition, flow angularities at the wall were found to be smaller with suction than without it.

  9. Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from spectral-domain macular OCT: reproducibility of layer thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan; Garvin, Mona K.

    2011-03-01

    Changes in intraretinal layer thickness occur in a variety of diseases such as glaucoma, macular edema and diabetes. To segment the intraretinal layers from macular spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) scans, we previously introduced an automated multiscale 3-D graph search method and validated its performance by computing unsigned border positioning differences when compared with human expert tracings. However, it is also important to study the reproducibility of resulting layer thickness measurements, as layer thickness is a commonly used clinical parameter. In this work, twenty eight (14 x 2) repeated macular OCT volumes were acquired from the right eyes of 14 normal subjects using two Zeiss-Cirrus SD-OCT scanners. After segmentation of 10 intraretinal layers and rigid registration of layer thickness maps from the repeated OCT scans, the thickness difference of each layer was calculated. The overall mean global and regional thickness differences of 10 intraretinal layers were 0.46 +/- 0.25 μm (1.70 +/- 0.72 %) and 1.16 +/- 0.84 μm (4.03 +/- 2.05 %), respectively. No specific local region showed a consistent thickness difference across the layers.

  10. The Mechanical Robustness of Atomic-Layer- and Molecular-Layer-Deposited Coatings on Polymer Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical robustness of atomic-layer- and molecular-layer-deposited coatings on polymer substrates David C. Miller,1,2,a Ross R. Foster,1,2...00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The mechanical robustness of atomic-layer- and molecular-layer-deposited coatings on polymer ...fracture related to the sharp grip teeth, polymer strips “Flex-o-Pane,” Warp Brothers, Inc. were attached over the grip ends outside of the gage region

  11. Layer-by-layer assembly of nanowires for three-dimensional, multifunctional electronics.

    PubMed

    Javey, Ali; Nam, SungWoo; Friedman, Robin S; Yan, Hao; Lieber, Charles M

    2007-03-01

    We report a general approach for three-dimensional (3D) multifunctional electronics based on the layer-by-layer assembly of nanowire (NW) building blocks. Using germanium/silicon (Ge/Si) core/shell NWs as a representative example, ten vertically stacked layers of multi-NW field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated. Transport measurements demonstrate that the Ge/Si NW FETs have reproducible high-performance device characteristics within a given device layer, that the FET characteristics are not affected by sequential stacking, and importantly, that uniform performance is achieved in sequential layers 1 through 10 of the 3D structure. Five-layer single-NW FET structures were also prepared by printing Ge/Si NWs from lower density growth substrates, and transport measurements showed similar high-performance characteristics for the FETs in layers 1 and 5. In addition, 3D multifunctional circuitry was demonstrated on plastic substrates with sequential layers of inverter logical gates and floating gate memory elements. Notably, electrical characterization studies show stable writing and erasing of the NW floating gate memory elements and demonstrate signal inversion with larger than unity gain for frequencies up to at least 50 MHz. The ability to assemble reproducibly sequential layers of distinct types of NW-based devices coupled with the breadth of NW building blocks should enable the assembly of increasing complex multilayer and multifunctional 3D electronics in the future.

  12. Buffer layer engineering on graphene via various oxidation methods for atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Nobuaki; Nagashio, Kosuke

    2016-12-01

    The integration of a high-k oxide on graphene using atomic layer deposition requires an electrically reliable buffer layer. In this study, Y was selected as the buffer layer due to its highest oxidation ability among the rare-earth elements, and various oxidation methods (atmospheric, and high-pressure O2 and ozone annealing) were applied to the Y metal buffer layer. By optimizing the oxidation conditions of the top-gate insulator, we successfully improved the capacitance of the top gate Y2O3 insulator and demonstrated a large I on/I off ratio for bilayer graphene under an external electric field.

  13. Real-time reflectance-difference spectroscopy of GaAs molecular beam epitaxy homoepitaxial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lastras-Martínez, A. E-mail: alastras@gmail.com; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Guevara-Macías, L. E.; Nuñez-Olvera, O.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Lastras-Martínez, L. F.; Lastras-Montaño, L. A.; Lastras-Montaño, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    We report on real time-resolved Reflectance-difference (RD) spectroscopy of GaAs(001) grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with a time-resolution of 500 ms per spectrum within the 2.3–4.0 eV photon energy range. Through the analysis of transient RD spectra we demonstrated that RD line shapes are comprised of two components with different physical origins and determined their evolution during growth. Such components were ascribed to the subsurface strain induced by surface reconstruction and to surface stoichiometry. Results reported in this paper render RD spectroscopy as a powerful tool for the study of fundamental processes during the epitaxial growth of zincblende semiconductors.

  14. Highly ordered self-assembled nanoscale periodic faceting in GaAs(631) homoepitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Hernández, E.; Shimomura, S.; Méndez-García, V. H.

    2012-08-01

    We report on the self-assembly of large-order-correlated nanoscale faceting on GaAs(631)A substrates grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The surface morphology of the grown samples as a function of the growth temperature and the As-beam equivalent pressure was studied using atomic force microscopy. A two-dimensional autocorrelation function analysis was performed in order to quantitatively determine the uniformity of the surface corrugation. By optimizing the growth conditions, correlated faceted areas as large as 1.7 × 1.7 μm2 are obtained. The highly ordered surface corrugation discussed here provides useful insights to prepare highly ordered facet planes for the self organized growth of quantum wires.

  15. Thin layer composite unimorph ferroelectric driver and sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Jalink, Jr., Antony (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for forming ferroelectric wafers is provided. A prestress layer is placed on the desired mold. A ferroelectric wafer is placed on top of the prestress layer. The layers are heated and then cooled, causing the ferroelectric wafer to become prestressed. The prestress layer may include reinforcing material and the ferroelectric wafer may include electrodes or electrode layers may be placed on either side of the ferroelectric layer. Wafers produced using this method have greatly improved output motion.

  16. Organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-03-27

    An organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers is provided. Each emissive layer may define an exciton formation region, allowing exciton formation to occur across the entire emissive region. By aligning the energy levels of each emissive layer with the adjacent emissive layers, exciton formation in each layer may be improved. Devices incorporating multiple emissive layers with multiple exciton formation regions may exhibit improved performance, including internal quantum efficiencies of up to 100%.

