Science.gov

Sample records for 7-3-1 hongo bunkyo-ku

  1. Development of a Charged-particle Accumulator Using an RF Confinement Method II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-24

    Ryugo Hayano, Ph.D., Professor Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku,Tokyo 113-0033,Japan,JP,113-0033 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AOARD

  2. Chance Discovery with Data Crystallization: A Basic Research for Discovering Unobservable Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-10

    Ohsawa y School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku, 113-8563, Japan y.ohsawa@gmail.com Received 17 June 2005 This paper...this study as the software developer of data crystallization. y School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8653...University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8563 Japan, ohsawa@q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract. There are invisible events which play an important role

  3. Development of a Charged-Particle Accumulator Using an RF Confinement Method VI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-10

    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku...Department of Physics 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 - Phone : 03-5841-4235 - Fax : 03-4496-4043 Period of Performance: 2/9/2009 – 3/8/2010

  4. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Standard Star Catalog for Stripe 82: The Dawn of Industrial 1% Optical Photometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    6 Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. 7 Institute for Cosmic Ray...no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control

  5. Development of a Charged-Particle Accumulator Using an RF Confinement Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-12

    person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku

  6. Development of a Charged-Particle Accumulator Using an RF Confinement Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-29

    comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 29 SEP 2009 2. REPORT TYPE...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku,Tokyo 113-0033,Japan,NA,NA 8

  7. DSMC Simulation of Non-uniform Flow Effects behind a Conical Nozzle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-13

    University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo , Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan Abstract. The two-dimensional cylindrical DSMC simulations around a object were conducted...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control

  8. The CIRP International Workshop on Concurrent Engineering for Product Realization (1st) Held in Tokyo, Japan on June 27 - 28, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Director of RPI Design Research Center) - - H. Yoshikawa (Japan, Vice President of University of Tokyo, Chairman of Scientific committee/Japan IMS...A, SF-02150 ESPOO Finland Tel.+358-0451-3315 Fax.+358-0351-3318, 3293 Prof. Eiji Arai Dept. Precision Machinery Engineering Tokyo Metropolitan...Fax 518-276-2702 Professor Hiroyuki Yoshikawa Department of Precision Machinery Engineering The University of Tokyo Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113

  9. Experimental Investigation of Upstream Boundary Layer Acceleration on Unsteadiness of Shock-Induced Separation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Experimental Study of the Driving Mechanism and Control of the Unsteady Shock Induced Turbulent Separation in a Mach 5 compression Corner Flow...University of Tokyo, Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan, Oct. 25-29, 1987. 12 Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the test section with compression...ramp. Seeding System Optics FLOW CCD Cameras Dual-Cavity Nd: Yag Laser Photodiode Beam Splitter Timing Electronics ``` FLC Shutter Controller

  10. Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, R. J.; Baoini, D.; Conway, S. J.; Dohm, J. M.; Kargel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars R.J. Soare(1), D. Baioni(2), S.J. Conway (3), J.M. Dohm(4)and J.S. Kargel (5)(1) Geography Department, Dawson College, Montreal, Canada H3Z 1A4 rsoare@dawsoncollege.qc.ca.(2) Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra,della Vita e Ambiente, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Campus SOGESTA, 61029 Urbino (PU) Italy. (3) Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, MK7 6AA. (4) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-, Japan.(5) Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA 85719.1.Introduction Metre to decametre-deep depressions that are rimless, relatively flat-floored, polygonised and scallop-shaped have been widely observed in Utopia Planitia (UP) [e.g. 1-5] and Malea Planum (MP) [6-8]. Although there is some debate about whether the depressions formed by means of sublimation or evaporation, it is commonly believed that the terrain in which the depressions occur is ice-rich.Moreover, most workers assume that this "ice-richness" is derived of a bi-hemispheric, latitudinally-dependent and atmospherically-precipitated mantle that is metres thick [2,4,6-10].

  11. Phosphate Tether-Mediated Ring-Closing Metathesis for the Generation of P-Stereogenic, Z-Configured Bicyclo[7.3.1]- and Bicyclo[8.3.1]phosphates.

    PubMed

    Markley, Jana L; Maitra, Soma; Hanson, Paul R

    2016-02-05

    A phosphate tether-mediated ring-closing metathesis (RCM) study to the synthesis of Z-configured, P-stereogenic bicyclo[7.3.1]- and bicyclo[8.3.1]phosphates is reported. Investigations suggest that C3-substitution, olefin substitution, and proximity of the forming olefin to the bridgehead carbon of the bicyclic affect the efficiency and stereochemical outcome of the RCM event. This study demonstrates the utility of phosphate tether-mediated desymmetrization of C2-symmetric, 1,3-anti-diol-containing dienes in the generation of macrocyclic phosphates with potential synthetic and biological utility.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) Complexes with 8-Ethyl-2-hydroxytricyclo(7.3.1.0(2,7))tridecan-13-one-thiosemicarbazone: Antimicrobial and in Vitro Antiproliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Pahonțu, Elena; Paraschivescu, Codruța; Ilieș, Diana-Carolina; Poirier, Donald; Oprean, Camelia; Păunescu, Virgil; Gulea, Aurelian; Roșu, Tudor; Bratu, Ovidiu

    2016-05-21

    New Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes, (Cu(L)(H₂O)₂(OAc)) (1), (Cu(HL)(H₂O)₂(SO₄)) (2), (Cu(L)(H₂O)₂(NO₃)) (3), (Cu(L)(H₂O)₂(ClO₄)) (4), (Cu(L)₂(H₂O)₂) (5), (Pd(L)(OAc))H₂O (6), and (Pt(L)₂) (7) were synthesized from 8-ethyl-2-hydroxytricyclo(7.3.1.0(2,7))tridecan-13-one thiosemicarbazone (HL). The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, UV-Vis, FAB, EPR, mass spectroscopy, elemental and thermal analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements and molar electric conductivity. The free ligand and the metal complexes have been tested for their antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. enteritidis, S. aureus, E. faecalis, C. albicans and cytotoxicity against the NCI-H1573 lung adenocarcinoma, SKBR-3 human breast, MCF-7 human breast, A375 human melanoma and HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell lines. Copper complex 2 exhibited the best antiproliferative activities against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. A significant inhibition of malignant HL-60 cell growth was observed for copper complex 2, palladium complex 6 and platinum complex 7, with IC50 values of 1.6 µM, 6.5 µM and 6.4 µM, respectively.

  13. Synthesis, characterization antibacterial and antiproliferative activity of novel Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes with 2-hydroxy-8-R-tricyclo[7.3.1.0.(2,7)]tridecane-13-one thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Rosu, Tudor; Pahontu, Elena; Pasculescu, Simona; Georgescu, Rodica; Stanica, Nicolae; Curaj, Adelina; Popescu, Alexandra; Leabu, Mircea

    2010-04-01

    Synthesis and biological activity investigation of complex compounds of Cu(II) are challenging issues because of the metal is not a xenobiotic one and the activity of ligands could be modulated by complexation. Complex combinations of Cu(II) and Pd(II) with thiosemicarbazone derivatives of 2-hydroxy-8-R-tricyclo[7.3.1.0.(2,7)]tridecane-13-one (where R=C(3)H(7), C(4)H(3)O) were synthesized. The characterization of the ligands and the newly formed compounds was done by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV-vis, IR, ESR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, molar electric conductibility and thermal studies. Experiments performed to identify the structures proved that the ligands coordinate to metal ions in different ways - neutral bidentate or mononegative bidentate. Also, if copper(II) acetate, copper(II) nitrate, copper(II) chloride and copper(II) thiocyanate were used, the ligands coordinated in a mononegative bidentate fashion. If copper(II) sulfate was used, the ligands coordinated in a neutral bidentate fashion. The biological activity for the copper(II) synthesized compounds was assessed in terms of antibacterial or antiproliferative activity. The antibacterial activity of the complexes against Staphylococcus aureus var. Oxford 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, Klebsielle pneumoniae ATCC 100131 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 strains was studied and compared with that of free ligands. The effect of complex compounds on the proliferation of HeLa cells was tested. For all tested complexes an antiproliferative activity was noted at concentrations higher than 1 microM, but lower than 10 microM. Therefore, complex compounds of copper(II) were synthesized, structurally characterized and tested for biological activity, proving both antibacterial and antiproliferative activity.

  14. An Estimation of the Potential of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics for Car Weight Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Murayama1, Kazuro Kageyama1, Keiichi Nagata1, Tsuyoshi Matsuo1 and Jun Takahashi1 1The University of Tokyo * 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo City, Tokyo 113-8656...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) The University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo City, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  15. Coherent control and detection of spin qubits in semiconductor with magnetic field engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokura, Yasuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Electrical control and detection of the spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are among the major rapidly progressing fields for possible implementation of scalable quantum information processing. Coherent control of one-[1-3] and two-[4,5] spin qubits by electrical means had been demonstrated with various approaches. We have used an engineered magnetic field structure realized with proximal micro-magnets to transduce the spin and charge degrees of freedom and to selectively address one of the two spins [3]. We have demonstrated an all-electrical two-qubit gate consisting of single-spin rotations and interdot spin exchange in double QDs. A partially entangled output state is obtained by the application of the two-qubit gate to an initial, uncorrelated state. Our calculations taking into account of the nuclear spin fluctuation show the degree of entanglement. Non-uniform magnetic field also enables spin selective photon-assisted tunneling in double QDs, which then constitutes non-demolition spin read-out system in combination with a near-by charge detector [6]. [4pt] In collaboration with R. Brunner, Inst. of Phys., Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700, Austria, M. Pioro-Ladrière, D'ep. de Phys., Universit'e de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Qu'ebec, J1K-2R1, Canada, T. Kubo, Y. -S. Shin, T. Obata, and S. Tarucha, ICORP-JST and Dep. of Appl. Phys., Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.[4pt] [1] F. H. Koppens, et al., Nature 442, 766 (2006).[0pt] [2] K. C. Nowack, et al., Science 318, 1430 (2007).[0pt] [3] M. Pioro-Ladrière, et al., Nature Physics 4, 776 (2008).[0pt] [4] J. R. Petta, et al., Science 309, 2180 (2005).[0pt] [5] R. Brunner, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146801 (2011).[0pt] [6] Y. -S. Shin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046802 (2010).

  16. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc 5.5.7-3.1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-10-01

    The open-source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled to set up and simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions faster and easier on high-performance computers. In combination with the elaborated and extendable chemical database of IPhreeqc, it will be possible to set up a wide range of multiphysics problems with numerous chemical reactions that are known to influence water quality in porous and fractured media. A flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other. This technical paper presents the implementation, verification, and parallelization scheme of the coupling interface, and discusses its performance and precision.

  17. Environmental Impact Research Program: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Section 7.3.1, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Ditterline et al. 1976, Hanson and Barnes 1978, Wasser 1982). ,’ - Plants are palatable and nutritious to most herbivores and provide good cover for many...I to 4 cm) long and 0.4 to 0.8 in. (I to 2 cm) wide. Small pea - like flowers range in color from pale blue to purple but are occasionally J . white or...se- vere damage. Lygus bugs and alfalfa seed chalcids affect seed production but are controllable by insecticides. The pea aphid and spotted alfalfa

  18. The Third Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    1. 2. THE THIRD DATA RELEASE The SDSS Third Data Release (DR3) consists of all survey- quality data taken through 2003 June as part of the main SDSS...for the Early Universe, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. 48 Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton...Help page for more information about the Stetson and RC3 databases. 2.3. ImagginggQuality Measures on a Field-by-Field Basis As part of quality

  19. Computer Modeling of Acceleration Effects on Cerebral Oxygen Saturation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    a significant physiological threat to etrate the cranium and enter the cerebral cortex. Hongo high-performance aircraft pilots since the development...et al. and Hongo et al. (7,8). blackened out and all that could be seen was the target, The primary focus of this effort was to build a model i.e...O6GInduced.html. 87:402. 12. Tripp LD, Arnold A, Bagian J, et al. Psychophysiological effects 8. Hongo K, Kobayashi S, Okudera H, et al. Noninvasive cerebral of

  20. Vulnerabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    May 1, 2006)”, http://www.mod.go.jp/e/d_policy/dp13.html (accessed 1 April 2009). 6 ibid 7 Hongo , Jun. “Japan, U.S. sign accord on forces,” The...Jacobs, G. Keith. "Guam Becoming US Pacific Linchpin." Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 29 (2003): 38-39. Jun, Hongo . "Japan, U.S. sign accord on forces

  1. Identification and Therapeutic Targeting of Paracrine Senescence Factors in the Prostate Tumor Microenvironment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    power with 5% one-sided Type I error rate. Discussions with Ms. Johanna Kidwell of the Human Subjects Protection Office, Office of Research...67. Zlot C, Ingle G, Hongo J, Yang S, Sheng Z, Schwall R , Paoni N, Wang F, Peale FV and Gerrisen ME, 2003, The Journal of Biological Chemistry

  2. Accuracy Analysis for Kinetic Modeling of Homogeneous Condensation in Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 29-05-2009 2. REPORT TYPE...Mizuseki, K. Hongo , Y. Kawazoe, and L. Wille, “Multiscale simulation of cluster growth and deposition processes by hybrid model based on direct

  3. Non-equilibrium Numerical Model of Homogeneous Condensation in Argon and Water Vapor Expansions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-05

    currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 05-02-2010 2. REPORT TYPE Journal...37H. Mizuseki, K. Hongo , Y. Kawazoe, and L. Wille, Comp. Mat. Sci. 24, 88 (2002). 38J. Zhong, M. Zeifman, and D. Levin, J. Thermophysics and Heat

  4. Accuracy Analysis for Kinetic Modeling of Homogeneous Condensation in Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-18

    currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 18-12-2009 2. REPORT TYPE...of magnetic clusters studied by direct simulation Monte Carlo method,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, p. 6561, 2000. 15H. Mizuseki, K. Hongo , Y. Kawazoe, and

  5. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System: 2006 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    YANKTON 7.3.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.3.1.1 Lake Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River that straddles the Nebraska...19 3.4 Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake Yankton, Lake Pocasse, and Lake Audubon ............. 19 4 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT...95 7 MAINSTEM ANCILLARY LAKES

  6. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    103 7.3 LAKE YANKTON 7.3.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.3.1.1 Lake Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River...3.4 Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake Yankton, Lake Pocasse, and Lake Audubon ............. 19 4 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS...96 7 MAINSTEM ANCILLARY LAKES

  7. [Clinical profile of sensitization to fungi in Medellin, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Bissinger, Ingrid; Bareño, José

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: la sensibilización a hongos se relaciona con enfermedades alérgicas como: asma, rinitis, conjuntivitis y dermatitis. En general, se asocia con sensibilidad a otros alérgenos. El patrón multisistémico se asoció en Medellín con la sensibilización a hongos. Objetivo: determinar el perfil clínico de la sensibilización a hongos en la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. Material y método: estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo consistente en la revisión de historias clínicas de pacientes menores de 70 años de edad con sensibilidad a hongos en las pruebas de neumoalergenos realizadas entre el 1 enero de 2011 y el 31 de marzo de 2014 en la consulta de alergología de dos clínicas. Se evaluaron 16 hongos y la coexistencia de enfermedades alérgicas y las condiciones ambientales. Resultados: de 897 pruebas de prick realizadas, 12.8% resultaron positivas a alguno de los hongos, el más frecuente fue Candida albicans con 30.4%. La rinitis se encontró en 100% de los pacientes, asma en 46.1%, conjuntivitis en 92.2% y el patrón mutisistémico en 9.6%. El patrón mutisistémico se asoció con ser joven con riesgo de 9.259, IC 95%: 1.14-74.95 y a estar sensibilizado a Aspergillus fumigatus con un riesgo de 4.381, IC 95%: 1.116-17.204. Conclusiones: el patrón de sensibilidad mostró mayor sensibilidad a Candida. La mayoría de los pacientes está polisensibilizada. El patrón multisistémico es más frecuente en niños, se relaciona con sensibilidad a Aspergillus. Por los hallazgos de este estudio, alérgenos como Candida y Cladosporium deberían evaluarse en Medellín.

  8. First-Principles Monte-Carlo Simulation of Homogeneous Condensation in Atomic and Molecular Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 29-05-2009 2. REPORT TYPE...extended Larsen-Borgnakke principle. An important parameter that controls the rate of internal energy transfer in cluster-monomer collisions is analyzed...Mizuseki, K. Hongo , Y. Kawazoe, and L. Wille, “Multiscale simulation of cluster growth and deposition processes by hybrid model based on direct

  9. [Viable allergenic fungi in a documentary deposit of the National Archive of Cuba].

    PubMed

    Molina-Veloso, Alian; Borrego-Alonso, Sofía F

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: La exposición intensa y persistente a agentes biológicos del aire interior se ha relacionado con la aparición de trastornos a la salud. Se ha establecido asociación entre las condiciones ambientales, los hongos anemófilos y los estados alérgicos. Los ambientes interiores de archivos y bibliotecas en países tropicales son un reservorio importante de propágulos fúngicos, cuyo seguimiento y control son primordiales en la prevención de enfermedades ocupacionales. Objetivo: Evaluar el grado de contaminación del aire con hongos alergénicos viables en un depósito de documen-tos que se manipulan con alta frecuencia (ambiente laboral). Métodos: El muestreo aéreo se realizó por métodos activo (biocolector) y pasivo (sedimentación en placa). Los aislados se identificaron taxonómicamente, se medieron las esporas para determinar su penetrabilidad en el tracto respiratorio humano y se evaluó su impacto en los episodios de alergia. Resultados: En concentración y diversidad, el ambiente local se comportó como un reservorio de propágulos fúngicos, lo cual evidenció riesgo para la salud del personal. Se determinó que algunas esporas pueden alcanzar el tracto respiratorio inferior, con lo que se acentúa su potencial alergénico y patogénico. Prevalecieron Aspergi-llus, Cladosporium, Penicillium y Alternaria, referidos como hongos altamente alergénicos. Conclusión: Los estudios aerobiológicos constituyen una herramienta de gran valor para el tratamiento de los pacientes con alergia a los hongos y otros trastornos que estos producen.

  10. Kaumalapau Harbor, Hawaii, Breakwater Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    7.3  Direction based amplification factor .......................................................................... 91  7.3.1  Correlation and...the breakwater, based on packing density coefficient of  = 0.62. ................................................................................ 32...Kona storm . ................................................................................................................. 65  Figure 6.6. Time

  11. Laminated Object Manufacturing-Based Design Ceramic Matrix Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    7 3.1.1-3 Examples of CMC Parts with 0 Gaussian Curvature A) Nicalon/ Blackglas™ Fairing Channel, B) SiC/SiC Engine Flameholders, C) DIMOX ™ Body...CMC Parts with 0 Gaussian Curvature A) Nicalon/ Blackglas™ Fairing Channel, B) SiC/SiC Engine Flameholders, C) DIMOX ™ Body Armor Plate

  12. Temporal and Modal Characterization of DoD Source Air Toxic Emission Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    56 7.3.1 Experimental Design ...87 10.2.6 Number Size Distributions (NSDs) .............................................................................90 10.3...Figure 10-3. Cold start emissions of benzene, naphthalene, methylnaphthalene, CO, and CO2 and PM size distribution for the M1097 (left) and M1114

  13. National Dam Safety Program. Steers Mill Dam (Inventory Number VA 05302), Nottoway River Basin, Dinwiddie County, Virginia. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    inadequate, but not seriously inadequate. Overall the dam was in fair condition at the ture of inspection. A routine maintenace program does not exist for this...following maintenace items should be scheduled by the owner within the next twelve ronths: 7.3.1 Spalling concrete and scattered cracking on the dam

  14. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Fine Particulate Matter as PM2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... writing in advance of such an intended application under part 53 of this chapter. 7.3.1 Sample inlet... a reference or equivalent method application under part 53 of this chapter or in writing in advance... advance of such intended application under part 53 of this chapter. 7.4.7 Range of operational...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Fine Particulate Matter as PM2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... writing in advance of such an intended application under part 53 of this chapter. 7.3.1 Sample inlet... a reference or equivalent method application under part 53 of this chapter or in writing in advance... advance of such intended application under part 53 of this chapter. 7.4.7 Range of operational...

