Science.gov

Sample records for 6th sq km

  1. 6th International Microbeam Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Kevin M. Prise

    2004-01-01

    The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology.

  2. A 928 sq m (10000 sq ft) solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    As the power requirements for space vehicles increases, the area of solar arrays that convert solar energy to usable electrical power increases. The requirements for a 928 sq m (10,000 sq ft) array, its design, and a full-scale demonstration of one quadrant (232 sq m (2500 sq ft)) deployed in a one-g field are described.

  3. 6th Amino Acid Assessment Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of the 6th workshop is on lysine, arginine, and related amino acids. Functions, metabolic pathways, clinical uses, and upper tolerance intakes are emphasized in the articles that follow. Lysine is arguably the most deficient amino acid in the food supply of countries where poverty exists, ...

  4. 6th International Meshing Roundtable '97

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.

    1997-09-01

    The goal of the 6th International Meshing Roundtable is to bring together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government labs in a stimulating, open environment for the exchange of technical information related to the meshing process. In the pas~ the Roundtable has enjoyed significant participation born each of these groups from a wide variety of countries. The Roundtable will consist of technical presentations from contributed papers and abstracts, two invited speakers, and two invited panels of experts discussing topics related to the development and use of automatic mesh generation tools. In addition, this year we will feature a "Bring Your Best Mesh" competition and poster session to encourage discussion and participation from a wide variety of mesh generation tool users. The schedule and evening social events are designed to provide numerous opportunities for informal dialog. A proceedings will be published by Sandia National Laboratories and distributed at the Roundtable. In addition, papers of exceptionally high quaIity will be submitted to a special issue of the International Journal of Computational Geometry and Applications. Papers and one page abstracts were sought that present original results on the meshing process. Potential topics include but are got limited to: Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral mesh generation Unstructured quadrilateral and hexahedral mesh generation Automated blocking and structured mesh generation Mixed element meshing Surface mesh generation Geometry decomposition and clean-up techniques Geometry modification techniques related to meshing Adaptive mesh refinement and mesh quality control Mesh visualization Special purpose meshing algorithms for particular applications Theoretical or novel ideas with practical potential Technical presentations from industrial researchers.

  5. 6th International Conference on Emerging Zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Kahn, R E; Morozov, I; Feldmann, H; Richt, J A

    2012-09-01

    The 6th International Conference on Emerging Zoonoses, held at Cancun, Mexico, 24-27 February 2011, offered 84 participants from 18 countries, a snapshot of current research in numerous zoonoses caused by viruses, bacteria or prions. Co-chaired by Professors Heinz Feldmann and Jürgen Richt, the conference explored 10 topics: (i) The ecology of emerging zoonotic diseases; (ii) The role of wildlife in emerging zoonoses; (iii) Cross-species transmission of zoonotic pathogens; (iv) Emerging and neglected influenza viruses; (v) Haemorrhagic fever viruses; (vi) Emerging bacterial diseases; (vii) Outbreak responses to zoonotic diseases; (viii) Food-borne zoonotic diseases; (ix) Prion diseases; and (x) Modelling and prediction of emergence of zoonoses. Human medicine, veterinary medicine and environmental challenges are viewed as a unity, which must be considered under the umbrella of 'One Health'. Several presentations attempted to integrate the insights gained from field data with mathematical models in the search for effective control measures of specific zoonoses. The overriding objective of the research presentations was to create, improve and use the tools essential to address the risk of contagions in a globalized society. In seeking to fulfil this objective, a three-step approach has often been applied: (i) use cultured cells, model and natural animal hosts and human clinical models to study infection; (ii) combine traditional histopathological and biochemical approaches with functional genomics, proteomics and computational biology; and (iii) obtain signatures of virulence and insights into mechanisms of host defense response, immune evasion and pathogenesis. This meeting review summarizes 39 of the conference presentations and mentions briefly the 16 articles in this Special Supplement, most of which were presented at the conference in earlier versions. The full affiliations of all presenters and many colleagues have been included to facilitate further inquiries

  6. 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium: poster presentations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Cruz, E; Kaveri, S V; Peter, H-H; Durandy, A; Cantoni, N; Quinti, I; Sorensen, R; Bussel, J B; Danieli, M G; Winkelmann, A; Bayry, J; Käsermann, F; Späth, P; Helbert, M; Salama, A; van Schaik, I N; Yuki, N

    2009-12-01

    The posters presented at the 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium covered a wide range of fields and included both basic science and clinical research. From the abstracts accepted for poster presentation, 12 abstracts were selected for oral presentations in three parallel sessions on immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity and basic research. The immunodeficiency presentations dealt with novel, rare class-switch recombination (CSR) deficiencies, attenuation of adverse events following IVIg treatment, association of immunoglobulin (Ig)G trough levels and protection against acute infection in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and the reduction of class-switched memory B cells in patients with specific antibody deficiency (SAD). The impact of intravenous immunoglobulin on fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, pregnancy and postpartum-related relapses in multiple sclerosis and refractory myositis, as well as experiences with subcutaneous immunoglobulin in patients with multi-focal motor neuropathy, were the topics presented in the autoimmunity session. The interaction of dendritic cell (DC)-SIGN and alpha2,6-sialylated IgG Fc and its impact on human DCs, the enrichment of sialylated IgG in plasma-derived IgG, as wells as prion surveillance and monitoring of anti-measles titres in immunoglobulin products, were covered in the basic science session. In summary, the presentations illustrated the breadth of immunoglobulin therapy usage and highlighted the progress that is being made in diverse areas of basic and clinical research, extending our understanding of the mechanisms of immunoglobulin action and contributing to improved patient care.

  7. 6th Annual European Antibody Congress 2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The 6th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapinn Ltd., was held in Geneva, Switzerland, which was also the location of the 4th and 5th EAC.1,2 As was the case in 2008 and 2009, the EAC was again the largest antibody congress held in Europe, drawing nearly 250 delegates in 2010. Numerous pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies active in the field of therapeutic antibody development were represented, as were start-up and academic organizations and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The global trends in antibody research and development were discussed, including success stories of recent marketing authorizations of golimumab (Simponi®) and canakinumab (Ilaris®) by Johnson & Johnson and Novartis, respectively, updates on antibodies in late clinical development (obinutuzumab/GA101, farletuzumab/MORAb-003 and itolizumab/T1 h, by Glycart/Roche, Morphotek and Biocon, respectively) and success rates for this fast-expanding class of therapeutics (Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development). Case studies covering clinical progress of girentuximab (Wilex), evaluation of panobacumab (Kenta Biotech), characterization of therapeutic antibody candidates by protein microarrays (Protagen), antibody-drug conjugates (sanofi-aventis, ImmunoGen, Seattle Genetics, Wyeth/Pfizer), radio-immunoconjugates (Bayer Schering Pharma, Université de Nantes) and new scaffolds (Ablynx, AdAlta, Domantis/GlaxoSmithKline, Fresenius, Molecular Partners, Pieris, Scil Proteins, Pfizer, University of Zurich) were presented. Major antibody structural improvements were showcased, including the latest selection engineering of the best isotypes (Abbott, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre), hinge domain (Pierre Fabre), dual antibodies (Abbott), IgG-like bispecific antibodies (Biogen Idec), antibody epitope mapping case studies (Eli Lilly), insights in FcγRII receptor (University of Cambridge), as well as novel tools for antibody fragmentation (Genovis). Improvements

  8. Student Solutions Manual to accompany Physics, 6th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutnell, John D.; Johnson, Kenneth W.

    2003-07-01

    Work more effectively and check solutions as you go along with the text! Written by the authors, this indispensable Student Solutions Manual provides complete worked-out solutions to 25% of the end-of-chapter problems in Cutnell & Johnson's Physics, 6th Edition. These problems are specifically indicated in the text. For the 6th Edition of their best-selling Physics, the authors have added both print and online material to encourage readers to engage in the material more interactively. Physics research clearly shows that active learning is much more effective than passive learning. The 6th edition helps readers understand the interrelationships among basic physics concepts and how they fit together to describe our physical world. Throughout the text, the authors emphasize the relevance of physics to our everyday lives.

  9. Environmental Problem Perception of 6th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genc, Murat; Genc, Tulin; Ergenc, Mustafa; Erkuz, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine and compare the 6th grade students' perception of environmental issues through different techniques. For this purpose, we have tried to establish the students' perception of environmental issues by studying the pictures they drew and the written texts they wrote. In this study, where we have conducted with 62 students in…

  10. The 6th International Earth Science Olympiad: A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlett, Luke; Cathro, Darcy; Mellow, Maddi; Tate, Clara

    2014-01-01

    In October 2012, two students from the Australian Science and Mathematics School and two from Yankalilla Area School were selected to travel to Olavarria, Argentina in order to compete in the 6th International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO). It was an opportunity for individuals with a passion for Earth science to come together from 17 countries to…

  11. Conference Report: The 6th International Symposium on Waterborne Pathogens

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A review of current literature on the occurrence of waterborne pathogens in DW systems.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Rochelle, P., P. Klonicki, G. DiGiovanni, V. Hill, Y. Akagi, and E. Villegas. Conference Report: The 6th International Symposium on Waterborne Pathogens ISWP 2015. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION. American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, USA, 107(10): 24-32, (2015).

  12. Benign recurrent abducens (6th) nerve palsy in two children.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Christopher M; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-03-01

    Benign recurrent abducens (6th) nerve palsy is rare. We found 23 cases in children reported in the literature; however, many of these cases followed immunization or were associated with viral illness. Here we report two cases of recurrent abducens nerve palsy with no obvious etiology. The diagnosis should be considered in any child who experiences abducens nerve palsy in the absence of any underlying pathology or precipitating factors.

  13. 6th ESO/OHP Summer School in Astrophysical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véron, M.-P.; Meylan, G.

    1998-09-01

    The 6th ESO/OHP Summer School was hosted again at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP) from 15 to 25 July 1998. The school, held only every second years, selects 18 of Europe's most promising young doctoral students in astronomy. Courses of lectures, observations, and analysis form the intellectual menu which is aimed at teaching the process of extracting astrophysically digestible results from the photons harvested at the telescopes, such as the ESO VLT, whose four telescopes will become available to the community in turn during the next few years.

  14. Low Dimensional Dynamics in the Crayfish 6th Ganglion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Xing; Moss, Frank

    1996-03-01

    Finding low dimensional dynamical behavior in biological preparations has received much attention. Neurons are, however, subject to random processes, or "noise". Thus specific dynamical behavior is evidenced by well defined signatures embedded in noisy data files(D. Pierson and F. Moss Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2124 (1995)). We report the results of a statistical search for unstable periodic orbits in the periodically stimulated 6th ganglion of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Electrophysiological recordings from the caudal photoreceptor neuron within the ganglion provide the data. We discuss the results in terms of the cyclic theory of chaos.

  15. 6th Japan Bioanalysis Forum Symposium: challenge of regulated bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Harue

    2015-01-01

    Biomarker measurement and LC-MS analysis of large molecule pharmaceuticals (LM-MS) are becoming increasingly important in pharmaceutical development, although they are not included in the existing bioanalytical method validation guidelines in Japan. The 6th Japan Bioanalysis Forum symposium presented challenges regarding biomarkers and LM-MS, as well as the current circumstances for regulated bioanalysis, by inviting speakers from Japan, the USA, European Union and Asia-pacific. Japan Bioanalysis Forum discussion groups also presented their outcomes and openly discussed these with the attendees - over 200 dedicated individuals from industry, regulatory agencies and academia. The symposium successfully reinforced the idea that fit-for-purpose approaches are necessary, and that science should drive any judgments and actions throughout drug development.

  16. Sounding Rocket Experiments to Investigate Thermal Electron Heating in the Sq Current Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Ishisaka, K.; Kumamoto, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sounding rocket observations in the southern part of Japan suggest that the electron temperature profile occasionally exhibits the local increase by several hundred K at 100-110 km altitudes at 1100-1200 LT in winter. Detailed study of the temperature profiles indicates that such an increase is closely related to the existence of Sq current focus, because it becomes more significant when the measurement is made near the center of Sq focus. In order to understand a general feature of this unusual phenomena occurring in the Sq current focus, the sounding rocket experiment was conducted in Uchinoura of Japan. In this experiment, we launched "S-310-37" rocket equipped with a total of eight science instruments at 11:20 JST on January 16, 2007 after being convinced that the Sq current was approaching to the planned rocket trajectory. The geomagnetic activity had been successively quiet on that day so that we can estimate the position of Sq current focus. Our analysis of the obtained data indicates that the electron temperature was certainly increased by about 500-600 K at the altitude of 97-101 km with respect to the background. Strong electron density perturbation was also observed to exist above 97 km altitude, which corresponds to the lower boundary of the high electron temperatures. It is also noticeable that both the electric field and magnetic field data include unusual variation in the same altitude region as the temperature increase was observed, suggesting a possible connection between the thermal electron heating and variation of the electric and/or magnetic field. Thus, the first experiment in 2007 revealed a general feature of such unusual phenomena in the Sq current focus, and thereby our interest to the generation mechanism for increasing the electron temperature was more and more increased. We will conduct the second rocket experiment to investigate such unusual phenomena in the Sq current focus in January 2016. In this experiment, we will try to measure

  17. Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edition Enhanced Problems Version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-04-01

    No other text on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics. This text continues to outperform the competition year after year, and the new edition will be no exception. Intended for Calculus-based Physics courses, the 6th edition of this extraordinary text is a major redesign of the best-selling 5th edition, which still maintains many of the elements that led to its enormous success. Jearl Walker adds his unique style to this edition with the addition of new problems designed to capture, and keep, students' attention. Nearly all changes are based on suggestions from instructors and students using the 5th edition, from reviewer comments, and from research done on the process of learning. The primary goal of this text is to provide students with a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and to help them apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. The principal goal of Halliday-Resnick-Walker is to provide instructors with a tool by which they can teach students how to effectively read scientific material and successfully reason through scientific questions. To sharpen this tool, the Enhanced Problems Version of the sixth edition of Fundamentals of Physics contains over 1000 new, high-quality problems that require thought and reasoning rather than simplistic plugging of data into formulas.

  18. PREFACE: 6th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwat, David; Ayadi, Zoubir; Jamart, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    The 6th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2011) was held at the European School of Materials Engineering (EEIGM) on the 7-8 November 2011 in Nancy, France. This biennial conference organized by the EEIGM is a wonderful opportunity for all scientists involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE), to present their research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering. This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, co-operation and future orientations by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. This edition of the conference included a round-table discussion on composite materials within the Interreg IVA project '+Composite'. Following the publication of the proceedings of AMR 2009 in Volume 5 of this journal, it is with great pleasure that we present this selection of articles to the readers of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Once again it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering, covering basic and applicative research on organic and composite materials, metallic materials and ceramics, and characterization methods. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are offered to the sponsors of the conference including EEIGM-Université de Lorraine, AMASE, DocMASE, Grand Nancy, Ville de Nancy, Region Lorraine, Fédération Jacques Villermaux, Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle, Casden and '+Composite'. Zoubir Ayadi, David Horwat and Brigitte Jamart

  19. Akeno 20 km (2) air shower array (Akeno Branch)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Ohoka, H.; Matsubara, Y.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.

    1985-01-01

    As the first stage of the future huge array, the Akeno air shower array was expanded to about 20 sq. km. by adding 19 scintillation detectors of 2.25 sq m area outside the present 1 sq. km. Akeno array with a new data collection system. These detectors are spaced about 1km from each other and connected by two optical fiber cables. This array has been in partial operation from 8th, Sep. 1984 and full operation from 20th, Dec. 1984. 20 sq m muon stations are planned to be set with 2km separation and one of them is now under construction. The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays is studied.

  20. The role and modulation of CCR6+ Th17 cell populations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Paulissen, Sandra M J; van Hamburg, Jan Piet; Dankers, Wendy; Lubberts, Erik

    2015-07-01

    The IL-17A producing T-helper-17 (Th17) cell population plays a major role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis and has gained wide interest as treatment target. IL-17A expressing Th cells are characterized by the expression of the chemokine receptor CCR6 and the transcription factor RORC. In RA, CCR6+ Th cells were identified in peripheral blood, synovial fluid and inflamed synovial tissue. CCR6+ Th cells might drive the progression of an early inflammation towards a persistent arthritis. The CCR6+ Th cell population is heterogeneous and several subpopulations can be distinguished, including Th17, Th22, Th17.1 (also called non-classic Th1 cells), and unclassified or intermediate populations. Interestingly, some of these populations produce low levels of IL-17A but are still very pathogenic. Furthermore, the CCR6+ Th cells phenotype is unstable and plasticity exists between CCR6+ Th cells and T-regulatory (Treg) cells and within the CCR6+ Th cell subpopulations. In this review, characteristics of the different CCR6+ Th cell populations, their plasticity, and their potential impact on rheumatoid arthritis are discussed. Moreover, current approaches to target CCR6+ Th cells and future directions of research to find specific CCR6+ Th cell targets in the treatment of patients with RA and other CCR6+ Th cell mediated autoimmune diseases are highlighted.

  1. Proceedings of the 6th European VLBI Network Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Eduardo; Porcas, Richard W.; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Zensus, J. Anton

    This volume contains the papers presented at the 6th Symposium of the European VLBI Network, held in Bonn on 25-28 June 2002. The initial aim of these biennial gatherings of European VLBI practitioners was to review in a timely manner new results and technical developments related to Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Now, however, interest and participation in the EVN Symposia reaches far beyond Europe, reflecting the fact that scientific research and development programs are carried out to a high degree in international and often truly global collaborations. More than 120 scientists from around the world registered for participation in the Symposium. The Symposium was hosted by the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie and was held at the Gustav Stresemann Institut. In addition to the scientific sessions and poster presentations, the program included an EVN Users Meeting, an MPIfR versus Rest-of-the-World football match (highly appropriate given the competing World Cup event!), a visit to the MPIfR's 100m radio telescope in Effelsberg, and a Conference Dinner held in the nearby old walled town of Bad Müunstereifel. To maximize the usefulness of these proceedings (and possibly as a daring precedent) the Editors decided to demand the written versions of talks and posters and to complete the editorial work before the meeting, and to deliver the book to the participants at the beginning of the Symposium. We thank the authors for their cooperation in delivering publication-ready electronic manuscripts and for meeting the strict deadlines. It is highly gratifying that only a handful of the 100 presentations are not represented in this volume. The editors have made minor changes to some of the contributions in order to improve readability, and take responsibility for any errors arising from these changes. Besides the authors, many individuals have contributed to the preparation of the meeting and its proceedings. In addition to many members of the MPIfR staff, we

  2. PREFACE: The 6th Nordic Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Vaagen, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    After an unintended time gap of five years, the series of regular Nordic meetings on nuclear physics was continued with the 6th Nordic Meeting, August 10-15, 1989. The site was Utgarden in the outskirts of Kopervik, the administration center for the Saga island of Karmøy on the west-coast of Norway. Utgarden, a "peoples high-school'' with a kitchen, housing facility and a neighboring modern gymnasium with fine lecture halls, proved to be an inexpensive and adequate site for the meeting. From the time of the Vikings, the sound between Karmøyy and the mainland has been a vital part of the way to the north. Mobility and international orientation is still a signature of an area where today essential parts of Norway's oil- and metal industry are located. The conference program included a session on nuclear physics in industry and society, with contributed talks from a number of companies and technology/research institutions, which also sponsored the meeting. Lunch visits to Hydro's aluminium plant on Karmøy or alternatively to Statoil's gas terminal on the mainland, were included in the program. The scientific program gives a cross section of nuclear physics activities in which researchers from the Nordic countries are involved nowadays. The spectrum is rich, and the emphasis has shifted to higher energies than was the case five years ago. We appreciate the possibility to present this overview in a separate volume of Physica Scripta. The present issue covers nearly all the talks given at the meeting. The order deviates, however, somewhat from that of the conference program. The organizing committee tried to encourage in various ways the participation of young physicists; this effort was truely rewarded. The young participants put their imprint on the activities in the lecture halls and even more on the soccer arena. The meeting was sponsored by The University of Bergen, The Nordic Accelerator Committee, NORDITA, The Norwegian Research Council for Science and the

  3. The Study of the Geomagnetic Variation for Sq current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Du, A.

    2012-04-01

    The solar quiet variation (Sq) with a period of 24 hrs is a typical one of the quiet variations. Sq is generally caused by atmospheric tide-dynamo in ionosphere and it is controlled by the electric field, electric conductivity in ionosphere and neutral wind in middle-high altitude atmosphere. In our work, the geomagnetic field data observed by 90 ground-based observatories is used to analyze the local time variation of Sq. Sq is derived from five quiet-day geomagnetic data in every month by the FFT method. According to the pattern of geomagnetic X component in Sq, there is a prenoon-postnoon (before noon and after noon) asymmetry. This asymmetry is obvious in spring, summer and winter. The X component at 12:00-13:00 LT is about 5 nT larger than it at 11:00-12:00 LT. The ratio between the X component of daily variable amplitude and Y component of daily variable amplitude in middle and low (high) latitude regions in summer is greater (smaller) than that in winter. Used the sphere harmonic analysis method, the Sq equivalent current system is obtained. From the pattern of Sq current system, the prenoon-postnoon asymmetry may be caused by the electric field in the high latitude region. This electric field has two effects: the one is that the electric field from high latitude maps to the low latitude region; the other is this electric field penetrate to the middle latitude region directly. The combined action of these two effects makes the prenoon-postnoon asymmetry of Sq. The asymmetry also has an obvious seasonal effect. It may relate to the polar Sq and DP2 in the high latitude region.

  4. Significant changes in the 6th edition of FACT-JACIE standards affecting apheresis facilities.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    FACT-JACIE cellular therapy standards are being revised every 3years and currently in their 6th edition. Significant changes in the 6th edition of the standards that affect apheresis facilities participating in cellular therapy product collections are presented.

  5. 169. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 6TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 6TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN 6TH AVE. SHOWING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 8 (HOSPITAL) WITH PART OF ONE OF ITS 1-STORY WARD WINGS, AND THE 3 ORIGINAL DORMITORY WINGS OF BUILDING 9 (BOQ). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  6. A 2.2 sq m /24 sq ft/ self-controlled deployable heat pipe radiator - Design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1975-01-01

    An all heat pipe, deployable radiator has been developed which can effectively control pumped fluid loop temperatures under varying loads using variable conductance panel heat pipes. The 2.2 sq m (24 sq ft) aluminum panel can be coupled to either a fluid header or a flexible heat pipe header capable of transporting 850 watts in a 90-deg bent configuration. Test results support the feasibility of using this system to passively control Freon-21 loop temperatures.

  7. 3. BUILDING 522, EAST SIDE, FROM ACROSS 6TH STREET AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 522, EAST SIDE, FROM ACROSS 6TH STREET AT ITS INTERSECTION WITH G STREET, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. Conference summary: 6th International conference on hyperons, charm, and beauty hadrons (BEACH04)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Joel N.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The 6th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm, and Beauty Hadrons (BEACH04) treated us to a wonderful array of new results. Here the author attempts to summarize the talks and discuss the conference highlights.

  9. Approaches to 100 Gbit/sq. in. recording density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kryder, Mark H.

    1994-01-01

    A recording density of 10 Gbit/sq. in. is being pursued by a number of companies and universities in the National Storage Industry Consortium. It is widely accepted that this goal will be achieved in the laboratory within a few years. In this paper approaches to achieving 100 Gbit/sq. in. storage densities are considered. A major obstacle to continued scaling of magnetic recording to higher densities is that as the bit size is reduced, the grain size in the magnetic media must be reduced in order that media noise does not become so large that the signal to noise ratio (SNR) degrades sufficiently to make detection impossible. At 100 Gbit/sq. in., the bit size is only 0.006 square micrometers, which, in order to achieve 30 dB SNR, requires a grain size of about 2.5 nm. Such small grains are subject to thermal instability, and the recorded information will degrade over time unless the magnetic anisotropy of the materials used is increased significantly, or the media thickness is made much larger than expected on the basis of scaling today's longitudinal media thickness.

  10. SQ109, a New Drug Lead for Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; Li, Kai; Lameira, Lilianne; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; Huang, Guozhong; Galizzi, Melina; Shang, Na; Li, Qian; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Vanessa; Benaim, Gustavo; Guo, Rey-Ting; Urbina, Julio A.; Docampo, Roberto; de Souza, Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We tested the antituberculosis drug SQ109, which is currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis, for its in vitro activity against the trypanosomatid parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. SQ109 was found to be a potent inhibitor of the trypomastigote form of the parasite, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for cell killing of 50 ± 8 nM, but it had little effect (50% effective concentration [EC50], ∼80 μM) in a red blood cell hemolysis assay. It also inhibited extracellular epimastigotes (IC50, 4.6 ± 1 μM) and the clinically relevant intracellular amastigotes (IC50, ∼0.5 to 1 μM), with a selectivity index of ∼10 to 20. SQ109 caused major ultrastructural changes in all three life cycle forms, as observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It rapidly collapsed the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in succinate-energized mitochondria, acting in the same manner as the uncoupler FCCP [carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone], and it caused the alkalinization of internal acidic compartments, effects that are likely to make major contributions to its mechanism of action. The compound also had activity against squalene synthase, binding to its active site; it inhibited sterol side-chain reduction and, in the amastigote assay, acted synergistically with the antifungal drug posaconazole, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.48, but these effects are unlikely to account for the rapid effects seen on cell morphology and cell killing. SQ109 thus most likely acts, at least in part, by collapsing Δψ/ΔpH, one of the major mechanisms demonstrated previously for its action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall, the results suggest that SQ109, which is currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of drug-susceptible and drug

  11. An Analysis of Writing Dispositions of 6th Grade Students in Terms of Different Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabak, Gurkan; Topuzkanamis, Ersoy

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted with an aim to analyze the writing dispositions of the 6th grade students in terms of different variables. The research was carried out based on the descriptive survey model. The participants of the research are composed of a total of 672 students as 342 male students and 330 female students from Ankara, Balikesir,…

  12. Parental Stress with Homeschooling K-6th Grade Children in a South Florida District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    Parental Stress With Homeschooling K-6th Grade Children in a South Florida District. Jennifer A. Myers, 2015: Applied Dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Abraham S. Fischler College of Education. ERIC Descriptors: Homeschooling, Stress, Stress Management, Coping This applied dissertation study was designed to inform and advance knowledge…

  13. The Roles of School Readiness and Poverty-Related Risk for 6th Grade Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pressler, Emily; Raver, C. Cybele; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Roy, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Low-income students are at increased risk for grade retention and suspension, which dampens their chances of high school graduation, college attendance, and future success. Drawing from a sample of 357 children and their families who participated in the Chicago School Readiness Project, we examine whether greater exposure to cumulative poverty-related risk from preschool through 5th grade is associated with greater risk of student retention and suspension in 6th grade. Logistic regression results indicate that exposure to higher levels of cumulative risk across the elementary school years is associated with students’ increased risk of retention in 6th grade, even after controlling for child school readiness skills and other covariates. Importantly, findings of the association between average cumulative risk exposure and student suspension are more complex; the role of poverty-related risk is reduced to non-significance once early indicators of child school readiness and other covariates are included in regression models. While, children’s early externalizing behavior prior to kindergarten places children at greater risk of suspension 7 years later, children’s higher levels of internalizing behaviors and early math skills are associated with significantly decreased risk of suspension in the 6th grade. Together, findings from the study suggest the complex ways that both early school readiness and subsequent exposure to poverty-related risk may both serve as compelling predictors of children’s likelihood of “staying on track” academically in the 6th grade. PMID:27867447

  14. Curriculum Reform Movements and Science Textbooks: A Retrospective Examination of 6th Grade Science Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    Over 50 years, two major reform efforts in science education took place. The purpose of the present study is to explore how the educational reforms were reflected in nine 6th grade science textbooks published in 1975, in 1985 and in 1997 in terms of (a) the materials used, (b) the contexts to which the electricity concept was related, (c) the type…

  15. 10. 'Southern Pacific Company, 6th Crossing of Sacramento River, One ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 'Southern Pacific Company, 6th Crossing of Sacramento River, One 208'-10-1/2' C. to C. End Pins S. Tr. Thro. Skew Span, Scale 1' = 10', The Phoenix Bridge Co., Phoenixville, Pa., April 12, 1901, Drg. 45' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 301.85, Milepost 301.85, Pollard Flat, Shasta County, CA

  16. Sneak Preview of Berkeley Lab's Science at the Theatre on June 6th, 2011

    ScienceCinema

    Sanii, Babak

    2016-07-12

    Babak Sanii provides a sneak preview of Berkeley Lab's next Science at the Theater Event: Big Thinking: The Power of Nanoscience. Berkeley Lab scientists reveal how nanoscience will bring us cleaner energy, faster computers, and improved medicine. Berkeley Repertory Theatre on June 6th, 2011

  17. Sneak Preview of Berkeley Lab's Science at the Theatre on June 6th, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Sanii, Babak

    2011-01-01

    Babak Sanii provides a sneak preview of Berkeley Lab's next Science at the Theater Event: Big Thinking: The Power of Nanoscience. Berkeley Lab scientists reveal how nanoscience will bring us cleaner energy, faster computers, and improved medicine. Berkeley Repertory Theatre on June 6th, 2011

  18. Summary of the National Technicians' Conference ASE/NSLC York--5/6th July 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostock, Julia, Comp.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the National Technicians' Conference ASE/NSLC York from July 5th to July 6th 2012. Approximately 160 technicians attended the Conference on both days. The programme included workshops and lectures and was repeated on the Friday, so that technicians who stayed for both days were able to take part in a variety of…

  19. On the possibility of an alpha-sq omega-type dynamo in a thin layer inside the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    1990-01-01

    If the solar dynamo operates in a thin layer of 10,000-km thickness at the interface between the convection zone and the radiative core, using the facts that the dynamo should have a period of 22 years and a half-wavelength of 40 deg in the theta-direction, it is possible to impose restrictions on the values which various dynamo parameters are allowed to have. It is pointed out that the dynamo should be of alpha-sq omega nature, and kinematical calculations are presented for free dynamo waves and for dynamos in thin rectangular slabs with appropriate boundary conditions. An alpha-sq omega dynamo is expected to produce a significant poloidal field which does not leak to the solar surface. It is found that the turbulent diffusity eta and alpha-coefficient are restricted to values within about a factor of 10, the median values being eta of about 10 to the 10th sq cm/sec and alpha of about 10 cm/sec. On the basis of mixing length theory, it is pointed out that such values imply a reasonable turbulent velocity of the order 30 m/s, but rather small turbulent length scales like 300 km.

  20. Prevalence of Elevated Blood Pressure in Hispanic versus Non-Hispanic 6th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarlton, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    Blood pressure screening was conducted on 4,311 (Hispanic n = 763 [17.7%], White n = 2,566 [59.5%], African American n = 610 [14.1%], Asian n = 136 [3.2%], Multiracial n = 231 [5.4%], and Native American n = 5 [0.1%]) 6th-grade students enrolled in Seminole County, Florida, Public Schools from August to December 2005. Prevalence of obesity was 21%…

  1. Multiwavelength observations of XTE J1859+226 on 1999, November 6th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haswell, C. A.; Chaty, S.; Norton, A. J.; Chen, W.; Hynes, R. I.

    1999-11-01

    Further simultaneous HST and RXTE observations (visit #3) of the new X-ray transient XTE J1859+226 are scheduled for November 6th 1999 19:37 - 22:22 UT. Coordinated multi-wavelength observations (simultaneous, near-simultaneous, and following the evolution over days/weeks) would be extremely helpful. If you can observe simultaneously with HST and/or RXTE, high time-resolution data (< 10 seconds) will be particularly useful.

  2. Recurrent 6th nerve palsy in a child following different live attenuated vaccines: case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recurrent benign 6th nerve palsy in the paediatric age group is uncommon, but has been described following viral and bacterial infections. It has also been temporally associated with immunization, but has not been previously described following two different live attenuated vaccines. Case presentation A case is presented of a 12 month old Caucasian boy with recurrent benign 6th nerve palsy following measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines, given on separate occasions with complete recovery following each episode. No alternate underlying etiology was identified despite extensive investigations and review. Conclusions The majority of benign 6th nerve palsies do not have a sinister cause and have an excellent prognosis, with recovery expected in most cases. The exact pathophysiology is unknown, although hypotheses including autoimmune mechanisms and direct viral invasion could explain the pathophysiology behind immunization related nerve palsies. It is important to rule out other aetiologies with thorough history, physical examination and investigations. There is limited information in the literature regarding the safety of a repeat dose of a live vaccine in this setting. Future immunizations should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:22545865

  3. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of SQ Injection Using Multiple Chromatographic Technologies.

    PubMed

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Huang, Zhi-Bing; Song, Yan-Gang; Yue, Rui-Qi; Ho, Alan; Lin, Chao-Zhan; Huang, Wen-Hua; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-08-19

    Quality control of Chinese medicine injections remains a challenge due to our poor knowledge of their complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of one of the best-selling injections, Shenqi Fuzheng (SQ) injection (SQI), via a full component quantitative analysis. A total of 15 representative small molecular components of SQI were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS); saccharide composition of SQI was also quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) on an amino column before and after acid hydrolysis. The existence of polysaccharides was also examined on a gel permeation chromatography column. The method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and was successfully applied to analyze 13 SQI samples. The results demonstrate that up to 94.69% (w/w) of this injection product are quantitatively determined, in which small molecules and monosaccharide/sucrose account for 0.18%-0.21%, and 53.49%-58.2%, respectively. The quantitative information contributes to accumulating scientific evidence to better understand the therapy efficacy and safety of complex Chinese medicine injections.

  4. A Regiment Like No Other: The 6th Marine Regiment at Belleau Wood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    academic crucible type of setting. They had been through the pressure of academia and, for some, the stress of post-graduation jobs. With athletes, he was...ready for war.76 Col Catlin described the drill sergeant best when he said, “Much of the recruit’s progress is due to the labours of the drill Sergeant...between these two regiments, “[the 6th Regiment’s] early training was somewhat more difficult, but it soon found itself, and when the stress of battle

  5. Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM) and Teacher Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.; Schmidt, C.; Metzger, E. P.; Cordero, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA-funded project, Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM), is designed to improve the climate literacy of California's 450,000 6th-grade students through teacher professional development that presents climate change as an engaging context for teaching earth science standards. The project fosters experience-based interaction among learners and encourages expressive creativity and idea-exchange via the web and social media. The heart of the CLINM project is the development of an online educator-friendly experience that provides content expert-reviewed, teacher-tested, standards-based educational resources, classroom activities and lessons that make meaningful connections to NASA data and images as well as new media tools (videos, web, and phone applications) based on the Green Ninja, a climate-action superhero who fights global warming by inspiring personal action (www.greenninja.info). In this session, we will discuss this approach to professional development and share a collection of teacher-tested CLINM resources. CLINM resources are grounded in earth system science; classroom activities and lessons engage students in exploration of connections between natural systems and human systems with a particular focus on how climate change relates to everyone's need for food, water, and energy. CLINM uses a team-based approach to resource development, and partners faculty in San José State University's (SJSU) colleges of Science, Education, and Humanities and the Arts with 6th-grade teachers from local school districts, a scientist from NASA Ames Research Center and climate change education projects at Stanford University, the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, and the University of Idaho. Climate scientists and other content experts identify relevant concepts and work with science educators to develop and/or refine classroom activities to elucidate those concepts; activities are piloted in pre-service science methods courses at SJSU and in

  6. Statistical characteristics of the day-to-day variability in the geomagnetic Sq field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gen-Xiong; Xu, Wen-Yao; Du, Ai-Min; Wu, Ying-Yan; Chen, Bo; Liu, Xiao-Can

    2007-06-01

    Day-to-day variability in the geomagnetic Sq field is studied by using the magnetic data from a meridian chain of magnetometers along 120°E longitude. The method of natural orthogonal components (NOC or eigenmode analysis) is applied to separate the Sq variation from complicated disturbances. The first eigenmode with the largest eigenvalue represents fairly well the Sq variation with a conspicuous day-to-day variability in the daily range. For the stations on the same north- or south-side of the Sq current system focus, the day-to-day variations show a positive correlation. In contrast, for the stations on the different sides of the Sq focus, they show a negative correlation, suggesting an important role of latitudinal shift of the Sq current system focus to the day-to-day variability in the Sq daily range. The Sq daily range is correlated with the magnetic indices Ap and Dst in a peculiar way: On some severe disturbed days, noticeable enhancements of the Sq are observed, implying increases in the ionospheric conductivities and/or tidal wind velocities; on other severe disturbed days, however, dramatically reduced Sq variations occur, suggesting dominant effects of the "disturbance dynamo" process.

  7. Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Ilıca, A. Turan; Karaçalıoğlu, Özgür; Damla Yılmaz, Nalan; Başoğlu, Okşan; Kılıc, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

    Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

  8. Semi-annual Sq-variation in solar activity cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnoy, V.; Malosiev, T.

    The peculiarities of semi-annual variation in solar activity cycle have been studied. The data from observatories having long observational series and located in different latitude zones were used. The following observatories were selected: Huancayo (magnetic equator), from 1922 to 1959; Apia (low latitudes), from 1912 to 1961; Moscow (middle latitudes), from 1947 to 1965. Based on the hourly values of H-components, the average monthly diurnal amplitudes (a difference between midday and midnight values), according to five international quiet days, were computed. Obtained results were compared with R (relative sunspot numbers) in the ranges of 0-30R, 40-100R, and 140-190R. It was shown, that the amplitude of semi-annual variation increases with R, from minimum to maximum values, on average by 45%. At equatorial Huancayo observatory, the semi-annual Sq(H)-variation appears especially clearly: its maximums take place at periods of equinoxes (March-April, September-October), and minimums -- at periods of solstices (June-July, December-January). At low (Apia observatory) and middle (Moscow observatory) latitudes, the character of semi-annual variation is somewhat different: it appears during the periods of equinoxes, but considerably less than at equator. Besides, with the growth of R, semi-annual variation appears against a background of annual variation, in the form of second peaks (maximum in June). At observatories located in low and middle latitudes, second peaks become more appreciable with an increase of R (March-April and September-October). During the periods of low solar activity, they are insignificant. This work has been carried out with the support from International Scientific and Technology Center (Project #KR-214).

  9. An integrated exploration model for Council Run field analogs: Regional geology and seismic stratigraphy of Devonian 6th Elk sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, G.; Johnson, R. )

    1991-08-01

    A geologic study of the Devonian Lock Haven 6th Elk formation along the structural front of Pennsylvania and Maryland suggest that present-day structures were active at the time of deposition. These structures barred deposition to the west and helped to localize sands in a northeast-southwest fairway. The 6th Elk sandstones occur in two major depositional lobes (located in Centre and Somerset counties in Pennsylvania, and Garret County, Maryland) and were deposited on a shallow-marine shelf by turbidity currents and later modified by storm-generated currents. Deposition of 6th Elk sands may also have been influenced by cross-strike discontinuities. A seismic study of the Council Run field aids in subsurface identification of the 6th Elk. A high-amplitude seismic anomaly across the Council Run field is correlated with increasing san thickness. Two dimensional modeling suggests that the seismic response is extremely sensitive to specific acquisition and processing techniques including filter and phase variability. Additional attribute analysis integrates the seismic data with the forward models. This results in a predictive method for potentially identifying 6th Elk sandstone development from seismic data. Applying the results of the seismic modeling at Council Run field to a seismic grid across the previously defined 6th Elk depositional fairway has identified many exploratory prospects in Lycoming and Bradford counties, Pennsylvania. This area coincides with the site of a third, previously documented, Upper Devonian depositional lobe.

  10. Uranium groundwater anomalies and L'Aquila earthquake, 6th April 2009 (Italy).

    PubMed

    Plastino, Wolfango; Povinec, Pavel P; De Luca, Gaetano; Doglioni, Carlo; Nisi, Stefano; Ioannucci, Luca; Balata, Marco; Laubenstein, Matthias; Bella, Francesco; Coccia, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of chemical and physical groundwater parameters has been carried out worldwide in seismogenic areas with the aim to test possible correlations between their spatial and temporal variations and strain processes. Uranium (U) groundwater anomalies were observed during the preparation phases of the recent L'Aquila earthquake of 6th April 2009 in the cataclastic rocks near the overthrust fault crossing the deep underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The results suggest that U may be used as a potential strain indicator of geodynamic processes occurring before the seismic swarm and the main earthquake shock. Moreover, this justifies the different radon patterns before and after the main shock: the radon releases during and after the earthquake are much than more during the preparatory period because the process does not include only the microfracturing induced by stress-strain activation, but also radon increases accompanying groundwater U anomalies.

  11. Statistical Analysis of CFD Solutions from the 6th AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derlaga, Joseph M.; Morrison, Joseph H.

    2017-01-01

    A graphical framework is used for statistical analysis of the results from an extensive N- version test of a collection of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational uid dynam- ics codes. The solutions were obtained by code developers and users from North America, Europe, Asia, and South America using both common and custom grid sequencees as well as multiple turbulence models for the June 2016 6th AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop sponsored by the AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Technical Committee. The aerodynamic con guration for this workshop was the Common Research Model subsonic transport wing- body previously used for both the 4th and 5th Drag Prediction Workshops. This work continues the statistical analysis begun in the earlier workshops and compares the results from the grid convergence study of the most recent workshop with previous workshops.

  12. Rapid landscape change in 6th century northern Jordan: interdisciplinary geoarchaeological perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Landscapes of the ancient fertile crescent are considered affected by soil degradation as result of long-term farming since the Neolithic, and impressive ruins of antiquity led to assumptions that their abandonment must have been conntected with reduced agricultural productivity. In this context, a valley fill near the site of Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan was apparently deposited largely during the 6th century AD, and provides evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. However, an interdisciplinary case study of land use, soil development, and sediments found that the valley fill cannot be connected with large-scale soil erosion in the vicinity of the site. On the one hand, this is indicated by the distribution of soil development and archaeological material as marker of past land use activity in the past, which suggests that the best soils were and still are used intensively. On the other hand, the sediments seem to point to the occurrence of climatic extremes such as heavy floods, the occurrence of soil creep after water saturation, but also a significant shift to aridity which may have triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, possibly connected with the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. Modern analogies of the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 let it seem possible that a volcanic event, perhaps the outbreak of the Ilopango volcano, was connected with these environmental turbulences. Such events cannot be understood by isolated studies: without a broad interdisciplinary framework, single archives are prone to misinterpretation, and our understanding of the environmental history of Abila is still very limited.

  13. Seasonal variation of the Sq focus position during 2006-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichare, Geeta; Rawat, Rahul; Jadhav, Madhavi; Sinha, Ashwini Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, the perception of the seasonal variation of the Sq focus position is re-examined during low solar activity period (2006-2010). Equivalent current vectors are plotted for each geomagnetic quiet day (Ap ⩽ 5), using diurnal variations of H and D components measured at the magnetic observatories located in a narrow longitudinal belt of the Indo-Russian region. On the formation of well-defined Sq current loop, the information about the Sq focus is extracted by identifying a pair of neighboring stations with opposite zonal currents and nearby local times with opposite meridional currents. Thus, the method employed here is different from the methods used in earlier studies. Prominent seasonal variations in the Sq focus latitude, as well as in the local time of Sq focus, are observed. It is observed that the Sq focus is located at ∼30 deg in March equinox, but it moves to lower latitudes in the month of September. In winter, it shows large variability and also the formation of clear Sq current loop is less frequent. The local time of Sq focus is at ∼12 LT in March and shifts to ∼10 LT during September. It is clearly evident from the present analysis that the March and September equinoxes behave differently. The dominance of DE3 and semidiurnal waves in the September equinox could be the reason for the observed disparity.

  14. FOREWORD: 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Yuan, Shouqi; Shi, Weidong; Liu, Shuhong; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2013-12-01

    The 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF 2013) was held in Beijing, China, 19-22 September 2013, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University and Jiangsu University. The co-organizers were Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, The State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy and Beijing International Science and Technology Cooperation Base for CO2 Utilization and Reduction. The sponsor of the conference was Concepts NREC. The First International Conference on Pumps and Systems (May 1992), the Second International Conference on Pumps and Fans (October 1995), the Third International Conference on Pumps and Fans (October 1998), and the Fourth International Conference on Pumps and Fans (26-29 August 2002) were all held in Beijing and were organized by the late famous Chinese professor on fluid machinery and engineering, Professor Zuyan Mei of Tsinghua University. The conference was interrupted by the death of Professor Mei in 2003. In order to commemorate Professor Mei, the organizing committee of ICPF decided to continue organizing the conference series. The Fifth Conference on Pumps and Systems (2010 ICPF) took place in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, 18-21 October 2010, and it was jointly organized by Zhejiang University and Tsinghua University. With the development of renewable energy and new energy in China and in the world, some small types of compressor and some types of pump, as well as wind turbines are developing very fast; therefore the ICPF2013 conference included compressors and wind turbines. The theme of the conference was the application of renewable energy of pumps, compressors, fans and blowers. The content of the conference was the basic study, design and experimental study of compressors, fans, blowers and pumps; the CFD application on pumps and fans, their transient behavior, unsteady flows and multi-phase flow

  15. Entner–Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1

    PubMed Central

    Felux, Ann-Katrin; Spiteller, Dieter; Klebensberger, Janosch; Schleheck, David

    2015-01-01

    Sulfoquinovose (SQ; 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) is the polar head group of the plant sulfolipid SQ-diacylglycerol, and SQ comprises a major proportion of the organosulfur in nature, where it is degraded by bacteria. A first degradation pathway for SQ has been demonstrated recently, a “sulfoglycolytic” pathway, in addition to the classical glycolytic (Embden–Meyerhof) pathway in Escherichia coli K-12; half of the carbon of SQ is abstracted as dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and used for growth, whereas a C3-organosulfonate, 2,3-dihydroxypropane sulfonate (DHPS), is excreted. The environmental isolate Pseudomonas putida SQ1 is also able to use SQ for growth, and excretes a different C3-organosulfonate, 3-sulfolactate (SL). In this study, we revealed the catabolic pathway for SQ in P. putida SQ1 through differential proteomics and transcriptional analyses, by in vitro reconstitution of the complete pathway by five heterologously produced enzymes, and by identification of all four organosulfonate intermediates. The pathway follows a reaction sequence analogous to the Entner–Doudoroff pathway for glucose-6-phosphate: It involves an NAD+-dependent SQ dehydrogenase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconolactone (SGL) lactonase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconate (SG) dehydratase, and 2-keto-3,6-dideoxy-6-sulfogluconate (KDSG) aldolase. The aldolase reaction yields pyruvate, which supports growth of P. putida, and 3-sulfolactaldehyde (SLA), which is oxidized to SL by an NAD(P)+-dependent SLA dehydrogenase. All five enzymes are encoded in a single gene cluster that includes, for example, genes for transport and regulation. Homologous gene clusters were found in genomes of other P. putida strains, in other gamma-Proteobacteria, and in beta- and alpha-Proteobacteria, for example, in genomes of Enterobacteria, Vibrio, and Halomonas species, and in typical soil bacteria, such as Burkholderia, Herbaspirillum, and Rhizobium. PMID:26195800

  16. Entner-Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1.

    PubMed

    Felux, Ann-Katrin; Spiteller, Dieter; Klebensberger, Janosch; Schleheck, David

    2015-08-04

    Sulfoquinovose (SQ; 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) is the polar head group of the plant sulfolipid SQ-diacylglycerol, and SQ comprises a major proportion of the organosulfur in nature, where it is degraded by bacteria. A first degradation pathway for SQ has been demonstrated recently, a "sulfoglycolytic" pathway, in addition to the classical glycolytic (Embden-Meyerhof) pathway in Escherichia coli K-12; half of the carbon of SQ is abstracted as dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and used for growth, whereas a C3-organosulfonate, 2,3-dihydroxypropane sulfonate (DHPS), is excreted. The environmental isolate Pseudomonas putida SQ1 is also able to use SQ for growth, and excretes a different C3-organosulfonate, 3-sulfolactate (SL). In this study, we revealed the catabolic pathway for SQ in P. putida SQ1 through differential proteomics and transcriptional analyses, by in vitro reconstitution of the complete pathway by five heterologously produced enzymes, and by identification of all four organosulfonate intermediates. The pathway follows a reaction sequence analogous to the Entner-Doudoroff pathway for glucose-6-phosphate: It involves an NAD(+)-dependent SQ dehydrogenase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconolactone (SGL) lactonase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconate (SG) dehydratase, and 2-keto-3,6-dideoxy-6-sulfogluconate (KDSG) aldolase. The aldolase reaction yields pyruvate, which supports growth of P. putida, and 3-sulfolactaldehyde (SLA), which is oxidized to SL by an NAD(P)(+)-dependent SLA dehydrogenase. All five enzymes are encoded in a single gene cluster that includes, for example, genes for transport and regulation. Homologous gene clusters were found in genomes of other P. putida strains, in other gamma-Proteobacteria, and in beta- and alpha-Proteobacteria, for example, in genomes of Enterobacteria, Vibrio, and Halomonas species, and in typical soil bacteria, such as Burkholderia, Herbaspirillum, and Rhizobium.

  17. New archeointensity data from French Early Medieval pottery production (6th-10th century AD). Tracing 1500 years of geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genevey, Agnès; Gallet, Yves; Jesset, Sébastien; Thébault, Erwan; Bouillon, Jérôme; Lefèvre, Annie; Le Goff, Maxime

    2016-08-01

    Nineteen new archeointensity results were obtained from the analysis of groups of French pottery fragments dated to the Early Middle Ages (6th to 10th centuries AD). They are from several medieval ceramic production sites, excavated mainly in Saran (Central France), and their precise dating was established based on typo-chronological characteristics. Intensity measurements were performed using the Triaxe protocol, which takes into account the effects on the intensity determinations of both thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate. Intensity analyses were also carried out on modern pottery produced at Saran during an experimental firing. The results show very good agreement with the geomagnetic field intensity directly measured inside and around the kiln, thus reasserting the reliability of the Triaxe protocol and the relevance of the quality criteria used. They further demonstrate the potential of the Saran pottery production for archeomagnetism. The new archeointensity results allow a precise and coherent description of the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe during the Early Medieval period, which was until now poorly documented. They show a significant increase in intensity during the 6th century AD, high intensity values from the 7th to the 9th century, with a minimum of small amplitude at the transition between the 7th and the 8th centuries and finally an important decrease until the beginning of the 11th century. Together with published intensity results available within a radius of 700 km around Paris, the new data were used to compute a master curve of the Western European geomagnetic intensity variations over the past 1500 years. This curve clearly exhibits five intensity maxima: at the transition between the 6th and 7th century AD, at the middle of the 9th century, during the 12th century, in the second part of the 14th century and at the very beginning of the 17th century AD. Some of these peaks are smoothed, or

  18. 40Km Into Lebanon,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    answer to the difficulties in Palestine, London organized a study of the problem under Lord Peel , a for- mer Secretary of State for India, who in 1937...issued the report of the Commission bearing his name. As Peel saw it, the only solution was to partition Palestine between the two communities. The...minority suggestions. The majority 22 40Km into Lebanon report recommended partition with an economic union, much as Peel had proposed in 1937. A

  19. 1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

  20. Latina girls' identities-in-practice in 6th grade science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Edna

    Inequalities and achievement gaps in science education among students from different racial and socioeconomic backgrounds as well as between genders in the United States are due to not just access to resources, but also to the incongruence between identities of school science with identities salient to minority students. Minority girls are especially portrayed to be estranged from prototypical school science Discourse, often characterized as white, middle class, and masculine. This dissertation, based on a two-year ethnographic study in an urban middle school in New York City, describes the authoring of novel identities-in-practice of minority girls in a 6th grade science classroom. The findings indicate that minority girls draw from out-of-school identities salient to them to author novel identities-in-practice in the various figured worlds of the 6th grade science classroom. Through taking such authorial stances, minority girls exhibit agency in negotiating for wider boundaries in their school science participation and broker for hybrid spaces of school science where the school science Discourse was destabilized and challenged to be more inclusive of everyday funds of knowledge and Discourses important to the students. The findings also highlight the dialectic relationship between an individual students' learning and participation and the school science community-of-practice and the implications such a relationship has on the learning of both individual students and the collective community-of-practice. From year one findings, curricular adaptations were enacted, with teacher and student input, on lessons centering on food and nutrition. The adapted curriculum specifically solicited for nontraditional funds of knowledge and Discourse from students and were grounded strongly in relevance to students' out of school lives. The hybrid spaces collectively brokered for by the community-of-practice were transformed in three ways: physically, politically, and

  1. PREFACE: 6th International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis (MURPHYS2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimian, Mihai; Rachinskii, Dmitrii

    2015-02-01

    The International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis (MURPHYS) conference series focuses on multiple scale systems, singular perturbation problems, phase transitions and hysteresis phenomena occurring in physical, biological, chemical, economical, engineering and information systems. The 6th edition was hosted by Stefan cel Mare University in the city of Suceava located in the beautiful multicultural land of Bukovina, Romania, from May 21 to 24, 2012. This continued the series of biennial multidisciplinary conferences organized in Cork, Ireland from 2002 to 2008 and in Pécs, Hungary in 2010. The MURPHYS 2012 Workshop brought together more than 50 researchers in hysteresis and multi-scale phenomena from the United State of America, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Greece, Ukraine, and Romania. Participants shared and discussed new developments of analytical techniques and numerical methods along with a variety of their applications in various areas, including material sciences, electrical and electronics engineering, mechanical engineering and civil structures, biological and eco-systems, economics and finance. The Workshop was sponsored by the European Social Fund through Sectoral Operational Program Human Resources 2007-2013 (PRO-DOCT) and Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava. The Organizing Committee was co-chaired by Mihai Dimian from Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava (Romania), Amalia Ivanyi from the University of Pecs (Hungary), and Dmitrii Rachinskii from the University College Cork (Ireland). All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The Guest Editors wish to place on record their sincere gratitude to Miss Sarah Toms for the assistance she provided

  2. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: a technical study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO3) and Fe (existing as Fe2O3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

  3. The relationship between snack intake and its availability of 4th-6th graders in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hang, Chi-Ming; Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the snack intake and snack availability of elementary school children. Data analyzed were from 722 4th to 6th graders' food availability and food intake questionnaires collected in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002. The snacks commonly eaten were divided into two groups. Healthy snacks included dairy products, 100% fruit juice and fresh fruits. Unhealthy snacks included high fat/sugar snacks, cookies, candy, carbonated/sugared beverages and fast food. Structural equating modeling was used to test the models that describe the availability and intake of two snack groups. Results indicated that parents' intake and children's preference were major predictors of children intake of both healthy and unhealthy snacks. Other than that, the intake of unhealthy snacks was positively associated with "purchase by children themselves" but not the intake of healthy snacks, which was influenced predominantly by "present in home". The results support the perception that a positive family food environment is important for improving children's diet quality. To build a healthy family food environment, parents have to not only provide healthy snacks but also limit the unhealthy snacks in home. In addition to that, the role modeling of parents as eating healthy snacks instead of unhealthy snacks themselves may help children to develop similar behaviors.

  4. Summary of the 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank: new directions in urologic research.

    PubMed

    Svatek, Robert S; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Galsky, Matthew D; Lee, Cheryl T; Latini, David M; Bochner, Bernard H; Weizer, Alon Z; Apolo, Andrea B; Sridhar, Srikala S; Kamat, Ashish M; Hansel, Donna; Flaig, Thomas W; Smith, Norm D; Lotan, Yair

    2013-10-01

    The 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, and representatives from the National Cancer Institute and Industry in an effort to advance bladder cancer research efforts. This year's meeting comprised panel discussions and research involving 5 separate working groups, including the Survivorship, Clinical Trials, Standardization of Care, Data Mining, and Translational Science working groups. In this manuscript, the accomplishments and objectives of the working groups are summarized. Notable efforts include: (1) the development of a survivorship care plan for early and late-stage bladder cancer; (2) the development of consensus criteria for eligibility and endpoints for bladder cancer clinical trials; (3) an improved understanding of current practice patterns regarding the use of perioperative chemotherapy in an effort to standardize care; (4) creation of a comprehensive handbook to assist researchers with developing bladder cancer databases; and (5) identification of response to therapy of high-grade non muscle invasive disease through a collaborative exchange of expertise and resources.

  5. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference.

  6. Prevalence of elevated blood pressure in Hispanic versus non-Hispanic 6th graders.

    PubMed

    Tarlton, Patricia A

    2007-02-01

    Blood pressure screening was conducted on 4,311 (Hispanic n = 763 [17.7%], White n = 2,566 [59.5%], African American n = 610 [14.1%], Asian n = 136 [3.2%], Multiracial n = 231 [5.4%], and Native American n = 5 [0.1%]) 6th-grade students enrolled in Seminole County, Florida, Public Schools from August to December 2005. Prevalence of obesity was 21% for the overall population, with Hispanics n = 218 (28.6%) having a greater prevalence than non-Hispanics n = 630 (19.0%). Following a second screening, overall prevalence of elevated blood pressure was 1.9%, with Hispanics at 2.6% versus 1.6% for non-Hispanics. This was found to be significant when Hispanics were further compared to the White population. However, when adjusted for obesity, elevated blood pressure was not significant for Hispanics. Results confirm the presence of elevated blood pressure and obesity in all population groups, with an elevated risk for both among the Hispanic population.

  7. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: A technical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO 3) and Fe (existing as Fe 2O 3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

  8. FOREWORD: 6th International Symposium on Electronic Beam Ion Sources and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljeby, L.

    1997-01-01

    The 6th International Symposium on Electron Beam Ion sources and their Applications was held at the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory at Stockholm University, June 20-23, 1994. A symposium in this series is held every three years. The next one will be organised by Professor Reinhard Becker at the J. W. Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The Stockholm symposium had a total of 65 participants from 9 countries. 43 oral presentations were given and 7 posters were exhibited. For the first time in this series the proceedings have been refereed. The symposium was given generous support by the Marcus Wallbenberg Foundation for International Co-operation in Science, a support mainly used for inviting delegates from Russia and students. The organisation of the symposium was led by Dr. Carl Johan Herrlander. His efficiency, organising skill and never ending attention to all the aspects of the symposium were of the utmost importance for carrying it through. We deeply regret that the proceedings have been very much delayed. Physica Scripta has no part in causing the delay which is solely a result of my inability to enforce deadlines. We think though that the contents still is of interest in particular as a full documentation of the conference.

  9. Proceedings of the 6th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Walter Steininger; Wilhelm Bollingerfehr

    2016-01-11

    The 6th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Dresden. Germany on September 7-9, 2015. Over seventy participants helped advance the technical basis for salt disposal of radioactive waste. The number of collaborative efforts continues to grow and to produce useful documentation, as well as to define the state of the art for research areas. These Proceedings are divided into Chapters, and a list of authors is included in the Acknowledgement Section. Also in this document are the Technical Agenda, List of Participants, Biographical Information, Abstracts, and Presentations. Proceedings of all workshops and other pertinent information are posted on websites hosted by Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club. The US/German workshops provide continuity for long-term research, summarize and publish status of mature areas, and develop appropriate research by consensus in a workshop environment. As before, major areas and findings are highlighted, which constitute topical Chapters in these Proceedings. In total, the scientific breadth is substantial and while not all subject matter is elaborated into chapter format, all presentations and abstracts are published in this document. In the following Proceedings, six selected topics are developed in detail.

  10. PREFACE: The 6th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaglio, Ruggero; Donaldson, Gordon

    2004-05-01

    This special issue of Superconductor Science and Technology contains papers presented at the 6th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS), which was held in Sorrento, Italy, 14--18 September 2003. This important biennial event followed previous successful meetings held in Gottingen, Germany; Edinburgh, Scotland; Eindhoven, the Netherlands; Sitges (Barcelona), Spain; and Copenhagen, Denmark. Following tradition, this EUCAS conference focused on the role of superconductivity in bridging various aspects of research with a variety of concrete advanced applications. EUCAS 2003 attracted about 1000 participants from all around the world with large participation from non-European countries. This conference benefited the worldwide superconductivity community tremendously as scientists operating internationally were able to share their knowledge and experience with one another. We are grateful to all those who submitted papers to the Conference Proceedings, which will be published in an Institute of Physics Conference Series, and also to those who contributed to this special issue. Unfortunately we could not consider every one of the large number of papers submitted to this issue and we express our regret to those whose work could not be included.