  17. Tailoring polymer properties with layered silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang

    Polymer layered silicate nanocomposites have found widespread applications in areas such as plastics, oil and gas production, biomedical, automotive and information storage, but their successful commercialization critically depends on consistent control over issues such as complete dispersion of layered silicate into the host polymer and optimal interaction between the layered silicates and the polymers. Polypropylene is a commercially important polymer but usually forms intercalated structures with organically modified layered silicate upon mixing, even it is pre-treated with compatibilizing agent such as maleic anhydride. In this work, layered silicate is well dispersed in ammonium modified polypropylene but does not provide sufficient reinforcement to the host polymer due to poor interactions. On the other hand, interactions between maleic anhydride modified polypropylene and layered silicate are fine tuned by using a small amount of maleic anhydride and mechanical strength of the resultant nanocomposites are significantly enhanced. In particular, the melt rheological properties of layered silicate nanocomposites with maleic anhydride functionalized polypropylene are contrasted to those based on ammonium-terminated polypropylene. While the maleic anhydride treated polypropylene based nanocomposites exhibit solid-like linear dynamic behavior, consistent with the formation of a long-lived percolated nanoparticle network, the single-end ammonium functionalized polypropylene based nanocomposites demonstrated liquid-like behavior at comparable montmorillonite concentrations. The differences in the linear viscoelasticity are attributed to the presence of bridging interaction in maleic anhydride functionalized nanocomposites, which facilitates formation of a long-lived silicate network mediated by physisorbed polymer chains. Further, the transient shear stress of the maleic anhydride functionalized nanocomposites in start-up of steady shear is a function of the shear

  18. Structure and dynamics of layered molecular assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Jennifer Conrad

    This dissertation focuses on the goal of understanding and controlling layered material properties from a molecular perspective. With this understanding, materials can be synthetically tailored to exhibit predetermined bulk properties. This investigation describes the optical response of a family of metal-phosphonate (MP) monolayers and multilayers, materials that are potentially useful because the films are easy to synthesize and are chemically and thermally stable. MP films have shown potential in a variety of chemical sensing and optical applications, and in this dissertation, the suitability of MP films for optical information storage is explored For this application, the extent of photonic energy transport within and between optically active layers is an important factor in determining the stability and specificity of optical modifications made to a material. Intralayer and interlayer energy transport processes can be studied selectively in MP films because the composition, and thus the properties, of each layer are controlled synthetically. It was determined by fluorescence relaxation dynamics in conjunction with atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the substrate and layer morphologies are key factors in determining the layer optical and physical properties. The initial MP layers in a multilayer are structurally heterogeneous, characterized by randomly distributed islands that are ~50 A in diameter. The population dynamics measured for these layers are non-exponential, chromophore concentration-independent, and identical for two different chromophores. The data is explained in the context of an excitation hopping model in a system where the surface is characterized by islands of aggregated chromophores as well as non-aggregated monomers. Within a MP monolayer, the dynamics are dominated by intra-island excitation hopping. Forster (dipolar) energy transfer between the energetically overlapped chromophores does not play a significant role in determining the

  19. The Kinematics of Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Stephen Kern

    1991-01-01

    The long history of research into the internal structure of turbulent boundary layers has not provided a unified picture of the physics responsible for turbulence production and dissipation. The goals of the present research are to: (1) define the current state of boundary layer structure knowledge; and (2) utilize direct numerical simulation results to help close the unresolved issues identified in part A and to unify the fragmented knowledge of various coherent motions into a consistent kinematic model of boundary layer structure. The results of the current study show that all classes of coherent motion in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer may be related to vortical structures, but that no single form of vortex is representative of the wide variety of vortical structures observed. In particular, ejection and sweep motions, as well as entrainment from the free-streem are shown to have strong spatial and temporal relationships with vortical structures. Disturbances of vortex size, location, and intensity show that quasi-streamwise vortices dominate the buffer region, while transverse vortices and vortical arches dominate the wake region. Both types of vortical structure are common in the log region. The interrelationships between the various structures and the population distributions of vortices are combined into a conceptual kinematic model for the boundary layer. Aspects of vortical structure dynamics are also postulated, based on time-sequence animations of the numerically simulated flow.

  20. Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1993-01-01

    A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 .mu.m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm.sup.2. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. Alternatively, the catalyst layer is formed by applying a Na.sup.+ form of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer directly to the membrane, drying the film at a high temperature, and then converting the film back to the protonated form of the ionomer. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

  1. Inorganic dual-layer microporous supported membranes

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tsai, Chung-Yi; Lu, Yungfeng

    2003-03-25

    The present invention provides for a dual-layer inorganic microporous membrane capable of molecular sieving, and methods for production of the membranes. The inorganic microporous supported membrane includes a porous substrate which supports a first inorganic porous membrane having an average pore size of less than about 25 .ANG. and a second inorganic porous membrane coating the first inorganic membrane having an average pore size of less than about 6 .ANG.. The dual-layered membrane is produced by contacting the porous substrate with a surfactant-template polymeric sol, resulting in a surfactant sol coated membrane support. The surfactant sol coated membrane support is dried, producing a surfactant-templated polymer-coated substrate which is calcined to produce an intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane. The intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane is then contacted with a second polymeric sol producing a polymeric sol coated substrate which is dried producing an inorganic polymeric coated substrate. The inorganic polymeric coated substrate is then calcined producing an inorganic dual-layered microporous supported membrane in accordance with the present invention.

  2. Inspection of additive-manufactured layered components.

    PubMed

    Cerniglia, D; Scafidi, M; Pantano, A; Rudlin, J

    2015-09-01

    Laser powder deposition (LPD) is a rapid additive manufacturing process to produce, layer upon layer, 3D geometries or to repair high-value components. Currently there is no nondestructive technique that can guarantee absence of flaws in LPD products during manufacturing. In this paper a laser ultrasonic technique for in-line inspection of LPD components is proposed. Reference samples were manufactured from Inconel and machined flaws were created to establish the sensitivity of the technique. Numerical models of laser-generated ultrasonic waves have been created to gain a deeper understanding of physics, to optimize the set-up and to verify the experimental measurements. Results obtained on two sets of reference samples are shown. A proof-of-concept prototype has been demonstrated on some specific deposition samples with induced flaws, that were confirmed by an ultra-high sensitivity X-ray technique. Experimental outcomes prove that typical micro-defects due to the layer-by-layer deposition process, such as near-surface and surface flaws in a single layer deposit, can be detected.

  3. Turbulent Spots Inside the Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarda, Jinhie; Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Lozano-Duran, Adrian; Wallace, James; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    We present evidence that the buffer region of the canonical turbulent boundary layer is populated by locally generated turbulent spots, which cause strong indentations on the near-wall low-momentum streaks. This evidence is obtained from a spatially-developing direct numerical simulation carrying the inlet Blasius boundary layer through a bypass transition to the turbulent boundary layer state over a moderate Reynolds number range. The turbulent spots are structurally analogous to their transitional counter-parts but without any direct causality connection. High-pass filtered time-history records are used to calculate the period of turbulent spot detection and this period is compared to the boundary layer bursting period reported in hot-wire experiments. The sensitivity of the results to parameters such as the high pass filter frequency and the amplitude discriminator level is examined. The characteristics of these turbulent spots are also quantified using a spatial connectivity based conditional sampling technique. This evidence seems to be at odds with the notion that the buffer region is dominated by quasi-streamwise vortices, and contributes to the potential unification of the studies on near-wall turbulent boundary layer dynamics.