  16. High Efficiency - Reduced Emissions Boiler Systems for Steam, Heat, and Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    biofuels , biomass systems), the technology demonstrated in this project would find direct applicability. ESTCP Project EW-201016 Final Report 9 July...will allow immediate energy savings in the meantime. Last but not least, the adoption and diffusion of liquid biofuels will present efficiency...7.3 COST ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON .................................................................. 101 7.3.1 Energy Cost Savings

  17. High Efficiency - Reduced Emissions Boiler Systems for Steam, Heat, and Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    renewable solutions are adopted ( biofuels , biomass systems), the technology demonstrated in this project would find direct applicability. 9...immediate energy savings. The adoption and diffusion of liquid biofuels will present efficiency improvement potential similar to those observed with...33 7.3 COST ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON ........................................................... 34 7.3.1 Energy Cost Savings

  18. Coherent Multilook Radar Detection for Targets in Pareto Distributed Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    measurements, for maritime high resolution radar returns. Using the theory of spherically invariant random processes, the Neyman -Pearson optimal...allows the determination of detection decision rules. The Pareto distri- bution is put into this framework, and the Neyman -Pearson detector is specified...6 3 Neyman -Pearson Detectors 7 3.1 Case of a Completely Known Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2

  19. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System. 2010 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.3.1.1 Lake Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River that straddles the Nebraska and South...17 3.4 Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake Yankton, Lake Pocasse...and Lake Audubon ............................. 17 4 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS

  20. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System: 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    7.3.1.1 Lake Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River that straddles the Nebraska and South Dakota border, just below...18 3.4 Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake Yankton, Lake Pocasse, and Lake Audubon .............................18 4...115 7 MAINSTEM ANCILLARY LAKES ..........................................................................................................118 7.1 Lake

  1. High Resolution Seismic Survey off the Pacific Shore of Costa Rica - Detailed Imaging of Deformational Patterns, Fluid Venting and Carbonate Mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, N.; Spiess, V.; Heidersdorf, F.; v. Lom, H.; Zuehlsdorff, L.; Denil, D.; Huguen, C.; Schnabel, M.

    2003-04-01

    R/V METEOR Research Cruise M54/1 in summer 2002 from Balboa (Panama) to Caldera (Costa Rica) aimed at imaging the near sea floor sedimentary structures of both the continental and oceanic plates of the Costa Rican Subduction Zone with the high resolution seismic method. The cruise evolved from a cooperation of the Marine Seismics Group of the University of Bremen with the DFG funded Special Research Project 574 - Fluids and Volatiles in Subduction Zones - and is intended to supplement the marine geophysical, geological and geochemical as well as oceanographic data collected during R/V SONNE cruises in the area, as well as subsequent R/V METEOR cruises M54/2 and /3. The objectives of SFB 574 are the investigation of shallow and deep processes in subduction zones through near surface sampling of fluid vent sites and gas hydrate occurrences, as well as through detailed seismic and acoustic imaging of related structures. The main objectives of the cruise were to study 1) the volatile and material input into the sedimentary system on the oceanic plate, 2) the distribution of gas hydrates within the sediments, and 3) possible pathways and resulting structures of fluid/gas escape. Several working areas were selected, which had been identified as highly fractured sediment packages above subducting seamounts (Jaco Scar, Parrita Scar, Rio Bongo, Hongo area), areas of pronounced decollement reflection, major slump masses (Nicoya slide), regions of major fracturing of the oceanic crust, or carbonate mounds (Hongo area, Mound Culebra) during previous cruises. For calibration of seismic data, survey lines were also shot in the vicinity of ODP Leg 170 drill sites. Several seismic examples from various survey sites will be shown. Closely spaced profiles, allowing the acquisition of 3D and 2.5D seismic data in the Hongo area and near Mound Culebra, respectively, reveal the complex internal structure of fluid pathways, the distribution of gas hydrates, and the tectonic framework of

  2. Tritium in Japanese precipitation following the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Shimoda, Gen; Obata, Hajime; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Yamamoto, Koshi; Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hagino, Kyoko; Tomioka, Naotaka; Sambandam, Chinmaya; Brummer, Daniela; Klaus, Philipp Martin; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2013-02-15

    Tritium concentrations in Japanese precipitation samples collected after the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) were measured. Values exceeding the pre-accident background were detected at three out of seven localities (Tsukuba, Kashiwa and Hongo) southwest of the FNPP1 at distances varying between 170 and 220 km from the source. The highest tritium content was found in the first rainfall in Tsukuba after the accident; however concentrations were 500 times less than the regulatory limit for tritium in drinking water. Tritium concentrations decreased steadily and rapidly with time, becoming indistinguishable from the pre-accident values within five weeks. The atmospheric tritium activities in the vicinity of the FNPP1 during the earliest stage of the accident was estimated to be 1.5×10(3) Bq/m(3), which is potentially capable of producing rainwater exceeding the regulatory limit, but only in the immediate vicinity of the source.

  3. The reductive effect of an anti-pollinosis mask against internal exposure from radioactive materials dispersed from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro

    2013-02-01

    The reductive effect of an anti-pollinosis mask against internal exposure from radioactive materials dispersed following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster was investigated. A single mask was worn continuously for 18 h from 15:00 JST on 15 March to 09:00 JST on 16 March 2011 at the Hongo campus of the University of Tokyo, Japan. An adult without a mask was exposed during this time to radiation of 6.1 μSv over ambient background in effective dose and 33 μSv in dose equivalent to the thyroid. Radionuclides were dispersed not only in their gaseous and particulate state but also as components that agglomerate to other aerosols and pollens. Wearing a mask for anti-pollinosis could reduce internal exposure from inhalation.

  4. Electronics Technician 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-01-01

    teflon, silicone rubber, asbestos , and glass are the best insulators. Moisture as well as high temperature lowers insula- tion resistance and...aboard ship includes what three distribution systems? 16. Good installation practice requires that wire antennas be free from what defects? 210 17. Why are...20 220 ISO ’ 60 170 lse 󈨞 200 210 140 210 200 190) 70 160 15C Figure 7-3 1 -Satisfactory transmitting directivity pattern for searchlight-type sonar

  5. Broad Specification Fuels Combustion Technology Program. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    128 7.2.7 Combustion Stability 131 7.3 Modifications to the Variable Geometry Combustor Concept 131 7.3.1 Initial Variable Geometry Combustor...implied that combustion was being restricted to areas close to the liners. Based on these observations it was evident that the fundamental concept of...these concepts represent advanced technology approaches that are more likely to find application in future engines rather than in retrofit into older

  6. 40 CFR 430.95 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Kg/kkg (or pounds per 1,000 lb) of product Milligrams/liter Pentachlorophenol 0.0030 (0.044)(16.2)/y... biocides: Subpart I Pollutant or pollutant property Kg/kkg (or pounds per 1,000 lb) ofproduct Continuous... (annualaverage) BOD5 5.7 3.1 1.6 TSS 8.7 4.6 2.4 pH (1) (1) (1) Maximum for any 1 day Kg/kkg (or......

  7. An Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    7 3. 1 " BUILT -IN" LANGUAGES................................8 3.1.1 SMALLTALK......................................8 3.1.2 EIFFEL ...Something of ai. object-oriented " Tower of Babel" has been created. And while it is hard enough for someone with OOP experience to under- stand all of...language, in which case it is referred to as a bolted-on language. A language is considered to be built -in if it is designed around the principles of

  8. Prevalence of Prehospital Hypoxemia and Oxygen Use in Trauma Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    prehospital endotracheal intubation . Hypoxemia occurred in 86 (38.4%), paramedics suspected traumatic brain injury in 22 (9.8%), and 20 (8.9%) were...admitted; 36.2% sustained a penetrating injury. None underwent prehospital endotracheal intubation . Hypoxemia occurred in 86 (38.4%), paramedics...36.2% sustained a penetrating injury. No subject underwent endotracheal intubation in the pre hospital setting; 7 (3.1%) underwent intubation in the

  9. Phosphate Tether-Mediated Ring-Closing Metathesis for the Generation of Medium to Large, P-Stereogenic Bicyclo[n.3.1]phosphates.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Soma; Markley, Jana L; Chegondi, Rambabu; Hanson, Paul R

    2015-09-02

    A phosphate tether-mediated ring-closing metathesis study towards the synthesis of P-stereogenic bicyclo[6.3.1]-, bicyclo[7.3.1]-, and bicyclo[8.3.1]phosphates is reported. This study demonstrates expanded utility of phosphate tether-mediated desymmetrization of C2-symmetric, 1,3-anti-diol dienes in generating complex medium to large, P-stereogenic bicyclo[n.3.1]phosphates..

  10. Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Models and Quantum Computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    cellular automata, quantum cellular automata, action principles, periodic orbits, turbulence U U U UL 8 Bruce M. Boghosian (617) 627–3054 Contents 1...thereof . . 6 2.5 Lattice Boltzmann algorithm for periodic unstable orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Personnel Supported 7 3.1 2005...continue to work on it in the remaining period of this grant. There are reasons for optimism in the search for quantum circuits described above. First, if

  11. Bioremediation Approaches for Treating Low Concentrations of N-Nitrosodimethylamine in Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing...DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1 . REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a...xiv Executive Summary xv 1.0 PROJECT OBJECTIVES 1 2.0 BACKGROUND 2 3.0 TECHNICAL APPROACH 7 3.1

  12. HP-sequence design for lattice proteins—An exact enumeration study on diamond as well as square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, S. L.; Rajarajan, A. K.; Vardharaj, L.

    2012-09-01

    We present an exact enumeration algorithm for identifying the native configuration—a maximally compact self-avoiding walk configuration that is also the minimum energy configuration for a given set of contact-energy schemes; the process is implicitly sequence-dependent. In particular, we show that the 25-step native configuration on a diamond lattice consists of two sheet-like structures and is the same for all the contact-energy schemes, {(-1, 0, 0); (-7, -3, 0); (-7, -3, -1); (-7, -3, 1)}; on a square lattice also, the 24-step native configuration is independent of the energy schemes considered. However, the designing sequence for the diamond lattice walk depends on the energy schemes used whereas that for the square lattice walk does not. We have calculated the temperature-dependent specific heat for these designed sequences and the four energy schemes using the exact density of states. These data show that the energy scheme (-7, -3, -1) is preferable to the other three for both diamond and square lattice because the associated sequences give rise to a sharp low-temperature peak. We have also presented data for shorter (23-, 21-, and 17-step) walks on a diamond lattice to show that this algorithm helps identify a unique minimum energy configuration by suitably taking care of the ground-state degeneracy. Interestingly, all these shorter target configurations also show sheet-like secondary structures.

  13. Source Process of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake Using New Fault Geometry and 3-D Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, R.; Koketsu, K.

    2005-12-01

    The September 1, 1923, Kanto earthquake caused severe damage and more than 100,000 fatalities in the Tokyo metropolitan area. This earthquake is an interplate event along the Sagami trough where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath a continental plate. We have investigated the source process of this earthquake using the geodetic, teleseismic, and strong motion data (Kobayashi and Koketsu, 2005). The resultant slip distributions show that two asperities (areas of large slips) are located around the base of the Izu peninsula and the Uraga channel. In 2002 and 2003, four seismic surveys were carried out to determine crustal structures and fault locations in the Kanto region (Sato et al., 2005). The seismic reflections from the surface of the Philippine Sea slab suggested that the slab surface should be shallower than the previous models (e.g., Ishida, 1992; Matsu'ura et al., 1980). The fault model of Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) was also based on Matsu'ura et al. (1980). In this study, we adopt new fault geometry consistent with the result of the reflection surveys and perform another source process inversion. The new slip distribution showed that the western asperity moved from the Uraga channel to the tip of the Miura peninsula, while the western asperity did not move considerably. Green's functions that Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) used were calculated in a halfspace for geodetic data or in a 1-D model for strong motions. However, the real structure in the Kanto region is three-dimensionally complex as suggested by the geographical setting and seismic surveys. In fact, Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) showed that the long coda of the observed seismogram at Hongo, Tokyo, was not reproduced in the synthetic one. The forward modeling with a 3-D structure (Sato et al., 1999) suggested that surface waves excited along the boundary between the Kanto mountains and Kanto basin can explain the large coda. Thus we calculate 3-D Green's functions for the strong motion

  14. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics and Nanotechnology (HMF-19)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraki, Koji; Takeyama, Shojiro

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 19th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics and Nanotechnology (HMF-19) held in Fukuoka, Japan, from 1-6 August 2010. This conference was mainly sponsored by the Tokyo University-'Horiba International fund', which was donated by Dr Masao Horiba, the founder of Horiba Ltd. The scientific program of HMF-19 consisted of 37 invited talks, 24 contributed talks, and 83 posters, which is available from the conference homepage http://www.hmf19.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/index.html. Each manuscript submitted for publication in this volume has been independently reviewed. The Editor is very grateful to all the reviewers for their quick responses and helpful reports and to all the authors for their submissions and patience for the delay in the editorial process. Finally, the Editor would like to express his sincere gratitude to all the individuals involved in the conference organization and all the attendees, who made this conference so successful. Koji Muraki Conference photograph Committees Chair Conference chairS Takeyama(ISSP-UT) Conference secretary T Machida (IIS-UT) Program chair K Muraki (NTT) Local organizing chair K Oto (Chiba Univ.) Advisory Committee International Domestic L Brey (ES) T Ando (TIT) Z H Chen (CN) Y Hirayama (Tohoku Univ.) S Das Sarma (US) G Kido (NIMS) L Eaves (GB) N Miura (JP) J P Eisenstein (US) J Nitta (Tohoku Univ.) K Ensslin (CH) T Takamasu (NIMS) J Furdyna (US) G M Gusev (BR) I Kukushkin (RU) Z D Kvon (RU) G Landwehr (DE) J C Maan (NL) A H MacDonald (US) N F Oliveira Jr (BR) A Pinczuk (US) J C Portal (FR) A Sachrajda (CA) M K Sanyal(IN) R Stepniewski(PL) Program Committee Chair: K Muraki(NTT) International Domestic G Bauer (AU) H Ajiki (Osaka Univ.) G Boebinger (US) H Aoki (Hongo, UT) S Ivanov (RU) K Nomura (RIKEN) K von Klitzing (DE) T Okamoto (Hongo, UT) R Nicholas (GB) T Osada (ISSP-UT ) M Potemski (FR) N Studart (BR) U Zeitler (NL

  15. Advanced Cooling for High Power Electric Actuators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    Winding Temperature Response 2.3-7 3.1.1-1 Reflux/PCM Design Concept 3.1.1-2 Typical Loading Percentage for Spoiler Electromotor -Actuator 3.1.2-1...for a switched reluctance electromotor that is to be used in the spoiler of a large aircraft. A cooler was designed to dissipate over 850 W of heat...Loading Percentage for Spoiler Electromotor -Actuator 0162ms Page 3-2 3.1.2 Small Cooler Design Problem Definition The heat exchanger was designed

  16. Disability Evaluation System Analysis and Research Annual Report 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-11

    other hyperalimentation, for all services except the Air Force.  Cannabis abuse was also common in the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps.  Hearing...239 7.3 1.2 Disorders of lipoid metabolism 536 5.7 1.0 Hearing loss 197 6.0 1.0 Cannabis abuse 515 5.5 0.9 Disorders of refraction and...accommodation 141 4.3 0.7 Disorders of refraction and accommodation 371 4.0 0.7 Cannabis abuse 129 3.9 0.6 Total Applicants with Medical Conditions

  17. DDC 10 Year Requirements and Planning Study. Survey Results Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Inmproved Marketing of DDC Products and Serviceir: 0 The extremely low level of awareness of most DDM servrces (i.e., only 4 out of 22 DDC services...3-4 3.1.7 Information Analysis Centers........-.... . 3-7 3.1.8 User Training and Marketing ............................ . 3-7 3.2...welcome such educational progra’is. 1-4 V • ._ • • • .• =•, .:7; • ’I,൙. ,• ,•a -.- ’ •, •-• ’’ "- = ’ "".. 0 The importance of marketing of DDC services

  18. A Workshop on Analysis and Evaluation of Enterprise Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 This report was prepared for the SEI Administrative Agent ESC/XPK 5 Eglin Street Hanscom AFB, MA...Enterprise Business 4 2.3 Bounding Enterprise Architecture in Practice 5 3 Enterprise Architecture Design and Documentation Practices 7 3.1 Typical...Methods 12 4.5 Federation and Acquisition 13 5 Summary 14 5.1 Workshop Findings 14 5.2 Future Work 15 Appendix A – Survey of Enterprise Architecture

  19. Investigation of Chlorine Treatment DNA-Based Detection of the Bacillus anthracis Spore

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia lamblia have long been known to pose a public health threat to drinking water supplies. More...Chlorine and Antimicrobial Peptides …………………………………………………………………….. 37 7.3.1. PCR of B. anthracis Spores Treated with Protamine and Then...organisms such as Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Cryptosporidium parvum, and

  20. Model Program Generator: System and Programming Documentation, Spring 1982 Version.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    cCMND_EXP> I BOOLEAN-TER14 /SVOEPl/ c OR. /SVNXOP/ cBOOLERU_TEK /Svtacop/]I * /STALW. ( cCNP -EXP)t:.I /SVCOMD/ /E(3 )/ DOO0LEAN_EXPRESSIOtN OSVaHPn /EO7...as follows: ALLOCATE ERROR, ACCERROR j ACCERROR - 10’B ALLCATE $ERR_- LAB p SERRLAB - EDPROGRAM The declarations written to the PLIDCL file are as...7.3.1 PROGRAM HEADING If the node is a module name (type MODL) we produce the code: name: PROCEDURE OPTIONS(MAIN) j This code is routed to the file

  1. Megawatt-power Ka-band gyroklystron oscillator with external feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guznov, Y. M.; Danilov, Y. Y.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Novozhilova, Y. V.; Shevchenko, A. S.; Zaitsev, N. I.; Ryskin, N. M.

    2013-10-01

    We report design and experimental demonstration of a high-power regenerative oscillator based on the gyroklystron amplifier with external delayed feedback. The oscillator operates on axially non-symmetric TE7.1.1 and TE7.3.1 modes in the input and output cavity, respectively. Peak output power of 1.5-2.0 MW with nearly 1 μs pulse duration in Ka-band is observed experimentally. Application of the selective delayed feedback not only overcomes the mode competition problem but also provides controlled mode switching within 1-2 GHz frequency band.

  2. Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS), Murmansk, USSR. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Organization: USAFETAC 7b.hddress: Scott AFB, IL 62225-5458 11lTitle: (LISOCS) MURMANSK USSR. l2Personal Author(s): I3aType of Report: Data Summary...7 1. .3 4.2 11.6P N6. I7 .3 1 .0 159.7 "N 4 2 .7 1 .6 17 .6 TOTALS I 1. .3J1 3 .6 A9. 9 1 .3 T7 100.0 10.3 TOTfAL NUTT"LP OF ORSON ’JA T I 0.0

  3. 75 FR 44734 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... now five CO monitoring sites in Las Vegas Valley: Winterwood, East Sahara, Sunrise Acres, Orr School....8 3.7 3.8 East Sahara 3.7 3.1 3.7 4.7 4.2 4.7 Sunrise Acres 3.5 2.8 3.5 4.2 4.7 4.7 Orr School 2.6 2... ppm (East Sahara) 1-Hour CO Design Value = 4.7 ppm (East Sahara and Sunrise Acres) CO NAAQS 9 ppm...