  11. Are the equatorial electrojet and the Sq coupled systems? Transfer entropy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichare, Geeta; Bhaskar, Ankush; Ramesh, Durbha Sai

    2016-05-01

    Whether equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and solar quiet (Sq) are independent systems or not is a long standing question. Techniques such as correlation analysis, interpretation of the westward currents observed between EEJ and Sq focus, along with the simulation studies have been used to address this question, hitherto. In this article, we revisit this problem using a method based on transfer entropy that examines the relationship between day-to-day variability in EEJ and Sq during low solar activity period (year 2007-08). Magnetic field variations in the horizontal component from the geomagnetic observatory, Tirunelveli (TIR) from the Indian region are used as a proxy for EEJ currents. To represent variations of Sq current system, two stations outside the EEJ belt, Nagpur (NGP) and Jaipur (JAI) are analyzed. Our analyses clearly demonstrate that significant information is exchanged between EEJ and Sq variations, and hence they are in a cross-talk with each other, indicating EEJ and Sq are coupled systems. Variations of time scales less than 2 h appear at the equatorial station before Sq stations. Similar analyses carried out for the African sector also validate the above results.

  12. Synaptic activity bidirectionally regulates a novel sequence-specific S-Q phosphoproteome in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Siddoway, Benjamin; Hou, Hailong; Yang, Hongtian; Petralia, Ronald; Xia, Houhui

    2013-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays a critical role in neuronal transcription, translation, cell viability, and synaptic plasticity. In neurons, phospho-enzymes and specific substrates directly link glutamate release and post-synaptic depolarization to these cellular functions; however, many of these enzymes and their protein substrates remain uncharacterized or unidentified. In this article, we identify a novel, synaptically-driven neuronal phosphoproteome characterized by a specific motif of serine/threonine-glutamine ([S/T]-Q, abbreviated as SQ). These SQ-containing substrates are predominantly localized to dendrites, synapses, the soma; and activation of this SQ phosphoproteome by bicuculline application is induced via calcium influx through L-type calcium channels. On the other hand, acute application of NMDA can inactivate this SQ phosphoproteome. We demonstrate that the SQ motif kinase Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) can also localize to dendrites and dendritic spines, in addition to other subcellular compartments, and is activated by bicuculline application. Pharmacology studies indicate that ATM and its sister kinase ATR up-regulate these neuronal SQ substrates. Phosphoproteomics identified over 150 SQ-containing substrates whose phosphorylation is bidirectionally-regulated by synaptic activity. PMID:24117848

  13. PREFACE: 6th International Workshop on Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fring, Andreas; Jones, Hugh; Znojil, Miloslav

    2008-06-01

    Attempts to understand the quantum mechanics of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems can be traced back to the early days, one example being Heisenberg's endeavour to formulate a consistent model involving an indefinite metric. Over the years non-Hermitian Hamiltonians whose spectra were believed to be real have appeared from time to time in the literature, for instance in the study of strong interactions at high energies via Regge models, in condensed matter physics in the context of the XXZ-spin chain, in interacting boson models in nuclear physics, in integrable quantum field theories as Toda field theories with complex coupling constants, and also very recently in a field theoretical scenario in the quantization procedure of strings on an AdS5 x S5 background. Concrete experimental realizations of these types of systems in the form of optical lattices have been proposed in 2007. In the area of mathematical physics similar non-systematic results appeared sporadically over the years. However, intensive and more systematic investigation of these types of non- Hermitian Hamiltonians with real eigenvalue spectra only began about ten years ago, when the surprising discovery was made that a large class of one-particle systems perturbed by a simple non-Hermitian potential term possesses a real energy spectrum. Since then regular international workshops devoted to this theme have taken place. This special issue is centred around the 6th International Workshop on Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics held in July 2007 at City University London. All the contributions contain significant new results or alternatively provide a survey of the state of the art of the subject or a critical assessment of the present understanding of the topic and a discussion of open problems. Original contributions from non-participants were also invited. Meanwhile many interesting results have been obtained and consensus has been reached on various central conceptual issues in the

  14. PREFACE: 6th Workshop on Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy with Accelerator-Based Sources (WIRMS11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Stefano; Perucchi, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to a subset of papers related to the work presented at the 6th edition of the international Workshop on Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy with Accelerator-Based Sources (WIRMS), held in Trieste, Italy, September 4-8 2011. Previous editions of the conference were held in Porquerolles (France), Lake Tahoe (USA), Rathen (Germany), Awaji (Japan), and Banff (Canada). This edition was organized and chaired by Stefano Lupi (Roma La Sapienza) and co-chaired by Andrea Perucchi (Elettra), with the support of the Italian Synchrotron Light Laboratory ELETTRA, which was honored to host the WIRMS workshop in its tenth anniversary. The 6th WIRMS edition addressed several different topics, ranging from biochemistry to strongly correlated materials, from geology to conservation science, and from forensics to the study of cometary dusts. Representatives from the infrared scientific programs at synchrotron light sources and free-electron-laser facilities. This edition was attended by 88 participants, including representatives from the infrared scientific programs at synchrotron light sources and free-electron-laser facilities, who enjoyed the stimulating scientific presentations, several detailed discussions, and the beautiful weather and scenery of the Trieste gulf. Participants came from 16 different nations and four continents, including many young scientists, six of which were supported by the organizers. There were 45 scientific talks divided in 11 sessions: Facilities, Microspectroscopy (I, II, III), Time-Resolved Spectroscopies, Extreme Conditions, Condensed Matter, Near-Field, Imaging, THz Techniques and High-Resolution Spectroscopy. 37 posters were also presented at two very lively evening poster sessions. We would like to use the opportunity of writing this preface to thank all the participants of the workshop for the very high level of their scientific contribution and for the very friendly atmosphere

  15. Sq solar variation at Medea Observatory (Algeria), from 2008 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anad, F.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Hamoudi, M.; Bourouis, S.; Abtout, A.; Yizengaw, E.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the regular variations of terrestrial magnetic field recorded by a new magnetic Observatory Medea, Algeria (geographic latitude: 36.85°N, geographic longitude: 2.93°E, geomagnetic latitude: 27.98°N, geomagnetic longitude: 77.7°E) during 2008-2011. The diurnal and seasonal variations of the solar quiet (Sq) variations are analyzed. The results show differences in the diurnal pattern of the northward-component Sq variation (SqX) at different seasons. The seasonal variation of SqX is similar in different years. The diurnal pattern of SqX from July through September cannot be explained by an equivalent current system that is symmetric about the noon time sector. The observations indicate that the major axis of the elliptic current system is tilted towards the equator in the morning hours during those months. The diurnal pattern of SqY indicates southward currents in the morning and northward currents in the afternoon, except during February-March 2009 when there is apparently no southward current during the morning. For the other months, the observations indicate that the maximum northward current intensity in the afternoon tends to be greater than the maximum southward current intensity in the morning. This is because of the UT variation of the Sq current system. That is, the pattern and strength of the Sq current system are different when SqY is measured in the morning around 8 UT and in the afternoon around 14 UT. The amplitude of these extreme varies linearly with the solar cycle. For the SqY component, the changes in the morning maximum have an annual variation while that of the afternoon minimum has a semi-annual variation. These variations are attributed to seasonal variations in the ionospheric E-region conductivity and atmospheric tidal winds. The field-aligned currents can also contribute to the seasonal variation of SqY. However, the two-dimensional approach used in this article does not allow us to quantitatively determine their

  16. Sq and EEJ—A Review on the Daily Variation of the Geomagnetic Field Caused by Ionospheric Dynamo Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Maute, A.

    2016-09-01

    A record of the geomagnetic field on the ground sometimes shows smooth daily variations on the order of a few tens of nano teslas. These daily variations, commonly known as Sq, are caused by electric currents of several μA/m2 flowing on the sunlit side of the E-region ionosphere at about 90-150 km heights. We review advances in our understanding of the geomagnetic daily variation and its source ionospheric currents during the past 75 years. Observations and existing theories are first outlined as background knowledge for the non-specialist. Data analysis methods, such as spherical harmonic analysis, are then described in detail. Various aspects of the geomagnetic daily variation are discussed and interpreted using these results. Finally, remaining issues are highlighted to provide possible directions for future work.

  17. Sq and EEJ—A Review on the Daily Variation of the Geomagnetic Field Caused by Ionospheric Dynamo Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Maute, A.

    2017-03-01

    A record of the geomagnetic field on the ground sometimes shows smooth daily variations on the order of a few tens of nano teslas. These daily variations, commonly known as Sq, are caused by electric currents of several μ A/m2 flowing on the sunlit side of the E-region ionosphere at about 90-150 km heights. We review advances in our understanding of the geomagnetic daily variation and its source ionospheric currents during the past 75 years. Observations and existing theories are first outlined as background knowledge for the non-specialist. Data analysis methods, such as spherical harmonic analysis, are then described in detail. Various aspects of the geomagnetic daily variation are discussed and interpreted using these results. Finally, remaining issues are highlighted to provide possible directions for future work.

  18. Gender Representations in the Illustrations of the 6th Grade Language Textbook Used in Greek Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karintzaidis, Nikolaos; Christodoulou, Anastasia; Kyridis, Argyris; Vamvakidou, Ifigeneia

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the way in which the two sexes are presented in education and particularly in the illustration of the language textbook used in the 6th Grade of Greek elementary school. In a society where gender equality is constitutionally enshrined and displayed as an educational policy objective, it attempts to examine if school textbook…

  19. A Critical Analysis of Academic & Recreational Reading Motivation and Its Correlation to Reading FCAT Performance for 6th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBella, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the motivation for academic and recreational reading of 6th grade students in a middle school located in southwest Florida using the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS). In this mixed methods study, motivation for both types of reading were measured, individual demographics of the population, such as…

  20. Environmental Attitudes of the 6th Grade Students from Rural and Urban Areas: A Case Study for Ankara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncer, Gaye; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated environmental attitude of 6th grade students living in rural and urban areas in Ankara. Hundred and thirty-eight students were selected from four schools located in these areas. A 45-item questionnaire consisting of four dimensions was used to measure students' environmental attitude. Results of the study revealed that,…

  1. From Cooks to Carpenters: Measuring - A Saleable Work Skill. Occupation Simulation Packet. Grades 5th-6th.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Helena

    This teacher's guide contains simulated work experiences for 5th and 6th grade students using the isolated skill concept - measuring. Teacher instructions include objectives, evaluation, and sequence of activities. The guide contains pre-tests and post-tests with instructions and answer keys. Three pre-skill activities are suggested, such as…

  2. Story Telling: Research and Action to Improve 6th Grade Students' Views about Certain Aspects of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Feray; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    This study is a four-week section of ongoing attempts that aim to improve 6th grade students' understandings of the nature of science. The study was carried out in a sixth grade science and technology class at a rural middle school with 15 students on the basis of action research methodology. During the study, four different stories based on the…

  3. The Effects of a Traditional and Technology-Based After-School Program on 6th Grade Student's Mathematics Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xiangen; Craig, Scotty D.; Bargagliotti, Anna E.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Okwumabua, Theresa; Anderson, Celia; Cheney, Kyle R.; Sterbinsky, Allan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces (ALEKS) system as a method of strategic intervention in after-school settings to improve the mathematical skills of struggling 6th grade students. Students were randomly assigned to after-school classrooms in which they either worked with ALEKS to improve…

  4. An Early Warning System: Predicting 10th Grade FCAT Success from 6th Grade FCAT Performance. Research Brief. Volume 0711

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Brown, Shelly; Lapadula, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This Research Brief presents a method for predicting 10th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) success from 6th grade FCAT performance. A simple equation provides the most probable single score prediction, and give-or-take error margins define high and low probability zones for expected 10th grade scores. In addition, a double-entry…

  5. Assessment of 6th Grade Elementary School Students, Their Parents' and Branch Teachers' Perspective on Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyraz, Sirin; Ozbar, Nurper; Yetgin, Meral Kucuk; Koksalan, Burke

    2015-01-01

    A total of 437 volunteers including 54 teachers, 218 6th grade students and 102 parents from Beykoz Elementary Schools participated in this study to understand the perspectives of students, families and teachers on Physical Education classes. The perspectives of students, families and teachers of other branches are identified by survey method.…

  6. In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Tensile Bond Strength of 6th, 7th and 8th Generation Dentin Bonding Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kamble, Suresh S; Kandasamy, Baburajan; Thillaigovindan, Ranjani; Goyal, Nitin Kumar; Talukdar, Pratim; Seal, Mukut

    2015-01-01

    Background: Newer dentin bonding agents were developed to improve the quality of composite restoration and to reduce time consumption in its application. The aim of the present study was to evaluate tensile bond strength of 6th, 7th and 8th generation bonding agents by in vitro method. Materials and Methods: Selected 60 permanent teeth were assigned into 20 in each group (Group I: 6th generation bonding agent-Adper SE plus 3M ESPE, Group II: 7th generation bonding agent-G-Bond GC Corp Japan and Group III: 8th generation dentin adhesives-FuturaBond, DC, Voco, Germany). With high-speed diamond disc, coronal dentin was exposed, and selected dentin bonding agents were applied, followed by composite restoration. All samples were saved in saline for 24 h and tensile bond strength testing was done using a universal testing machine. The obtained data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The tensile bond strength readings for 6th generation bonding agent was 32.2465, for 7th generation was 31.6734, and for 8th-generation dentine bonding agent was 34.74431. The highest tensile bond strength was seen in 8th generation bonding agent compared to 6th and 7th generation bonding agents. Conclusion: From the present study it can be conclude that 8th generation dentine adhesive (Futura DC, Voco, Germany) resulted in highest tensile bond strength compared to 6th (Adper SE plus, 3M ESPE) and 7th generation (G-Bond) dentin bonding agents. PMID:26028901

  7. Modeling of local 3D effects of the April 6th 2009 l’Aquila (Italy) event in the City of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caserta, A.; Oprsal, I.; Rovelli, A.; Marra, F.; Govoni, A.; Vinci, S.

    2009-12-01

    Several events of the seismic sequence started on 6th of April 2009, that struck the town of l'Aquila, Italy, have been recorded by an array of seismic stations, located approximately 90 km south-west of the epicenters. One of the stations is in a 80-m-deep borehole, installed since the early 2008 in the middle of the main sedimentary body of the city: the Tiber valley. This represents a unique opportunity to tune seismic simulations of the soil shaking due to a seismic sequence located in Central Apennines region. This latter is considered, with the Albani Hills one, the main seismogenic area responsible of the seismic hazard in the city. We have generated a 3D velocity model for a portion of the city (5 EW x 3 NS km2 wide, and 200 m deep, including topography) where the array is located. A viscoelastic wave propagation due to S-wave pulse of general polarization and given incidence is obtained by the 3D FD hybrid numerical modeling. The 3D pulse response and the borehole recording are then used to generate the complete 3D synthetics covering the area. The results are verified by comparing to the surface recordings and large ground motion amplifications data.

  8. Storm Peak Laboratory 5th-6th Grade Climate and Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, I. B.; Hallar, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    science. At the end of the day each student has a data sheet with measurements recorded from 5 locations of different elevations to take back to the classroom. Following the field trip, SPL scientists and educators visit the school for a follow-up to help children grasp concepts, represent their data set collected in graphical formats, answer questions, and evaluate students" learning. Currently, approximately 250 students annually participate in the SPL 5th and 6th grade climate education program.

  9. 6th Annual European Antibody Congress 2010: November 29-December 1, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Beck, Alain; Wurch, Thierry; Reichert, Janice M

    2011-01-01

    The 6th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapinn Ltd., was held in Geneva, Switzerland, which was also the location of the 4th and 5th EAC. As was the case in 2008 and 2009, the EAC was again the largest antibody congress held in Europe, drawing nearly 250 delegates in 2010. Numerous pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies active in the field of therapeutic antibody development were represented, as were start-up and academic organizations and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration FDA. The global trends in antibody research and development were discussed, including success stories of recent marketing authorizations of golimumab (Simponi®) and canakinumab (Ilaris®) by Johnson & Johnson and Novartis, respectively, updates on antibodies in late clinical development (obinutuzumab/GA101, farletuzumab/MORAb-003 and itolizumab/T1 h, by Glycart/Roche, Morphotek and Biocon, respectively) and success rates for this fast-expanding class of therapeutics (Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development). Case studies covering clinical progress of girentuximab (Wilex), evaluation of panobacumab (Kenta Biotech), characterization of therapeutic antibody candidates by protein microarrays (Protagen), antibody-drug conjugates (sanofi-aventis, ImmunoGen, Seattle Genetics, Wyeth/Pfizer), radio-immunoconjugates (Bayer Schering Pharma, Université de Nantes) and new scaffolds (Ablynx, AdAlta, Domantis/GlaxoSmithKline, Fresenius, Molecular Partners, Pieris, Scil Proteins, Pfizer, University of Zurich) were presented. Major antibody structural improvements were showcased, including the latest selection engineering of the best isotypes (Abbott, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre), hinge domain (Pierre Fabre), dual antibodies (Abbott), IgG-like bispecific antibodies (Biogen Idec), antibody epitope mapping case studies (Eli Lilly), insights in FcγRII receptor (University of Cambridge), as well as novel tools for antibody fragmentation (Genovis). Improvements of

  10. Proceedings from the 6th Annual University of Calgary Leaders in Medicine Research Symposium.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jodie I; Beatty, Jennifer K; Peplowski, Michael A; Keough, Michael B; Yipp, Bryan G; Hollenberg, Morley D; Beck, Paul L

    2015-12-04

    On November 14, 2014, the Leaders in Medicine (LIM) program at the Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary hosted its 6th Annual Research Symposium. Dr. Danuta Skowronski, Epidemiology Lead for Influenza and Emerging Respiratory Pathogens at the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), was the keynote speaker and presented a lecture entitled "Rapid response research during emerging public health crises: influenza and reflections from the five year anniversary of the 2009 pandemic". The LIM symposium provides a forum for both LIM and non-LIM medical students to present their research work, either as an oral or poster presentation. There were a total of six oral presentations and 77 posters presented. 
The oral presentations included: Swathi Damaraju, "The role of cell communication and 3D Cell-Matrix environment in a stem cell-based tissue engineering strategy for bone repair"; Menglin Yang, "The proteolytic activity of Nepenthes pitcher fluid as a therapeutic for the treatment of celiac disease"; Amelia Kellar, "Monitoring pediatric inflammatory bowel disease - a retrospective analysis of transabdominal ultrasound"; Monica M. Faria-Crowder, "The design and application of a molecular profiling strategy to identify polymicrobial acute sepsis infections"; Waleed Rahmani, "Hair follicle dermal stem cells regenerate the dermal sheath, repopulate the dermal papilla and modulate hair type"; and, Laura Palmer, "A novel role for amyloid beta protein during hypoxia/ischemia". 
The article on the University of Calgary Leaders in Medicine Program, "A Prescription that Addresses the Decline of Basic Science Education in Medical School," in a previous issue of CIM (2014 37(5):E292) provides more details on the program. Briefly, the LIM Research Symposium has the following objectives: (1) to showcase the impressive variety of projects undertaken by students in the LIM Program as well as University of Calgary medical students; (2) to encourage medical

  11. PREFACE: 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan Bhatti, Javaid; Hussain, Talib; Khan, Wakil

    2013-06-01

    The Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) conference series has been organized to create a new forum in Asia and Australia to discuss vacuum, surface and related sciences, techniques and applications. The conference series is officially endorsed by the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Application (IUVSTA). The International Steering Committee of VASSCAA is comprised of Vacuum Societies in seven countries: Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Pakistan. VASSCAA-1 was organized by the Vacuum Society of Japan in 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. VASSCAA-2 was held in 2002 in Hong Kong, VASSCAA-3 in Singapore in 2005. VASSCAA-4 was held in Matsue, Japan in 2008 and VASSCAA-5 in 2010 in Beijing, China. The 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6) was held from 9-13 October 2012 in the beautiful city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The venue of the conference was the Pak-China Friendship Centre, Islamabad. More than six hundred local delgates and around seventy delegates from different countries participated in this mega event. These delegates included scientists, researchers, engineers, professors, plant operators, designers, vendors, industrialists, businessmen and students from various research organizations, technical institutions, universities, industries and companies from Pakistan and abroad. The focal point of the event was to enhance cooperation between Pakistan and the international community in the fields of vacuum, surface science and other applied technologies. At VASSCAA-6 85 oral presentations were delivered by local and foreign speakers. These were divided into different sessions according to their fields. A poster session was organized at which over 70 researchers and students displayed their posters. The best three posters won prizes. In parallel to the main conference sessions four technical short courses were held. The participants showed keen interest in all these

  12. Relationship between the equatorial electrojet and global Sq currents at the dip equator region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Nurul Shazana Abdul; Liu, Huixin; Uozumi, Teiji; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Veenadhari, Bhaskara; Yoshikawa, Akimasa; Sanchez, Jairo Avendaño

    2014-12-01

    The equatorial electrojet (EEJ) is a strong eastward ionospheric current flowing in a narrow band along the dip equator. In this study, we examined the EEJ-Sq relationship by using observations at six stations in the South American, Indian, and Southeast Asian sectors. The analysis was carried out with data on geomagnetically quiet days with Kp ≤3 from 2005 to 2011. A normalization approach was used because it yields more accurate results by overcoming the uncertainties due to latitudinal variation of the EEJ and Sq. A weak positive correlation between the EEJ and Sq was obtained in the Southeast Asian sector, while weak negative correlations were obtained in the South American and Indian sectors. EEJ-Sq relationship is found to be independent of the hemispheric configuration of stations used to calculate their magnetic perturbations, and it also only changed slightly during low and moderate solar activity levels. These results demonstrate that the Southeast Asian sector is indeed different from the Indian and South American sectors, which is indicative of unique physical processes particularly related to the electro-dynamo. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the definition of the EEJ, that is, the total current or enhanced current, can significantly affect the conclusions drawn from EEJ-Sq correlations.

  13. [Anniversary of FSI "The 6th Central Military Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Defense of Russian Federation"].

    PubMed

    Budko, A A; Ovechkin, I G

    2009-08-01

    The 6th Central Military Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Defense of Russian Federation celebrates the 20th anniversary in September of 2009. The hospital is one of the greatest and well-known in the world specialized science-practical rehabilitation centers, equipped by original and unique methods, based on modern knowledge-intensive technologies. It permits resolve the most difficult tasks of reconstructive treatment of military service men of Russian Army.

  14. The Efficiency of Cluster Method in Improving the Creative Writing Skill of 6th Grade Students of Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahbaz, Namik Kemal; Duran, Gozde

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to search the effect of the cluster method on the creative writing skill of 6th grade students. In this paper, the students of 6-A, studying at Ulas Primary School in 2010-2011 academic year, were divided into two groups as experiment and control. Taking into consideration the various variants, pre-test and last-test…

  15. PREFACE: 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Marc

    2008-07-01

    The 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice (ICIPE 2008) belongs to a successful series of conferences held up to now following a three-year cycle. Previous conferences took place in Palm Coast, Florida, USA (1993), Le Croisic, France (1996), Port Ludlow, Washington, USA (1999), Angra dos Reis, Brazil (2002), and Cambridge, UK (2005). The conference has its roots on the informal seminars organized by Professor J V Beck at Michigan State University, which were initiated in 1987. The organization of this Conference, which took place in Dourdan (Paris) France, 15-19 June 2008, was made possible through a joint effort by four research departments from four different universities: LEMTA (Laboratoire de Mécanique Théorique et Appliquée, Nancy-Université) LMS (Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris) LMAC (Laboratoire de Mathématiques Appliquées, UTC Compiègne) LTN (Laboratoire de Thermocinétique, Université de Nantes) It received support from three organizations: SFT (Société Française de Thermique: French Heat Transfer Association) ACSM (Association Calcul de Structures et Simulation : Computational Structural Mechanics Association) GdR Ondes - CNRS (`Waves' Network, French National Center for Scientific Research) The objective of the conference was to provide the opportunity for interaction and cross-fertilization between designers of inverse methods and practitioners. The delegates came from very different fields, such as applied mathematics, heat transfer, solid mechanics, tomography.... Consequently the sessions were organised along mostly methodological topics in order to facilitate interaction among participants who might not meet otherwise. The present proceedings, published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, gathers the four plenary invited lectures and the full-length versions of 103 presentations. The latter have been reviewed by the scientific committee (see

  16. Antitubercular Nanocarrier Combination Therapy: Formulation Strategies and in Vitro Efficacy for Rifampicin and SQ641.

    PubMed

    D'Addio, Suzanne M; Reddy, Venkata M; Liu, Ying; Sinko, Patrick J; Einck, Leo; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2015-05-04

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health concern, and new therapies are needed to overcome the problems associated with dosing frequency, patient compliance, and drug resistance. To reduce side effects associated with systemic drug distribution and improve drug concentration at the target site, stable therapeutic nanocarriers (NCs) were prepared and evaluated for efficacy in vitro in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages. Rifampicin (RIF), a current, broad-spectrum antibiotic used in TB therapy, was conjugated by degradable ester bonds to form hydrophobic prodrugs. NCs encapsulating various ratios of nonconjugated RIF and the prodrugs showed the potential ability to rapidly deliver and knockdown intracellular M. tuberculosis by nonconjugated RIF and to obtain sustained release of RIF by hydrolysis of the RIF prodrug. NCs of the novel antibiotic SQ641 and a combination NC with cyclosporine A were formed by flash nanoprecipitation. Delivery of SQ641 in NC form resulted in significantly improved activity compared to that of the free drug against intracellular M. tuberculosis. A NC formulation with a three-compound combination of SQ641, cyclosporine A, and vitamin E inhibited intracellular replication of M. tuberculosis significantly better than SQ641 alone or isoniazid, a current first-line anti-TB drug.

  17. Antitubercular Nanocarrier Combination Therapy: Formulation Strategies and in Vitro Efficacy for Rifampicin and SQ641

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health concern, and new therapies are needed to overcome the problems associated with dosing frequency, patient compliance, and drug resistance. To reduce side effects associated with systemic drug distribution and improve drug concentration at the target site, stable therapeutic nanocarriers (NCs) were prepared and evaluated for efficacy in vitro in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages. Rifampicin (RIF), a current, broad-spectrum antibiotic used in TB therapy, was conjugated by degradable ester bonds to form hydrophobic prodrugs. NCs encapsulating various ratios of nonconjugated RIF and the prodrugs showed the potential ability to rapidly deliver and knockdown intracellular M. tuberculosis by nonconjugated RIF and to obtain sustained release of RIF by hydrolysis of the RIF prodrug. NCs of the novel antibiotic SQ641 and a combination NC with cyclosporine A were formed by flash nanoprecipitation. Delivery of SQ641 in NC form resulted in significantly improved activity compared to that of the free drug against intracellular M. tuberculosis. A NC formulation with a three-compound combination of SQ641, cyclosporine A, and vitamin E inhibited intracellular replication of M. tuberculosis significantly better than SQ641 alone or isoniazid, a current first-line anti-TB drug. PMID:25811733

  18. SOAR versus SQ3R: A Test of Two Study Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairam, Dharma; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Rogers-Kasson, Sarah; Patterson-Hazley, Melissa; Marxhausen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Although researchers have long investigated ways to improve study habits and raise achievement, few studies compare study strategy systems with one another. No study to date has compared the long popular SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) system with the more modern SOAR (Select, Organize, Associate, Regulate) system. This study…

  19. Contributions from the data samples in NOC technique on the extracting of the Sq variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingyan; Xu, Wenyao

    2015-04-01

    The solar quiet daily variation, Sq, a rather regular variation is usually observed at mid-low latitudes on magnetic quiet days or less-disturbed days. It is mainly resulted from the dynamo currents in the ionospheric E region, which are driven by the atmospheric tidal wind and different processes and flow as two current whorls in each of the northern and southern hemispheres[1]. The Sq exhibits a conspicuous day-to-day (DTD) variability in daily range (or strength), shape (or phase) and its current focus. This variability is mainly attributed to changes in the ionospheric conductivity and tidal winds, varying with solar radiation and ionospheric conditions. Furthermore, it presents a seasonal variation and solar cycle variation[2-4]. In generally, Sq is expressed with the average value of the five international magnetic quiet days. Using data from global magnetic stations, equivalent current system of daily variation can be constructed to reveal characteristics of the currents[5]. In addition, using the differences of H component at two stations on north and south side of the Sq currents of focus, Sq is extracted much better[6]. Recently, the method of Natural Orthoganal Components (NOC) is used to decompose the magnetic daily variation and express it as the summation of eigenmodes, and indicate the first NOC eigenmode as the solar quiet daily variation, the second as the disturbance daily variation[7-9]. As we know, the NOC technique can help reveal simpler patterns within a complex set of variables, without designed basic-functions such as FFT technique. But the physical explanation of the NOC eigenmodes is greatly depends on the number of data samples and data regular-quality. Using the NOC method, we focus our present study on the analysis of the hourly means of the H component at BMT observatory in China from 2001 to 2008. The contributions of the number and the regular-quality of the data samples on which eigenmode corresponds to the Sq are analyzed, by

  20. Wood - An Innovative Component of High-tech Products? 6th Wädenswil Day of Chemistry 2014.

    PubMed

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2014-10-01

    Wood is a multifunctional renewable material that could replace oil-based and other non-renewable resources in many applications. In the Swiss National Science Foundation project NFP 66, entitled 'Wood as a resource', researchers are attempting to find ways to use wood more efficiently in the future. The 6th Wädenswil Day of Chemistry, which was organised by the Institute of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry at Zurich University of Applied Sciences in Wädenswil, gave an overview of the innovative activities currently being undertaken in this field.

  1. Childbirth in the Greek island of Chois in the 6th century B.C., 1780, and 1914.

    PubMed

    Argenti, P

    1944-01-01

    Terracottas from the 6th century B.C.; a description of a delivery written in 1780; and a description of a labor chair used until 1914 give an historical picture of childbirth on the Greek island of Chios. The terracottas establish the fact that women were delivered in an upright perpendicular position in classical times. The upright labor chair seems to have continued in use until 1914. Midwives have historically at deliveries. In Chios, doctors seem to have taken over from midwives only around 1914.

  2. Clinical benefits of treatment with SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet in house dust mite allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kristian Funding; Demoly, Pascal; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Rehm, Dorte

    2017-03-08

    Treatment with SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet for 1 year resulted in a decreased probability of having an allergic rhinitis exacerbation day (from 11% (placebo) to 5% (SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet)) and an increased probability of having a mild allergic rhinitis day (from 16% (placebo) to 34% (SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet)). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Gravity Waves Near 300 km Over the Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hodges, R. R.; Coley, W. R.; Carignan, G. R.; Spencer, N. W.

    1995-01-01

    Distinctive wave forms in the distributions of vertical velocity and temperature of both neutral particles and ions are frequently observed from Dynamics Explorer 2 at altitudes above 250 km over the polar caps. These are interpreted as being due to internal gravity waves propagating in the neutral atmosphere. The disturbances characterized by vertical velocity perturbations of the order of 100 m/s and horizontal wave lengths along the satellite path of about 500 km. They often extend across the entire polar cap. The associated temperature perturbations indicate that the horizontal phase progression is from the nightside to the dayside. Vertical displacements are inferred to be of the order of 10 km and the periods to be of the order of 10(exp 3) s. The waves must propagate in the neutral atmosphere, but they usually are most clearly recognizable in the observations of ion vertical velocity and ion temperature. By combining the neutral pressure calculated from the observed neutral concentration and temperature with the vertical component of the neutral velocity, an upward energy flux of the order of 0.04 erg/sq cm-s at 250 km has been calculated, which is about equal to the maximum total solar ultraviolet heat input above that altitude. Upward energy fluxes calculated from observations on orbital passes at altitudes from 250 to 560 km indicate relatively little attenuation with altitude.

  4. KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, M. de; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-07-15

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  5. What predicts the selection of nursing as a career choice in 5th and 6th year school students?

    PubMed

    Neilson, Gavin R; Jones, Martyn C

    2012-07-01

    Demand for nursing care, and nurses, is growing in the United Kingdom given an increasingly ageing patient population with long-term co-morbidities. An ageing nursing workforce and fewer school leavers entering nursing are key barriers to student nurse recruitment. This paper aims to identify the socio-demographic and correlates nursing as a career choice in 5th and 6th year school students. This cross-sectional descriptive study gathered self-administered questionnaires from a total cohort of 5th and 6th year school students (n=1059) in one educational authority in Scotland. A response rate of 100% was achieved, with 702 students expressing a career choice. Some 71.7% (n=503) of students providing a full data set would never consider nursing, even if they obtained poor grades. Only 28.3% (n=199) would ever consider nursing. Students cited nursing as a career choice if they were female, of average to below average academic ability/achievement, expressed a positive attitude to nursing as a degree subject which was shared by their career guidance teacher. Each additional higher reduced the likelihood of nursing as a career choice by 22%. Nursing is an unpopular career choice amongst school students. Strategies are required to improve the occupational image of nursing in secondary education.

  6. Digestive disease management in Japan: a report on the 6th diagnostic pathology summer fest in 2012.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Kazuhito; Fujimori, Takahiro; Moriya, Takuya; Ochiai, Atsushi; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Kushima, Ryouji; Nagahama, Ryuji; Ohkura, Yasuo; Tanaka, Shinji; Ajioka, Yoichi; Hirata, Ichiro; Tanaka, Masanori; Hoshihara, Yoshio; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Sasano, Hironobu; Iwashita, Akinori; Tomita, Shigeki; Hirota, Seiichi; Yao, Takashi; Fujii, Shigehiko; Matsuda, Takahisa; Ueno, Hideki; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Takubo, Kaiyo; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Sugai, Tamotsu; Iwafuchi, Mitsuya; Imura, Jhoji; Manabe, Toshiaki; Fukayama, Masahisa

    2013-01-01

    The 6th Diagnostic Pathology Summer Fest, held in Tokyo on August 25-26, 2012, opened its gates for everyone in the medical profession. Basic pathology training can contribute to the improvement of algorithms for diagnosis and treatment. The 6th Summer Fest with the theme 'Pathology and Clinical Treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases' was held at the Ito International Research Center, The University of Tokyo. On August 25, 'Treatment of Early Gastrointestinal Cancer and New Guidelines' was discussed in the first session, followed by 'Biopsy Diagnosis of Digestive Tract: Key Points of Pathological Diagnosis for Inflammation and Their Clinical Significance' in the second session. On August 26, cases were discussed in the third session, and issues on pathological diagnosis and classification of neuroendorcrine tumor in the fourth session. The summaries of speeches and discussions are introduced along with the statements of each speaker. This meeting was not a formal evidence-based consensus conference, and 20 experts gave talks on their areas of specialty. Discussion was focused on how the management strategy should be standardized on the algorithm of patient care.

  7. Is the onset of the 6th century 'dark age' in Maya history related to explosive volcanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooren, Kees; Hoek, Wim Z.; Van der Plicht, Hans; Sigl, Michael; Galop, Didier; Torrescano-Valle, Nuria; Islebe, Gerald; Huizinga, Annika; Winkels, Tim; Middelkoop, Hans; Van Bergen, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Maya societies in Southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize experienced a 'dark age' during the second half of the 6th century. This period, also known as the 'Maya Hiatus', is characterized by cultural downturn, political instability and abandonment of many sites in the Central Maya Lowlands. Many theories have been postulated to explain the occurrence of this 'dark age' in Maya history. A possible key role of a large volcanic eruption in the onset of this 'dark age' will be discussed. Volcanic deposits recovered from the sedimentary archive of lake Tuspán and the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta were studied in detail and the combination of multiple dating techniques allowed the reconstruction of the timing of a large 6th century eruption. Volcanic glass shards were fingerprinted to indicate the source volcano and high resolution pollen records were constructed to indicate the environmental impact of the eruption. Results are compared with available archaeological data and causality with the disruption of Maya civilization will be evaluated.

  8. Realtime Implementation of the APC/SQ and LPC-10 Speech Coding Algorithms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary ad Identify by block number) Speech coding, APC/SQ, LPC-IO, 9.6 kb/s speech transmission, 2.4 kb/s...coding, digital voice terminal, real-time speech coder, \\ array processor 0. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If neceeemy end Identify by block... machine , the CSPU. The control strategy for allowing each module as much flexibility as possible results in a structure that executes a module only if

  9. Knob manager (KM) operators guide

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-08

    KM, Knob Manager, is a tool which enables the user to use the SUNDIALS knob box to adjust the settings of the control system. The followings are some features of KM: dynamic knob assignments with the user friendly interface; user-defined gain for individual knob; graphical displays for operating range and status of each process variable is assigned; backup and restore one or multiple process variable; save current settings to a file and recall the settings from that file in future.

  10. Publication of Proceedings for the 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003)

    SciTech Connect

    Victor L. Granatstein

    2004-08-08

    The 6th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF (RF 2003) was held from June 22 to June 26 at the Coolfont Resort and Conference Center in Berkeley Springs, West Virginia. The Workshop was hosted by the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP) of the University of Maryland, College Park and by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC. As its name implies this was the sixth in a series of biennial workshops devoted to exchanging information and ideas on high power microwave sources and components. The applications addressed included particle accelerators, radar, HPM, space exploration, neutron sources and plasma heating and current driven in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. This Final Report includes a brief description of the RF 2003 Workshop and the distribution of the published proceedings.

  11. IR and py/GC/MS examination of amber relics excavated from 6th century royal tomb in Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongseo; Yun, Eunyoung; Kang, Hyungtae; Ahn, Jooyoung; Kim, Gyuho

    2016-08-01

    Relics of amber were excavated from King Muryeong's tomb constructed in the 6th century on the Korean peninsula. To estimate the provenance, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and py/GC/MS (pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) analysis were utilized. The reference Baltic amber sample was also analyzed with the same method for comparison. The relics were confirmed to be amber from the FTIR analysis where an absorption band near 1150 cm- 1, characteristic one in Baltic amber, was also observed. In py/GC/MS analysis, pyrolyzed products like butanedioic acid and dehydroabietic acid, known constituents of amber, were observed. In addition, D-fenchyl alcohol, camphor, borneol and butanedioic acid, typical constituents of Baltic amber, were observed in some samples. From this, it appears that some of relics were made from Baltic amber and that Baltic amber was transported to the Korean peninsula in the time of tomb construction.

  12. 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, January 18-20, 2013, Urbana, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, Kevin T.

    2016-04-28

    This document is the program for the 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, which was held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on January 18-20, 2013. The goals of the conference were to foster a culture in which undergraduate women are encouraged and supported to pursue, and also to succeed in, higher education in physics; to provide career information to students in physics and related fields; to give women the resources, motivation, and confidence to apply to graduate school and successfully complete a Ph.D. program in Physics; to provide information and dispel misconceptions about the application process for graduate school and the diverse employment opportunities in physics and related fields, enabling women to make more informed decisions about their goals and attain them; and to connect female physics students with successful female physicists to whom they can relate and who can act as inspirational role models and mentors.

  13. Neutral hydrogen flux measured at 100- to 200-km altitude in an electron aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iglesias, G. E.; Anderson, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen fluxes were measured at altitudes of 120-200 km by a rocket payload that also measured electron and proton fluxes and vector magnetic fields. An intense electron arc was crossed, while an upper limit to the flux of 0.5- to 20-keV protons was 1,000,000 per sq cm s sr keV. A neutral flux of 50,000,000 per sq cm s sr was observed, assuming hydrogen with greater than 1-keV energy, with greater north-south extent than the electron flux. Its pitch angle distribution was peaked toward 90 deg, tending toward isotropy in the center. This is fitted to a model describing spreading of an initial proton arc above 500 km.

  14. ERTS surveys a 500 km squared locust breeding site in Saudi Arabia. [Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedgley, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    From September 1972 to January 1973, ERTS-1 precisely located a 500 sq km area on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia within which the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forsk.) bred successfully and produced many small swarms. Growth of vegetation shown by satellite imagery was confirmed from ground surveys and raingauge data. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of detecting potential locust breeding sites by satellite, and shows that an operational satellite would be a powerful tool for routine survey of the 3 x 10 to the 7th power sq km invasion area of the Desert Locust in Africa and Asia, as well as of other locust species in the arid and semi-arid tropics.

  15. Asymptotically scale-invariant occupancy of phase space makes the entropy Sq extensive

    PubMed Central

    Tsallis, Constantino; Gell-Mann, Murray; Sato, Yuzuru

    2005-01-01

    Phase space can be constructed for N equal and distinguishable subsystems that could be probabilistically either weakly correlated or strongly correlated. If they are locally correlated, we expect the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy SBG ≡ -k Σi pi ln pi to be extensive, i.e., SBG(N) ∝ N for N → ∞. In particular, if they are independent, SBG is strictly additive, i.e., SBG(N) = NSBG(1), ∀N. However, if the subsystems are globally correlated, we expect, for a vast class of systems, the entropy Sq ≡ k[1 - Σi pqi]/(q - 1) (with S1 = SBG) for some special value of q ≠ 1 to be the one which is extensive [i.e., Sq(N) ∝ N for N → ∞]. Another concept which is relevant is strict or asymptotic scale-freedom (or scale-invariance), defined as the situation for which all marginal probabilities of the N-system coincide or asymptotically approach (for N → ∞) the joint probabilities of the (N - 1)-system. If each subsystem is a binary one, scale-freedom is guaranteed by what we hereafter refer to as the Leibnitz rule, i.e., the sum of two successive joint probabilities of the N-system coincides or asymptotically approaches the corresponding joint probability of the (N - 1)-system. The kinds of interplay of these various concepts are illustrated in several examples. One of them justifies the title of this paper. We conjecture that these mechanisms are deeply related to the very frequent emergence, in natural and artificial complex systems, of scale-free structures and to their connections with nonextensive statistical mechanics. Summarizing, we have shown that, for asymptotically scale-invariant systems, it is Sq with q ≠ 1, and not SBG, the entropy which matches standard, clausius-like, prescriptions of classical thermodynamics. PMID:16230624

  16. Embodied Agents, E-SQ and Stickiness: Improving Existing Cognitive and Affective Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Diesbach, Pablo Brice

    This paper synthesizes results from two previous studies of embodied virtual agents on commercial websites. We analyze and criticize the proposed models and discuss the limits of the experimental findings. Results from other important research in the literature are integrated. We also integrate concepts from profound, more business-related, analysis that deepens on the mechanisms of rhetoric in marketing and communication, and the possible role of E-SQ in man-agent interaction. We finally suggest a refined model for the impacts of these agents on web site users, and limits of the improved model are commented.

  17. 2006 SQ372: A Likely Long-Period Comet from the Inner Oort Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Kaib, Nathan A.; Becker, Andrew C.; Jones, R.Lynne; Puckett, Andrew W.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Dilday, Benjamin; Frieman, Joshua A.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Pan, Kaike; Quinn, Thomas; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Apache Point Observ.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of a minor planet (2006 SQ{sub 372}) on an orbit with a perihelion of 24 AU and a semimajor axis of 796 AU. Dynamical simulations show that this is a transient orbit and is unstable on a timescale of {approx}200 Myr. Falling near the upper semimajor axis range of the scattered disk and the lower semimajor axis range of the Oort Cloud, previous membership in either class is possible. By modeling the production of similar orbits from the Oort Cloud as well as from the scattered disk, we find that the Oort Cloud produces 16 times as many objects on SQ{sub 372}-like orbits as the scattered disk. Given this result, we believe this to be the most distant long-period comet (LPC) ever discovered. Furthermore, our simulation results also indicate that 2000 OO{sub 67} has had a similar dynamical history. Unaffected by the 'Jupiter-Saturn Barrier', these two objects are most likely LPCs from the inner Oort Cloud.

  18. 4-sq cm CuInGaSe2 based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaney, W. E.; Stewart, J. M.; Chen, W. S.

    Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells with the structure ZnO/CdZnS/CuInGaSe2 have been fabricated with larger single-cell areas than have been previously reported. A cell with an area of 4 sq cm has been made with an AM1.5, 100 mW/sq cm total area conversion efficiency of 11.1 percent (12.0 percent active area) and an AM0 conversion efficiency of 10.0 percent (10.9 percent active area). The CuInGaSe2 layer had a gallium to indium ratio of 0.26:0.74 with a bandgap of approximately 1.15 eV. The cells use an isolated tab design for the negative (grid) contact, demonstrating the ability to pattern the semiconductor layers. Such CuInGaSe2-based cells may be suitable for large-area terrestrial applications and for single-junction space cell applications.

  19. Assessments of Sequential Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Boost (SqIB) Treatments Using HART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyakuryal, Anil

    2009-05-01

    A retrospective study was pursued to evaluate the SqIB treatments performed on ten head and neck cancer patients(n=10).Average prescription doses (PDs) of 39 Gy,15Gy and 17.8Gy were delivered consecutively from larger to smaller planning target volumes(ptvs) in three different treatment plans using 6 MV X-ray photon beams from a Linear accelerator (SLA Linac, Elekta) on BID weak on-weak off schedules. These plans were statistically evaluated on basis of plan indices (PIs),dose response of targets and critical structures, and dose tolerance(DT) of various organs utilizing the DVH analysis automated software known as Histogram Analysis in Radiation Therapy-HART(S.Jang et al., 2008, Med Phys 35, p.2812). Mean SqIB PIs were found consistent with the reported values for varying radio-surgical systems.The 95.5%(n=10)of each ptvs and the gross tumor volume also received 95% (n=10)of PDs in treatments. The average volume of ten organs (N=10) affected by each PDs shrank with decreasing size of ptvs in above plans.A largest volume of Oropharynx (79%,n=10,N=10) irradiated at PD, but the largest volume of Larynx (98%, n=10, N=10) was vulnerable to DT of structure (TD50).Thus, we have demonstrated the efficiency and accuracy of HART in the assessment of Linac based plans in radiation therapy treatments of cancer.

  20. Photometric and Spectroscopic Footprint Corrections in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s 6th Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specian, Mike A.; Szalay, Alex S.

    2016-04-01

    We identify and correct numerous errors within the photometric and spectroscopic footprints (SFs) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s (SDSS) 6th data release (DR6). Within the SDSS’s boundaries hundreds of millions of objects have been detected. Yet we present evidence that the boundaries themselves contain a significant number of mistakes that are being revealed for the first time within this paper. Left unaddressed, these can introduce systematic biases into galaxy clustering statistics. Using the DR6 Main Galaxy Sample (MGS) targets as tracers, we reveal inconsistencies between the photometric and SF definitions provided in the Catalog Archive Server (CAS), and the measurements of targets therein. First, we find that 19.7 deg2 of the DR6 photometric footprint are devoid of MGS targets. In volumes of radii 7 {h}-1 {Mpc}, this can cause errors in the expected number of galaxies to exceed 60%. Second, we identify seven areas that were erroneously included or excluded from the SF. Moreover, the tiling algorithm that positioned spectroscopic fibers during and between DRs caused many areas along the edge of the SF to be significantly undersampled relative to the footprint’s interior. Through our corrections, we increase the completeness 2.2% by trimming 3.6% of the area from the existing SF. The sum total of these efforts has generated the most accurate description of the SDSS DR6 footprints ever created.

  1. Bond Strength of 5th, 6th and 7th Generation Bonding Agents to Intracanal Dentin of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hossein; Baradaran Nakhjavani, Yahya; Rahro Taban, Sedighe; Baniameri, Zahra; Nahvi, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This in-vitro study sought to assess the push-out bond strength of a total etch and 2 self-etch bonding systems to intracanal dentin of primary anterior teeth (PAT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5th generation (Single Bond 2), 6th generation (Clearfil SE) and 7th generation (Single Bond Universal) bonding agents. The canal orifice was restored with composite resin and the push-out test was carried out to assess the bond strength. After applying the push-out load, specimens were evaluated under a light microscope at 40X magnification. One-way ANOVA and log-rank test on Kaplan-Meier curves were applied for the comparison of bond strength among the 3 groups. Results: The mean± standard deviation (SD) bond strength was 13.6±5.33 MPa for Single Bond 2, 13.85±5.86 MPa for Clearfil SE and 12.28±5.24 MPa for Single Bond Universal. The differences in bond strength among the 3 groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: All three bonding agents are recommended for use with composite posts in PAT. However, due to high technical sensitivity of the Total Etch system, single or two-step self etch systems may be preferred for uncooperative children. PMID:26056518

  2. Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th) century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M; Scholz, Holger C

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th)-17(th) centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th)-8(th) centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

  3. Ethical, legal, and social aspects of farm animal cloning in the 6th Framework Programme for Research.

    PubMed

    Claxton, John; Sachez, Elena; Matthiessen-Guyader, Line

    2004-01-01

    Cloned livestock have potential importance in the provision of improved medicine as well as in the development of livestock production. The public is, however, increasingly concerned about the social and ethical consequences of these advances in knowledge and techniques. There is unevenness throughout Europe in different Member States' attitudes to research into livestock cloning. Although there is EU legislation controlling the use of animals for research purposes, there is no legislation specifically governing cloning in livestock production. The main EU reference is the 9th Opinion of the European Group on Ethics, which states "Cloning of farm animals may prove to be of medical and agricultural as well as economic benefit. It is acceptable only when the aims and methods are ethically justified and when carried out under ethical conditions." The ethical justification includes the avoidance of suffering, the use of the 3Rs principle and a lack of better alternatives. The Commission addresses these issues in the 6th Framework Programme by promoting the integration of ethical, legal and social aspects in all proposals where they are relevant, by fostering ethical awareness and foresight in the proposals, by encouraging public dialogue, and by supporting specific actions to promote the debate. Research must respect fundamental ethical principles, including animal welfare requirements.

  4. Peculiarities of change of Sq-variation in solar activity cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnoy, V.; Malosiev, T.

    It has been considered, that a dependence of Sq-variation on R (relative sunspot numbers) is described by linear function. However these conclusions have been based on analysis of data collected during the periods spanning 1922-1932 and 1933-1943, when peak value of R did not exceed 115. Therefore it is of interest to examine the dependence of Sq-variation on R including period 1957-1958, when R reached the magnitude of 250. For this purpose, the average annual diurnal amplitude (a difference between midday and midnight values) of Sq-variations according to five international quiet days, were computed. The data from three observatories having long observational series and located in different latitude zones were used, namely: Rude Skov (middle latitude observatory) from 1907 to 1961; Alibag (low latitude observatory) from 1900 to 1959; Huancayo (equatorial observatory) from 1920 to 1964. It was found that average annual diurnal amplitude increases in proportion to R only in the range of 0

  5. Highlights from the 6th Annual University of Calgary Leaders in Medicine Research Symposium and the Keynote Address by Dr. Danuta Skowronski.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jodie I; Beatty, Jennifer K; Peplowski, Michael A; Keough, Michael B; Yipp, Bryan G; Hollenberg, Morley D; Beck, Paul L

    2015-12-04

    The Leaders in Medicine (LIM) Program at the University of Calgary hosted its 6th Annual Research Symposium on November 14, 2014, showcasing the quality and breadth of work performed by students at the Cumming School of Medicine. Participation at this year's event was our most successful to date, with a total of six oral and 77 poster presentations during the afternoon symposium. For a detailed description of the work presented at the symposium, please see the Proceedings from the 6th Annual University of Calgary Leaders in Medicine Research Symposium published in this issue of Clinical and Investigative Medicine.

  6. An antireflection transparent conductor with ultralow optical loss (<2 %) and electrical resistance (<6 Ω sq-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniyara, Rinu Abraham; Mkhitaryan, Vahagn K.; Chen, Tong Lai; Ghosh, Dhriti Sundar; Pruneri, Valerio

    2016-12-01

    Transparent conductors are essential in many optoelectronic devices, such as displays, smart windows, light-emitting diodes and solar cells. Here we demonstrate a transparent conductor with optical loss of ~1.6%, that is, even lower than that of single-layer graphene (2.3%), and transmission higher than 98% over the visible wavelength range. This was possible by an optimized antireflection design consisting in applying Al-doped ZnO and TiO2 layers with precise thicknesses to a highly conductive Ag ultrathin film. The proposed multilayer structure also possesses a low electrical resistance (5.75 Ω sq-1), a figure of merit four times larger than that of indium tin oxide, the most widely used transparent conductor today, and, contrary to it, is mechanically flexible and room temperature deposited. To assess the application potentials, transparent shielding of radiofrequency and microwave interference signals with ~30 dB attenuation up to 18 GHz was achieved.

  7. Characterization of FGFR1 Locus in sqNSCLC Reveals a Broad and Heterogeneous Amplicon.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Claire; Geh, Catherine; Williams, Victoria; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Menon, Roopika; Schneider, Petra; Al-Kadhimi, Katherine; Dymond, Michael; Smith, Neil R; Baker, Dawn; French, Tim; Smith, Paul D; Harrington, Elizabeth A; Barrett, J Carl; Kilgour, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    FGFR1 amplification occurs in ~20% of sqNSCLC and trials with FGFR inhibitors have selected FGFR1 amplified patients by FISH. Lung cancer cell lines were profiled for sensitivity to AZD4547, a potent, selective inhibitor of FGFRs 1-3. Sensitivity to FGFR inhibition was associated with but not wholly predicted by increased FGFR1 gene copy number. Additional biomarker assays evaluating expression of FGFRs and correlation between amplification and expression in clinical tissues are therefore warranted. We validated nanoString for mRNA expression analysis of 194 genes, including FGFRs, from clinical tumour tissue. In a panel of sqNSCLC tumours 14.4% (13/90) were FGFR1 amplified by FISH. Although mean FGFR1 expression was significantly higher in amplified samples, there was significant overlap in the range of expression levels between the amplified and non-amplified cohorts with several non-amplified samples expressing FGFR1 to levels equivalent to amplified samples. Statistical analysis revealed increased expression of FGFR1 neighboring genes on the 8p12 amplicon (BAG4, LSM1 and WHSC1L1) in FGFR1 amplified tumours, suggesting a broad rather than focal amplicon and raises the potential for codependencies. High resolution aCGH analysis of pre-clinical and clinical samples supported the presence of a broad and heterogeneous amplicon around the FGFR1 locus. In conclusion, the range of FGFR1 expression levels in both FGFR1 amplified and non-amplified NSCLC tissues, together with the breadth and intra-patient heterogeneity of the 8p amplicon highlights the need for gene expression analysis of clinical samples to inform the understanding of determinants of response to FGFR inhibitors. In this respect the nanoString platform provides an attractive option for RNA analysis of FFPE clinical samples.

  8. The preparatory phase of the April 6th 2009, Mw 6.3, L’Aquila earthquake: Seismological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucente, F. P.; de Gori, P.; Margheriti, L.; Piccinini, D.; Dibona, M.; Chiarabba, C.; Piana Agostinetti, N.

    2009-12-01

    Few decades ago, the dilatancy-diffusion hypothesis held great promise as a physical basis for developing earthquakes prediction techniques, but the potential never become reality, as the result of too few observations consistent with the theory. One of the main problems has been the lack of detailed monitoring records of small earthquakes swarms spatio-temporally close to the incoming major earthquakes. In fact, the recognition of dilatancy-related effects requires the use of very dense network of three-component seismographs, which, in turn, implies the a-priori knowledge of major earthquakes location, i.e., actually a paradox. The deterministic prediction of earthquakes remains a long time, hard task to accomplish. Nevertheless, for seismologists, the understanding of the processes that preside over the earthquakes nucleation and the mechanics of faulting represents a big step toward the ability to predict earthquakes. Here we describe a set of seismological observations done on the foreshock sequence that preceded the April 6th 2009, Mw 6.3, L’Aquila earthquake. In this occasion, the dense configuration of the seismic network in the area gave us the unique opportunity for a detailed reconstruction of the preparatory phase of the main shock. We show that measurable precursory effects, as changes of the seismic waves velocity and of the anisotropic parameters in the crust, occurred before the main shock. From our observations we infer that fluids play a key role in the fault failure process, and, most significantly, that the elastic properties of the rock volume surrounding the main shock nucleation area undergo a dramatic change about a week before the main shock occurrence.

  9. [The IASLC lung cancer staging project. Comparing the current 6(th) TNM edition with the proposed 7(th) edition].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Lina; Cardoso, Edgar; Nunes, Henrique; Baptista, Victor; Gomes, Ana; Couceiro, Patrícia

    2009-01-01

    The future 7th edition of TNM classification for lung cancer will be published in 2009 and comprises the IASLC recommendations for TNM parameters. The general staging of lung cancer includes the new parameters: reclassification of tumours larger than 7 cm from T2 to T3; extra tumoral nodules will change their category to T3, T4 and M1 when in the same, ipsilateral or contralateral lobe, respectively; pleural effusion will be M1a. With these alterations, cases staged as IB - T2b N0 M0 will be IIA, cases staged IIB - T2a N1 M0 will be IIA and cases IIIB- T4 N0- -1 M0 will be IIIA. The 7(th) TNM edition recommendations were applied to 203 broncho -pulmonary carcinomas, concerning epidermoid carcinomas (83) and adenocarcinomas (120) registered in the archive of the Serviço de Anatomia Patológica of the Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra - Portugal, previously submitted to surgical resection and lymph node excision. The following alterations will be kept as the application of the future 7(th) TNM edition: 20 cases in stage IB will move to stage IIA (17) and stage IIB (3); 18 cases will change from stage IIB to stage IIA (17) and 1 case to stage IIIA; 2 cases from stage IIIB will move to stage IV; 6 cases in stage IV will move to stage IIIA (5) and 1 case to stage IIIB. In this translational adaptation from 6th to 7th TNM staging, 51 out of the 203 analysed cases change their staging, corresponding to 25.1%.

  10. The Hetu'u Global Network: Measuring the Distance to the Sun Using the June 5th/6th Transit of Venus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rodriguez, David R.; Miller, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of historic astronomical endeavors, we invited school groups across the globe to collaborate in a solar distance measurement using the rare June 5/6th transit of Venus. In total, we recruited 19 school groups spread over 6 continents and 10 countries to participate in our Hetu'u Global Network. Applying the methods of French…

  11. Trends in Substance Use among 6th-to 10th-Grade Students from 1998 to 2010: Findings from a National Probability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Farhat, Tilda; Haynie, Denise; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Of the handful of national studies tracking trends in adolescent substance use in the United States, only the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study collects data from 6th through 10th graders. The purpose of this study was to examine trends from 1998 to 2010 (four time points) in the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use…

  12. The Effect of the Van Hiele Model Based Instruction on the Creative Thinking Levels of 6th Grade Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Tolga; Akkaya, Recai; Celebi Akkaya, Sibel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the Van Hiele model based instruction process on the creative thinking levels of 6th grade primary school students. Pre test-post test matching control group quasi-experimental design was used in the study. Fifty five students enrolled in sixth grades during the 2005-2006 educational year formed…

  13. Proceedings of the Office of Special Education Programs' Annual Technical Assistance and Dissemination Meeting (6th, Washington, DC, January 16-18, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.

    This document presents the proceedings for the Office of Special Education Programs' 6th Annual Technical Assistance and Dissemination Meeting held on January 16-18, 1996, in Washington, DC. Conference discussions centered around changing expectations for local and state education agencies and technical assistance and dissemination (TA&D)…

  14. Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.