  4. Layered farming for Marsupenaeus japonicus Bate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuquan; Jiang, Lingxu; Wang, Renjie

    2014-05-01

    Marsupenaeus japonicus Bate is one of the most valuable cultured shrimp species in China and outdoor earthen pond farming is the most common method of culturing this organism. The need to increase soil usage efficiency in aquaculture has been recognized and a great deal of research effort has been directed toward development of super-intensive farming systems. However, current research and development in this field is largely devoted to Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, while to M. japonicus Bate it has been neglected. In this study, a layered farming system was designed and a 66-day study was conducted in M. japonicus Bate culture. The system comprised bracket and sand layers that divided a shrimp tank filled to a depth of 1.2 m into four water layers. Conventional tank culture (unlayered) was used as a control. The results show that survival rate, feed conversion efficiency and production of M. japonicus Bate in the layered farming system were 68%, 18%, and 0.59 kg/m2, respectively, all of which are significantly higher than in the unlayered farming system ( P <0.01). These findings confirmed the possibility of using a layered system to culture M. japonicus Bate.

  5. Alpha models and boundary-layer turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheskidov, Alexey

    We study boundary-layer turbulence using the Navier-Stokes-alpha model obtaining an extension of the Prandtl equations for the averaged flow in a turbulent boundary layer. In the case of a zero pressure gradient flow along a flat plate, we derive a nonlinear fifth-order ordinary differential equation, an extension of the Blasius equation. We study it analytically and prove the existence of a two-parameter family of solutions satisfying physical boundary conditions. From this equation we obtain a theoretical prediction of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce the maximal value of the skin-friction coefficient in the turbulent boundary layer. The two-parameter family of solutions to the equation matches experimental data in the transitional boundary layers with different free stream turbulence intensity. A one-parameter sub-family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient law, matches experimental data in the turbulent boundary layer for moderately large Reynolds numbers.

  6. An asymptotic model of the F layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, W. L.

    2012-01-01

    A model of the F layer of the ionosphere is presented that consists of a bottomside asymptote that ignores transport and a topside asymptote that ignores chemistry. The asymptotes connect at the balance height dividing the chemistry and transport regimes. A combination of these two asymptotes produces a good approximation to the true F layer. Analogously, a model of F layer response to an applied vertical drift is presented that consists of two asymptotic responses, one that ignores transport and one that ignores chemistry. The combination of these asymptotic responses produces a good approximation to the response of the true F layer. This latter response is identical to the “servo” response of Rishbeth et al. (1978), derived from the continuity equation. The asymptotic approach bypasses the continuity equation in favor of “force balance” arguments and so replaces a differential equation with simpler algebraic equations. This new approach provides a convenient and intuitive mean for first-order estimates of the change in F layer peak height and density in terms of changes in neutral density, composition, temperature, winds, and electric fields. It is applicable at midlatitudes and at magnetically quiet times at high latitudes. Forensic inverse relations are possible but are not unique. The validity of the asymptotic relations is shown through numerical simulation.

  7. Boundary Layer Cloudiness Parameterizations Using ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Albrecht

    2004-09-15

    This study used DOE ARM data and facilities to: (1) study macroscopic properties of continental stratus clouds at SGP and the factors controlling these properties, (2) develop a scientific basis for understanding the processes responsible for the formation of boundary layer clouds using ARM observations in conjunction with simple parametric models and LES, and (3) evaluate cumulus cloud characteristics retrieved from the MMCR operating at TWP-Nauru. In addition we have used high resolution 94 GHz observations of boundary layer clouds and precipitation to: (1) develop techniques for using high temporal resolution Doppler velocities to study large-eddy circulations and turbulence in boundary layer clouds and estimate the limitations of using current and past MMCR data for boundary layer cloud studies, (2) evaluate the capability and limitations of the current MMCR data for estimating reflectivity, vertical velocities, and spectral under low- signal-to-noise conditions associated with weak no n-precipitating clouds, (3) develop possible sampling modes for the new MMCR processors to allow for adequate sampling of boundary layer clouds, and (4) retrieve updraft and downdraft structures under precipitating conditions.

  8. Interfacial Layer Optimization in Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litofsky, Joshua; Lafalce, Evan; Jiang, Xiaomei

    2014-03-01

    Organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) based on benchmark π - conjugated polymer polythiophene and electron acceptor PCBM are made up of a sandwich-like structure of multifunctional layers. Interfacial layers (IL) facilitate charge transport between the charge generation layer and the electrodes and enhance charge extraction. Optimizing the IL thus provides one mean of maximizing the efficiency of OPVs. Various electron transport layers such as ZnO and LiF were used, and hole transport layers included PEDOT:PSS and V2O5. Two different device architectures were explored: conventional structure with ITO serving as an anode and inverted structure when ITO acts as a cathode. Using various deposition techniques, we worked to optimize IL thickness and film formation methods. By analyzing device shunt and series resistances using a standard diode equation, we were able to identify the optimal parameters for device performance. The combination of thin IL with electrodes of appropriate work function yielded much better results compared to the control device with no IL. We can use these results and techniques to further optimize future OPV devices based on other novel material systems. This work was supported by the NSF REU grant # DMR-1263066: REU Site in Applied Physics at USF.

  9. High enthalpy hypersonic boundary layer flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanow, G.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of an ionizing laminar boundary layer formed by a very high enthalpy flow (in excess of 12 eV per atom or 7000 cal/gm) with allowance for the presence of helium driver gas is described. The theoretical investigation has shown that the use of variable transport properties and their respective derivatives is very important in the solution of equilibrium boundary layer equations of high enthalpy flow. The effect of low level helium contamination on the surface heat transfer rate is minimal. The variation of ionization is much smaller in a chemically frozen boundary layer solution than in an equilibrium boundary layer calculation and consequently, the variation of the transport properties in the case of the former was not essential in the integration. The experiments have been conducted in a free piston shock tunnel, and a detailed study of its nozzle operation, including the effects of low levels of helium driver gas contamination has been made. Neither the extreme solutions of an equilibrium nor of a frozen boundary layer will adequately predict surface heat transfer rate in very high enthalpy flows.