  4. Predicting Software Assurance Using Quality and Reliability Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    found during development by testing and other methods . Based on an analysis of pump recalls and adverse events, the FDA concluded that many of the...Overview ix Abstract xiii 1 Introduction 1 2 Assurance 3 2.1 DoD Assurance Case Example 4 3 Analysis of Quality Cases 7 3.1 SEI Data 7 3.2 Defect...Prediction Models 8 3.3 In-Depth Analysis : Security Focused Example (Project A1) 11 3.3.1 Security Example Results 11 3.3.2 Security Example

  5. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft, Calendar Year 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    JENNY JN-4H 2 41 HISPANO I ISO 1 1 JN4CAN 2 41 UNKNOWN 1 0 1 1 CM-1 2 41 FRANKLIN 1 60 1 1 JN-4D JENNY REPLICA 2 41 FAIRCHILD 1 200 1 1 CURTIS WRIGHT...270 105 87 18 11 3 2 1 9 34 Jim Hogg 7 3 1 ŕ 1 1 Jim Wells 79 26 33 2 4 3. 1 10 Johnson 107 47 48 6 1 3 2 Jones 30 20 9 1 Karnes 31 8 9 3 1 1 9

  6. Archaeological Test and Data Recovery Program at Telegraph Canyon, Chula Vista, California,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    PREFACE 1 2.0 PROJECT SETTING 2 2.1 Introduction 2 2.2 Regional Potential. 4 3.0 BACKGROUND DATA 6 3.1 Cultural History 7 3.1.1 San Dieguito 10 3.1.2 La...evidence suggested that much of the region surrounding the creekbed would have had high resource value to early native populations in the at least recent...project is located in an unsectioned portion of the Rancho de la :.:. Nacion land grant, Township 18 South, Range 2 West (Figure 2). .. 2.2 REGIONAL

  7. Maintenance Plan for Historic Buildings within the Presidio of San Francisco Historic Landmark District.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-10

    Asphalt Shingles 7.3.2 Slate Shingles 7.3.3 Clay Tiles 7.3.4 Tin Roofing 40 40 42 V, ftftflfl .V.vV. «v-v .- ! J *.*. .--v?y?x^-.-.v...1 . . • . " - ’ f . • • --r"^ *-- ’-• ".- V ".’.V. .•_-." ^.ff. .’. .’. -’. f. •-. ’ -> - - 7.3 ROOFING 7.3.1 ASPHALT SHINGLES ...considered a high priority and accomplished by using shingles of the same variey, color and configuration as the others on the roof. - DO NOT USE asphalt

  8. Design and Control of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Lightweight Flexible Arm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    8217 J OCT 111989 Visiting Professor, Dpto Ingenieria Electnca, Electronica y Control , UNED, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040, Spain. 2 Visiting...V) Design and Control of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Lightweight Flexible Arm Vicente Feliu’ , H. Benjamin Brown, Jr., and Kuldip S. Rattan’ CMU-RI-TR...Mechanical Issues 3 2.1. Kinematics 4 2.2. Rigid Arm Dynamics 5 2.3. Compliance 5 3. Control Issues 7 3.1. General Scheme 73.2. Motor Position Control Loops 8

  9. Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Heteorogeneous Solids: A Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    Distibution Unlimied GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYI tSCHOOL, OF ARROSPACH SNO1NIRING ,4 ATLANTA, GEORGIA SO$I CI H RI 03125, * - -.- UNCLASSIFIED...Through an Aggregate of Mobile Reacting Particles, "Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, 1974. 2.3, 5.2, 5.6 29 Cough, P. S.; "Fundamental Investigation of...Combustion Processes in Mobile Granular Propellant Beds," M. S. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 1975. 2.3, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2

  10. Seismo-acoustic Investigations of Mud Diapirs Offshore Northern Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, N.; Grevemeyer, I.; Reston, T.; Spiess, V.

    2006-12-01

    The erosive subduction system offshore Pacific Costa Rica is characterized by numerous mud domes of up to 100 m heights located on the overriding plate. A series of multi-disciplinary investigations has shown the mounds in the northwestern domain, opposite subducting East Pacific Rise material, to be of diapiric origin. As shown by two case studies over the single large Mound Culebra and the group of Hongo mounds, respectively, the properties of the subducting plate gravely influences the development of the mounds. Based on observations in multi-frequency seismo-acoustic data, the continental slope is subdivided into regions dominated by fast downslope sediment transport, enhanced accumulation, and slow trenchward migration. Inferred deep faults are thought to control diapir location. Fluid venting near the mud domes has been documented by various geochemical and geological techniques. Heat flow values estimated from the depth of a gas hydrate BSR indicate non-vigorous, possibly deteriorating activity at the mounds with decreasing distance from the deformation front. Distinct anomalies are seen related to several morphological features such as, in addition to Mound Culebra, a nearby fault scarp as well as a circular, crater-like structure. Comparison of the target areas highlights the role of subducting morphological differences.

  11. Tritium in Japanese precipitation following the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Shimoda, Gen; Obata, Hajime; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Yamamoto, Koshi; Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hagino, Kyoko; Tomioka, Naotaka; Sambandam, Chinmaya; Brummer, Daniela; Klaus, Philipp Martin; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    We have measured the concentrations of tritium in Japanese precipitation samples collected after the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1). Tritium concentrations exceeding the pre-accident background level were detected at three out of seven localities (Tsukuba, Kashiwa and Hongo) southwest of the FNPP1, with their distances varying between 170 and 220 km from the source. The highest tritium content was found in the first rainfall in Tsukuba after the accident, but its tritium content was about 500 times less than the regulatory limit for tritium in drinking water, so that the risk of radiation from tritium released in the accident can be considered negligible. Tritium levels at the localities studied here decreased steadily and rapidly with time and became indistinguishable from the pre-accident values within five weeks. The atmospheric tritium level in the vicinity of the FNPP1 during the earliest stage of the accident was roughly estimated to be 1.5 × 103 Bq/m3, which is potentially capable of producing rainwater exceeding the regulatory limit, but only in the immediate vicinity of the source.

  12. [Acute optic neuropathy: differential diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Buompadre, María Celeste

    2013-09-06

    Introduccion. La alteracion funcional del nervio optico se caracteriza por un deficit en la agudeza visual, en la vision cromatica y en el campo visual, defecto pupilar aferente y, en algunos casos, edema del nervio o atrofia y palidez. Objetivo. Describir el espectro de neuropatias opticas agudas, su clinica, diagnostico y tratamiento, con mayor interes en aquellas de presentacion en la edad pediatrica. Desarrollo. La neuritis optica puede ser monofasica, recurrente o el componente de un cuadro desmielinizante polisintomatico. El objetivo del tratamiento es reducir el numero y la gravedad de los ataques y prevenir discapacidad. La infecciosa es secundaria a diferentes microorganismos (bacterias, virus, hongos y protozoos). El tratamiento depende de la etiologia. La isquemica anterior no arteritica o idiopatica es la forma mas frecuente y es secundaria a enfermedad de pequeños vasos (ciliares posteriores). La neuropatia optica hereditaria o de Leber representa una causa importante de afectacion visual cronica y se caracteriza por la afectacion selectiva de las celulas ganglionares de la retina. Hasta el momento, la terapia solo es de apoyo. En el papiledema asociado a hipertension endocraneal, la agudeza visual generalmente se conserva pero existe aumento de la mancha ciega. El tratamiento se basa en disminuir la hipertension y el factor etiologico si existe. Conclusiones. Las neuropatias opticas agudas constituyen un amplio grupo de entidades, de etiologia diversa y con un pronostico visual variable. La presencia de signos del examen neurologico, fondo de ojo y neuroimagenes pueden orientar hacia el diagnostico y tratamiento oportuno.

  13. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    PubMed

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated.

  14. [Identification of microorganisms related to chronic rhinosinusitis in adult patients with variable common immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Angulo-Pérez, Gabriela; Vivar-Acevedo, Eulalio; Herrera-Sánchez, Diana Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: la prevalencia de rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV) es de 52%. Los pacientes con esta enfermedad tienen mayor frecuencia de rinosinusitis crónica, enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta a la mucosa de uno o más senos paranasales y la cavidad nasal. Objetivo: identificar los microorganismos de secreción del meato medio obtenida por endoscopia asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV). Material y método: estudio descriptivo, transversal, que incluyó a pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable, de quienes se obtuvo una muestra vía endoscópica de secreción del meato medio de ambas fosas nasales, que se envió a cultivo para bacterias aerobias, anaerobias y hongos. Se obtuvo consentimiento informado de todos los pacientes. Resultados: se estudiaron 29 pacientes: 18 mujeres y 11 hombres, con edad promedio de 40±13 años. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: 2 muestras de pacientes no tuvieron desarrollo microbiano, 24 tuvieron desarrollo de bacterias aerobias, en 3 casos hubo crecimiento fúngico sin desarrollo de bacterias anaerobias. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran que los microorganismos asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable más comunes son: Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis y Citrobacter koseri; los agentes micóticos asociados fueron: Candida albicans y Aspergillus fumigatus.

  15. [Prevalence of sensitization to allergens in school children with asthma residents from Guadalajara metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Alcalá-Padilla, Guadalupe; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; Kestler-Gramajo, Amanda; Valdez-López, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: la prevalencia de rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV) es de 52%. Los pacientes con esta enfermedad tienen mayor frecuencia de rinosinusitis crónica, enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta a la mucosa de uno o más senos paranasales y la cavidad nasal. Objetivo: identificar los microorganismos de secreción del meato medio obtenida por endoscopia asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV). Material y método: estudio descriptivo, transversal, que incluyó a pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable, de quienes se obtuvo una muestra vía endoscópica de secreción del meato medio de ambas fosas nasales, que se envió a cultivo para bacterias aerobias, anaerobias y hongos. Se obtuvo consentimiento informado de todos los pacientes. Resultados: se estudiaron 29 pacientes: 18 mujeres y 11 hombres, con edad promedio de 40±13 años. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: 2 muestras de pacientes no tuvieron desarrollo microbiano, 24 tuvieron desarrollo de bacterias aerobias, en 3 casos hubo crecimiento fúngico sin desarrollo de bacterias anaerobias. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran que los microorganismos asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable más comunes son: Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis y Citrobacter koseri; los agentes micóticos asociados fueron: Candida albicans y Aspergillus fumigatus.

  16. [Prevalence of sensitization to fungi in patients with respiratory allergy].

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Ibarra-Chávez, Jesús Arturo; Elizondo-Villarreal, Bárbara; Rivero-Arias, Dulce María; Salinas-Díaz, María Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: la prevalencia de rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV) es de 52%. Los pacientes con esta enfermedad tienen mayor frecuencia de rinosinusitis crónica, enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta a la mucosa de uno o más senos paranasales y la cavidad nasal. Objetivo: identificar los microorganismos de secreción del meato medio obtenida por endoscopia asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV). Material y método: estudio descriptivo, transversal, que incluyó a pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable, de quienes se obtuvo una muestra vía endoscópica de secreción del meato medio de ambas fosas nasales, que se envió a cultivo para bacterias aerobias, anaerobias y hongos. Se obtuvo consentimiento informado de todos los pacientes. Resultados: se estudiaron 29 pacientes: 18 mujeres y 11 hombres, con edad promedio de 40±13 años. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: 2 muestras de pacientes no tuvieron desarrollo microbiano, 24 tuvieron desarrollo de bacterias aerobias, en 3 casos hubo crecimiento fúngico sin desarrollo de bacterias anaerobias. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran que los microorganismos asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable más comunes son: Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis y Citrobacter koseri; los agentes micóticos asociados fueron: Candida albicans y Aspergillus fumigatus.

  17. [Cross-reactivity in allergic fungal sinusitis. Case report].

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Rivero-Arias, Dulce María; Partida-Ortega, Alma Belén; Elizondo-Villarreal, Bárbara; Ibarra-Chávez, Jesús Arturo; Ramos-Valencia, Lissette; Monge-Ortega, Olga Patricia; Macouzet-Sánchez, Carlos; Salinas-Díaz, María Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: La presencia de mucina alérgica en la rinosinusitis alérgica fúngica (RAF) es una manifestación que la identifica como un proceso de hipersensibilidad. En la RAF existe un fenómeno de reactividad cruzada entre proteínas unidas a IgE que tienen al menos dos epítopes compartidos. Caso clínico: Varón de 13 años de edad con síntomas obstructivos nasales de tres años de evolución. Por exploración física y tomografía se identificó masa obstructiva en los senos paranasales. En la cirugía endoscópica, en la fosa nasal izquierda se identificó pólipo con aspecto macroscópico de mucina alérgica; el pólipo fue resecado. El examen histopatológico final mediante tinciones con ácido peryódico de Schiff y metenamina plata de Grocott indicó Aspergillus. Dos semanas después de la cirugía, las pruebas percutáneas mostraron sensibilización a Alternaria alternata, Helminthosporium sativum y Deramatophagoides farianae, con negatividad a Aspergillus fumigatus. Conclusiones: La ausencia de títulos significativos de anticuerpos IgE específicos para Aspergillus fumigatus constituyó la evidencia de que la respuesta de hipersensibilidad fue desencadenada por un patógeno distinto del aislado en el estudio histopatológico, que aunada a las pruebas positivas para otros hongos puede explicarse por el fenómeno de reactividad cruzada en un probable fenómeno de hipersensibilidad.

  18. GANODERMA LUCIDUM IMPROVES PHYSICAL FITNESS IN WOMEN WITH FIBROMYALGIA.

    PubMed

    Collado Mateo, Daniel; Pazzi, Francesco; Domínguez Muñoz, Francisco J; Martín Martínez, Juan Pedro; Olivares, Pedro R; Gusi, Narcis; Adsuar, José C

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la fibromialgia es una enfermedad crónica caracterizada por dolor crónico general, rigidez, condición física pobre, sueño no reparador y mala calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Ganoderma lucidum es un tipo de hongo que ha demostrado tener diferentes beneficios en diversas poblaciones. La harina de algarrobo (Ceratonia siliqua) es una fuente natural de antioxidantes con potenciales beneficios para la salud. Objetivo: evaluar los efectos sobre la condición física en mujeres con fibromialgia de un tratamiento de seis semanas con Ganoderma lucidum y compararlos con los de un tratamiento con Ceratonia siliqua. Métodos: sesenta y cuatro mujeres con fibromialgia participaron en el estudio. Se hicieron dos grupos, el primer grupo tomó 6 g diarios de Ganoderma lucidum, mientras que el segundo tomó 6 g diarios de Ceratonia siliqua. Se evaluó la condición física mediante diferentes test físicos validados. Resultados: después de seis semanas de tratamiento, Ganoderma lucidum mejoró significativamente la resistencia aeróbica, la flexibilidad del miembro inferior y la velocidad (p < 0,05). Por otro lado, Ceratonia siliqua no mejoró la condición física. Discusión y conclusiones: Ganoderma lucidum puede mejorar la condición física en mujeres con fibromialgia, mientras que Ceratonia siliqua parece no ser efectivo para este propósito. Estos resultados pueden indicar que 6 g diarios de Ganoderma lucidum podrían ser un suplemento útil para mejorar la condición física en esta población.

  19. Fourier Transform Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-18

    Q1 = £ 2 [A(C, S) cos C + B(C, S) sin C] (A-10) or, using (A-4) and remembering that Q2 = 0, G(ao,po)=[A(C,S) cosC +B(C,S)sinC] , (A-11) where A(C,S) = 2J...Csin 2po and w=-Ssinpo and expanding the cosine, we have P= r sin 2 PO[A(u,w) cosC +B(u,w)sinC] ,(C-10) where A(u, w) 2J1 cos( 1i ur 2 IJ0 (wr)r dr ,and...Abstract iii Acknowledgments v List of Illustrations ix List of Symbols Used xi 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2 . PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 3 3. INHERENT LIMITATIONS 7 3.1

  20. The Relative Acceptability and Consumption of the Current T Ration with and without New Breakfast and Dinner Menus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    blueberry cake, canned peaches and fruit cocktail, fresh pears and bananas, frosted krispies cereal, chocolate milk , and cocoa ). Acceptability of the Dinner T...Beverages Orange Juice 0 0 0i Coffee Cocoa White Milk Chocolate Milk -= Bread White 8888 - Wheat 080000000008 Oatmeal Peaches and Cream n Cinnamon Spice...Beverag 6.2 2.4 7.2 1.4 2.82 111 ltt Milk 6.1 2.1 6.3 2.5 n- - Chocolate Milk 6.7 1.9 7.3 2.1 ns - Ooffee 6.9 2.3 7.4 2.2 i- Grape- - 7.3 1.6

  1. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Laser plume spectroscopy. 2. Graphite yttrium-stabilised and zirconium oxide targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. V.; Solomonov, V. I.; Platonov, V. V.; Snigireva, O. A.; Ivanov, M. G.; Lisenkov, V. V.

    2005-07-01

    Spectral and kinetic properties of a plume formed in the vicinity of a graphite and a pressed yttrium-stabilised zirconium oxide (YSZ) powder targets irradiated in air by a 10.6-μm pulsed CO2 laser with a peak power of 1.5-9 kW at room temperature are studied. The plume propagated at right angles to the target surface and at an angle of 45° to the laser radiation. The spectral and kinetic characteristics of its luminescence were measured discretely along the entire length of the plume. It is shown that the YSZ plume as well as the graphite plume is a flux of nonequilibrium gaseous plasma at a temperature of about 4.7-3.1 kK, in which a luminescence of YO and ZrO radicals is excited.

  2. The recovery heat production in non-myelinated garfish olfactory nerve fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, J V; Ritchie, J M

    1979-01-01

    1. The recovery heat production of the non-myelinated fibres of garfish olfactory nerve has been measured. 2. At about 20 degrees C the total recovery heat was 381 +/- 26 microcal g-1 impulse-1 at a stimulation frequency of 2 sec-1. 3. The time constant of decay of the recovery heat production after a brief period of stimulation was 78.7 +/- 3.1 sec at about 20 degrees C. 4. Changing the temperature (by +/- 5 degress C) had little effect on the total recovery heat produced. 5. However, lowering the temperature reduced both the rate of rise, and the maximum rate of recovery heat production whereas the time constant of decay was increased. Raising the temperature produced corresponding changes in the opposite direction. 6. the recovery heat production measured in the present experiments is consistent with the previously measured oxygen consumption in the same preparation. PMID:490341

  3. Clinical, pathological, and genetic features of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A with new calpain 3 gene mutations in seven patients from three Japanese families.

    PubMed

    Kawai, H; Akaike, M; Kunishige, M; Inui, T; Adachi, K; Kimura, C; Kawajiri, M; Nishida, Y; Endo, I; Kashiwagi, S; Nishino, H; Fujiwara, T; Okuno, S; Roudaut, C; Richard, I; Beckmann, J S; Miyoshi, K; Matsumoto, T

    1998-11-01

    We report on the clinical, pathological, and genetic features of 7 patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) from three Japanese families. The mean age of onset was 9.7+/-3.1 years (mean+/-SD), and loss of ambulance occurred at 38.5+/-2.1 years. Muscle atrophy was predominant in the pelvic and shoulder girdles, and proximal limb muscles. Muscle pathology revealed dystrophic changes. In two families, an identical G to C mutation at position 1080 the in calpain 3 gene was identified, and a frameshift mutation (1796insA) was found in the third family. The former mutation results in a W360R substitution in the proteolytic site of calpain 3, and the latter in a deletion of the Ca2+-binding domain.

  4. Antiretroviral Treatment and Sexual Risk Behavior in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Risher, Kathryn; Rehle, Thomas; Simbayi, Leickness; Shisana, Olive; Celentano, David D

    2016-04-01

    The sexual behavior of individuals living with HIV determines the onward transmission of HIV. With the understanding that antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents transmission of HIV, the sexual behaviors of the individuals not on ART with unsuppressed viral loads becomes of the greatest importance in elucidating transmission. We assessed the association between being on ART and sexual risk behavior among those living with HIV in a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey of households in South Africa that was conducted in 2012. Of 2237 adults (aged 15-49) who tested HIV-seropositive, 667 (29.8 %) had detectable antiretroviral drugs in their blood specimens. Among males, 77.7 % of those on ART reported having had sex in the past year contrasted with 88.4 % of those not on ART (p = 0.001); among females, 72.2 % of those on ART reported having had sex in the past year while 80.3 % of those not on ART did (p < 0.001). For males and females, the odds of reporting consistent condom use and condom use at last sex were statistically significantly higher for individuals on ART compared to those not on ART (males: consistent condom use aOR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.6-4.9, condom use at last sex aOR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.5-4.6; females: consistent condom use aOR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.7-3.1, condom use at last sex aOR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.7-3.1), while there were no statistically significant differences in odds of reporting multiple sexual partners in the past year. In this nationally representative population-based survey of South African adults, we found evidence of less risky sexual risk behavior among people living with HIV on ART compared to those not on ART.

  5. Relationship Between Subduction Erosion, Seamount Subduction, Fluid Venting and Mound Formation on the Slope of the Costa Rican Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, C.; Klaucke, I.; Weinrebe, W.