    2012-12-01

    It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by the global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region, which are generated by dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Recently, Elias et al. [2010] reported that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes in a period of 1961-2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is due to ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effect in the thermosphere due to increasing greenhouse gas. In the present study, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 solar flux as a good indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range as well as geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour observed at 184 geomagnetic stations. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum every day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude at all the geomagnetic stations shows a strong correlation with the solar F10.7 flux which depends on 11-year solar activity. The relationship between the Sq amplitude and F10.7 flux was not linear but nonlinear. This nonlinearity could be interpreted as the decrease of production rate of electrons and ions in the ionosphere for the strong EUV and UV fluxes as already reported by Balan et al. [1993]. In order to minimize the solar

  15. Integration of physical activity and technology motion devices within a combined 5th and 6th grade science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Kevin Eugene

    Background: National recommendations to increase school-based physical activity and promote academic success advise incorporating movement into traditional classroom lessons. Classroom-based physical activities have favorable associations with indicators of cognitive functioning, academic behaviors, and academic achievement. Purpose: This study analyzed the Active Science framework, which incorporated school-based physical activity within interactive science classroom lessons. Specifically, the study measured the effects of the Active Science framework on student physical activity levels in the classroom, student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge, and student perceptions of physical activity and science. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the teachers' perceptions on the implementation of the framework. Subjects: Participants were 37 Hispanic girls (age=11.1 +/-0.8 yr) in mixed 5th/6th grade science classes in a private, urban middle school. Methods: Physical activity levels of the students during the Active Science framework were measured using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess the levels of learning achieved by the students in science inquiry skills and content during the Active Science framework. Student perceptions and attitudes toward science and physical activity were measured during student focus groups and pre-post perception surveys. Lesson plan evaluations completed by the teachers and structured interviews provided data on implementation of the framework. Results: Physical activity results showed heart rate (146 +/-9 bpm); maximal heart rate (196 +/-10.6 bpm); time (35 +/-2.5 mins); steps (3050 +/-402.7); calories (99 +/-8.4 kcal); and distance (1.1 +/-0.2 miles) while performing the activity portion of the science lessons were consistent with national recommendations for accumulating school-based physical activity. Significant increases in science content and skills test scores with a 22

  16. Bone loss during partial weight bearing (1/6th gravity) is mitigated by resistance and aerobic exercise in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreaux, R. D.; Metzger, C. E.; Macias, B. R.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Hogan, H. A.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    Astronauts on long duration missions continue to experience bone loss, as much as 1-2% each month, for up to 4.5 years after a mission. Mechanical loading of bone with exercise has been shown to increase bone formation, mass, and geometry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two exercise protocols during a period of reduced gravitational loading (1/6th body weight) in mice. Since muscle contractions via resistance exercise impart the largest physiological loads on the skeleton, we hypothesized that resistance training (via vertical tower climbing) would better protect against the deleterious musculoskeletal effects of reduced gravitational weight bearing when compared to endurance exercise (treadmill running). Young adult female BALB/cBYJ mice were randomly assigned to three groups: 1/6 g (G/6; n=6), 1/6 g with treadmill running (G/6+RUN; n=8), or 1/6 g with vertical tower climbing (G/6+CLB; n=9). Exercise was performed five times per week. Reduced weight bearing for 21 days was achieved through a novel harness suspension system. Treadmill velocity (12-20 m/min) and daily run time duration (32-51 min) increased incrementally throughout the study. Bone geometry and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at proximal metaphysis and mid-diaphysis tibia were assessed by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) on days 0 and 21 and standard dynamic histomorphometry was performed on undemineralized sections of the mid-diaphysis after tissue harvest. G/6 caused a significant decrease (P<0.001) in proximal tibia metaphysis total vBMD (-9.6%). These reductions of tibia metaphyseal vBMD in G/6 mice were mitigated in both G/6+RUN and G/6+CLB groups (P<0.05). After 21 days of G/6, we saw an absolute increase in tibia mid-diaphysis vBMD and in distal metaphysis femur vBMD in both G/6+RUN and G/6+CLB mice (P<0.05). Substantial increases in endocortical and periosteal mineralizing surface (MS/BS) at mid-diaphysis tibia in G/6+CLB demonstrate that

  17. Conference scene: Summary of the 6th Conference of the Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories with international participation.

    PubMed

    Carasevici, Eugen

    2011-10-01

    The Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories (RAML) conferences have acquired a reputation for standing out as the most prominent and efficient meetings in the national community of laboratory medicine, being a landmark of the development in this field in Romania and an active affiliation to international forums. This year, the conference setting was Piatra Neamt, in the northeast part of Romania, which produced a friendly and stimulating professional environment. As in previous years, leading experts in the fields of laboratory medicine attended the event. This year, we enjoyed the opportunity to have such distinguished guests as the members of the executive board of International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC); Graham Beastall, IFCC President; Päivi Hannele Laitinen, IFCC secretary; and Grazyna Sypniewska, IFCC Communication and Publication Division, and editor of the electronic journal of the IFCC. As usual, the conference program included all aspects of clinical laboratory activity, with a special focus on technology development, instrumentation and laboratory management. Fully aware of the fact that the complexity and depth of laboratory practice have undergone an impressive and rapid evolution, the specific goals of the event were to increase knowledge in the fundamentals of new molecular investigation, areas which show the tendency to become routine in our daily activity. In addition, laboratory management and the place of medical laboratories in the process of translational medicine were subjects of focus. The 6th Conference of the Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories was held from Wednesday 1st to Saturday 4th of June 2011. A total of 273 participants from all local branches of the Association attended. The scientific program included seven plenary sessions where 22 lectures and 18 short communications were delivered, and three poster sessions with 44 poster presentations. Session topics covered issues of

  18. International Methane Hydrate Research and Development Workshop (6th) held in Bergen, Norway on May 13-15, 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-22

    NIGHT) “ Subduction of a sponge” • Rapid accretion (12±3 mm/yr., Barnes and Mercier de Lepinay, 1997) • Accretionary wedge 100-150 km, significant...Rowland, 2003) → “ Subduction of a sponge” (Townend, 1997) ~4 cm/yr Pacific Plate Australian Plate Tectonics: Pacific Plate subducted beneath...Australian Plate, starting 21 Ma Study Area “ subduction of sponge” subduction of seamounts South: highly accretive (“ subduction of sponge”) North

  19. A 20 sq CM CCD mosaic camera for a dark matter search. Part 1: Mechanics, optics and cryogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, M.; Aubourg, E.; Bareyre, P.; Brehin, S.; Caridroit, R.; de Kat, J.; Dispau, G.; Djidi, K.; Gros, M.; Lachieze-Rey, M.

    1994-09-01

    A 20 sq cm charge coupled device (CCD) mosaic camera has been especially built to search for dark galactic halo objects by the gravitational microlensing effect. The sensitive area is made of 16 edge-buttable CCDs developed by Thomson-CTS, with 23x23 sq micrometer pixels. The 35 kg camera housing and mechanical equipment is presented. The associated electronics and data acquisition system are described in a separate paper. The camera resides at the focal plane of a 40 cm, f/10, Ferson reflector. The instrument has been in operation since December 1991 at the European Southern Observatory's (ESO) La Silla Observatory.

  20. SB6.0: The 6th International meeting on Synthetic Biology, July 9-11, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, Linda J.

    2015-04-23

    The Synthetic Biology conference series (SBx.0) is the preeminent academic meeting in synthetic biology. Organized by the BioBricks Foundation, the SBx.0 conference series brings together leading researchers, students, industry executives, and policy makers from around the world to share, consider, debate, and plan efforts to make biology easier to engineer. Historically held every two years, the SBx.0 conferences are held in alternating locations in the United States, Europe, and Asia to encourage global participation and collaboration so that the ramifications of synthetic biology research and development are most likely to be safe ethical, and beneficial. On 9-11 July 2013, the 6th installment of the synthetic biology conference series (SB6.0) was held on the campus of Imperial College London (http://sb6.biobricks.org). The SB6.0 conference was attended by over 700 people, and many more were able to participate via video digital conference (http://sb6.biobricks.org/digital-conference/). Over the course of three days, the SB6.0 conference agenda included plenary sessions, workshops, and poster presentations covering topics ranging from the infrastructure needs arising when “Systematic Engineering Meets Biological Complexity” and design-led considerations for “Connecting People and Technologies” to discussions on “Engineering Biology for New Materials,” “Assessing Risk and Managing Biocontainment,” and “New Directions for Energy and Sustainability.” The $10,150 grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-SC0010233) to the BioBricks Foundation was used to provide partial reimbursement for the travel expenses of leading researchers from the United States to speak at the SB6.0 conference. A total of $9,450 was used to reimburse U.S. speakers for actual expenses related to the SB6.0 conference, including airfare (economy or coach only), ground transportation, hotel, and registration fees. In addition, $700 of the grant was used to offset

  1. PREFACE: NC-AFM 2003: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichling, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Direct nanoscale and atomic resolution imaging is a key issue in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The invention of the dynamic force microscope in the early 1990s was an important step forward in this direction as this instrument provides a universal tool for measuring the topography and many other physical and chemical properties of surfaces at the nanoscale. Operation in the so-called non-contact mode now allows direct atomic resolution imaging of electrically insulating surfaces and nanostructures which has been an unsolved problem during the first decade of nanotechnology. Today, we face a most rapid development of the technique and an extension of its capabilities far beyond imaging; atomically resolved force spectroscopy provides information about local binding properties and researchers now develop sophisticated schemes of force controlled atomic manipulation with the tip of the force microscope. Progress in the field of non-contact force microscopy is discussed at the annually held NC-AFM conferences that are part of a series started in 1998 with a meeting in Osaka, Japan. The 6th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy took place in Dingle, Ireland, from 31 August to 3 September 2003 and this special issue is a compilation of the original publications of work presented at this meeting. The papers published here well reflect recent achievements, current trends and some of the challenging new directions in non-contact force microscopy that have been discussed during the most stimulating conference days in Dingle. Fundamental aspects of forces and dissipation relevant in imaging and spectroscopy have been covered by experimental and theoretical contributions yielding a more detailed understanding of tip--surface interaction in force microscopy. Novel and improved imaging and spectroscopy techniques have been introduced that either improve the performance of force microscopy or pave the way towards new functionalities and applications

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Solar Quiet Daily Sq Variation and Equatorial Electrojet Over Africa: Results From International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiu, A.; Yumoto, K.; Bello, O.

    2010-12-01

    Space Environment Research Centre of Kyushu University, Japan, installed 13 units of Magnetic Data Acquisition Systems MAGDAS over Africa during the International Heliophysical Year IHY. Magnetic records from 10 stations along the African 96o Magnetic Meridian (Geographical 30o - 40o East) were examined for Solar quiet daily Sq variation in the three geomagnetic field components H, D and Z. Spatial variations of Sq in the geomagnetic components were examined. Signatures of equatorial electrojet and worldwide Sq were identified and studied in detail. H field experienced more variation within the equatorial electrojet zone. Diurnal and seasonal variations of the geomagnetic variations in the three components were discussed. Levels of inter-relationships between the Sq and its variability in the three components were statistically derived and interpreted in line with the mechanisms responsible for the variations of the geomagnetic field. Data from 2 magnetic observatories within equatorial electrojet EEJ strip and 2 stations outside the EEJ strip were employed to evaluate and study the signatures of the Equatorial electrojet over the African sector. The transient variations of the EEJ at two almost parallel axes using Lagos-Ilorin and Nairobi-Addis pairs were examined. The EEJ appear stronger in East than West Africa. The magnitudes and patterns of variation of EEJ strength along the two axes were examined for any simultaneity or otherwise of responses to ionospheric processes. The flow gradient of EEJ along the African sector was estimated and its diurnal variation studied.

  3. Influence of insecticides and reflective mulch on watermelon vine decline caused by squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifest as sudden decline of vines a few weeks ...

  4. Update on the U.S. Army TARDEC Power and Energy P&E SIL Program: Progress since the 6th AECV (June 2005 to Present)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    energy dissipaters were installed and the diagnostics and data acquisition system was upgraded. Since one of the two traction motor- dyno pairs was...ion system identical to one installed in HERMIT. New energy dissipaters were installed and the diagnostics and data acquisition system was upgraded...UPDATE ON THE U.S. ARMY TARDEC POWER AND ENERGY P&E SIL PROGRAM Progress since the 6th AECV (June 2005 to Present) Nancy Saxon*, Eugene

  5. Prognostic Discrepancy of the 6th and 7th UICC N Classification for Lymph Node Staging in Gastric Cancer Patients after Curative Resection

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sung Jin; Suh, Byoung Jo; Park, Jong Kwon; Oh, Sung Don; Yu, Hang Jong

    2017-01-01

    Background The validity of N classification of the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system is still under debate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic efficacy of the 7th edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system (focusing on N stage), in comparison with the 6th edition, at a single Eastern institution. Methods We analyzed 1,435 patients with gastric cancer who underwent curative resection performed from September 1998 to August 2003 at the Memorial Jin-Pok Kim Korea Gastric Cancer Center. We analyzed the survival rate of the patients according to the AJCC/UICC 6th and 7th editions, and compared each stage, focusing on N stage. Results Significant differences in the 5-year survival rates were observed between the 6th and the 7th AJCC/UICC staging system. In the 6th edition staging system, the Kaplan-Meier curves discriminated each N stage significantly. In contrast, there was no difference in terms of survival curves for N stage according to the 7th edition, especially between N1 and N2: the Kaplan-Meier plots of survival curves between N1 (77.0%) and N2 (78.1%) stages overlapped significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusion Although the 7th UICC staging system is a more detailed and sophisticated system in the T category, there was no prognostic significance between the pN1 and pN2 stages according to our data. Therefore, we suggest establishing a new UICC staging system taking into consideration the application of the N stage. PMID:28203165

  6. Breaching the Devil’s Garden- The 6th New Zealand Brigade in Operation Lightfoot. The Second Battle of El Alamein, 23 October 1942. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Force (And Related Elements) Appendix K Chronology Of Events, 6th New Zealand Brigade Zone Appendix L Other Breaches Conducted As Part Of The Overall...extra positions will be used as alternate positions. All new positions will be placed in the minefields. A part of each combat outpost, in the old...Aber auch den eing6e3etztefl Verbaenden wfrd si ~ch txn~itteltsaz l4ntor der - Front Gelegenhoit bieten, in beochraenktom Rahmen eauszibilden

  7. Archeomagnetic Intensity Variations During the 6th Millennium BC in the Middle East: New Data from Yarim Tepe II (Northern Iraq)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimova, S.; Gallet, Y.; Amirov, S.

    2015-12-01

    During the seventies, Soviet archeologists conducted in Northern Iraq excavations of several ancient settlements dated from the Pottery Late Neolithic period (7th and 6th millennia BC). A very large collection of artifacts unearthed from these sites, in particular several thousands of well-documented pottery fragments, is now stored at the Archeological Institute in Moscow. We collected a time-sequential series of groups of potsherds from the multilayered settlement called Yarim Tepe II dated to the Halaf period (6th millennium BC). Each group comprises a minimum of 3 potsherds (up to 10) found within a same archeological layer, typically a thickness of about 20 cm. Altogether, the fragment groups encompass the entire 7-m thick stratigraphic sequence of Yarim Tepe II. We will present our first archeointensity results obtained using the experimental protocol developed for the Triaxe magnetometer, taking into account the effects of both the thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy and the cooling rate dependence on TRM acquisition. The new data help to better constrain the geomagnetic field intensity variations in the Middle East during the 6th millennium BC. Thanks to the comparison with other datasets from Bulgaria and Syria, the new archeointensity results provide evidence for the occurrence of very rapid geomagnetic field intensity variations around 5500 BC.

  8. Table and charts of equilibrium normal shock and shock tube properties for pure argon with velocities to 18 km/sec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III; Wilder, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium thermodynamic and flow properties are presented in tabulated and graphical form for moving, standing, and reflected normal shock waves in pure argon. Properties include pressure, temperature, density, enthalpy, speed of sound, entropy, molecular-weight ratio, isentropic exponent, velocity, and species mole fractions. Incident (moving) shock velocities are varied from 2 to 18 km/sec for a range of initial pressure of 5 N/sq m to 500 kN/sq m. Working charts illustrating shock tube performance with argon test gas and heated helium and hydrogen driver gases are also presented.

  9. Design, Development and Flight Testing of the U.S. Army 4200 sq ft Parafoil Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Thomas W.; Fox, Roy, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, development and flight-testing of the U.S. Army 4200 sq ft parafoil recovery system built under NASA Contract NAS 9-00076. The 4200 f? parafoil described herein was a potential candidate to fulfill the U.S. Army requirement for a 10,000 lb useable payload precision guided recovery system. Design heritage as well as specific features, like lower surface inlets, confluence fitting, upper surface energy modulator design, deployment bag design and 60 ft diameter Ringslot drogue will be discussed. Initial flight test results, ground testing of various components to verify design margin and configuration changes will also be discussed. The 4200 sq ft parafoil recovery system completed three flight tests during 2003 at payload weights of over 15,000 Ibs

  10. A low noise 230 GHz heterodyne receiver employing .25 sq micron area Nb/AlO(x)/Nb tunnel junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kooi, Jacob W.; Chan, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Bumble, B.; Leduc, H. G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent results for a full height rectangular waveguide mixer with an integrated IF matching network are reported. Two 0.25 sq micron Nb/AlO(x)/Nb superconducting insulating superconducting (SIS) tunnel junctions with a current density of about 8500 A/sq cm and omega RC of about 2.5 at 230 GHz have been tested. Detailed measurements of the receiver noise have been made from 200-290 GHz for both junctions at 4.2 K. The lowest receiver noise temperatures were recorded at 239 GHz, measuring 48 K DSB at 4.2 K and 40 K DSB at 2.1 K. The 230 GHz receiver incorporates a one octave wide integrated low pass filter and matching network which transforms the pumped IF junction impedance to 50 ohms over a wide range of impedances.

  11. Changes of the Sq Quiet Daily Variations of the Geomagnetic Field as a Function of Time of Year and Latitude,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    obtained at Huancayo , Honolulu, and Baker Lake. The mean and median values of the correlation coefficient, all stations considered, were (respectively...percentage errors for all three components combined whereas, Huancayo , Tatuoca, Tucson, and Baker Lake show reasonably low all all-over values of...best, Paramaribo and Fredericksburg are very good, and Huancayo and Baker Lake are good. For future studies on induced effects of Sq these five

  12. 6(th) Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) applications and beyond, April 25-27, 2013, Riga, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Alzaid, Aus; Schlaeger, Christof; Hinzmann, Rolf

    2013-12-01

    International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, and pediatrics gathered for the 6(th) Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) Applications and beyond. The aim of this meeting was to continue setting up a global network of experts in this field and provide an international platform for exchange of ideas to improve life for people with diabetes. The 2013 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures. All these discussions were intended to help identify gaps and areas where further scientific work and clinical studies are warranted.

  13. 6th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) Applications and Beyond, April 25–27, 2013, Riga, Latvia

    PubMed Central

    Schlaeger, Christof; Hinzmann, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Abstract International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, and pediatrics gathered for the 6th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) Applications and beyond. The aim of this meeting was to continue setting up a global network of experts in this field and provide an international platform for exchange of ideas to improve life for people with diabetes. The 2013 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures. All these discussions were intended to help identify gaps and areas where further scientific work and clinical studies are warranted. PMID:24074038

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of a membrane-enriched fraction from flag leaves reveals responses to chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qilu; Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Li, Ying; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    The induction of wheat male fertile lines by using the chemical hybridizing agent SQ-1 (CHA-SQ-1) is an effective approach in the utilization of heterosis; however, the molecular basis of male fertility remains unknown. Wheat flag leaves are the initial receptors of CHA-SQ-1 and their membrane structure plays a vital role in response to CHA-SQ-1 stress. To investigate the response of wheat flag leaves to CHA-SQ-1 stress, we compared their quantitative proteomic profiles in the absence and presence of CHA-SQ-1. Our results indicated that wheat flag leaves suffered oxidative stress during CHA-SQ-1 treatments. Leaf O2-, H2O2, and malonaldehyde levels were significantly increased within 10 h after CHA-SQ-1 treatment, while the activities of major antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were significantly reduced. Proteome profiles of membrane-enriched fraction showed a change in the abundance of a battery of membrane proteins involved in multiple biological processes. These variable proteins mainly impaired photosynthesis, ATP synthesis protein mechanisms and were involved in the response to stress. These results provide an explanation of the relationships between membrane proteomes and anther abortion and the practical application of CHA for hybrid breeding. PMID:26379693

  15. Is the April 6th 2009 L'Aquila earthquake a confirmation of the "seismic landscape" concept?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumetti, Anna Maria; Comerci, Valerio; Guerrieri, Luca; Michetti, Alessandro Maria; Serva, Leonello; Vittori, Eutizio

    2010-05-01

    In the Central Apennines, active extensional tectonics is accommodated by a dense array of normal faults. Major tectonic elements are typically located at the foot of fault escarpments, tens of kilometres long and some hundreds of meters high. Subordinate faults within major blocks produce additional topographic irregularities (i.e., minor graben and fault scarps; Blumetti et al. 1993; Serva et al. 2002; Blumetti and Guerrieri, 2007). During moderate to strong earthquakes (M>6) one or several or all these faults can be rejuvenated up to the surface, and should be therefore regarded as capable faults. Thus, their total throw is the result of several surface faulting events over the last few hundreds of thousands of years. This is true for landscapes that have a "typical" earthquake magnitude (i.e., the earthquake magnitude that better "characterizes" the local landscape; Serva et al. 2002; Michetti et al. 2005) of either 6 or 7. According to this model in the L'Aquila region the seismic landscape is the result of repeated magnitude 7 events. In other words, the maximum magnitude to be expected is around 7, but clearly smaller events can also occur, like in the April 6, 2009 case. The L'Aquila region is well known for being characterized by a high seismic hazard. In particular, two events with Intensity X MCS occurred on November 26, 1461 and February 2, 1703. The latter was the third major seismic event of a seismic sequence that in two weeks shifted from Norcia (January 14) to L'Aquila (February 2). Two other destructive earthquakes hit the same area in 1349, IX-X MCS, and in 1762, IX MCS. Concerning the February 2, 1703, event, a good dataset of geological effects was provided by contemporary reports (e.g. Uria de Llanos, 1703): about 20 km of surface faulting along the Pizzoli fault, with offsets up to about half a meter and impressive secondary effects such as a river diversion, huge deep-seated gravitational movements and liquefaction phenomena involving the

  16. Smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among 6th-grade students in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K; Forster-Cox, Sue; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Buckingham, Robert W

    2007-02-01

    This study assessed the smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among adolescents in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. We used a cross-sectional method to examine the smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and ETS exposure of 6th-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years, attending six randomly selected middle schools. Schools were classified by school setting (i.e., public vs. private) and socioeconomic status (SES; i.e., low, middle, or high). The results indicated that 6th-grade students attending a public, low-SES school setting in Ciudad Juárez not only exhibited significantly higher rates of ETS exposure at home and in public places (p<.01) but also were more likely to have tried smoking (p<.01) and to be current smokers (p<.01), and were less likely to support a ban on smoking in public places (p<.01), compared with students who attended a private school or a public, middle- or high-SES school setting. These results provide further evidence that public health interventions to prevent initiation of smoking and to assist in smoking cessation among adolescents and to reduce their ETS exposure at home and in public need to target all school-aged students, especially those attending school in a low-SES settings.

  17. Metastatic lymph node ratio, 6th or 7th AJCC edition: witch is the best lymph node classification for esophageal cancer? Prognosis factor analysis in 487 patients

    PubMed Central

    CORAL, Roberto V.; BIGOLIN, André V.; CORAL, Roberto P.; HARTMANN, Antonio; DRANKA, Carolina; ROEHE, Adriana V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The esophageal cancer is one of the most common and aggressive worldwide. Recently, the AJCC changed the staging system, considering, among others, the important role of the lymph node metastasis on the prognosis. Aim To discuss the applicability of different forms of lymph node staging in a western surgical center. Methods Four hundred eighty seven patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled. Three staging systems were evaluated, the 6th and the 7th AJCC editions and the Lymph Node Metastatic Ratio. Results The majority of the cases were squamous cell carcinoma. The mean lymph node sample was eight. Considering the survival, there was no significant difference between the patients when they were classified by the 7th AJCC edition. Analysis of the Lymph Node Metastatic Ratio, just on the group of patients with 0 to 25%, has shown significant difference (p=0,01). The 6th AJCC edition shows the major significant difference between among the classifications evaluated. Conclusion In this specific population, the 7th AJCC edition for esophageal cancer was not able to find differences in survival when just the lymph node analysis was considered. PMID:26176242

  18. Rabies vaccine standards: comparison of the 5th and 6th WHO international reference standards to the USDA veterinary reference standard.

    PubMed

    Hermann, J; Fry, A; Reising, M; Patterson, P; Siev, D; Gatewood, D

    2012-11-06

    Ensuring rabies vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing transmission of this deadly disease and safeguarding public health. Efficacy of human and veterinary vaccines is ensured by evaluating relative potency estimates of the vaccine compared to a rabies reference standard using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) test. Reference vaccines are based on the International Standard for Rabies Vaccine provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). A comparison study was conducted to determine the relative potency of the 5th WHO, 6th WHO, and United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 08-14 reference standards using the NIH test. Results from the study demonstrate that the 6th WHO reference standard is approximately twice as potent as the 5th WHO reference when reconstituted to contain 1 IU per ml. Based on these results, the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) doubled the reconstitution volume of USDA veterinary reference 08-14 from 13 ml to 26 ml, for an initial use dilution of 0.7 IU per ml for use by veterinary biologics manufacturers in the NIH test. This study emphasizes the importance of reference standard calibration for use in the National Institutes of Health test.

  19. SQ109 targets MmpL3, a membrane transporter of trehalose monomycolate involved in mycolic acid donation to the cell wall core of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tahlan, Kapil; Wilson, Regina; Kastrinsky, David B; Arora, Kriti; Nair, Vinod; Fischer, Elizabeth; Barnes, S Whitney; Walker, John R; Alland, David; Barry, Clifton E; Boshoff, Helena I

    2012-04-01

    SQ109, a 1,2-diamine related to ethambutol, is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis, but its mode of action remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SQ109 disrupts cell wall assembly, as evidenced by macromolecular incorporation assays and ultrastructural analyses. SQ109 interferes with the assembly of mycolic acids into the cell wall core of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as bacilli exposed to SQ109 show immediate inhibition of trehalose dimycolate (TDM) production and fail to attach mycolates to the cell wall arabinogalactan. These effects were not due to inhibition of mycolate synthesis, since total mycolate levels were unaffected, but instead resulted in the accumulation of trehalose monomycolate (TMM), the precursor of TDM and cell wall mycolates. In vitro assays using purified enzymes showed that this was not due to inhibition of the secreted Ag85 mycolyltransferases. We were unable to achieve spontaneous generation of SQ109-resistant mutants; however, analogs of this compound that resulted in similar shutdown of TDM synthesis with concomitant TMM accumulation were used to spontaneously generate resistant mutants that were also cross-resistant to SQ109. Whole-genome sequencing of these mutants showed that these all had mutations in the essential mmpL3 gene, which encodes a transmembrane transporter. Our results suggest that MmpL3 is the target of SQ109 and that MmpL3 is a transporter of mycobacterial TMM.

  20. Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Kakinami, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudesS. Watanabe1, T. Abe2, H. Habu2, Y. Kakinami3, M. Larsen4, R. Pfaff5, M. Yamamoto6, M-Y. Yamamoto31Hokkaido University/Hokkaido Information University, 2JAXA/ISAS, 3Kochi University of Technology, 4Clemson University, 5NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Kyoto University, Neutral wind in the thermosphere is one of the key parameters to understand the ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process. JAXA/ISAS successfully launched sounding rockets from Uchinoura Space Center (USC) on September 2, 2007, January 12, 2012, and July 20, 2013, and NASA launched sounding rockets from Kwajalein on May 7, 2013 and from Wallops on July 4, 2013. The rockets installed Lithium and/or TMA canisters as well as instruments for plasma and electric and magnetic fields. The atomic Lithium gases were released at altitudes between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on September 2, 2007, at altitude of ~100 km in the morning on January 12, 2012, at altitude of ~120km in the midnight on July 20, 2013, at altitude between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on May 7, 2013 and at altitude of ~150 km in the noon on July 4, 2013. The Lithium atoms were scattering sunlight by resonance scattering with wavelength of 670nm. However, the Lithium atoms scattered moon light on July 20, 2013. The moon light scattering is the first time to use for thermospheric wind measurement in the midnight. The Lithium clouds/trails and TMA trails showed clearly the neutral wind shears and atmospheric waves at ~150 km altitude in the lower thermosphere for all local time.

  1. The GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS). I. The UV luminosity function of the central 12 sq. deg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Boissier, S.; Heinis, S.; Cortese, L.; Ilbert, O.; Hughes, T.; Cucciati, O.; Davies, J.; Ferrarese, L.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Baes, M.; Balkowski, C.; Brosch, N.; Chapman, S. C.; Charmandaris, V.; Clemens, M. S.; Dariush, A.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Duc, P.-A.; Durrell, P. R.; Emsellem, E.; Erben, T.; Fritz, J.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Grossi, M.; Jordán, A.; Hess, K. M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Hunt, L. K.; Kent, B. R.; Lambas, D. G.; Lançon, A.; MacArthur, L. A.; Madden, S. C.; Magrini, L.; Mei, S.; Momjian, E.; Olowin, R. P.; Papastergis, E.; Smith, M. W. L.; Solanes, J. M.; Spector, O.; Spekkens, K.; Taylor, J. E.; Valotto, C.; van Driel, W.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.; Vollmer, B.; Xilouris, E. M.

    2011-04-01

    The GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS) is a complete blind survey of the Virgo cluster covering ~40 sq. deg in the far UV (FUV, λeff = 1539 Å, Δλ = 442 Å) and ~120 sq. deg in the near UV (NUV, λeff = 2316 Å, Δλ = 1060 Å). The goal of the survey is to study the ultraviolet (UV) properties of galaxies in a rich cluster environment, spanning a wide luminosity range from giants to dwarfs, and regardless of prior knowledge of their star formation activity. The UV data will be combined with those in other bands (optical: NGVS; far-infrared - submm: HeViCS; HI: ALFALFA) and with our multizone chemo-spectrophotometric models of galaxy evolution to make a complete and exhaustive study of the effects of the environment on the evolution of galaxies in high density regions. We present here the scientific objectives of the survey, describing the observing strategy and briefly discussing different data reduction techniques. Using UV data already in-hand for the central 12 sq. deg we determine the FUV and NUV luminosity functions of the Virgo cluster core for all cluster members and separately for early- and late-type galaxies and compare it to the one obtained in the field and other nearby clusters (Coma, A1367). This analysis shows that the FUV and NUV luminosity functions of the core of the Virgo clusters are flatter (α ~ -1.1) than those determined in Coma and A1367. We discuss the possible origin of this difference. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. News from KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Ulrich F.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  3. Study on the performance of electromagnetic particle detectors of LHAASO-KM2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongquan; Hou, Chao; Cao, Zhen; Chang, Jingfan; Feng, Cunfeng; Hanapia, Erlan; Gong, Guanghua; Liu, Jia; Lv, Hongkui; Sheng, Xiangdong; Zhang, Shaoru; Zhu, Chengguang

    2017-02-01

    The electromagnetic particle detectors (EDs) for one square kilometer detector array (KM2A) of large high altitude air shower observation (LHAASO) are designed to measure the densities and arrival times of secondary particles in extensive air showers (EASs). ED is a type of plastic scintillator detector with an active area of 1 m2. This study investigates the design and performance of prototype ED. Approximately 20 photoelectrons are collected by the 1st dynode of a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The prototype ED exhibited good detection efficiency and time resolution. The detection for the wide dynamic particle density varying from 1 to 10 000 particles/m2 is realized with the design of the PMT divider for the readout of both the anode and 6th dynode.

  4. Search for chargino-neutralino production in pp collisions at sq rt[s] = 1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Almenar, C Cuenca; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Daronco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Denis, R St; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuno, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vazquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-11-09

    We present a search for associated production of the chargino and neutralino supersymmetric particles using up to 1.1 fb{-1} of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II experiment at the Tevatron pp collider at sq rt[s]=1.96 TeV. We analyze events with a large transverse momentum imbalance and either three charged leptons or two charged leptons of the same electric charge. The numbers of observed events are consistent with standard model expectations. Upper limits on the production cross section are derived in different theoretical models.

  5. Quotients of AdSp+1×Sq: Causally well-behaved spaces and black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Madden, Owen; Ross, Simon F.; Simón, Joan

    2004-06-01

    Starting from the recent classification of quotients of Freund-Rubin backgrounds in string theory of the type AdSp+1×Sq by one-parameter subgroups of isometries, we investigate the physical interpretation of the associated quotients by discrete cyclic subgroups. We establish which quotients have well-behaved causal structures, and of those containing closed timelike curves, which have interpretations as black holes. We explain the relation to previous investigations of quotients of asymptotically flat spacetimes and plane waves, of black holes in AdS spacetimes, and of Gödel-type universes.

  6. Fabrication and qualification of roughness reference samples for industrial testing of surface roughness levels below 0.5 nm Sq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faehnle, O.; Langenbach, E.; Zygalsky, F.; Frost, F.; Fechner, R.; Schindler, A.; Cumme, M.; Biskup, H.; Wünsche, C.; Rascher, R.

    2015-08-01

    Applying reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) processes at the Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), several reference samples to be used in industry for calibrating of roughness testing equipment have been generated with the smoothest sample featuring 0.1 nm rms Sq. Subsequently these reference samples have been measured cross-site applying atomic force microscopy (AFM), white light interferometry (WLI), Nomarski1 microscopy (NM) and scatterometry (iTIRM2) determining the appropriate range of measurable rms surface roughness for each industrial measuring device.

  7. Comparison of Values in 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Primary Education Music Class Students'? Workbooks According to Rokeach?s and Akbas's Value Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakirer, H. Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the values in the songs of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education music classes students? workbooks according to the value categorizations proposed by Rockeach and Akbas and which values among the categories mentioned are taught to the students in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education…

  8. Status of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.

    2016-07-01

    The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  9. Advances in the biology and therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia: proceedings from the 6th Post-ASH International Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Workshop.

    PubMed

    Van Etten, Richard A; Mauro, Michael; Radich, Jerald P; Goldman, John M; Saglio, Giuseppe; Jamieson, Catriona; Soverini, Simona; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Martinelli, Giovanni; Perrotti, Danilo; Scadden, David T; Skorski, Tomasz; Tefferi, Ayalew; Mughal, Tariq I

    2013-06-01

    Following the 53rd annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) in San Diego in December 2011, a group of clinical and laboratory investigators convened for the 6th Post-ASH International Workshop on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN). The Workshop took place on 13-14 December at the Estancia, La Jolla, California, USA. This report summarizes the most recent advances in the biology and therapy of CML that were presented at the ASH meeting and discussed at the Workshop. Preclinical studies focused on the CML stem cell and its niche, and on early results of deep sequencing of CML genomes. Clinical advances include updates on second- and third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), molecular monitoring, TKI discontinuation studies and new therapeutic agents. A report summarizing the pertinent advances in MPN has been published separately.

  10. Islet cell research brings hope for a diabetes cure: meeting report from the 6(th) annual islet society meeting in Stellenbosch, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tchokonte-Nana, V; Cockburn, I L; Manda, J K; Kotze, P C; Johnson, J D

    2014-01-01

    The International Diabetes Federation predicts that, over the next twenty years, the largest increase in the prevalence of diabetes will be in the Africa region. Recognizing an unmet need for more focus on Africa and engagement with African scholars, the Islet Society held its 6th annual meeting July 20-21, 2014 in Stellenbosch, South Africa. Here, we present a report that covers the presentations and discussion points from that meeting. Work was presented on a variety of topics and included presentations by a significant proportion of Africa diabetes researchers. Overall, it was an excellent conference, with many new international collaborations initiated. We hope that other groups will also respond to the need for more conferences in Africa and focused on Africa.

  11. Climate Change and the Water Cycle: A New Southwest Regional Climate Hub Curriculum Unit for 6th-12th Grade Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Bestelmeyer, S.; Haan-Amato, S.; Deswood, H.; Rango, A.; Havstad, K.

    2015-12-01

    As climate change intensifies, increased temperatures and altered precipitation will make water, a limited resource in the arid southwestern United States, even scarcer in many locations. The USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub (SWRCH) developed Climate Change and the Water Cycle, an engaging and scientifically rigorous education unit for 6th -12th grade students. The unit is aligned with Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards. Nine activities can be conducted over 10 instruction hours. Each activity can also stand alone. In partnership with SWRCH, the Asombro Institute for Science Education developed the unit. Each activity was reviewed by an educator for educational practices and by a scientist for scientific accuracy. The unit was pilot tested with 524 students in 2014, and pre- and post-tests were administered. Ninety-one percent of students were able to name a greenhouse gas on the post-test, compared to only 48% on the pre-test. On the post-test, 86% of students identified the relationship between average global temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, compared to only 52% on the pre-test. A student commented: "I loved all of the activities! They are fun and help us understand about what goes on in the world." Educators who participated in pilot testing said: "the entire curriculum is great, but I was particularly impressed with the progression of ideas and the variety of lessons," and "students could see the relevance and importance of these real life issues." Anyone interested in using the unit to host workshops for teachers in southwestern states should contact Asombro for more information (information@asombro.org). The Climate Change and the Water Cycle 6th-12th grade curriculum unit is available online: www.swclimatehub.info/education/climate-change-and-water-cycle

  12. Lightcurves for 1896 Beer, 2574 Ladoga, 3301 Jansje, 3339 Treshnikov 3833 Calingasta, 3899 Wichterle, 4106 Nada, 4801 Ohre, 4808 Ballaero, and (8487) 1989 SQ.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owings, Larry E.

    2013-01-01

    Lightcurve observations have yielded period determinations for the following asteroids: 1896 Beer, 2574 Ladoga, 3301 Jansje, 3339 Treshnikov, 3833 Calingasta, 3899 Wichterle, 4106 Nada, 4801 Ohre, 4808 Ballaero, and (8487) 1989 SQ.

  13. The 6th FDR prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funakoshi, Mitsuaki

    2013-06-01

    From the 58 papers published in 2012 in Fluid Dynamics Research, the following paper has been selected for the sixth FDR prize: The finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method and its application in computational aero-acoustics by Michihisa Tsutahara (Professor Emeritus, Kobe University, Japan), published in volume 44 (August 2012) 045507. This is a review paper of the author's recent work on the finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM). In this paper, the author introduces a modified FDLBM and its application to aero-acoustics. To solve the discrete Bhatnager, Gross and Krook equation for simulating fluid flow, the FDLBM applies a stable finite-difference scheme on a curvilinear coordinate system, whereas the ordinary lattice Boltzmann method uses regular lattices. It is known that for the lattice Boltzmann methods, there is difficulty in simulating high Mach number compressible flows in principle. To alleviate this, the author proposed the modified FDLBM, expanding the flexibility of setting time increments. With this FDLBM, the author has shown that it is possible to simulate compressible flows efficiently around complex bluff bodies and with complex aero-acoustic behaviour. The author summarizes all those works, including studies only available in Japanese up to now, in this review paper. After discussing the details of the FDLBM proposed by the author, example results of simulating the Aeolian tone generated from a circular cylinder at the Mach number M = 0.7 are shown. Then, the scheme is expanded for moving bodies by combining with the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation. Using this moving mesh scheme, the author shows the simulation results of the very strong sound pressure generated by a high-speed train in a tunnel. For issues of sound propagation in compressible two-phase flows whose density ratio is high, the two-particle model is introduced. Also, techniques to reduce noise generation from the flow velocity and pressure at gas-liquid interfaces are shown. Finally, the scattering of sound waves by water droplets is discussed. In thick fog, the sound coming from a distance becomes faint due to the sound-scattering effects of micro water droplets. The author gives an example of successfully solving such an issue by the FDLBM. It is highly admirable that the author developed the new FDLBM for aero-acoustic issues and has summarized it with sub-schemes to overcome several difficulties of engineering aeroacoustics in this review. It will certainly contribute to further development of fluid dynamics through computational aero-acoustics. Consequently, this paper was selected as the winner of the sixth FDR prize.

  14. Inactivation and pharmacological properties of sqKv1A homotetramers in Xenopus oocytes cannot account for behavior of the squid "delayed rectifier" K(+) conductance.

    PubMed

    Jerng, Henry H; Gilly, William F

    2002-06-01

    Considerable published evidence suggests that alpha-subunits of the cloned channel sqKv1A compose the "delayed rectifier" in the squid giant axon system, but discrepancies regarding inactivation properties of cloned versus native channels exist. In this paper we define the mechanism of inactivation for sqKv1A channels in Xenopus oocytes to investigate these and other discrepancies. Inactivation of sqKv1A in Xenopus oocytes was found to be unaffected by genetic truncation of the N-terminus, but highly sensitive to certain amino acid substitutions around the external mouth of the pore. External TEA and K(+) ions slowed inactivation of sqKv1A channels in oocytes, and chloramine T (Chl-T) accelerated inactivation. These features are all consistent with a C-type inactivation mechanism as defined for Shaker B channels. Treatment of native channels in giant fiber lobe neurons with TEA or high K(+) does not slow inactivation, nor does Chl-T accelerate it. Pharmacological differences between the two channel types were also found for 4-aminopyridine (4AP). SqKv1A's affinity for 4AP was poor at rest and increased after activation, whereas 4AP block occurred much more readily at rest with native channels than when they were activated. These results suggest that important structural differences between sqKv1A homotetramers and native squid channels are likely to exist around the external and internal mouths of the pore.

  15. Fabrication and performance analysis of 4-sq cm indium tin oxide/InP photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessert, T. A.; Li, X.; Phelps, P. W.; Coutts, T. J.; Tzafaras, N.

    1991-01-01

    Large-area photovoltaic solar cells based on direct current magnetron sputter deposition of indium tin oxide (ITO) into single-crystal p-InP substrates demonstrated both the radiation hardness and high performance necessary for extraterrestrial applications. A small-scale production project was initiated in which approximately 50 ITO/InP cells are being produced. The procedures used in this small-scale production of 4-sq cm ITO/InP cells are presented and discussed. The discussion includes analyses of performance range of all available production cells, and device performance data of the best cells thus far produced. Additionally, processing experience gained from the production of these cells is discussed, indicating other issues that may be encountered when large-scale productions are begun.

  16. Plasma cortisol and testosterone following 19-km and 42-km kayak races.

    PubMed

    Lutoslawska, G; Obminski, Z; Krogulski, A; Sendecki, W

    1991-12-01

    Plasma cortisol and testosterone levels were examined in five, elite, male kayakers before and after 19-km and 42-km kayak races. Both races resulted in significant elevation in plasma cortisol and observed increase is likely to depend on race duration, being much more pronounced after 42-km race compared to 19-km. It should be stressed that observed elevation in cortisol level after 42-km race was higher than reported previously after a marathon run. This finding is in line with reports on hormonal changes in response to arms exercise. Both contests caused a decrease in plasma testosterone level, but the difference between races was not significant. Testosterone/cortisol ratio dropped significantly immediately after the races and the observed decrease was more dominant after the 42-km distance. On the next day, 18 h after the races plasma cortisol, testosterone levels and T/C ratio returned to basal level indicating recuperation from post exercise changes.

  17. Evidence of strong Quaternary earthquakes in the epicentral areaof the April 6th 2009 L'Aquila seismic event from sediment paleofluidization and overconsolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storti, F.; Balsamo, F.; Aldega, L.; Corrado, S.; Di Paolo, L.; Mastalertz, M.; Tallini, M.

    2012-04-01

    The strong seismological potential of the Central Apennines, including the L'Aquila basin, is documented in the historical heritage of the past two millenia and by paleoseismological data. Despite the main active fault system network of Central Italy is well described and mapped, the April 6th 2009 L'Aquila event showed that Mw> 6.0 earthquakes can occur on fault zones characterized by subtlemorphotectonic evidence, like the Paganica Fault, whose seismic hazard potential may thus be overlooked. An additional source of uncertainty is provided by the evidence that in the L'Aquila region many active extensional fault systems developed by negative inversion of pre-existing contractional deformation structures. The resulting complex along-strike segmentation and overlap patterns are thus governed by the interplay between the modern extensional stress field and the structural inheritance and reduce the effectiveness of predictive scaling laws, which do not typically account for fault attributes produced by polyphased tectonics. This is particularly true in the L'Aquila region, where seismic activation of the northwestern half of the basin-boundary fault system has been proposed for the 1703 Mw ~ 7.0 earthquake, whereas only the central segment was activated in 1461 and 2009, producing earthquakes with Mw ~ 6.0 - 6.3. The reasons for this dual behaviour are still unclear despite many structural and paleoseismological studies. Indirect evidence for paleoearthquake magnitude from ground shaking effects, like paleo-fluidization structures, can provide very useful complementary information on maximum expected earthquake intensities along active fault systems.In this work wedescribe in detail large paleo-fluidization-induced features associated with a previously unmapped extensional fault zone cutting through Quaternary strata. These sediments, including lacustrine lignites and mudstones, show a somehow enigmatic overconsolidation that we quantitatively describe, as well as

  18. Sequential simulation (SqS) of clinical pathways: a tool for public and patient engagement in point-of-care diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Huddy, Jeremy R; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Ralhan, Shvaita; Painter, Tim; Hanna, George B; Kneebone, Roger; Bello, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Public and patient engagement (PPE) is fundamental to healthcare research. To facilitate effective engagement in novel point-of-care tests (POCTs), the test and downstream consequences of the result need to be considered. Sequential simulation (SqS) is a tool to represent patient journeys and the effects of intervention at each and subsequent stages. This case study presents a process evaluation of SqS as a tool for PPE in the development of a volatile organic compound-based breath test POCT for the diagnosis of oesophagogastric (OG) cancer. Setting Three 3-hour workshops in central London. Participants 38 members of public attended a workshop, 26 (68%) had no prior experience of the OG cancer diagnostic pathway. Interventions Clinical pathway SqS was developed from a storyboard of a patient, played by an actor, noticing symptoms of oesophageal cancer and following a typical diagnostic pathway. The proposed breath testing strategy was then introduced and incorporated into a second SqS to demonstrate pathway impact. Facilitated group discussions followed each SqS. Primary and secondary outcome measures Evaluation was conducted through pre-event and postevent questionnaires, field notes and analysis of audiovisual recordings. Results 38 participants attended a workshop. All participants agreed they were able to contribute to discussions and like the idea of an OG cancer breath test. Five themes emerged related to the proposed new breath test including awareness of OG cancer, barriers to testing and diagnosis, design of new test device, new clinical pathway and placement of test device. 3 themes emerged related to the use of SqS: participatory engagement, simulation and empathetic engagement, and why participants attended. Conclusions SqS facilitated a shared immersive experience for participants and researchers that led to the coconstruction of knowledge that will guide future research activities and be of value to stakeholders concerned with the invention

  19. MODIS 3 km and 10 km aerosol optical depth for China: Evaluation and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingqing; Zhang, Ming; Huang, Bo; Tong, Xuelian

    2017-03-01

    The recently released Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Collection 6 introduced a fine scale aerosol optical depth (AOD) distribution, the 3 km product, which is expected to perform well in analyzing aerosols and identifying local air pollution, especially in the severely polluted atmosphere of China. However, few detailed evaluations of regional variations have been conducted. In this paper, we evaluate MODIS 3 km and 10 km AOD products for China against ground-based measurements and compare their performance with respect to spatial and temporal variations. The ground validations indicate that the two products are generally correlated well to ground-based observations. Spatially, the 3 km product slightly outperform the 10 km product in well-developed areas of southern China. Temporally, both products perform worse during spring and summer. Atmospheric clouds and underlying surface are two key factors that influence the accuracy and number of retrievals for both products. The comparison analysis reveals the newly introduced AOD product clearly shows good relationships with the coarse resolution retrievals in spatial and temporal variation but significant differences regarding details. The 3 km AOD product provides better aerosol gradients, more retrievals in bare areas of western China and some spikes of diurnal variation in cloudy days. Seasonal comparisons show the 3 km AOD product is higher than the 10 km product in all seasons, especially during spring and summer. Although the 3 km product for China generally performs slightly worse than the 10 km product, the added information of the MODIS 3 km AOD product shows potential for studying local aerosol characterization, and may facilitate studies of air pollution.

  20. The Hetu'u Global Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th Transit of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.

    2013-01-01

    There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th transit of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a transit-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the transit, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime transit event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).

  1. The Beginning of Metallurgy in the Southern Levant: A Late 6th Millennium CalBC Copper Awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, Yosef; Klimscha, Florian; Shalev, Sariel; Rosenberg, Danny

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC. This paper examines the chemical composition of this item and reviews its context. The results indicate that it was exported from a distant source, probably in the Caucasus, and that the location where it was found is indicative of the social status of the buried individual. This rare finding indicates that metallurgy was first defused to the southern Levant through exchange networks and only centuries later involved local production. This copper awl, the earliest metal artifact found in the southern Levant, indicates that the elaborate Late Chalcolithic metallurgy developed from a more ancient tradition. PMID:24671185

  2. Meeting Report: "Proteomics from Discovery to Function:" 6th Annual Meeting of Proteomics Society, India and International Conference-A Milestone for the Indian Proteomics Community.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shabarni; Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Ray, Sandipan; Atak, Apurva; Gollapalli, Kishore; Jain, Rekha; Shah, Veenita Grover; Ghantasala, Saicharan; Kumar, Saurabh; Pandala, Narendra Goud; Phapale, Prasad; Pandey, Vishnu Kumar; Zingde, Surekha; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-06-01

    Proteomics is at the epicenter of post-genomics biotechnologies that are currently driving the next generation system science. Moreover, proteomics is a truly global science. The 6(th) Annual Meeting of Proteomics Society, India (PSI) and International Conference on "Proteomics from Discovery to Function" held from December 7-9, 2014, was a transformative endeavor for global proteomics, bringing together the luminaries in the field of proteomics for the very first time in India. This meeting report presents the lessons learned and the highlights of this international scientific conference that was comprised of nine thematic sessions, pre- and post-conference workshops, and an opportunity to cultivate enduring collaborations for proteomics science to benefit both India and global society. The conference had an unforgettable impression on the participants: for the first time, India hosted past and present President and Council members from the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO), along with eminent scientists and young scholars from India and abroad in the field of proteomics at such a large scale, a major highlight of this international event. In all, the PSI 2014 was a milestone conference that has firmly poised the Indian life sciences community as a leading contributor to post-genomics life sciences, thus cultivating crucial trans-generational capacity and inspiration by recognizing the emerging scholars and omics systems scientists who can think and conduct science from cell to society.

  3. The beginning of metallurgy in the southern Levant: a late 6th millennium CalBC copper awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Yosef; Klimscha, Florian; Shalev, Sariel; Rosenberg, Danny

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC. This paper examines the chemical composition of this item and reviews its context. The results indicate that it was exported from a distant source, probably in the Caucasus, and that the location where it was found is indicative of the social status of the buried individual. This rare finding indicates that metallurgy was first diffused [corrected] to the southern Levant through exchange networks and only centuries later involved local productionThis copper awl, the earliest metal artifact found in the southern Levant, indicates that the elaborate Late Chalcolithic metallurgy developed from a more ancient tradition.

  4. Vegetation dieback as a proxy for temperature within a wet pyroclastic density current: A novel experiment and observations from the 6th of August 2012 Tongariro eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efford, Jackson T.; Bylsma, Rebecca J.; Clarkson, Bruce D.; Pittari, Adrian; Mauriohooho, Kate; Moon, Vicki G.

    2014-10-01

    The 6th of August 2012 eruption of Te Maari (Mt Tongariro, New Zealand) generated wet pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) which caused widespread dieback of vegetation (singed, brown foliage) in their path. An absence of significant charcoal formation suggests that PDC temperatures were mostly below 250 °C. Textural evidence for liquid water being present in the matrices during emplacement (vesicles) suggests that temperatures were < 100 °C. We determined a probable minimum PDC temperature using an experiment replicating the critical temperatures required to induce foliar browning in seven species affected by the eruption. In locations where all species exhibited browned foliage (or were defoliated), temperatures were probably ≥ 64 °C assuming a PDC duration of 60 s. In the more distal areas, where only the most susceptible species were browned while others remained healthy and unaffected, temperatures were probably around 51-58 °C. These results have relevance to volcanic hazard mitigation and risk assessment, especially on the popular Tongariro Alpine Crossing.

  5. Partnering to change the world for people with haemophilia: 6(th) Haemophilia Global Summit, Prague, Czech Republic, 24-26(th) September 2015.

    PubMed

    Astermark, Jan; Hart, Dan; Lobet, Sébastien; Blatný, Jan; d'Oiron, Roseline; Kenet, Gili; Dolan, Gerry; Libotte, Valérie; Hermans, Cedric

    2016-07-01

    The 6(th) Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in September 2015. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and aimed to share optimal management strategies for haemophilia at all life stages, explore recent potential advances in the management of haemophilia A and B and discuss challenges in haemophilia care. In this supplement from the meeting, Dan Hart reviews the lessons that can be learnt from cost-constrained environments with regard to improving care for people with haemophilia globally. Sébastien Lobet discusses the importance of physical activity for optimising care and Roseline d'Oiron and Jan Blatný consider the role of real-world data in understanding the effect of treatment in a clinical setting over the long term and the true impact of treatment on the day-to-day life of the patient. Gili Kenet addresses the current challenges relating to the optimal management of prophylaxis, and Gerry Dolan and Cedric Hermans discuss the value of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters in informing treatment decisions. Cedric Hermans and Valérie Libotte explore the importance of considering social and occupational development factors as an integral part of haemophilia care, and Jan Astermark reviews key strategies to predict and prevent inhibitor development.

  6. The estimation of 550 km x 550 km mean gravity anomalies. [from free atmosphere gravimetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, M. R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The calculation of 550 km X 550 km mean gravity anomalies from 1 degree X 1 degree mean free-air gravimetry data is discussed. The block estimate procedure developed by Kaula was used, and estimates for 1452 of the 1654 blocks were obtained.

  7. Applying WebMining on KM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, Keiko; Ozaki, Tomonobu; Furukawa, Koichi

    KM (Knowledge Management) systems have recently been adopted within the realm of enterprise management. On the other hand, data mining technology is widely acknowledged within Information systems' R&D Divisions. Specially, acquisition of meaningful information from Web usage data has become one of the most exciting eras. In this paper, we employ a Web based KM system and propose a framework for applying Web Usage Mining technology to KM data. As it turns out, task duration varies according to different user operations such as referencing a table-of-contents page, down-loading a target file, and writing to a bulletin board. This in turn makes it possible to easily predict the purpose of the user's task. By taking these observations into account, we segmented access log data manually. These results were compared with results abstained by applying the constant interval method. Next, we obtained a segmentation rule of Web access logs by applying a machine-learning algorithm to manually segmented access logs as training data. Then, the newly obtained segmentation rule was compared with other known methods including the time interval method by evaluating their segmentation results in terms of recall and precision rates and it was shown that our rule attained the best results in both measures. Furthermore, the segmented data were fed to an association rule miner and the obtained association rules were utilized to modify the Web structure.

  8. Km3Net Italy - Seafloor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaleo, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. INFN and KM3NeT collaboration, thanks to a dedicated funding of 21.000.000 € (PON 2007-2013), are committed to build and deploy the Phase 1 of the telescope, composed of a network of detection units: 8 towers, equipped with single photomultiplier optical modules, and 24 strings, equipped with multi-photomultipliers optical modules. All the towers and strings are connected to the main electro optical cable by means of a network of junction boxes and electro optical interlink cables. Each junction box is an active node able to provide all the necessary power to the detection units and to guarantee the data transmission between the detector and the on-shore control station. The KM3NeT Italia project foresees the realization and the installation of the first part of the deep sea network, composed of three junction boxes, one for the towers and two for the strings. In July 2015, two junction boxes have been deployed and connected to the new cable termination frame installed during the same sea campaign. The third and last one will be installed in November 2015. The status of the deep sea network is presented together with technical details of the project.

  9. Early fetal gender determination using real-time PCR analysis of cell-free fetal DNA during 6th-10th weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Zargari, Maryam; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Edallatkhah, Haleh; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Kamali, Koorosh

    2013-05-07

    Nowadays, new advances in the use of cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma of pregnant women has provided the possibility of applying cffDNA in prenatal diagnosis as a non-invasive method. In contrary to the risks of invasive methods that affect both mother and fetus, applying cffDNA is proven to be highly effective with lower risk. One of the applications of prenatal diagnosis is fetal gender determination, which is important in fetuses at risk of sex-linked genetic diseases. In such cases by obtaining the basic information of the gender, necessary time management can be taken in therapeutic to significantly reduce the necessity of applying the invasive methods. Therefore in this study, the probability of detecting sequences on the human Y-chromosome in pregnant women has been evaluated to identify the gender of fetuses. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 80 pregnant women with gestational age between 6th to 10th weeks and the fetal DNA was extracted from the plasma. Identification of SRY, DYS14 & DAZ sequences, which are not presentin the maternal genome, was performed using Real-Time PCR. All the obtained results were compared with the actual gender of the newborns to calculate the test accuracy. Considerable 97.3% sensitivity and 97.3% specificity were obtained in fetal gender determination which is significant in the first trimester of pregnancy. Only in one case, false positive result was obtained. Using non-invasive method of cffDNAs in the shortest time possible, as well as avoiding invasive tests for early determination of fetal gender, provides the opportunity of deciding and employing early treatment for fetuses at risk of genetic diseases.

  10. Process evaluation for a school-based physical activity intervention for 6th- and 7th-grade boys: reach, dose, and fidelity.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Lorraine B; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Wesolek, Stacey M; Lo, Yun-Jia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the reach, dose, and fidelity of Guys Only Activity for Life (G.O.A.L.), a 7-week pilot intervention conducted from February to March 2011 to increase 6th and 7th grade boys' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). One middle school was randomly assigned to the G.O.A.L. intervention and another from the same urban school district in the Midwestern U.S. to a comparison condition. Thirty boys, ages 10-14 years, participated in each school. The intervention, guided by the Health Promotion Model (HPM) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT), consisted of a 90-min after-school physical activity club 4 days/week and one motivational interviewing session with a registered (school) nurse. Data were gathered via attendance records, club observations, heart rate monitors, audio-taping of motivational interviewing sessions, and surveys. On average boys attended the club 2.11 days/week (SD=.86). A trained independent process evaluator reported that the physical activity club instructors provided the boys with the opportunity for a mean of 25.8 min/day of MVPA. Using a four-point Likert scale (1=disagree a lot; 4=agree a lot), the process evaluator perceived that the club was delivered with high fidelity and adherence to the underlying theories (M=3.48; SD=0.39). Sessions with the nurse lasted an average of 13 min, 29 s. All boys attended. Two trained independent coders indicated that the nurse demonstrated at least beginning proficiency for all tasks associated with motivational interviewing, with the exception of using sufficient open- as opposed to closed-ended questions and reflections compared to questions. Fidelity related to session delivery and adherence to the theories was high (M=3.83; SD=0.19). The process evaluation data indicated that strategies are needed to increase attendance and boys' MVPA during the club time.

  11. Critical issues with the in vivo comet assay: A report of the comet assay working group in the 6th International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT).

    PubMed

    Speit, Günter; Kojima, Hajime; Burlinson, Brian; Collins, Andrew R; Kasper, Peter; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Uno, Yoshifumi; Vasquez, Marie; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Escobar, Patricia A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Pant, Kamala; Pfuhler, Stefan; Tanaka, Jin; Levy, Dan D

    2015-05-01

    As a part of the 6th IWGT, an expert working group on the comet assay evaluated critical topics related to the use of the in vivo comet assay in regulatory genotoxicity testing. The areas covered were: identification of the domain of applicability and regulatory acceptance, identification of critical parameters of the protocol and attempts to standardize the assay, experience with combination and integration with other in vivo studies, demonstration of laboratory proficiency, sensitivity and power of the protocol used, use of different tissues, freezing of samples, and choice of appropriate measures of cytotoxicity. The standard protocol detects various types of DNA lesions but it does not detect all types of DNA damage. Modifications of the standard protocol may be used to detect additional types of specific DNA damage (e.g., cross-links, bulky adducts, oxidized bases). In addition, the working group identified critical parameters that should be carefully controlled and described in detail in every published study protocol. In vivo comet assay results are more reliable if they were obtained in laboratories that have demonstrated proficiency. This includes demonstration of adequate response to vehicle controls and an adequate response to a positive control for each tissue being examined. There was a general agreement that freezing of samples is an option but more data are needed in order to establish generally accepted protocols. With regard to tissue toxicity, the working group concluded that cytotoxicity could be a confounder of comet results. It is recommended to look at multiple parameters such as histopathological observations, organ-specific clinical chemistry as well as indicators of tissue inflammation to decide whether compound-specific toxicity might influence the result. The expert working group concluded that the alkaline in vivo comet assay is a mature test for the evaluation of genotoxicity and can be recommended to regulatory agencies for use.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of 3-ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1

    PubMed Central

    Rohman, Ali; van Oosterwijk, Niels; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2012-01-01

    3-Ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase plays a crucial role in the early steps of steroid degradation by introducing a double bond between the C1 and C2 atoms of the A-ring of its 3-ketosteroid substrates. The 3-ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1, a 56 kDa flavoprotein, was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystals grew in various buffers over a wide pH range (from pH 5.5 to 10.5), but the best crystallization condition consisted of 2%(v/v) PEG 400, 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 2.0 M ammonium sulfate. A native crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.0 Å resolution. It belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 107.4, b = 131.6, c = 363.2 Å, and contained eight molecules in the asymmetric unit. The initial structure of the enzyme was solved using multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) data collected from a Pt-derivatized crystal. PMID:22691786

  13. An antireflection transparent conductor with ultralow optical loss (<2 %) and electrical resistance (<6 Ω sq(-1)).

    PubMed

    Maniyara, Rinu Abraham; Mkhitaryan, Vahagn K; Chen, Tong Lai; Ghosh, Dhriti Sundar; Pruneri, Valerio

    2016-12-19

    Transparent conductors are essential in many optoelectronic devices, such as displays, smart windows, light-emitting diodes and solar cells. Here we demonstrate a transparent conductor with optical loss of ∼1.6%, that is, even lower than that of single-layer graphene (2.3%), and transmission higher than 98% over the visible wavelength range. This was possible by an optimized antireflection design consisting in applying Al-doped ZnO and TiO2 layers with precise thicknesses to a highly conductive Ag ultrathin film. The proposed multilayer structure also possesses a low electrical resistance (5.75 Ω sq(-1)), a figure of merit four times larger than that of indium tin oxide, the most widely used transparent conductor today, and, contrary to it, is mechanically flexible and room temperature deposited. To assess the application potentials, transparent shielding of radiofrequency and microwave interference signals with ∼30 dB attenuation up to 18 GHz was achieved.