  10. Electron acceleration in stochastic double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotko, William

    1987-01-01

    Transversely localized double layers evolve randomly in turbulent regions of strongly magnetized plasma carrying current along the magnetic field. Results from numerical simulations and spacecraft observations in the auroral plasma indicate that the parallel electric field in such regions is microscopically intermittent or stochastic. The implications of stochastic double layer fields on electron acceleration will be discussed in terms of a statistical process involving ensemble averages over test particle motion. A Fokker-Planck equation can be derived for the electron phase space density, which depends on the mean and rms amplitudes of the double layers, the mean double layer density, and the initial electron velocity distribution. It is shown that the resulting electron acceleration is very sensitive to the ratio of the initial electron energy to the rms double layer amplitude. When this ratio is large, the acceleration process differs little from that expected in a dc electric field. When it is small, stochastic heating competes with directed acceleration. Evidence for both cases can be found in the auroral ionosphere in association with so-called inverted-V precipitation and collimated edge precipitation.

  11. Inducing electric polarization in ultrathin insulating layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Castro, Jose; Piantek, Marten; Persson, Mats; Serrate, David; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.

    Studies of ultrathin polar oxide films have attracted the interest of researchers for a long time due to their different properties compared to bulk materials. However they present several challenges such as the difficulty in the stabilization of the polar surfaces and the limited success in tailoring their properties. Moreover, recently developed Van der Waals materials have shown that the stacking of 2D-layers trigger new collective states thanks to the interaction between layers. Similarly, interface phenomena emerge in polar oxides, like induced ferroelectricity. This represents a promising way for the creation of new materials with customized properties that differ from those of the isolated layers. Here we present a new approach for the fabrication and study of atomically thin insulating films. We show that the properties of insulating polar layers of sodium chloride (NaCl) can be engineered when they are placed on top of a charge modulated template of copper nitride (Cu2N). STM studies carried out in ultra-high vacuum and at low temperatures over NaCl/Cu2N/Cu(001) show that we are able to build up and stabilize interfaces of polar surface at the limit of one atomic layer showing new properties not present before at the atomic scale.

  12. Stability of an accelerated shear layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mjolsness, R.C.; Ruppel, H.M.

    1986-07-01

    A fluid shear layer with free boundary conditions is subject to a Kelvin--Helmholtz-like instability. When the shear layer is accelerated by a difference in applied pressures it is also subject to a Rayleigh--Taylor-like instability. The combined action of these instabilities leads to at most one unstable mode at each wavelength, whose behavior depends in detail on fluid parameters, the fluid acceleration and the perturbation wavelength. Typically, at longest wavelengths the instability is essentially of Rayleigh--Taylor form; its behavior resembles the Kelvin--Helmholtz-like mode at shorter wavelengths, near the thickness of the shear layer, cutting off when the Kelvin--Helmholtz-like mode does. At still shorter wavelengths, the shear layer is subject to a Rayleigh--Taylor-like instability. Careful control of fluid parameters could place the most unstable wavelength for Rayleigh--Taylor instability, calculated from viscous theory, in the range of wavelengths where the accelerated shear layer has no unstable mode. However, this may be difficult to achieve in practice. If this can be realized, the most unstable growth rate may be reduced by about an order of magnitude by the presence of shear.

  13. Soils and cultural layers in Velikii Novgorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgikh, A. V.; Aleksandrovskii, A. L.

    2010-05-01

    Urban pedosediments (cultural layers) dating back to the 10th-11th centuries AD and soddypodzolic soils buried under them were studied in two archaeological excavations in Velikii Novgorod. Stages of their development were described. It was found that the buried soddy-podzolic soils at the latest stages of their development were cultivated or were formed under meadow vegetation. Weakly developed garden soils were described in the thickness of urban pedosediments. The lowermost organic cultural layers in Velikii Novgorod were waterlogged and represented peatlike mass with well-preserved wood remains. The oxidation of organic matter, gleyzation, and vivianite formation were described in them. The upper mineral layers were enriched in brick debris and building lime. The processes of organic matter mineralization, alkalization, calcification, zoogenic turbation, and biogenic structuring were clearly manifested in this part. Soil solutions infiltrated from the cultural layers caused some alkalization of the buried soddy-podzolic soil. Diagenetic carbonates and vivianite appeared in some loci within the eluvial and the upper part of the illuvial horizon of this soil. The entire cultural layer was subjected to contamination with heavy metals.

  14. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant boundary-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a boundary-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large boundary layer with a boundary-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. Finally a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.

  15. Two-dimensional inter-layer debonding in deposited multi-layers

    SciTech Connect

    Beuth, J.L.; Narayan, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    Two-dimensional problems of residual stress-driven inter-layer debonding or delamination in successively deposited isotropic multi-layers are studied, with direct applications to the modeling of delamination in multi-layered coatings and films. Planar and axisymmetric configurations of a delamination crack extending from a free edge are considered. The term successively deposited is used to designate that each layer experiences a free thermal contraction relative to the layers below it. Results for energy release rates as a function of crack length are presented from fracture mechanics models of planar and axisymmetric multi-layer geometries. In planar problems, energy release rates reach a constant value for crack lengths greater than one or two debond thicknesses and maintain this value until the multi-layer is almost completely debonded. In axisymmetric problems, energy release rates increase steadily with increasing crack length, reaching a maximum just before the multi-layer separates into two pieces. These observed energy release rate behaviors are explained qualitatively. Methods are outlined for quantitatively predicting the steady-state energy release rate for planar debonding problems. Methods are also outlined for determining a conservative upper bound for the maximum energy release rate for an axisymmetrically extending delamination crack. Both methods are based on potential energy calculations from a residual stress model for an uncracked multi-layer. These easily-calculated energy release rate quantities for planar and axisymmetric delamination problems can be used to guide the specification of layer thicknesses, stacking sequences and other characteristics of multi-layered coatings and films.

  16. Polyethylene oxide hydration in grafted layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormidontova, Elena; Wang, Zilu

    Hydration of water soluble polymers is one of the key-factors defining their conformation and properties, similar to biopolymers. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) is one of the most important biomedical-applications polymers and is known for its reverse temperature solubility due to hydrogen bonding with water. As in many practical applications PEO chains are grafted to surfaces, e.g. of nanoparticles or planar surfaces, it is important to understand PEO hydration in such grafted layers. Using atomistic molecular dynamic simulations we investigate the details of molecular conformation and hydration of PEO end-grafted to gold surfaces. We analyze polymer and water density distribution as a function of distance from the surface for different grafting densities. Based on a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding between polymer and water in grafted PEO layers, we will discuss the extent of PEO hydration and its implication for polymer conformation, mobility and layer properties. This research is supported by NSF (DMR-1410928).

  17. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOEpatents

    Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1998-07-21

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bias layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200 C, the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 {angstrom}/sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous. 4 figs.

  18. Process for depositing Cr-bearing layer

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, T.W.; Lograsso, T.A.; Eshelman, M.A.