    2006-12-01

    The oceanic crust off central Costa Rica northwest of the Cocos Ridge is dominated by chains of seamounts rising 1-2 km above the seafloor with diameters of up to 20 km. The subduction of these seamounts leads to strong indentations, scars and slides on the continental margin. A smoother segment of about 80 km width is located offshore Nicoya peninsula. The segment ends at a fracture zone which marks the transition of oceanic crust created at the Cocos-Nazca spreading center (CNS) and at the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Offshore Nicaragua the incoming EPR crust is dominated by bending related faults. To investigate the relationship between subduction erosion, fluid venting and mound formation, multibeam bathymetry and high-resolution deep-tow sidescan sonar and sediment echosounder data were acquired during R/V Sonne cruises SO163 and SO173 (2002/2003). The deep-tow system consisted of a dual-frequency 75/410 kHz sidescan sonar and a 2-12 kHz chirp sub-bottom profiler. The connection of the observed seafloor features to deeper subduction related processes is obtained by analysis of multi-channel streamer (MCS) data acquired during cruises SO81 (1992) and BGR99 (1999). Data examples and interpretations for different settings along the margin are presented. Near the Fisher seamount the large Nicoya slump failed over the flank of a huge subducted seamount. The sidescan and echosounder data permit a detailed characterization of fault patterns and fluid escape structures around the headwall of the slump. Where the fracture zone separating CNS and EPR crust subducts, the Hongo mound field was mapped in detail. Several mounds of up to 100 m height are located in line with a scar possibly created by a subducting ridge of the fracture zone. MCS data image a topographic high on the subducting oceanic crust beneath the mound field which lead to uplift and possibly enabled ascent of fluids from the subducting plate. The combined analysis of geoacoustic and seismic MCS data

  6. Catalogue of type specimens of fungi and lichens deposited in the Herbarium of the University of Granada (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A catalogue of types from the Herbarium of the University of Granada has not previously been compiled. As a result, a search of these collections in order to compile digital images for preservation and publication yielded a large number of formerly unrecognized types. New information This dataset contains the specimen records from the catalogue of the nomenclature types of fungi and lichens in the Herbarium of the University of Granada, Spain. These herbarium specimens are included in the GDA and GDAC collections, acronyms from Index Herbariorum (Thiers 2014). At this time, the type collection of fungi and lichens contains 88 type specimens of 49 nominal taxa, most from Agaricales and the genus Cortinarius, described from the western Mediterranean, mainly Spain, by the following authors: V.Antonin, J.Ballarà, A.Bidaud, G.F.Bills, M.Bon, C.Cano, M.Casares, G.Chevassut, M.Contu, F.Esteve-Raventós, R.Galán, L.Guzmán-Dávalos, R.Henry, E.Horak, R.Mahiques, G.Malençon, P.Moënne-Loccoz, G.Moreno, A.Ortega, F.Palazón, V.N.Suárez.-Santiago, A.Vêzda, J.Vila, and M.Villareal. For each specimen, the locality indication, species name, observation date, collector, type status, related information, associated sequences, other catalogue numbers related to each type, and image URL are recorded. The dataset is associated with an image collection named “Colección de imágenes de los tipos nomenclaturales de hongos, líquenes, musgos y algas incluidos en el Herbario de la Universidad de Granada (GDA y GDAC)” (Vizoso and Quesada 2013) which is housed and accessible at the Global Biodiversity Information Facility in Spain (GBIF.ES) Hosting and Publishing Service “Biodiversity Image Portal of Spanish collections” and is also available at the Herbarium of University of Granada institutional web (Vizoso 2014a, Vizoso 2014b). That image collection contains 113 images, of which 56 correspond to the nomenclature types of 49 taxa (47 fungi, 2 lichens

  7. Lipid transfer to HDL is higher in marathon runners than in sedentary subjects, but is acutely inhibited during the run.

    PubMed

    Vaisberg, Mauro; Bachi, André L L; Latrilha, Conceição; Dioguardi, Giuseppe S; Bydlowski, Sergio P; Maranhão, Raul C

    2012-07-01

    Although exercise increases HDL-cholesterol, exercise-induced changes in HDL metabolism have been little explored. Lipid transfer to HDL is essential for HDL's role in reverse cholesterol transport. We investigated the effects of acute exhaustive exercise on lipid transfer to HDL. We compared plasma lipid, apolipoprotein and cytokine levels and in vitro transfer of four lipids from a radioactively labeled lipid donor nanoemulsion to HDL in sedentary individuals (n = 28) and in marathon runners (n = 14) at baseline, immediately after and 72 h after a marathon. While HDL-cholesterol concentrations and apo A1 levels were higher in marathon runners, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and triacylglycerol levels were similar in both groups. Transfers of non-esterified cholesterol [6.8 (5.7-7.2) vs. 5.2 (4.5-6), p = 0.001], phospholipids [21.7 (20.4-22.2) vs. 8.2 (7.7-8.9), p = 0.0001] and triacylglycerol [3.7 (3.1-4) vs. 1.3 (0.8-1.7), p = 0.0001] were higher in marathon runners, but esterified-cholesterol transfer was similar. Immediately after the marathon, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and apo A1 levels were unchanged, but apo B and triacylglycerol levels increased. Lipid transfer of non-esterified cholesterol [6.8 (5.7-7.2) vs. 5.8 (4.9-6.6), p = 0.0001], phospholipids [21.7 (20.4-22.2) vs. 19.1 (18.6-19.3), p = 0.0001], esterified-cholesterol [3.2 (2.2-3.8) vs. 2.3 (2-2.9), p = 0.02] and triacylglycerol [3.7 (3.1-4) vs. 2.6 (2.1-2.8), p = 0.0001] to HDL were all reduced immediately after the marathon but returned to baseline 72 h later. Running a marathon increased IL-6 and TNF-α levels, but after 72 h these values returned to baseline. Lipid transfer, except esterified-cholesterol transfer, was higher in marathon runners than in sedentary individuals, but the marathon itself acutely inhibited lipid transfer. In light of these novel observations, further study is required to clarify how these metabolic changes can influence HDL composition and

  8. Global Modeling of Phosphine (PH3) Spectra: 13 to 2.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Linda R.; Nikitin, A.; Champion, J.; Kleiner, I.; Butler, R. A. H.

    2008-09-01

    In order to support remote sensing of Saturn and Jupiter, the infrared spectrum of PH3 was studied using high resolution (R>360000) laboratory spectra obtained with Fourier transform spectrometers. The line positions and intensities involving up to 21 sub-vibrational states were analyzed simultaneously using theoretical models developed in France and extended in Russia. The polyads considered were the Dyad (13 - 7.3 μm), Pentad (5.9 - 3.8 μm) and Octad (3.7 - 3.1 μm). The improved quantum mechanical models were implemented using an effective Hamiltonian in the form of irreducible tensors. The global modeling permitted more extensive quantum assignments to be made for transitions arising from both from the ground state and the two lowest fundamentals. The standard deviations of the global fit represent significant improvement with respect to previous studies of phosphine spectroscopy at these wavelengths. These results will be presented. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with The National Aeronautics and Space Administration. I.K. also thanks the Programme National de Planétologie for funding part of this research.

  9. [Enamel resistance to acid dissolution and its correlation with dental caries].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, T L; Sáenz-Martínez, L P; Gómez-López, M E; Pérez-Quiroz, J

    1995-01-01

    Enamel resistance to acid dissolution is a factor which has an influence upon dental caries susceptibility. The objectives of this study were to determine enamel resistance to acid dissolution by applying the RM technique, and to correlate data obtained to the prevalence of dental caries. Two hundred and seventy one children between seven and nine years of age were chosen by non probabilistic sampling in two city districts, (six public schools in Mexico City). These children's central permanent incisives had already erupted. The DMF-T and dmf-t indexes were recorded, and the RM enamel resistance test was performed on them. A total of 56.4% of the subjects in the sample had very resistant enamel and 27.3%, less resistant enamel. A proportion of 57.9% was free of dental caries on the permanent dentition and 10% in the temporary dentition. The average obtained for the DMF-T index was 0.93 +/- 1.34 and that for dmf-t was 4.7 +/- 3.1. Data suggest that enamel resistance distribution is not homogeneous and this increases proportionally in relation to the eruption third (p < 0.05.) Spearman's correlation coefficient was found to be negative and statistically significant at p < 0.05. The RM technique showed the presence of individuals with different enamel resistance to acid dissolution.

  10. High hardness BaCb-(BxOy/BN) composites with 3D mesh-like fine grain-boundary structure by reactive spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Vasylkiv, Oleg; Borodianska, Hanna; Badica, Petre; Grasso, Salvatore; Sakka, Yoshio; Tok, Alfred; Su, Liap Tat; Bosman, Michael; Ma, Jan

    2012-02-01

    Boron carbide B4C powders were subject to reactive spark plasma sintering (also known as field assisted sintering, pulsed current sintering or plasma assisted sintering) under nitrogen atmosphere. For an optimum hexagonal BN (h-BN) content estimated from X-ray diffraction measurements at approximately 0.4 wt%, the as-prepared BaCb-(BxOy/BN) ceramic shows values of Berkovich and Vickers hardness of 56.7 +/- 3.1 GPa and 39.3 +/- 7.6 GPa, respectively. These values are higher than for the vacuum SPS processed B4C pristine sample and the h-BN -mechanically-added samples. XRD and electronic microscopy data suggest that in the samples produced by reactive SPS in N2 atmosphere, and containing an estimated amount of 0.3-1.5% h-BN, the crystallite size of the boron carbide grains is decreasing with the increasing amount of N2, while for the newly formed lamellar h-BN the crystallite size is almost constant (approximately 30-50 nm). BN is located at the grain boundaries between the boron carbide grains and it is wrapped and intercalated by a thin layer of boron oxide. BxOy/BN forms a fine and continuous 3D mesh-like structure that is a possible reason for good mechanical properties.

  11. Assessing the Performance of Military Treatment Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    LeMOOre 28 16,514 13,070 16,730 13,823 45th MeD GrP-PATrICK 46 15,823 13,158 18,654 16,206 BAYNe -JONeS ACh-FT. POLK 64 22,705 13,568 21,676 14,284 Nh...PATrICK 46 5.49 0.47 4.50 6.47 BAYNe -JONeS ACh-FT. POLK 64 6.47 0.66 5.10 7.84 Nh CherrY POINT 92 6.31 0.67 4.92 7.70 75th MeD GrP-hILL 119 5.49 0.43 4.59...5.2 54.4 78.0 BAYNe -JONeS ACh-FT. POLK 64 73.4 4.5 63.4 83.4 Nh CherrY POINT 92 68.0 3.6 60.0 76.0 75th MeD GrP-hILL 119 67.7 3.1 60.8 74.7 NhC GreAT

  12. Spine mineral change during osteoporosis therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M.R.; Kolb, F.O.; Meier, K.A.; Schafer, S.A.

    1985-05-01

    Osteoporosis therapy has been handicapped by lack of means to quantitate the process. Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) offers accurate (4%) and precise (2%) estimation of lumbar spine mineral. The authors followed 42 osteoporotics to determine response to therapy. There were 17 patients with normal menopause (NM), 4 with surgical menopause (SM), 3 with premature menopause (PM), and 18 with idiopathic osteoporoses (10). Intervals between DPA spine mineral estimation were 16.5 +- 5.2 mo. for NM, 14.3 +- 8.4 mo. for SM, 14.0 +- 7.5 mo. for PM and 16.7 +- 5.8 mo. for 10. Observed average percent change of spine mineral under therapy for those intervals was 5.2 +- 7.9% for NM, +7.3 +- 1.7% for SM, -2.4 +- 6.3% for PM and +1.8 +- 12.3% for 10. Therapy invariably was with Ca, low dose Premarin in NM and PM, often with phosphates in IO, sometimes with thiazides, often with Vitamin D and with occasional other modalities, including NaF. The authors find DPA is a cost-effective way to measure osteopenia in the osteoporeses, document response to therapy, identify need for therapy change when there is continued bone loss under therapy, and to encourage the patient's compliance with long-term, complex therapies.

  13. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Meningiomas with Reference to Proliferative Markers p53 and Ki-67

    PubMed Central

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Rukmangadha, Nandyala; Patnayak, Rashmi; Phaneendra, Bobbidi Venkata; Prasad, Bodapati Chandra Mowliswara; Reddy, Mandyam Kumaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Meningiomas are slow growing primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours attached to the duramater, which arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid. Grading of meningioma based on histological findings assisted with supplementary immunohistochemical studies, predicts the prognosis of meningioma with good precision. Aim To evaluate proliferative markers and correlate with various histological subtypes and grade. Materials and Methods A total of 224 meningiomas, diagnosed between January1995 and October 2011were graded according to WHO 2007 criteria. Immunostaining for p53 and Ki-67 markers were performed on 100 cases. Results There was female predominance. There were 194 Grade I, 24 Grade II and 6 Grade III meningiomas. Brain invasion noted in 18(8%) meningiomas predominantly in grade III followed by grade II. Recurrence was seen in 7 (3.1%) cases, most common in psammomatous followed by angiomatous meningioma. Immunostaining showed p53 positivity in 72.5% of grade I, 83.3% of grade II and all the cases of grade III tumours. Ki-67 Labelling Index (LI) consistently increased from grade I to grade III tumours. Conclusion p53 and Ki-67 LI correlated well with increasing histological grade and biological behaviour of meningioma. PMID:26894073

  14. The MuCap experiment: A measurement of the muon capture rate in hydrogen gas

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, T. I.

    2007-10-26

    We have recently measured the rate of nuclear muon capture by the proton, using a novel technique which involves a time projection chamber operating in ultraclean, deuterium-depleted hydrogen gas. The target's low gas density of 1% compared to liquid hydrogen is key to avoiding uncertainties that arise from the formation of muonic molecules. The capture rate from the hyperfine singlet ground state of the {mu}p atom was obtained from the difference between the {mu}{sup -} disappearance rate in hydrogen and the world average for the {mu}{sup +} decay rate, yielding {lambda}{sub S} = 725.0{+-}17.4 s{sup -1}, from which the induced pseudoscalar coupling of the nucleon, g{sub P}(q{sup 2} = 0.88m{sub {mu}}{sup 2}) = 7.3{+-}1.1, is extracted. This result is consistent with theoretical predictions for g{sub P} that are based on the approximate chiral symmetry of QCD.

  15. Discrimination of carbon and nitrogen isotopes from milk to serum and vibrissae in Alaska Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stegall, V.K.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Pitcher, K.W.; Rye, R.O.; Kester, C.L.; Stricker, C.A.; Bern, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of diet-tissue stable isotope discrimination is required to properly interpret stable isotope values and to identify possible diet shifts, such as might be expected from nursing through weaning. This study compared ??13C and ??15N of paired serum and vibrissal roots with those of ingested milk (n = 52) from free-ranging Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776)) pups (1-11 months) and juveniles (14-27 months) to estimate diet-tissue discrimination. Mean 15N enrichment from ingested milk to serum was 2.1??? ?? 0.6%??? and ??15N at the root of the vibrissae (representing current growth) were not significantly different from serum values. Milk was enriched for mean 13C by 5.0??? ?? 1.0%??? and 7.3??? ?? 1.2??? relative to serum and vibrissal roots, respectively, which was due to the presence of 13C-depleted lipids in milk. This was confirmed by lipid extraction from a subset of milk and serum samples, resulting in a 5.8??? ?? 1.0??? change only in milk. This study established that vibrissal roots and serum are reflective of a milk diet with approximately 2.0??? 15N enrichment, and vibrissal roots reflect serum and lipid-extracted milk values with approximately 2.0??? 13C enrichment. These discrimination factors are important to establish for stable isotope studies assessing diet shifts. ?? 2008 NRC.

  16. Comparison of Internal Energy Distributions of Ions Created by Electrospray Ionization and Laser Ablation-Liquid Vortex Capture-Electrospray Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, John F.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-27

    Recently a number of techniques have combined laser ablation with liquid capture for mass spectrometry spot sampling and imaging applications. The newly developed non-contact liquid-vortex capture probe has been used to efficiently collect 355 nm UV laser ablated material in a continuous flow solvent stream in which the captured material dissolves and then undergoes electrospray ionization. This sampling and ionization approach has produced what appear to be classic electrospray ionization spectra; however, the softness of this sampling/ionization process versus simple electrospray ionization has not been definitely determined. A series of benzlypyridinium salts, known as thermometer ions, were used to compare internal energy distributions between electrospray ionization and the UV laser ablation liquid-vortex capture probe electrospray combination. Measured internal energy distributions were identical between the two techniques, even with differences in laser fluence (0.7-3.1 J cm-2) and when using UV-absorbing or non-UV-absorbing sample substrates. This data indicates ions formed directly by UV laser ablation, if any, are likely an extremely small constituent of the total ion signal observed. Instead, neutral molecules, clusters or particulates ejected from the surface during laser ablation, subsequently captured and dissolved in the flowing solvent stream then electrosprayed are the predominant source of ion signal observed. The electrospray ionization process used controls the softness of the technique.

  17. Comparison of Internal Energy Distributions of Ions Created by Electrospray Ionization and Laser Ablation-Liquid Vortex Capture-Electrospray Ionization

    DOE PAGES

    Cahill, John F.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; ...

    2015-06-27

    Recently a number of techniques have combined laser ablation with liquid capture for mass spectrometry spot sampling and imaging applications. The newly developed non-contact liquid-vortex capture probe has been used to efficiently collect 355 nm UV laser ablated material in a continuous flow solvent stream in which the captured material dissolves and then undergoes electrospray ionization. This sampling and ionization approach has produced what appear to be classic electrospray ionization spectra; however, the softness of this sampling/ionization process versus simple electrospray ionization has not been definitely determined. A series of benzlypyridinium salts, known as thermometer ions, were used to comparemore » internal energy distributions between electrospray ionization and the UV laser ablation liquid-vortex capture probe electrospray combination. Measured internal energy distributions were identical between the two techniques, even with differences in laser fluence (0.7-3.1 J cm-2) and when using UV-absorbing or non-UV-absorbing sample substrates. This data indicates ions formed directly by UV laser ablation, if any, are likely an extremely small constituent of the total ion signal observed. Instead, neutral molecules, clusters or particulates ejected from the surface during laser ablation, subsequently captured and dissolved in the flowing solvent stream then electrosprayed are the predominant source of ion signal observed. The electrospray ionization process used controls the softness of the technique.« less

  18. The Drenchwater deposit, Alaska: An example of a natural low pH environment resulting from weathering of an undisturbed shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, G.E.; Kelley, K.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Drenchwater shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposit and the immediate vicinity, on the northern flank of the Brooks Range in north-central Alaska, is an ideal example of a naturally low pH system. The two drainages, Drenchwater and False Wager Creeks, which bound the deposit, differ in their acidity and metal contents. Moderately acidic waters with elevated concentrations of metals (pH ??? 4.3, Zn ??? 1400 ??g/L) in the Drenchwater Creek drainage basin are attributed to weathering of an exposed base-metal-rich massive sulfide occurrence. Stream sediment and water chemistry data collected from False Wager Creek suggest that an unexposed base-metal sulfide occurrence may account for the lower pH (2.7-3.1) and very metal-rich waters (up to 2600 ??g/L Zn, ??? 260 ??g/L Cu and ???89 ??g/L Tl) collected at least 2 km upstream of known mineralized exposures. These more acidic conditions produce jarosite, schwertmannite and Fe-hydroxides commonly associated with acid-mine drainage. The high metal concentrations in some water samples from both streams naturally exceed Alaska state regulatory limits for freshwater aquatic life, affirming the importance of establishing base-line conditions in the event of human land development. The studies at the Drenchwater deposit demonstrate that poor water quality can be generated through entirely natural weathering of base-metal occurrences, and, possibly unmineralized black shale.

  19. Alternative method for enteric coating of HPMC capsules resulting in ready-to-use enteric-coated capsules.

    PubMed

    Huyghebaert, Nathalie; Vermeire, An; Remon, Jean Paul

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an alternative method for enteric coating of HPMC capsules that avoids the sealing step before coating, resulting in ready-to-use enteric-coated capsules for the use in retail or hospital pharmacy or R&D sections of pharmaceutical industry and for the production of enteric-coated heat and moisture sensitive biomaterials. HPMC caps and bodies 00 (Vcaps, Capsugel) were coated separately in a fluid bed apparatus prior to filling (GPCG-1, Glatt) with Eudragit L30D-55 or Eudragit FS 30 D (Röhm), Aqoat AS-HF (Shin-Etsu) and Sureteric (Colorcon), using an optimised coating process. The coated bodies were filled and closed with the coated caps without encountering problems of coating damage. The release in 0.1N HCl after 2h from capsules coated with Eudragit L30D-55, Eudragit FS 30 D, Aqoat AS-HF and Sureteric was 0.6+/-.03, 0.6+/-0.3, 1.2+/-0.2 and 7.3+/-1.9%, respectively. The alternative method was reproducible and offered a way to overcome the time-consuming and expensive sealing step required using the conventional coating procedure. The obtained enteric-coated HPMC capsules can be stored (un)-filled for at least 6 months without loosing enteric properties.