  14. Twisted light transmission over 143 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, Mario; Handsteiner, Johannes; Fink, Matthias; Fickler, Robert; Ursin, Rupert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-11-01

    Spatial modes of light can potentially carry a vast amount of information, making them promising candidates for both classical and quantum communication. However, the distribution of such modes over large distances remains difficult. Intermodal coupling complicates their use with common fibers, whereas free-space transmission is thought to be strongly influenced by atmospheric turbulence. Here, we show the transmission of orbital angular momentum modes of light over a distance of 143 km between two Canary Islands, which is 50× greater than the maximum distance achieved previously. As a demonstration of the transmission quality, we use superpositions of these modes to encode a short message. At the receiver, an artificial neural network is used for distinguishing between the different twisted light superpositions. The algorithm is able to identify different mode superpositions with an accuracy of more than 80% up to the third mode order and decode the transmitted message with an error rate of 8.33%. Using our data, we estimate that the distribution of orbital angular momentum entanglement over more than 100 km of free space is feasible. Moreover, the quality of our free-space link can be further improved by the use of state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems.

  15. 45-km horizontal path optical link demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Wright, Malcolm W.; Sanii, Babak; Page, Norman A.

    2001-06-01

    Observations made during a mountain-top-to-mountain-top horizontal optical link demonstration are described. The optical link spans a range of 46 Km at an average altitude of 2 Km above sea level. A multibeam beacon comprised of eight laser beams emerging from four multimode fiber coupled lasers (780 nm) is launched through a 0.6 m diameter telescope located at the JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in Wrightwood, California. The multibeam beacon is received at Strawberry Peak located in the San Bernardino Mountains of California. The NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) receives the beacon, senses the atmospheric turbulence induced motion and using an upgraded fine steering loop actively points a communications laser beam (852 nm, 400 Mbps on-off key modulated, PN7 pseudo random bit sequence) to TMF. The eight-beam beacon allowed a four-fold reduction in normalized irradiance or scintillation index. This in turn was sufficient to eliminate beacon fades sensed by the OCD and enable performance evaluation of the fine steering loop. The residual tracking error was determined to be +/- 1.1 to +/- 1.7 (mu) rad compared to a model prediction of +/- 3.4 (mu) rad. The best link performance observed showed average bit error rates (BER) of 1E-5 over long durations (30 seconds); however, instantaneous BERs of at least 0.8E-6 over durations of 2 ms were observed. The paper also discusses results pertaining to atmospheric effects, link analysis, and overall performance.

  16. Twisted light transmission over 143 km.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Mario; Handsteiner, Johannes; Fink, Matthias; Fickler, Robert; Ursin, Rupert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-11-29

    Spatial modes of light can potentially carry a vast amount of information, making them promising candidates for both classical and quantum communication. However, the distribution of such modes over large distances remains difficult. Intermodal coupling complicates their use with common fibers, whereas free-space transmission is thought to be strongly influenced by atmospheric turbulence. Here, we show the transmission of orbital angular momentum modes of light over a distance of 143 km between two Canary Islands, which is 50× greater than the maximum distance achieved previously. As a demonstration of the transmission quality, we use superpositions of these modes to encode a short message. At the receiver, an artificial neural network is used for distinguishing between the different twisted light superpositions. The algorithm is able to identify different mode superpositions with an accuracy of more than 80% up to the third mode order and decode the transmitted message with an error rate of 8.33%. Using our data, we estimate that the distribution of orbital angular momentum entanglement over more than 100 km of free space is feasible. Moreover, the quality of our free-space link can be further improved by the use of state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems.

  17. Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Rick

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

  18. How Do 4th, 5th, and 6th Grade Students' Categories of Cognitive Reflections in Interviews on Derivational Morphology Compare to Their Upper Level Spelling Inventory Orthographic Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Darcie D.

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-seven 4th, 5th and 6th grade students were administered the "Derivational Relatedness Interview" (DRI) (Templeton, Smith, Moloney, Van Pelt, & Ives, 2009). The purpose of this instrument is to explore students' understanding of derivational morphology. During the same week, the subjects were also administered an Upper…

  19. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Because km-scale shear zones play a first-order role in lithospheric kinematics, accurate conceptual and numerical models of orogenic development require predicting when and where they form. Although a strain-based algorithm in the upper crust for weakening due to faulting appears to succeed (e.g., Koons et al., 2010, doi:10.1029/2009TC002463), a comparable general rule for the viscous crust remains unestablished. Here we consider two aspects of the geological argument for a similar algorithm in the viscous regime, namely (1) whether predicting km-scale shear zone development based on a single parameter (such as strain or shear heating) is reasonable; and (2) whether lithologic variability inherent in most orogenic systems precludes a simple predictive rule. A review of tectonically significant shear zones worldwide and more detailed investigations in the Central Gneiss belt of the Ontario segment of the Grenville Province reveals that most km-scale shear zones occur at lithological boundaries and involve mass transfer, but have fairly little else in common. As examples, the relatively flat-lying Twelve Mile Bay shear zone in the western Central Gneiss belt bounds the Parry Sound domain and is likely the product of both localized anatexis and later retrograde hydration with attendant metamorphism. Moderately dipping shear zones in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone apparently resulted from cooperation among several complementary microstructural processes, such as grain size reduction, enhanced diffusion, and a small degree of metamorphic reaction. Localization into shear zones requires the operation of some spatially restricted processes such as stress concentration, metamorphism/fluid access, textural evolution, and thermal perturbation. All of these could be due in part to strain, but not necessarily linearly related to strain. Stress concentrations, such as those that form at rheological boundaries, may be sufficient to nucleate high strain

  20. Table and charts of equilibrium normal-shock and shock-tube properties for pure carbon dioxide with velocities from 1 to 16 km/sec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III; Wilder, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium thermodynamic and flow properties are presented in tabulated and graphical form for moving, standing, and reflected normal shock waves in pure CO2. Properties include pressure, temperature, density, enthalpy, speed of sound, entropy, molecular weight ratio, isentropic exponent, velocity, and species mole fractions. Incident (moving) shock velocities are varied from 1 to 16 km/sec for a range of initial pressure of 5 N/sq m to 500 kN/sq m. The present results are applicable to shock tube flows and to freeflight conditions for a blunt body at high velocities. Working charts illustrating idealized shock tube performance with CO2 test gas and heated helium and hydrogen driver gases are also presented.

  1. EDITORIAL: The 6th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnologies for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréchette, Luc G.

    2007-09-01

    Energy is a sector of paramount importance over the coming decades if we are to ensure sustainable development that respects our environment. The research and development of novel approaches to convert available energy into usable forms using micro and nanotechnologies can contribute towards this goal and meet the growing need for power in small scale portable applications. The dominant power sources for handheld and other portable electronics are currently primary and rechargeable batteries. Their limited energy density and adverse effects on the environment upon disposal suggest that alternative approaches need to be explored. This special issue will showcase some of the leading work in this area, initially presented at PowerMEMS 2006, the 6th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnologies for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications. Power MEMS are defined as microsystems for electrical power generation and other energy conversion applications, including propulsion and cooling. The range of power MEMS technologies includes micro thermodynamic machines, such as microturbines, miniature internal combustion engines and micro-coolers; solid-state direct energy conversion, such as thermoelectric and photovoltaic microstructures; micro electrochemical devices, such as micro fuel cells and nanostructure batteries; vibration energy harvesting devices, such as piezoelectric, magnetic or electrostatic micro generators, as well as micro thrusters and rocket engines for propulsion. These can either be driven by scavenging thermal, mechanical or solar energy from the environment, or from a stored energy source, such as chemical fuel or radioactive material. The unique scope leads to unique challenges in the development of power MEMS, ranging from the integration of novel materials to the efficient small scale implementation of energy conversion principles. In this special issue, Mitcheson et al provide a comparative assessment of three inertial vibration

  2. Emergency Preparedness and Management at the University of L’aquila (Central Italy) and the Role of Students’ Associations in the April 6th 2009 Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Michele; Fraboni, Rita; Marincioni, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: On April 6th 2009 an earthquake of Mw=6.3 hit the historical downtown of L’Aquila and its hinterland causing more than 300 fatalities and severe damage to private and public buildings. At the time, the University of L’Aquila represented a major source of employment and income for the city. The earthquake impacted both the facilities and the administrative, financial and patrimonial activities of the university, bringing into the open the tendency – widespread in Italy – to rely on adaptive tactics rather than on strategic pre-disaster plans. This paper investigates the university’s emergency preparedness and response capability and  the strategies adopted to restore the education activities as well as avoid students migration to other universities. In addition, emphasis is placed on the role played by Student Associations in pre and post-disaster phases, and how students perceived the activities performed by these associations. Methods: To achieve this goal, it was undertaken: i) qualitative evaluation to assess the impact of earthquake on services and facilities of the university, the emergency preparedness and the measures adopted to face the emergency, ii) survey on the role played by Student Associations, both in emergency preparedness and response, according to students’ perception; iii) quantitative analysis to measure changes in the enrollment trend after the earthquake, and how university policies could curb students’ migration. Results: The policies adopted by the University allowed to diminish students’ migration; however, the measures taken by the university were based on an ad hoc plan as no emergency and continuity plans were prepared in advance. Similarly Student Associations got involved more in restoration activities than in emergency preparedness and risk awareness promotion. Discussion: Greater awareness and involvement are essential at each level (administrators, faculties, students) to plan in advance for an

  3. The Effect of DRA and SQ3R on the Immediate and Delayed Recall of Seventh-Grade Social Studies Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garty, Roberta H.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the study of organizers, directed reading activity (DRA) and SQ3R, on the immediate and delayed recall of social studies materials. Eighty-four seventh-grade students from an intermediate school participated in this study. The results of the study indicated that the DRA technique was an…

  4. The ACE inhibitor ( sup 3 H)SQ29,852 identifies a high affinity recognition site located in the human temporal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, N.M.; Costall, B.; Egli, P.; Horovitz, Z.P.; Ironside, J.W.; Naylor, R.J.; Williams, T.J. )

    1990-07-01

    The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ({sup 3}H)SQ29,852 identified a single high affinity recognition site (defined by 10.0 microM captopril) in the human temporal cortex (pKD 8.62 +/- 0.03; Bmax 248 +/- 24 fmol mg-1 protein, mean +/- S.E.M., n = 4). ACE inhibitors and thiorphan competed to a similar level for the ({sup 3}H)SQ29,852 binding site in the human temporal cortex with a rank order of affinity (pKi values mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3), lisinopril (9.49 +/- 0.02), captopril (9.16 +/- 0.08), SQ29,852 (8.58 +/- 0.04), epicaptopril (7.09 +/- 0.08), fosinopril (7.08 +/- 0.05) and thiorphan (6.40 +/- 0.04). Since this rank order of affinity is similar to the affinity of these compounds to inhibit brain ACE activity it is concluded that ({sup 3}H)SQ29,852 selectively labels the inhibitor recognition site of ACE in the human temporal cortex.

  5. Thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 reduces ischemic stroke-induced microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, and ameliorates brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Aijuan; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Xiao; Shao, Jiaxiang; Fu, Ningzhen; Shen, Fanxia; Fu, Yi; Xia, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2R) activation is thought to be involved in thrombosis/hemostasis and inflammation responses. We have previously shown that TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 attenuates BV2 microglia activation by suppression of ERK pathway, but its effect is not tested in vivo. The present study aims to explore the role of TXA2R on microglia/macrophages activation after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in mice. Adult male ICR mice underwent 90-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Immediately and 24 h after reperfusion, SQ29548 was administered twice to the ipsilateral ventricle (10 μl, 2.6 μmol/ml, per dose). Cerebral infarction volume, inflammatory cytokines release and microglia/macrophages activation were measured using the cresyl violet method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and immunofluorescence double staining, respectively. Expression of TXA2R was significantly increased in the ipsilateral brain tissue after ischemia/reperfusion, which was also found to co-localize with activated microglia/macrophages in the infarct area. Administration of SQ29548 inhibited microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, including both M1 and M2 phenotypes, and attenuated ischemia-induced IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α up-regulation and iNOS release. TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 inhibited ischemia-induced inflammatory response and furthermore reduced microglia/macrophages activation and ischemic/reperfusion brain injury. PMID:27775054

  6. 45 Km Horizontal Path Optical Link Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, A.; Ceniceros, J.; Novak, M.; Jeganathan, M.; Portillo, A.; Erickson, D.; Depew, J.; Sanii, B.; Lesh, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-top to mountain-top optical link experiments have been initiated at JPL, in order to perform a systems level evaluation of optical communications. Progress made so far is reported. ne NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) is used to transmit a laser signal from Strawberry Peak (SP), located in the San Bernadino mountains of California. This laser beam is received by a 0.6 m aperture telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), located in Wrightwood, California. The optical link is bi-directional with the TMF telescope transmitting a continuous 4-wave (cw) 780 run beacon and the OCD sending back a 840 nm, 100 - 500 Mbps pseudo noise (PN) modulated, laser beam. The optical link path is at an average altitude of 2 km above sea level, covers a range of 46.8 km and provides an atmospheric channel equivalent to approx. 4 air masses. Average received power measured at either end fall well within the uncertainties predicted by link analysis. The reduction in normalized intensity variance (sigma(sup 2, sub I)) for the 4-beam beacon, compared to each individual beam, at SP, was from approx. 0.68 to 0.22. With some allowance for intra-beam mis-alignment, this is consistent with incoherent averaging. The sigma(sup2, sub I) measured at TMF approx. 0.43 +/- 0.22 exceeded the expected aperture averaged value of less than 0.1, probably because of beam wander. The focused spot sizes of approx. 162 +/- 6 microns at the TMF Coude and approx. 64 +/- 3 microns on the OCD compare to the predicted size range of 52 - 172 microns and 57 - 93 microns, respectively. This is consistent with 4 - 5 arcsec of atmospheric "seeing". The preliminary evaluation of OCD's fine tracking indicates that the uncompensated tracking error is approx. 3.3 micro rad compared to approx. 1.7 micro rad observed in the laboratory. Fine tracking performance was intermittent, primarily due to beacon fades on the OCD tracking sensor. The best bit error rates observed while

  7. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-11-17

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel.

  8. Peregrine 100-km Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Peregrine Sounding Rocket Program is a joint basic research program of NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Wallops, Stanford University, and the Space Propulsion Group, Inc. (SPG). The goal is to determine the applicability of this technology to a small launch system. The approach is to design, build, and fly a stable, efficient liquefying fuel hybrid rocket vehicle to an altitude of 100 km. The program was kicked off in October of 2006 and has seen considerable progress in the subsequent 18 months. This research group began studying liquifying hybrid rocket fuel technology more than a decade ago. The overall goal of the research was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental physics of the liquid layer entrainment process responsible for the large increase in regression rate observed in these fuels, and to demonstrate the effect of increased regression rate on hybrid rocket motor performance. At the time of this reporting, more than 400 motor tests were conducted with a variety of oxidizers (N2O, GOx, LOx) at ever increasing scales with thrust levels from 5 to over 15,000 pounds (22 N to over 66 kN) in order to move this technology from the laboratory to practical applications. The Peregrine program is the natural next step in this development. A number of small sounding rockets with diameters of 3, 4, and 6 in. (7.6, 10.2, and 15.2 cm) have been flown, but Peregrine at a diameter of 15 in. (38.1 cm) and 14,000-lb (62.3-kN) thrust is by far the largest system ever attempted and will be one of the largest hybrids ever flown. Successful Peregrine flights will set the stage for a wide range of applications of this technology.

  9. 2-Methoxy-5((3,4,5-trimethosyphenyl)seleninyl) phenol (SQ0814061), a novel microtubule inhibitor, evokes G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingwen; Zuo, Daiying; Qi, Huan; Shen, Qirong; Bai, Zhaoshi; Han, Mengting; Li, Zengqiang; Zhang, Weige; Wu, Yingliang

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, and novel chemotherapeutic drugs with high activity and no drug resistance for treating breast cancer are needed urgently. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of 2-methoxy-5((3,4,5-trimethosyphenyl)seleninyl) phenol (SQ0814061), which has a strong inhibition of cell growth in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. We demonstrated that SQ0814061 (SQ) time-dependently induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and subsequently progressed into apoptosis, which is associated with microtubule depolymerization. Western blot analysis revealed that up-regulation of cyclin B1 and Aurora A was related with G2/M phase arrest in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells treatment with SQ. However, the formation of multinucleated cells after a long time exposed to SQ of MCF-7 cells delayed the cell death. In addition, apoptosis induced by SQ is correlated with the down-regulation of the PI3K-Akt-MDM2 pathway in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment with the PI3K specific inhibitor, LY294002, increased SQ-induced cell growth inhibitory rate and apoptosis rate of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, SQ induced MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the SQ-induced cell death was ROS dependent. In conclusion, all the data demonstrated that SQ exhibited its antitumor activity through disrupting the microtubule assembly, inducing cell cycle arrest and eventually apoptosis which is associated with PI3K-Akt-MDM2 pathway in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, the novel compound SQ is a promising microtubule inhibitor that has tremendous potentials for therapeutic treatment of human mastocarcinoma.

  10. KM3NeT: towards a km 3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, C.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2009-05-01

    The observation of high energy neutrinos ( ≳1 TeV) from astrophysical sources would substantially improve our knowledge and understanding of the non-thermal processes in these sources, and would in particular pinpoint the accelerators of cosmic rays. Theoretical predictions indicate that km 3-scale detectors are needed to detect astrophysical neutrino fluxes. That is the reason why the three Mediterranean experiments, ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR are working together on preparing KM3NeT, a large deep-sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea which will survey a large part of the Galactic disc, including the Galactic Centre. It will complement the IceCube telescope currently under construction at the South Pole. Furthermore, the improved optical properties of sea water, compared to Antarctic ice, will allow for a better angular resolution and hence a better background rejection. The construction of this detector will require the solution of technological problems common to many deep submarine installations, and will help paving the way for other deep-sea research facilities. In this paper the major activities and the status of KM3NeT are presented.

  11. KM3NeT: towards a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Km3NeT Consortium; Distefano, C.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2009-05-01

    The observation of high energy neutrinos (≳1 TeV) from astrophysical sources would substantially improve our knowledge and understanding of the non-thermal processes in these sources, and would in particular pinpoint the accelerators of cosmic rays. Theoretical predictions indicate that km3-scale detectors are needed to detect astrophysical neutrino fluxes. That is the reason why the three Mediterranean experiments, ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR are working together on preparing KM3NeT, a large deep-sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea which will survey a large part of the Galactic disc, including the Galactic Centre. It will complement the IceCube telescope currently under construction at the South Pole. Furthermore, the improved optical properties of sea water, compared to Antarctic ice, will allow for a better angular resolution and hence a better background rejection. The construction of this detector will require the solution of technological problems common to many deep submarine installations, and will help paving the way for other deep-sea research facilities. In this paper the major activities and the status of KM3NeT are presented.

  12. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 kilograms per second per square meter (42.6 (lb/sec)/sq ft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Performance was obtained for a 50-cm-diameter compressor designed for a high weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 (kg/sec)/sq m. Peak efficiency values of 0.83 and 0.79 were obtained for the rotor and stage, respectively. The stall margin for the stage was 23 percent, based on equivalent weight flow and total-pressure ratio at peak efficiency and stall.

  13. A galaxy with a 3.2 X 2.2 sq KPC H II region surrounding its nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaburn, J.

    1983-06-01

    The spiral galaxy MCG-05-32-052 has a supergiant H II region surrounding its nucleus. The outer regions of this galaxy are in circular motion at ≅115 km s-1 but non-circular motions over a range of 100 km s-1 are found around the nucleus. Brightness ratios of the optical emission lines indicate that radiative ionization is predominant and a rate of emission of Lyman photons in the range 0.4 to 1.3×1053 s-1 is required to produce the total Hα intensity. A total ionized mass in the range 1.3 to 4×107 M_sun; is calculated and the total stellar mass in the central regions out to a radius of 1450 pc is given as 2.4×109 M_sun;. Three sources for this ionization and large motions are considered: either rich clusters of numerous ordinary OB stars with stellar winds and recurrent supernova explosions or one or several supermassive stars like the central object R 136a inside the 30 Dor nebula.

  14. Targeted Disruption of the kstD Gene Encoding a 3-Ketosteroid Δ1-Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme of Rhodococcus erythropolis Strain SQ1

    PubMed Central

    van der Geize, R.; Hessels, G. I.; van Gerwen, R.; Vrijbloed, J. W.; van der Meijden, P.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Microbial phytosterol degradation is accompanied by the formation of steroid pathway intermediates, which are potential precursors in the synthesis of bioactive steroids. Degradation of these steroid intermediates is initiated by Δ1-dehydrogenation of the steroid ring structure. Characterization of a 2.9-kb DNA fragment of Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1 revealed an open reading frame (kstD) showing similarity with known 3-ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase genes. Heterologous expression of kstD yielded 3-ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase (KSTD) activity under the control of the lac promoter in Escherichia coli. Targeted disruption of the kstD gene in R. erythropolis SQ1 was achieved, resulting in loss of more than 99% of the KSTD activity. However, growth on the steroid substrate 4-androstene-3,17-dione or 9α-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione was not abolished by the kstD gene disruption. Bioconversion of phytosterols was also not blocked at the level of Δ1-dehydrogenation in the kstD mutant strain, since no accumulation of steroid pathway intermediates was observed. Thus, inactivation of kstD is not sufficient for inactivation of the Δ1-dehydrogenase activity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cell extracts stained for KSTD activity showed that R. erythropolis SQ1 in fact harbors two activity bands, one of which is absent in the kstD mutant strain. PMID:10788377

  15. Rapid evaluation in whole blood culture of regimens for XDR-TB containing PNU-100480 (sutezolid), TMC207, PA-824, SQ109, and pyrazinamide.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Robert S; Jakubiec, Wesley; Mitton-Fry, Mark; Ladutko, Lynn; Campbell, Sheldon; Paige, Darcy; Silvia, Annette; Miller, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    There presently is no rapid method to assess the bactericidal activity of new regimens for tuberculosis. This study examined PNU-100480, TMC207, PA-824, SQ109, and pyrazinamide, singly and in various combinations, against intracellular M. tuberculosis, using whole blood culture (WBA). The addition of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D facilitated detection of the activity of TMC207 in the 3-day cultures. Pyrazinamide failed to show significant activity against a PZA-resistant strain (M. bovis BCG), and was not further considered. Low, mid, and high therapeutic concentrations of each remaining drug were tested individually and in a paired checkerboard fashion. Observed bactericidal activity was compared to that predicted by the sum of the effects of individual drugs. Combinations of PNU-100480, TMC207, and SQ109 were fully additive, whereas those including PA-824 were less than additive or antagonistic. The cumulative activities of 2, 3, and 4 drug combinations were predicted based on the observed concentration-activity relationship, published pharmacokinetic data, and, for PNU-100480, published WBA data after oral dosing. The most active regimens, including PNU-100480, TMC207, and SQ109, were predicted to have cumulative activity comparable to standard TB therapy. Further testing of regimens including these compounds is warranted. Measurement of whole blood bactericidal activity can accelerate the development of novel TB regimens.

  16. Mutation of the BRCA1 SQ-cluster results in aberrant mitosis, reduced homologous recombination, and a compensatory increase in non-homologous end joining.

    PubMed

    Beckta, Jason M; Dever, Seth M; Gnawali, Nisha; Khalil, Ashraf; Sule, Amrita; Golding, Sarah E; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Xu, Bo; Povirk, Lawrence F; Valerie, Kristoffer

    2015-09-29

    Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility 1 (BRCA1) gene are catalysts for breast and ovarian cancers. Most mutations are associated with the BRCA1 N- and C-terminal domains linked to DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. However, little is known about the role of the intervening serine-glutamine (SQ) - cluster in the DNA damage response beyond its importance in regulating cell cycle checkpoints. We show that serine-to-alanine alterations at critical residues within the SQ-cluster known to be phosphorylated by ATM and ATR result in reduced homologous recombination repair (HRR) and aberrant mitosis. While a S1387A BRCA1 mutant - previously shown to abrogate S-phase arrest in response to radiation - resulted in only a modest decrease in HRR, S1387A together with an additional alteration, S1423A (BRCA12P), reduced HRR to vector control levels and similar to a quadruple mutant also including S1457A and S1524A (BRCA14P). These effects appeared to be independent of PALB2. Furthermore, we found that BRCA14P promoted a prolonged and struggling HRR late in the cell cycle and shifted DSB repair from HRR to non-homologous end joining which, in the face of irreparable chromosomal damage, resulted in mitotic catastrophe. Altogether, SQ-cluster phosphorylation is critical for allowing adequate time for completing normal HRR prior to mitosis and preventing cells from entering G1 prematurely resulting in gross chromosomal aberrations.

  17. Mutation of the BRCA1 SQ-cluster results in aberrant mitosis, reduced homologous recombination, and a compensatory increase in non-homologous end joining

    PubMed Central

    Gnawali, Nisha; Khalil, Ashraf; Sule, Amrita; Golding, Sarah E.; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Xu, Bo; Povirk, Lawrence F.; Valerie, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility 1 (BRCA1) gene are catalysts for breast and ovarian cancers. Most mutations are associated with the BRCA1 N- and C-terminal domains linked to DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. However, little is known about the role of the intervening serine-glutamine (SQ) - cluster in the DNA damage response beyond its importance in regulating cell cycle checkpoints. We show that serine-to-alanine alterations at critical residues within the SQ-cluster known to be phosphorylated by ATM and ATR result in reduced homologous recombination repair (HRR) and aberrant mitosis. While a S1387A BRCA1 mutant - previously shown to abrogate S-phase arrest in response to radiation - resulted in only a modest decrease in HRR, S1387A together with an additional alteration, S1423A (BRCA12P), reduced HRR to vector control levels and similar to a quadruple mutant also including S1457A and S1524A (BRCA14P). These effects appeared to be independent of PALB2. Furthermore, we found that BRCA14P promoted a prolonged and struggling HRR late in the cell cycle and shifted DSB repair from HRR to non-homologous end joining which, in the face of irreparable chromosomal damage, resulted in mitotic catastrophe. Altogether, SQ-cluster phosphorylation is critical for allowing adequate time for completing normal HRR prior to mitosis and preventing cells from entering G1 prematurely resulting in gross chromosomal aberrations. PMID:26320175

  18. Characteristics of long-term variation in the amlitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation using the Inter-university Upper atmosphere Gobal Observation NETwork (IUGONET) data analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet geomagnetic field daily variation (Sq) have been investigated using 1-hour geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic stations in a period of 1947-2013. In the present data analysis, we took advantage of the IUGONET data analysis system. The Sq amplitude clearly showed a 10-12 year solar activity dependence and it tended to enhance during each solar maximum. During the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008-2009, the Sq amplitude became the smallest in the investigated period. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude is approximately linear but 64 percent of geomagnetic stations show a weak nonlinear dependence on the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947-2013, and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, a majority of the trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed a negative value in a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71 percent of geomagnetic stations. On the other hand, the residual Sq amplitude in the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies the movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  19. MODIS 3km Aerosol Product: Algorithm and Global Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Levy, R. C.; Munchak, L.

    2013-01-01

    After more than a decade of producing a nominal 10 km aerosol product based on the dark target method, the MODIS aerosol team will be releasing a nominal 3 km product as part of their Collection 6 release. The new product differs from the original 10 km product only in the manner in which reflectance pixels are ingested, organized and selected by the aerosol algorithm. Overall, the 3 km product closely mirrors the 10 km product. However, the finer resolution product is able to retrieve over ocean closer to islands and coastlines, and is better able to resolve fine aerosol features such as smoke plumes over both ocean and land. In some situations, it provides retrievals over entire regions that the 10 km product barely samples. In situations traditionally difficult for the dark target algorithm, such as over bright or urban surfaces the 3 km product introduces isolated spikes of artificially high aerosol optical depth (AOD) that the 10 km algorithm avoids. Over land, globally, the 3 km product appears to be 0.01 to 0.02 higher than the 10 km product, while over ocean, the 3 km algorithm is retrieving a proportionally greater number of very low aerosol loading situations. Based on collocations with ground-based observations for only six months, expected errors associated with the 3 km land product are determined to be greater than for the 10 km product: 0.05 0.25 AOD. Over ocean, the suggestion is for expected errors to be the same as the 10 km product: 0.03 0.05 AOD. The advantage of the product is on the local scale, which will require continued evaluation not addressed here. Nevertheless, the new 3 km product is expected to provide important information complementary to existing satellite-derived products and become an important tool for the aerosol community.

  20. PREFACE: MEM11: The 6th International Workshop on Mechanical-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Okinawa, Japan, 5-7 December 2011) MEM11: The 6th International Workshop on Mechanical-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Okinawa, Japan, 5-7 December 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaji, Satoshi; Osamura, Kozo; Hampshire, Damian

    2012-05-01

    The effect of stress and strain on the electromagnetic properties of superconducting composite conductors is one of the key issues for the practical application of superconductivity. To discuss these subjects thoroughly, the International Workshop on Mechanical-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (MEM) has been held regularly since 2001. The 6th workshop (MEM11) was held in Okinawa, Japan in 2011, which was the centennial of the discovery of superconductivity by Professor Kamerlingh Onnes, as well as the 25th anniversary of the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS). Although it was originally planned that MEM11 be held in Mito, the workshop venue was changed because of the serious disaster in the north of Japan on 11 March 2011. Sixty five scientists participated in this specialized workshop. Fifty six papers were presented in the following six sessions: (1) Intrinsic strain effects on low temperature superconductors (LTS) and HTS, (2) The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), (3) Strain evaluation by quantum beams, (4) Flux pinning properties of HTS, (5) Standardization and the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) and (6) High field magnets. Several large topics were presented and discussed at the workshop: the important progress in methods for non-invasive measurements of the local strain exerted on the superconducting components in superconducting wires and cables using quantum beam techniques. This approach provides powerful tools for investigating the effect of strain in composite superconductors; the intrinsic strain effects in LTS and HTS in the reversible strain region. Recently, it has become easier to determine quantitatively the strain dependence of critical current when the local strain is measured directly, and the mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the superconductors used in the ITER tokamak. This was a major topic at the workshop since the superconducting

  1. The performance of measurement-based simple models for the x-band complex permittivity of 370 ohms/sq. Kapton XC

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, Brian B; Whites, Kieth W; Amert, Tony

    2009-01-01

    The X-band complex permittivity of a commercially-available, carbon loaded, polyamide film is measured. Simple though approximate models are obtained which are shown to be necessary and suitable for analytic or computational modeling of thin absorbing structures realized with the thin lossy film. The utility of each model is tested against experimental results for thin high-impedance surface (HIS) enhanced Salisbury absorbers, enhanced in the sense that the HIS augmented absorber is much thinner than a conventional Salisbury absorber. Kapton XC(reg.) is a commercially-available, carbon-loaded polyamide film manufactured by Dupont(reg.). Though these films are exceptionally durable and available in a range of surface resistivities, their effective permittivity is complex valued and, therefore, their sheet impedance is frequency dependent as is typical of carbon-loaded dielectrics. We have measured the X-band complex permittivity of Kapton XC(reg.) with a manufacture's quoted direct current (DC) sheet resistivity of approximately 370 {Omega}/sq. and thicknesses of 40.0 {mu}m. This study showed the need for relatively precise knowledge of the real part of a carbon particulate loaded, lossy thin film's permittivity in order to accurately engineer the reflection coefficient of high-impedance surface enhanced electromagnetic absorbers. Specifically, simple, approximate models can be obtained for the X-band complex pennittivity of commercially available, carbon loaded, 370 {Omega}/sq., Kapton XC(reg.) thin film. These simple, approximate models can be used in the analytic modeling of high-impedance surface enhanced X-band absorbers or computational modeling of other possibly more complicated absorbing structures which are composed, in part, of 370 {Omega}/sq. Kapton XC(reg.) and designed to operate within the X-band. Finally, the results of this study illustrate the need for simgle models for calculating the complex permittivity spectra of 370 {Omega}/sq. Kapton XC

  2. Microphysical Model of the Venus clouds between 40km and 80km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGouldrick, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I am continuing to adapt the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) to successfully simulate the multi-layered clouds of Venus. The present version of the one-dimensional model now includes a simple parameterization of the photochemicial production of sulfuric acid around altitudes of 62km, and its thermochemical destruction below cloud base. Photochemical production in the model is limited by the availability of water vapor and insolation. Upper cloud particles are introduced into the model via binary homogeneous nucleation, while the lower and middle cloud particles are created via activation of involatile cloud condensation nuclei. Growth by condensation and coagulation and coalescence are also treated. Mass loadings and particle sizes compare favorably with the in situ observations by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe Particle Size Spectrometer, and mixing ratios of volatiles compare favorably with remotely sensed observations of water vapor and sulfuric acid vapor. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, grant number NNX11AD79G.

  3. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 6th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, Bankoku Shinryoukan, Okinawa, Japan, 20-24 June 2005 Proceedings of the 6th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, Bankoku Shinryoukan, Okinawa, Japan, 20-24 June 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mio, N.

    2006-04-01

    This issue is published as the Proceedings of the 6th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, held on 20-24 June 2005 at Bankoku Shinryoukan in Okinawa, Japan. Since the first Amaldi conference was held in Frascati in 1994, eleven years have passed and the scale of the conference has grown with the increasing activity in the field of gravitational waves. As the centenary celebration of Einstein's 'miracle year', 2005 was called 'World Year of Physics'. Among his breakthroughs published in 1905, the special theory of relativity is recognized as the most significant revolution in physics, completely changing our views concerning time and space. Ten years later, Einstein proposed the general theory of relativity, by which he predicted the existence of gravitational waves (GWs). At that time, it was only a dream to observe a GW because its effect was so small. Efforts to detect GWs, pioneered by Weber, have continued for almost 40 years, yet their detection remained a dream. However, the presentations at this conference have convinced us that it is no longer a dream. The GW detector projects have made extraordinary advances; in particular, the significant sensitivity improvement of LIGO and the completion of the VIRGO detector mark the beginning of the new era of GW physics. Firm developments in theories and source estimations were also reported. In particular, the data analysis session was very active and various discussions were held. Elaborate experimental techniques were presented, some of them already achieving the requirements for the next generation of detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and LCGT. In addition to the earth-based detectors, many presentations concerning space detectors were contributed; they indicated that space would become the new stage for GW physics and astronomy. This issue brings together the papers which were presented at this exciting conference. The proceedings comprise two volumes; the largest part is published as a volume of

  4. Thermodynamic properties and theoretical rocket performance of hydrogen to 100,000 K and 1.01325 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patch, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The composition and thermodynamic properties were calculated for 100 to 110,000 K and 1.01325 x 10 to the 2nd power to 1.01325 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m for chemical equilibrium in the Debye-Huckel and ideal-gas approximations. Quantities obtained were the concentrations of hydrogen atoms, protons, free electrons, hydrogen molecules, negative hydrogen ions, hydrogen diatomic molecular ions, and hydrogen triatomic molecular ions, and the enthalpy, entropy, average molecular weight, specific heat at constant pressure, density, and isentropic exponent. Electronically excited states of H and H2 were included. Choked, isentropic, one-dimensional nozzle flow with shifting chemical equilibrium was calculated to the Debye-Huckel and ideal-gas approximations for stagnation temperatures from 2500 to 100,000 K. The mass flow per unit throat area and the sonic flow factor were obtained. The pressure ratio, temperature, velocity, and ideal and vacuum specific impulses at the throat and for pressure ratios as low as 0.000001 downstream were found. For high temperatures at pressures approaching 1.01325 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m, the ideal-gas approximation was found to be inadequate for calculations of composition, precise thermodynamic properties, and precise nozzle flow. The greatest discrepancy in nozzle flow occurred in the exit temperature, which was as much as 21 percent higher when the Debye-Huckel approximation was used.

  5. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  6. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  7. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  8. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  9. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  10. Exploring KM Features of High-Performance Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Wen

    2007-12-01

    For reacting to an increasingly rival business environment, many companies emphasize the importance of knowledge management (KM). It is a favorable way to explore and learn KM features of high-performance companies. However, finding out the critical KM features of high-performance companies is a qualitative analysis problem. To handle this kind of problem, the rough set approach is suitable because it is based on data-mining techniques to discover knowledge without rigorous statistical assumptions. Thus, this paper explored KM features of high-performance companies by using the rough set approach. The results show that high-performance companies stress the importance on both tacit and explicit knowledge, and consider that incentives and evaluations are the essentials to implementing KM.

  11. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) KM Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnadoe, Tom; McCarter, Mike

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities with in the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center Of Excellence (AISCE), Intergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KM implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to support the planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have been performed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural/KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  12. Evaluation of an analytical methodology using QuEChERS and GC-SQ/MS for the investigation of the level of pesticide residues in Brazilian melons.

    PubMed

    da Silva Sousa, Jonas; de Castro, Rubens Carius; de Albuquerque Andrade, Gilliane; Lima, Cleidiane Gomes; Lima, Lucélia Kátia; Milhome, Maria Aparecida Liberato; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    A multiresidue method based on the sample preparation by modified QuEChERS and detection by gas chromatography coupled to single quadruple mass spectrometers (GC-SQ/MS) was used for the analysis of 35 multiclass pesticides in melons (Cucumis melo inodorus) produced in Ceara-Brazil. The rates of recovery for pesticides studied were satisfactory (except for the etridiazole), ranging from 85% to 117% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 15%, at concentrations between 0.05 and 0.20 mg kg(-1). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for most compounds was below the MRLs established in Brazil. The combined relative uncertainty (Uc) and expanded uncertainty (Ue) was determined using repeatability, recovery and calibration curves data for each pesticide. Analysis of commercial melons samples revealed the presence of pesticides bifenthrin and imazalil at levels below the MRLs established by ANVISA, EU and USEPA.

  13. Evaluating KM Journal Content: An Assessment of Trends (2000-2005)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Creating a KM Systems Thinking Framework...........................................................17 What is a KM-specific Journal...loop Learning ................................................................... 27 Figure 6. Combining KM Frameworks into a KM Systems Thinking Framework...30 Figure 7. KM Systems Thinking Framework .................................................................. 31 Figure 8. Content

  14. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  15. How does music aid 5 km of running?

    PubMed

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; León-Domínguez, Umberto; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Altimari, Leandro R

    2015-02-01

    This research investigated the effects of music and its time of application on a 5-km run. Fifteen well-trained male long-distance runners (24.87 ± 2.47 years; 78.87 ± 10.57 kg; 178 ± 07 cm) participated in this study. Five randomized experimental conditions during a 5-km run on an official track were tested (PM: motivational songs, applied before 5 km of running; SM: slow motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; FM: fast and motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; CS: calm songs, applied after 5 km of running; CO: control condition). Psychophysiological assessments were performed before (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, heart rate variability [HRV], valence, and arousal), during (performance time, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]), and after (mood, RPE, and HRV) tests. The chosen songs were considered pleasurable and capable of activating. Furthermore, they activated the 3 assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas (medial, right dorsolateral, and left dorsolateral) similarly, generating positive emotional consequences by autonomous system analysis. The first 800 m was accomplished faster for SM and FM compared with other conditions (p ≤ 0.05); moreover, there was a high probability of improving running performance when music was applied (SM: 89%; FM: 85%; PM: 39%). Finally, music was capable of accelerating vagal tonus after 5 km of running with CS (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, music was able to activate the PFC area, minimize perceptions, improve performance, and accelerate recovery during 5 km of running.

  16. Cratering and penetration experiments in Teflon targets at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cintala, Mark J.; See, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 20 sq m of protective thermal blankets, largely composed of Teflon, were retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) after the spacecraft had spent approximately 5.7 years in space. Examination of these blankets revealed that they contained thousands of hypervelocity impact features ranging from micron-sized craters to penetration holes several millimeters in diameter. We conducted impact experiments in an effort to reproduce such features and to -- hopefully -- understand the relationships between projectile size and the resulting crater or penetration-hole diameter over a wide range of impact velocity. Such relationships are needed to derive the size- and mass-frequency distribution and flux of natural and man-made particles in low-Earth orbit. Powder propellant and light-gas guns were used to launch soda-lime glass spheres of 3.175 mm (1/8 inch) nominal diameter (Dp) into pure Teflon FEP targets at velocities ranging from 1 to 7 km/s. Target thickness (T) was varied over more than three orders of magnitude from infinite halfspace targets (Dp/T less than 0.1) to very thin films (Dp/T greater than 100). Cratering and penetration of massive Teflon targets is dominated by brittle failure and the development of extensive spall zones at the target's front and, if penetrated, the target's rear side. Mass removal by spallation at the back side of Teflon targets may be so severe that the absolute penetration-hole diameter (Dh) can become larger than that of a standard crater (Dc) at relative target thicknesses of Dp/T = 0.6-0.9. The crater diameter is infinite halfspace Teflon targets increases -- at otherwise constant impact conditions -- with encounter velocity by a factor of V0.44. In contrast, the penetration-hole size is very thin foils (Dp/T greater than 50) is essentially unaffected by impact velocity. Penetrations at target thicknesses intermediate to these extremes will scale with variable exponents of V. Our experimental matrix is

  17. Cratering and penetration experiments in teflon targets at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cardenas, Frank; Davidson, William; Haynes, Gerald; See, Thomas H.; Winkler, Jerry; Knight, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 20 sq m of protective thermal blankets, largely composed of Teflon, were retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility after the spacecraft spent approximately 5.7 years in space. Examination of these blankets revealed that they contained thousands of hypervelocity impact features ranging from micron-sized craters to penetration holes several millimeters in diameter. We conducted impact experiments to reproduce such features and to understand the relationships between projectile size and the resulting crater or penetration hole diameter over a wide range of impact velocities. Such relationships are needed to derive the size and mass frequency distribution and flux of natural and man-made particles in low-earth orbit. Powder propellant and light-gas guns were used to launch soda-lime glass spheres into pure Teflon targets at velocities ranging from 1 to 7 km/s. Target thickness varied over more than three orders of magnitude from finite halfspace targets to very thin films. Cratering and penetration of massive Teflon targets is dominated by brittle failure and the development of extensive spall zones at the target's front and, if penetrated, the target's rear side. Mass removal by spallation at the back side of Teflon targets may be so severe that the absolute penetration hole diameter can become larger than that of a standard crater. The crater diameter in infinite halfspace Teflon targets increases, at otherwise constant impact conditions, with encounter velocity by a factor of V (exp 0.44). In contrast, the penetration hole size in very thin foils is essentially unaffected by impact velocity. Penetrations at target thicknesses intermediate to these extremes will scale with variable exponents of V. Our experimental matrix is sufficiently systematic and complete, up to 7 km/s, to make reasonable recommendations for velocity-scaling of Teflon craters and penetrations. We specifically suggest that cratering behavior and associated equations apply

  18. Cratering and penetration experiments in Teflon targets at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cintala, Mark J.; See, Thomas H.

    1995-02-01

    Approximately 20 sq m of protective thermal blankets, largely composed of Teflon, were retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) after the spacecraft had spent approximately 5.7 years in space. Examination of these blankets revealed that they contained thousands of hypervelocity impact features ranging from micron-sized craters to penetration holes several millimeters in diameter. We conducted impact experiments in an effort to reproduce such features and to -- hopefully -- understand the relationships between projectile size and the resulting crater or penetration-hole diameter over a wide range of impact velocity. Such relationships are needed to derive the size- and mass-frequency distribution and flux of natural and man-made particles in low-Earth orbit. Powder propellant and light-gas guns were used to launch soda-lime glass spheres of 3.175 mm (1/8 inch) nominal diameter (Dp) into pure Teflon FEP targets at velocities ranging from 1 to 7 km/s. Target thickness (T) was varied over more than three orders of magnitude from infinite halfspace targets (Dp/T less than 0.1) to very thin films (Dp/T greater than 100). Cratering and penetration of massive Teflon targets is dominated by brittle failure and the development of extensive spall zones at the target's front and, if penetrated, the target's rear side. Mass removal by spallation at the back side of Teflon targets may be so severe that the absolute penetration-hole diameter (Dh) can become larger than that of a standard crater (Dc) at relative target thicknesses of Dp/T = 0.6-0.9. The crater diameter is infinite halfspace Teflon targets increases -- at otherwise constant impact conditions -- with encounter velocity by a factor of V0.44. In contrast, the penetration-hole size is very thin foils (Dp/T greater than 50) is essentially unaffected by impact velocity. Penetrations at target thicknesses intermediate to these extremes will scale with variable exponents of V. Our experimental matrix is

  19. Discovering the Universe, 6th edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comins, Neil F.; Kaufmann, William J.

    Discovering the Universe is the best-selling brief text for descriptive one-term astronomy courses (especially those with no mathematics prerequisites). Carried along by the book's vibrant main theme--the process of scientific discovery--readers will encounter spectacular sights, landmark experiments, and recent discoveries, while learning to avoid the pitfalls created by common misconceptions about astronomy. Now enhanced with a powerful technology and image projection package, this is the most exciting and effective edition yet. The accompanying CD-ROM features a special student version of the award-winning virtual planetarium software, Starry Night? Backyard.

  20. Imagine the Universe! (6th Edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lochner, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Contained on this CD-ROM you will find three astronomy and space science learning centers, individually captured from the World Wide Web in December of 2001. Each site contains its own learning adventure full of facts, fun, beautiful images, movies, and excitement!

  1. Elementary Science Guide -- 6th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 6. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…

  2. European Conference on Visual Perception (6th).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-30

    selected by an international committee of referees: Prof. Giovanni BERLUCCHI Istituto di Fisiologia umana Universitl di Pisa Via S. Zeno. 31 56100...CB2 3EG - Great Britain P. BAGNOLI: Istituto di Fisiologia , Universit& di Pisa, Via S. Zeno, 29-31 - 56100 Pisa, Italy J. BARBUR: Department of...Applied Psychology, University of UmeE, 901 87 Umet - Sweden G. BERLUCCHI: Istituto di Fisiologia , Universit di Pisa, Via S. Zeno, 29/31 -.56100 Pisa

  3. Local fluctuations of ozone from 16 km to 45 km deduced from in situ vertical ozone profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, G.; Robert, C.

    1994-01-01

    A vertical ozone profile obtained by an in situ ozone sonde from 16 km to 45 km, has allowed to observe local ozone concentration variations. These variations can be observed, thanks to a fast measurement system based on a UV absorption KrF excimer laser beam in a multipass cell. Ozone standard deviation versus altitude calculated from the mean is derived. Ozone variations or fluctuations are correlated with the different dynamic zones of the stratosphere.

  4. Detection of the structure near the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities in Japan subduction zone from the waveform triplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Slab subduction plays an important role in the mantle material circulation [Stern, 2002], and can also affect the feature of the 410 km and 660 km seismic discontinuities (410 and 660) [Lebedev et al., 2002]. Japan subduction zone is a natural laboratory for studying the mantle composition and velocity structure associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific plate. In this study, triplicated waveforms of an intermediate-depth earthquake at the Hokkaido of Japan (2011/10/21, 08:02:37.62, 142.5315°E, 43.8729°N, Mb6.0, relocated depth: 188 km) are retrieved from the dense Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). P and S waveforms are filtered with the band of 0.05-1.0 Hz and 0.02-0.5 Hz, respectively, and then integrated into the displacement data. The relative traveltime and synthetic waveform fitting is applied to mapping the deep structure. The best fitting models are obtained through the trial and error tests. We find a 15 km uplift of the 410 and a 25 km depression of the 660, indicating the cold environment caused by the subduction slab; both the 410 and 660 show the sharp discontinuity, but a smaller velocity contrast than the IASP91 model [Kennett and Engdahl, 1991]. Atop the 410 and 660, there are high-velocity layers associated with the subduction (or stagnant) slab. We also find a low-velocity anomaly with the thickness of ~65 km below the 660, which may relate to the slab dehydration or the hot upwelling at the top of the lower mantle. The seismic velocity ratio (VP/VS) shows a lower zone at the depth of ~210-395 km, showing the consistency with the low Poisson's ratio signature of the oceanic plate; a higher zone at the depth of ~560-685 km, implying the hydrous mantle transition zone.

  5. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivolo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex) spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2), weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting) and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  6. CARS: the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey. I. Five-band multi-colour data from 37 sq. deg. CFHTLS-wide observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Lerchster, M.; Hudelot, P.; Benjamin, J.; van Waerbeke, L.; Schrabback, T.; Brimioulle, F.; Cordes, O.; Dietrich, J. P.; Holhjem, K.; Schirmer, M.; Schneider, P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: We present the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey (CARS). It is a virtual multi-colour survey that is based on public archive images from the Deep and Wide components of the CFHT-Legacy-Survey (CFHTLS). Our main scientific interests in the CFHTLS Wide-part of CARS are optical searches for galaxy clusters from low to high redshift and their subsequent study with photometric and weak-gravitational lensing techniques. Aims: As a first step in the CARS project, we present multi-colour catalogues from 37 sq. degrees of the CFHTLS-Wide component. Our aims are first to create astrometrically and photometrically well-calibrated co-added images from publicly available CFHTLS data. Second, we offer five-band (u^*g'r'i'z') multi-band catalogues with an emphasis on reliable estimates for object colours. These are subsequently used for photometric redshift estimates. Methods: We consider all those CFHTLS-Wide survey pointings that were publicly available on January 2008 and that also have five-band coverage in u^*g'r'i'z'. The data were calibrated and processed with our GaBoDS/THELI image processing pipeline. The quality of the resulting images was thoroughly checked against the Sloan-Digital-Sky Survey (SDSS) and already public high-end CFHTLS data products. From the co-added images we extracted source catalogues and determined photometric redshifts using the public code Bayesian Photometric Redshifts (BPZ). Fifteen of our survey fields directly overlap with public spectra from the VIMOS VLT deep (VVDS), DEEP2 and SDSS redshift surveys, which we used for calibration and verification of our redshift estimates. Furthermore we applied a novel technique, based on studies of the angular galaxy cross-correlation function, to quantify the reliability of photo-z's. Results: With this paper we present 37 sq. degrees of homogeneous and high-quality five-colour photometric data from the CFHTLS-Wide survey. The median seeing of our data is better than 0.9 arcsec in all bands and our

  7. Reliability of 5-km Running Performance in a Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Philip; Board, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of a 5-km time-trial during a competitive outdoor running event. Fifteen endurance runners (age = 29.5 ± 4.3 years, height = 1.75 ± 0.08 m, body mass = 71.0 ± 7.1 kg, 5-km lifetime personal best = 19:13 ± 1:13 minutes) completed two competitive 5-km time-trials over 2 weeks. No systematic…

  8. Alpha-2 Heremans Schmid Glycoprotein (AHSG) Modulates Signaling Pathways in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line SQ20B

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Pamela D.; Sakwe, Amos; Koumangoye, Rainelli; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Ochieng, Josiah; Marshall, Dana R.

    2014-02-15

    This study was performed to identify the potential role of Alpha-2 Heremans Schmid Glycoprotein (AHSG) in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) tumorigenesis using an HNSCC cell line model. HNSCC cell lines are unique among cancer cell lines, in that they produce endogenous AHSG and do not rely, solely, on AHSG derived from serum. To produce our model, we performed a stable transfection to down-regulate AHSG in the HNSCC cell line SQ20B, resulting in three SQ20B sublines, AH50 with 50% AHSG production, AH20 with 20% AHSG production and EV which is the empty vector control expressing wild-type levels of AHSG. Utilizing these sublines, we examined the effect of AHSG depletion on cellular adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion in a serum-free environment. We demonstrated that sublines EV and AH50 adhered to plastic and laminin significantly faster than the AH20 cell line, supporting the previously reported role of exogenous AHSG in cell adhesion. As for proliferative potential, EV had the greatest amount of proliferation with AH50 proliferation significantly diminished. AH20 cells did not proliferate at all. Depletion of AHSG also diminished cellular migration and invasion. TGF-β was examined to determine whether levels of the TGF-β binding AHSG influenced the effect of TGF-β on cell signaling and proliferation. Whereas higher levels of AHSG blunted TGF-β influenced SMAD and ERK signaling, it did not clearly affect proliferation, suggesting that AHSG influences on adhesion, proliferation, invasion and migration are primarily due to its role in adhesion and cell spreading. The previously reported role of AHSG in potentiating metastasis via protecting MMP-9 from autolysis was also supported in this cell line based model system of endogenous AHSG production in HNSCC. Together, these data show that endogenously produced AHSG in an HNSCC cell line, promotes in vitro cellular properties identified as having a role in tumorigenesis. Highlights: • Head

  9. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-01

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of 0 + CO2 yields CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively.

  10. Digital optical module electronics of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, D.; Calvo, D.

    2016-11-01

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is being built on the Mediterranean sea and, once completed, it will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres (nodes) including each 31 of small photocathode (3"). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each node at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article all the electronics developed for achieving this goal.

  11. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the deep seas of the Mediterranean housing a large scale neutrino telescope. The first phase of construction of the telescope has started. Next step is an intermediate phase realising a detector volume of about one-third of the final detector volume. We report on calculations of the sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to showering neutrino events, the strategy to optimise the detector to a cosmic neutrino flux analogous to the one reported by the IceCube Collaboration and the results of this strategy applied to the intermediate phase detector.

  12. Neutral winds above 200Km at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Heppner, J. P.; Stolarik, J. D.; Wescott, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Motion from multiple chemical releases between 200 and 300 km from 15 rockets launched from 4 high latitude locations are analyzed. The observations in the evening and midnight hours at magnetic altitudes or = 65 deg suggest that in these regions ion drag is the dominant force in driving neutral winds between 200 and 300 km. This conclusion is based on both the agreement between ion and neutral drift directions, and the fact that there are distinct changes in the wind associated with (a) the reversal in east-west ion drift at the Harang discontinuity, and (b) the transition from auroral belt, sunward ion drift and polar cap, anti-solar ion drift.

  13. Running economy during a simulated 60-km trial.

    PubMed

    Schena, Federico; Pellegrini, Barbara; Tarperi, Cantor; Calabria, Elisa; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Capelli, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    The effect of a prolonged running trial on the energy cost of running (C(r)) during a 60-km ultramarathon simulation at the pace of a 100-km competition was investigated in 13 men (40.8 ± 5.6 y, 70.7 ± 5.5 kg, 177.5 ± 4.5 cm) and 5 women (40.4 ± 2.3 y, 53.7 ± 4.4 kg, 162.4 ± 4.8 cm) who participated in a 60-km trial consisting of 3 consecutive 20-km laps. Oxygen uptake (VO(2)) at steady state was determined at constant speed before the test and at the end of each lap; stride length (SL) and frequency and contact time were measured at the same time points; serum creatine kinase (S-CPK) was measured before and at the end of the test. C(r) in J · kg(-1) · m(-1), as calculated from VO(2ss) and respiratory-exchange ratio, did not increase with distance. SL significantly decreased with distance. The net increase in S-CPK was linearly related with the percentage increase of C(r) observed during the trial. It is concluded that, in spite of increased S-CPK, this effort was not able to elicit any peripheral or central fatigue or biomechanical adaptation leading to any modification of C(r).

  14. Gravity wave vertical energy flux at 95 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, P. G.; Jacka, F.

    1985-01-01

    A three-field photometer (3FP) located at Mt. Torrens near Adelaide, is capable of monitoring different airglow emissions from three spaced fields in the sky. A wheel containing up to six different narrow bandpass interference filters can be rotated, allowing each of the filters to be sequentially placed into each of the three fields. The airglow emission of interest is the 557.7 nm line which has an intensity maximum at 95 km. Each circular field of view is located at the apexes of an equilateral triangle centered on zenith with diameters of 5 km and field separations of 13 km when projected to the 95-km level. The sampling period was 30 seconds and typical data lengths were between 7 and 8 hours. The analysis and results from the interaction of gravity waves on the 557.7 nm emission layer are derived using an atmospheric model similar to that proposed by Hines (1960) where the atmosphere is assumed isothermal and perturbations caused by gravity waves are small and adiabatic, therefore, resulting in linearized equations of motion. In the absence of waves, the atmosphere is also considered stationary. Thirteen nights of quality data from January 1983 to October 1984, covering all seasons, are used in this analysis.

  15. Body Composition Measurements of 161-km Ultramarathon Participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares body composition characteristics with performance among participants in a 161-km trail ultramarathon. Height, mass, and percent body fat from bioimpedence spectroscopy were measured on 72 starters. Correlation analyses were used to compare body characteristics with finish time, ...

  16. Models of earth's atmosphere (90 to 2500 km)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This monograph replaces a monograph on the upper atmosphere which was a computerized version of Jacchia's model. The current model has a range from 90 to 2500 km. In addition to the computerized model, a quick-look prediction method is given that may be used to estimate the density for any time and spatial location without using a computer.

  17. High Transverse Momentum Triggered Correlations over a Large Pseudorapidity Acceptance in Au+Au Collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M. P.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J. L.; Kulinich, P.; Li, W.; Loizides, C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.

    2010-02-12

    A measurement of two-particle correlations with a high transverse momentum trigger particle (p{sub T}{sup trig}>2.5 GeV/c) is presented for Au+Au collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV over the uniquely broad longitudinal acceptance of the PHOBOS detector (-4<{Delta}{eta}<2). A broadening of the away-side azimuthal correlation compared to elementary collisions is observed at all {Delta}{eta}. As in p+p collisions, the near side is characterized by a peak of correlated partners at small angle relative to the trigger particle. However, in central Au+Au collisions an additional correlation extended in {Delta}{eta} and known as the 'ridge' is found to reach at least |{Delta}{eta}|approx =4. The ridge yield is largely independent of {Delta}{eta} over the measured range, and it decreases towards more peripheral collisions. For the chosen p{sub T}{sup trig} cut, the ridge yield is consistent with zero for events with less than roughly 100 participating nucleons.

  18. Measuring IPDE-SQ personality disorder prevalence in pre-sentence and early-stage prison populations, with sub-type estimates.

    PubMed

    Slade, Karen; Forrester, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the prevalence and type of personality disorder within prison systems allows for the effective targeting of resources to implement strategies to alleviate symptoms, manage behaviour and attempt to reduce re-offending. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of personality disorder (PD) traits within a local urban high-turnover adult male prison with a remand/recently sentenced population in London, UK. The International Personality Disorder Examination - Screening Questionnaire (IPDE-SQ) self-administered questionnaire (ICD-10 version) was completed by 283 prisoners (42% completion rate). 77% of respondents reached the threshold for one or more PDs. The most common PD types were Paranoid PD (44.5%), Anankastic PD (40.3%), Schizoid PD (35%) and Dissocial PD (25.8%). These results confirm and extend existing knowledge regarding the prevalence of PD in prison populations into a high-turnover, urban, remand population. The stark comparison with community samples indicates that a more equitable standard of service delivery within the criminal justice system, focussing on preventive and early intervention services, is now required.