    1995-05-09

    A method of applying a Cr-bearing layer to a substrate, comprises introducing an organometallic compound, in vapor or solid powder form entrained in a carrier gas to a plasma of an inductively coupled plasma torch or device to thermally decompose the organometallic compound and contacting the plasma and the substrate to be coated so as to deposit the Cr-bearing layer on the substrate. A metallic Cr, Cr alloy or Cr compound such as chromium oxide, nitride and carbide can be provided on the substrate. Typically, the organometallic compound is introduced to an inductively coupled plasma torch that is disposed in ambient air so to thermally decompose the organometallic compound in the plasma. The plasma is directed at the substrate to deposit the Cr-bearing layer or coating on the substrate. 7 figs.

  19. Opportunity View of 'Gilbert' Layer (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows bedock within a stratigraphic layer informally named 'Gilbert,' which is the rover's next target after completing an examination of three stratigtaphic layers forming a bright band around the inside of Victoria Crater. The rover will descend deeper into the crater to reach the Gilbert layer.

    Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image with low-sun angle at a local solar time of 3:30 p.m. during the rover's 1,429th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 31, 2008).

    This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

  20. Streamline curvature in supersonic shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibens, V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation in which a curved shear layer was generated between supersonic flow from a rectangular converging/diverging nozzle and the freestream in a series of open channels with varying radii of curvature are reported. The shear layers exhibit unsteady large-scale activity at supersonic pressure ratios, indicating increased mixing efficiency. This effect contrasts with supersonic flow in a straight channel, for which no large-scale vortical structure development occurs. Curvature must exceed a minimum level before it begins to affect the dynamics of the supersonic shear layer appreciably. The curved channel flows are compared with reference flows consisting of a free jet, a straight channel, and wall jets without sidewalls on a flat and a curved plate.

  1. Ceramic with preferential oxygen reactive layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An article comprises a silicon-containing substrate and an external environmental/thermal barrier coating. The external environmental/thermal barrier coating is permeable to diffusion of an environmental oxidant and the silicon-containing substrate is oxidizable by reaction with oxidant to form at least one gaseous product. The article comprises an intermediate layer/coating between the silicon-containing substrate and the environmental/thermal barrier coating that is oxidizable to a nongaseous product by reaction with the oxidant in preference to reaction of the silicon-containing substrate with the oxidant. A method of forming an article, comprises forming a silicon-based substrate that is oxidizable by reaction with oxidant to at least one gaseous product and applying an intermediate layer/coating onto the substrate, wherein the intermediate layer/coating is oxidizable to a nongaseous product by reaction with the oxidant in preference to reaction of the silicon-containing substrate with the oxidant.

  2. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert; Knox, Hunter Anne; James, Stephanie; Lee, Rebekah; Cole, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  3. Issues in designing transport layer multicast facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Bert J.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    Multicasting denotes a facility in a communications system for providing efficient delivery from a message's source to some well-defined set of locations using a single logical address. While modem network hardware supports multidestination delivery, first generation Transport Layer protocols (e.g., the DoD Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) (15) and ISO TP-4 (41)) did not anticipate the changes over the past decade in underlying network hardware, transmission speeds, and communication patterns that have enabled and driven the interest in reliable multicast. Much recent research has focused on integrating the underlying hardware multicast capability with the reliable services of Transport Layer protocols. Here, we explore the communication issues surrounding the design of such a reliable multicast mechanism. Approaches and solutions from the literature are discussed, and four experimental Transport Layer protocols that incorporate reliable multicast are examined.

  4. Eclogites, pyroxene geotherm, and layered mantle convection.

    PubMed

    Basu, A R; Ongley, J S; Macgregor, I D

    1986-09-19

    Temperatures of equilibration for the majority (81 percent) of the eclogite xenoliths of the Roberts Victor kimberlite pipe in South Africa range between 1000 degrees and 1250 degrees C, falling essentially on the gap of the lower limb of the subcontinental inflected geotherm derived from garnet peridotite xenoliths. In view of the Archean age (>2.6 x 10(9) years) of these eclogites and their stratigraphic position on the geotherm, it is proposed that the inflected part of the geotherm represents the convective boundary layer beneath the conductive lid of the lithospheric plate. The gradient of 8 Celsius degrees per kilometer for the inflection is characteristic of a double thermal boundary layer and suggests layered convection rather than whole mantle convection for the earth.

  5. Thermal instability of forced convection boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Chen, M. M.

    1981-11-01

    The thermal instability of forced convection boundary layers with non-zero streamwise pressure gradient is examined. An analysis is carried out for the family of Falkner-Skan flows, and only the streamwise buoyancy generated instability for fluid layers with shear at low Reynolds number are considered. When the wedge angle is equal to one, the perturbation equations based on the boundary layer equations are identical to the exact perturbation equations for the stagnation flow. Calculated critical Rayleigh numbers and wave numbers are found to be independent of wedge angle in the limiting case of infinite Prandtl number, and results are compared with previous experimental results by Gilpin et al. (1978), showing good agreement.

  6. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOEpatents

    Chaiken, Alison; Michel, Richard P.

    1998-01-01

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bia layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200.degree. C., the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 .ANG./sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous.

  7. Layered classification techniques for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.; Wu, C. L.; Landgrebe, D. A.; Hauska, H.

    1975-01-01

    The single-stage method of pattern classification utilizes all available features in a single test which assigns the unknown to a category according to a specific decision strategy (such as the maximum likelihood strategy). The layered classifier classifies the unknown through a sequence of tests, each of which may be dependent on the outcome of previous tests. Although the layered classifier was originally investigated as a means of improving classification accuracy and efficiency, it was found that in the context of remote sensing data analysis, other advantages also accrue due to many of the special characteristics of both the data and the applications pursued. The layered classifier method and several of the diverse applications of this approach are discussed.

  8. Automated retinal layer segmentation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luisi, Jonathan; Briley, David; Boretsky, Adam; Motamedi, Massoud

    2014-05-01

    Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a valuable diagnostic tool in both clinical and research settings. The depth-resolved intensity profiles generated by light backscattered from discrete layers of the retina provide a non-invasive method of investigating progressive diseases and injury within the eye. This study demonstrates the application of steerable convolution filters capable of automatically separating gradient orientations to identify edges and delineate tissue boundaries. The edge maps were recombined to measure thickness of individual retinal layers. This technique was successfully applied to longitudinally monitor changes in retinal morphology in a mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and human data from age-related macular degeneration patients. The steerable filters allow for direct segmentation of noisy images, while novel recombination of weaker segmentations allow for denoising post-segmentation. The segmentation before denoising strategy allows the rapid detection of thin retinal layers even under suboptimal imaging conditions.