  20. A clinical evaluation of the Cobas Fara clinical chemistry analyzer for some routine serum enzymes and glucose.

    PubMed

    Moses, G C; Lightle, G O; Tuckerman, J F; Henderson, A R

    1987-11-01

    The authors evaluated the Cobas FARA centrifugal analyzer with respect to pipetting precision and accuracy, instrument temperature, spectrophotometric response, and analytic performance for the assay of five serum enzymes and glucose. Spectrophotometric response, temperature response, pipetting precision, and accuracy were satisfactory. However, sufficient time must be allowed for cuvet contents to reach a stable temperature before measurements are made. Total day-to-day imprecision (within plus between run) was less than 5% (coefficient of variation) for aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST; Enzyme Commission classification number [EC] EC 2.6.1.1; and ALT; EC 2.6.1.2); alkaline phosphatase (AP; EC 3.1.3.1); gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; EC 2.3.1.2); lactate dehydrogenase (LD; EC 1.1.1.17); creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.1); and glucose assays. Results compare well with those obtained with other current clinical chemistry analyzers; correlation coefficients were greater than 0.993. Sample-to-sample carryover was negligible, and method linearity was satisfactory for all tests.

  1. Effect of high-frequency oscillation on blood flow to an atelectatic lung in closed-chest dogs.

    PubMed

    Hall, S M; Strawn, W B; Levitzky, M G

    1984-05-01

    Seven dogs with electromagnetic flow probes implanted on their main (QT) and left (QL) pulmonary arteries, had catheters placed in their left atria and pulmonary artery, and were ventilated via Carlen's double-lumen endotracheal tubes. The effect of high-frequency oscillation (HFO) on the redistribution of pulmonary blood flow away from unilaterally atelectatic lungs was determined. During bilateral ventilation with 100% O2, using either a Harvard respirator (PPV) or an Emerson airway vibrator (HFO), the fraction of cardiac output perfusing the left lung (QL/QT) was 0.45 +/- .01 and 0.43 +/- .01, respectively, whereas PaO2 was 465 +/- 40 and 334 +/- 34 torr, respectively. With left lung atelectasis during right lung ventilation with PPV at 10 to 15 cycle/min, QL/QT fell to 0.37 +/- .01 and PaO2 was 56 +/- 5 torr. During HFO at 100 cycle/min, QL/QT fell to 0.32 +/- .02 whereas PaO2 rose to 102 +/- 23 torr. Mean transpulmonary pressure was 10.0 +/- 1.5 torr with PPV and 7.3 +/- 1.2 torr during HFO; intrapleural pressures were -3.2 +/- 1.6 and -5.7 +/- 1.4 mm Hg, respectively. Thus, the diversion of blood away from unilaterally atelectatic lungs was better maintained during HFO.

  2. Body armor, performance, and physiology during repeated high-intensity work tasks.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Netto, Kevin; Skovli, Daniel; Vincs, Kim; Vu, Sarah; Aisbett, Brad

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the effect of body armor during repeated, intermittent high-intensity simulated military work. Twelve males performed 11 repetitions of a military style circuit, wearing no armor on one occasion and full armor (approximately 17 kg) on another. Performance was measured by the time to complete individual work tasks plus overall circuit time to completion. Heart rate, intestinal temperature, and rating of perceived exertion were recorded after each circuit. Participants' circuit time to completion was 7.3 +/- 1.0 seconds slower (p <0.01) when wearing armor. Shooting, vaulting, and crawling were also slower (0.8 +/- 0.2, 0.4 +/- 0.2, and 1.0 +/- 0.4 seconds, respectively; all p < or = 0.05). No differences were observed for box lifting. Higher core temperatures were reported for the armor condition for circuit's 7 to 11 (p = 0.01-0.05). Rating of perceived exertion was higher (1 +/- 0; p = 0.03) when wearing armor. No differences were observed for heart rate. Wearing armor impairs repeated high-intensity military task performance. In the relatively short work time utilized, this decrement did not accrue over time. The impairment may, then, be related to the armor load, rather than accumulating fatigue.

  3. Some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors inhibit dynamin I guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase).

    PubMed

    Otomo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kiyofumi; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Osada, Kenichi; Nakashima, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Noboru

    2008-08-01

    Neuronal dynamin I plays a critical role in the recycling of synaptic vesicles, and thus in nervous system function. We expressed and purified dynamin I to explore potentially clinically useful endocytosis inhibitors and to examine the mechanism of their action. We estimated the IC(50) of nineteen psychotropic drugs for dynamin I. The IC(50) values of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (sertraline and fluvoxamine) were 7.3+/-1.0 and 14.7+/-1.6 microM, respectively. Kinetic analyses revealed that fluvoxamine is a noncompetitive inhibitor of dynamin I guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) with respect to guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) and a competitive inhibitor with respect to L-phosphatidylserine (PS). Fluvoxamine may compete with PS for binding to the pleckstrin homology domain of dynamin I. On the other hand, sertraline was a mixed type inhibitor with respect to both GTP and PS. Our results indicate that sertraline and fluvoxamine may regulate the transportation of neurotransmitters by modulating synaptic vesicle endocytosis via the inhibition of dynamin I GTPase.

  4. Characterization of the viral ribonucleic acids and structural polypeptides of Anopheles A, Bunyamwera, Group C, California, Capim, Guama, Patois, and Simbu bunyaviruses.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, H; Klimas, R; Kim, S; Cash, P; Bishop, D H

    1980-11-01

    Analyses of the viral ribonucleic acids and structural polypeptides of 17-22 of the 119 accepted or proposed members of the Bunyavirus genus of arboviruses (family Bunyaviridae), have shown that from the standpoint of their structural components these viruses are highly comparable to each other. The average molecular weights for the three viral RNA species (L, large, M, medium, S, small) of 17 bunyaviruses were 2.93 X 10(6) (L, range 2.7-3.1 X 10(6)), 2.0 X 10(6) (M, range 1.8-2.3 X 10(6)), and 0.435 X 10(6) (Sm range 0.28-0.50 X 10(6)). The average molecular weights of the three major virion polypeptides (glycoproteins G1 and G2, and nucleocapsid protein, N) of 22 bunyaviruses were 115 X 10(3) (G1, range 108-120 X 10(3)), 37 X 10(3) (G2, range 20-41 X 10(3)) and 22 X 10(3) (N, range 19-25 X 10(3)). These results indicate that the structural components of bunyaviruses are different from those reported for Phlebotomus fever, Uukuniemi, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and other members of the Bunyaviridae family that are not currently assigned to a genus.

  5. Measurements of branching fractions and CP-violating asymmetries in B0-->rho(+/-)h(-/+) decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Aspinwall, M L; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-11-14

    We present measurements of branching fractions and CP-violating asymmetries in B0-->rho(+/-)pi(-/+) and B0-->rho-K+ decays. The results are obtained from a data sample of 88.9 x 10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BB decays collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory. From a time-dependent maximum likelihood fit we measure the branching fractions B(B0-->rho(+/-)pi(-/+))=[22.6+/-1.8 (stat)+/-2.2 (syst)]x10(-6) and B(B0-->rho-K+)=(7.3 -1.2( +1.3)+/-1.3)x10(-6), and the CP-violating charge asymmetries A(rhopi)(CP)=-0.18+/-0.08+/-0.03 and A(rhoK)(CP)=0.28+/-0.17+/-0.08, the direct CP violation parameter C(rhopi)=0.36+/-0.18+/-0.04 and the mixing-induced CP violation parameter S(rhopi)=0.19+/-0.24+/-0.03, and the dilution parameters DeltaC(rhopi)=0.28 -0.19( +0.18)+/-0.04 and DeltaS(rhopi)=0.15+/-0.25+/-0.03.

  6. The HLA polymorphism of two distinctive South-American Indian tribes: the Kaingang and the Guarani.

    PubMed

    Petzl-Erler, M L; Luz, R; Sotomaior, V S

    1993-05-01

    The HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ antigens of 240 Kaingang and 98 Guarani individuals have been characterized. The most frequent antigens found among the Kaingang are A31, 2, 24; B35, 51, 39, 48; Cw4, 7, 3, 1; DR8, 4, 2; DQ blank, 3. In the Guarani, they are A2, 28, 31; B40, 62, "53G"; Cw3, 4; DR2, 4, 8, 6; DQ3, blank. B " 53G" is an unusual antigen of the B5 cross-reactive group. DQ blank possibly corresponds to DQ4, not tested in this study. The reaction patterns of B35, B40 and DR4 indicate intra-tribal (of B35 and B40), and inter-tribal (DR4, B40 and B35) heterogeneity of these antigens. 408 Kaingang and 141 Guarani haplotypes were defined by segregation analysis. Of the commonest 10 Guarani and 9 Kaingang haplotypes, only one is shared by both tribes. Significant, positive linkage disequilibrium values for HLA-A,B; HLA-A,C; HLA-B,DR and most HLA-B,C antigen pairs were also different for the two populations. Genetic distance estimates between these two and another seven South-American Indian populations, and relative to the major human races (negroids, caucasoids, and mongoloids) reveal a comparatively high degree of divergence between the Kaingang and the Guarani, which is uncommon for Amerindian populations living close one to another.

  7. Synthesis and biodistribution of [125I]iodo- and [75Se]seleno-ergoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sadek, S; Basmadjian, G; Patel, A

    1987-01-01

    (8 beta)-8-([125]Iodomethyl)-6-propylergoline (125I-3) was prepared by refluxing the mesyl analog with Na125I in methyl-ethyl-ketone, followed by HPLC, in a radiochemical yield greater than 70%. [75Se]Selenopergolide (75Se-2) was prepared in 74% yield starting with H75(2) SeO3. The biodistribution studies of the two compounds in male rats show good uptake by the adrenals and the brain. Compound 75Se-2 had higher adrenal uptake and adrenal-to-blood ratios (4.2% dose/g and 70:1) than 125I-3 (3.6% dose/g and 23.8:1) at 15 min post injection. The two compounds had almost equal brain uptake (0.91% dose/g for 75Se-2 and 1.14% dose/g for 125I-3), but 75Se-2 showed higher brain-to-blood ratios (15.2:1 vs 7.3:1) at 15 min post injection. This study indicates that 75Se-2 and 123I-3 may be useful agents for imaging the adrenal and the brain.

  8. Transgenic Soybean Production of Bioactive Human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonghua; Schmidt, Monica A.; Erwin, Christopher; Guo, Jun; Sun, Raphael; Pendarvis, Ken; Warner, Brad W.; Herman, Eliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating condition of premature infants that results from the gut microbiome invading immature intestinal tissues. This results in a life-threatening disease that is frequently treated with the surgical removal of diseased and dead tissues. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), typically found in bodily fluids, such as amniotic fluid, salvia and mother’s breast milk, is an intestinotrophic growth factor and may reduce the onset of NEC in premature infants. We have produced human EGF in soybean seeds to levels biologically relevant and demonstrated its comparable activity to commercially available EGF. Transgenic soybean seeds expressing a seed-specific codon optimized gene encoding of the human EGF protein with an added ER signal tag at the N’ terminal were produced. Seven independent lines were grown to homozygous and found to accumulate a range of 6.7 +/- 3.1 to 129.0 +/- 36.7 μg EGF/g of dry soybean seed. Proteomic and immunoblot analysis indicates that the inserted EGF is the same as the human EGF protein. Phosphorylation and immunohistochemical assays on the EGF receptor in HeLa cells indicate the EGF protein produced in soybean seed is bioactive and comparable to commercially available human EGF. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using soybean seeds as a biofactory to produce therapeutic agents in a soymilk delivery platform. PMID:27314851

  9. National Intelligence Survey. Spain. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-07-01

    14 10 14 8 3 1 2 10 11 14 11 9 3-5 1200 19 16 11 14 10 5 2 2 7 10 13 13 10 3-5 1800 12 16 9 14 12 8 3 7 12 8 8 12 10 3-5 Badajoz/ Talavera La...0 0 0 0 1 1 * 3-5 0600 4 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 2 4 9 7 3 3-5 1201 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 3-5 1800 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3-5 Badajos/ Talavera La...3 6 11 9 4 3-5 1200 7 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 2 3-5 1800 7 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 3-5 Badajoz/ Talavera La Real Airport 0600 16 11 10 6 7 1 1 0 0

  10. Surface-catalyzed air oxidation of hydrazines: Environmental chamber studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilduff, Jan E.; Davis, Dennis D.; Koontz, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    The surface-catalyzed air oxidation reactions of fuel hydrazines were studied in a 6500-liter fluorocarbon-film chamber at 80 to 100 ppm concentrations. First-order rate constants for the reactions catalyzed by aluminum, water-damaged aluminum (Al/Al2O3), stainless steel 304L, galvanized steel and titanium plates with surface areas of 2 to 24 sq m were determined. With 23.8 sq m of Al/Al2O3 the surface-catalyzed air oxidation of hydrazine had a half-life of 2 hours, diimide (N2H2) was observed as an intermediate and traces of ammonia were present in the final product mixture. The Al/Al2O3 catalyzed oxidation of monomethylhydrazine yielded methyldiazine (HN = NCH3) as an intermediate and traces of methanol. Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine gave no detectable products. The relative reactivities of hydrazine, MMH and UDMH were 130 : 7.3 : 1.0, respectively. The rate constants for Al/Al2O3-catalyzed oxidation of hydrazine and MMH were proportional to the square of the surface area of the plates. Mechanisms for the surface-catalyzed oxidation of hydrazine and diimide and the formation of ammonia are proposed.

  11. Measurements of Branching Fractions and CP-Violating Asymmetries in B0→ρ±h∓ Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Day, C. T.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; Leclerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Telnov, A. V.; Wenzel, W. A.; Ford, K.; Harrison, T. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; Penny, R. C.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Deppermann, T.; Goetzen, K.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Barlow, N. R.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Kelly, M. P.; Latham, T. E.; Mackay, C.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Chao, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Buchanan, C.; del Re, D.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Barillari, T.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P.; Clark, P. J.; Ford, W. T.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.; van Hoek, W. C.; Zhang, L.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Altenburg, D.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Hauke, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Maly, E.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Khan, A.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Tinslay, J.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Sarti, A.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Vetere, M. Lo; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bailey, S.; Morii, M.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Eschrich, I.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Sanders, P.; Taylor, G. P.; Grenier, G. J.; Lee, S.-J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Yi, J.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Tantot, L.; Wormser, G.; Brigljević, V.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bevan, A. J.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, R. J.; Forti, A. C.; Hart, P. A.; Jackson, F.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Weatherall, J. H.; Williams, J. C.; Farbin, A.; Jawahery, A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lae, C. K.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Flood, K. T.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Mangeol, D. J.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Hast, C.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; Cartaro, C.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Losecco, J. M.; Gabriel, T. A.; Brau, B.; Pulliam, T.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Potter, C. T.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Colecchia, F.; Dorigo, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Benayoun, M.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; de La Vaissière, Ch.; Del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; John, M. J.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Pivk, M.; Roos, L.; Stark, J.; T'jampens, S.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Walsh, J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Paick, K.; Wagoner, D. E.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J.; Varnes, E. W.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Pierini, M.; Piredda, G.; Tehrani, F. Safai; Voena, C.; Christ, S.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; De Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Emery, S.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P.-F.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Schott, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yeche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Purohit, M. V.; Weidemann, A. W.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Berger, N.; Boyarski, A. M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Dong, D.; Dorfan, J.; Dujmic, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Grauges-Pous, E.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Hryn'ova, T.; Innes, W. R.; Jessop, C. P.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Marsiske, H.; Menke, S.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Robertson, S. H.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Simi, G.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, S. R.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wright, D. H.; Young, C. C.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Meyer, T. I.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Saleem, M.; Wappler, F. R.; Bugg, W.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Spanier, S. M.; Eckmann, R.; Kim, H.; Ritchie, J. L.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; Della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Panvini, R. S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Brown, C. M.; Fortin, D.; Jackson, P. D.; Kowalewski, R.; Roney, J. M.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; Di Lodovico, F.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Sekula, S. J.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Neal, H.

    2003-11-01

    We present measurements of branching fractions and CP-violating asymmetries in B0→ρ±π∓ and B0→ρ-K+ decays. The results are obtained from a data sample of 88.9×106 ϒ(4S)→BB¯ decays collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory. From a time-dependent maximum likelihood fit we measure the branching fractions B(B0→ρ±π∓)=[22.6±1.8 (stat)±2.2 (syst)]×10-6 and B(B0→ρ-K+)=(7.3 -1.2 +1.3±1.3)×10-6, and the CP-violating charge asymmetries AρπCP=-0.18±0.08±0.03 and AρKCP=0.28±0.17±0.08, the direct CP violation parameter Cρπ=0.36±0.18±0.04 and the mixing-induced CP violation parameter Sρπ=0.19±0.24±0.03, and the dilution parameters ΔCρπ=0.28 -0.19 +0.18±0.04 and ΔSρπ=0.15±0.25±0.03.

  12. Adhesive barnacle peptides exhibit a steric-driven design rule to enhance adhesion between asymmetric surfaces.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sangeetha; Malms, Lukas; Utzig, Thomas; Shrestha, Buddha Ratna; Stock, Philipp; Krishnan, Shankar; Valtiner, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Barnacles exhibit superior underwater adhesion simply through sequencing of the 21 proteinogenic amino acids, without post processing or using special amino acids. Here, we measure and discuss the molecular interaction of two distinct and recurring short peptide sequences (Bp1 and Bp2) inspired from the surface binding 19kDa protein from the barnacle attachment interface. Using self-assembled monolayer (SAMs) of known physical and chemical properties on molecularly smooth gold substrates in 5mM NaCl at pH 7.3, (1) the adsorption mechanisms of the barnacle inspired peptides are explored using quartz crystal microbalance, and (2) adhesion mediating properties are measured using the surface force apparatus. The hydrophobic Bp1 peptide with a cysteine residue adsorbs irreversibly onto Au surfaces due to thiol bond formation, while on hydrophobic CH3 SAM surface, the interactions are hydrophobic in nature. Interestingly, Bp2 that contains both hydrophobic and protonated amine units exhibits asymmetric bridging with an exceptionally high adhesion energy up to 100mJ/m(2) between mica and both gold and CH3 SAM. Surprisingly on hydrophilic surfaces such as COOH- or OH-SAMs both peptides fail to show any interactions, implying the necessity of surface charge to promote bridging. Our results provide insights into the molecular aspects of manipulating and utilizing barnacle-mediated peptides to promote or inhibit underwater adhesion.

  13. Mechanical properties of calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite cement.

    PubMed

    Lei, Dang; Wardlaw, D; Hukins, D W L

    2006-01-01

    Setting times, volume after setting, injectability and hardness (at 37 degrees C in contact with Ringer's solution) were determined for cements made of mixtures of calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CS) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a range of compositions. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the behaviour of a mixture that could be used as an injectable cement for orthopaedic applications, including spinal fusion. A suitable mixture consisted of 60% CS and 40% HA by mass; a slurry was made by mixing solid (36 g) with water (15 cm(3)). The slurry had initial and final setting times of 5.7+/-1.3 min and 19.6+/-0.7 min (mean +/- standard deviation), respectively. The hardness of the cement did not systematically increase or decrease in the 72 h following the final setting time. The volume of the cement was 99.8+/-0.4% of the volume of the initial slurry, i.e. there was negligible shrinkage on setting. It was able to withstand a pressure of 7.3+/-1.2 MPa, applied by a hemispherical indenter before the onset of permanent damage, indicating adequate strength for spinal fusion.

  14. Molecular Phylogeny and Morphology of Mycosphaerella nawae, the Causal Agent of Circular Leaf Spot on Persimmon

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Yeol; Lim, Yang-Sook

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phylogeny and morphology of Mycosphaerella nawae (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) were examined using Korean and Japanese isolates, to establish the phylogenetic relationship between M. nawae and its allied species. Korean and Japanese isolates of M. nawae were collected from circular leaf spot-diseased leaves and were confirmed based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using multiple genes, including the ITS region, 28S rDNA, β-tubulin, translation elongation factor-1α, and actin genes. Our results revealed that M. nawae is closely related to members of the genus Phaeophleospora but are distant from the Ramularia spp. In addition, microscopic analysis revealed pseudothecia on the adaxial and abaxial surface of overwintered diseased leaves (ODL) and only on the abaxial surface of diseased leaves. Ascospores are oval to fusiform, one-septate, tapered at both ends, 1.7~3.1 × 8.1~14.1 µm, and were observed in ODL. Conidia are oval, guttulate, one-septate, 3.5~4.9 × 12.8~19.8 µm, and barely discernable on 30-day cultures. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the phylogeny of M. nawae, which is closely related to the genus Phaeophleospora, especially P. scytalidii. PMID:28154478

  15. Atmospheric reactivity of vinyl acetate: kinetic and mechanistic study of its gas-phase oxidation by OH, O3, and NO3.