  19. Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes with 1km by 1km spatial-resolution using satellite- driven model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Nasahara, K.; Ito, A.; Saigusa, N.; Hirata, R.; Takagi, K.; Oikawa, T.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle is strongly affected by some local natural phenomena and human-induced activities, which bring change to the carbon exchanges via vegetation and soil microbe activities. In order to accurately understand a realistic spatial pattern in carbon exchanges including such an effect of local-scale events, we need to calculate carbon fluxes and storages with as detailed spatial resolution as possible. In response to this, we attempt to estimate terrestrial carbon fluxes with 1km by 1km spatial resolution using satellite-driven model. Study area of the model estimation is the Further East Asia region, which lies at 30-50 north latitude and 125-150 east longitude. The model is the Biosphere model integrating Eco-physiological And Mechanistic approaches using Satellite data (BEAMS) [Sasai et al., 2005, 2007]. Being aim at simulating terrestrial carbon exchanges under more realistic land surface condition, we applied as many as possible of satellite-observation products such as the standard MODIS, TRMM, and SRTM high-level land products as model inputs. In the model validation, we compared between model estimations and eddy covariance measurements at four flux sites. As a result, a correlation coefficient of the terrestrial carbon fluxes between estimations and measurements were high values, leading up that the model estimations are virtually reasonable. In model analysis, BEAMS was operated with 1km by 1km spatial resolution from 2001 to 2006. Spatial distributions in the annual mean NPP and NEP showed that high values were distributed over the hilly and plateau regions, and they were gradually decreasing towards the urban and high mountain areas, meaning that we could reflect an impact of the local-scale events in the carbon flux estimations. In future, we would extend study area to the East Asia region, and the carbon exchange map with 1km by 1km spatial- resolution is distributed on the website.

  20. Perfluorocarbon Tracer Experiments on a 2 km Scale in Manchester Showing Ingress of Pollutants into a Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, James; Wright, Matthew; Bacak, Asan; Silva, Hugo; Priestley, Michael; Martin, Damien; Percival, Carl; Shallcross, Dudley

    2016-04-01

    th floor of the Simon Building from a release 1.9 km away. One experiment sampled for an additional two 30 minute periods in four locations inside and one location outside the Simon Building in order to investigate how long it took for air to enter and leave the building. For this measurement, 1.3 g of PMCH was released 1.9 km away and average roof level wind speed was 7.8 m/s. The highest measurement of PMCH outside was 54 ppq above background, and 46 ppq inside. After the first 30 minutes, the PFC concentration returned to background levels outside, but other internal rooms still had elevated PFC concentrations between 10 and 16 ppq above background an hour after release demonstrating that pollutants may persist within buildings having passed outside. In the final experiment, the wind direction changed so the sampling locations were not directly downwind of the release point, but nevertheless a small amount of PFC tracer above background was detected at the highest sampling point on the 6th floor of the Simon Building (14 ppq above background), and a smaller amount at street level.

  1. Fact Sheet for KM200 Front-end Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas

    2015-07-08

    The KM200 device is a versatile, configurable front-end electronics boards that can be used as a functional replacement for Canberra’s JAB-01 boards based on the Amptek A-111 hybrid chip, which continues to be the preferred choice of electronics for large number of the boards in junction boxes of multiplicity counters that process the signal from an array of 3He detectors. Unlike the A-111 chip’s fixed time constants and sensitivity range, the shaping time and sensitivity of the new KM200 can be optimized for demanding applications such as spent fuel, and thus could improve the safeguards measurements of existing systems where the A-111 or PDT electronics does not perform well.

  2. KM3NeT-ARCA project status and plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration aims at building a research infrastructure in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea hosting a cubic kilometre neutrino telescope. The KM3NeT/ARCA detector is the ideal instrument to look for high-energy neutrino sources thanks to the latitude of the detector and to the optical characteristics of the sea water. The detector latitude allows for a wide coverage of the observable sky including the region of the Galactic centre and the optical sea water properties allow for the measure of the neutrino direction with excellent angular resolution also for cascade events. The technologically innovative components of the detector and the status of construction will be presented as well as the capability it offers to discover neutrinos.

  3. Remote (250 km) Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Rota-Rodrigo, Sergio; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system. PMID:22164101

  4. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, L. A.; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    KM3NeT is a future neutrino observatory to be built in the Mediterranean Sea. Its main astrophysical goal it to search for cosmic sources of neutrinos. The status of searches for diffuse fluxes of cosmic neutrinos in the cascade channel are reported in this contribution. A signal analogous to that observed by the IceCube collaboration will be observed with a 5 σ significance within one year of operation of the detector.

  5. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The construction phase of an underwater high energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, named KM3NeT, has started. The neutrino telescope that will consist of several blocks of instrumented structures will have a size of the order of a cubic-kilometer. In this work the main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected performance will be briefly reported.

  6. Towards a 1km resolution global flood risk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeff; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in computationally efficient numerical algorithms and new High Performance Computing architectures now make high (1-2km) resolution global hydrodynamic models a realistic proposition. However in many areas of the world the data sets and tools necessary to undertake such modelling do not currently exist. In particular, five major problems need to be resolved: (1) the best globally available terrain data (SRTM) was generated from X-band interferometric radar data which does not penetrate vegetation canopies and which has significant problems in determining ground elevations in urban areas; (2) a global river bathymetry data set does not currently exist; (3) most river channels globally are less than the smallest currently resolvable grid scale (1km) and therefore require a sub-grid treatment; (4) a means to estimate the magnitude of the T year flood at any point along the global river network does not currently exist; and (5) a large proportion of flood losses are generated by off-floodplain surface water flows which are not well represented in current hydrodynamic modelling systems. In this paper we propose solutions to each of these five issues as part of a concerted effort to develop a 1km (or better) resolution global flood hazard model. We describe the new numerical algorithms, computer architectures and computational resources used, and demonstrate solutions to the five previously intractable problems identified above. We conduct a validation study of the modelling against satellite imagery of major flooding on the Mississippi-Missouri confluence plain in the central USA before outlining a proof-of-concept regional study for SE Asia as a step towards a global scale model. For SE Asia we simulate flood hazard for ten different flood return periods over the entire Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Laos region at 1km resolution and show that the modelling produces coherent, consistent and sensible simulations of extent and water depth.

  7. Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface Topography at 1 km Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriquez, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolution approaching 1 km. The measurement will have wide ranging applications in oceanography, hydrology, and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic applications, the instrument must be flown in an orbit with proper sampling of ocean tides.

  8. Organizations, Paradigms, and People: The Challenge of KM Interventions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Teresa; Burton, Yvette

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Knowledge Management (KM) and how these interventions are put into practice by organizations and society. The topics include: 1) The Multiple Paradigm Tool; 2) Four Paradigms: tool for the Analyzing Organizations; 3) Assumptions About the Nature of Social Science; 4) Assumptions About the Nature of Society; 5) Schools of Sociological and Organizational Theory; 6) Meaning and Metaphors in the Four Paradigms; and 7) Possibilities and Conclusions.

  9. Hypervelocity launch capabilities to over 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Very high pressure and acceleration is necessary to launch flier plates to hypervelocities. In addition, the high pressure loading must be uniform, structured, and shockless, i.e., time-dependent to prevent the flier plate from either fracturing or melting. In this paper, a novel technique is described which allows the use of megabar level loading pressures, and 10{sup 9} g acceleration to launch intact flier plates to velocities of 12.2 km/s. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {101¯3}, and less frequently along {101¯1} and {101¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {101¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  11. Acceleration of barium ions near 8000 km above an aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Wescott, E. M.; Foeppl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A barium shaped charge, named Limerick, was released from a rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, on March 30, 1982, at 1033 UT. The release took place in a small auroral breakup. The jet of ionized barium reached an altitude of 8100 km 14.5 min after release, indicating that there were no parallel electric fields below this altitude. At 8100 km the jet appeared to stop. Analysis shows that the barium at this altitude was effectively removed from the tip. It is concluded that the barium was actually accelerated upward, resulting in a large decrease in the line-of-sight density and hence the optical intensity. The parallel electric potential in the acceleration region must have been greater than 1 kV over an altitude interval of less than 200 km. The acceleration region, although presumably auroral in origin, did not seem to be related to individual auroral structures, but appeared to be a large-scale horizontal structure. The perpendicular electric field below, as deduced from the drift of the barium, was temporally and spatially very uniform and showed no variation related to individual auroral structures passing through.

  12. Crystal structure and site-directed mutagenesis of 3-ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1 explain its catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rohman, Ali; van Oosterwijk, Niels; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2013-12-06

    3-Ketosteroid Δ(1)-dehydrogenases are FAD-dependent enzymes that catalyze the 1,2-desaturation of 3-ketosteroid substrates to initiate degradation of the steroid nucleus. Here we report the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of the 56-kDa enzyme from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1 (Δ(1)-KSTD1). The enzyme contains two domains: an FAD-binding domain and a catalytic domain, between which the active site is situated as evidenced by the 2.3 Å resolution structure of Δ(1)-KSTD1 in complex with the reaction product 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione. The active site contains four key residues: Tyr(119), Tyr(318), Tyr(487), and Gly(491). Modeling of the substrate 4-androstene-3,17-dione at the position of the product revealed its interactions with these residues and the FAD. The C1 and C2 atoms of the substrate are at reaction distance to the N5 atom of the isoalloxazine ring of FAD and the hydroxyl group of Tyr(318), respectively, whereas the C3 carbonyl group is at hydrogen bonding distance from the hydroxyl group of Tyr(487) and the backbone amide of Gly(491). Site-directed mutagenesis of the tyrosines to phenylalanines confirmed their importance for catalysis. The structural features and the kinetic properties of the mutants suggest a catalytic mechanism in which Tyr(487) and Gly(491) work in tandem to promote keto-enol tautomerization and increase the acidity of the C2 hydrogen atoms of the substrate. With assistance of Tyr(119), the general base Tyr(318) abstracts the axial β-hydrogen from C2 as a proton, whereas the FAD accepts the axial α-hydrogen from the C1 atom of the substrate as a hydride ion.

  13. Report on the 6th scientific meeting of the "Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie" (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Oct. 31th - Nov. 2nd, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Linker, Ralf A; Magnus, Tim; Korn, Thomas; Meuth, Sven G

    2015-01-01

    From October 31th - November 2nd, 2014, the 6th NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. 70 doctoral students and postdocs from over 25 different groups working in German and Swiss university hospitals or research institutes attended the meeting to discuss their latest experiments and findings in the fields of neuroimmunology, neurodegeneration and neurovascular research. The meeting was regarded as a very well organized platform to support research of young investigators in Germany and all participants enjoyed the stimulating environment for lively in depth discussions. According to the major aim of NEUROWIND e.V. to support younger researchers in Germany the 4th NEUROWIND YOUNG SCIENTIST AWARD for experimental neurology was awarded to Michael Breckwoldt on his work in the group of Thomas Misgeld (Institute of Neuronal Cell Biology, Technische Universität München, Germany). The successful project was published in Nature Medicine entitled "Multiparametric optical analysis of mitochondrial redox signals during neuronal physiology and pathology in vivo". This outstanding paper deals with a molecular imaging approach in living mice to optically analyze the role of mitochondrial redox signals in axons in health and disease. The award is endowed with 20.000 Euro sponsored by Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany (unrestricted educational grant). This year's keynote lecture was given by Bernhard Hemmer, Head of the Department of Neurology at the Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München. Dr. Hemmer highlighted the particular role of B cells and (auto)antibodies in multiple sclerosis (MS). As a new highlight Dr. Urbahns, head of global discovery technologies at Merck research laboratories, gave insights from research practice in the pharmaceutical industry and introduced a shift in the view on present-day drug discovery paradigms.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Microshear Bond Strength of 5th, 6th and 7th Generation Bonding Agents to Coronal Dentin Versus Dentin at Floor of Pulp Chamber: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, Velagala Lakshmi; Damaraju, Bhargavi; Priyadharsini, Bollu Indira; Subbarao, Vummidisetti V; Raju, K Rama Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lack of seal and adhesion between the final restoration and tooth structure adversely affects the results of root canal treatment. Lots of adhesive bonding agents are marketed to overcome this deficiency and achieve successful restoration. So the study compares and evaluates the micro shear bond strength of coronal dentin and pulp chamber dentin using three different generation dentin bonding systems and to know clinical efficiency for clinical use. Materials and Methods: Different generation dentin bonding systems used were: (1) One bottle total etch system (XP Bond-5th generation), (2) Two-step self-etch system (Clearfil SE Bond-6th generation) and (3) All-in-one system (G Bond-7th generation). Thirty human mandibular molars were collected out of which sixty samples were prepared by sectioning each tooth into coronal dentin and pulpal floor dentin. They were divided into two major groups. Group I: 30 Coronal dentin samples. Group II:30 Pulpal floor dentin samples. Both the groups were further subdivided depending on the bonding agent used. Subgroup Ia:XP Bond, Subgroup Ib:Clearfil SE Bond, Subgroup Ic:G Bond, Subgroup IIa:XP Bond, Subgroup IIb:Clearfil SE Bond, Subgroup IIc:G Bond. Resin composite was bonded to these samples and tested for micro-shear bond strength. The mean bond strengths and standard deviations were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA test and Student’s t-test (unpaired) and honestly significant difference post-hoc tests. Results: Coronal dentin showed higher values of micro shear bond strength than the pulpal floor dentin. All-in-one system (G Bond) showed least bond strength values to both the regions coronal dentin and pulpal floor dentin. Conclusion: Factors affecting the shear bond strength are dependent on material (adhesive system), substrate depth and adhesive/depth interaction. Hence composition and substrate treatment should be considered for good adhesive. Chemical composition of adhesive system determines

  15. Analysis of sex differences in open-water ultra-distance swimming performances in the FINA World Cup races in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km from 2000 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for elite male and female swimmers competing in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km open-water FINA World Cup races held between 2000 and 2012. Methods The changes in swimming speeds and sex differences across years were analysed using linear, non-linear, and multi-level regression analyses for the annual fastest and the annual ten fastest competitors. Results For the annual fastest, swimming speed remained stable for men and women in 5 km (5.50 ± 0.21 and 5.08 ± 0.19 km/h, respectively), in 10 km (5.38 ± 0.21 and 5.05 ± 0.26 km/h, respectively) and in 25 km (5.03 ± 0.32 and 4.58 ± 0.27 km/h, respectively). In the annual ten fastest, swimming speed remained constant in 5 km in women (5.02 ± 0.19 km/h) but decreased significantly and linearly in men from 5.42 ± 0.03 km/h to 5.39 ± 0.02 km/h. In 10 km, swimming speed increased significantly and linearly in women from 4.75 ± 0.01 km/h to 5.74 ± 0.01 km/h but remained stable in men at 5.36 ± 0.21 km/h. In 25 km, swimming speed decreased significantly and linearly in women from 4.60 ± 0.06 km/h to 4.44 ± 0.08 km/h but remained unchanged at 4.93 ± 0.34 km/h in men. For the annual fastest, the sex difference in swimming speed remained unchanged in 5 km (7.6 ± 3.0%), 10 km (6.1 ± 2.5%) and 25 km (9.0 ± 3.7%). For the annual ten fastest, the sex difference remained stable in 5 km at 7.6 ± 0.6%, decreased significantly and linearly in 10 km from 7.7 ± 0.7% to 1.2 ± 0.3% and increased significantly and linearly from 4.7 ± 1.4% to 9.6 ± 1.5% in 25 km. Conclusions To summarize, elite female open-water ultra-distance swimmers improved in 10 km but impaired in 25 km leading to a linear decrease in sex difference in 10 km and a linear increase in sex difference in 25 km. The linear changes in sex differences

  16. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauer, D.T.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific requirements for mapping the global land surface using 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data have been set forth by the U.S. Global Change Research Program; the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP); The United Nations; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to planet Earth (MTPE) program. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data is an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of AVHRR receiving stations, along with data recorded by NOAA, has been acquiring daily global land coverage since April 1, 1992. A data set of over 70,000 AVHRR images is archived and distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center, and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the IGBP, processing standards have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are for the study of surface vegetation condition, mapping land cover, and deriving biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems. A time-series of 54 10-day global vegetation index composites for the period of April 1, 1992 through September 1993 has been produced. The production of a time-series of 33 10-day global vegetation index composites using NOAA-14 data for the period of February 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995 is underway. The data products are available from the USGS, in cooperation with NASA's MTPE program and other international organizations.

  17. Development of km23-Based Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Attisano, L., Wieser, R., Ventura , F., and Massagu6, J. (1994) Nature 370, 341-347 28. Biggs, J. R., Kraft, A. S. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 36987-36994...Macias- Silva et al; 1996). Since blockade of km23 could reduce both the levels of phosphorylated Smad2 and the nuclear expression of Smad2, it was of...in TGF-P signaling. Front BioscL. 8, 1280-1303. Macias- Silva , M., Abdollah, S., Hoodless, P. A., Pirone, R., and Attisano, L., Wrana, J. L. (1996

  18. The relational database system of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  19. An evaluation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; El Saleous, N.; Hansen, M.C.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Justice, C.O.; Townshend, J.R.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the steps taken in the generation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset, and it documents an evaluation of the data product with respect to the original specifications and its usefulness in research and applications to date. The evaluation addresses data characterization, processing, compositing and handling issues. Examples of the main scientific outputs are presented and options for improved processing are outlined and prioritized. The dataset has made a significant contribution, and a strong recommendation is made for its reprocessing and continuation to produce a long-term record for global change research.

  20. EVLA/NMA: Within and Beyond the 21-km Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Steve; Romney, Jonathan D.

    NRAO's Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) project is being implemented in two phases. Each involves extremely wide- bandwidth data transmission over optical fibers, but the two phases necessarily involve quite different approaches to the required fiber infrastructure, which make for an interesting contrast. Phase 1, formally called the "Ultrasensitive Array", involves replacing almost all of the existing electronics, leaving only the mechanical and track infrastructure of the VLA. The data transmission system being implemented for Phase 1 uses dedicated optical fibers, currently being buried at the VLA site. Twelve standard single-mode fibers will run from each of 72 antenna pads to the central building. One of these fibers will support the wideband data transmission system, using a dense wavelength division multiplexing technique to carry a bandwidth of 96 Gbps (120 Gbps formatted) per antenna. Fibers from the 27 active antenna pads will carry a total bandwidth of 2.6 Tbps. The longest of these fibers will extend the full 21- km length of each arm. Phase 2 will add the "New Mexico Array". Eight new stations will be built, and the electronics of the VLBA Pie Town and Los Alamos stations will be upgraded, to create a medium-resolution array, with sensitivity even higher than Phase 1. All ten NMA stations will lie within the State of New Mexico. The new antennas will range as far as 265 km from the VLA site, and will be located so as to facilitate access to existing fiber trunks installed, primarily, by rural telephone companies. These trunks include numerous unused fibers which, it is anticipated, can be leased economically. The longest fiber run from the VLA is 480 km. The same 96-Gbps total bandwidth per station will be supported, with the same underlying sub-band structure. Signals from up to three NMA stations will be multiplexed onto a single fiber in the existing trunks. This will limit the total length of fiber which must be leased or acquired to about 1240 km.

  1. 157km BOTDA with pulse coding and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xianyang; Wang, Zinan; Wang, Song; Xue, Naitian; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Bin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2016-05-01

    A repeater-less Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA) with 157.68km sensing range is demonstrated, using the combination of random fiber laser Raman pumping and low-noise laser-diode-Raman pumping. With optical pulse coding (OPC) and Non Local Means (NLM) image processing, temperature sensing with +/-0.70°C uncertainty and 8m spatial resolution is experimentally demonstrated. The image processing approach has been proved to be compatible with OPC, and it further increases the figure-of-merit (FoM) of the system by 57%.

  2. KM3NeT/ORCA status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtleben, Dorothea F. E.

    2016-04-01

    Neutrinos created in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere can serve as a powerful tool to unveil the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH). At low energies, around a few GeV, matter effects from the transition through the Earth are expected to imprint a distinct but also subtle signature on the oscillation pattern, specific to the ordering of the neutrino masses. KM3NeT/ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss), a densely instrumented building block of the upcoming KM3NeT neutrino telescope, will be designated to measuring this signature in the Mediterranean Sea. Using detailed simulations the sensitivity towards this signature has been evaluated. The multi-PMT detectors allow in the water for an accurate reconstruction of GeV neutrino event signatures and distinction of neutrino flavours. For the determination of the mass hierarchy a median significance of 2-6σ has been estimated for three years of data taking, depending on the actual hierarchy and the oscillation parameters. At the same time the values of several oscillation parameters like θ23 will be determined to unprecedented precision.

  3. CO2 LIDAR measurements over a 20-km slant path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senft, Daniel C.; Fox, Marsha J.; Gonglewski, John D.; Dowling, James A.; Highland, Ronald G.; Shilko, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Phillips Laboratory conducted a series of measurements in February, May and August 1995 at the Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) facility on Maui, Hawaii, to determine system requirements for an airborne long path CO(subscript 2) DIAL system. The lidar incorporates a cavity-matched mode-locked 3-J laser with the 60 cm diameter AMOS Beam Director Telescope. The one-way beam propagation path length was 21.3 km, originating at the AMOS facility on Haleakala at an altitude of 3.050 km ASL, and terminating at a target site near sea level. Both heterodyne and direct detection techniques are compared with respect to radiometric performance and signal statistics. Minimum detectable absorption levels for DIAL systems using both detection techniques and a variety of targets are estimated from long- range measurements with controlled absorbers. The signal correlation as a function of interpulse temporal separation was determined for long-range direct detection measurements. Radiometric models including system optical characteristics, beam propagation considerations, target reflectivity characteristics,a nd atmospheric effects have been developed and validated experimentally. A new receiver system is currently being fabricated and the laser transmitter is being upgraded for pulse-to-pulse wavelength agility, prior to incorporation into a C-135E airborne platform for future flight experiments.

  4. Sentiment of Search: KM and IT for User Expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Sarah Ann; Meza, David

    2014-01-01

    User perceived value is the number one indicator of a successful implementation of KM and IT collaborations. The system known as "Search" requires more strategy and workflow that a mere data dump or ungoverned infrastructure can provide. Monitoring of user sentiment can be a driver for providing objective measures of success and justifying changes to the user interface. The dynamic nature of information technology makes traditional usability metrics difficult to identify, yet easy to argue against. There is little disagreement, however, on the criticality of adapting to user needs and expectations. The Systems Usability Scale (SUS), developed by John Brook in 1986 has become an industry standard for usability engineering. The first phase of a modified SUS, polls the sentiment of representative users of the JSC Search system. This information can be used to correlate user determined value with types of information sought and how the system is (or is not) meeting expectations. Sentiment analysis by way of the SUS assists an organization in identification and prioritization of the KM and IT variables impacting user perceived value. A secondary, user group focused analysis is the topic of additional work that demonstrates the impact of specific changes dictated by user sentiment.

  5. Quantum crytography over 14km of installed optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Simmons, C.

    1995-09-01

    We have made the first demonstration that low error rate quantum cryptography over long distances (14km) of installed optical fiber in a real-world environment, subject to uncontrolled temperature and mechanical influences, representing an important new step towards incorporation of quantum cryptography into existing information security systems. We also point out that the high visibility single-photon interference in our experiment allows us to infer a test of the superposition principle of quantum mechanics: a photon reaching the detector has traveled over 14km of optical fiber in a wavepacket comprising a coherent superposition of two components that are spatially separated by about 2m. In principle, there are decoherence processes (or even possible modifications of quantum mechanics) that could cause the photon`s wavefunction to collapse into one component or the other during propagation, leading to a reduction in visibility. However, our results are consistent with no such loss of quantum coherence during the 67-{mu}s propagation time.

  6. The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: A half-time review of lymphatic filariasis elimination and its integration with the control of other neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF6) was held 1-3 June, 2010 in Seoul, Korea, with 150 participants from 38 countries. The year 2010 marks the midpoint between the first GAELF meeting, in 2000, and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2020 goal of global elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem. The theme of the meeting, "Half-time in LF Elimination: Teaming Up with Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)," reflected significant integration of LF elimination programmes into a comprehensive initiative to control NTDs. Presentations on LF epidemiology, treatment, research, and programmes highlighted both accomplishments and remaining challenges. The WHO strategy to interrupt LF transmission is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) using two-drug combinations. After mapping the geographic distribution of LF, MDA is implemented for ≥ 5 years, followed by a period of post-MDA surveillance, and, ultimately, verification of LF elimination. Morbidity management further reduces disease burden. Of 81 countries considered LF-endemic in 2000, 52 (64.2%) have begun MDA; 10 (12.3%) others with low-level transmission are unlikely to require MDA. In 2008, ~695 million people were offered treatment (51.7% of the at-risk population); ~496 million participated. Approximately 22 million people have been protected from LF infection and disease, with savings of ~US $24.2 billion. Morbidity management programmes have been implemented in 27 (33.3%) countries. Significant challenges to LF elimination remain. These include: initiating MDA in the remaining 19 countries that require it; achieving full geographic coverage in countries where MDA has started; finding alternative strategies to address the problem of Loa loa co-endemicity in Central Africa; developing strategies to treat urban populations; initiating and sustaining MDA in settings of armed conflict; developing refined guidelines and procedures for

  7. Patenting biotechnologies: the European Union Directive 98/44/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 6th July 1998 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions.

    PubMed

    Morelli Gradi, G

    1999-01-01

    Before the Directive 98/44/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 6th July 1998, notwithstanding some decisions of the European Patent Office (still presently under opposition) and some patents already granted by the Italian Patent Office, the existing legal framework did not allow the patentability of living organisms in the European Community countries. The Directive has dramatically changed the perspectives. It ensures free circulation of patented biotechnological products harmonising the national legal system of each Member State, guaranteeing compliance with the European Patent Convention signed in Munich on 5th October 1973, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement of 15th April 1994 and the Rio de Janeiro Convention on Biological Diversity of 5th June 1992. The legal basis of the Directive and the fundamental principles of protection are that discoveries as such are not considered patentable. Plant and animal varieties as such, as well as essentially biological procedures for the production of plants and animals are excluded from protection by patent. On the contrary, the new field of patentability covers plants and parts of animals with new introduced genetic characters. Methods of surgical and therapeutic treatment and diagnostic methods applied to animal bodies are not considered inventions suitable for industrial applications and excluded from protection by patents. Biological materials and material isolated from its natural environment and isolated elements of the human body with technical processes may be patented. Excluded from patentability are inventions that are contrary to law and order or public morality as well as processes for human cloning for reproductive purposes and for modifying the germ-line genetic identity of human beings, as well as the use of human embryos. The processes for modifying the genetic identity of animals without any substantial medical benefit for man (with the exception of studying new

  8. A 700 km long crustal transect across northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Díaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Harnafi, Mimoun; Ouraini, Fadila; Ayarza, Puy; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, Maria Luisa; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Two controlled-source wide angle seismic reflection experiments have been acquired recently (2010 and 2011) in northern Africa across Morocco. A lithospheric scale transect can be constructed by joining both data sets. Hence, an approximately 700 km-long seismic velocity cross section can be derived. From south-to-north the transect goes from the Sahara Platform, south of Merzouga, to Tanger in the north. The first experiment, SIMA, aimed to constrain the crustal structure across the Atlas Mountains. The Rif, the orogenic belt located just south of the coast of Alboran Sea, was the target of the second experiment, RIFSIS. In both cases 900 recording instruments (TEXANS) from the IRIS-PASSCAL instrument center were used to record the acoustic energy generated by explosion shots. In both experiments the shots consisted of 1 TM of explosives fired in ~30 m deep boreholes. Although the data quality varies from shot to shot, key seismic phases as Pg, PmP, Pn, and a few intra-crustal arrivals have been identified to constrain the velocity-depth structure along the whole transect. Forward modelling of the seismic reflection/refraction phases reveals a crust consisting of 3 layers in average. The Moho topography shows from south to north a relatively moderate crustal root beneath the High Atlas, which can reach 40-42 km depth. The crust is thicker beneath the Rif where the Moho is imaged as an asymmetric feature that locally defines a crustal root reaching depths of 50 km and suggesting a crustal imbrication. P wave velocities are rather low in the crust and upper mantle. First arrivals/reflections tomography supports the forward modelling results. Low fold wide-angle stacks obtained by using hyperbolic move-out reveals the geometry of the Moho along the entire transect. Beneath the Atlas, the moderate crustal root inferred is not isostatically consistent with the high surface elevations, hence supporting the idea of a 'mantle plume' as main contributor to the Atlas

  9. The Effect of Water on the 410-km Discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, J. R.; Frost, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    The H content of the Earth is one of the most poorly constrained compositional variables for the planet. The nominally anhydrous olivine and spinelloid phases thought to compose the bulk of the upper mantle and transition zone may contain many times the amount of H and O that reside in the hydrosphere. The discontinuity at 410 kilometers corresponds to the olivine-wadsleyite transition with an increase in both density and S-wave velocity of about five percent. Previous experiments and calculations in the anhydrous peridotite system indicate an olivine-wadsleyite two-phase interval that is from 10 to 18 km in width. Calculations indicate that the two-phase region would be significantly broader in a hydrous system. We have conducted a series of synthesis experiments in the multi-anvil press on hydrous and anhydrous peridotite compositions and characterized the products by electron microprobe and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Six experiments were conducted in a hydrous peridotite system, and three in an anhydrous system. The results of our synthesis experiments are consistent with the prediction of Wood (1995) that the presence of H2O extends the stability of wadsleyite to 0.6 to 1.0 GPa lower pressure and would broaden the two-phase loop to as much as 30 km. In the hydrous runs containing both olivine and wadsleyite, there appears a sharp boundary between regions of olivine and regions of wadsleyite. The texture of the run thus does not appear to be a simple chemical equilibrium, but rather a diffusion-controlled boundary. Hydrogen is known to diffuse very rapidly in these materials, raising the possibility that diffusion of H might control the texture and may affect the sharpness of the boundary in the natural system. Hydrous wadsleyite is about five percent denser than anhydrous olivine. In a hypothetical two-phase region consisting of olivine and wadsleyite plus lesser amounts of garnet and clinopyroxene extending over a depth 20 km in a hydrous system

  10. The ion population between 1300 km and 230000 km in the coma of comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Goldstein, R.; Ip, W. -H.; Meier, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Shelley, E.

    1993-01-01

    During the encounter of the spacecraft Giotto with Comet Halley the two sensors of the ion mass spectrometer (IMS), high energy range spectrometer (HERS) and high intensity spectrometer (HIS), measured the mass and the three-dimensional velocity distributions of cometary ions. HIS looked mainly at the cold, slow part of the distribution close to the nucleus, HERS at the more energetic pick-up ions further out. After a thorough recalibration of the HIS flight spare unit and an extensive data analysis we present here continuous ion density-, composition-, velocity-, and temperature profiles for the water group ion (mass range 16-19 amu/e) along Giotto's inbound trajectory from 230,000 to 1300 km from the comet nucleus. The two sensors are in very good agreement in the region where their measurements overlap thus giving an excellent data base for the discussion of theoretical comet models. The most prominent feature where models and observations disagree is the so called pile up region between 8000 and 15,000 km from the nucleus.

  11. Transport System for Delivery Tourists At Altitude 140 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The author offers a new method and installation for flight in space. This method uses the centrifugal force of a rotating circular cable that provides a means for the launch of a payload into outer space, to keep the fixed space stations at high altitudes (up to 200 km). The method may also be useful for landing to space bodies, for launching of the space ships (crafts), and for moving and accelerating other artificial apparatuses. The offered installation may be used as a propulsion system for space ships and/or probes. This system uses the material of any space body (i.e. stones) for acceleration and change of the space vehicle trajectory. The suggested system may be also used as a high capacity energy accumulator.

  12. Calibration methods and tools for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikovskiy, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT detectors, ARCA and ORCA, composed of several thousands digital optical modules, are in the process of their realization in the Mediterranean Sea. Each optical module contains 31 3-inch photomultipliers. Readout of the optical modules and other detector components is synchronized at the level of sub-nanoseconds. The position of the module is measured by acoustic piezo detectors inside the module and external acoustic emitters installed on the bottom of the sea. The orientation of the module is obtained with an internal attitude and heading reference system chip. Detector calibration, i.e. timing, positioning and sea-water properties, is overviewed in this talk and discussed in detail in this conference. Results of the procedure applied to the first detector unit ready for installation in the deep sea will be shown.

  13. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over 200 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Lin; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Si-Jing; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian; You, Li-Xing; Guan, Jian-Yu; Yang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Zhen; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Nan; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Teng-Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-11-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) protocol is immune to all attacks on detection and guarantees the information-theoretical security even with imperfect single-photon detectors. Recently, several proof-of-principle demonstrations of MDIQKD have been achieved. Those experiments, although novel, are implemented through limited distance with a key rate less than 0.1 bit /s . Here, by developing a 75 MHz clock rate fully automatic and highly stable system and superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with detection efficiencies of more than 40%, we extend the secure transmission distance of MDIQKD to 200 km and achieve a secure key rate 3 orders of magnitude higher. These results pave the way towards a quantum network with measurement-device-independent security.

  14. Estimating worldwide solar radiation resources on a 40km grid

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; George, R.L.; Brady, E.H.

    1996-11-01

    During 1995, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), initiated the Data Grid Task under the auspices of DOE`s Resource Assessment Program. A data grid is a framework of uniformly spaced locations (grid points) for which data are available. Estimates of monthly averages of direct normal, diffuse horizontal, and global horizontal daily-total solar radiation energy (kWh/m{sup 2}) are being made for each point on a grid covering the US, Mexico, the Caribbean, and southern Canada. The grid points are separated by approximately 40 km. Using interpolation methods, the digital data grid can be used to estimate solar resources at any location. The most encouraging result to date has been the location of sources providing worldwide data for most of the input parameters required for modeling daily total solar radiation. This is a multiyear task expected to continue through the rest of this century.

  15. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

    PubMed

    Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

    2003-08-01

    Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter.

  16. Wintertime density perturbations near 50 km in relation to latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Standard and reference atmospheres which depict the horizontal distribution of air density in the stratosphere and mesosphere are not realistic in that they do not provide information on the large departures from standard that may occur during a given month, nor on the time- and space-scales of atmospheric perturbations responsible for these departures. In the present paper, it is shown how this information can be obtained from a special analysis of satellite radiance measurements. Plots of the mean zonal radiance, obtained with the VTPR instrument, and the corresponding 50-km density show not only the expected strong poleward gradient of density, but also a strong density surge from late December to early January, affecting all latitudes.

  17. Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelaro, Ronald; Putman, William M.; Pawson, Steven; Draper, Clara; Molod, Andrea; Norris, Peter M.; Ott, Lesley; Prive, Nikki; Reale, Oreste; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Bosilovich, Michael; Buchard, Virginie; Chao, Winston; Coy, Lawrence; Cullather, Richard; da Silva, Arlindo; Darmenov, Anton; Koster, Randal; McCarty, Will; Schubert, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    This report documents an evaluation by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) of a two-year 7-km-resolution non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation produced with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. The simulation was produced as a Nature Run for conducting observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). Generation of the GEOS-5 Nature Run (G5NR) was motivated in part by the desire of the OSSE community for an improved high-resolution sequel to an existing Nature Run produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which has served the community for several years. The intended use of the G5NR in this context is for generating simulated observations to test proposed observing system designs regarding new instruments and their deployments. Because NASA's interest in OSSEs extends beyond traditional weather forecasting applications, the G5NR includes, in addition to standard meteorological components, a suite of aerosol types and several trace gas concentrations, with emissions downscaled to 10 km using ancillary information such as power plant location, population density and night-light information. The evaluation exercise described here involved more than twenty-five GMAO scientists investigating various aspects of the G5NR performance, including time mean temperature and wind fields, energy spectra, precipitation and the hydrological cycle, the representation of waves, tropical cyclones and midlatitude storms, land and ocean surface characteristics, the representation and forcing effects of clouds and radiation, dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere, and the representation of aerosols and trace gases. Comparisons are made with observational data sets when possible, as well as with reanalyses and other long model simulations. The evaluation is broad in scope, as it is meant to assess the overall realism of basic aspects of the G5NR deemed relevant to the conduct of OSSEs

  18. 45-km horizontal-path optical link experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Ceniceros, Juan M.; Novak, Matthew J.; Jeganathan, Muthu; Portillo, Angel; Erickson, David M.; de Pew, Jon; Sanii, B.; Lesh, James R.

    1999-04-01

    Mountain-top to mountain-top optical link experiments have been initiated at JPL, in order to perform a systems level evaluation of optical communications. Progress made so far is reported. The NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) is used to transmit a laser signal from Strawberry Peak (SP), located in the San Bernadino mountains of California. This laser beam is received by a 0.6 m aperture telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), located in Wrightwood, California. The optical link is bi-directional with the TMF telescope transmitting a continuous 4-wave (cw) 780 nm beacon and the OCD sending back an 840 nm, 100 - 500 Mbps pseudo noise (PN) modulated, laser beam. The optical link path is at an average altitude of 2 Km above sea level, covers a range of 46.8 Km and provides an atmospheric channel equivalent to approximately 4 air masses. Average received power measured at either end fall well within the uncertainties predicted by link analysis. The reduction in normalized intensity variance ((sigma) I2) for the 4- beam beacon, compared to each individual beam, at SP, was from approximately 0.68 to 0.22. With some allowance for intra-beam mis-alignment, this is consistent with incoherent averaging. The (sigma) I2 measured at TMF approximately 0.43 plus or minus 0.22 exceeded the expected aperture averaged value of less than 0.1, probably because of beam wander. The focused spot sizes of approximately 162 plus or minus 6 micrometer at the TMF Coude and approximately 64 plus or minus 3 micrometer on the OCD compare to the predicted size range of 52 - 172 micrometer and 57 - 93 micrometer, respectively. This is consistent with 4 - 5 arcsec of atmospheric 'seeing.' The preliminary evaluation of OCD's fine tracking indicates that the uncompensated tracking error is approximately 3.3 (mu) rad compared to approximately 1.7 (mu) rad observed in the laboratory. Fine tracking performance was intermittent, primarily due to beacon fades on the

  19. ASIC design in the KM3NeT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajanana, D.; Gromov, V.; Timmer, P.

    2013-02-01

    In the KM3NeT project [1], Cherenkov light from the muon interactions with transparent matter around the detector, is used to detect neutrinos. Photo multiplier tubes (PMT) used as photon sensor, are housed in a glass sphere (aka Optical Module) to detect single photons from the Cherenkov light. The PMT needs high operational voltage ( ~ 1.5 kV) and is generated by a Cockroft-Walton (CW) multiplier circuit. The electronics required to control the PMT's and collect the signals is integrated in two ASIC's namely: 1) a front-end mixed signal ASIC (PROMiS) for the readout of the PMT and 2) an analog ASIC (CoCo) to generate pulses for charging the CW circuit and to control the feedback of the CW circuit. In this article, we discuss the two integrated circuits and test results of the complete setup. PROMiS amplifies the input charge, converts it to a pulse width and delivers the information via LVDS signals. These LVDS signals carry accurate information on the Time of arrival ( < 2 ns) and Time over Threshold. A PROM block provides unique identification to the chip. The chip communicates with the control electronics via an I2C bus. This unique combination of the ASIC's results in a very cost and power efficient PMT base design.

  20. Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    An aerobiology sampling flight at 20 km was conducted on 28 April 2008 over the Pacific Ocean (36.5° N, 118–149° W), a period of time that coincided with the movement of Asian dust across the ocean. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of viable bacteria and fungi within a transoceanic, atmospheric bridge and to improve the resolution of flight hardware processing techniques. Isolates of the microbial strains recovered were analyzed with ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing to identify bacterial species Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus endophyticus, and the fungal genus Penicillium. Satellite imagery and ground-based radiosonde observations were used to measure dust movement and characterize the high-altitude environment at the time of collection. Considering the atmospheric residency time (7–10 days), the extreme temperature regime of the environment (-75°C), and the absence of a mechanism that could sustain particulates at high altitude, it is unlikely that our samples indicate a permanent, stratospheric ecosystem. However, the presence of viable fungi and bacteria in transoceanic stratosphere remains relevant to understanding the distribution and extent of microbial life on Earth.

  1. A 233 km Tunnel for Lepton and Hadron Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-07-01

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of $e^+e^-$, $p \\bar{p}$, and $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV $e^+e^-$ colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV $e^+ e^-$ collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV $p \\bar{p}$ collider uses the high intensity Fermilab $\\bar{p}$ source, exploits high cross sections for $p \\bar{p}$ production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  2. KM3NeT Digital Optical Module electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration is currently building of a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometres at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope consists of a matrix of Digital Optical Modules that will detect the Cherenkov light originated by the interaction of the neutrinos in the proximity of the detector. This contribution describes the main components of the read-out electronics of the Digital Optical Module: the Power Board, which delivers all the power supply required by the Digital Optical Molule electronics; the Central Logic Board, the main core of the read-out system, hosting 31 Time to Digital Converters with 1 ns resolution and the White Rabbit protocol embedded in the Central Logic Board Field Programmable Gate Array; the Octopus boards, that transfer the Low Voltage Digital Signals from the PMT bases to the Central Logic Board and finally the PMT bases, in charge of converting the analogue signal produced in the 31 3" PMTs into a Low Voltage Digital Signal.

  3. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-21

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  4. File Specification for the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run, Ganymed Release Non-Hydrostatic 7-km Global Mesoscale Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Putman, William; Nattala, J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the gridded output files produced by a two-year global, non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulation for the period 2005-2006 produced with the non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5 Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM). In addition to standard meteorological parameters (wind, temperature, moisture, surface pressure), this simulation includes 15 aerosol tracers (dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. This model simulation is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperature and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. A description of the GEOS-5 model configuration used for this simulation can be found in Putman et al. (2014). The simulation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 7 km using a cubed-sphere horizontal grid with 72 vertical levels, extending up to to 0.01 hPa (approximately 80 km). For user convenience, all data products are generated on two logically rectangular longitude-latitude grids: a full-resolution 0.0625 deg grid that approximately matches the native cubed-sphere resolution, and another 0.5 deg reduced-resolution grid. The majority of the full-resolution data products are instantaneous with some fields being time-averaged. The reduced-resolution datasets are mostly time-averaged, with some fields being instantaneous. Hourly data intervals are used for the reduced-resolution datasets, while 30-minute intervals are used for the full-resolution products. All full-resolution output is on the model's native 72-layer hybrid sigma-pressure vertical grid, while the reduced-resolution output is given on native vertical levels and on 48 pressure surfaces extending up to 0.02 hPa. Section 4 presents additional details on horizontal and vertical grids. Information of the model surface representation can be found in Appendix B. The GEOS-5 product is organized into file collections that are described in detail in Appendix C. Additional

  5. Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: Relative motion by GPS across networks of 1000 km and 50 km spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meertens, Charles M.; Rocken, Christian; Perin, Barbara; Walcott, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/DOSE 'Kinematics of the New Zealand Plate Boundary' experiment is a four-year cooperative Global Positioning System (GPS) experiment involving 6 universities and institutions in New Zealand and the United States. The investigation covers two scales, the first on the scale of plates (approximately 1000 km) and the second is on the scale of the plate boundary zone (approximately 50 km). In the first portion of the experiment, phase A, the objective is to make direct measurements of tectonic plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates using GPS in order to determine the Euler vector of this plate pair. The phase A portion of this experiment was initiated in December 1992 with the first-epoch baseline measurements on the large scale network. The network will be resurveyed two years later to obtain velocities. The stations which were observed for phase A are shown and listed. Additional regional stations which will be used for this study are listed and are part of either CIGNET or other global tracking networks. The phase A portion of the experiment is primarily the responsibility of the UNAVCO investigators. Therefore, this report concentrates on phase A. The first year of NASA funding for phase A included only support for the field work. Processing and analysis will take place with the second year of funding. The second part of the experiemnt measured relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates across the pate boundary zone between Hokitika and Christchurch on the South Island of New Zealand. The extent and rate of deformation will be determined by comparisons with historical, conventional surveys and by repeated GPS measurements to be made in two years. This activity was the emphasis of the LDGO portion of the study. An ancillary experiment, phase C, concentrated on plate boundary deformation in the vicinity of Wellington and was done as part of training during the early portion of the field campaign. Details of the objectives of the

  6. A high resolution (1 km) groundwater model for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verkaik, Jarno; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Erkens, Gilles; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). We adopted the approaches of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011, 2014a) and de Graaf et al. (2014) in order to make a MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2011; Hartmann & Moorsdorf, 2012; Gleeson et al., 2014). We forced the groundwater model with the recent output of global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0 (Sutanudjaja et al., 2014b; van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term average of groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from channel discharge. Simulation results were promising. The MODFLOW model converged with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produced reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution reflecting the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. In Vienna, we aim to show and demonstrate these

  7. Gastrointestinal distress is common during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin Jean; Hoffman, Martin Dean

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incidence, severity, and timing of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in finishers and non-finishers of the 161-km Western States Endurance Run. A total of 272 runners (71.0% of starters) completed a post-race questionnaire that assessed the incidence and severity (none = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2, severe = 3, very severe = 4) of 12 upper (reflux/heartburn, belching, stomach bloating, stomach cramps/pain, nausea, vomiting) and lower (intestinal cramps/pain, flatulence, side ache/stitch, urge to defecate, loose stool/diarrhoea, intestinal bleeding/bloody faeces) GI symptoms experienced during each of four race segments. GI symptoms were experienced by most runners (96.0%). Flatulence (65.9% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), belching (61.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), and nausea (60.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.7 severity) were the most common symptoms. Among race finishers, 43.9% reported that GI symptoms affected their race performance, with nausea being the most common symptom (86.0%). Among race non-finishers, 35.6% reported that GI symptoms were a reason for dropping out of the race, with nausea being the most common symptom (90.5%). For both finishers and non-finishers, nausea was greatest during the most challenging and hottest part of the race. GI symptoms are very common during ultramarathon running, and in particular, nausea is the most common complaint for finishers and non-finishers.

  8. Processing techniques for global land 1-km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Wivell, Charles E.; Hollaren, Douglas M.; Meyer, David

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) in cooperation with several international science organizations has developed techniques for processing daily Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1-km data of the entire global land surface. These techniques include orbital stitching, geometric rectification, radiometric calibration, and atmospheric correction. An orbital stitching algorithm was developed to combine consecutive observations acquired along an orbit by ground receiving stations into contiguous half-orbital segments. The geometric rectification process uses an AVHRR satellite model that contains modules for forward mapping, forward terrain correction, and inverse mapping with terrain correction. The correction is accomplished by using the hydrologic features coastlines and lakes from the Digital Chart of the World. These features are rasterized into the satellite projection and are matched to the AVHRR imagery using binary edge correlation techniques. The resulting coefficients are related to six attitude correction parameters: roll, roll rate, pitch, pitch rate, yaw, and altitude. The image can then be precision corrected to a variety of map projections and user-selected image frames. Because the AVHRR lacks onboard calibration for the optical wavelengths, a series of time-variant calibration coefficients derived from vicarious calibration methods and are used to model the degradation profile of the instruments. Reducing atmospheric effects on AVHRR data is important. A method has been develop that will remove the effects of molecular scattering and absorption from clear sky observations, using climatological measurements of ozone. Other methods to remove the effects of water vapor and aerosols are being investigated.

  9. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature from 1-km AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Corinne

    2016-04-01

    In order to re-process DLRs 1km AVHRR data archive to different geophysical and descriptive parameters of the land surface and the atmosphere, a series of scientific data processors are being developed in the framework of the TIMELINE project. The archive of DLR ranges back to the 80ies. One of the data processors is SurfTemp, which processes L2 LST and emissivity datasets from AVHRR L1b data. The development of the data processor included the selection of statistical procedures suitable for time series processing, including four mono-window and six split window algorithms. For almost all of these algorithms, new constants were generated, which better account for different atmospheric and geometric acquisition situations. The selection of optimal algorithms for SurfTemp is based on a round robin approach, in which the selected mono-window and split window algorithms are tested on the basis of a large number of TOA radiance/LST pairs, which were generated using a radiative transfer model and the SeeBorV5 profile database. The original LSTs are thereby compared to the LSTs derived from the TOA radiances using the mono- and split window algorithms. The algorithm comparison includes measures of precision, as well as the sensitivity of a method to the accuracy of its input data. The results of the round robin are presented, as well as the implementation of selected algorithms into SurfTemp. Further, first cross-validation results between the AVHRR LST and MODIS LST are shown.

  10. Determinants of recovery from a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Badowski, Natalie; Chin, Joseph; Stuempfle, Kristin J; Parise, Carol A

    2017-04-01

    The primary study objective was to identify determinants of short-term recovery from a 161-km ultramarathon. Participants completed 400 m runs at maximum speed before the race and on days 3 and 5 post-race, provided a post-race blood sample for plasma creatine kinase (CK) concentration, and provided lower body muscle pain and soreness ratings (soreness, 10-point scale) and overall muscular fatigue scores (fatigue, 100-point scale) pre-race and for 7 days post-race. Among 72 race finishers, soreness and fatigue had statistically returned to pre-race levels by 5 days post-race; and 400 m times at days 3 and 5 remained 26% (P = 0.001) and 12% (P = 0.01) slower compared with pre-race, respectively. CK best modelled soreness, fatigue and per cent change in post-race 400 m time. Runners with the highest CKs had 1.5 points higher (P < 0.001) soreness and 11.2 points higher (P = 0.006) fatigue than runners with the lowest CKs. For the model of 400 m time, a significant interaction of time with CK (P < 0.001) indicates that higher CKs were linked with a slower rate of return to pre-race 400 m time. Since post-race CK was the main modifiable determinant of recovery following the ultramarathon, appropriate training appears to be the optimal approach to enhance ultramarathon recovery.

  11. 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK transmission up to 6000 km with 200 km amplifier spacing and a hybrid fiber span configuration.

    PubMed

    Downie, John D; Hurley, Jason; Cartledge, John; Bickham, Scott; Mishra, Snigdharaj

    2011-12-12

    We demonstrate transmission of 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK signals over a system with 200 km span lengths. Amplification is provided by hybrid backward-pumped Raman/EDFA amplifiers and reach lengths up to 6000 km for an 8 channel system and 5400 km for a 32 channel system are shown. As a means of maximizing OSNR, a simple hybrid fiber span configuration is used that combines two ultra-low loss fibers, one having very large effective area.

  12. Table and charts of equilibrium normal-shock properties for hydrogen-helium mixtures with velocities to 70 km/sec. Volume 1: 0.95 H2-0.05 He (by volume)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III; Wilder, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium thermodynamic and flow properties are presented in tabulated and graphical form for moving, standing, and reflected normal shock waves into hydrogen-helium mixtures representative of postulated outer planet atmospheres. These results are presented in four volumes and the volmetric compositions of the mixtures are 0.95H2-0.05He in Volume 1, 0.90H2-0.10He in Volume 2, 0.85H2-0.15He in Volume 3, and 0.75H2-0.25He in Volume 4. Properties include pressure, temperature, density, enthalpy, speed of sound, entropy, molecular-weight ratio, isentropic exponent, velocity, and species mole fractions. Incident (moving) shock velocities are varied from 4 to 70 km/sec for a range of initial pressure of 5 N/sq m to 100 kN/sq m. Results are applicable to shock-tube flows and for determining flow conditions behind the normal portion of the bow shock about a blunt body at high velocities in postulated outer planet atmospheres. The document is a revised version of the original edition of NASA SP-3085 published in 1974.

  13. Focusing of relative plate motion at a continental transform fault: Cenozoic dextral displacement >700 km on New Zealand's Alpine Fault, reversing >225 km of Late Cretaceous sinistral motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Simon; Mortimer, Nick; Smith, Euan; Turner, Gillian

    2016-03-01

    The widely accepted ˜450 km Cenozoic dextral strike-slip displacement on New Zealand's Alpine Fault is large for continental strike-slip faults, but it is still less than 60% of the Cenozoic relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates through Zealandia, with the remaining motion assumed to be taken up by rotation and displacement on other faults in a zone up to 300 km wide. We show here that the 450 km total displacement across the Alpine Fault is an artifact of assumptions about the geometry of New Zealand's basement terranes in the Eocene, and the actual Cenozoic dextral displacement across the active trace is greater than 665 km, with more than 700 km (and <785 km since 25 Ma) occurring in a narrow zone less than 10 km wide. This way, the Alpine Fault has accommodated almost all (>94%) of the relative plate motion in the last 25 Ma at an average rate in excess of 28 mm/yr. It reverses more than 225 km (and <300 km) of sinistral shear through Zealandia in the Late Cretaceous, when Zealandia lay on the margin of Gondwana, providing a direct constraint on the kinematics of extension between East and West Antarctica at this time.

  14. Plain-Woven, 600-Denier Kevlar KM2 Fabric Under Quasistatic, Uniaxial Tension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    tXtXx ≡ ≡ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ ∆ += (6) Corresponding to equation 6, equation 3 yields ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ = 100 010 00)(11 tF t)F( , (7...6218 1 US ARMY RSRCH DEV & ENGRG CMD SYSTEMS OF SYSTEMS INTEGRATION AMSRD SS T 6000 6TH ST STE 100 FORT BELVOIR VA 22060-5608...KOSYGIN STREET 4 117 977 MOSCOW RUSSIA 1 UNIV POLITECNICA MADRID B PARGA-LANDA ARQUITECTURA CONSTRUC ETSI NAVALES 28040

  15. Percent utilization of VO2 max at 5-km competition velocity does not determine time performance at 5 km among elite distance runners.

    PubMed

    Støa, Eva Maria; Støren, Øyvind; Enoksen, Eystein; Ingjer, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The present study investigated to what extent maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and fractional utilization (%VO2 max) in 5-km competition speed correlate with 5-km performance times among elite long distance runners. Eight elite long distance runners with 5-km performance times of 15.10 minutes ( +/- 32 seconds) were tested for VO2 max during an incremental protocol and for %VO2 max during an 8-minute treadmill test at the velocity representing their 5-km seasonal best performance time. There was no correlation between fractional utilization and 5-km performance. The study showed no significant difference between VO2 max obtained during an incremental VO2 max test and %VO2 max when running for 8 minutes at the runner's individual 5-km competition speed. The 5-km time was related to the runner's VO2 max even in a homogenous high-level performance group. In conclusion, the present study found no relationship between fractional utilization and 5-km performance time. Training aiming to increase %VO2 max may thus be of little or no importance in performance enhancement for competitions lasting up to approximately 20 minutes.

  16. Developing Knowledge Management (KM): Contributions by Organizational Learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge management is an integral business function for many organizations to manage intellectual resources effectively. From a resource-based perspective, organizational learning and TQM are antecedents that are closely related to KM. The purposes of this study were to explain the contents of KM, and explore the relationship between KM-related…

  17. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amato, V.; D'Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; and others

    2014-11-18

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km{sup 3}-scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT.

  18. MODIS 3 Km Aerosol Product: Applications over Land in an Urban/suburban Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided a rich dataset of aerosol information at a 10 km spatial scale. Although originally intended for climate applications, the air quality community quickly became interested in using the MODIS aerosol data. However, 10 km resolution is not sufficient to resolve local scale aerosol features. With this in mind, MODIS Collection 6 is including a global aerosol product with a 3 km resolution. Here, we evaluate the 3 km product over the Baltimore/Washington D.C., USA, corridor during the summer of 2011, by comparing with spatially dense data collected as part of the DISCOVER-AQ campaign these data were measured by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a network of 44 sun photometers (SP) spaced approximately 10 km apart. The HSRL instrument shows that AOD can vary by up to 0.2 within a single 10 km MODIS pixel, meaning that higher resolution satellite retrievals may help to characterize aerosol spatial distributions in this region. Different techniques for validating a high-resolution aerosol product against SP measurements are considered. Although the 10 km product is more statistically reliable than the 3 km product, the 3 km product still performs acceptably, with more than two-thirds of MODIS/SP collocations falling within the expected error envelope with high correlation (R > 0.90). The 3 km product can better resolve aerosol gradients and retrieve closer to clouds and shorelines than the 10 km product, but tends to show more significant noise especially in urban areas. This urban degradation is quantified using ancillary land cover data. Overall, we show that the MODIS 3 km product adds new information to the existing set of satellite derived aerosol products and validates well over the region, but due to noise and problems in urban areas, should be treated with some degree of caution.

  19. Variations in Km(CO2) of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase among Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Hock-Hin; Badger, Murray R.; Watson, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the Km(CO2) values of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from 60 grass species shows that enzyme from C3 grasses consistently exhibits lower Km(CO2) than does that from C4 grasses. Systematically ordered variation in Km(CO2) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylases from C3 and C4 grasses is also apparent and, among C4 grasses, this shows some correlation with C4 types. PMID:16661586

  20. Running Performance, Nationality, Sex and Age in 10km, Half-marathon, Marathon and 100km Ultra-marathon IAAF 1999-2015.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Onywera, Vincent O; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-10-13

    The aim of the present study was to examine the performance of the world's best runners in 10km, half-marathon, marathon and 100km by age, sex and nationality during 1999-2015 using data from International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). A total of 38,895 runners (17,136 women and 21,759 men) were considered with 2,594 (1,360 women and 1,234 male) in 10km, 11,595 (5,225 women and 6,370 male) in half-marathon, 23,973 (10,208 women and 13,765 male) in marathon and 733 (343 women and 390 male) in 100km. Most of the runners in 10km (women 40%, men 67%) and half-marathon (women 30%, men 57%) were Kenyans. In marathon, most female and male runners were Ethiopians (women 17%, men 14%) and Kenyans (women 15%, men 43%), respectively. In 100km, most runners were Japanese (20% in women and men). Women were older than men in 10km (32.0±6.0 versus 25.3±4.3 years, p<0.001), half-marathon (27.5±4.7 versus 25.9±4.1 years, p<0.001) and marathon (29.5±5.5 versus 29.1±4.3 years, p<0.001), but not in 100km (36.6±6.1 versus 35.9±5.5 years, p=0.097). Men were faster than women in 10km (28:04±0:17 versus 32:08±0.31 min:sec, p<0.001), half-marathon (1:01:58±0:00:52 versus 1:11:21±0:01:18 h:min:sec, p<0.001), marathon (2:13:42±0:03:01 versus 2:35:04±0:05:21 h:min:s, p<0.001), and 100km (6:48:01±0:11:29 versus 7:53:51±0:16:37 h:min:sec, p<0.001). East-Africans were not the fastest compared to athletes originating from other countries where only Ethiopian men were faster than all other men in marathon. In summary, (i) most runners were from Kenya and Ethiopia in 10km, half-marathon and marathon, but from Japan and Russia in 100km, (ii) women were older than men in all distances except 100km, (iii) men were the fastest in all distances, and (iii) Ethiopian men were faster than all other men in marathon.

  1. Potential of KM3NeT to observe galactic neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, Agata

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT (http://www.km3net.org">http://www.km3net.org) will be the next-generation cubic-kilometre-scale neutrino telescope to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. This location will allow for surveying the Galactic Centre, most of the Galactic Plane as well as a large part of the sky. We report KM3NeT discovery potential for the SNR RXJ1713.7-3946 and the PWN Vela X and its sensitivity to point-like sources with an E-2 spectrum.

  2. Protective effect of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on phenol-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Yapar, Kursad; Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Oruc, Ertan; Yalcin, Emine

    2010-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on cytotoxicity induced by phenol (PHE) in mice. We used weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity and supported these parameters with pathological findings. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: (Group I) only tap water (Group II) 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group III) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE (Group IV) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE + 250 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group V) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 500 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group VI) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 750 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group VII) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, for 20 consecutive days by oral gavage. The results indicated that all KM-tea supplemented mice showed a lower MN frequency than erythrocytes in only PHE-treated group. There was an observable regression on account of lesions in tissues of mice supplemented with different doses of KM-tea in histopathological observations. In conclusion, the KM-tea supplementation decreases cytotoxicity induced by PHE and its protective role is dose-dependent.

  3. Changes in Body Mass, Hydration and Electrolytes Following a 161-km Endurance Race

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine electrolyte concentrations and changes in body mass and total body water (TBW) during a 161-km ultra-marathon, and relate these to finish time and incidence of hyponatremia. Methods: Subjects were recruited from the 161-km 2008 Rio Del Lago Endurance Race. Body mass, TBW, and s...