  9. Structural phase transitions in layered perovskitelike crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.

    1995-03-01

    Possible symmetry changes due to small tilts of octahedra are considered for layered perovskite-like crystals containing slabs of several ({ell}) layers of comer-sharing octahedra. In the crystals with {ell} > 1, four types of distortions are possible; as a rule, these distortions correspond to the librational modes of the parent lattice. Condensation of these soft modes is the reason for structural phase transitions or sequences of phase transitions. The results obtained are compared with the known experimental data for a number of layered ferroelectric and ferroelastic perovskite-like compounds. An application of the results to the initial stage of determining unknown structures is discussed with particular attention paid to high-temperature superconductors. 76 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Longitudinal vortices in concave surface boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, R. I.,; Winoto, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    Local measurements of mean and fluctuating velocity by laser anemometer were made inside the developing concave surface boundary layer in a free surface water channel at Reynolds numbers up to 16000. Concave surface radius was 3.5 times channel width and the ratio of spanwise mean boundary layer thickness to surface radius ranged between 0.03 and 0.11. Systems of longtitudinal vortices developed without artificial triggering. Vortex wavelength varied across the span by as much as a factor of 2, but mean wavelength was typically 1.3 times the boundary layer thickness and did not vary significantly in the flow direction. Continuous vortex growth at Reynolds number = 9800 contrasted with apparent breakup of the vortices at Reynolds number = 16000.

  11. Process for depositing Cr-bearing layer

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Eshelman, Mark A.

    1995-05-09

    A method of applying a Cr-bearing layer to a substrate, comprises introducing an organometallic compound, in vapor or solid powder form entrained in a carrier gas to a plasma of an inductively coupled plasma torch or device to thermally decompose the organometallic compound and contacting the plasma and the substrate to be coated so as to deposit the Cr-bearing layer on the substrate. A metallic Cr, Cr alloy or Cr compound such as chromium oxide, nitride and carbide can be provided on the substrate. Typically, the organometallic compound is introduced to an inductively coupled plasma torch that is disposed in ambient air so to thermally decompose the organometallic compound in the plasma. The plasma is directed at the substrate to deposit the Cr-bearing layer or coating on the substrate.

  12. Excess Oxygen Defects in Layered Cuprates

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lightfoot, P.; Pei, S. Y.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Manthiram, A.; Tang, X. X.; Goodenough, J. B.

    1990-09-01

    Neutron powder diffraction has been used to study the oxygen defect chemistry of two non-superconducting layered cuprates, La{sub 1. 25}Dy{sub 0.75}Cu{sub 3.75}F{sub 0.5}, having a T{sup {asterisk}}- related structure, and La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 1.15}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 6.25}, having a structure related to that of the newly discovered double-layer superconductor La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The role played by oxygen defects in determining the superconducting properties of layered cuprates is discussed.

  13. Buffer layers on metal alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Groves, James R.

    2004-10-05

    An article including a substrate, at least one intermediate layer upon the surface of the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the at least one intermediate layer, and a layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of the SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material in such an article, J.sub.c 's of up to 1.3.times.10.sup.6 A/cm.sup.2 have been demonstrated with projected I.sub.c 's of over 200 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

  14. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2016-07-05

    A method for fabricating an organic light emitting device stack involves depositing a first conductive electrode layer over a substrate; depositing a first set of one or more organic layers, wherein at least one of the first set of organic layers is a first emissive layer and one of the first set of organic layers is deposited by a solution-based process that utilizes a first solvent; depositing a first conductive interlayer by a dry deposition process; and depositing a second set of one or more organic layers, wherein at least one of the second set of organic layers is a second emissive layer and one of the second set of organic layers is deposited by a solution-based process that utilizes a second solvent, wherein all layers that precede the layer deposited using the second solvent are insoluble in the second solvent.

  15. Critical Layers and Protoplanetary Disk Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umurhan, Orkan M.; Shariff, Karim; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    2016-10-01

    A linear analysis of the zombie vortex instability (ZVI) is performed in a stratified shearing sheet setting for three model barotropic shear flows. The linear analysis is done by utilizing a Green’s function formulation to resolve the critical layers of the associated normal-mode problem. The instability is the result of a resonant interaction between a Rossby wave and a gravity wave that we refer to as Z-modes. The associated critical layer is the location where the Doppler-shifted frequency of a distant Rossby wave equals the local Brunt-Väisälä frequency. The minimum required Rossby number for instability, {\\mathtt{Ro}}=0.2, is confirmed for parameter values reported in the literature. It is also found that the shear layer supports the instability in the limit where stratification vanishes. The ZVI is examined in a jet model, finding that the instability can occur for {\\mathtt{Ro}}=0.05. Nonlinear vorticity forcing due to unstable Z-modes is shown to result in the creation of a jet flow at the critical layer emerging as the result of the competition between the vertical lifting of perturbation radial vorticity and the radial transport of perturbation vertical vorticity. We find that the picture of this instability leading to a form of nonlinearly driven self-replicating pattern of creation and destruction is warranted: a parent jet spawns a growing child jet at associated critical layers. A mature child jet creates a next generation of child jets at associated critical layers of the former while simultaneously contributing to its own destruction via the Rossby wave instability.

  16. Surface coating for flame retardant behavior of cotton fabric by layer-by-layer processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardant behavior has been prepared by the layer-by layer assemblies of branched polyethylenimine (BPEI), kaolin, urea, diammonium phosphate (dibasic) on cotton fabrics. Three different kinds of cotton fabrics (print cloth, mercerized print cloth, and mercerized twill fabric) were prepared wi...

  17. Locating the mixing layer: algorithms to identify the mixing layer height using lidar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehnert, Jan; Pesch, Markus

    2007-10-01

    The mixing layer (ML) provides a vertical atmospheric barrier and its height has become an important parameter in meteorology and air quality control. In locating the mixing layer using Lidar it has always to be considered that the signals may be biased by noise and the mixing layer itself can contain more than a single layer. In previous studies use was made of the fact that the main part of aerosols are located within the mixing layer and outside this layer, in the so called free atmosphere, the concentration of aerosols decreased significantly. This leads to a sharp change of the backscattering signal at the boundary layers. In this paper an algorithm is presented that determines the height of the mixing layer (MLH) by an intensive analysis of the global and local maxima of the Lidar signal and its first derivative. The algorithm searches for a maximum of the backscatter signal followed by a minimum in the first derivative. The results are compared with the MLH calculated by a model.

  18. Innovative layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant behavior of cotton fabric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardant behavior has been prepared by the layer-by layer assemblies of kaolin/casein with inorganic chemicals on cotton fabrics. Three different kinds of cotton fabrics (print cloth, mercerized print cloth, and mercerized twill fabric) were prepared with solutions of mixture of BPEI, urea, ...