    PubMed

    Picquet-Varrault, B; Scarfogliero, M; Doussin, J-F

    2010-06-15

    Vinyl acetate is widely used in industry. It has been classified as a high-production volume (HPV) chemical in the United States. To evaluate its impact on the environment and air quality, its atmospheric reactivity toward the three main tropospheric oxidants (OH, NO(3), and O(3)) has been investigated. Kinetic and mechanistic experiments have been conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using an indoor Pyrex simulation chamber coupled to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible spectrometers. Rate constants for the reactions of vinyl acetate with OH, NO(3), and O(3) were equal to (2.3 +/- 0.3) x 10(-11), (7.3 +/- 1.8) x 10(-15), and (3.0 +/- 0.4) x 10(-18) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. From these data, tropospheric lifetimes of vinyl acetate have been estimated as follows: tau(OH) = 6 h, tau(NO(3)) = 6 days, and tau(O(3)) = 5 days. This demonstrates that reaction with OH radicals is the main tropospheric loss process of this compound. From the mechanistic experiments, main oxidation products have been identified and quantified and oxidation schemes have been proposed for each studied reaction.

  16. Optical absorption and transmission in a molybdenum disulfide monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukelj, Zoran; Štrkalj, Antonio; Despoja, Vito

    2016-09-01

    Our recently proposed theoretical formulation [presented in D. Novko et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 125413 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.125413] is used to study optical absorption and transmission in molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer as a function of incident photon energy and angle. The investigation is not focused on exploration of well-documented spin-orbit split excitons around optical absorption onset, but rather on the most intensive features in absorption spectrum in the visible and near-ultraviolet photon energy range (1.7 -4 eV ). It is shown that three most intensive peaks, at 2.7, 3.1, and 3.7 eV, result from transitions between Mo(d ) and S(p ) valence and conduction bands and that the character of their charge/current density fluctuations is intrinsically in plane, located in the molybdenum plane. This also implies that MoS2 monolayer is completely transparent when illuminated by grazing incidence p -polarized light. The validity of the presented results is supported by our effective two-band tight-binding model and finally by good agreement with some recent experimental results.

  17. Forward Di-Hadron Correlations and RdA in d+Au Collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ihnjea

    2011-10-01

    Measurements using the PHENIX forward detectors in high energy deuteron-gold collisions make it possible to study cold nuclear matter effects in nucleon structure. The high parton densities in nuclei at low-x lead to gluon fusion causing saturation of the gluon distribution and thus suppression of hadron production cross section. This saturation has been described as the formation of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). A conclusive measurement discriminating between different mechanisms has yet to be carried out. CGC calculations predict significant suppression of conditional yields for rapidity separated hadron pairs with one of the hadrons at forward rapidity. Two new forward electromagnetic calorimeters (Muon Piston Calorimeters, - 3 . 1 < η < - 3 . 7 , 3 . 1 < η < 3 . 9) allow the PHENIX experiment to further study forward di-hadron correlations and RdA which have been predicted to show dramatic effects due to gluon saturation. Azimuthal correlations of di- hadron pairs at different pseudorapidities and RdA of π0 and η will be shown. The forward pseudorapidity correlations are especially interesting because it is expected that they provide a test of gluon saturation down to x 10-3 in the Au nucleus. The analysis presented is based on the high integrated luminosity data sample of d+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV taken at RHIC in 2008.

  18. Nasal self-swabbing for estimating the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in the community.

    PubMed

    Gamblin, Jenny; Jefferies, Johanna M; Harris, Scott; Ahmad, Nusreen; Marsh, Peter; Faust, Saul N; Fraser, Simon; Moore, Michael; Roderick, Paul; Blair, Iain; Clarke, Stuart C

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and, therefore, a burden on healthcare systems. Our aim was to estimate the current rate of nasal S. aureus carriage in the general population and to determine the feasibility of nasal self-swabbing as a means of detection. Two thousand people (1200 adults and 800 children) from a single NHS general practice in Southampton, UK, were randomly selected from a general practice age sex register, stratified by age and sex, and invited to undertake nasal self-swabbing in their own home. Overall, 362 (32.5%) swabs from adults and 168 (22%) from children were returned. Responses were greater for adults and those of increased age, female gender and decreasing socio-economic deprivation. The overall estimated practice carriage rate of S. aureus directly standardized for age sex was 28% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26.1-30.2%]. Carriage of meticillin-susceptible S. aureus was 27% (95% CI 26.1-30.2%), whilst that of meticillin-resistant S. aureus was 1.9% (95% CI 0.7-3.1%). Although nasal self-swabbing rates were relatively low, they are comparable to other studies and may allow large population-based carriage studies to be undertaken at relatively low cost. Importantly, this study updates prevalence data for S. aureus carriage in the community.

  19. Direct-Drive Laser Target Designs for Sub-MegaJoule Energies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Conventional Pulse Shapes 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0 1000.0 Power (TW) C0 C1 C2 time (nsec) FIG. 4: (Color) Various pulse shapes for 2D runs. They...8.8 49 2.3 1.88 0.44 0.05 C1 66 5.6 33 4.5 1.50 0.44 1.75 C2 20 3.7 21 7.3 1.18 0.31 4.0 RX1 79 6.2 36 3.0 1.63 0.38 1.75 RX2 75 5.4 30 3.4 1.64 0.44...0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 M/M0 C1 C2 C 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 M/M 0 5 10 15 P /P FE R M I RX1 RX2 RX3 RX4 RX5 RX 0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 M/M0 0 5 10

  20. Temperature influence on deuterium retention for Be-W mixed thin films prepared by Thermionic Vacuum Arc method exposed to PISCES B plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepu, I.; Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M. J.; Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C. P.

    2015-08-01

    Beryllium-tungsten thin films with well controlled elemental composition were prepared using Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) technique and subsequently exposed to steady state, high ion flux (5.5 - 9.8 × 1022 ions m-2 s-1) deuterium (D) plasma in the PISCES-B facility to consistent fluences of 2.3 × 1026 m-2. Six types of layers were studied, ranging from pure Be, composite Be-W, having the atomic ratios of 9:1; 7:3; 1:1; 3:7; to pure W with a total deposited layer thickness of 2 μm. The sample exposure temperatures, namely 300 K, 473 K, 573 K and 773 K, respectively, were measured in situ with a thermocouple placed on the back of the sample. Morphological and structural examinations were undertaken before and after plasma exposure. Results show an influence of temperature on the subsequent morphology of the surface. Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS) spectra showed a change in the D release behavior for different Be-W ratio for a certain exposure temperature.

  1. Effect of high fat, fiber and caloric restriction on rat mammary tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D.; Van Sant, J.; Butler, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female rats given 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were placed on diets of control fat (CF-4.5%) or high fat (HF-20%) with either control fiber (6%) or high fiber (FB-12%). A 60% reduction in the CF diet was used to study the effects of caloric restriction on tumorigenesis. Results showed that HF diets had a shorter latency period than CF rats. The respective average number of tumors per rat and tumor volume were 7.3 +/- 1.3 and 23694 mm/sup 2/ for rats on a HF diet and 5.1+/-1.1 and 9144 mm/sup 3/ for CF rats. Addition of high fiber to the diets reduced the tumor incidence from 95% to 70% in the CF group but did not reduce the incidence in HF group. Although tumor number was reduced to 3.7+/-1.5 in CF+FB rats, the tumor volumes were not reduced (8950 mm/sup 3/). Rats fed HF+FB did not have fewer tumors (7.0+/-1.1), but did show a 53% reduction in tumor load. The estrogen dependent enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was not affected by dietary levels of fat, which suggests that the promotional effects of fat may not be through estrogen stimulation. None of the caloric restricted rats had tumors 12 weeks post-DMBA. These restricted rats all had significantly elevated levels of serum corticosterone.

  2. Isolation and functional expression of human pancreatic peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Tateishi, K; Arakawa, F; Misumi, Y; Treston, A M; Vos, M; Matsuoka, Y

    1994-11-30

    Pancreastatin (PST) is processed from chromogranin A and the C-terminal amide of the peptide is an absolute requirement for biological activities. Human pancreatic carcinoma cells QGP-1 which produce both chromogranin A and PST were used to isolate cDNAs encoding two forms of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM). The two forms are a full length bifunctional enzyme and a variant lacking the transmembrane domain-coding region. When the cDNAs of these two forms were expressed in COS-7 cells, cells transfected with the predicted soluble form released into the culture medium a very much higher amidating activity which converts human chromogranin A-(273-302) to PST-29. The optimal pH for amidating activity was 5.4 and Cu2+, ascorbate and catalase were required as cofactors for the both forms of PAM. Km values for the membrane-bound and the soluble forms of PAM were 15.7 +/- 3.1 microM and 12.4 +/- 1.6 microM, respectively. These results demonstrate that both forms of PAM can function in the posttranslational processing of chromogranin A to PST in the environment of a secretory vesicle.

  3. High-throughput screening of brief naturalistic stress-responsive cytokines in university students taking examinations.

    PubMed

    Katsuura, Sakurako; Kamezaki, Yoshiko; Tominaga, Kumiko; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Kensei; Yamamoto, Yuta; Takeo, Keiko; Yamagishi, Naoko; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Kawai, Tomoko; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to prospectively examine the impact of a brief naturalistic stressor (academic examination) on salivary/serum cortisol, measures of anxiety and depressive mood, and 50 circulating immune mediators assessed 7 days before, the first day of, and 2 days after the first term examination period (5 days) among 20 male and 6 female medical students (19.7+/-3.1 years, mean+/-SD). Of 42 serum factors detected, repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc testing indicated that concentrations of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-3, and beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF) were significantly decreased 2 days after finishing examinations, compared with the levels on the first day of examinations (p<0.05) in association with a concomitant post-examination decreases (p<0.05) in anxiety and salivary cortisol levels. In contrast, interleukin (IL)-16 was reciprocally increased between the two time points (p<0.05). However, after correction for multiple comparisons, only changes in MIF were significant (p<0.05/42=0.00119), and MIF levels peaked on the first day of examinations was significantly higher than those measured both 7 days before and 2 days after the examination. The present high-throughput analysis with multiplex cytokine panels reconfirms the impact of brief naturalistic stressors on immune outcomes, and suggests a potential role of MIF in the acute stress response.

  4. A pilot study of quantitative assessment of mandible advancement using pressure-flow relationship during midazolam sedation.

    PubMed

    Ayuse, T; Hoshino, Y; Inazawa, T; Oi, K; Schneider, H; Schwartz, A R

    2006-11-01

    It has been proposed that a titration of the mandibular positioner would be a promising method for predicting the outcome of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that mandible advancement could be evaluated by analysis of inspiratory flow limitation using a titration procedure. To explore its effect, we examined upper airway pressure-flow relationships using a titrated mandible positioner during midazolam sedation. Non-flow limited inspiration occurred when the mandible was advanced 7.1 +/- 1.2 mm from centric occlusion position. In the centric occlusion position (0 mm advancement), Pcrit was -1.9 +/- 2.9 cmH2O and Rua was 23.3 +/- 4.5 cmH2O L(-1) s(-1). In the eMAP position, Pcrit was -7.3 +/- 1.9 cmH2O and Rua was 27.8 +/- 3.3 cmH2O L(-1) s(-1). Essentially no CPAP was required to overcome flow limitation in eMAP position, whereas 3.7 +/- 2.2 cmH2O CPAP was required in centric occlusion position. We conclude that assessing inspiratory flow limitation using a titrated mandible positioner was effective for estimating individual-matched mandible positions.

  5. Lignan derivatives from the stem bark of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels.

    PubMed

    Mir, Qurat Y; Ali, M; Alam, Prawez

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) yielded four new lignan derivatives characterised as (7alpha,8alpha,2'alpha)-3,4,5-trimethoxy-7,3',1',9'-diepoxylignan (cuminiresinol), (7alpha,7'alpha,8alpha,8'alpha)-3,4-dioxymethylene-3',4'-dimethoxy-7,9',7',9-diepoxylignan-5'-ol (5'-hydroxy-methyl-piperitol), (7alpha,7'alpha,8alpha,8'alpha)-3'-methoxy-9-oxo-7,9',7',9-diepoxylignan-3,4,4'-triol or 3-demethyl-9-oxo-pinoresinol (syzygiresinol A), (7alpha,7'alpha,8alpha,8'alpha)-9-oxo-7,9',7',9-diepoxylignan-3,4,3',4',5'-pentaol or 3,3'-didemethyl-9-oxo-pinoresinol (syzygiresinol B) along with the known lignans di-demethyl-5-hydroxypinoresinol, dimethylpinoresinol, didemethoxypinoresinol, pinoresinol and 4'-methyl-5'-hydroxypinoresinol. The structures of these lignans were elucidated on the basis of structural data analysis and chemical reactions.

  6. Occurrence of tumour (odontoma) in marine fish Sphyraena jello from the southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, R; Gopalakrishnan, A; Raja, K; Sinduja, K

    2014-02-04

    We examined the occurrence of odontoma in the marine fish Sphyraena jello sourced from 3 different landing centers (Cuddalore, Parangipettai and Nagapattinam) in Tamil Nadu (southeast India). A total of 19783 fishes were examined for odontoma presence, of which 2393 were affected with odontoma. The overall prevalence was 12.1% among the 3 stations. Fish landed at Parangipettai showed the highest peak prevalence of odontoma (16.8%) during the pre-monsoon, followed by Nagapatinam (9.1%) during summer 2011. The tumour lengths in premaxilla, supermaxilla and dentary bone were 1.1-3.6, 1.4-5.9 and 1.2-4.1 cm, respectively, and tumour widths were 0.3-1.9, 0.7-3.1 and 0.5-1.9 cm. Higher prevalence (0.206%) of tongue tumour along with odontoma was observed at Nagapattinam whereas it was lower (0.162%) at Cuddalore. Odontoma histopathology showed dense fibrous tissue with fine teeth roots. TEM analysis showed virus-like particles associated with odontoma. Radiography of the odontoma showed that the tumour masses were bony in nature and tissues were merged with upper and lower jaw.

  7. Glucosamine sulfate effect on the degenerated patellar cartilage: preliminary findings by pharmacokinetic magnetic resonance modeling.

    PubMed

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Sanz-Requena, Roberto; Rodrigo, José Luis; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Carot, José Miguel

    2009-06-01

    Normal and degenerated cartilages have different magnetic resonance (MR) capillary permeability (K(trans)) and interstitial interchangeable volume (v(e)). Our hypothesis was that glucosamine sulfate treatment modifies these neovascularity abnormalities in osteoarthritis. Sixteen patients with patella degeneration, randomly distributed into glucosamine or control groups, underwent two 1.5-Tesla dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging studies (treatment initiation and after 6 months). The pain visual analog scale (VAS) and American Knee Society (AKS) score were used. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was used. Percentages of variations (postreatment-pretreatment/pretreatment) were compared (t-test for independent data). In the glucosamine group, pain and functional outcomes statistically improved (VAS: 7.3 +/- 1.1 to 3.6 +/- 1.3, p < 0.001; AKS: 18.6 +/- 6.9 to 42.9 +/- 2.7, p < 0.01). Glucosamine significantly increased K(trans) at 6 months (-54.4 +/- 21.2% vs 126.7 +/- 56.9%, p < 0.001, control vs glucosamine). In conclusion, glucosamine sulfate decreases pain while improving functional outcome in patients with cartilage degeneration. Glucosamine sulfate increases K(trans), allowing its proposal as a surrogate imaging biomarker after 6 months of treatment.

  8. New-onset microalbuminuria following allogeneic myeloablative SCT is a sign of near-term decrease in renal function.

    PubMed

    Morito, T; Ando, M; Kobayashi, T; Kakihana, K; Ohashi, K; Akiyama, H; Tsuchiya, K; Nitta, K; Sakamaki, H

    2013-07-01

    The emergence of microalbuminuria following conditioning chemotherapy may predict the development of renal dysfunction. To confirm this, a 1-year retrospective cohort study was conducted in 31 myeloablative allogeneic SCT patients who received five consecutive measurements of albuminuria before conditioning therapy and on days 0, 7, 14 and 28 following SCT. The cohort had neither microalbuminuria nor renal dysfunction at baseline. Microalbuminuria was defined as an albumin-creatinine (Cr) ratio over 30 mg/g, and renal dysfunction was as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Cumulative incidence of renal dysfunction over time was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine an association of de novo microalbuminuria with the incidence of renal dysfunction. In all, 16 patients (52%) developed microalbuminuria that was positive at least two times among the four measurements after SCT. The actuarial occurrence of chronic kidney disease was significantly higher in patients who developed microalbuminuria than in those who did not. Incidence of microalbuminuria had a significant risk of subsequent renal dysfunction (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), 7.3 (1.2-140)). In conclusion, de novo microalbuminuria following conditioning therapy is a warning of near-term loss of renal function.

  9. Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons.

    PubMed

    Detmold, William; Lin, C-J David; Meinel, Stefan

    2012-04-27

    We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeV7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the Σ(b)(+), Σ(b)(-), Σ(b)(*+), Σ(b)(*-) initial states, respectively. We also derive upper bounds on the widths of the Ξ(b)(I(*)) baryons.

  10. Fabrication of electrospun silica-titania nanofibers with different silica content and evaluation of the morphology and osteoinductive properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaokun; Zhu, Jingxian; Yin, Ling; Liu, Shize; Zhang, Xin; Ao, Yingfang; Chen, Haifeng

    2012-12-01

    Ceramic-derived materials have shown enhanced osteogenic potential for bone tissue engineering applications. Silica is the major component of bioglass, and titania, the oxide complex of titanium, has been found to enhance osteoblast differentiation. In this study, three groups of sol-gel-derived silica-titania fibrous meshes with precursor ratios of Ti:Si = 7:3, 1:1, 3:7 were fabricated by electrospinning. The effects of silica content on the crystal phase and morphology of silica-titania hybrid nanofiber meshes were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and laser confocal microscopy. The osteogenic potential of the silica-titania meshes was evaluated by seeding mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on each mesh and determining cell number, osteodifferentiation markers, and osteopontin production over time. Our results show that cells proliferated throughout the mesh surfaces with similar morphology in all groups. Decreased cell proliferation was observed with the fiber meshes compared with glass controls, whereas cell differentiation toward osteoblast was enhanced on the mesh groups, especially on the Ti:Si = 7:3 group. These findings suggest that higher fiber diameter, degree of crystallization, and titania content of nanofibers can enhance osteodifferentiation of MSCs.

  11. Determining cardiac fiber orientation using FSL and registered ultrasound/DTI volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormer, James; Qin, Xulei; Shen, Ming; Wang, Silun; Zhang, Xiaodong; Jiang, Rong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-04-01

    Accurate extraction of cardiac fiber orientation from diffusion tensor imaging is important for determining heart structure and function. However, the acquisition of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor images is costly and time consuming. By comparison, cardiac ultrasound imaging is rapid and relatively inexpensive, but it lacks the capability to directly measure fiber orientations. In order to create a detailed heart model from ultrasound data, a three-dimensional (3D) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with known fiber orientations can be registered to an ultrasound volume through a geometric mask. After registration, the cardiac orientations from the template DTI can be mapped to the heart using a deformable transformation field. This process depends heavily on accurate fiber orientation extraction from the DTI. In this study, we use the FMRIB Software Library (FSL) to determine cardiac fiber orientations in diffusion weighted images. For the registration between ultrasound and MRI volumes, we achieved an average Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 81.6+/-2.1%. For the estimation of fiber orientations from the proposed method, we achieved an acute angle error (AAE) of 22.7+/-3.1° as compared to the direct measurements from DTI. This work provides a new approach to generate cardiac fiber orientation that may be used for many cardiac applications.

  12. Calcium transport in the rabbit superficial proximal convoluted tubule

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, R.C.; Rouse, D.; Suki, W.N.

    1984-09-01

    Calcium transport was studied in isolated S2 segments of rabbit superficial proximal convoluted tubules. 45Ca was added to the perfusate for measurement of lumen-to-bath flux (JlbCa), to the bath for bath-to-lumen flux (JblCa), and to both perfusate and bath for net flux (JnetCa). In these studies, the perfusate consisted of an equilibrium solution that was designed to minimize water flux or electrochemical potential differences (PD). Under these conditions, JlbCa (9.1 +/- 1.0 peq/mm X min) was not different from JblCa (7.3 +/- 1.3 peq/mm X min), and JnetCa was not different from zero, which suggests that calcium transport in the superficial proximal convoluted tubule is due primarily to passive transport. The efflux coefficient was 9.5 +/- 1.2 X 10(-5) cm/s, which was not significantly different from the influx coefficient, 7.0 +/- 1.3 X 10(-5) cm/s. When the PD was made positive or negative with use of different perfusates, net calcium absorption or secretion was demonstrated, respectively, which supports a major role for passive transport. These results indicate that in the superficial proximal convoluted tubule of the rabbit, passive driving forces are the major determinants of calcium transport.