  4. New Marker Development for the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-km

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blast resistance (R) gene Pi-km protects rice against specific races of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The use of blast R genes remains the most cost-effective method of disease control. To facilitate the breeding process, we developed a Pi-km specific molecular marker. For this purp...

  5. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  6. A Co-Creation Blended KM Model for Cultivating Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu

    2012-01-01

    Both critical thinking (CT) and knowledge management (KM) skills are necessary elements for a university student's success. Therefore, this study developed a co-creation blended KM model to cultivate university students' CT skills and to explore the underlying mechanisms for achieving success. Thirty-one university students participated in this…

  7. Planetary wave variability of Sq currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhawary, R.; Forbes, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    The E region wind dynamo is a key linkage in atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, but relatively little is known about variability of the corresponding E region currents in terms of connections with atmosphere dynamics. In this paper we analyze ground magnetic variations ΔB during 2009 at two midlatitude stations to reveal planetary wave (PW) periodicities near those of well-known atmospheric normal modes, i.e., 5, 10, and 16 days. In the neutral atmosphere these waves are westward propagating with zonal wave number s = 1. The two stations are at the same magnetic latitude and are nearly conjugate in longitude, which leads to following new insights: First, the amplitude and phase variations between the two stations do not conform to simple westward propagating waves with zonal wave number s = 1, implying that the underlying physics is more complex, in part due to modulation by the predominantly s = 1 longitude-dependent magnetic field. There is also compelling evidence that much ΔB variability near PW periods arises through the product of solar-controlled conductivity and PW-related electric field in the expression for electric current, mainly arising from solar radiation periodicities longer than the solar rotation period. For instance, interactions between solar periodicities in conductivity near 53d and 83d and PW periodicities in total electric field yield secondary peaks in the ΔB spectrum that contribute to its variability at periods less than 20d. In fact, most of the observed ΔB variability arises from these two latter sources, rather than directly from the original driving PW oscillations.

  8. Unexpected characteristics of the 150 km echoes observed over Gadanki and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, A. K.; Pavan Chaitanya, P.

    2016-11-01

    Recent discovery of two distinct types of 150 km echoes, namely, type-A and type-B, and subsequent progress in the large-scale kinetic simulation of photoelectron-induced plasma waves have begun a new era in resolving the five decades long 150 km echoing riddle. In this paper, we present hitherto unrevealed three important and unexpected findings on the two distinct types of 150 km echoes based on Gadanki radar observations. Our observations show unexpected predominance of type-A echoes, strong seasonal dependence of both type-A and type-B echoes, and a surprising connection of the type-B echoes to the unusually deep solar minimum of 2008-2009. We discuss how these results provide important new clues in tethering the competing processes involved in the daytime 150 km echoes and have significance in the recently proposed photoelectron-induced plasma fluctuations as a potential mechanism for the 150 km echoes.

  9. Cape Canaveral, Florida range reference atmosphere 0-70 km altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingle, A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The RRA contains tabulations for monthly and annual means, standard deviations, skewness coefficients for wind speed, pressure temperature, density, water vapor pressure, virtual temperature, dew-point temperature, and the means and standard deviations for the zonal and meridional wind components and the linear (product moment) correlation coefficient between the wind components. These statistical parameters are tabulated at the station elevation and at 1 km intervals from sea level to 30 km and at 2 km intervals from 30 to 90 km altitude. The wind statistics are given at approximately 10 m above the station elevations and at altitudes with respect to mean sea level thereafter. For those range sites without rocketsonde measurements, the RRAs terminate at 30 km altitude or they are extended, if required, when rocketsonde data from a nearby launch site are available. There are four sets of tables for each of the 12 monthly reference periods and the annual reference period.

  10. Design and mass production of the optical modules for KM3NeT-Italia project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims at constructing a km3 underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The first phase that is under construction will comprise eight tower-like detection structures (KM3NeT-Italia), which will form the internal core of a km3-scale detector. The detection element of KM3NeT-Italia, the optical module, is made of a 13-inch pressure-resistant glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier and the relative electronics. The design of the whole optical module, the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, and the foremost phases of the mass production procedure performed at the production site of Catania are also presented.

  11. Pure Rotational Raman Lidar for Temperature Measurements from 5-40 Km Over Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yajuan; Song, Shalei; Yang, Yong; Li, Faquan; Cheng, Xuewu; Chen, Zhenwei; Liu, Linmei; McCormick, M. Patrick; Gong, Shunsheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a pure rotational Raman lidar (PRR) was established for the atmospheric temperature measurements from 5 km to 40 km over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E). To extract the expected PRR signals and simultaneously suppress the elastically backscattered light, a high-spectral resolution polychromator for light splitting and filtering was designed. Observational results revealed that the temperature difference measured by PRR lidar and the local radiosonde below 30 km was less than 3.0 K. The good agreement validated the reliability of the PRR lidar. With the 1-h integration and 150-m spatial resolution, the statistical temperature error for PRR lidar increases from 0.4 K at 10 km up to 4 K at altitudes of about 30 km. In addition, the whole night temperature profiles were obtained for study of the long-term observation of atmospheric fluctuations.

  12. Listening to music in the first, but not the last 1.5 km of a 5-km running trial alters pacing strategy and improves performance.

    PubMed

    Lima-Silva, A E; Silva-Cavalcante, M D; Pires, F O; Bertuzzi, R; Oliveira, R S F; Bishop, D

    2012-10-01

    We examined the effects of listening to music on attentional focus, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), pacing strategy and performance during a simulated 5-km running race. 15 participants performed 2 controlled trials to establish their best baseline time, followed by 2 counterbalanced experimental trials during which they listened to music during the first (M start) or the last (M finish) 1.5 km. The mean running velocity during the first 1.5 km was significantly higher in M start than in the fastest control condition (p<0.05), but there was no difference in velocity between conditions during the last 1.5 km (p>0.05). The faster first 1.5 m in M start was accompanied by a reduction in associative thoughts compared with the fastest control condition. There were no significant differences in RPE between conditions (p>0.05). These results suggest that listening to music at the beginning of a trial may draw the attentional focus away from internal sensations of fatigue to thoughts about the external environment. However, along with the reduction in associative thoughts and the increase in running velocity while listening to music, the RPE increased linearly and similarly under all conditions, suggesting that the change in velocity throughout the race may be to maintain the same rate of RPE increase.

  13. Global Investigation of the Mg Atom and ion Layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat Observations between 70 km and 150 km Altitude and WACCM-MG Model Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langowski, M.; vonSavigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, Diego; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82 deg. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm(exp-3) and 2000 cm(exp-3). Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40 deg and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm(exp-3) to 6000 cm(exp-3). The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However

  14. The effects of running a 308 km ultra-marathon on cardiac markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joo; Shin, Young-Oh; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Shin, Kyung-A; Kim, Al-Chan; Goh, Choong-Won; Kim, Chul; Oh, Jae-Keun; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of cardiac strain and damage in 18 male marathoners with average age of 52.8 ± 5.0 years running at a 308 km ultra-marathon. Blood samples were collected at pre-race, 100 km, 200 km and 308 km check points for the analysis of cardiac muscle injury markers, creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac muscle strain marker, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The CK levels increased 1127.2 ± 507.9 IU/L, 5133.8 ± 2492.7 IU/L and 4958.4 ± 2087.9 IU/L at 100 km, 200 km and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The CK-MB levels increased 20.2 ± 11.2 ng/mL, 73.3 ± 35.6 ng/mL and 68.6 ± 42.6 ng/mL at 100, 200 and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The CK-MB/CK ratio showed that the CK-MB mass index was within the normal range (<2.5%) at 100 km, 200 km and 308 km. The cTnI levels showed no significant difference in all check points. The NT-proBNP levels increased 146.55 ± 92.7 pg/mL, 167.95 ± 111.9 pg/mL and 241.23 ± 121.2 pg/mL at 100, 200 and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The normal CK-MB mass index (<5.0 ng/mL) and the absence of an increase in the cTnI levels during the 308 km ultra-marathon suggested that no myocardial injury despite an elevation in CK-MB. The increase in NT-proBNP levels probably resulted from continuous hemodynamic cardiac stress and represents a transient physiological myocardial protective response.

  15. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) Knowledge Management (KM) Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnedoe, Tom; Smith, Randy; McCarter, Mike; Wilson, Barry; Porter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities within the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center of Excellence (AISCE), lntergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KNI implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to suppoth e planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have beon pedormed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural1KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  16. The KM3Net project: A neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Capua, F.; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the first phase of construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. With several cubic kilometers instrumented and thousand of optical sensors, KM3NeT will be the largest and most sensitive high-energy neutrino telescope. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. The full KM3NeT detector will be a distributed, networked infrastructure comprising several detector blocks. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon, the construction of the KM3NeT-It and KM3NeT-Fr infrastructures respectively is in progress. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described and its capability to discover neutrino sources is reported as well.

  17. [Comparative studies on monoclonal antibody KM10 and anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Soyama, N; Yamamoto, M; Ohyanagi, H; Saitoh, Y

    1989-11-01

    The specificity of KM10 was evaluated in comparison with newly developed anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies (A10, B9, JA4, AH3). Both KM10 and all anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies reacted with CEA in ELISA system, and with adenocarcinoma of the stomach, colon, and pancreas in the immunohistochemical assay. B9, JA4, and AH3 were suggested to react with CEA related antigens, such as NCA and BGPI, whereas KM10 and A10 were suggested to recognize the distinctive part of CEA. The antigenic determinant of CEA reactive with KM10 and A10 was revealed to be protein moiety after enzyme treatment. The competitive binding inhibition assay, however, indicated that epitopes of KM10 and A10 were different each other. Enzyme immunoassay using both KM10 and A10 could detect CEA. These findings showed the possible use of both KM10 and A10 for clinical diagnosis and treatment by means of targeting for the distinctive part of CEA.

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of the swine pathogen Bordetella bronchisepticastrain KM22.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Register, Karen B; Bayles, Darrell O; Kingsley, Robert A; Brunelle, Brain W

    2016-01-01

    The well-characterized Bordetella bronchiseptica strain KM22, originally isolated from a pig with atrophic rhinitis, has been used to develop a reproducible swine respiratory disease model. The goal of this study was to identify genetic features unique to KM22 by comparing the genome sequence of KM22 to the laboratory reference strain RB50. To gain a broader perspective of the genetic relationship of KM22 among other B. bronchiseptica strains, selected genes of KM22 were then compared to five other B. bronchiseptica strains isolated from different hosts. Overall, the KM22 genome sequence is more similar to the genome sequences of the strains isolated from animals than the strains isolated from humans. The majority of virulence gene expression in Bordetella is positively regulated by the two-component sensory transduction system BvgAS. bopN, bvgA, fimB, and fimC were the most highly conserved BvgAS-regulated genes present in all seven strains analyzed. In contrast, the BvgAS-regulated genes present in all seven strains with the highest sequence divergence werefimN, fim2, fhaL, andfhaS. A total of eight major fimbrial subunit genes were identified in KM22. Quantitative real-time PCR data demonstrated that seven of the eight fimbrial subunit genes identified in KM22 are expressed and regulated by BvgAS. The annotation of the KM22 genome sequence, coupled with the comparative genomic analyses reported in this study, can be used to facilitate the development of vaccines with improved efficacy towards B. bronchiseptica in swine to decrease the prevalence and disease burden caused by this pathogen.

  19. 10 km running performance predicted by a multiple linear regression model with allometrically adjusted variables

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Cesar C. C.; Barros, Ronaldo V.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Gagliardi, João F. L.; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.; Lambert, Mike I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to verify the power of VO2max, peak treadmill running velocity (PTV), and running economy (RE), unadjusted or allometrically adjusted, in predicting 10 km running performance. Eighteen male endurance runners performed: 1) an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO2max and PTV; 2) a constant submaximal run at 12 km·h−1 on an outdoor track for RE determination; and 3) a 10 km running race. Unadjusted (VO2max, PTV and RE) and adjusted variables (VO2max0.72, PTV0.72 and RE0.60) were investigated through independent multiple regression models to predict 10 km running race time. There were no significant correlations between 10 km running time and either the adjusted or unadjusted VO2max. Significant correlations (p < 0.01) were found between 10 km running time and adjusted and unadjusted RE and PTV, providing models with effect size > 0.84 and power > 0.88. The allometrically adjusted predictive model was composed of PTV0.72 and RE0.60 and explained 83% of the variance in 10 km running time with a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 1.5 min. The unadjusted model composed of a single PVT accounted for 72% of the variance in 10 km running time (SEE of 1.9 min). Both regression models provided powerful estimates of 10 km running time; however, the unadjusted PTV may provide an uncomplicated estimation. PMID:28149382

  20. Dosimetry of secondary cosmic radiation up to an altitude of 30 km.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, F; Burda, O; Khurana, S; Klages, T; Langner, F

    2014-10-01

    Dosimetric measurements in the field of secondary cosmic radiation were extensively made during the last years. Since the majority of these measurements were performed on-board passenger aircraft at altitudes between 10 and 12 km, measurements at higher altitudes are desirable for the verification of the legal dose assessment procedures for aircrew. A simple solution is to use a high-altitude balloon that reaches altitudes as high as 30 km. In this work, it is shown that the dose rate profile up to 30 km can be measured with acceptable uncertainties using a Si-detector.

  1. Characterization of the KM3NeT photomultipliers in the Hellenic Open University

    SciTech Connect

    Bourlis, G.; Avgitas, T.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino research infrastructure will be a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a neutrino telescope. The Physics Laboratory of the Hellenic Open University is involved in the characterization of the KM3NeT neutrino detector. The present work describes measurement techniques for the functional characteristics of the candidate KM3NeT photomultipliers. These characteristics include dark current, transit time spread, gain slope and single photoelectron characteristics, as well as delayed and after pulses.

  2. KM3NeT/ARCA sensitivity and discovery potential for neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, A.

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure with a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. Of these, the KM3NeT/ARCA detector, installed in the KM3NeT-It node of the network, is optimised for studying high-energy neutrinos of cosmic origin. Sensitivities to galactic sources such as the supernova remnant RXJ1713.7-3946 and the pulsar wind nebula Vela X are presented as well as sensitivities to a generic point source with an E-2 spectrum which represents an approximation for the spectrum of extragalactic candidate neutrino sources.

  3. Hydrologic monitoring in 1-km2 headwater catchments in Sierra Nevada forests for predictive modeling of hydrologic response to forest treatments across 140-km2 firesheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksa, P. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.; Martin, S. E.; Rice, R.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project, an eight-year study designed to measure the impacts of forest treatments (thinning, mastication, controlled burns) on multiple forest attributes, four headwater catchments were established to provide data on hydrologic response to treatments. These 1-km2 study catchments are each sited within 40-100 km2 firesheds, which in this case largely follow watershed boundaries, and which are the larger study areas for informing adaptive management of approximately 3,000 km2 of mixed-conifer forest in California’s central and southern Sierra Nevada. The aim of the hydrologic design was to put in place a ground-based monitoring network that would measure hydrologic attributes at representative locations, and when combined with remotely sensed data, provide a basis for predictive modeling of the larger study area. The selected locations employ instrument clusters, or groupings of instruments in a compact arrangement, to maximize the number of measurements possible and accessibility to the monitoring sites. The two study firesheds , located in the Tahoe and Sierra National Forests, cover a total of about 140-km2. Within each fireshed, two meteorological stations were placed near 1650-m and 2150-m, spanning the precipitation gradient from lower-elevation rain-dominated to higher-elevation snow-dominated systems. Two headwater streams draining approximately 1-km2 are monitored for stage, discharge, electrical conductivity, and sediment movement. Additionally, instrument nodes to monitor temperature, snow depth and soil moisture are installed within 0.5-1 km of the outlet and meterological stations. These nodes were placed to monitor end members of aspect, slope, elevation and canopy cover, which set the boundaries for the model outputs. High-resolution LiDAR provides the topographic and distributed vegetation characteristics, which are combined with field surveys and standard soils information to define the modeling

  4. Extreme precipitation events in southestearn France in a high-resolution regional climate model : comparison of a 12 km and a 50 km hindcast with ALADIN-Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Jeanne; Déqué, Michel; Sanchez Gomez, Emilia; Somot, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    We present a comparison of the modelling of intense precipitations over France in two regional climate simulations performed with the Limited Area Model (LAM) ALADIN-Climate, run at a 12 km and a 50 km resolution. In both experiments, the model is forced by the ERA40 re-analysis over the 1958-2000 period. We focus on the representation of the highest precipitation extremes occuring in southeastern France in Autumn. These events involve small-scale processes than can be explicitly resolved only with 2-1 km resolution non-hydrostatic models. However, previous studies have shown that regional climate models are able to simulate heavy rainfalls in this area, although the amounts of rain are much smaller than the ones that are actually observed. Here, we further explore the ability of ALADIN-Climate in reproducing these specific events and the possible added-value of a higher resolution regarding this matter. Indeed, driving the LAM with ERA40 allows the LAM to stick to the real chronology and therefore enables us to analyze its results not only from a statistical point of view but also through day-to-day diagnosis. First, we assess the performances of the model at the 12 km and 50 km resolutions by comparing the simulated daily precipitations with observations over the south east part of France. To do so, we use the high-resolution gridded SAFRAN analysis which provides series of hourly fields over the french territory at a 8 km resolution, from 1958 to 2008. We consider the differences in the upper quantiles of precipitations between the model and the data, as well as the time correlations of heavy rainfalls and the spatial rain patterns for given extreme events. Then we compare the performances of ALADIN-Climate in both simulations to the ones obtained with a statistical downscaling method we apply to the last twenty years of the ERA40 period. This method is based on a weather regime approach and uses the analog methodology (Boé and Terray, 2007) to reconstruct

  5. Centrality, rapidity, and transverse-momentum dependence of cold nuclear matter effects on J/psi production in dAu, CuCu, and AuAu collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, E. G.; Fleuret, F.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.

    2010-06-15

    We have carried out a wide study of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects on J/psi production in dAu, CuCu and AuAu collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV. We have studied the effects of three different gluon-shadowing parametrizations, using the usual simplified kinematics for which the momentum of the gluon recoiling against the J/psi is neglected as well as an exact kinematics for a 2->2 process; namely g+g->J/psi+g as expected from LO pQCD. We have shown that the rapidity distribution of the nuclear modification factor R{sub dAu}, and particularly its antishadowing peak, is systematically shifted toward larger rapidities in the 2->2 kinematics, irrespective of which shadowing parametrization is used. In turn, we have noted differences in the effective final-state nuclear absorption needed to fit the PHENIX dAu data. Taking advantage of our implementation of 2->2 kinematics, we have also computed the transverse momentum dependence of the nuclear modification factor, which cannot be predicted with the usual simplified kinematics. All the corresponding observables have been computed for CuCu and AuAu collisions and compared to the PHENIX and STAR data. Finally, we have extracted the effective nuclear absorption from the recent measurements of R{sub CP} in dAu collisions by the PHENIX collaboration.

  6. PREFACE: 6th European Thermal Sciences Conference (Eurotherm 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Daniel; Le Niliot, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    About EUROTHERM The aim of the EUROTHERM Committee (www.eurothermcommittee.eu) is to promote and foster European cooperation in Thermal Sciences and Heat Transfer by gathering together scientists and engineers working in specialized areas. The Committee consists of members representing and appointed by national bodies in the EU countries. The current President of EUROTHERM is Professor Anton van Steenhoven from the University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). The Committee organizes and coordinates European scientific events such as the EUROTHERM Seminars (about 4 per year) and the European Thermal Sciences Conference (every 4 years). About the conference This sixth in the series of European Thermal Sciences Conferences (www.eurotherm2012.com) took place in France, in the Conference Centre of Poitiers, Futuroscope. We address special thanks to the 225 reviewers, coming from different European countries, who have evaluated these papers. We also thank the scientific committee, consisting of some EUROTHERM Committee members together with other internationally recognized experts. Their role has been to manage the evaluation of abstracts and the papers selection process as co-coordinators for specific topics. This conference is the joint effort of two laboratories: the PPRIME Institute in Poitiers and the IUSTI laboratory in Marseille. It could not be organized without the efficient help of our secretaries and our technician for the IT support. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 180 articles presented at the conference. Professor Daniel PETIT Chairman, PPRIME Poitiers, France Institut P'(UPR CNRS 3346) ENSMA 1 av. Clément Ader - BP40109 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil France daniel.petit@ensma.fr Professor Christophe LE NILIOT Co-chairman, IUSTI Marseille, France Laboratoire IUSTI UMR CNRS 6595 Technopôle de Chateau-Gombert 5, rue Enrico Fermi 13 453 MARSEILLE CEDEX 13 France christophe.leniliot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr

  7. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 6th Grade - River Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade six prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Mechanics of Composites Review (6th),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    ADVANCED COMPOSITES AND RESINS *Processing Effect of cure cycle parameters on resin and laminate properties eTesting Deformation and fracture...Composite Material 4. Determination of the Relationship of Free Volume to Mechanical Behavior for an Epoxy System Subjected to Various Aging Histories...Investigation of Free Volume Concepts in Relation- ship to Mechanical Behavior of an Epoxy System Subjected to Various Aging Histories 8. ApplicationofEnergy

  9. Career Motivation Activities Guide, 4th through 6th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo Public Schools, OH.

    The activities guide is intended primarily to assist teachers in grades 4-7 in teaching career awareness concepts. Instructional activities correlate basic skill and career education objectives. The 29 units cover topics related to social studies (self-awareness, the community, the school, transportation, the environment, family roles, economic…

  10. Nutrition Super Stars [5th and 6th Grades].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This nutrition and physical fitness curriculum kit provides a means for students, teachers, parents, and school health and food service staff to learn about the nutritional value of food and the relationship of food and physical fitness to growth, development, and health; develop food and activity habits which promote good health; and share this…

  11. Highlights of the ATS 6th Annual Convention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breyer, Walter

    The convention began with a keynote by Michael Tubridy, the engineer in charge of the restoration of the Birr Castle Leviathan of Parsonstown. The convention then moved up to Mount Wilson, where talks were heard by Christ Plicht, Peter Abrahams, John Briggs, Don Osterbrock, Robert Ariail, Gayle Riggsbee, and Walt Breyer. Tours were made of the 100-inch and 60-inch telescopes, and observing through the 60-inch finished the day. Sunday, talks were heard by Paul O'Leary, Kevin Johnson, Eugene Rudd, E.J. Hysom, Edward Young, and Rolf Willach. Tours were made of the Hale Solar Laboratory, George Ellery Hale's home, the Huntington Library, Pasadena City College Observatory's 20-inch reflector, and Griffith Observatory's 12-inch Zeiss. On Monday, a tour was made to Mount Palomar and the 200-inch Hale Telescope.

  12. Annotated Bibliography for 6th Grade Science and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Margo

    Designed to support curriculum and to facilitate instruction and learning at the sixth grade level, this annotated bibliography contains materials found in the library at the Brawley Middle School in Scotland Neck, North Carolina. To foster cooperative planning between teacher and librarian, the bibliography provides sample activities and lessons…

  13. Keynote Address for 6th International Symposium on Digital Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambacus, Myra

    2009-01-01

    NASA is committed to collaborating with not only our National Partners but also with our International Partners to help make our world a better place. We do this through the sharing of our discoveries and working together so that we can address uncertainties in predictions and forecasts that impact how we live on our home planet. NASA is committed to a Digital Earth as it enables our research to focus on cross disciplinary analysis. The mainstream Information Technologies along with the Digital Earth concepts have allowed this interdisciplinary research that is so critical to societal benefits. The technologies have been discovered and in many cases implemented, but we must forge ahead together to continue to advance all that is possible to fully extend our earth observations for the sake of humankind.

  14. PREFACE: 6th International Conference on Aperiodic Crystals (APERIODIC'09)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Uwe; McGrath, Rónán; Degtyareva, Olga; Sharma, Hem Raj

    2010-04-01

    Aperiodic Logo Aperiodic'09, the sixth International Conference on Aperiodic Crystals, took place in Liverpool 13-18 September 2009. It was the first major conference in this interdisciplinary research field held in the UK. The conference, which was organised under the auspices of the Commission on Aperiodic Crystals of the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr), followed on from Aperiodic'94 (Les Diablerets, Switzerland), Aperiodic'97 (Alpe d'Huez, France), Aperiodic'2000 (Nijmegen, The Netherlands), Aperiodic'03 (Belo Horizonte, Brazil) and Aperiodic'06 (Zao, Japan). The next conference in the series will take place in Australia in 2012. The Aperiodic conference series is itself the successor to a series of Conferences on Modulated Structures, Polytypes and Quasicrystals (MOSPOQ), which were held in Marseilles (France) in 1984, Wroclaw (Poland) in 1986, Varanasi (India) in 1988 and Balatonszeplak (Hungary) in 1991. The remit of the conference covers two broad areas of research on aperiodic crystals, incommensurately modulated and composite crystals on the one hand, and quasicrystals on the other hand, sharing the property that they are aperiodically ordered solids. In addition, the conference also featured recent research on complex metal alloys, which are in fact periodically ordered solids. However, the term complex refers to their large unit cells, which may contain thousands of atoms, and as a consequence complex metal alloys share some of the properties of quasicrystalline solids. Aperiodic'09 attracted about 110 participants from across the world, including 20 UK-based scientists (the second largest group after Japan who sent 21 delegates). A particular feature of the conference series is its interdisciplinary character, and once again the range of disciplines of participants included mathematics, physics, crystallography and materials science. The programme started with three tutorial lectures on Sunday afternoon, presenting introductory overviews on quasicrystals (Eiji Abe), complex metal alloys (Alessandra Beni) and incommensurately modulated structures (Gervais Chapuis). While these were mainly aimed at younger researchers in the field, the lectures were very well attended and appreciated by the participants. The main programme ran from Monday morning until Friday lunchtime. It comprised 13 invited and 40 contributed plenary talks, and more than 40 posters, which were presented at two afternoon/evening poster sessions. The topics covered in the programme range from mathematical foundations, mathematical models, new materials, sample preparation, structure determination, physical properties and surface properties to industrial applications. Every presenter was invited to submit an article for this proceedings volume, and the 36 peer-reviewed papers in this volume present a cross-section of the range of presentations at the conference. They have been arranged into four categories, (i) quasicrystals, (ii) modulated structures, (iii) mathematical and theoretical aspects of aperiodic order, and (iv) approximants and complex phases. Prizes for best student presentations were awarded to Heinrich Orsini-Rosenberg (ETH Zurich) for his poster Tailor-made sevenfold approximants: ab-initio investigations on formation and stability and to Holger Euchner (Universität Stuttgart) for his contributed talk on Lattice dynamics in complex metallic alloys - vibrational properties of Zn11Mg2. In addition to a cash prize, Heinrich Orsini-Rosenberg received an icosahedral teapot, which was manufactured and donated by David Warrington, and Holger Euchner received a book prize. The meeting started with a welcome reception in the University's recently refurbished Victoria Gallery and Museum. A public lecture Simple sets of shapes that tile the plane but cannot ever repeat by Professor Sir Roger Penrose FRS attracted a wide audience and gave a fascinating insight into the discovery of the Penrose tiling, which is still the paradigm of aperiodic order in two dimensions and used in modelling quasicrystalline materials, some ten years before quasicrystals were first seen in experiment. The conference excursion and dinner centred on the historic waterfront area of this 800-year old city that was designated European Capital of Culture in 2008. The enjoyment of the ferry trip on the Mersey and subsequent walk to the Albert dock museums was greatly enhanced by the fine weather, which lasted throughout the entire conference week. The guests of honour at the conference dinner were Professor Sir Roger Penrose FRS and Professor Alan L Mackay FRS, bringing together two distinguished UK scientists who made seminal contributions to the subject. Besides the scientific programme, the conference also offered a presentation by the author Ann Lingard, whose latest novel The Embalmer's Book of Recipes features a mathematician working on quasicrystals at the University of Liverpool as its main character. A related EPSRC-supported workshop on Mathematical Aspects of Aperiodic Order, organised by Alex Clark, John Hunton and Uwe Grimm, was held in Leicester in the week preceding the conference, and attracted about 40 participants. It is not possible to organise a conference without the help and support of a large number of people, and we would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge the support of everyone who was involved in organising and running this conference. We would like to thank the IUCr Aperiodic Commission, and in particular its chair Professor Marc de Boissieu, who not only entrusted us with hosting the event, but acted as the International Advisory Committee and provided valuable advice and guidance. We are indebted to the members of the International Programme Committee, who helped to put together an exciting programme by suggesting invited speakers and selecting presentations for contributed plenary talks. We are immensely grateful to all members of the National Organising Committee, who provided essential support during the organising stage and during the conference itself, and we would particularly like to thank the conference secretary, Mrs Angie Reid, for her excellent administrative support before, during and after the conference, and for her help in the production of this volume. We are very much indebted to out co-editors, Dr Olga Degtyareva (Edinburgh) and Dr Hem Raj Sharma (Liverpool), for their contributions to the editing of this volume. Finally, and most of all, we would like to thank all participants of the conference for coming to Liverpool, for contributing by presenting their recent work and taking part in discussions, and for creating such an enjoyable and fruitful collegiate atmosphere throughout the week. Last but not least we would like to express our gratitude for the generous financial support we received from the Open University, the University of Liverpool and the Institute of Physics (Mathematical and Theoretical Physics Group and Thin Films and Surfaces Group). The International Union of Crystallography provided financial sponsorship which was allocated to support the participation of 15 young scientists. The European Network of Excellence on Complex Metallic Alloys provided travel and subsistence support to members of participating organisations. Rónán McGrath Uwe Grimm Conference photograph

  15. Physics, Laboratory Manual-Student Version , 6th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutnell, John D.; Johnson, Kenneth W.

    2004-01-01

    This Sixth Edition helps readers understand the interrelationships among basic physics concepts and how they fit together to describe our physical world. Throughout the book, the authors emphasize the relevance of physics to our everyday lives. Real-world physics applications, including many biomedical applications, show how physics principles come into play over and over again in our lives. Problem Solving Insights explain each calculation in detail, guiding readers through the quantitative process Includes a CD containing physics simulations

  16. Physics, AP Student Study Guide, 6th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutnell, John D.; Johnson, Kenneth W.

    2003-11-01

    This Sixth Edition helps readers understand the interrelationships among basic physics concepts and how they fit together to describe our physical world. Throughout the book, the authors emphasize the relevance of physics to our everyday lives. Real-world physics applications, including many biomedical applications, show how physics principles come into play over and over again in our lives. Problem Solving Insights explain each calculation in detail, guiding readers through the quantitative process Includes a CD containing physics simulations

  17. General Chemistry Collection for Students, 6th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    System requirements are given in Tables 2a and b. Some programs have additional special requirements. Please see the individual program abstracts at JCE Online or the documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information.

    Table 2a. Hardware Required
    Computer CPU RAM Drives Graphics
    Mac OS Power Macintosh ≥ 64 MB CD-ROMHard Drive ≥ 256 colors;≥ 800x600
    Windows Pentium ≥ 64 MB CD-ROMHard Drive SVGA;≥ 256 colors;≥ 800x600
    Table 2b. Software Required
  18. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. 6th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.; Banks, Cherry A. McGee

    2006-01-01

    Today's classrooms are more diverse than ever before. In order to reach these students, educators must be aware of the issues facing their various cultural, racial, ethnic, and language groups. Focusing on the pertinent issues in multicultural education, this new edition raises these critical issues and facilitates meaningful discussion. It has…

  19. Careers and the Study of Political Science. 6th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Political Science Association (NJ3), 2003

    2003-01-01

    This guide is a great resource for today's undergraduate. This updated career guide explores the many career options available to political science students and emphasizes the value of political science training. In additional to providing specific information about various career paths, this guide will help students examine their own career…

  20. Materiel Testing in the Tropics (6th Ed)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    ceramics Test methodology Panama Canal Zone Textiles Plastics Tropic Test Center Protective coatings Tropical animals 20. (cont) of Materiel Testing in...Canal Zone . .. 1-3 D Materiel Testing in the Panama Canal Zone . . . . . . . ... . 1-5 E Canal Zone Environment--Brief Overview .. .. .... ...... 1-6...trapped there, and by the heavy biomass of the canopy itself. E. CANAL ZONE ENVIRONMENT--BRIEF OVERVIEW The Canal Zone (see frontispiece) bisects the

    1. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

      SciTech Connect

      2007-07-01

      The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

    2. Mapping Land Cover Types in Amazon Basin Using 1km JERS-1 Mosaic

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Saatchi, Sassan S.; Nelson, Bruce; Podest, Erika; Holt, John

      2000-01-01

      In this paper, the 100 meter JERS-1 Amazon mosaic image was used in a new classifier to generate a I km resolution land cover map. The inputs to the classifier were 1 km resolution mean backscatter and seven first order texture measures derived from the 100 m data by using a 10 x 10 independent sampling window. The classification approach included two interdependent stages: 1) a supervised maximum a posteriori Bayesian approach to classify the mean backscatter image into 5 general land cover categories of forest, savannah, inundated, white sand, and anthropogenic vegetation classes, and 2) a texture measure decision rule approach to further discriminate subcategory classes based on taxonomic information and biomass levels. Fourteen classes were successfully separated at 1 km scale. The results were verified by examining the accuracy of the approach by comparison with the IBGE and the AVHRR 1 km resolution land cover maps.

    3. Making sense of KM through users: Information gaps and intellectual property

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pascual, Roberto de Miguel; Casado, Esther Monterroso

      2014-10-01

      Despite its lack of definition, in a general sense, knowledge management (KM) is consubstantial to contemporary innovation-driven social systems (IDSSs), allowing individuals, organizations, and entire societies, to cope with their intrinsic technical uncertainties more effectively. Before the advent of IDSSs, most of the results of KM were considered naturally inappropriable as well as fractions of the public domain. In such context, patents litigation was almost anecdotic. This paper summarizes various social scientific and humanistic approaches that nourish the emergence of a new KM model in which innovation will be anchored in the claim for universality. Patentability of ICT and services is also considered on the realm of a commons-based KM.

    4. KM3NeT tower data acquisition and data transport electronics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Nicolau, C. A.; Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; Capone, A.; Frezza, O.; Lonardo, A.; Masullo, R.; Mollo, C. M.; Orlando, A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P.

      2016-04-01

      In the framework of the KM3Net European project, the production stage of a large volume underwater neutrino telescope has started. The forthcoming installation includes 8 towers and 24 strings, that will be installed 100 km off-shore Capo Passero (Italy) at 3500 m depth. The KM3NeT tower, whose layout is strongly based on the NEMO Phase-2 prototype tower deployed in March 2013, has been re-engineered and partially re-designed in order to optimize production costs, power consumption, and usability. This contribution gives a description of the main electronics, including front-end, data transport and clock distribution system, of the KM3NeT tower detection unit.

    5. 2 GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber.

      PubMed

      Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Jun-Fu; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

      2012-03-15

      We report a demonstration of quantum key distribution (QKD) over a standard telecom fiber exceeding 50 dB in loss and 250 km in length. The differential phase shift QKD protocol was chosen and implemented with a 2 GHz system clock rate. By careful optimization of the 1 bit delayed Faraday-Michelson interferometer and the use of the superconducting single photon detector (SSPD), we achieved a quantum bit error rate below 2% when the fiber length was no more than 205 km, and of 3.45% for a 260 km fiber with 52.9 dB loss. We also improved the quantum efficiency of SSPD to obtain a high key rate for 50 km length.

    6. 40 Gbps 100-km SSMF VSB-IMDD OFDM transmission experiment based on FBG filter

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ju, Cheng; Yang, Pengfei; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Zhiguo; Liu, Na

      2014-10-01

      This work studies the transmission performance of vestigial-sideband (VSB)-IMDD OFDM system by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The analysis shows that the detrimental effect of dispersion-induced power fading can be effectively suppressed. The presence of positive and negative chirp of modulator will increase the dispersion-, chirp- and VSB optical filter-induced subcarrier to subcarrier intermixing interference (SSII), which significantly restricts transmission performance. Relatively lower order Gaussian optical filter has almost the same performance with ideal rectangular filter over 100-km SMF transmission and have better performance in less than 60-km transmission. Furthermore, we successfully transmit a 40 Gbps, 16QAM, MZM-based VSB-IMDD OFDM signal through 100-km of uncompensated standard single mode fiber (SSMF) by using an economical FBG optical filter. The experimental results show that available bandwidth has been extended up to 10 GHz after 100-km SSMF transmission.

    7. Role of the transition zone and 660 km discontinuity in mantle dynamics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ringwood, A. E.

      1994-10-01

      Recent seismic evidence suggests that subducted slabs experience resistance to further descent when they encounter the 660 km seismic discontinuity. Several possible causes of this resistance are evaluated. It is concluded that the chemical composition of the lower mantle is similar to that of the upper mantle, and that compositional change is therefore unlikely to be the cause of resistance to slab penetration. The proposal that a large increase of viscosity at the 660 km discontinuity impedes descending slabs is also rejected. However, three other factors are identified, each of which is capable of causing substantial resistance to descending slabs: (1) the negative slope of the transformation of silicate spinel to Mg-perovskite+magnesiowuestite; (2) differentiation of oceanic lithosphere into basaltic and depleted peridotitic layers, causing the slab to be buoyant compared with surrounding mantle pyrolite between depths of 660-800 km; (3) the accumulation of former oceanic crust to produce a gravitationally stable layer of garnetite (about 50 km thick) on top of the 660 km discontinuity. The combined effects of these sources of resistance provide a filter for subducted slabs. Those slabs with seismic zones extending below 600 km may possess sufficient negative buoyancy and strength to overcome the barriers and penetrate into the lower mantle. However, the resistance causes strong buckling and plastic thickening of these slabs, which accumulate to form huge blobs or 'megaliths' underneath the 660 km discontinuity. In contrast, slabs with seismic zones extending no deeper than 300 km possess much smaller degrees of negative buoyancy and strength and hence are unable to penetrate the 660 km discontinuity. Slabs of this type are recycled within the transition zone and upper mantle. Mixing and petrological homogenization processes are less efficient in the transition zone than in the upper mantle (above 400 km). The transition zone is composed mainly of ancient slabs

    8. Long-term monitoring of local stress changes in 67km installed OPGW cable using BOTDA

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zou, L.; Sezerman, O.

      2015-09-01

      The initial results from continuing long-term monitoring of a 67 km of an aerial fiber optic cable installed on a 500 kV power line cable (total fiber length of 134km) using BOTDA are presented. The effects of thunderstorms and rime ice on the cable were identified by monitoring strain on OPGW fibers. Variations of strain between day and night on the OPGW cable were observed and can potentially be exploited.

    9. 91-km attenuation-free transmission with low noise accumulation by use of distributed erbium-doped fiber

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lester, Christian; Rottwitt, Karsten; Povlsen, Jørn H.; Varming, Poul; Newhouse, Mark A.; Antos, A. J.

      1995-06-01

      Transparency of a 91-km distributed erbium-doped fiber is achieved with 0.46 mW / km of pump power at a signal power of -12dBm . The accumulation of amplifier noise is measured to be smaller than the minimum noise accumulation that can be achieved in a 91-km link with two lumped amplifiers separated by 45 km.

    10. Daytime zonal drifts in the ionospheric E and 150 km regions estimated using EAR observations

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Peddapati, PavanChaitanya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Patra, Amit

      2016-07-01

      The Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR), located at Kototabang (0.2o S, 100.32o E, mag. lat. 10.36o S), Indonesia, is capable of detecting both E region and 150 km echoes during daytime. We have conducted multi-beam observations using the EAR during daytime covering all seasons to study seasonal variations of these echoes and their dynamics. Given the facts that drifts at the 150 km region are governed primarily by electric field, drifts at the E region are governed by both electric field and neutral wind, simultaneous observations of drifts in both E and 150 km regions would help understand their variations. In this paper we present local time and seasonal variations of zonal drifts in the E and 150 km regions estimated using multi-beam observations. Zonal drifts (positive eastward) in the E and 150 km regions are found to be in the range of -10 to -60 m/s and -40 to 80 m/s, respectively. In the E region, zonal drifts show height reversal and temporal variations having tidal signature and noticeable seasonal variations. Zonal drifts in the 150 km region also show noticeable height and seasonal variations. These results are compared with model drifts and evaluated in terms of electric field and neutral wind.

    11. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pellegrino, Carmelo; Chiarusi, Tommaso

      2016-04-01

      KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea that includes a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes. The telescopes consist of vertical detection units carrying optical modules, whose separation is optimised according to the different ranges of neutrino energy that shall be explored. Two building blocks, each one made of 115 detection units, will be deployed at the KM3NeT-IT site, about 80 km from Capo Passero, Italy, to search for high-energy neutrino sources (ARCA); another building block will be installed at the KM3NeT-Fr site, about 40 km from Toulon, France, to study the hierarchy of neutrino masses (ORCA). The modular design of the KM3NeT allows for a progressive implementation and data taking even with an incomplete detector. The same scalable design is used for the Trigger and Data Acquisition Systems (TriDAS). In order to reduce the complexity of the hardware inside the optical modules, the "all data to shore" concept is adopted. This implies that the throughput is dominated by the optical background due to the decay of 40K dissolved in the sea water and to the bursts of bioluminescence, about 3 orders of magnitude larger than the physics signal, ranging from 20 Gbps to several hundreds Gbps, according to the number of detection units. In addition, information from the acoustic positioning system of the detection units must be transmitted. As a consequence of the detector construction, the on-shore DAQ infrastructure must be expanded to handle an increasing data-rate and implement an efficient fast data filtering for both the optical and acoustic channels. In this contribution, the Trigger and Data Acquisition System designed for the Phase 1 of KM3NeT and its future expansion are presented. The network infrastructure, the shore computing resources and the developed applications for handling, filtering and monitoring the optical and acoustic data-streams are described.

    12. The isolated 678-km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ye, L.; Lay, T.; Zhan, Z.; Kanamori, H.; Hao, J.

      2015-12-01

      Deep-focus earthquakes, located 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. Seismic radiation from deep events is essentially indistinguishable from that for shallow stick-slip frictional-sliding earthquakes, but the confining pressure and temperature are so high for deep-focus events that a distinct process is likely needed to account for their abrupt energy release. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only 2 small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (678 km) major (MW > 7) earthquake in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and progressive steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ~40 km with variable expansion rate (~5 km/s down-dip initially, ~3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s rupture duration the radiated energy was ~3.3 x 1016 J and the stress drop was ~38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 earthquakes, indicating a continuum of processes. The isolated occurrence of the event suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab likely played a role in generating this major earthquake.

    13. One year duration of immunity of the modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 and bovine herpesvirus-1 fractions of Vista® Once SQ vaccine.

      PubMed

      Purtle, Lisa; Mattick, Debra; Schneider, Corey; Smith, Linda; Xue, Wenzhi; Trigo, Emilio

      2016-03-18

      Three studies were performed to determine the duration of immunity of the bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) fractions of a commercially prepared modified-live vaccine. Vista® Once SQ (Vista®) vaccine contains five modified-live viruses, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, and two modified-live bacteria, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. For all three studies, calves were administered a single dose of vaccine or placebo vaccine subcutaneously, and were challenged with one of the three virulent viruses at least one year following vaccination. Calves were evaluated daily following challenge for clinical signs of disease associated with viral infection, nasal swab samples were evaluated for virus shedding, and serum was tested for neutralizing antibodies. Following the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 challenges, whole blood was evaluated for white blood cell counts, and for the BVDV-2 study, whole blood was also evaluated for platelet counts. Calves vaccinated with BVDV type 1a, were protected from challenge with BVDV type 1b, and had significant reductions in clinical disease, fever, leukopenia, and virus shedding compared to control calves. Vaccinated calves in the BVDV-2 study were protected from clinical disease, mortality, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and virus shedding compared to controls. Vaccinated calves in the BHV-1 study were protected from clinical disease and fever, and had significantly reduced duration of nasal virus shedding. These three studies demonstrated that a single administration of the Vista® vaccine to healthy calves induces protective immunity against BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BHV-1 that lasts at least one year following vaccination.

    14. Participation and performance trends in 100-km ultra-marathons worldwide.

      PubMed

      Cejka, Nadine; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Lepers, Romuald; Onywera, Vincent; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

      2014-01-01

      The aims of the present study were to (1) investigate the participation trends for the origin of athletes competing in 100-km ultra-marathons and (2) determine the nationalities of athletes achieving the fastest 100-km race times worldwide. Race times and nationality from 112,283 athletes (15,204 women and 97,079 men) from 102 countries who completed a 100-km ultra-marathon worldwide between 1998 and 2011 were investigated using single- and multi-level regression analyses. The number of finishers increased exponentially, both for women and men. Most of the finishers (73.5%) were from Europe, in particular, France (30.4%). The number of finishers from Japan, Germany, Italy, Poland and the United States of America increased exponentially during the studied period. For women, runners from Canada became slower while those from Italy became faster over time. For men, runners from Belgium, Canada and Japan became slower. Between 1998 and 2011, the ten best race times were achieved by Japanese runners for both women with 457.1 (s = 28.8) min and men with 393.4 (s = 9.6) min. To summarise, most of the finishers in 100-km ultra-marathons originated from Europe, but the best performances belong to Japanese runners. Although East African runners dominate running up to a marathon, Japanese were the best in 100 km.

    15. The Effect of Boron on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Disk Alloy KM4

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Gabb, Timothy; Gayda, John; Sweeney, Joseph

      2000-01-01

      The durability of powder metallurgy nickel base superalloys employed as compressor and turbine disks is often limited by low cycle fatigue (LCF) crack initiation and crack growth from highly stressed surface locations (corners, holes, etc.). Crack growth induced by dwells at high stresses during aerospace engine operation can be particularly severe. Supersolvus solution heat treatments can be used to produce coarse grain sizes approaching ASTM 6 for improved resistance to dwell fatigue crack growth. However, the coarse grain sizes reduce yield strength, which can lower LCF initiation life. These high temperature heat treatments also can encourage pores to form. In the advanced General Electric disk superalloy KM4, such pores can initiate fatigue cracks that limit LCF initiation life. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) during the supersolvus solution heat treatment has been shown to improve LCF initiation life in KM4, as the HIP pressure minimizes formation of the pores. Reduction of boron levels in KM4 has also been shown to increase LCF initiation life after a conventional supersolvus heat treatment, again possibly due to effects on the formation tendencies of these pores. However, the effects of reduced boron levels on microstructure, pore characteristics, and LCF failure modes in KM4 still need to be fully quantified. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of boron level on the microstructure, porosity, LCF behavior, and failure modes of supersolvus heat treated KM4.

    16. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Biagi, Simone

      2016-07-01

      KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3'', instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

    17. M. tuberculosis ferritin (Rv3841): Potential involvement in Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) resistance.

      PubMed

      Sharma, Divakar; Lata, Manju; Faheem, Mohammad; Khan, Asad Ullah; Joshi, Beenu; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy; Shukla, Sangeeta; Bisht, Deepa

      2016-09-16

      Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, caused by one of the most successful human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aminoglycosides, Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) are commonly used to treat drug resistant tuberculosis. They target the protein synthesis machinery by interacting with several steps of translation. Several explanations have been proposed to explain the mechanism of aminoglycoside resistance but still our information is inadequate. Iron storing/interacting proteins were found to be overexpressed in aminoglycosides resistant isolates. Iron assimilation and utilization in M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in growth, virulence and latency. To establish the relationship of ferritin with AK & KM resistance ferritin (Rv3841/bfrB) was cloned, expressed and antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing (DST) was carried out. Rv3841/bfrB gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 using pQE2 expression vector. Etest results for DST against AK & KM showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ferritin recombinant cells was changed. Recombinants showed two fold changes in MIC with AK and three fold with KM E-strips. Overexpression of ferritin reflect the MIC shift which might be playing a critical role in the survival of mycobacteria by inhibiting/modulating the effects of AK & KM. String analysis also suggests that ferritin interacted with few proteins which are directly and indirectly involved in M. tuberculosis growth, Iron assimilation, virulence, resistance, stresses and latency.

    18. Gravity wave and tidal structures between 60 and 140 km inferred from space shuttle reentry data

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ding-Yi; Blanchard, Robert C.

      1993-01-01

      This study presents an analysis of density measurements made using high-resolution accelerometers aboard several space shuttles at altitudes from 60 to 140 km during reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted in terms of gravity waves and tides and provide evidence of the importance of such motions well into the thermosphere. Height profiles of fractional density variance reveal that wave amplitudes increase at a rate consistent with observations at lower levels up to about 90 km. The rate of amplitude growth decreases at greater heights, however, and appears to cease above about 110 km. Wave amplitudes are nevertheless large at these heights and suggest that gravity waves may play an important role in forcing of the lower thermosphere.

    19. Daytime vertical and zonal velocities from 150-km echoes: Their relevance to F-region dynamics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chau, Jorge L.; Woodman, Ronald F.

      2004-09-01

      As it was suggested by Kudeki and Fawcett [1993], and later shown by Woodman and Villanueva [1995], vertical Doppler velocities of daytime 150-km echoes represent the vertical E × B drift velocities at F region altitudes. Recently a special experiment was conducted to compare not only the vertical but also the zonal velocities from 150-km echoes with those from an incoherent scatter radar (ISR) mode perpendicular to the magnetic field. The vertical velocity comparisons show that (1) there is a very good agreement between 150-km velocity and the mean F-region E × B drift, and (2) much better agreement is found with the extrapolated values from the ISR altitudinal profiles. On the other hand poor-to-good agreement is found between their zonal components. Our preliminary zonal velocity results, indicate that there is a poor agreement before noontime, while better agreement is found in the afternoon.

    20. Mantle seismic anisotropy beneath the 660km phase transition generated by subduction body force stresses.

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Nippress, S.; Kusznir, N. J.; Kendall, M.

      2003-04-01

      Observations of seismic anisotropy can provide insights into the style of mantle dynamics near the 660km discontinuity. Wookey et al. (2002) report up to 7 seconds of shear wave splitting for rays generated by deep focus events from the Tonga subduction zone and recorded in Australia. The results suggest a transversely isotropic symmetry with the symmetry axis in the vertical plane, perpendicular to the ray direction. Thus, for horizontally travelling waves this would imply horizontally polarised shear waves (SH lead SV). They show that a topmost lower mantle model with anisotropy between 660-900km could produce theoretical shear wave splitting similar to that observed. Therefore, the seismic anisotropy observed by Wookey et al., can be explained by an anisotropic region between 660-900km, with only a minimal contribution from above the 660km phase transition. The goal of this study is to try to explain the observed shear wave splitting using geodynamical modelling. We use finite element (FE) modelling to calculate slab-induced models of fluid flow, total stress and deviatoric stress. A simple 2D subduction zone model with a prescribed viscosity structure and slab density is used. Large deviatoric stresses (maximum values ~ 40 MPa) are generated in the topmost lower mantle when the subducting slab encounters an increase in viscosity at the 660km phase transition. These stresses may induce mineral alignment in a broad region (lateral wavelength approximately » 800km) in the topmost lower mantle below the slab. Perovskite may therefore be aligned with a rotated symmetry axis conformal to the shape of this region of high deviatoric stress. Aligned Perovskite rotated more than 30 degrees predicts SH-waves faster than SV-waves for horizontally travelling S-waves. The formulation of McKenzie (1979) is used to calculate the finite strain accumulated by a mantle parcel as it propagates through the FE flow models. The computed strain ellipsoids align in a similar region

    1. Status of the central logic board (CLB) of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Calvo, D.; Real, D.

      2015-12-01

      The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultiplier of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers, the acoustics sensor and the rest of the instrumentation. The electronics design includes a multiboot module which allows for the re-configuration of the nodes of the telescope remotely from the shore station. All the modules and subsystems are controlled by two embedded microprocessors, implemented on a Kintetx-7 FPGA, and complex embedded software.

    2. Acoustic neutrino detection investigations within ANTARES and prospects for KM3NeT

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lahmann, Robert

      2016-04-01

      The acoustic neutrino detection technique is a promising approach for future large-scale detectors with the aim of measuring the small expected flux of cosmogenic neutrinos at energies exceeding 1 EeV. It suggests itself to investigate this technique in the context of underwater Cherenkov neutrino telescopes, in particular KM3NeT, because acoustic sensors are present by design to allow for the calibration of the positions of the optical sensors. For the future, the KM3NeT detector in the Mediterranean Sea will provide an ideal infrastructure for a dedicated array of acoustic sensors. In this presentation results from the acoustic array AMADEUS of the ANTARES detector will be discussed with respect to the potential and implications for acoustic neutrino detection with KM3NeT and beyond.

    3. Gravity wave and tidal structures between 60 and 140 km inferred from space shuttle reentry data

      SciTech Connect

      Fritts, D.C. ); Dingyi Wang ); Blanchard, R.C. )

      1993-03-15

      This study presents an analysis of density measurements made using high-resolution accelerometers aboard several space shuttles at altitudes from 60 to 140 km during reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted in terms of gravity waves and tides and provide evidence of the importance of such motions well into the thermosphere. Height profiles of fractional density variance reveal that wave amplitudes increase at a rate consistent with observations at lower levels up to [approximately]90 km. The rate of amplitude growth decreases at greater heights, however, and appears to cease above [approximately]110 km. Wave amplitudes are nevertheless large at these heights and suggest that gravity waves may play an important role in forcing of the lower thermosphere.

    4. AmeriFlux BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest

      SciTech Connect

      Saleska, Scott

      2016-01-01

      This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest. Site Description - The LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site is located in the Tapajos National Forest, a 450,000 ha closed-canopy upland forest in Amazonian Brazil. Bounded by the Tapajos River in the west and highway BR-163 to the east, the tower is located on a flat plateau (or planalto) that extends up to 150 km to the north, south, and east. Within the confines of the National Forest, anthropogenic disturbances are limited to a few small hunting trails. The surrounding stand is classified as primary or "old-growth"" predominantly by its uneven age distribution, emergent trees, numerous epiphytes and abundant large logs. In 2007 falling trees hit the tower guy wires rendering all instrumentation in-operational. After a complete restoration tower measurements resumed in August of 2008.

    5. Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height and pressure for 0-120 km

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Chandra, Sushil; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Fleming, Eric L.; Barnett, John J.

      1990-01-01

      This paper presents a monthly mean climatology of zonal mean temperature, zonal wind, and geopotential height with nearly pole-to-pole coverage (80 deg S-80 deg N) for 0-120 km which can be used as a function of altitude and pressure. This climatology reproduces most of the characteristic features of the atmosphere such as the lowering and cooling of the mesopause and the lowering and warming of the stratopause during the summer months at high latitudes. A series of zonal wind profiles is also presented comparing this climatological wind with monthly mean climatological direct wind measurements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The two data sets compare well below 80 km, with some general seasonal trend agreement observed above 80 km. The zonal wind at the equator presented here simulates the observed features of the semiannual oscillation in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere.

    6. Time-division multiplexing-based BOTDA over 100 km sensing length.

      PubMed

      Dong, Yongkang; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

      2011-01-15

      We propose and demonstrate a high-performance and long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) based on time-division multiplexing measurement, where a probe pulse and a pump pulse are used to perform the measurement on a selected sensing section, and the measurement of the entire sensing fiber is realized by combining the series measurements over different sections through changing the delay time between the two pulses. In experiment, a 100 km sensing fiber is divided into 11 sections based on the gain-controlled principle, and spatial resolutions of 0.6 m and 2 m are obtained at the end of 75 km and 100 km, respectively.

    7. Comparison of turbulence-induced scintillations for multi-wavelength laser beacons over tactical (7 km) and long (149 km) atmospheric propagation paths

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Vorontsov, M.; Gudimetla, V.; Carhart, G.; Weyrauch, T.; Lachinova, S.; Polnau, E.; Reierson, J.; Beresnev, L.; Liu, J.; Riker, J.

      2011-09-01

      We report results of the experimental analysis of atmospheric effects on laser beam propagation over two distinctive propagation paths: a long-range (149 km) propagation path between Mauna Loa (Island of Hawaii) and Haleakala (Island of Maui) mountains, and a tactical-range (7 km) propagation path between the roof of the Dayton Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC) and the Intelligent Optics Laboratory (IOL/UD) located on the 5th floor of the University of Dayton College Park Center building. Both testbeds include three laser beacons operating at wavelengths 532 nm, 1064 nm, and 1550 nm and a set of identical optical receiver systems with fast-framing IR cameras for simultaneous measurements of pupil and focal plane intensity distributions. The results reported here are focused on analysis of intensity scintillations that were simultaneously measured at three wavelengths. Comparison of experimental results shows significant differences in the physics of atmospheric turbulence impact on laser beam propagation over the long- and tactical-range distances.

    8. On the origin of 150-km echoes: Recent observational results and current understanding

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Patra, Amit

      2012-07-01

      Discovered nearly 45 years ago, the so-called 150-km echoing phenomenon continues to be a puzzle. These are the coherent radar echoes coming from the height region of 140-180 km during daytime and are of special interest to the ionospheric scientists since they are very useful means for estimating the daytime electric fields, a crucial parameter for studying daytime electrodynamics and plasma physics, and can be observed by radar with moderate sensitivity. Although the 150-km echoes are being regularly used for studying low latitude electrodynamics, it is a bit awkward using them in the scientific work without knowing their origin. This paper is meant to present and discuss new results obtained from Gadanki (13.5o N, 79.2o E, mag. lat. 6.5o N), India to elucidate the underlying physical processes, not considered before. Two new findings, one obtained during the passage of a solar eclipse and another linked with the intermediate layer type descending properties of 150-km echoes, clearly indicate the role of electron density gradient in generating the irregularities responsible for the 150-km radar echoes, not envisioned before. Given the fact that Gadanki is located at magnetically low latitude, it is proposed that the descending echoing layers are produced by interchange instability on the gradient of daytime descending ion layer formed by meridional wind shear associated with tidal/gravity waves quite similar to that observed during nighttime. Comparative anatomy of daytime 150-km echoes and nighttime intermediate layer echoes will also be presented and discussed in an effort to have a deeper understanding on the underlying instability processes.

    9. Influence of an Enforced Fast Start on 10-km-Running Performance.

      PubMed

      do Carmo, Everton C; Barroso, Renato; Renfree, Andrew; Gil, Saulo; Tricoli, Valmor

      2016-09-01

      The effects of an enforced fast start on long-distance performance are controversial and seem to depend on the athlete's capacity to delay and tolerate metabolic disruption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an enforced start on 10-km-running performance and the influence of the some physiological and performance variables on the ability to tolerate an enforced fast start during the running. Fifteen moderately trained runners performed two 10-km time trials (TTs): free pacing (FP-TT) and fast start (FS-TT). During FS-TT, speed during the first kilometer was 6% higher than in FP-TT. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), peak velocity (PV), velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max), ventilatory threshold, and running economy at 10 and 12 km/h and FP-TT average velocity (AV-10 km) were individually determined. There were no differences between FP-TT and FS-TT performance (45:01 ± 4:08 vs 45:11 ± 4:46 min:s, respectively, P = .4). Eight participants improved (+2.2%) their performance and were classified as positive responders (PR) and 7 decreased (-3.3%) performance and were classified as negative responders (NR). Running speed was significantly higher for PR between 6 and 9.2 km (P < .05) during FS-TT. In addition, PR presented higher PV (P = .02) and vVO2max (P = .01) than NR, suggesting that PV and vVO2max might influence the ability to tolerate a fast-start strategy. In conclusion, there was an individual response to the enforced fast-start strategy during 10-km running, and those who improved performance also presented higher vVO2max and PV, suggesting a possible association between these variables and response to the strategy adopted.

    10. Effects of 200 km propagation on Florida lightning return stroke electric fields

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Uman, M. A.; Swanberg, C. E.; Tiller, J. A.; Lin, Y. T.; Krider, E. P.

      1976-01-01

      The electric fields produced by lightning return strokes near Kennedy Space Center, Florida, have been measured simultaneously at distances of about 5 to 25 km and about 200 km. Detailed records of the first 12 microsec of waveforms from four strokes are presented, as well as data on the initial field risetimes for 58 first and 92 subsequent strokes. The mean field risetime measured between the 10 to 90% points was about 1 microsec at the close station and about 2 microsec at the distant one.