  19. Template-free synthesis and encapsulation technique for layer-by-layer polymer nanocarrier fabrication.

    PubMed

    Qi, Aisha; Chan, Peggy; Ho, Jenny; Rajapaksa, Anushi; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2011-12-27

    The encapsulation of therapeutic molecules within multiple layers of biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric excipients allows exquisite design of their release profile, to the extent the drug can be selectively delivered to a specific target location in vivo. Here, we develop a novel technique for the assembly of multilayer polyelectrolyte nanocarriers based on surface acoustic wave atomization as a rapid and efficient alternative to conventional layer-by-layer assembly, which requires the use of a sacrificial colloidal template over which consecutive polyelectrolyte layers are deposited. Polymer nanocarriers are synthesized by atomizing a polymer solution and suspending them within a complementary polymer solution of opposite charge subsequent to their solidification in-flight as the solvent evaporates; reatomizing this suspension produces nanocarriers with a layer of the second polymer deposited over the initial polymer core. Successive atomization-suspension layering steps can then be repeated to produce as many additional layers as desired. Specifically, we synthesize nanocarriers comprising two and three, and up to eight, alternating layers of chitosan (or polyethyleneimine) and carboxymethyl cellulose within which plasmid DNA is encapsulated and show in vitro DNA release profiles over several days. Evidence that the plasmid's viability is preserved and hence the potential of the technique for gene delivery is illustrated through efficient in vitro transfection of the encapsulated plasmid in human mesenchymal progenitor and COS-7 cells.

  20. Dependence of cathodoluminescence on layer resistance applied for measurement of thin-layer sheet resistance.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, A; Pluska, M; Ratajczak, J; Szerling, A; Katcki, J

    2010-03-01

    The dependence of spatially and spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence in a scanning electron microscope on resistances in semiconductor structures, especially on the layer resistance, is reported. This previously unstudied dependence is utilized for thin-layer sheet-resistance measurement. The method is illustrated by an assessment of lateral confinements in semiconductor-laser heterostructures.

  1. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of a pH-Responsive and Electrochromic Thin Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Daniel J.; Pridgen, Eric M.; Hammond, Paula T.; Love, J. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes an experiment on thin-film fabrication with layer-by-layer assembly that is appropriate for undergraduate laboratory courses. The purpose of this experiment is to teach students about self-assembly in the context of thin films and to expose students to the concepts of functional polymeric coatings. Students dip coat…

  2. Influence of corrosion layers on quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, A.; Bohne, W.; Opitz-Coutureau, J.; Rauschenberg, J.; Röhrich, J.; Strub, E.

    2005-09-01

    Art historians and restorers in charge of ancient metal objects are often reluctant to remove the corrosion layer evolved over time, as this would change the appearance of the artefact dramatically. Therefore, when an elemental analysis of the objects is required, this has to be done by penetrating the corrosion layer. In this work the influence of corrosion was studied on Chinese and Roman coins, where removal of oxidized material was possible. Measurements on spots with and without corrosion are presented and the results discussed.

  3. Modified Coaxial Probe Feeds for Layered Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.

    2006-01-01

    In a modified configuration of a coaxial probe feed for a layered printed-circuit antenna (e.g., a microstrip antenna), the outer conductor of the coaxial cable extends through the thickness of at least one dielectric layer and is connected to both the ground-plane conductor and a radiator-plane conductor. This modified configuration simplifies the incorporation of such radio-frequency integrated circuits as power dividers, filters, and low-noise amplifiers. It also simplifies the design and fabrication of stacked antennas with aperture feeds.

  4. Transition in compressible free shear layers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birch, S. F.; Keyes, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The transition Reynolds number for shear layers produced by interactions between weak and strong shock waves is determined on the basis of experiments performed in a 20-in. (Mach 6) and an 11-in. (Mach 6.9) hypersonic tunnel. A variable angle wedge was used to generate a planar shock wave which interacted with the bow wave of a blunt body. An average value of the transition length (defined as the length along the shear layer from the shock interaction to the point where turbulence became visible on schlieren photographs) was used to determine the transition Reynolds number.

  5. Parsing polarization squeezing into Fock layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christian R.; Madsen, Lars S.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate polarization squeezing in squeezed coherent states with varying coherent amplitudes. In contrast to the traditional characterization based on the full Stokes parameters, we experimentally determine the Stokes vector of each excitation subspace separately. Only for states with a fixed photon number do the methods coincide; when the photon number is indefinite, we parse the state in Fock layers, finding that substantially higher squeezing can be observed in some of the single layers. By capitalizing on the properties of the Husimi Q function, we map this notion onto the Poincaré space, providing a full account of the measured squeezing.

  6. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

  7. Vortices in magnetically coupled superconducting layered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, Roman G.; Kogan, Vladimir G.; Clem, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Pancake vortices in stacks of thin superconducting films or layers are considered. It is stressed that in the absence of Josephson coupling topological restrictions upon possible configurations of vortices are removed and various examples of structures forbidden in bulk superconductors are given. In particular, it is shown that vortices may skip surface layers in samples of less than a certain size R{sub c} which might be macroscopic. The Josephson coupling suppresses R{sub c} estimates. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  8. Fusion Utility in the Knudsen Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-08-01

    In inertial confi nement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared to those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer e ffect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate restoring the reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  9. Portfolio analysis of layered security measures.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Hora, Stephen C; Rosoff, Heather

    2015-03-01

    Layered defenses are necessary for protecting the public from terrorist attacks. Designing a system of such defensive measures requires consideration of the interaction of these countermeasures. In this article, we present an analysis of a layered security system within the lower Manhattan area. It shows how portfolios of security measures can be evaluated through portfolio decision analysis. Consideration is given to the total benefits and costs of the system. Portfolio diagrams are created that help communicate alternatives among stakeholders who have differing views on the tradeoffs between security and economic activity.

  10. Lightwave coupler utilizing a tapered buffer layer.

    PubMed

    Kishioka, K

    1988-06-01

    We discuss the performance of a lightwave coupler utilizing a tapered buffer layer. The coupler with a ridge waveguide is fabricated on a glass substrate and high coupling efficiencies of 75% and 50% are measured for the operations of coupling from the waveguide to a light beam and from the laser beam into the waveguide, respectively. Further, experimental results of the rigid connection between the optical fiber and the waveguide are demonstrated. We also describe how the coupler differs from the conventional tapered guiding-layer coupler.

  11. Boundary Layer Theory. Part 1; Laminar Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlichting, H.

    1949-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to give you a survey of a field of aerodynamics which has for a number of years been attracting an ever growing interest. The subject is the theory of flows with friction, and, within that field, particularly the theory of friction layers, or boundary layers. As you know, a great many considerations of aerodynamics are based on the so-called ideal fluid, that is, the frictionless incompressible fluid. By neglect of compressibility and friction the extensive mathematical theory of the ideal fluid (potential theory) has been made possible.