  13. Norman Wells Apt, Northwest Territories, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-28

    904 91.9 92.3 92. 93.5 93.5 q 3 94.3 > 1500 ! 6, 7.’o 76,1 61a3 R6,3 8*0 909’ 92.2 92o4 94.2 94.6 9497 9!.9 95 9 99,7 96.7 > 1200 𔄀.3 74.5 74,3 62...8217200 7 ,1 36 631 11,1 i,0 91, 3 92.4 93.( 94.g 94.6 96𔃺 €07,s 96o5 974 9 2 97.2 17.’ O>000 7. 3 , 1 o 5.1 69 111, 91., 92.4 93.7 94 v6 9497 9605 91e...99𔄁 99.8 99.9 300 77s) � 179 1r. 92. a a 9603 16.4 9 3 " 1 69.1 �.9 99.9i󈧄 200 77.3 04.0 84.7 68,9 9z.1 9207 9497 96,3 96.4 96,4 99,3 9906

  14. Development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines with altered starch granule size distribution.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Båga, Monica; Ahuja, Geetika; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2014-03-12

    Microscope analysis of starches prepared from 139 barley genotypes identified a Japanese genotype, Kinai Kyoshinkai-2 (KK-2), with altered starch granule size distribution. Compared to normal barley starch, KK-2 produced consistently higher volumes of starch granules with 5-15 μm diameter and reduced volumes of starch granules with >15 μm diameter when grown in different environments. A cross between KK-2 and normal starch cultivar CDC Kendall was made and led to the production of 154 F5 lines with alterations to the normal 7:3:1 distribution for A-:B-:C-type starch granule volumes. Three F5 lines showed unimodal starch granule size distribution due to apparent lack of very small (<5.0 μm diameter) C-type starch granules, but the phenotype was accompanied by reduced grain weight and total starch concentration. Five F5 lines produced a significantly larger population of large (>15 μm diameter) A-type starch granules as compared to normal starch and showed on average a 10:4:1 distribution for A-:B-:C-type starch granule volumes. The unusual starch phenotypes displayed by the F5 lines confirm starch granule size distribution in barley can be genetically altered.

  15. A Clinico-Epidemiological Study of Macular Amyloidosis from North India

    PubMed Central

    Bandhlish, Anshu; Aggarwal, Asok; Koranne, Ravinder V

    2012-01-01

    Background: Macular amyloidosis (MA) is the most subtle form of cutaneous amyloidosis, characterized by brownish macules in a rippled pattern, distributed predominantly over the trunk and extremities. MA has a high incidence in Asia, Middle East, and South America. Its etiology has yet to be fully elucidated though various risk factors such as sex, race, genetic predisposition, exposure to sunlight, atopy and friction and even auto-immunity have been implicated. Aim: This study attempts to evaluate the epidemiology and risk factors in the etiology of MA. Materials and: Methods: Clinical history and risk factors of 50 patients with a clinical diagnosis of MA were evaluated. Skin biopsies of 26 randomly selected patients were studied for the deposition of amyloid. Results: We observed a characteristic female preponderance (88%) with a female to male ratio of 7.3:1, with a mean age of onset of MA being earlier in females. Upper back was involved in 80% of patients and sun-exposed sites were involved in 64% cases. Incidence of MA was high in patients with skin phototype III. Role of friction was inconclusive Conclusion: Lack of clear-cut etiological factors makes it difficult to suggest a reasonable therapeutic modality. Histopathology is not specific and amyloid deposits can be demonstrated only in a small number of patients. For want of the requisite information on the natural course and definitive etiology, the disease MA remains an enigma and a source of concern for the suffering patients. PMID:22837559

  16. Route Infrastructure and the Risk of Injuries to Bicyclists: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Harris, M. Anne; Reynolds, Conor C. O.; Winters, Meghan; Babul, Shelina; Chipman, Mary; Cusimano, Michael D.; Brubacher, Jeff R.; Hunte, Garth; Friedman, Steven M.; Monro, Melody; Shen, Hui; Vernich, Lee; Cripton, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We compared cycling injury risks of 14 route types and other route infrastructure features. Methods. We recruited 690 city residents injured while cycling in Toronto or Vancouver, Canada. A case-crossover design compared route infrastructure at each injury site to that of a randomly selected control site from the same trip. Results. Of 14 route types, cycle tracks had the lowest risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.54), about one ninth the risk of the reference: major streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure. Risks on major streets were lower without parked cars (adjusted OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.96) and with bike lanes (adjusted OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.29, 1.01). Local streets also had lower risks (adjusted OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.84). Other infrastructure characteristics were associated with increased risks: streetcar or train tracks (adjusted OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.1), downhill grades (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.7, 3.1), and construction (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.9). Conclusions. The lower risks on quiet streets and with bike-specific infrastructure along busy streets support the route-design approach used in many northern European countries. Transportation infrastructure with lower bicycling injury risks merits public health support to reduce injuries and promote cycling. PMID:23078480

  17. Incidental findings on brain MRI of cognitively normal first-degree descendants of patients with Alzheimer's disease: a cross-sectional analysis from the ALFA (Alzheimer and Families) project

    PubMed Central

    Brugulat-Serrat, Anna; Rojas, Santiago; Bargalló, Nuria; Conesa, Gerardo; Minguillón, Carolina; Fauria, Karine; Gramunt, Nina; Molinuevo, José Luis; Gispert, Juan Domingo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of brain MRI incidental findings (IF) in a cohort of cognitively normal first-degree descendants of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting All scans were obtained with a 3.0 T scanner. Scans were evaluated by a single neuroradiologist and IF recorded and categorised. The presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) was determined with the Fazekas scale and reported as relevant if ≥2. Participants 575 participants (45–75 years) underwent high-resolution structural brain MRI. Participants were cognitively normal and scored over the respective cut-off values in all the following neuropsychological tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (≥26), Memory Impairment Screen (≥6), Time Orientation Subtest of the Barcelona Test II (≥68), verbal semantic fluency (naming animals ≥12). Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) had to be 0. Results 155 participants (27.0%) presented with at least one IF. Relevant WMH were present in 7.8% of the participants, and vascular abnormalities, cyst and brain volume loss in 10.7%, 3.1% and 6.9% of the study volunteers, respectively. Neoplastic brain findings were found in 2.4% of participants and within these, meningiomas were the most common (1.7%) and more frequently found in women. A positive correlation between increasing age and the presence of IF was found. Additionally, brain atrophy greater than that expected by age was significantly more prevalent in participants without a parental history of AD. Conclusions Brain MRIs of healthy middle-aged participants show a relatively high prevalence of IF even when study participants have been screened for subtle cognitive alterations. Most of our participants are first-degree descendants of patients with AD, and therefore these results are of special relevance for novel imaging studies in the context of AD prevention in cognitively healthy middle-aged participants. Trial registration number NCT

  18. Peak exercise left ventricular performance in normal subjects and in athletes assessed by first-pass radionuclide angiography.

    PubMed

    Tomai, F; Ciavolella, M; Gaspardone, A; De Fazio, A; Basso, E G; Giannitti, C; Scali, D; Versaci, F; Crea, F; Gioffrè, P A

    1992-08-15

    The role of Frank-Starling law of the heart in determining the increase in cardiac output during exercise in humans is still controversial (e.g., the mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of left ventricular [LV] filling during the shortened diastolic interval). Ten weight lifters, 12 swimmers and 12 sedentary subjects who underwent maximal upright bicycle exercise testing were studied. First-pass radionuclide angiography was performed both at rest and at peak exercise using a multicrystal gamma camera. Compared with resting values, heart rate and cardiac index at peak exercise increased by 101 +/- 16 beats/min (p less than 0.001) and 6.7 +/- 2.8 liters/min/m2 (p less than 0.001) in weight lifters, by 96 +/- 9 beats/min (p less than 0.001) and 9.5 +/- 2 liters/min/m2 (p less than 0.001) in swimmers, and by 103 +/- 9 beats/min (p less than 0.001) and 7.3 +/- 1.8 liters/min/m2 (p less than 0.001) in sedentary subjects. Stroke volume increased by 20.5 +/- 9.8 ml/m2 (p less than 0.001) in swimmers only. End-diastolic volume at peak exercise did not change in weight lifters and in swimmers; it decreased by 8.2 +/- 8.6 ml/m2 (p less than 0.01) in sedentary subjects. A significant correlation was found between the decrease in end-systolic volume and the increase in peak rapid filling rate at peak exercise in all 3 groups (r = 0.65, p less than 0.05 in weight lifters; r = 0.59, p less than 0.05 in swimmers; r = 0.67, p less than 0.05 in sedentary subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Epigenetic differences between male and female bovine blastocysts produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Alvarez, P; Rizos, D; Rath, D; Lonergan, P; Gutierrez-Adan, A

    2008-01-17

    Epigenetic differences between male and female bovine blastocysts provide a plausible link between physiological and gene transcription differences observed between male and female embryos. The aim of this study was to examine sex-related epigenetic differences in bovine blastocysts produced in vitro. Oocytes were matured in vitro and inseminated with frozen-thawed sex-sorted (X or Y) and unsorted (control) bull sperm. Zygotes were cultured to blastocyst stage and were analyzed for embryo sexing, mtDNA content, telomere lengths, methylation analysis, and quantification of mRNA transcripts of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b) HMT1 hnRNP methyltransferase-like 2 (Hmt1), and interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (Ilf3). There was a difference (P < 0.05) in the mean mtDNA copy number between male (410,000 +/- 23,000) and female (360,000 +/- 21,000) blastocysts. Telomere length was shorter in male blastocysts (P < 0.01). The level of methylation in a sequence near a variable number of tandem repeats minisatellite region [variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR)] in males (39.8% +/- 4.8) was higher than in females (23.7% +/- 3.1) (P < 0.05); however, no differences were found in other regions analyzed. Moreover, transcription differences between sexes were observed for Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Hmt1, and Ilf3. These results provide evidence of epigenetic differences between male and female bovine in vitro produced embryos and suggest that before initiation of gonadal differentiation, epigenetic events may modulate the difference between speed of development, metabolism, and transcription observed during preimplantation development between male and female embryos.

  20. Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, C.-J. David Lin, Stefan Meinel

    2012-04-01

    We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light-quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeV < m{sub {pi}} < 352 MeV, two lattice spacings, a = 0.085, 0.112 fm, and a volume of (2.7 fm){sup 3}. Our results for the axial couplings are g{sub 1} = 0.449(51), g{sub 2} = 0.84(20), and g{sub 3} = 0.71(13), where g{sub 1} governs the interaction between heavy-light mesons and pions and g{sub 2,3} are similar couplings between heavy-light baryons and pions. Using our lattice result for g{sub 3}, and constraining 1/m{sub Q} corrections in the strong decay widths with experimental data for {Sigma}{sub c}{sup (*)} decays, we obtain {Gamma}[{Sigma}{sub b}{sup (*)} {yields} {Lambda}{sub b} {pi}{sup {+-}}] = 4.2(1.0), 4.8(1.1), 7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the {Sigma}{sub b}{sup +}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *+}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *-} initial states, respectively. We also derive upper bounds on the widths of the {Xi}{sub b}{sup prime(*)} baryons.

  1. OTX2 Activity at Distal Regulatory Elements Shapes the Chromatin Landscape of Group 3 Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Gaylor; Awad, Mary E; Riggi, Nicolo; Archer, Tenley C; Iyer, Sowmya; Boonseng, Wannaporn E; Rossetti, Nikki E; Naigles, Beverly; Rengarajan, Shruthi; Volorio, Angela; Kim, James C; Mesirov, Jill P; Tamayo, Pablo; Pomeroy, Scott L; Aryee, Martin J; Rivera, Miguel N

    2017-02-17

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor and is divided into at least four subgroups known as WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Here, we characterized gene regulation mechanisms in the most aggressive subtype, Group 3 tumors, through genome-wide chromatin and expression profiling. Our results show that most active distal sites in these tumors are occupied by the transcription factor OTX2. Highly active OTX2-bound enhancers are often arranged as clusters of adjacent peaks and are also bound by the transcription factor NEUROD1. These sites are responsive to OTX2 and NEUROD1 knockdown and could also be generated de novo upon ectopic OTX2 expression in primary cells, showing that OTX2 cooperates with NEUROD1 and plays a major role in maintaining and possibly establishing regulatory elements as a pioneer factor. Among OTX2 target genes, we identified the kinase NEK2, whose knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition decreased cell viability. Our studies thus show that OTX2 controls the regulatory landscape of Group 3 medulloblastoma through cooperative activity at enhancer elements and contributes to the expression of critical target genes.SIGNIFICANCE: The gene regulation mechanisms that drive medulloblastoma are not well understood. Using chromatin profiling, we find that the transcription factor OTX2 acts as a pioneer factor and, in cooperation with NEUROD1, controls the Group 3 medulloblastoma active enhancer landscape. OTX2 itself or its target genes, including the mitotic kinase NEK2, represent attractive targets for future therapies. Cancer Discov; 7(3); 1-14. ©2017 AACR.

  2. Hemodynamic and oxidative stress profile after exercise in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Villa-Caballero, L; Nava-Ocampo, A A; Frati-Munari, A C; Rodríguez de León, S M; Becerra-Pérez, A R; Ceja, R M; Campos-Lara, M G; Ponce-Monter, H A

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of an acute bout of exercise (>85% VO2Max) on biochemical, hemodynamic and oxidative stress variables in sedentary and physically active subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood measurements were taken before and after a treadmill test on 12 sedentary non-diabetes subjects (ND), 12 sedentary type 2 diabetes (T2S) and 9 physically active T2D subjects (T2DA). T2DS subjects before and after the treadmill test showed a higher plasma glucose (123.2 +/- 19.0 mg/dL versus 108.9 +/- 16.8 mg/dL, p < 0.001), HbA1C (8.7 +/- 2.4% versus 7.3 +/- 1.2%, p < 0.001) and body fat% (21.3 +/- 5.7% versus 34.6 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.001) than T2DA subjects. T2DA had higher VO2Max (37.7 +/- 3.5 versus 29.5 +/- 3.2, p < 0.05), time on treadmill (22.3 +/- 2.1 min versus 16.1 +/- 2.1 min, p < 0.05), hemoglobin (17.9 +/- 0.9 g/dL, p < 0.05) and lower blood pressure levels in comparison to ND and T2DS subjects. Thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) in T2DS were higher than in T2DA subjects (0.27 +/- 0.1 nmol/mL versus 0.21 +/- 0.1 nmol/mL, p < 0.05). Glutathione (GSH) levels were similar among the groups. Physically active type 2 diabetes subjects had a more favorable biochemical, hemodynamic and oxidative stress profile than sedentary subjects. The coexistence of a poor cardiopulmonary performance and high oxidative stress environment can determine a profile of high risk for serious cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes.

  3. Tight junctions in the choroid plexus epithelium. A freeze-fracture study including complementary replicas

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The tight junctions of the choroid plexus epithelium of rats were studied by freeze-fracture. In glutaraldehyde-fixed material, the junctions exhibited rows of aligned particles and short bars on P- faces, the E-faces showing grooves bearing relatively many particles. A particulate nature of the junctional strands could be established by using unfixed material. The mean values of junctional strands from the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles of Lewis rats were 7.5 +/- 2.6, 7.4 +/- 2.2, and 7.5 +/- 2.4; and of Sprague-Dawley rats 7.7 +/- 3.4, 7.4 +/- 2.3, and 7.3 +/- 1.6. Examination of complementary replicas (of fixed tissue) showed that discomtinuities are present in the junctional strands: 42.2 +/- 4.6% of the length of measured P-face ridges were discontinuities, and the total amount of complementary particles in E- face grooves constituted 17.8 +/- 4.4% of the total length of the grooves, thus approximately 25% of the junctional strands can be considered to be discontinuous. The average width of the discontinuities, when corrected for complementary particles in E-face grooves, was 7.7 +/- 4.5 nm. In control experiments with a "tighter" tight junction (small intestine), complementary replicas revealed that the junctional fibrils are rather continuous and that the very few particles in E-face grooves mostly filled out discontinuities in the P- face ridges. Approximately 5% of the strands were found to be discontinuous. These data support the notion that the presence of pores in the junctional strands of the choroid plexus epithelium may explain the high transepithelial conductance in a "leaky" epithelium having a high number of junctional strands. However, loss of junctional material during fracturing is also considered as an alternative explanation of the present results. PMID:457764

  4. Extending the chronology of deposits at Blombos Cave, South Africa, back to 140 ka using optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Zenobia; Duller, Geoffrey A T; Wintle, Ann G; Henshilwood, Christopher S

    2006-09-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements are reported for both single aliquots (of two different sizes) and single grains of quartz from deposits within Blombos Cave. Ages have been obtained for six sediments from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) occupation levels and for two sterile sands, one underlying the archaeological sediment and one overlying the Later Stone Age occupation levels. The ages for the archaeological sediments were obtained from single-grain measurements that enabled unrepresentative grains to be rejected. The MSA occupation levels have ages that, within error limits, are in stratigraphic order and fall between the OSL age for the oldest dune sand (143.2+/-5.5 ka) and a previously published OSL age for the sterile sand ( approximately 70 ka) that separates the Middle and Later Stone Age deposits. The earliest MSA archaeological phase, M3, from where fragments of ochre were found as well as human teeth, is dated to 98.9+/-4.5 ka, coinciding with the sea-level high of oxygen isotope substage 5c. The cave then appears to be unoccupied until oxygen isotope substage 5a on the basis of four OSL ages for archaeological phase M2, ranging from 84.6+/-5.8 to 76.8+/-3.1 ka; these levels contained large hearths and bone tools. An age of 72.7+/-3.1 ka was obtained for the final MSA archaeological phase, M1, from which deliberately engraved ochre and shell beads were recovered along with bifacial stone points. We conclude that the periods of occupation were determined by changes in sea level, with abundant sources of seafood available in times of high sea level and with the cave being closed by the accumulation of large dunes during periods of low sea level, such as during oxygen isotope stages 4 and 6.

  5. Mercury and methylmercury contents in mine-waste calcine, water, and sediment collected from the Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.E.; Greaves, I.A.; Bustos, D.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    The Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines, produced about 2,900 t of mercury during mining of cinnabar ore from 1953 to 1976. More than 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining, much of which were used to construct a jetty in nearby Honda Bay. Since 1995, high Hg contents have been found in several people living near the mine, and 21 of these people were treated for mercury poisoning. Samples of mine-waste calcine contain high total Hg concentrations ranging from 43-660 ??g/g, whereas total Hg concentrations in sediment samples collected from a mine pit lake and local stream vary from 3.7-400 ??g/g. Mine water flowing through the calcines is acidic, pH 3.1-4.3, and total Hg concentrations ranging from 18-31 ??g/l in this water significantly exceed the 1.0-??g/l drinking water standard for Hg recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total Hg contents are generally lower in water samples collected from surrounding domestic wells, the mine pit lake, Honda Bay, and the nearby stream, varying from 0.008-1.4 ??g/l. Methylmercury concentrations in water draining mine calcines range from <0.02-1.4 ng/l, but methylmercury is highest in the pit lake water, ranging from 1.7-3.1 ng/l. Mercury methylation at the Palawan mine is similar to or higher than that found in other mercury mines worldwide. Much of the methylmercury generated in Palawan mine-waste calcines and those in Honda Bay is transferred to water, and then to marine fish and seafood. A food source pathway of Hg to humans is most likely in this coastal, high fish-consuming population.

  6. Diet-induced hyperphagia in the rat is influenced by sex and exercise.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Lisa A; Moore, Shelley R

    2004-11-01

    Caloric intake is increased in rats fed a diet containing greater fat or sugar than that found in laboratory chow. Because such diet-induced hyperphagia has been studied primarily in sedentary male rats, our goal here was to investigate the effects of sex and exercise on caloric intake of a diet (chow supplemented with sweet milk) chosen for its ability to stimulate hyperphagia. Rats were housed individually in cages that provided access to running wheels, and daily caloric intake of chow alone and then chow plus sweet milk was monitored during sedentary and active conditions. In sedentary rats, chow intake was greater in males compared with females. Wheel running produced similar decreases in chow intake in both sexes. Availability of the chow plus milk diet increased caloric intake compared with that observed in chow-fed rats. This diet-induced hyperphagia was significantly greater in sedentary females (35.7 +/- 3.1% increase) relative to sedentary males (9.1 +/- 2.2% increase). In addition, 35% of sedentary females consuming the chow plus milk diet developed estrous cycle disruptions. Wheel running decreased intake of the chow plus milk diet in both sexes. In active males, diet-induced hyperphagia was abolished; caloric intake was reduced to that observed during chow feeding. In active female rats, diet-induced hyperphagia was attenuated but not abolished; caloric intake of the chow plus milk diet remained greater than that observed during chow feeding. We conclude that female rats are more vulnerable than male rats to this form of diet-induced hyperphagia.