    11. LES Modeling of Lateral Dispersion in the Ocean on Scales of 10 m to 10 km

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2015-10-20

      Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/07/2010 – 06/06/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LES Modeling of Lateral Dispersion in the Ocean on Scales of 10...ocean on scales of 0.1-10 km that can be implemented in larger- scale ocean models. These parameterizations will incorporate the effects of local...Distribution approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Final Report LES Modeling of Lateral Dispersion on Scales of 10 m to 10 km M.-Pascale

    12. One kilometer (1 km) electric solar wind sail tether produced automatically.

      PubMed

      Seppänen, Henri; Rauhala, Timo; Kiprich, Sergiy; Ukkonen, Jukka; Simonsson, Martin; Kurppa, Risto; Janhunen, Pekka; Hæggström, Edward

      2013-09-01

      We produced a 1 km continuous piece of multifilament electric solar wind sail tether of μm-diameter aluminum wires using a custom made automatic tether factory. The tether comprising 90,704 bonds between 25 and 50 μm diameter wires is reeled onto a metal reel. The total mass of 1 km tether is 10 g. We reached a production rate of 70 m/24 h and a quality level of 1‰ loose bonds and 2‰ rebonded ones. We thus demonstrated that production of long electric solar wind sail tethers is possible and practical.

    13. Results and simulation of the prototype detection unit of KM3NeT-ARCA

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hugon, C. M. F.

      2017-03-01

      KM3NeT-ARCA is a deep sea high energy neutrino detector. A detection unit prototype was deployed in the future KM3NeT-ARCA deep-sea site, off of the Sicilian coast. This detection unit is composed of a line of 3 digital optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes on each one. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. The results of the calibration of this detection unit and its simulation are presented and discussed.

    14. KM3NeT - ORCA: measuring the neutrino mass ordering in the Mediterranean

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kouchner, Antoine

      2016-05-01

      ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss) is the low-energy branch of KM3NeT, the underwater Cherenkov neutrino detector in the Mediterranean. Its primary goal is to resolve the long-standing unsolved question of the neutrino mass ordering by measuring matter oscillation effects in atmospheric neutrinos. To be deployed at the French KM3NeT site, ORCA’s multi-PMT optical modules will exploit the excellent optical properties of deep seawater to reconstruct cascade and track events with a few GeV of energy. This contribution reviews the methods and technology, and discusses the current expected performances.

    15. Appraising the reliability of converted wavefield imaging: application to USArray imaging of the 410-km discontinuity

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Liu, Xin; Pavlis, Gary L.

      2013-03-01

      We develop a generic method to appraise the reliability of wavefield imaging methods and use it to validate some novel observations on the 410-km discontinuity. The core concept of the error appraisal method is to produce a simulated data set that replicates the geometry of the real data. Here we implemented two simulation methods: (1) flat layer primary P to S conversions, and (2) a point source scattering model for P to S conversion data based on the Born approximation and ray theory propagators. We show how the approach can be extended for any simulation algorithm. We apply this new approach to appraise recent results using a 3-D, three-component P to S conversion imaging method applied to data collected by the USArray. Multiple metrics show that the amplitude of P to S converted energy scattered from the 410-km discontinuity varies by 18 dB with a systematically lower amplitude in an irregular band running from Idaho through northern Arizona. In addition, we observe strong lateral changes in the ratio of amplitudes recovered on the radial versus the transverse component. We compute point resolution functions and a checkerboard test to demonstrate we can reliably recover relative amplitudes with a lateral scale of the order of 200 km and a vertical scale of approximately 10 km. Irregular coverage locally distorts the amplitudes recovered in the checkerboard, but a 156 km scale checkerboard pattern is recovered. Flat layer simulations show we can recover relative amplitudes to within a range of 1 dB and the reconstructed transverse to radial amplitude is everywhere less than 0.1. A model with north-south oriented ridges with a 3° wavelength and 12.5 km amplitude shows of the order of ±6 dB amplitude variations and small, but clear correlation of the transverse/radial amplitude ratio topography in the model. Finally, we model the 410-km discontinuity as a rough surface characterized by variations in amplitude and depth derived from the USArray data. The rough

    16. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Cioletti, Louis

      2010-01-01

      Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

    17. Molecular oxygen measurements at 200 km from AE-D near winter solstice, 1975

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kayser, D. C.; Potter, W. E.

      1976-01-01

      Utilizing the fly-through mode, the open source neutral mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer-D (AE-D) has measured O2 densities, as well as N2 densities and in situ neutral temperatures, at midmorning during winter solstice over the latitude range 90 degrees S to 90 degrees N. The expected seasonal variation in N2 was found at 200 km together with a more complex behavior in molecular oxygen than might be expected from a diffusive equilibrium model with constant lower boundary values. Under geomagnetically quiet conditions the equatorial 200 km value of O2 was about 1.7 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm. A local maximum in the 200 km O2 densities was found near 70 degrees N, where an average quiet time value was 2.5 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm, implying a 120 km density of 8.3 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm. The in situ temperature measurements confirm the presence of higher temperatures near 70 degrees N latitude, even during geomagnetically quiet conditions.

    18. SMOS disaggregated soil moisture product at 1 km resolution: processor overview and first validation results

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission provides surface soil moisture (SM) maps at a mean resolution of ~50 km. However, agricultural applications (irrigation, crop monitoring) and some hydrological applications (floods and modeling of small basins) require higher resolution SM...

    19. The extra vector abeyance (EVA) mechanism as the origin of the KM matrix

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kelley, S.; Lopez, Jorge L.; Nanopoulos, D. V.

      1991-06-01

      We examine a general mechanism whereby an extra vector-like quark of mass Meva generates realistic quark mixing angles from otherwise flavor diagonal quark Yukawa matrices. For scales above Meva the vector-like quark is manifest, while the Yukawa matrices are diagonal, i.e., the KM matrix is held in abeyance. Conversely, for scales below Meva the vector-like quark is in an abeyant state, while the KM matrix is manifest. This mechanism is naturally realized in many superstring models. In fact, knowledge of the Yukawa matrices at the string scale, together with suitable renormalization group scaling, unambigously determines the quark mass ratios and the KM angles at low energies. Conversely, these low-energy observables may be used to determine asyet-unknown parameters in the string model. We explicitly apply the EVA mechanism to a toy model inspired by the structure of the flipped SU (5) string model, to illustrate how this mechanism may be used to predict some of the KM angles. We also outline the procedure to be followed in a realistic calculation in the flipped SU (5) string model. Supported in part by DOE grant DE-AS05-81ER40039.

    20. The Effect of a 20 km Run on Appetite Regulation in Long Distance Runners

      PubMed Central

      Kojima, Chihiro; Ishibashi, Aya; Ebi, Kumiko; Goto, Kazushige

      2016-01-01

      The purpose of the present study was to investigate appetite-related hormonal responses and energy intake after a 20 km run in trained long distance runners. Twenty-three male long-distance runners completed two trials: either an exercise trial consisting of a 20 km outdoor run (EX) or a control trial with an identical period of rest (CON). Blood samples were collected to determine plasma acylated ghrelin, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and other hormonal and metabolite concentrations. Energy intake during a buffet test meal was also measured 30 min after the exercise or rest periods. Although plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were significantly decreased after the 20 km run (p < 0.05), plasma PYY3-36 did not change significantly following exercise. Absolute energy intake during the buffet test meal in EX (1325 ± 55 kcal) was significantly lower than that in CON (1529 ± 55 kcal), and there was a relatively large degree of individual variability for exercise-induced changes in energy intake (−40.2% to 12.8%). However, exercise-induced changes in energy intake were not associated with plasma acylated ghrelin or PYY3-36 responses. The results demonstrated that a 20 km run significantly decreased plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations and absolute energy intake among well-trained long distance runners. PMID:27792164

    1. Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

      SciTech Connect

      Calvo, David [IFIC. Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

      2014-11-18

      The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price calibration device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.

    2. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT-Italia towers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Favaro, M.; Chiarusi, T.; Giacomini, F.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.

      2016-04-01

      KM3NeT-Italia is an INFN project supported with Italian PON fundings for building the core of the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. The detector, made of 700 10'' Optical Modules (OMs) lodged along 8 vertical structures called towers, will be deployed starting from fall 2015 at the KM3NeT-Italy site, about 80 km off Capo Passero, Italy, 3500 m deep. The all data to shore approach is used to reduce the complexity of the submarine detector, demanding for an on-line trigger integrated in the data acquisition system running in the shore station, called TriDAS. Due to the large optical background in the sea from 40K decays and bioluminescence, the throughput from the underwater detector can range up to 30 Gbps. This puts strong constraints on the design and performances of the TriDAS and of the related network infrastructure. In this contribution the technology behind the implementation of the TriDAS infrastructure is reviewed, focusing on the relationship between the various components and their performances. The modular design of the TriDAS, which allows for its scalability up to a larger detector than the 8-tower configuration is also discussed.

    3. Enabling Grid Computing resources within the KM3NeT computing model

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Filippidis, Christos

      2016-04-01

      KM3NeT is a future European deep-sea research infrastructure hosting a new generation neutrino detectors that - located at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea - will open a new window on the universe and answer fundamental questions both in particle physics and astrophysics. International collaborative scientific experiments, like KM3NeT, are generating datasets which are increasing exponentially in both complexity and volume, making their analysis, archival, and sharing one of the grand challenges of the 21st century. These experiments, in their majority, adopt computing models consisting of different Tiers with several computing centres and providing a specific set of services for the different steps of data processing such as detector calibration, simulation and data filtering, reconstruction and analysis. The computing requirements are extremely demanding and, usually, span from serial to multi-parallel or GPU-optimized jobs. The collaborative nature of these experiments demands very frequent WAN data transfers and data sharing among individuals and groups. In order to support the aforementioned demanding computing requirements we enabled Grid Computing resources, operated by EGI, within the KM3NeT computing model. In this study we describe our first advances in this field and the method for the KM3NeT users to utilize the EGI computing resources in a simulation-driven use-case.

    4. Magnetic Anomalies of the Fennoscandian Shield on a 2km resolution grid

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Korhonen, Juha V.; Aaro, Sven; Reidar Skilbrei, Jan; All, Tarmo

      2010-05-01

      Joint magnetic anomaly grid of the Fennoscandian Shield was released 2002, smoothed and used as data for the WDMAM2007. In comparison with MF5 this grid showed superior characteristics to other sets. The data will be released as a 2 km resolution grid for the WDMAM2011 with eventual updates of anomaly levels.

    5. Global 4 km resolution monthly gridded Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) data set derived from FLUXNET2015

      SciTech Connect

      Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Hargrove, William W.; Collier, Nathan

      2016-08-01

      This data set contain global gridded surfaces of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) at 2 arc minute (approximately 4 km) spatial resolution monthly for the period of 2000-2014 derived from FLUXNET2015 (released July 12, 2016) observations using a representativeness based upscaling approach.

    6. Hypervelocity impact testing above 10 km/s of advanced orbital debris shields

      SciTech Connect

      Christiansen, E.L.; Crews, J.L.; Kerr, J.H.; Chhabildas, L.C.

      1996-05-01

      NASA has developed enhanced performance shields to improve the protection of spacecraft from orbital debris and meteoroid impacts. One of these enhanced shields includes a blanket of Nextel{trademark} ceramic fabric and Kevlar{trademark} high strength fabric that is positioned midway between an aluminum bumper and the spacecraft pressure wall. As part of the evaluation of this new shielding technology, impact data above 10 km/sec has been obtained by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) from the Sandia National Laboratories HVL ({open_quotes}hypervelocity launcher{close_quotes}) and the Southwest Research Institute inhibited shaped charge launcher (ISCL). The HVL launches flyer-plates in the velocity range of 10 to 15 km/s while the ISCL launches hollow cylinders at {approximately}11.5km/s. The {gt}10km/s experiments are complemented by hydrocode analysis and light-gas gun testing at the JSC Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (HIT-F) to assess the effects of projectile shape on shield performance. Results from the testing and analysis indicate that the Nextel{trademark}/Kevlar{trademark} shield provides superior protection performance compared to an all-aluminum shield alternative. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

    7. Spatial correlation of large historical earthquakes and moderate shocks >10 km deep in eastern North America

      SciTech Connect

      Acharya, H.

      1980-12-01

      A good spatial correlation is noted between historical earthquakes with epicentral intensity > or =VIII (MM) and recent moderate size earthquakes with focal depth >10 km, suggesting that large historical earthquakes in eastern North America may be associated with deep-seated faults

    8. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

      PubMed

      Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

      2016-09-01

      The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P < 0.05). The results suggest that running in minimalist shoes improves running economy and 5-km running performance.

    9. MISR 17.6 KM Gridded Cloud Motion Vectors: Overview and Assessment

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mueller, Kevin; Garay, Michael; Moroney, Catherine; Jovanovic, Veljko

      2012-01-01

      The MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) instrument on the Terra satellite has been retrieving cloud motion vectors (CMVs) globally and almost continuously since early in 2000. In February 2012 the new MISR Level 2 Cloud product was publicly released, providing cloud motion vectors at 17.6 km resolution with improved accuracy and roughly threefold increased coverage relative to the 70.4 km resolution vectors of the current MISR Level 2 Stereo product (which remains available). MISR retrieves both horizontal cloud motion and height from the apparent displacement due to parallax and movement of cloud features across three visible channel (670nm) camera views over a span of 200 seconds. The retrieval has comparable accuracy to operational atmospheric motion vectors from other current sensors, but holds the additional advantage of global coverage and finer precision height retrieval that is insensitive to radiometric calibration. The MISR mission is expected to continue operation for many more years, possibly until 2019, and Level 2 Cloud has the possibility of being produced with a sensing-to-availability lag of 5 hours. This report compares MISR CMV with collocated motion vectors from arctic rawinsonde sites, and from the GOES and MODISTerra instruments. CMV at heights below 3 km exhibit the smallest differences, as small as 3.3 m/s for MISR and GOES. Clouds above 3 km exhibit larger differences, as large as 8.9 m/s for MISR and MODIS. Typical differences are on the order of 6 m/s.

    10. Hypervelocity impact testing above 10 km/s of advanced orbital debris shields

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Christiansen, Eric L.; Crews, Jeanne Lee; Kerr, Justin H.; Chhabildas, Lalit C.

      1996-05-01

      NASA has developed enhanced performance shields to improve the protection of spacecraft from orbital debris and meteoroid impacts. One of these enhanced shields includes a blanket of Nextel™ ceramic fabric and Kevlar™ high strength fabric that is positioned midway between an aluminum bumper and the spacecraft pressure wall. As part of the evaluation of this new shielding technology, impact data above 10 km/sec has been obtained by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) from the Sandia National Laboratories HVL ("hypervelocity launcher") and the Southwest Research Institute inhibited shaped charge launcher (ISCL). The HVL launches flyer-plates in the velocity range of 10 to 15 km/s while the ISCL launches hollow cylinders at ˜11.5 km/s. The >10 km/s experiments are complemented by hydrocode analysis and light-gas gun testing at the JSC Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (HIT-F) to assess the effects of projectile shape on shield performance. Results from the testing and analysis indicate that the Nextel™/Kevlar™ shield provides superior protection performance compared to an all-aluminum shield alternative.

    11. The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km.

      PubMed

      Ye, K; Cong, B; Ye, D

      2000-10-12

      Determining the depth to which continental lithosphere can be subducted into the mantle at convergent plate boundaries is of importance for understanding the long-term growth of supercontinents as well as the dynamic processes that shape such margins. Recent discoveries of coesite and diamond in regional ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks has demonstrated that continental material can be subducted to depths of at least 120 km (ref. 1), and subduction to depths of 150-300 km has been inferred from garnet peridotites in orogenic UHP belts based on several indirect observations. But continental subduction to such depths is difficult to trace directly in natural UHP metamorphic crustal rocks by conventional mineralogical and petrological methods because of extensive late-stage recrystallization and the lack of a suitable pressure indicator. It has been predicted from experimental work, however, that solid-state dissolution of pyroxene should occur in garnet at depths greater than 150 km (refs 6-8). Here we report the observation of high concentrations of clinopyroxene, rutile and apatite exsolutions in garnet within eclogites from Yangkou in the Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, China. We interpret these data as resulting from the high-pressure formation of pyroxene solid solutions in subducted continental material. Appropriate conditions for the Na2O concentrations and octahedral silicon observed in these samples are met at depths greater than 200 km.

    12. Temperature minima in the average thermal structure of the middle mesosphere (70 - 80 km) from analysis of 40- to 92-km SME global temperature profiles

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Clancy, R. Todd; Rusch, David W.; Callan, Michael T.

      1994-01-01

      Global temperatures have been derived for the upper stratosphere and mesosphere from analysis of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) limb radiance profiles. The SME temperature represent fixed local time observations at 1400 - 1500 LT, with partial zonal coverage of 3 - 5 longitudes per day over the 1982-1986 period. These new SME temperatures are compared to the COSPAR International Ionosphere Reference Atmosphere 86 (CIRA 86) climatology (Fleming et al., 1990) as well as stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS); Barnett and Corney, 1984), National Meteorological Center (NMC); (Gelman et al., 1986), and individual lidar and rocket observations. Significant areas of disagreement between the SME and CIRA 86 mesospheric temperatures are 10 K warmer SME temperatures at altitudes above 80 km. The 1981-1982 SAMS temperatures are in much closer agreement with the SME temperatures between 40 and 75 km. Although much of the SME-CIRA 86 disagreement probably stems from the poor vertical resolution of the observations comprising the CIRA 86 modelm, some portion of the differences may reflect 5- to 10-year temporal variations in mesospheric temperatures. The CIRA 86 climatology is based on 1973-1978 measurements. Relatively large (1 K/yr) 5- to 10-year trends in temperatures as functions of longitude, latitude, and altitude have been observed for both the upper stratosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989a) and mesosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989b; Hauchecorne et al., 1991). The SME temperatures also exhibit enhanced amplitudes for the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of upper mesospheric temperatures at low latitudes, which are not evident in the CIRA 86 climatology. The so-called mesospheric `temperature inversions' at wintertime midlatitudes, which have been observed by ground-based lidar (Hauschecorne et al., 1987) and rocket in situ measurements (Schmidlin, 1976), are shown to be a climatological aspect of the mesosphere, based on the SME observations.

    13. The Caetano Caldera, Nevada: 5 km Thickness of Intracaldera Rhyolite Ignimbrite and Co-Magmatic Batholith

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      John, D. A.; Henry, C. D.; Colgan, J. P.

      2008-12-01

      The Caetano caldera in northern Nevada is cut by Miocene extensional faults that extraordinarily expose a complete, thick (>4 km) intracaldera rhyolite ignimbrite (Caetano Tuff) and underlying cogenetic granitic plutons in tilted blocks reaching to >5 km of paleodepth. The caldera contains (1) a 1-km-thick upper unit of Caetano Tuff composed of multiple, thin cooling units and interbedded sedimentary rocks, (2) a >3.5- km-thick lower compound cooling unit of Caetano Tuff, and (3) 5 shallowly emplaced (locally <1 km) granite porphyries consisting of the Carico Lake pluton and slightly older, altered intrusions that are exposed over >50 km2. Ten sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages from the stratigraphically lowest Caetano Tuff through the youngest shallow pluton are indistinguishable at 33.8 Ma, indicating that eruption of >1000 km3 of rhyolite tuff, caldera collapse, magma resurgence, and pluton emplacement occurred in <0.1 Ma. The compositionally zoned, crystal-rich Caetano Tuff (~40 vol % phenocrysts) and Carico Lake pluton (60% phenocrysts) contain quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, biotite, Fe-Ti oxide ± hornblende. Allanite, apatite, and zircon are common accessories; sphene is absent. The lower ~3000 m of the lower Caetano Tuff is a monotonous high-silica rhyolite (76-77% SiO2) with relatively flat chondrite- normalized REE patterns (La/Lun~5) and a pronounced negative Eu anomaly. The uppermost ~500 m of the lower Caetano Tuff, upper Caetano Tuff, and Carico Lake pluton all have lower SiO2 (71-75%) and steep REE patterns (La/Lun~30), are enriched in LREE, Ba, Sr, and Zr, lack Eu anomalies, and are depleted in HREE relative to the bulk of the lower Caetano Tuff. These distinct chemical trends suggest two different magma batches were tapped during ignimbrite eruption and that the Carico Lake pluton represents residual magma from the reservoir that fed the later parts of the eruption. Field, geochemical, and geochronologic data prove a shallow batholith-scale magma reservoir

    14. Performance of Whipple Shields at Impact Velocities above 9 km/s

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Piekutowski, Andrew J.; Poormon, Kevin L.

      2009-01-01

      Whipple shields were first proposed as a means of protecting spacecraft from the impact of micrometeoroids in 1947 [1] and are currently in use as micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields on modern spacecraft. In the intervening years, the function of the thin bumper used to shatter or melt threatening particles has been augmented and enhanced by the use of various types and configurations of intermediate layers of various materials. All shield designs serve to minimize the threat of a spall failure or perforation of the main wall of the spacecraft as a result of the impact of the fragments. With increasing use of Whipple shields, various ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for guiding the design and estimating the performance of shield systems have been developed. Perhaps the best known and most used are the "new" modified Cour-Palais (Christiansen) equations [2]. These equations address the three phases of impact: (1) ballistic (<3 km/s), where the projectile is moving too slowly to fragment and essentially penetrates as an intact projectile; (2) shatter (3 to 7 km/s), where the projectile fragments at impact and forms an expanding cloud of debris fragments; and (3) melt/vaporization (>7 km/s), where the projectile melts or vaporizes at impact. The performance of Whipple shields and the adequacy of the BLEs have been examined for the first two phases using the results of impact tests obtained from two-stage, light-gas gun test firings. Shield performance and the adequacy of the BLEs has not been evaluated in the melt/vaporization phase until now because of the limitations of launchers used to accelerate projectiles with controlled properties to velocities above 7.5 km/s. A three-stage, light-gas gun, developed at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) [3], is capable of launching small, aluminum spheres to velocities above 9 km/s. This launcher was used to evaluate the ballistic performance of two Whipple shield systems, various thermal protection

    15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities of K-M dwarfs (Sperauskas+, 2016)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sperauskas, J.; Bartasiute, S.; Boyle, R. P.; Deveikis, V.; Raudeliunas, S.; Upgren, A. R.

      2016-09-01

      We analyzed nearly 3300 measurements of radial velocities for 1049 K-M dwarfs, that we obtained during the past decade with a CORAVEL-type instrument, with a primary emphasis on detecting and eliminating from kinematic calculations the spectroscopic binaries and binary candidates. We present the catalog of our observations of radial velocities for 959 stars which are not suspected of velocity variability. Of these, 776 stars are from the MCC sample and 173 stars are K-M dwarfs from the CNS4. The catalog consists of two parts: Table 2 lists the mean radial velocities, and Table 2a contains individual measurements. Our radial velocities agree with the best published standard stars to within 0.7km/s in precision. Combining these and supplementary radial-velocity data with Hipparcos/Tycho-2 astrometry (Table 4 summarizes input observational data) we calculated the space velocity components and parameters of the galactic orbits in a three-component model potential by Johnston K.V. et al. (1995ApJ...451..598J) for a total of 1088 K-M dwarfs (Table 5), that we use for kinematical analysis and for the identification of possible candidate members of nearby stellar kinematic groups. We identified 146 stars as possible candidate members of the classical moving groups and known or suspected subgroups (Table 7). We show that the distributions of space-velocity components, orbital eccentricities, and maximum distances from the Galactic plane for nearby K-M dwarfs are consistent with the presence of young, intermediate-age and old populations of the thin disk and a small fraction (3%) of stars with the thick disk kinematics. (7 data files).

    16. Effects of wearing a cooling vest during the warm-up on 10-km run performance.

      PubMed

      Stannard, Alicja B; Brandenburg, Jason P; Pitney, William A; Lukaszuk, Judith M

      2011-07-01

      The purpose of this study was to examine whether wearing a cooling vest during an active warm-up would improve the 10-km time trial (TT) performance of endurance runners. Seven male runners completed 3 10-km TTs (1 familiarization and 2 experimental) on a treadmill after a 30-minute warm-up. During the warm-up of the experimental TTs, runners wore either a t-shirt (control [C]) or a cooling vest (V), the order of which was randomized. No differences were found between the C and V conditions for the 10-km TT times (2,533 ± 144 and 2,543 ± 149 seconds, respectively) (p = 0.746) or any of the 2-km split times. Heart rate (HR) at the start of the TT equaled 90 ± 17 b·min for C and 94 ± 16 b·min for V. The HR peaked at 184 ± 20 b·min in C and 181 ± 19 b·min in V. At the start of the TT Tc was 37.65 ± .72°C in C and 37.29 ± .73°C in V (p = 0.067). In C, Tc gradually increased until 39.34 ± 0.43°C while in V is reached 39.18 ± 0.72°C (p = 0.621). Although rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and Thermal sensation (TS) increased during both experimental TTs, there were no differences between V and C. Findings suggest wearing a cooling vest during a warm-up does not improve 10-km performance. The use of cooling vests during the warm-up did not produce any physiological (HR and Tc) or psychological (RPE and TS) benefit, perhaps accounting for the lack of improvement.

    17. Low-velocity zone atop the 410-km seismic discontinuity in the northwestern United States.

      PubMed

      Song, Teh-Ru Alex; Helmberger, Don V; Grand, Stephen P

      2004-02-05

      The seismic discontinuity at 410 km depth in the Earth's mantle is generally attributed to the phase transition of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 (refs 1, 2) from the olivine to wadsleyite structure. Variation in the depth of this discontinuity is often taken as a proxy for mantle temperature owing to its response to thermal perturbations. For example, a cold anomaly would elevate the 410-km discontinuity, because of its positive Clapeyron slope, whereas a warm anomaly would depress the discontinuity. But trade-offs between seismic wave-speed heterogeneity and discontinuity topography often inhibit detailed analysis of these discontinuities, and structure often appears very complicated. Here we simultaneously model seismic refracted waves and scattered waves from the 410-km discontinuity in the western United States to constrain structure in the region. We find a low-velocity zone, with a shear-wave velocity drop of 5%, on top of the 410-km discontinuity beneath the northwestern United States, extending from southwestern Oregon to the northern Basin and Range province. This low-velocity zone has a thickness that varies from 20 to 90 km with rapid lateral variations. Its spatial extent coincides with both an anomalous composition of overlying volcanism and seismic 'receiver-function' observations observed above the region. We interpret the low-velocity zone as a compositional anomaly, possibly due to a dense partial-melt layer, which may be linked to prior subduction of the Farallon plate and back-arc extension. The existence of such a layer could be indicative of high water content in the Earth's transition zone.

    18. The Relationship of Foot Strike Pattern, Shoe Type, and Performance in a 50-km Trail Race.

      PubMed

      Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M

      2016-06-01

      Recent "in-race" studies have observed the foot strike patterns of runners in traditional road marathon races. However, similar studies have not been conducted for trail runners, which have been estimated to account for 11% of all runners. The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the rear-foot strike (RFS) prevalence in a 50-km trail race and compare with traditional road marathon races; (b) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike and sex in a 50-km trail race; and (c) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike, shoe type, and performance in a 50-km trail race. One hundred sixty-five runners were videotaped at the 8.1-km mark of the 2012 Ice Age Trail 50-km race. Foot strike analysis revealed RFS prevalence of 85.1%, less than previously reported in traditional road marathon races. There was no relationship found between sex and foot strike (p = 0.60). A significant effect of shoe type on foot strike (RFS was less common among runners in minimalist shoes, p < 0.01) and performance (faster runners were more likely to be wearing minimalist shoes, p < 0.01) was observed; however, no association between foot strike and performance was observed (p = 0.83). This study suggests that most trail runners, albeit less than road runners, prefer an RFS pattern, which is accompanied by biomechanical consequences unique from a non-RFS pattern and, therefore, likely carries a unique injury profile. In addition, the findings in this study suggest that minimalist shoes may represent a reasonable training modification to improve performance.

    19. Full 40 km crustal reflection seismic datasets in several Indonesian basins

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Dinkelman, M. G.; Granath, J. W.; Christ, J. M.; Emmet, P. A.; Bird, D. E.

      2010-12-01

      Long offset, deep penetration regional 2D seismic data sets have been acquired since 2002 by GX Technology in a number of regions worldwide (www.iongeo.com/Data_Libraries/Spans/). Typical surveys consist of 10+ lines located to image specific critical aspects of basin structure. Early surveys were processed to 20 km, but more recent ones have extended to 40-45 km from 16 sec records. Pre-stack time migration is followed by pre-stack depth migration using gravity and in some cases magnetic modeling to constrain the velocity structure. We illustrate several cases in the SE Asian and Australasian area. In NatunaSPAN™ two generations of inversion can be distinguished, one involving Paleogene faults with Neogene inversion and one involving strike slip-related uplift in the West Natuna Basin. Crustal structure in the very deep Neogene East Natuna Basin has also been imaged. The JavaSPAN™ program traced Paleogene sediments onto oceanic crust of the Flores Sea, thus equating back arc spreading there to the widespread Eocene extension. It also imaged basement in the Makassar Strait beneath as much as 6 km of Cenozoic sedimentary rocks that accumulated Eocene rift basins (the North and South Makassar basins) on the edge of Sundaland, the core of SE Asia. The basement is seismically layered: a noisy upper crust overlies a prominent 10 km thick transparent zone, the base of which marks another change to slightly noisier reflectivity. Eocene normal faults responsible for the opening of extensional basins root in the top of the transparent layer which may be Moho or a brittle-ductile transition within the extended continental crust. Of particular significance is the first image of thick Precambrian basins comprising the bulk of continental crust under the Arafura Sea in the ArafuraSPAN™ program. Four lines some 1200 km long located between Australia and New Guinea on the Arafura platform image a thin Phanerozoic section overlying a striking Precambrian basement composed of

    20. Extending MGS-TES Temperature Retrievals in the Martian Atmosphere up to 90 Km: Retrieval Approach and Results

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; Rezac, L.; Smith, M. D.

      2015-01-01

      This paper describes a methodology for performing a temperature retrieval in the Martian atmosphere in the 50-90 km altitude range using spectrally integrated 15 micrometers C02 limb emissions measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), the thermal infrared spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We demonstrate that temperature retrievals from limb observations in the 75-90 km altitude range require accounting for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) populations of the C02(v2) vibrational levels. Using the methodology described in the paper, we have retrieved approximately 1200 individual temperature profiles from MGS TES limb observations in the altitude range between 60 and 90 km. 0ur dataset of retrieved temperature profiles is available for download in supplemental materials of this paper. The temperature retrieval uncertainties are mainly caused by radiance noise, and are estimated to be about 2 K at 60 km and below, 4 K at 70 km, 7 K at 80 km, 10 K at 85 km, and 20 K at 90 km. We compare the retrieved profiles to Mars Climate Database temperature profiles and find good qualitative agreement. Quantitatively, our retrieved profiles are in general warmer and demonstrate strong variability with the following values for bias and standard deviations (in brackets) compared to the Martian Year 24 dataset of the Mars Climate Database: 6 (+/-20) K at 60 km, 7.5 (+/-25) K at 65 km, 9 (+/-27) K at 70 km, 9.5 (+/-27) K at 75 km, 10 (+/-28) K at 80 km, 11 (+/-29) K at 85 km, and 11.5 (+/-31) K at 90 km. Possible reasons for the positive temperature bias are discussed. carbon dioxide molecular vibrations

    1. Comparison of Two Fluid Replacement Protocols During a 20-km Trail Running Race in the Heat.

      PubMed

      Lopez, Rebecca M; Casa, Douglas J; Jensen, Katherine A; Stearns, Rebecca L; DeMartini, Julie K; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Roti, Melissa W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

      2016-09-01

      Lopez, RM, Casa, DJ, Jensen, K, Stearns, RL, DeMartini, JK, Pagnotta, KD, Roti, MW, Armstrong, LE, and Maresh, CM. Comparison of two fluid replacement protocols during a 20-km trail running race in the heat. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2609-2616, 2016-Proper hydration is imperative for athletes striving for peak performance and safety, however, the effectiveness of various fluid replacement strategies in the field setting is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate how two hydration protocols affect physiological responses and performance during a 20-km trail running race. A randomized, counter-balanced, crossover design was used in a field setting (mean ± SD: WBGT 28.3 ± 1.9° C). Well-trained male (n = 8) and female (n = 5) runners (39 ± 14 years; 175 ± 9 cm; 67.5 ± 11.1 kg; 13.4 ± 4.6% BF) completed two 20-km trail races (5 × 4-km loop) with different water hydration protocols: (a) ad libitum (AL) consumption and (b) individualized rehydration (IR). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Paired t-tests compared pre-race-post-race measures. Main outcome variables were race time, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), fluid consumed, percent body mass loss (BML), and urine osmolality (Uosm). Race times between groups were similar. There was a significant condition × time interaction (p = 0.048) for HR, but TGI was similar between conditions. Subjects replaced 30 ± 14% of their water losses in AL and 64 ± 16% of their losses in IR (p < 0.001). Ad libitum trial experienced greater BML (-2.6 ± 0.5%) compared with IR (-1.3 ± 0.5%; p < 0.001). Pre-race to post-race Uosm differences existed between AL (-273 ± 146 mOsm) and IR (-145 ± 215 mOsm, p = 0.032). In IR, runners drank twice as much fluid than AL during the 20-km race, leading to > 2% BML in AL. Ad libitum drinking resulted in 1.3% greater BML over the 20-km race, which resulted in no thermoregulatory or performance differences from IR.

    2. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

      PubMed Central

      Baum, Klaus; Telford, Richard D; Cunningham, Ross B

      2013-01-01

      Objective Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL®) on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53) was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour−1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour−1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours) the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK) were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful). Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41) compared to the placebo (P < 0.05), the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05). CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05), but trends toward lower CK in the PCSO-524® group, which were also more pronounced in the lesser trained runners, were not statistically significant. Conclusion Pain sensations experienced by distance runners following a 30 km run were reduced by supplementation with the marine oil complex PCSO-524®, an effect which was greater in lesser trained

    3. Experimental High Resolution (3 km) SMAP Soil Moisture Data Fields With Uncertainty Estimates

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Das, N. N.

      2015-12-01

      NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31st, 2015. The objective of the mission is global mapping of surface soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The SMAP spacecraft is in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, and viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of the high-resolution active (radar) and coarse-resolution but high-sensitivity passive (radiometer) L-band observations enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrievals. However, on July 7th, 2015, the SMAP radar encountered an anomaly and is currently inoperable. Efforts are being made to revive the SMAP radar. Due to the present status of the SMAP observatory, nearly ~2.5 months (from the end of In-Orbit-Check April 13th, 2015 to July 7th, 2015) of the SMAP Active Passive product will be available to public through the NASA DAAC at National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The baseline L2_SM_AP product is retrieved soil moisture from the disaggregated/downscaled brightness temperature obtained by merging the coarse-resolution (~36 km) radiometer brightness temperature data and the high-resolution (~3 km) radar backscatter data. The baseline product is intermediate scale 9 km global soil moisture information. Experimentally, a much higher resolution global surface soil moisture data set is also produced at 3 km. This experimental product covering the 2.5 Spring/Summer months is the focus of this presentation. We specifically focus on the analysis of errors and reliability of this data set. The errors in disaggregated brightness temperatures and the retrived soil moisture estimates are discussed. In the presentation the accuracies of the SMAP L2-SM_AP soil moisture retrievals will be shown using summary comparisons with in

    4. A parametric study of dissociation and ionization models at 12 km/sec

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mitcheltree, R. A.

      1991-01-01

      Thermochemical nonequilibrium-solution dependence on available models for the chemical reaction rates is examined. Solutions from the Kang and Dunn (1973) reaction-rate set, the Park rate set of 1987, and the Park rate set of 1991 are compared. The blunt-nosed, axisymmetric geometry considered is a 60-deg sphere cone with nose radius of 1.07 m and cicular aft skirt. The nonequilibrium test case is 12 km/sec entry into the earth's atmosphere at 80 km altitude. The model variations are implemented into the Langley aerothermodynamics upwind relaxation algorithm code. While variations in the reaction rates have no effect on the surface pressure distribution and little effect on the convective heating, the effect on degree of ionization and radiative heating can be a factor of three.

    5. Projectile and rail launcher design analysis for electromagnetic propulsion to velocities exceeding 10 km/s

      SciTech Connect

      Buckingham, A.C.

      1981-02-24

      Hypersonic projectile launch was achieved using thrust exerted by an expanding electromagnetic field acting on the projectile base. Previous designs were confined to simple parallel-opposing flat rails. The rails carried the induction current used to launch rectangular projectiles. The projectiles weighed up to several grams and were launched at nearly 10 km/s. Here, a revised design for the launcher and projectiles using a more conventional cylindrical bore is described. Projectile spin-stabilization was considered together with the associated added-stress loads to projectile and launcher. In addition, both the design of the projectile configuration and materials capable of withstanding earth orbital, earth- and solar-system-escape launch loads, aerodynamic loads, and ablation and erosion penalties were studied. Projectile masses of ten to several hundred kilograms and launch speeds from 20 to 50 km/s are included in the analysis and discussion.

    6. Physical Contact between the +20 km s-1 Cloud and the Galactic Circumnuclear Disk

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Takekawa, Shunya; Oka, Tomoharu; Tanaka, Kunihiko

      2017-01-01

      We report the discovery of physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an adjacent giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in molecular lines at millimeter wavelength using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. In the position-velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found an emission ``bridge'' connecting the +20 km s-1 cloud (M-0.13-0.08) and the negative longitude extension of the CND. The collision between the +20 km s-1 cloud and the CND may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. This event can promote mass accretion onto the CND and/or into the inner cavity.

    7. Characterization of the 80-mm diameter Hamamatsu PMTs for the KM3NeT project

      SciTech Connect

      Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Classen, L.; Reubelt, J.; Peek, H.; Visser, E.; Samtleben, D.; Kalekin, Oleg Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

      2014-11-18

      The optical module designed for the KM3NeT project consists of 31 photomultipliers of 3-inch diameter housed into a 17-inch diameter glass sphere. A proposed photomultiplier was the R12199-02 Hamamatsu 80-mm diameter. 203 of such PMTs have been delivered from Hamamatsu and tested by the KM3NeT groups of NIKHEF-Amsterdam, ECAP-Erlangen and INFN-Catania. Tests have been performed to measure the main parameters, such as gain, transit time spread, dark pulses rate, fraction of spurious pulses, quantum efficiency and effective photocathode size. The main results matched with the requirements of the project. Methods and results are presented in this report.

    8. The Calibration Units of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Baret, B.; Keller, P.; Clark, M. Lindsey

      2016-04-01

      KM3NeT is a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes to be deployed in the Mediterranean Sea that will perform neutrino astronomy and oscillation studies. It consists of three-dimensional arrays of thousands of optical modules that detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles resulting from the interaction of a neutrino with the surrounding medium. The performance of the neutrino telescope relies on the precise timing and positioning calibration of the detector elements. Other environmental conditions which may affect light and sound transmission, such as water temperature and salinity, must also be continuously monitored. This contribution describes the technical design of the first Calibration Unit, to be deployed on the French site as part of KM3NeT Phase 1.

    9. KM3NeT Neutrino Telescope 1-ns Resolution Time To Digital Converters

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Calvo, David; Real, Diego

      2016-04-01

      The KM3NeT collaboration aims the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultiplier of small photocathode area. The main digitization system is composed by 31 Time to Digital Converter channels with 1-ns resolution embedded in a Field Programmable Gate Array. An architecture with low resource occupancy has been chosen allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The 4-oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks working in opposed phases has been used together with an asymmetric FIFO memory. In the present article the architecture and the first results obtained with the Time to Digital Converters are presented.

    10. First results of the KM3NeT multi-PMT DOM

      SciTech Connect

      Michael, Tino; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

      2014-11-18

      The future KM3NeT neutrino telescope will consist of several thousand digital optical modules (DOMs), each of which will be equipped with 31 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). This design has various advantages over the use of one large PMT per optical module, e.g. concerning effective photocathode area per module, improved background suppression and directional reconstruction. Currently, the KM3NeT collaboration is testing a prototype DOM deployed on the instrumentation line of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The DOM has been operational since mid-April 2013. First data are presented and compared to simulation results. The results are very encouraging and indicate that muon identification and a coarse direction estimation are possible event with a single DOM.

    11. The cytotoxic mechanism of karlotoxin 2 (KmTx 2) from Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae)

      PubMed Central

      Deeds, Jonathan R.; Hoesch, Robert E.; Place, Allen R.; Kao, Joseph P.Y.

      2015-01-01

      This study demonstrates that the polyketide toxin karlotoxin 2 (KmTx 2) produced by Karlodinium veneficum, a dinoflagellate associated with fish kills in temperate estuaries worldwide, alters vertebrate cell membrane permeability. Microfluorimetric and electrophysiological measurements were used to determine that vertebrate cellular toxicity occurs through non-selective permeabilization of plasma membranes, leading to osmotic cell lysis. Previous studies showed that KmTx 2 is lethal to fish at naturally-occurring concentrations measured during fish kills, while sub-lethal doses severely damage gill epithelia. This study provides a mechanistic explanation for the association between K. veneficum blooms and fish kills that has long been observed in temperate estuaries worldwide. PMID:25546005

    12. Evaluation of Whipple bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

      SciTech Connect

      Ang, J.A.; Chhabildas, L.C. ); Cour-Palais, B.G. ); Christiansen, E.L.; Crews, J.L. . Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center)

      1991-01-01

      A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts. 7 refs.

    13. Evaluation of Whipple bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

      SciTech Connect

      Ang, J.A.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Cour-Palais, B.G.; Christiansen, E.L.; Crews, J.L.

      1991-12-31

      A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts. 7 refs.

    14. Evaluation of Whipple Bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Ang, J. A.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Cour-Palais, B. G.; Christiansen, E. L.; Crews, J. L.

      1992-01-01

      A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts.

    15. Progress toward a Km-scale neutrino detector in the deep ocean

      SciTech Connect

      Stokstad, R.G.

      1997-11-01

      The best particles for observing distant objects are photons and neutrinos. Because of the neutrino`s weak interaction cross section, detectors suitable for astronomy must be very large and well shielded from cosmic rays. Eventually, a detector with the order of a square km of effective area will be needed for systematic observations of distant point sources such as active galactic nuclei. Prototype detectors are currently being developed at several sites in the ocean, at Lake Baikal, and in Antarctica. This talk summarizes the status of the projects that use the deep ocean for the detector medium and shielding: DUMAND, NESTOR and ANTARES. Technical developments will be needed for a future km-scale detector; progress on one of these, a digital electronic system, is also described.

    16. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Teng-Yun; Yu, Zong-Wen; Liu, Hui; You, Li-Xing; Zhou, Yi-Heng; Chen, Si-Jing; Mao, Yingqiu; Huang, Ming-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Hao; Li, Ming Jun; Nolan, Daniel; Zhou, Fei; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Pan, Jian-Wei

      2016-11-01

      Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) with the decoy-state method negates security threats of both the imperfect single-photon source and detection losses. Lengthening the distance and improving the key rate of quantum key distribution (QKD) are vital issues in practical applications of QKD. Herein, we report the results of MDIQKD over 404 km of ultralow-loss optical fiber and 311 km of a standard optical fiber while employing an optimized four-intensity decoy-state method. This record-breaking implementation of the MDIQKD method not only provides a new distance record for both MDIQKD and all types of QKD systems but also, more significantly, achieves a distance that the traditional Bennett-Brassard 1984 QKD would not be able to achieve with the same detection devices even with ideal single-photon sources. This work represents a significant step toward proving and developing feasible long-distance QKD.

    17. Correlation of the 410 km Discontinuity Low Velocity Layer with Tomographic Wavespeed Variations

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhang, Z.; Dueker, K. G.

      2010-12-01

      The transition zone water-filter model predicts that a hydrous melt layer at the 410-km discontinuity is only actively produced in upwelling region, and does not exist in downwelling region (Bercovici and Karato, 2003). This prediction has been tested by stacking of P-S receiver functions using the RISTRA linear array which crosses west-Texas, New Mexico and Utah. The receiver functions are binned into the NW, SE, SW azimuthal quadrants and stacked to produce well-resolved images of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities. The three receiver function quadrant stack images find a correlation between the occurrence of negative polarity 410-km low velocity layer arrival and the teleseismic body wave velocity tomogram of Schmandt and Humphreys (2010); the 410 low velocity layer arrival is absent where the velocities about the 410 km discontinuity are relatively high and present where the velocities are low. Our finding is consistent with a simple interpretation of the transition zone water filter model which predicts the production of a hydrous melt layer where upflow of sufficiently hydrated transition zone mantle occurs and destruction of a hydrous melt layer where there is downflow. We test this prediction by analyzing the Colorado Rockies Experiment and Seismic Transects (CREST) seismic data which was collected in 2008-2009. This 15 month deployment of 59 CREST stations in tandem with 31 Transportable Array stations yields a total of 161 Mb>5.5 events at 30°-95° distances. The P-S receiver functions are calculated using a multi-channel deconvolution methodology and filtered with a 30-3 s post-deconvolution filter. The receiver function dataset contains about 1800 SV components after RMS, cross-correlation, and visual data quality culling. Common conversion point images are constructed using Pds timing correction from a 3-D upper mantle tomography model (McCarthy and Aster, pers. com.) to account for lateral P/S velocity heterogeneity.

    18. Response of Organic Materials to Hypervelocity Impacts (up to 11.2 km/sec)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bass, D. S.; Murphy, W. M.; Miller, G. P.; Grosch, D. J.; Walker, J. D.; Mullin, A.; Waite, J. H.

      1998-09-01

      It is speculated that organic-rich planetesimals played a role in the origin of life on Earth. However, the mechanism by which organics could have been delivered from space to a planetary surface is difficult to determine. Particularly problematic is the question of the stability of organic material under hypervelocity impact conditions. Although some evidence suggests organic molecules cannot survive impacts from projectile velocities greater than about 10 km/sec [1], other investigators have found that impacts create a favorable environment for post-shock recombination of organic molecules in the plume phase [2, 3]. Understanding the mechanisms involved in delivering organics to a planetary surface remains difficult to assess due to the lack of experimental results of hypervelocity impacts, particularly in the velocity range of tens of km/sec. Organic material preservation and destruction from impact shocks, the synthesis of organics in the post-impact plume environment, and implications of these processes for Earth and Mars can be investigated by launching an inorganic projectile into an analog planetesimal-and-bolide organic-rich target. We explored the pressure and temperature ranges of hypervelocity impacts (11.2 km/sec) through simulations with CTH impact physics computer code. Using an inhibited shaped-charge launcher, we also experimentally determined the response of organic material to hypervelocity impacts. Initial work focused on saturating well-characterized zeolitic tuff with an aqueous solution containing dissolved naphthalene, a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Porosity measurements, thin section, and x-ray diffraction analyses were performed to determine that the tuff is primarily fine-grained clinoptilolite. In order to distinguish between contaminants and compounds generated or destroyed in the impact, we tagged the aqueous component of our target with deuterium. Experimental tests revealed that to first order, naphthalene survived

    19. The effect of skin temperature on performance during a 7.5-km cycling time trial.

      PubMed

      Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein A M

      2012-09-01

      Aerobic exercise performance is seriously compromised in the heat. Possibly, a high skin temperature causes a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-mediated decrease in exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of skin temperature on power output during a 7.5-km cycling time trial. Thirteen well-trained male subjects performed a 7.5-km cycling time trial at 15°C and 50% relative humidity (CONTROL), with radiative heat stress during the time trial, and with (PRECOOL) or without (HEAT) precooling. Heat stress was applied by infrared heaters positioned in front of the cycle ergometer between 1.5 and 6.0 km. Skin, rectal, and pill temperature, power output, heart rate, and RPE were measured during the trial. Despite the lower mean skin temperature at the start of the time trial for PRECOOL compared to HEAT (-2.1 ± 0.7°C; P < 0.01) and CONTROL (-1.8 ± 0.6°C; P < 0.05), and a greater increase in mean skin temperature during the heat stress period for PRECOOL (4.5 ± 1.0°C) and HEAT (3.9 ± 0.8°C) than for CONTROL (-0.3 ± 0.6°C; P < 0.01), no differences in power output were found between HEAT (273 ± 45 W) and CONTROL (284 ± 43 W; P = 0.11) and between HEAT and PRECOOL (266 ± 50 W; P = 0.47). Power output during the time trial was greater for CONTROL than for PRECOOL (P < 0.05). Additionally, no differences were observed in core temperature measures, HR, and RPE. Skin temperature does not affect the selection and modulation of exercise intensity in a 7.5-km cycling time trial.

    20. Coherent scatter radar observations of 150-km echoes and vertical plasma drifts in the Brazilian sector

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Rodrigues, F. S.; de Paula, E. R.; Hysell, D. L.; Chau, J. L.

      2008-12-01

      Coherent scatter echoes coming from the valley region (~150 km altitude) in the equatorial ionosphere during daytime have been detected by the Jicamarca radar in Peru for several decades (Basley, 1945). More recently, it was found that the vertical Doppler shift of these echoes corresponds to the vertical velocity of the F-region background plasma (Kudeki and Fawcett, 1993; Woodman and Villanueva,1995, Chau and Woodman, 2004). Jicamarca now uses observations of 150-km echoes to provide estimates of the diurnal variation of the equatorial vertical plasma drifts in addition to traditional incoherent scatter radar drift measurements. These 150-km echoes have also been observed in other longitude sectors (e.g. Tsunoda and Ecklund,2004; Patra et al., 2008). Additionally, these echoes have also been detected in a semi-routine basis with a small, low-power radar in Sao Luis, Brazil. Initial results of our analysis suggest that vertical plasma drifts can be estimated from these observations. These measurements combined with simultaneous measurements made by the Jicamarca radar and the C/NOFS satellite can help us better understand the day-to-day variability and longitudinal variation of equatorial electric fields. In this talk we will present examples of 150-km echoes observations made with the Sao Luis radar. We will describe how vertical drifts can be estimated from the observations and how the vertical drifts over Sao Luis compare with the drifts measured simultaneously at Jicamarca. These new measurements can provide important new information about the low-latitude electrodynamics, and consequently to the C/NOFS mission.

    1. The prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT detector

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Androulakis, G. C.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Balasi, K.; Band, H.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F.; Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Barrios, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A. M.; Berkien, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Bianucci, S.; Billault, M.; Birbas, A.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bormuth, R.; Bouché, V.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Cereseto, R.; Champion, C.; Château, F.; Chiarusi, T.; Christopoulou, B.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cosquer, A.; Costa, M.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; Deniskina, N.; Destelle, J.-J.; Distefano, C.; Di Capua, F.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durand, D.; Eberl, T.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fermani, P.; Fusco, L. A.; Gajanana, D.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Grasso, R.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Habel, R.; van Haren, H.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hevinga, M. A.; van der Hoek, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hugon, C.; Hößl, J.; Imbesi, M.; James, C. W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jochum, J.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Kappos, E.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Koffeman, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Koopstra, J.; Korporaal, A.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Le Provost, H.; Leismüller, K. P.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manolopoulos, K.; Margiotta, A.; Mariş, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Melis, K. W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Mos, S.; Moudden, Y.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolaou, C.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Popa, V.; Pradier, Th.; Priede, M.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P. A.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spitaleri, A.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Tézier, D.; Théraube, S.; Thompson, L. F.; Timmer, P.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Vernin, P.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Werneke, P.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; van Wooning, R. H. L.; Zonca, E.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Zwart, A.

      2016-02-01

      A prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope has been installed at 3500m depth 80 km offshore the Italian coast. KM3NeT in its final configuration will contain several hundreds of detection units. Each detection unit is a mechanical structure anchored to the sea floor, held vertical by a submerged buoy and supporting optical modules for the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by charged secondary particles emerging from neutrino interactions. This prototype string implements three optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes each. These optical modules were developed by the KM3NeT Collaboration to enhance the detection capability of neutrino interactions. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. Reconstruction of the particle trajectories from the data requires a nanosecond accuracy in the time calibration. A procedure for relative time calibration of the photomultiplier tubes contained in each optical module is described. This procedure is based on the measured coincidences produced in the sea by the ^{40}K background light and can easily be expanded to a detector with several thousands of optical modules. The time offsets between the different optical modules are obtained using LED nanobeacons mounted inside them. A set of data corresponding to 600 h of livetime was analysed. The results show good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the expected optical background and the signal from atmospheric muons. An almost background-free sample of muons was selected by filtering the time correlated signals on all the three optical modules. The zenith angle of the selected muons was reconstructed with a precision of about 3°.

    2. HOURS: Simulation and analysis software for the KM3NeT

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Tsirigotis, A. G.; Leisos, A.; Tzamarias, S. E.

      2017-02-01

      The Hellenic Open University Reconstruction & Simulation (HOURS) software package contains a realistic simulation package of the detector response of very large (km3-scale) underwater neutrino telescopes, including an accurate description of all the relevant physical processes, the production of signal and background as well as several analysis strategies for triggering and pattern recognition, event reconstruction, tracking and energy estimation. HOURS also provides tools for simulating calibration techniques and other studies for estimating the detector sensitivity to several neutrino sources.

    3. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat.

      PubMed

      Berkulo, Meriam A R; Bol, Susan; Levels, Koen; Lamberts, Robert P; Daanen, Hein A M; Noakes, Timothy D

      2016-01-01

      The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and two 40-km cycling TTs hypohydrated. During one hypohydrated trial no fluid was ingested (HYPO), during the other trial ad-libitum water ingestion was allowed (FLUID). Ambient temperature was 35.2 ± 0.2 °C, relative humidity 51 ± 3% and airflow 7 m·s(-1). Body mass (BM) was determined at the start of the test, and before and after the TT. During the TT, power output, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thermal comfort and thirst sensation were measured. Prior to the start of the TT, BM was 1.2% lower in HYPO and FLUID compared to EU. During the TT, BM loss in FLUID was lower compared to EU and HYPO (1.0 ± 0.8%, 2.7 ± 0.2% and 2.6 ± 0.3%, respectively). Hydration status had no effect on power output (EU: 223 ± 32 W, HYPO: 217 ± 39 W, FLUID: 224 ± 35 W), HR, gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, RPE, thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Thirst sensation was higher in HYPO than in EU and FLUID. It was concluded that hypohydration did not adversely affect performance during a 40-km cycling TT in the heat. Therefore, whether or not participants consumed fluid during exercise did not influence their TT performance.

    4. The modelled surface mass balance of the Antarctic Peninsula at 5.5 km horizontal resolution

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      van Wessem, J. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; Reijmer, C. H.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Barrand, N. E.; Thomas, E. R.; Turner, J.; Wuite, J.; Scambos, T. A.; van Meijgaard, E.

      2016-02-01

      This study presents a high-resolution (˜ 5.5 km) estimate of surface mass balance (SMB) over the period 1979-2014 for the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), generated by the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.3 and a firn densification model (FDM). RACMO2.3 is used to force the FDM, which calculates processes in the snowpack, such as meltwater percolation, refreezing and runoff. We evaluate model output with 132 in situ SMB observations and discharge rates from six glacier drainage basins, and find that the model realistically simulates the strong spatial variability in precipitation, but that significant biases remain as a result of the highly complex topography of the AP. It is also clear that the observations significantly underrepresent the high-accumulation regimes, complicating a full model evaluation. The SMB map reveals large accumulation gradients, with precipitation values above 3000 mm we yr-1 in the western AP (WAP) and below 500 mm we yr-1 in the eastern AP (EAP), not resolved by coarser data sets such as ERA-Interim. The average AP ice-sheet-integrated SMB, including ice shelves (an area of 4.1 × 105 km2), is estimated at 351 Gt yr-1 with an interannual variability of 58 Gt yr-1, which is dominated by precipitation (PR) (365 ± 57 Gt yr-1). The WAP (2.4 × 105 km2) SMB (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), where PR is large (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), dominates over the EAP (1.7 × 105 km2) SMB (75 ± 11 Gt yr-1) and PR (84 ± 11 Gt yr-1). Total sublimation is 11 ± 2 Gt yr-1 and meltwater runoff into the ocean is 4 ± 4 Gt yr-1. There are no significant trends in any of the modelled AP SMB components, except for snowmelt that shows a significant decrease over the last 36 years (-0.36 Gt yr-2).

    5. Effect of plasmid pKM101 in ultraviolet irradiated uvr+ and uvr- Escherichia coli.

      PubMed

      Slezáriková, V; Sedliaková, M; Andreeva, I V; Rusina OYu; Skavronskaya, A G

      1992-11-16

      The effect of plasmid pKM101 on UV irradiated excision proficient and excision deficient cells was investigated. The plasmid increased the survival of excision proficient cells while partially inhibiting thymine dimer excision. The frequency of mutations was almost unchanged. In excision deficient cells the effect of the plasmid on survival was less pronounced while cell mutability was increased. Our data indicate that the mucAB genes (carried by the plasmid) influence the two types of cells in a different way.

    6. Complete Genome Sequence of Soil Fungus Aspergillus terreus (KM017963), a Potent Lovastatin Producer

      PubMed Central

      Bhargavi, S. D.; Praveen, V. K.

      2016-01-01

      We report the complete genome of Aspergillus terreus (KM017963), a tropical soil isolate. The genome sequence is 29 Mb, with a G+C content of 51.12%. The genome sequence of A. terreus shows the presence of the complete gene cluster responsible for lovastatin (an anti-cholesterol drug) production in a single scaffold (1.16). PMID:27284150

    7. Compositional mantle layering revealed by slab stagnation at ~1,000 km depth

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ballmer, M. D.; Nakagawa, T.; Schmerr, N. C.; Ritsema, J.; Motoki, M.

      2015-12-01

      Improved constraints on lower-mantle composition are fundamental to understand the accretion, differentiation and thermochemical evolution of our planet. Whereas cosmochemical arguments indicate that lower-mantle rocks may be enriched in Si relative to upper-mantle pyrolite, seismic tomography images suggest whole-mantle convection and efficient mantle mixing. This study reconciles cosmochemical and geophysical constraints using the stagnation of some slab segments at ~1,000 km depth as the key observation. Whereas slab stagnation at ~660 km depth is well explained by the effects of the spinel-perovskite endothermic phase transition, flattening of slabs in the uppermost lower mantle remains poorly understood. Through numerical modeling of subduction, we show that enrichment of the lower mantle in intrinsically dense basaltic heterogeneity can render slabs neutrally buoyant at ~1,000 km depth. Slab stagnation (at ~660 and ~1,000 km depth) as well as unimpeded slab sinking to great depths can only coexist as three different modes of slab sinking behavior on Earth if the basalt fraction is ~8% higher in the lower than in the upper mantle, equivalent to a lower-mantle Mg/Si of ~1.18. Geodynamic models demonstrate that such a moderate compositional gradient can be sustained by compositional filtering of both slabs and plumes as they cross the transition zone, and thus persist over billions of years of whole-mantle convection. Whereas basaltic heterogeneity tends to get trapped in the transition zone and ultimately sink into the lower mantle, harzburgitic heterogeneity tends to rise into the uppermost mantle.

    8. Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model. Part I: Objective Verification at Three Selected Stations

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Manobianco, John; Nutter, Paul

      1998-01-01

      A subjective evaluation of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 29-km (meso-) eta model during the 1996 warm (May-August) and cool (October-January) seasons is described. The overall evaluation assessed the utility of the model for operational weather forecasting by the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron, National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) and NWS Office in Melbourne, FL.

    9. High frequencies are a critical component of aftershock triggering at <100-150 km (Invited)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Felzer, K. R.