  12. Optical Properties of Multi-Layered Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Heather M.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Barker, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Multi-layer insulation, MLI, is a material used on rocket bodies and satellites mainly for thermal insulation. MLI can be comprised of a variety of materials, layer numbers, and dimensions based on its purpose. A common composition of MLI consists of outer facing copper-colored Kapton with an aluminized backing for the top and bottom layers and the middle consisting of alternating layers of DARCON or Nomex netting with aluminized Mylar. If this material became separated from the spacecraft or rocket body its orbit would vary greatly in eccentricity due to its high area to mass (A/m) and susceptibility to solar radiation pressure perturbations. Recently a debris population was found with high A/m, which could be MLI. Laboratory photometric measurements of one intact piece and three different layers of MLI is presented in an effort to predict the characteristics of a MLI light curve and aid in identifying the source of the new population. For this paper, the layers used will be consistent with the common MLI mentioned in the above paragraph. Using a robotic arm, the piece was rotated from 0-360 degrees in one degree increments along the object s longest axis. Laboratory photometric data was recorded with a CCD camera using various filters (Johnson B, Johnson V and Bessell R). The measurements were taken at an 18 degree (light-object-camera) phase angle. As expected, the MLI pieces showed characteristics similar to a bimodal magnitude plot of a flat plate, but with more photometric features, dependant upon the layer of MLI. Time exposures varied from piece to piece such that the amount of pixels saturated would be minimal. In addition to photometric laboratory measurements, laboratory spectral measurements are shown for the same MLI samples. Spectral data will be combined to match the wavelength region of photometric data so a measure of truth can be established for the photometric measurements. Spectral data shows a strong absorption feature near 4800 angstroms

  13. Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-09-15

    In inertial confinement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared with those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer effect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate the restoring reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  14. Double layered tailorable advanced blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falstrup, D.

    1983-01-01

    An advanced flexible reusable surface insulation material for future space shuttle flights was investigated. A conventional fly shuttle loom with special modifications to weave an integral double layer triangular core fabric from quartz yarn was used. Two types of insulating material were inserted into the cells of the fabric, and a procedure to accomplish this was developed. The program is follow up of a program in which single layer rectangular cell core fabrics are woven and a single type of insulating material was inserted into the cells.

  15. Photovoltaic cell with thin CS layer

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, John F.; Albright, Scot P.

    1994-01-18

    An improved photovoltaic panel and method of forming a photovoltaic panel are disclosed for producing a high efficiency CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell. The photovoltaic panel of the present invention is initially formed with a substantially thick Cds layer, and the effective thickness of the CdS layer is substantially reduced during regrowth to both form larger diameter CdTe crystals and substantially reduce the effective thickness of the C This invention was made with Government support under Subcontract No. ZL-7-06031-3 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  16. Boundary-Layer Code For Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinckney, S. Z.; Walton, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    HUD is integral computer code based on Spaulding-Chi method for predicting development of boundary layers in laminar, transitional, and turbulent regions of flows on two-dimensional or axisymmetric bodies. Approximates nonequilibrium velocity profiles as well as local surface friction in presence of pressure gradient. Predicts transfer of heat in turbulent boundary layer in presence of high axial presure gradient. Provides for pressure gradients both normal and lateral to surfaces. Also used to estimate requirements for cooling scramjet engines. Because of this capability, HUD program incorporated into several scramjet-cycle-performance-analysis codes, including SCRAM (ARC-12338) and SRGULL (LEW-15093). Written in FORTRAN 77.

  17. A submicrometer lifted diffused-layer MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inokawa, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Kiuchi, Kazuhide

    1987-03-01

    A new lifted diffused-layer (LID) MOSFET has been devised and fabricated, where the major portions of the source/drain (S/D) diffused layers are placed on top of the field insulator to reduce S/D parasitic capacitances. The primary feature of this MOSFET is that the structure and processing are especially developed for submicrometer gate lengths. The fabricated LID MOSFET with a 0.5-micron gate length and a 10-nm gate oxide thickness showed good electrical characteristics, such as a maximum transconductance of 115 mS/mm and an inverter delay time of 59 ps/stage.

  18. Water molecules orientation in surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingo, V. V.

    2000-08-01

    The water molecules orientation has been investigated theoretically in the water surface layer. The surface molecule orientation is determined by the direction of a molecule dipole moment in relation to outward normal to the water surface. Entropy expressions of the superficial molecules in statistical meaning and from thermodynamical approach to a liquid surface tension have been found. The molecules share directed opposite to the outward normal that is hydrogen protons inside is equal 51.6%. 48.4% water molecules are directed along to surface outward normal that is by oxygen inside. A potential jump at the water surface layer amounts about 0.2 volts.

  19. LAYERED CERAMICS: Processing and Mechanical Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Helen M.

    1997-08-01

    Recent progress in the field of mechanical behavior of layered ceramics is reviewed. Several processing techniques are described with reference to the fabrication of ceramic laminates. These include tape-casting, centrifugal casting, slip-casting, electrophoretic deposition (EPD), and the production of fibrous monolith materials. The review discusses various laminar design approaches for achieving improvements in strength, toughness, work of fracture, R-Curve behavior, and contact damage resistance. Examples of effective strategies include manipulation of residual stresses, the incorporation of weak interlayers to induce crack deflection, and promotion of synergistic effects between layer materials that exhibit intrinsically different responses.

  20. Lignification in poplar tension wood lignified cell wall layers.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Arata; Kusumoto, Hiroshi; Laurans, Françoise; Pilate, Gilles; Takabe, Keiji

    2012-09-01

    The lignification process in poplar tension wood lignified cell wall layers, specifically the S(1) and S(2) layers and the compound middle lamella (CML), was analysed using ultraviolet (UV) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Variations in the thickness of the gelatinous layer (G-layer) were also measured to clarify whether the lignified cell wall layers had completed their lignification before the deposition of G-layers, or, on the contrary, if lignification of these layers was still active during G-layer formation. Observations using UV microscopy and TEM indicated that both UV absorbance and the degree of potassium permanganate staining increased in the CML and S(1) and S(2) layers during G-layer formation, suggesting that the lignification of these lignified layers is still in progress during G-layer formation. In the context of the cell-autonomous monolignol synthesis hypothesis, our observations suggest that monolignols must go through the developing G-layer during the lignification of CML and the S(1) and S(2) layers. The alternative hypothesis of external synthesis (in the rays) does not require that monolignols go through the G-layer before being deposited in the CML, or the S(1) and S(2) layers. Interestingly, the previous observation of lignin in the poplar G-layer was not confirmed with the microscopy techniques used in the present study.