      2010-12-01

      Triggered earthquakes at large distances from the mainshock have been observed to closely follow the arrival of ~0.03-0.6 Hz surface waves (Hill, 2008). Triggering by body waves at these distances is generally not observed. At distances closer than 50-100 km, however, surface waves are not well developed and have minimal amplitude. Thus triggering at these distances is presumably accomplished by static stress change and/or by body waves via a mechanism that does not work at further distances. Pollitz (2006) demonstrated that slow slip events on the San Andreas fault do not trigger many aftershocks, suggesting that static stresses alone are not effective triggers, while Felzer and Brodsky (2006) demonstrated that dynamic stresses alone do appear to trigger aftershocks at least in the 10--50 km range. Yet Parsons and Velasco (2009) found that underground nuclear tests, which are essentially dynamic-only sources, do not produce aftershocks at regional distances. Here we demonstrate that Southern California quarry blasts also fail to produce aftershocks. Both nuclear tests and quarry blasts are depleted in high frequency energy in comparison to tectonic earthquakes (Su et al. 1991; Allman et al. 2008). Therefore the observation that both slow slip events and blasts fail to trigger many aftershocks suggests that the missing ingredient of high frequency body wave energy plays a critical role in the triggering process. Quarry blast spectra data and scaling considerations allow the critical triggering frequency to be constrained to > 20-60 Hz. Energy in this frequency band may be expected to persist at depth at least out to 100 km (Leary, 1995). Huc and Main (2003) found that aftershock triggering by global earthquakes follows a continuous decay curve out to ~150 km, suggesting that triggering by high frequency body waves might extend this far. At much further distances the high frequencies are likely attenuated, explaining why only low frequency surface wave triggering

    10. Measurement of Radiative Non-Equilibrium for Air Shocks Between 7-9 Km/s

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.

      2016-01-01

      This paper describes a recent characterization of non-equilibrium radiation for shock speeds between 7 and 9 km/s in the NASA Ames Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) Facility. Data is spectrally resolved from 190- 1450 nm and spatially resolved behind the shock front. Comparisons are made to DPLR/NEQAIR simulations using different modeling options and recommendations for future study are made based on these comparisons.

    11. Simplex-coded BOTDA fiber sensor with 1 m spatial resolution over a 50 km range.

      PubMed

      Soto, Marcelo A; Bolognini, Gabriele; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio; Thévenaz, Luc

      2010-01-15

      In this Letter, we propose the use of optical pulse coding techniques for long-range distributed sensors based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). Compared to conventional BOTDA sensors, optical coding provides a significant sensing-range enhancement, allowing for temperature and strain measurements with 1 m spatial resolution over 50 km of standard single-mode fiber, with an accuracy of 2.2 degrees C/44 muepsilon, respectively.

    12. Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphere.

      PubMed

      Green, Harry W; Chen, Wang-Ping; Brudzinski, Michael R

      2010-10-14

      Strong evidence exists that water is carried from the surface into the upper mantle by hydrous minerals in the uppermost 10-12 km of subducting lithosphere, and more water may be added as the lithosphere bends and goes downwards. Significant amounts of that water are released as the lithosphere heats up, triggering earthquakes and fluxing arc volcanism. In addition, there is experimental evidence for high solubility of water in olivine, the most abundant mineral in the upper mantle, for even higher solubility in olivine's high-pressure polymorphs, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, and for the existence of dense hydrous magnesium silicates that potentially could carry water well into the lower mantle (deeper than 1,000 km). Here we compare experimental and seismic evidence to test whether patterns of seismicity and the stabilities of these potentially relevant hydrous phases are consistent with a wet lithosphere. We show that there is nearly a one-to-one correlation between dehydration of minerals and seismicity at depths less than about 250 km, and conclude that the dehydration of minerals is the trigger of instability that leads to seismicity. At greater depths, however, we find no correlation between occurrences of earthquakes and depths where breakdown of hydrous phases is expected. Lastly, we note that there is compelling evidence for the existence of metastable olivine (which, if present, can explain the distribution of deep-focus earthquakes) west of and within the subducting Tonga slab and also in three other subduction zones, despite metastable olivine being incompatible with even extremely small amounts of water (of the order of 100 p.p.m. by weight). We conclude that subducting slabs are essentially dry at depths below 400 km and thus do not provide a pathway for significant amounts of water to enter the mantle transition zone or the lower mantle.

    13. Albedo Properties of Small (0.5 to 20 km) Main Belt Asteroids

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ryan, Erin L.; Woodward, C. E.

      2010-01-01

      Serendipitous observations of main belt asteroids by the Spitzer Space Telescope have enabled determination of main belt asteroid albedos and diameters for targets as small as 0.5 km (eg., Ryan et al. 2009, AJ, 137, 5134). We have used multi-epoch data at 5.8, 8.0 and 24 microns from the MIPSGAL and Taurus Legacy Surveys to obtain diameters and albedos for a sample of approximately 2000 main belt asteroids. Using STM and NEATM, we have obtained diameters ranging from 0.5 to 30 km and albedos ranging from 0.02 to 0.5. Results of this program reveal an albedo distribution that is more diverse in range than the albedo distribution seen in the IRAS and MSX surveys. This diversity may reflect effects of space weathering reddening which is selectively reddening larger asteroids. This reddening effect may reinforce the findings from accretion models that indicate that asteroids in the early solar system were 100 km and larger (Morbidelli et al., 2009, Icarus, in press), by suggesting that the larger asteroids are indeed the oldest members of the main belt. We will present results on the albedo distribution as a function of semi-major axis and new analysis of the mean albedo of dynamical families within the main belt. Support for this work provided in part by a National Science Foundation grant AST-0706980 to the University of Minnesota.

    14. Seismic evidence for silicate melt atop the 410-km mantle discontinuity

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Revenaugh, Justin; Sipkin, S.A.

      1994-01-01

      LABORATORY results demonstrating that basic to ultrabasic melts become denser than olivine-rich mantle at pressures above 6 GPa (refs 1-3) have important implications for basalt petrogenesis, mantle differentiation and the storage of volatiles deep in the Earth. A density cross-over between melt and solid in the extensively molten Archaean mantle has been inferred from komatiitic volcanism and major-element mass balances, but present-day evidence of dense melt below the seismic low-velocity zone is lacking. Here we present mantle shear-wave impedance profiles obtained from multiple-ScS reverberation mapping for corridors connecting western Pacific subduction zone earthquakes with digital seismograph stations in eastern China, imaging a ~5.8% impedance decrease roughly 330 km beneath the Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea and easternmost Asia. We propose that this represents the upper surface of a layer of negatively buoyant melt lying on top of the olivine ??? ??- phase transition (the 410-km seismic discontinuity). Volatile-rich fluids expelled from the partial melt zone as it freezes may migrate upwards, acting as metasomatic agents and perhaps as the deep 'proto-source' of kimberlites. The remaining, dense, crystalline fraction would then concentrate above 410 km, producing a garnet-rich layer that may flush into the transition zone.

    15. Efficient production and secretion of pyruvate from Halomonas sp. KM-1 under aerobic conditions.

      PubMed

      Kawata, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Taku; Matsushita, Isao; Tsubota, Jun

      2016-03-01

      The alkaliphilic, halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. KM-1 can utilize both hexose and pentose sugars for the intracellular storage of bioplastic poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under aerobic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium nitrate concentration on PHB accumulation in the KM-1 strain. Unexpectedly, we observed the secretion of pyruvate, a central intermediate in carbon- and energy-metabolism processes in all organisms; therefore, pyruvate is widely used as a starting material in the industrial biosynthesis of pharmaceuticals and is employed for the production of crop-protection agents, polymers, cosmetics, and food additives. We then further analyzed pyruvate productivity following changes in culture temperature and the buffer concentration. In 48-h batch-cultivation experiments, we found that wild-type Halomonas sp. KM-1 secreted 63.3 g/L pyruvate at a rate of 1.32 g/(L·h), comparable to the results of former studies using mutant and recombinant microorganisms. Thus, these data provided important insights into the production of pyruvate using this novel strain.

    16. Hypervelocity impact tests and simulations of single Whipple bumper shield concepts at 10 km/s

      SciTech Connect

      Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S.; Hill, S.A.

      1992-12-01

      A series of experiments has been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a Whipple bumper shield to orbital space debris at impact velocities of {approximately} 10 km/s. Upon impact by a 19 mm (0.87 nun thick, L/D {approximately}0.5) flier plate, the thin aluminum bumper shield disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities of {approximately}14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of {approximately}7 km/s. Subsequent loading by the debris on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure placed 114 mm from the bumper penetrates the substructure completely. However, when the diameter of the flier plate is reduced to 12.7 mm, the substructure, although damaged, is not perforated over the duration of the experiment. Numerical simulations performed using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code CTH also predict complete perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud for the larger flier plate. The numerical simulation for a 12.7 mm flier plate, however, shows a strong dependence on assumed impact geometry, i.e., a spherical projectile impact geometry does not result in perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud, while the flat plate impact geometry results in perforation.

    17. Whipple bumper shield results and CTH simulations at velocities in excess of 10 km/s

      SciTech Connect

      Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Reinhart, W.D.; Miller, J.M.

      1992-09-01

      A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL) to evaluate the effectiveness of a Whipple bumper shield to orbital space debris at impact velocities in excess of 10 km/s. Upon impact by a 0.67 g (0.87 mm thick) flier plate, the thin aluminum bumper shield disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities of {approximately}14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of {approximately}7 km/s. Subsequent loading on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure by the debris penetrates the substructure completely. However, when the mass of the flier plate is reduced to 0.33 g, the substructure, although damaged, is not perforated over the duration of the experiment. Numerical simulations performed using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code CTH also predict complete penetration of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud for a 0.87 g flier plate. The numerical simulations for a 0.33 g flier plate show a strong dependence on assumed impact geometry. For the assumption of a spherical projectile impact geometry, perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud is not predicted by CTH.

    18. Whipple bumper shield results and CTH simulations at velocities in excess of 10 km/s

      SciTech Connect

      Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Reinhart, W.D.; Miller, J.M.

      1992-09-01

      A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL) to evaluate the effectiveness of a Whipple bumper shield to orbital space debris at impact velocities in excess of 10 km/s. Upon impact by a 0.67 g (0.87 mm thick) flier plate, the thin aluminum bumper shield disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities of [approximately]14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of [approximately]7 km/s. Subsequent loading on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure by the debris penetrates the substructure completely. However, when the mass of the flier plate is reduced to 0.33 g, the substructure, although damaged, is not perforated over the duration of the experiment. Numerical simulations performed using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code CTH also predict complete penetration of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud for a 0.87 g flier plate. The numerical simulations for a 0.33 g flier plate show a strong dependence on assumed impact geometry. For the assumption of a spherical projectile impact geometry, perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud is not predicted by CTH.

    19. Hypervelocity impact tests and simulations of single Whipple bumper shield concepts at 10 km/s

      SciTech Connect

      Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S. ); Hill, S.A. )

      1992-01-01

      A series of experiments has been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a Whipple bumper shield to orbital space debris at impact velocities of [approximately] 10 km/s. Upon impact by a 19 mm (0.87 nun thick, L/D [approximately]0.5) flier plate, the thin aluminum bumper shield disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities of [approximately]14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of [approximately]7 km/s. Subsequent loading by the debris on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure placed 114 mm from the bumper penetrates the substructure completely. However, when the diameter of the flier plate is reduced to 12.7 mm, the substructure, although damaged, is not perforated over the duration of the experiment. Numerical simulations performed using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code CTH also predict complete perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud for the larger flier plate. The numerical simulation for a 12.7 mm flier plate, however, shows a strong dependence on assumed impact geometry, i.e., a spherical projectile impact geometry does not result in perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud, while the flat plate impact geometry results in perforation.

    20. The Control Unit of KM3NeT data acquisition

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bozza, Cristiano

      2016-04-01

      The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. With the telescopes, scientists will search for cosmic neutrinos to study highly energetic objects in the Universe, while one neutrino detector will be dedicated to measure the properties of the high-energy neutrino particles themselves. Control of the KM3NeT data acquisition processes is handled by the KM3NeT Control Unit, which has been designed to maximise the detector live time. The Control Unit features software programs with different roles, following the philosophy of having no single point of failure. While all programs are interconnected, each one can also work alone for most of the time in case other services are unavailable. All services run on the Common Language Runtime, which ensures portability, flexibility and automatic memory management. Each service has an embedded Web server, providing a user interface as well as programmatic access to data and functions. Data to and from detector components for monitoring and management purposes are transmitted using a custom designed protocol. The Control Unit is interfaced to one or more Message Dispatchers to control the data acquisition chain. A Data Base Interface provides fast and fault-tolerant connection to a remote Data Base.

    1. 1 ns time to digital converters for the KM3NeT data readout system

      SciTech Connect

      Calvo, David [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC- Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

      2014-11-18

      The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres (nodes), each of them containing 31 photomultiplier (PMT) of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers. For this purpose, 31 high-resolution time-interval measuring channels are implemented on the Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based on Time to Digital Converter (TDC). TDC are very common devices in particles physics experiments. Architectures with low resources occupancy are desirable allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The required resolution to measure both, time of flight and timestamp must be 1 ns. A 4-Oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks is used to achieve this resolution. The proposed TDC firmware is developed using very few resources in Xilinx Kintex-7.

    2. Integration of acoustical sensors into the KM3NeT optical modules

      SciTech Connect

      Enzenhöfer, A.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

      2014-11-18

      The next generation multi-cubic-kilometre water Cherenkov neutrino telescope will be build in the Mediterranean Sea. This telescope, called KM3NeT, is currently entering a first construction phase. The KM3NeT research infrastructure will comprise 690 so-called Detection Units in its final design which will be anchored to the sea bed and held upright by submerged floats. The positions of these Detection Units, several hundred metres in length, and their attached Optical Modules for the detection of Cherenkov light have to be monitored continously to provide the telescope with its desired pointing precision. A standard way to do this is the utilisation of an acoustic positioning system using emitters at fixed positions and receivers distributed along the Detection Units. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope comprises a custom-made acoustic positioning system with newly designed emitters attached to the anchors of the Detection Units and custom-designed receivers attached to the Detection Units. This article describes an approach for a receiver and its performance. The proposed Opto-Acoustical Modules combine the optical sensors for the telescope with the acoustical sensors necessary for the positioning of the module itself. This combination leads to a compact design suited for an easy deployment of the numerous Detection Units. Furthermore, the instrumented volume can be used for scientific analyses such as marine science and acoustic particle detection.

    3. Tropical Waves and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in a 7-km Global Climate Simulation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Holt, Laura A.; Alexander, M. Joan; Coy, Lawrence; Molod, Andrea; Putman, William; Pawson, Steven

      2016-01-01

      This study investigates tropical waves and their role in driving a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO)-like signal in stratospheric winds in a global 7-km-horizontal-resolution atmospheric general circulation model. The Nature Run (NR) is a 2-year global mesoscale simulation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5). In the tropics, there is evidence that the NR supports a broad range of convectively generated waves. The NR precipitation spectrum resembles the observed spectrum in many aspects, including the preference for westward-propagating waves. However, even with very high horizontal resolution and a healthy population of resolved waves, the zonal force provided by the resolved waves is still too low in the QBO region and parameterized gravity wave drag is the main driver of the NR QBO-like oscillation (NRQBO). The authors suggest that causes include coarse vertical resolution and excessive dissipation. Nevertheless, the very-high-resolution NR provides an opportunity to analyze the resolved wave forcing of the NR-QBO. In agreement with previous studies, large-scale Kelvin and small-scale waves contribute to the NRQBO driving in eastward shear zones and small-scale waves dominate the NR-QBO driving in westward shear zones. Waves with zonal wavelength,1000 km account for up to half of the small-scale (,3300 km) resolved wave forcing in eastward shear zones and up to 70% of the small-scale resolved wave forcing in westward shear zones of the NR-QBO.

    4. Seismic evidence for silicate melt atop the 410-km mantle discontinuity

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Revenaugh, J.; Sipkin, S. A.

      1994-06-01

      LABORATORY results demonstrating that basic to ultrabasic melts become denser than olivine-rich mantle at pressures above 6 GPa (refs 1-3) have important implications for basalt petrogenesis, mantle differentiation and the storage of volatiles deep in the Earth. A density cross-over between melt and solid in the extensively molten Archaean mantle has been inferred from komatiitic volcanism4-6 and major-element mass balances7, but present-day evidence of dense melt below the seismic low-velocity zone is lacking. Here we present mantle shear-wave impedance profiles obtained from multiple-ScS reverberation mapping for corridors connecting western Pacific subduction zone earthquakes with digital seismograph stations in eastern China, imaging a ~5.8% impedance decrease roughly 330 km beneath the Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea and easternmost Asia. We propose that this represents the upper surface of a layer of negatively buoyant melt lying on top of the olivine-->β-phase transition (the 410-km seismic discontinuity). Volatile-rich fluids expelled from the partial melt zone as it freezes may migrate upwards, acting as metasomatic agents8,9 and perhaps as the deep 'proto-souree' of kimberlites10,11. The remaining, dense, crystalline fraction would then concentrate above 410 km, producing a garnet-rich layer that may flush into the transition zone.

    5. Atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and wind variations between 50 and 200 km

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.

      1972-01-01

      Data on atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and winds between 50 and 200 km were collected from sources including Meteorological Rocket Network data, ROBIN falling sphere data, grenade release and pitot tube data, meteor winds, chemical release winds, satellite data, and others. These data were analyzed by a daily difference method and results on the distribution statistics, magnitude, and spatial structure of the irregular atmospheric variations are presented. Time structures of the irregular variations were determined by the analysis of residuals from harmonic analysis of time series data. The observed height variations of irregular winds and densities are found to be in accord with a theoretical relation between these two quantities. The latitude variations (at 50 - 60 km height) show an increasing trend with latitude. A possible explanation of the unusually large irregular wind magnitudes of the White Sands MRN data is given in terms of mountain wave generation by the Sierra Nevada range about 1000 km west of White Sands. An analytical method is developed which, based on an analogy of the irregular motion field with axisymmetric turbulence, allows measured or model correlation or structure functions to be used to evaluate the effective frequency spectra of scalar and vector quantities of a spacecraft moving at any speed and at any trajectory elevation angle.

    6. Debris cloud characterization at impact velocities of 5 to 11 km/s

      SciTech Connect

      Chhabildas, L.C.; Boslough, M.B.; Reinhart, W.D.; Hall, C.A.

      1993-08-01

      A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher to impact a 1.25-mm thick aluminum bumper by an aluminum flier plate 17-mm diameter by 0.92-mm thick over the velocity range of 5 km/s to 11 km/s. Radiographic techniques were employed to record the debris cloud generated upon impact. The shape of the debris cloud is found to depend on the flier plate tilt. Generally -- the data indicate a central core of higher density surrounded by a diffused layer. These experiments allow measurements of debris cloud expansion velocities as the material undergoes a phase change from solid fragments at impact velocities of 5 km/s to a mixture of liquid and vapor phase at higher impact velocities. The expansion velocity of the debris cloud increases with increasing impact velocity, with the high-density leading edge traveling faster than the impact velocity. There is a difference between the X-ray and photographic measurements of expansion velocities at higher impact velocities. This is believed to be due to the presence of very low-density vapor in the photographic records that are not detecting using X-ray techniques.

    7. Characterization of cosmic rays and direction dependence in the Polar Region up to 88 km altitude

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zábori, Balázs; Hirn, Attila; Deme, Sándor; Apáthy, István; Pázmándi, Tamás

      2016-02-01

      Aims: The sounding rocket experiment REM-RED was developed to operate on board the REXUS-17 rocket in order to measure the intensity of cosmic rays. The experiment was launched from the ESRANGE Space Center (68 °N, 21 °E) on the 17th of March 2015 at the beginning of the most intense geomagnetic storm within the preceding 10 years. The experiment provided the opportunity to measure the intensity of cosmic rays in the Polar Region up to an altitude of 88 km above sea level. Methods: The experiment employed Geiger-Müller (GM) counters oriented with their axes perpendicular to each other in order to measure the cosmic ray intensity during the flight of the rocket. This measurement setup allowed performing direction-sensitive measurements as well. During the ascent phase the rocket was spinning and hence stabilized along its longitudinal axis looking close to the zenith direction. This phase of the flight was used for studying the direction dependence of the charged particle component of the cosmic rays. Results: In comparison with earlier, similar rocket experiments performed with GM tubes at lower geomagnetic latitudes, significantly higher cosmic radiation flux was measured above 50 km. A non-isotropic behavior was found below 50 km and described in detail for the first time in the Polar Region. This behavior is in good agreement with the results of the TECHDOSE experiment that used the same type of GM tubes on board the BEXUS-14 stratospheric balloon.

    8. Physical Contact between the +20 km s^{-1} Cloud and the Galactic Circumnuclear Disk

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Takekawa, Shunya; Oka, Tomoharu; Tanaka, Kunihiko

      2017-01-01

      This paper reports the discovery of evidence for physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an exterior giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in the HCN J = 1–0, HCO+ J = 1–0, CS J = 2–1, H13CN J = 1–0, SiO J = 2–1, SO NJ = 23–12, and HC3N J = 11–10 lines using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. Based on our examination of the position–velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found that an emission “bridge” may be connecting the +20 km s‑1 cloud (M–0.13–0.08) and the negative-longitude extension of the CND. Analyses of line intensity ratios imply that the chemical property of the bridge is located between the +20 km s‑1 cloud and the CND. We introduce a new interpretation that a part of the CND may be colliding with the 20 km s‑1 cloud and the collision may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. Such collisional events could promote mass accretion onto the CND or into the inner ionized cavity, which may be further tested by proper motion studies.

    9. Extending the Purple Crow Lidar Temperature Climatology Above 100 km Altitude Using an Inversion Approach

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Jalali, A.; Sica, R. J.; Argall, S.; McCullough, E. M.

      2013-12-01

      Temperature retrievals from Rayleigh-scattering lidar measurements have been performed using the algorithm given by Chanin and Hauchecorne (1980; henceforth CH) for the last 3 decades. Recently Khanna et al. have presented an inversion approach to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles. This method uses a nonlinear inversion method with a Monte Carlo technique to determine the statistical uncertainties for the retrieved nightly average temperature profiles. Using this approach, Purple Crow Lidar temperature profiles can now be extended 10 km higher in altitude compared to those calculated with the CH method, with reduced systematic uncertainty. Argall and Sica (2007) used the CH method to produce a climatology of the Purple Crow Lidar measurements from 1994 to 2004 which was compared with the CIRA-86 model. The CH method integrates temperatures downward, and requires the assumption of a 'seed' pressure at the highest altitude, taken from a model. Geophysical variation here, in the lower thermosphere, is sufficiently large to cause temperature retrievals to be unreliable for the top 10 or more km; uncertainties due to this pressure assumption cause the top two scale heights of temperatures from each profile to be discarded until the retrieval is no longer sensitive to the seed pressure. Khanna et al. (2012) use an inversion approach which allows the corrected lidar photocount profile to be integrated upward, as opposed to downward as required by the CH method. Khanna et al. (2012) showed that seeding the retrieval at the lowest instead of top height allows a much smaller uncertainty in the contribution of the seed pressure to the temperature compared to integrating from the top of the profile. Two other benefits to seeding the retrieval at the lower altitudes (around 30 km) include reduced geophysical variability, and the availability of routine pressure measurements from radiosondes. This presentation will show an extension of the Khanna et al. (2012) comparison

    10. SoilGrids1km — Global Soil Information Based on Automated Mapping

      PubMed Central

      Hengl, Tomislav; de Jesus, Jorge Mendes; MacMillan, Robert A.; Batjes, Niels H.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Ribeiro, Eloi; Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Gonzalez, Maria Ruiperez

      2014-01-01

      Background Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We present SoilGrids1km — a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution — containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kg−1), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg m−3), cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), soil organic carbon stock (t ha−1), depth to bedrock (cm), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles), and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images), lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database). Prediction accuracies assessed using 5–fold cross-validation were between 23–51%. Conclusions/Significance SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1) weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2) difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3) low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the Soil

    11. Radial velocities of K-M dwarfs and local stellar kinematics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sperauskas, J.; Bartašiūtė, S.; Boyle, R. P.; Deveikis, V.; Raudeliūnas, S.; Upgren, A. R.

      2016-12-01

      Aims: The goal of this paper is to present complete radial-velocity data for the spectroscopically selected McCormick sample of nearby K-M dwarfs and, based on these and supplementary data, to determine the space-velocity distributions of late-type stars in the solar neighborhood. Methods: We analyzed nearly 3300 measurements of radial velocities for 1049 K-M dwarfs, that we obtained during the past decade with a CORAVEL-type instrument, with a primary emphasis on detecting and eliminating from kinematic calculations the spectroscopic binaries and binary candidates. Combining radial-velocity data with Hipparcos/Tycho-2 astrometry we calculated the space-velocity components and parameters of the galactic orbits in a three-component model potential for the stars in the sample, that we use for kinematical analysis and for the identification of possible candidate members of nearby stellar kinematic groups. Results: We present the catalog of our observations of radial velocities for 959 stars which are not suspected of velocity variability, along with the catalog of U,V,W velocities and Galactic orbital parameters for a total of 1088 K-M stars which are used in the present kinematic analysis. Of these, 146 stars were identified as possible candidate members of the known nearby kinematic groups and suspected subgroups. The distributions of space-velocity components, orbital eccentricities, and maximum distances from the Galactic plane are consistent with the presence of young, intermediate-age and old populations of the thin disk and a small fraction ( 3%) of stars with the thick disk kinematics. The kinematic structure gives evidence that the bulk of K-M type stars in the immediate solar vicinity represents a dynamically relaxed stellar population. The star MCC 869 is found to be on a retrograde Galactic orbit (V = -262 km s-1) of low inclination (4°) and can be a member of stellar stream of some dissolved structure. The Sun's velocity with respect to the Local

    12. Scaling of water vapor in the meso-gamma (2-20km) and lower meso-beta (20-50km) scales from tall tower time series

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pressel, K. G.; Collins, W.; Desai, A. R.

      2011-12-01

      Deficiencies in the parameterization of boundary layer clouds in global climate models (GCMs) remains one of the greatest sources of uncertainty in climate change predictions. Many GCM cloud parameterizations, which seek to include some representation of subgrid-scale cloud variability, do so by making assumptions regarding the subgrid-scale spatial probability density function (PDF) of total water content. Properly specifying the form and parameters of the total water PDF is an essential step in the formulation of PDF based cloud parameterizations. In the cloud free boundary layer, the PDF of total water mixing ratio is equivalent to the PDF of water vapor mixing ratio. Understanding the PDF of water vapor mixing ratio in the cloud free atmosphere is a necessary step towards understanding the PDF of water vapor in the cloudy atmosphere. A primary challenge in empirically constraining the PDF of water vapor mixing ratio is a distinct lack of a spatially distributed observational dataset at or near cloud scale. However, at meso-beta (20-50km) and larger scales, there is a wealth of information on the spatial distribution of water vapor contained in the physically retrieved water vapor profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder onboard NASA`s Aqua satellite. The scaling (scale-invariance) of the observed water vapor field has been suggested as means of using observations at satellite observed (meso-beta) scales to derive information about cloud scale PDFs. However, doing so requires the derivation of a robust climatology of water vapor scaling from in-situ observations across the meso- gamma (2-20km) and meso-beta scales. In this work, we present the results of the scaling of high frequency (10Hz) time series of water vapor mixing ratio as observed from the 447m WLEF tower located near Park Falls, Wisconsin. Observations from a tall tower offer an ideal set of observations with which to investigate scaling at meso-gamma and meso-beta scales requiring only the

    13. Development of a high-resolution (1 km × 1 km, 1 h) emission model for Spain: The High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emission System (HERMES)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Baldasano, José María; Güereca, Leonor Patricia; López, Eugeni; Gassó, Santiago; Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro

      This work presents the results of the development and application of the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emission System (HERMES). HERMES generates the emissions for Spain needed for the application of high-resolution chemistry transport models, taking the year 2004 as reference with a temporal resolution of 1 h and a spatial resolution of 1 km 2 considering both anthropogenic (power generation, industrial activities, on-road traffic, ports, airports, solvent use, domestic and commercial fossil fuel use) and biogenic sources (vegetation), using a bottom-up approach, up-to-date information and state-of-the-art methodologies for emission estimation. HERMES is capable of calculating emissions by sector-specific sources or by individual installations and stacks. The annual addition of hourly sectorial emissions leads to an estimation of total annual emissions as follows: NO x, 795 kt; NMVOCs, 1025 kt; CO, 1236 kt; SO 2, 1142 kt and TSP, 180 kt; which are distributed principally in the greater areas of the main cities, highways and large point sources. NO x, SO 2 and PM 2.5 highly correlate with the power generation by coal use, achieving higher emission levels during summertime due to the increase of electricity demand by cooling systems. NMVOCs show high correlation with temperature and solar radiation (mainly as a consequence of the important weight of biogenic emissions) causing the maximum emissions during the daylight hours of summer months. CO emissions are mostly influenced by the on-road traffic; consequently the higher emissions are attained in summer because of the increase of daily average traffic during holidays. The most significant total emission sources are on-road traffic (38%), combustion in power generation plants (33%), biogenic sources (12%) and combustion in manufacturing industries (9%). The inventory generated with HERMES emission model has been successfully integrated within the Spanish Ministry of the Environment's air quality forecasting

    14. Igneous Crystallization Beginning at 20 km Beneath the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 14 to 16 N

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kelemen, P.

      2003-12-01

      be plagioclase lherzolite saturated at 0.54 GPa (+/-0.14 GPa, 2σ ) and 1220° C (+/-16° C, 2σ ) [Kinzler & Grove, JGR 92]. Impregnated peridotites and olivine gabbronorites at other sites contain all or most of these minerals, have similar compositions, and record similar conditions. Melts entered the thermal boundary layer beneath the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at about 20 km depth [e.g., Sleep, JGR1975; Reid & Jackson, MGR 82; Grove et al JGR 92; Cannat JGR 96; Michael & Chase CMP 97; Braun et al., EPSL 00], and began to crystallize within impregnated peridotites and as discrete plutons intruding peridotite. 25% gabbro in the upper 20 km of an oceanic plate would correspond to 5 km of "normal" oceanic crust. 25% gabbro (7.2 km/s) + 75% peridotite (8.2 km/s) yields a "mantle" Vp (8 km/s). Residual mantle peridotites from Leg 209 Sites N and S of the 15° 20 Fracture Zone are among the most depleted from the mid-ocean ridges. No regional compositional gradient is evident. Most gabbroic rocks are evolved gabbronorites that are not complementary to MORB; instead, they result from complete, near-fractional crystallization of migrating melt at depth. Site 1268 gabbronorites, together with impregnated peridotites, may be primitive cumulates complementary to MORB. As reported elsewhere at this meeting, high temperature shear zones and faults accomodated nearly all of the subsolidus deformation associated with corner flow and exhumation of residual peridotites and high pressure igneous rocks.

    15. El Chichon and 'mystery cloud' aerosols between 30 and 55 km Global observations from the SME visible spectrometer

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Clancy, R. T.

      1986-01-01

      Visible limb radiances measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) are used to obtain volume scattering ratios for aerosol loading in the 30-55 km altitude range of the stratosphere. Global maps of these ratios are presented for the period January 1982 to August 1984. Significant aerosol scattering from the 'mystery cloud' and El Chichon aerosol layers are found above 30 km. A timescale of approximately 2 months between the appearance of the aerosol at 30.5 km and at 37.5 km is consistent with vertical transport of aerosol or vapor by eddy diffusion above 30 km. An anticorrelation exists between aerosol scattering and stratospheric temperatures. Periods of lower stratospheric temperatures may account for the formation of aerosol between 40 and 55 km altitude.

    16. Changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behaviour during a 5-km time trial.

      PubMed

      Girard, O; Millet, G P; Slawinski, J; Racinais, S; Micallef, J P

      2013-09-01

      Research into the biomechanical manifestation of fatigue during exhaustive runs is increasingly popular but additional understanding of the adaptation of the spring-mass behaviour during the course of strenuous, self-paced exercises continues to be a challenge in order to develop optimized training and injury prevention programs. This study investigated continuous changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behaviour during a 5-km run. 12 competitive triathletes performed a 5-km running time trial (mean performance: ̴17 min 30 s) on a 200 m indoor track. Vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces were measured every 200 m by a 5-m long force platform system, and used to determine spring-mass model characteristics. After a fast start, running velocity progressively decreased (- 11.6%; P<0.001) in the middle part of the race before an end spurt in the final 400-600 m. Stride length (- 7.4%; P<0.001) and frequency (- 4.1%; P=0.001) decreased over the 25 laps, while contact time (+ 8.9%; P<0.001) and total stride duration (+ 4.1%; P<0.001) progressively lengthened. Peak vertical forces (- 2.0%; P<0.01) and leg compression (- 4.3%; P<0.05), but not centre of mass vertical displacement (+ 3.2%; P>0.05), decreased with time. As a result, vertical stiffness decreased (- 6.0%; P<0.001) during the run, whereas leg stiffness changes were not significant (+ 1.3%; P>0.05). Spring-mass behaviour progressively changes during a 5-km time trial towards deteriorated vertical stiffness, which alters impact and force production characteristics.

    17. Age-related changes in 100-km ultra-marathon running performance.

      PubMed

      Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

      2012-08-01

      The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the participation and performance trends at the '100 km Lauf Biel' in Switzerland from 1998 to 2010, and (2) to compare the age-related changes in 100-km running performance between males and females. For both sexes, the percent of finishers significantly (P < 0.01) decreased for the 18-29 and the 30-39-year age groups, while it significantly (P < 0.01) increased for the 40-49 and the 50-59-year age groups over the studied period. From 1998 to 2010, the mean age of the top ten finishers increased by 0.4 years per annum for both females (P = 0.02) and males (P = 0.003). The running time for the top ten finishers remained stable for females, while it significantly (P = 0.001) increased by 2.4 min per annum for males. There was a significant (P < 0.001) age effect on running times for both sexes. The best 100-km running times was observed for the age comprised between 30 and 49 years for males, and between 30 and 54 years for females, respectively. The age-related decline in running performance was similar until 60-64 years between males and females, but was greater for females compared to males after 65 years. Future studies should investigate the lifespan from 65 to 75 years to better understand the performance difference between male and female master ultra-marathoners.

    18. Genetic localization and characterization of a pKM101-coded endonuclease.

      PubMed Central

      Winans, S C; Walker, G C

      1983-01-01

      The genetic and biochemical properties of an endonuclease mediated by the mutagenesis-enhancing plasmid pKM101 have been investigated. Taking advantage of the observation that this endonuclease, unlike host-coded DNases, is active in the presence of EDTA, we have developed an assay with nondenaturing acrylamide gels containing DNA. We have localized the plasmid DNA sufficient for nuclease expression to a 0.8-kilobase sequence that is near regions of DNA necessary for conjugal transfer, and we have determined that this gene is transcribed clockwise on the pKM101 map. The pKM101 gene mediating this activity codes for a 16,000-dalton protein, which is the same molecular mass as the nuclease monomer, leading us to conclude that this gene codes for the nuclease itself rather than for an activator of some host-coded enzyme. Cellular fractionation experiments have shown that the enzyme is localized in the periplasm. We have not been able to demonstrate any physiological role for the enzyme, but we have ruled out a direct involvement of the nuclease in any of the following known plasmid-associated phenotypes: (i) mutagenesis enhancement, (ii) conjugal transfer, (iii) entry exclusion, (iv) fertility inhibition of coresident P-group plasmids, (v) killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae used as conjugal recipients, and (vi) plasmid curing induced by treatment of cells with fluorodeoxyuridine. In addition, we have shown that the enzyme does not restrict bacteriophage or affect the ability of the host to utilize DNA as a source of thymine. Finally, we have shown that 11 of the 26 other plasmids tested also elaborated EDTA-resistant DNases. Images PMID:6222033

    19. Seismic evidence for a wide-spread low velocity layer atop the 410-km discontinuity

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Tauzin, B.; Debayle, E.; Wittlinger, G.

      2009-12-01

      The origin of a low seismic-velocity layer observed in a few regions in the world atop the upper boundary of the mantle transition zone (the 410-km seismic discontinuity) is debated. It has been attributed to the dehydration of subductions, the dehydration of water-bearing silicate beneath continental platforms in the vicinity of mantle plumes, or to dehydration-induced partial melting of ascending ambient mantle rising out of a high-water-solubility transition zone. These interpretations suggest the effect of water which reduces the solidus of mantle silicate rocks and favors partial melting. We present global multiple frequency observations of P-to-S receiver functions indicating that this low velocity layer is actually a wide-spread feature of the upper mantle. Its location is uncorrelated with any tectonic or geodynamic environment. The estimated layer thickness varies over short lateral wavelengths (~200 km) in a range 30 to 100 km. This complexity suggests a compositional origin with a lens-type lateral extension. Dehydration in the vicinity of subductions or mantle plumes cannot solely explain the observed layer implantation. (A) Synthetic receiver functions (RFs) obtained at four lower corner periods for different thicknesses of a low velocity layer (LVL) atop the "410". Steep downward increases of seismic velocities (e.g. the "410") show up as positive (white) amplitudes on the RFs. Steep downward velocity decreases (e.g. the top of the LVL) show up as negative (black) amplitudes. (B) Multiple-frequency RFs obtained at 42 seismic stations after alignment on the "410" waveform. The "410" waveform has a positive amplitude and is colored in white. Under these stations, the top of a LVL is visible. It shows up as a negative (black) amplitude and is emphasized with the small white crosses. The RFs have been ordered by increasing LVL thickness. (C) Synthetic RFs computed using the same LVL thickness distribution as observed on the data.

    20. PERFORMANCE TRENDS IN LARGE 10-KM ROAD RUNNING RACES IN THE UNITED STATES

      PubMed Central

      Cushman, Dan M.; Markert, Matthew; Rho, Monica

      2015-01-01

      Our study examines the current trends of runners participating in 10-km road races in the United States. Finish times and ages of all runners participating in 10 of the largest 10-km running races in the United States between 2002–2005 and 2011 were recorded. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the trends for age, sex, and finishing time for all participants completing the course in <1 hour. A total of 408,296 runners were analyzed. There was a significant annual decrease in the ratio of men to women finishers (p < 0.001, r2 = 0.976). The average finishing time of the top 10 (men, p ≤ 0.05), 100 (men and women, p ≤ 0.05), and 1,000 (men and women, p < 0.01) significantly decreased annually. The total number of subhour finishers increased annually across all races (194 men per year, r2 = 0.584, p = 0.045; 161 women per year, r2 = 0.779, p = 0.008), whereas the percentage of overall finishers completing the course in less than an hour significantly declined for men and women (p ≤ 0.003). There was a significant trend toward younger men in all top groups except for the single fastest runner (p ≤ 0.017). Our study demonstrates that for large 10-km U.S. races: the top men and women seem to be getting faster; there are more subhour finishers, with increasingly more women accomplishing this feat compared with men; an increasingly lower percentage of overall finishers is finishing in <1 hour; and the fastest men are also increasingly younger. PMID:24077377

    1. Spatially Explicit Modelling of the Belgian Major Endurance Event ‘The 100 km Dodentocht’

      PubMed Central

      Van Nieuland, Steffie; Baetens, Jan M.; De Baets, Bernard

      2016-01-01

      ‘The 100 km Dodentocht’, which takes place annually and has its start in Bornem, Belgium, is a long distance march where participants have to cover a 100 km trail in at most 24 hours. The approximately 11 000 marchers per edition are tracked by making use of passive radio-frequency-identification (RFID). These tracking data were analyzed to build a spatially explicit marching model that gives insights into the dynamics of the event and allows to evaluate the effect of changes in the starting procedure of the event. For building the model, the empirical distribution functions (edf) of the marching speeds at every section of the trail in between two consecutive checkpoints and of the checkpoints where marchers retire, are determined, taking into account age, gender, and marching speeds at previous sections. These distribution functions are then used to sample the consecutive speeds and retirement, and as such to simulate the times when individual marchers pass by the consecutive checkpoints. We concluded that the data-driven model simulates the event reliably. Furthermore, we tested three scenarios to reduce the crowdiness along the first part of the trail and in this way were able to conclude that either the start should be moved to a location outside the town center where the streets are at least 25% wider, or that the marchers should start in two groups at two different locations, and that these groups should ideally merge at about 20 km after the start. The crowdiness at the start might also be reduced by installing a bottleneck at the start in order to limit the number of marchers that can pass per unit of time. Consequently, the operating hours of the consecutive checkpoints would be longer. The developed framework can likewise be used to analyze and improve the operation of other endurance events if sufficient tracking data are available. PMID:27764202

    2. One-Hundred-km-Scale Basins on Enceladus: Evidence for an Active Ice Shell

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

      2009-01-01

      Stereo-derived topographic mapping of 50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries. Their shape and scale are inconsistent with impact, geoid deflection, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for the basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of 10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice. In contrast to the basins, the south polar depression (SPD) is larger (350 wide) and shallower (0.4-to-0.8 km deep) and correlates with the area of tectonic deformation and active resurfacing. The SPD also differs in that the floor is relatively flat (i.e., conforms roughly to the global triaxial shape, or geoid) with broad, gently sloping flanks. The relative flatness across the SPD suggests that it is in or near isostatic equilibrium, and underlain by denser material, supporting the polar sea hypothesis of Collins and Goodman. Near flatness is also predicted by a crustal spreading origin for the "tiger stripes (McKinnon and Barr 2007, Barr 2008); the extraordinary, high CIRS heat flows imply half-spreading rates in excess of 10 cm/yr, a very young surface age (250,000 yr), and a rather thin lithosphere (hence modest thermal topography). Topographic rises in places along the outer margin of the SPD correlate with parallel ridges and deformation along the edge of the resurfaced terrain, consistent with a compressional, imbricate thrust origin for these ridges, driven by the spreading.

    3. Odin observations of ammonia in the Sgr A +50 km s-1 cloud and circumnuclear disk

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sandqvist, Aa.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Frisk, U.; Lundin, S.; Nordh, L.; Olberg, M.; Olofsson, G.

      2017-03-01

      Context. The Odin satellite is now into its sixteenth year of operation, much surpassing its design life of two years. One of the sources which Odin has observed in great detail is the Sgr A complex in the centre of the Milky Way. Aims: To study the presence of NH3 in the Galactic centre and spiral arms. Methods: Recently, Odin has made complementary observations of the 572 GHz NH3 line towards the Sgr A +50 km s-1 cloud and circumnuclear disk (CND). Results: Significant NH3 emission has been observed in both the +50 km s-1 cloud and the CND. Clear NH3 absorption has also been detected in many of the spiral arm features along the line of sight from the Sun to the core of our Galaxy. Conclusions: The very large velocity width (80 km s-1) of the NH3 emission associated with the shock region in the southwestern part of the CND may suggest a formation/desorption scenario similar to that of gas-phase H2O in shocks/outflows. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes), the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), France, and the European Space Agency (ESA). The former Space division of the Swedish Space Corporation, today OHB Sweden, is the prime contractor, also responsible for Odin operations.The reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A135

    4. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Loveland, T.R.; Reed, B.C.; Brown, J.F.; Ohlen, D.O.; Zhu, Z.; Yang, L.; Merchant, J.W.

      2000-01-01

      Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy produced a 1 km resolution global land cover characteristics database for use in a wide range of continental-to global-scale environmental studies. This database provides a unique view of the broad patterns of the biogeographical and ecoclimatic diversity of the global land surface, and presents a detailed interpretation of the extent of human development. The project was carried out as an International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Data and Information Systems (IGBP-DIS) initiative. The IGBP DISCover global land cover product is an integral component of the global land cover database. DISCover includes 17 general land cover classes defined to meet the needs of IGBP core science projects. A formal accuracy assessment of the DISCover data layer will be completed in 1998. The 1 km global land cover database was developed through a continent-by-continent unsupervised classification of 1 km monthly Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites covering 1992-1993. Extensive post-classification stratification was necessary to resolve spectral/temporal confusion between disparate land cover types. The complete global database consists of 961 seasonal land cover regions that capture patterns of land cover, seasonality and relative primary productivity. The seasonal land cover regions were aggregated to produce seven separate land cover data sets used for global environmental modelling and assessment. The data sets include IGBP DISCover, U.S. Geological Survey Anderson System, Simple Biosphere Model, Simple Biosphere Model 2, Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Olson Ecosystems and Running Global Remote Sensing Land Cover. The database also includes all digital sources that were used in the classification. The complete database can be sourced from the website: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html.

    5. Modeling the effect of a prosthetic limb on 4-km pursuit performance.

      PubMed

      Childers, W Lee; Gallagher, Tim P; Duncan, J Chad; Taylor, Douglas K

      2015-01-01

      The individual pursuit is a 4-km cycling time trial performed on a velodrome. Parathletes with transtibial amputation (TTA) have lost physiological systems, but this may be offset by the reduced aerodynamic drag of the prosthesis. This research was performed to understand the effect of a unilateral TTA on Olympic 4-km pursuit performance. A forward-integration model of pursuit performance explored the interplay between power loss and aerodynamic gains in parathletes with TTA. The model is calibrated to a 4-km pursuit time of 4:10.5 (baseline), then adjusted to account for a TTA. Conditions simulated were based on typical pedal asymmetry in TTA (AMP), if foot stiffness were decreased (FLEX), if pedaling asymmetries were minimized (ASYM), if the prosthesis were aerodynamically optimized (AERO), if the prosthesis had a cosmetic cover (CC), and if all variables were optimized (OPT). A random Monte Carlo analysis was performed to understand model precision. Four-kilometer pursuit performances predicted by the model were 4:10.5, 4:20.4, 4:27.7, 4:09.2, 4:19.4, 4:27.9, and 4:08.2 for the baseline, AMP, FLEX, ASYM, AERO, CC, and OPT models, respectively. Model precision was ±3.7 s. While the modeled time decreased for ASYM and OPT modeled conditions, the time reduction fell within model precision and therefore was not significant. Practical application of these results suggests that parathletes with a TTA could improve performance by minimizing pedaling asymmetry and/or optimizing aerodynamic design, but, at best, they will have performance similar to that of intact cyclists. In conclusion, parathletes with TTA do not have a net advantage in the individual pursuit.

    6. Biochemical and hematological changes following the 120-km open-water marathon swim.

      PubMed

      Drygas, Wojciech; Rębowska, Ewa; Stępień, Ewa; Golański, Jacek; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

      2014-09-01

      Data on physiological effects and potential risks of a ultraendurance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim on the Warta River, Poland. Pre-swimming examinations revealed favorable conditions (blood pressure, 110/70 mmHg; rest heart rate, 54 beats/minute, ejection fraction, 60%, 20.2 metabolic equivalents in a maximal exercise test). The swimming time and distance covered were 27 h 33 min and 120 km, respectively. Blood samples for hematological and biochemical parameters were collected 30 min, 4 hrs, 10 hrs and 8 days after the swim. The body temperature of the swimmer was 36.7°C before and 35.1°C after the swim. The hematological parameters remained within the reference range in the postexercise period except for leucocytes (17.5 and 10.6 x G/l noted 30 minutes and 4 hours after the swim, respectively). Serum urea, aspartate aminotransferase and C-reactive protein increased above the reference range reaching 11.3 mmol/l, 1054 nmol/l/s and 25.9 mg/l, respectively. Symptomatic hyponatremia was not observed. Although the results demonstrate that an experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without negative health consequences, further studies addressing the potential risks of marathon swimming are required. Key pointsData on biochemical changes due to long-distance swimming are scarce.This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim.An experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without serious health consequences.Regarding the growing popularity of marathon swimming further studies addressing the potential risks of such exhaustive exercise are required.

    7. A comparison of the IGBP DISCover and University of Maryland 1 km global land cover products

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Hansen, M.C.; Reed, B.

      2000-01-01

      Two global 1 km land cover data sets derived from 1992-1993 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data are currently available, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) DISCover and the University of Maryland (UMd) 1 km land cover maps. This paper makes a preliminary comparison of the methodologies and results of the two products. The DISCover methodology employed an unsupervised clustering classification scheme on a per-continent basis using 12 monthly maximum NDVI composites as inputs. The UMd approach employed a supervised classification tree method in which temporal metrics derived from all AVHRR bands and the NDVI were used to predict class membership across the entire globe. The DISCover map uses the IGBP classification scheme, while the UMd map employs a modified IGBP scheme minus the classes of permanent wetlands, cropland/natural vegetation mosaic and ice and snow. Global area totals of aggregated vegetation types are very similar and have a per-pixel agreement of 74%. For tall versus short/no vegetation, the per-pixel agreement is 84%. For broad vegetation types, core areas map similarly, while transition zones around core areas differ significantly. This results in high regional variability between the maps. Individual class agreement between the two 1 km maps is 49%. Comparison of the maps at a nominal 0.5 resolution with two global ground-based maps shows an improvement of thematic concurrency of 46% when viewing average class agreement. The absence of the cropland mosaic class creates a difficulty in comparing the maps, due to its significant extent in the DISCover map. The DISCover map, in general, has more forest, while the UMd map has considerably more area in the intermediate tree cover classes of woody savanna/ woodland and savanna/wooded grassland.

    8. Assessment of islet quality following international shipping of more than 10,000 km.

      PubMed

      Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Itoh, Takeshi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Tamura, Yoshiko; Jackson, Andrew M; Shimoda, Masayuki; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Onaca, Nicholas; Yasunami, Yohichi; Levy, Marlon F

      2010-01-01

      Islet transplantation is an attractive therapy for type 1 diabetes, although some issues remain. One of them is the severe donor shortage in some countries. In this study, we investigated the possibility of international islet shipping beyond 10,000 km to supply islets to countries with donor shortages. Human islets were isolated from six cadaver donors and cultured until shipment. Islets were packed in either gas-permeable bags or in non-gas-permeable bags and shipped from Baylor Research Institute (Dallas, TX, USA) to Fukuoka University (Fukuoka, Japan). Pre- and postshipment islet number, purity, viability, and stimulation index (by glucose stimulation test) were assessed. Shipped 1,500 IE islets were transplanted into streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mice for in vivo assay. The distance of our shipment was 11,148.4 km, and the mean duration of the shipments was 48.2 ± 8.2 h. The islet number recovery rate (postshipment/preshipment) was significantly higher in gas-permeable bags (56.4 ± 10.1% vs. 20.5 ± 20.6%, p < 0.01). Islet purity was significantly reduced during shipment in non-gas-permeable bags (from 47.7 ± 18.6% to 40.2 ± 28.2 in gas-permeable bags vs. from 50.4 ± 6.4% to 25.9 ± 15.6% in non-gas-permeable bags, p < 0.05). Islet viability and stimulation index did not change significantly between pre- and postshipping, in either gas-permeable bags or in non-gas-permeable bags. One of three diabetic nude mice (33.3%) converted to normoglycemia. It is feasible to ship human islet cells internationally in gas-permeable bags. This strategy would promote basic and preclinical research for countries with donor shortages, even though the research centers are remote (over 10,000 km from the islet isolation center).

    9. Biochemical and Hematological Changes Following the 120-Km Open-Water Marathon Swim

      PubMed Central

      Drygas, Wojciech; Rębowska, Ewa; Stępień, Ewa; Golański, Jacek; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

      2014-01-01

      Data on physiological effects and potential risks of a ultraendurance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim on the Warta River, Poland. Pre-swimming examinations revealed favorable conditions (blood pressure, 110/70 mmHg; rest heart rate, 54 beats/minute, ejection fraction, 60%, 20.2 metabolic equivalents in a maximal exercise test). The swimming time and distance covered were 27 h 33 min and 120 km, respectively. Blood samples for hematological and biochemical parameters were collected 30 min, 4 hrs, 10 hrs and 8 days after the swim. The body temperature of the swimmer was 36.7°C before and 35.1°C after the swim. The hematological parameters remained within the reference range in the postexercise period except for leucocytes (17.5 and 10.6 x G/l noted 30 minutes and 4 hours after the swim, respectively). Serum urea, aspartate aminotransferase and C-reactive protein increased above the reference range reaching 11.3 mmol/l, 1054 nmol/l/s and 25.9 mg/l, respectively. Symptomatic hyponatremia was not observed. Although the results demonstrate that an experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without negative health consequences, further studies addressing the potential risks of marathon swimming are required. Key points Data on biochemical changes due to long-distance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim. An experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without serious health consequences. Regarding the growing popularity of marathon swimming further studies addressing the potential risks of such exhaustive exercise are required. PMID:25177192

    10. Effect of lactate supplementation and sodium bicarbonate on 40-km cycling time trial performance.

      PubMed

      Northgraves, Matthew J; Peart, Daniel J; Jordan, Christian A; Vince, Rebecca V

      2014-01-01

      The use of nutritional supplements to improve sporting performance and increase training adaptations is commonplace among athletes and is an expanding market in terms of product choice and availability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 ergogenic aids with extracellular blood buffering potential, namely sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and a lactate supplement, during a 40-km cycling time trial. Seven recreationally active men (age, 22.3 ± 3.3 years; height, 182.5 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 79.2 ± 6.3 kg) completed five 40-km cycling time trials, including a familiarization trial in a randomized, blind, double placebo-controlled design. Subjects ingested (a) 300 mg·kg-1 body mass NaHCO3 (BICARB), (b) 45 mg·kg-1 body mass sodium chloride (PL-BICARB) as the placebo for the NaHCO3 trial, (c) 1115 mg lactate (LACTATE), or (d) plain flour as the placebo for the lactate trial (PL-LACTATE) 60 minutes before exercise. There was no significant difference in performance between the 4 conditions (p > 0.05). Although NaHCO3 ingestion induced significant changes in all the acid-base variables (all p < 0.05), no significant change was seen following lactate ingestion (p > 0.05). Subjects in the LACTATE condition did have a significantly higher heart rate (p < 0.05) without experiencing any greater perceived exertion (p > 0.05) than the other 3 conditions. Neither NaHCO3 nor lactate supplementation seem to improve 40-km cycling time trial performance. However, the potential benefits following LACTATE regarding perceived exertion require further research.

    11. The effect of acute taurine ingestion on 4-km time trial performance in trained cyclists.

      PubMed

      Ward, Ryan; Bridge, Craig A; McNaughton, Lars R; Sparks, S Andy

      2016-11-01

      Taurine (TAU) has been shown to improve exercise time to exhaustion and 3-km running performance; however, no studies have considered the effect of acute TAU ingestion on short duration cycling time trial (TT) performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single oral acute dose of 1000 mg of TAU on a laboratory simulated 4-km cycling TT. Eleven trained male cyclists performed three, 4-km TTs. The first of the trials was a familiarisation, followed by two subsequent trials which were performed two hours after the consumption of either 1000 mg of TAU or placebo (P), using a double-blind randomised crossover design. Capillary blood samples were obtained prior to the start and immediately after each TT for the measurement of lactate, pH and HCO3(-). There was no effect of TAU (p = 0.731, d = 0.151) on performance (390 ± 27 and 388 ± 21 s for TAU and P, respectively), nor were there any condition main effects for VO2, lactate, pH, or HCO3(-) (p > 0.05) despite post TT changes in lactate (7.3 ± 2.5 mmol l(-1), p < 0.001, d = 2.86, 7.6 ± 2.0 mmol l(-1) p < 0.001, d = 3.75); pH (-0.255 ± 0.1, p < 0.001, d = 2.62, -0.258 ± 0.09, p < 0.001, d = 2.87); HCO3(-) (-13.58 ± 2.7 mmol l(-1), p < 0.001, d = 5.04 vs. -13.36 ± 2.3, p < 0.001, d = 5.72 for TAU and P, respectively). The findings of this study suggest that a pre-exercise dose of 1000 mg TAU offers no performance advantage during 4-km TT nor does it alter the blood buffering responses in trained cyclists.

    12. Ozone profile intercomparison based on simultaneous observations between 20 and 40 km

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Aimedieu, P.; Krueger, A. J.; Robbins, D. E.; Simon, P. C.

      1983-01-01

      The vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone has been simultaneously measured by means of five different instruments carried on the same balloon payload. The launches were performed from Gap during the intercomparison campaign conducted in June 1981 in southern France. Data obtained between altitudes of 20 and 40 km are compared and discussed. Vertical profiles deduced from Electrochemical Concentration Cell sondes launched from the same location by small balloons and from short Umkehr measurements made at Mt Chiran (France) are also included in this comparison. Systematic differences of the order of 20 percent between ozone profiles deduced from solar u.v. absorption and in situ techniques are found.

    13. Highly dispersion-tolerant 160 Gbaud optical Nyquist pulse TDM transmission over 525 km.

      PubMed

      Hirooka, Toshihiko; Ruan, Peng; Guan, Pengyu; Nakazawa, Masataka

      2012-07-02

      We demonstrate an optical Nyquist pulse TDM (Nyquist OTDM) transmission at 160 Gbaud with a substantial increase in the dispersion tolerance compared with a conventional OTDM transmission. Optical Nyquist pulses can be bit-interleaved to ultrahigh symbol rate without suffering from intersymbol interference due to its zero-crossing property at every symbol interval. This allows the signal bandwidth to be greatly narrowed compared to typical pulse waveforms such as Gaussian or sech profile. By virtue of this property, a dispersion tolerance over ± 8 ps/nm was successfully realized in 160 Gbaud, 525 km transmission.

    14. IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set, DISCover: First results

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.

      1997-01-01

      The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) is co-ordinating the development of global land data sets from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The first is a 1 km spatial resolution land cover product `DISCover', based on monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index composites from 1992 and 1993. DISCover is a 17 class land cover dataset based on the science requirements of IGBP elements. Mapping uses unsupervised classification with post-classification refinement using ancillary data. Draft Africa, North America and South America products are now available for peer review.

    15. Procedure for locating 10 km UTM grid on Alabama County general highway maps

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Paludan, C. T. N.

      1975-01-01

      Each county highway map has a geographic grid of degrees and tens of minutes in both longitude and latitude in the margins and within the map as intersection crosses. These will be used to locate the universal transverse mercator (UTM) grid at 10 km intervals. Since the maps used may have stretched or shrunk in height and/or width, interpolation should be done between the 10 min intersections when possible. A table of UTM coordinates of 10 min intersections is required and included. In Alabama, all eastings are referred to a false easting of 500,000 m at 87 deg W longitude (central meridian, CM).

    16. Mid-Latitude Temperatures at 87 km: Results From Multi-Instrument Fourier Analysis

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. M.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; She, C . Y.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

      2000-01-01

      Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid-latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibration bias, significant local-time variations on the order of 10 K were observed. Stationary planetary waves with amplitudes up to 10 K were observed during winter, with weaker wave amplitudes occurring during other seasons. Because of calibration biases among these instruments, we could estimate the annual mean temperature to no better than 193.5 plus or minus 8.5 K.

    17. Compilation of atmospheric gas concentration profiles from 0 to 50 km

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Smith, M. A. H.

      1982-01-01

      A set of 52 atmospheric gas concentration profiles between 0 and 50 km was compiled as a convenient reference data set for calculation of atmospheric infrared absorption or emission signals and for initialization of iterative procedures for retrieval of gas concentrations from measured data. The distributions of volume mixing ratio as a function of altitude generally correspond to typical diurnally averaged, seasonally averaged Northern Hemisphere midlatitude gas concentration profiles. Profiles are given for all gases included in current infrared atmospheric absorption line parameter compilations, and for a number of additional important trace gases.

    18. The design of the optical modules of the KM3NeT-Italia project towers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

      2016-07-01

      The KM3NeT-Italia project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope, to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The R&D and mass production phases of the detection elements of the telescope, the optical modules, were entirely performed in the INFN-LNS site in the harbour of Catania. In November 2014 a first tower of 14 storeys equipped with 84 optical modules was successfully deployed in the Mediterranean Sea site. The design of the optical modules and their main components are described in this paper.

    19. Design and production of the digital optical module of the KM3NeT project

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Leonora, Emanuele; Giordano, Valentina

      2017-03-01

      The KM3NeT collaboration is building the ARCA and ORCA neutrino telescopes in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. They will consist of 3-dimensional arrays of photodetectors, called digital optical modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called detection units. The optical modules are composed of a pressure-resistant 17-inch spherical glass vessel, which contains 31 small photomultiplier tubes and all the associated electronics. The multi- photomultiplier solution represents an innovative design with respect to optical modules of all currently operated neutrino telescopes comprising a single large photomultipliers.

    20. Characterisation and testing of the KM3NeT acoustic positioning system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Viola, S.; Simeone, F.; Saldaña, M.

      2016-04-01

      In underwater neutrino telescopes, the search of point-like sources through the Cherenkov detection technique requires a precise knowledge of the positions of thousands of optical sensors, spread in a volume of a few cubic kilometres. In KM3NeT the optical sensors are hosted in 700 m high semi-rigid structures, called detection units, which move under the effects of underwater currents. These movements are continuously monitored through an underwater positioning system based on acoustic emitters and receivers. In this work, the tests performed on the key elements of the positioning system are presented.


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