  7. Herpesvirus Infections and Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke: Results of the VIPS Study

    PubMed Central

    Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Hills, Nancy K.; Glaser, Carol A.; Lo, Warren D.; Amlie-Lefond, Catherine; Dlamini, Nomazulu; Kneen, Rachel; Hod, Eldad A.; Wintermark, Max; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Fullerton, Heather J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies demonstrate that childhood infections, including varicella zoster virus (VZV), are associated with an increased risk of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Other herpesviruses have been linked to childhood AIS in case reports. We sought to determine whether herpesvirus infections, which are potentially treatable, increase risk of childhood AIS. Methods and Results We enrolled 326 centrally-confirmed cases of AIS and 115 stroke-free controls with trauma (ages 29 days-18 years) with acute blood samples (≤3 weeks after stroke/trauma); cases had convalescent samples (7-28 days later) when feasible. Samples were tested by commercial ELISA kits for IgM/IgG antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). An algorithm developed a priori classified serologic evidence of past and acute herpesvirus infection as dichotomous variables. Median (quartiles) age was 7.7 (3.1-14.3) years for cases and 10.7 (6.9-13.2) for controls (p=0.03). Serologic evidence of past infection did not differ between cases and controls. However, serologic evidence of acute herpesvirus infection doubled the odds of childhood AIS, even after adjusting for age, race, and socio-economic status (OR 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.0; p=0.007). Among 187 cases with acute and convalescent blood samples, 85 (45%) showed evidence of acute herpesvirus infection, with HSV-1 found most often. Most infections were asymptomatic. Conclusions Herpesviruses may act as a trigger for childhood AIS, even if the infection is subclinical. Antivirals like acyclovir might have a role in the prevention of recurrent stroke if further studies confirm a causal relationship. PMID:26813104

  8. Vitamin D-dependent rat renal calcium-binding protein: development of a radioimmunoassay, tissue distribution, and immunologic identification

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenberg, J.; Pansini, A.R.; Christakos, S.

    1984-08-01

    A sensitive double antibody RIA has been developed for the 28,000 mol wt rat renal vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein. Using this assay, concentrations of calcium-binding protein (CaBP) as low as 30 ng can be measured. The assay is precise (intraassay variability, 5.0%) and reproductible (interassay variability, 8.2%). Measurements of renal CaBP by RIA showed a good correlation with measurements of CaBP by the chelex resin assay and by polyacrylamide gel analysis by densitometric tracing using a purified CaBP marker. The concentration of CaBP in the vitamin D-replete rat kidney is 7.3 +/- 1.0 (mean +/- SEM) micrograms/mg protein. In vitamin D-deficient rats the level of renal CaBP is 2.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms/mg protein. Tissue distribution of immunoreactive rat renal CaBP showed the highest concentration of CaBP in the rat cerebellum (38.3 +/- 5.1 micrograms/mg protein). Lower concentrations of immunoreactive CaBP were detected in several other rat tissues. No immunoreactive CaBP was detected in rat or human serum. In necropsy human kidney and cerebellum, high levels of immunoreactive CaBP were also detected (1.5 +/- 0.1 and 27.3 +/- 2.1 micrograms/mg protein, respectively). When extracts of rat kidney and brain and human cerebellum and kidney were assayed at several dilutions, immunodisplacement curves parallel to that of pure renal CaBP were observed, indicating immunochemical similarity. Fractionation of extracts of rat cerebellum, human kidney, and human cerebellum on Sephadex G-100 revealed immunoreactivity and calcium-binding activity in the 28,000 mol wt region similar to rat kidney.

  9. A new clinical and molecular form of Unverricht-Lundborg disease localized by homozygosity mapping.

    PubMed

    Berkovic, Samuel F; Mazarib, Aziz; Walid, Simri; Neufeld, Miriam Y; Manelis, Judith; Nevo, Yoram; Korczyn, Amos D; Yin, Jinggang; Xiong, Lan; Pandolfo, Massimo; Mulley, John C; Wallace, Robyn H

    2005-03-01

    Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) has a number of causes, of which Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) is the most common. ULD has previously been mapped to a locus on chromosome 21 (EPM1). Subsequently, mutations in the cystatin B gene have been found in most cases. In the present work we identified an inbred Arab family with a clinical pattern compatible with ULD, but mutations in the cystatin B gene were absent. We sought to characterize the clinical and molecular features of the disorder. The family was studied by multiple field trips to their town to clarify details of the complex consanguineous relationships and to personally examine the family. DNA was collected for subsequent molecular analyses from 21 individuals. A genome-wide screen was performed using 811 microsatellite markers. Homozygosity mapping was used to identify loci of interest. There were eight affected individuals. Clinical onset was at 7.3 +/- 1.5 years with myoclonic or tonic-clonic seizures. All had myoclonus that progressed in severity over time and seven had tonic-clonic seizures. Ataxia, in addition to myoclonus, occurred in all. Detailed cognitive assessment was not possible, but there was no significant progressive dementia. There was intrafamily variation in severity; three required wheelchairs in adult life; the others could walk unaided. MRI, muscle and skin biopsies on one individual were unremarkable. We mapped the family to a 15-megabase region at the pericentromeric region of chromosome 12 with a maximum lod score of 6.32. Although the phenotype of individual subjects was typical of ULD, the mean age of onset (7.3 years versus 11 years for ULD) was younger. The locus on chromosome 12 does not contain genes for any other form of PME, nor does it have genes known to be related to cystatin B. This represents a new form of PME and we have designated the locus as EPM1B.

  10. Effects of apparent temperature on daily mortality in Lisbon and Oporto, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. However, very few studies have been conducted that assess the effects of temperature on daily mortality in urban areas in Portugal. Methods In this paper time-series analysis was used to model the relationship between mean apparent temperature and daily mortality during the warm season (April to September) in the two largest urban areas in Portugal: Lisbon and Oporto. We used generalized additive Poisson regression models, adjusted for day of week and season. Results Our results show that in Lisbon, a 1°C increase in mean apparent temperature is associated with a 2.1% (95%CI: 1.6, 2.5), 2.4% (95%CI: 1.7, 3.1) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.1, 3.4) increase in all-causes, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In Oporto the increase was 1.5% (95%CI: 1.0, 1.9), 2.1% (95%CI: 1.3, 2.9) and 2.7% (95%CI: 1.2, 4.3) respectively. In both cities, this increase was greater for the group >65 years. Conclusion Even without extremes in apparent temperature, we observed an association between temperature and daily mortality in Portugal. Additional research is needed to allow for better assessment of vulnerability within populations in Portugal in order to develop more effective heat-related morbidity and mortality public health programs. PMID:20219128

  11. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks.

  12. Initial Isotopic Heterogeneities in ZAGAMI: Evidence of a Complex Magmatic History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2006-01-01

    Interpretations of Zagami s magmatic history range from complex [1,2] to relatively simple [3]. Discordant radiometric ages led to a suggestion that the ages had been reset [4]. In an attempt to identify the mechanism, Rb-Sr isochrons were individually determined for both fine-grained and coarse-grained Zagami [5]. Ages of approx.180 Ma were obtained from both lithologies, but the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 (ISr) of the fine-grained lithology was higher by 8.6+/-0.4 e-units. Recently, a much older age of approx.4 Ga has been advocated [6]. Here, we extend our earlier investigation [5]. Rb-Sr Data: In [5] we applied identical, simplified, procedures to both lithologies to test whether a grain-size dependent process such as thermally-driven subsolidus isotopic reequilibration had caused age-resetting. Minerals were separated only by density. In the present experiment, purer mineral separates were analysed with improved techniques. Combined Rb-Sr results give ages (T) = 166+/-12 Ma and 177+/-9 Ma and I(subSr) = 0.72174+/-9 and 0.72227+/-7 for the coarse-grained and fine-grained lithologies, respectively. ISr in the fine-grained sample is thus higher than in the coarse-grained sample by 7.3+/-1.6 e-units. The results for the coarse-grained lithology are in close agreement with T = 166+/-6 Ma, ISr = 0.72157+/-8 for an adjacent sample [7] and T = 178+/-4 Ma, ISr = 0.72151+/-5 [4, adjusted] for a separate sample. Thus, fine-grained Zagami appears on average to be less typical of the bulk than coarse-grained Zagami.

  13. The Incidence of Debris Disks at 24 μm and 670 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Laurie E.; Rieke, George; Su, Kate; Trilling, David E.

    2012-05-01

    We use Spitzer Space Telescope 24 μm data to search for debris disks among 122 AFGKM stars from the ~670 Myr clusters Hyades, Coma Ber, and Praesepe, utilizing a number of advances in data reduction and determining the intrinsic colors of main-sequence stars. For our sample, the 1σ dispersion about the main-sequence V-KS , KS -[24] locus is approximately 3.1%. We identify seven debris disks at 10% or more (>=3σ confidence level) above the expected KS -[24] for purely photospheric emission. The incidence of excesses of 10% or greater in our sample at this age is 5.7+3.1 - 1.7%. Combining with results from the literature, the rate is 7.8+4.2 - 2.1% for early-type (B9-F4) stars and 2.7+3.3 - 1.7% for solar-like (F5-K9) stars. Our primary sample has strict criteria for inclusion to allow comparison with other work; when we relax these criteria, three additional debris disks are detected. They are all around stars of solar-like type and hence reinforce our conclusion that disks around such stars are still relatively common at 670 Myr and are similar to the rate around early-type stars. The apparently small difference in decay rates between early-type and solar-like stars is inconsistent with the first-order theoretical predictions that the later type stellar disks would decay an order of magnitude more quickly than the earlier type ones.

  14. Clonidine stimulates atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) release in water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Baranowska, B; Tremblay, J; Gutkowska, J

    1988-01-01

    To determine the effect of clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, on atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) release during water deprivation, plasma immunoreactive ANF (IR-ANF) arginine vasopressin, diuresis and natriuresis were measured in rats which had been deprived of water for 24 and 48 hr after intravenous (IV) administration of 50 micrograms clonidine. In normally-hydrated rats clonidine produced a marked elevation of plasma IR-ANF from 40.5 +/- 4.6 pg/ml to 1064 +/- 22 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM) and sodium excretion from 73.3 +/- 6.8 microEq to 723.4 +/- 62.3 microEq. Clonidine evoked an increase in plasma IR-ANF from 16.6 +/- 5.9 pg/ml to 229.5 +/- 60 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM) after 24 hr water deprivation and from 13.6 +/- 7.4 pg/ml to 104.8 +/- 21 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM) after 48 hr water deprivation. Clonidine did not induce any significant changes in vasopressin levels. During 24 hr and 48 hr water deprivation vasopressin rose from 3.1 +/- 0.3 pg/ml to 7.3 +/- 1.3 pg/ml and 8.4 +/- 0.6 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM), respectively. In normally-hydrated rats clonidine produced a marked diuresis and natriuresis. These effects and urinary cGMP excretion were significantly inhibited by anti-ANF antibodies. Clonidine caused a significant increase in urine output in 24 hr water-deprived rats but the response was markedly lower than that seen in normally-hydrated rats. In conclusion, clonidine stimulates ANF release both in normally-hydrated and water-deprived rats. The diuretic effect of clonidine appears to be related to ANF release but not to inhibition of vasopressin.

  15. The effect of acute hypoxia at low altitude and acute normoxia at high altitude on performance during a 30-s Wingate test in children.

    PubMed

    Blonc, S; Falgairette, G; Bedu, M; Fellmann, N; Spielvogel, H; Coudert, J

    1994-10-01

    The effect of acute hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.137 +/- 0.001) at Low Altitude (LA: Clermont-Ferrand, 330 m) and acute normoxia (FIO2 = 0.306 +/- 0.006) at High Altitude (HA: La Paz, 3600 m) on performance during a 30-s Wingate test has been investigated in prepubertal children (Tanner stage 1). Twenty five boys (LA, n = 10; HA, n = 15) aged from 10.6 to 12.7 years performed two Wingate tests at random: at LA, one in normoxia (ambient air) and one in acute hypoxia and at HA, one in chronic hypoxia (ambient air) and one in acute normoxia. The subjects performed the two tests using the same calibrated cycle ergometer. Peak Power (PP), Mean Power (MP), O2 uptake during the 30 s (VO2) and blood lactate accumulation (delta [L]s) were measured. Compared to normoxia, acute hypoxia at LA did not alter PP (8.0 +/- 1.1 vs 7.9 +/- 1.3 W.kg-1 BW) and MP (6.1 +/- 0.7 vs 6.1 +/- 1.1 W.kg-1 BW). Similarly, compared to chronic hypoxia, acute normoxia at HA did not modify these parameters (PP: 7.4 +/- 1.5 vs 7.3 +/- 1.8; MP: 5.4 +/- 1.2 vs 5.5 +/- 1.1; W.kg-1 BW). VO2 and delta [L]s were neither significantly changed by acute hypoxia at LA (520 +/- 50 vs 550 +/- 60 ml O2; 5.3 +/- 1.7 vs 4.8 +/- 1.7 mmol.l-1) nor by acute normoxia at HA (530 +/- 110 vs 500 +/- 90 ml O2; 3.4 +/- 1.3 vs 3.3 +/- 1.0 mmol.l-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Controlled synthesis of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MnCO{sub 3} in a solvothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Lixia; Liang Ying; Chen Hou; Meng Yanfeng; Jiang Wei

    2009-08-05

    Controlled synthesis of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystals and MnCO{sub 3} aggregates was achieved by a facile solvothermal method using different divalent manganese source in the solvent of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) with/without the introduction of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). PVP was used as a co-reducing reagent in the controlled formation of MnCO{sub 3} crystal. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, Raman spectrum and magnetic measurement. Higher process temperature and longer solvothermal time were favorable for the formation of MnCO{sub 3} single phase using MnCl{sub 2} as the manganese source. Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were prepared at a relatively lower temperature. MnCO{sub 3} aggregates consisted by small nanoparticles have a certain orientation, showing that the nanocrystals formed earlier through oriented aggregation. The size of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystals was 22.5 {+-} 7.3 nm and 7.3 {+-} 1.4 nm prepared using MnCl{sub 2} and Mn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}, respectively, at 160 deg. C for 24 h. Raman spectra showed size-dependent characteristics. Smaller Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle resulted in a red-shift in Raman spectra. Magnetic property of the prepared Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle was influenced by the size distribution and crystallinity.

  17. The outwardly rectifying chloride channel in rat peritoneal mast cells is regulated by serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Seebeck, Jörg; Tritschler, Stefan; Roloff, Tim; Kruse, Marie-Luise; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Ziegler, Albrecht

    2002-02-01

    A slowly activating, outwardly rectifying Cl- channel (ORCC) has been described in rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). This channel is activated by intracellular application of cAMP, an effect that might be mediated by a PKA-type serine/threonine protein kinase. To test this hypothesis, whole-cell patch-clamp experiments (nystatin-perforated patch) were performed and 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate, Sp-enantiomer (Sp-8Br-cAMPS), a cell membrane-permeable activator of PKA, and three inhibitors of different serine/threonine protein phosphatases (okadaic acid, cantharidin, calyculin A), were tested. In RPMCs application of repetitive series of step hyper- and depolarizations (holding potential 0 mV, test potentials -80 to +80 mV, step size +20 mV) induced a slowly increasing, [half-maximal activation time ( t0.5) 11.0+/-1.1 min, Imax (at +80 mV) 18.7+/-3.1 pA pF-1], DIDS-sensitive, outwardly rectifying Cl- current I(Cl,OR). The activation of this current could be accelerated by Sp-8Br-cAMPS, okadaic acid or cantharidin in the extracellular solution. Co-application of Sp-8Br-cAMPS and okadaic acid increased Imax supra-additively. Calyculin A and higher concentrations of cantharidin inhibited the Cl- current via unknown mechanisms. Our findings suggest that I(Cl,OR) in RPMCs is activated by a PKA-type protein kinase, a process which is antagonized functionally by okadaic acid- and cantharidin-sensitive protein phosphatases.

  18. [Effects of two typical substrates as the sole carbon source on biological phosphorus removal with a single-stage oxic process].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Lin; Wang, Dong-Bo; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Zou, Gao-Long; Jia, Bin; Zeng, Tian-Jing; Ding, Yan; Zeng, Guang-Ming

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the performances of phosphorus removal in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with single-stage oxic process using synthetical wastewater, glucose (R1) and acetate (R2) were fed to two SBRs as the sole carbon source, respectively. The operation run mode was determined to be: influent --> aeration (4 h) --> settling (8 h) --> effluent. The results showed that the performance of phosphorus removal in R1 was higher than that in R2 after steady-operation. Total phosphorus (TP) removed per MLVSS in R1 and R2 were 7.2-7.7 and 3.8-4.6 mg x g(-1) during aeration, respectively, but the rate of phosphorus release at the two reactors were 3.6-3.8 and 2.7-3.1 mg x g(-1) during the idle zone, respectively. The energy storage of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) was constant nearly in R1 during the whole period, but glycogen was accumulated to the maximum value at 30 minutes of aeration, and then was decreased to the initial level. However in R2, PHA and glycogen were both accumulated at about 45 minutes of aeration. This phenomenon suggested that glycogen is the main energy source for metabolism during aerobic period in R1, and the main energy resource come from the decomposition of PHA and the hydrolysis of glycogen in R2. The facts showed that glycogen could replace PHAs to supply energy for phosphate uptake and polyphosphate accumulation in such a single-stage oxic process. Since glycogen accumulated in R1 was more than that in R2, the efficiency of phosphorus removal in R1 was higher than that in R2.

  19. Biomechanical evaluation of the fixation methods for transcondylar fracture of the humerus:ONI plate versus conventional plates and screws.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Yasunori; Nishida, Keiichiro; Imatani, Junya; Noda, Tomoyuki; Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Ohtsuka, Aiji; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2010-04-01

    We biomechanically evaluated the bone fixation rigidity of an ONI plate (Group I) during fixation of experimentally created transcondylar humerus fractures in cadaveric elbows, which are the most frequently observed humeral fractures in the elderly, and compared it with the rigidity achieved by 3 conventional fixation methods:an LCP reconstruction plate 3.5 using a locking mechanism (Group II), a conventional reconstruction plate 3.5 (CRP) with a cannulated cancellous screw (Group III), and a CRP with 2 cannulated cancellous screws (CS) in a crisscross orientation (Group IV). In the axial loading test, the mean failure loads were:Group I, 98.9+/-32.6;Group II, 108.5+/-27.2;Group III, 50.0+/-7.5;and Group IV, 34.5+/-12.2 (N). Group I fixations failed at a significantly higher load than those of Groups III and IV (p<0.05). In the extension loading test, the mean failure loads were:Group I, 34.0+/-12.4;Group II, 51.0+/-14.8;Group III, 19.3+/-6.0;and Group IV, 14.7+/-3.1 (N). Group IV fixations showed a significantly lower failure load than those of Group I (p<0.05). The fixation rigidities against mechanical loading by the ONI plate and LCP plate were comparable. These results suggested that an ONI system might be superior to the CRP and CS method, and comparable to the LCP method in terms of fixation rigidity for distal humerus fractures.

  20. New electroactive polymers with electronically isolated 3,6,9-triarylcarbazole units as efficient hole transporting materials for organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griniene, R.; Tavgeniene, D.; Baranauskyte, U.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, B.; Gelzinis, A.; Grigalevicius, S.

    2017-04-01

    Polyethers containing electronically isolated 3,6,9-triarylcarbazole moieties have been synthesized by the multi-step synthetic procedures. A polymer containing unsubstituted carbazole rings was also prepared for comparison of properties. Full characterization of the materials is presented. The new polymers represent materials of high thermal stability with initial thermal degradation temperatures exceeding 367 °C. The high glass transition temperatures of the amorphous materials were in the rage of 133-146 °C. The electron photoemission spectra of thin layers of the polymers showed ionization potentials in the range of 5.52-5.6 eV. Hole-transporting properties of the electroactive materials were tested in the structures of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with tris(quinolin-8-olato)aluminium as the green emitter and electron transporting material. The OLED devices in general exhibited rather low turn-on voltages of 3.2-4.2 V, high maximum brightness of 4910-7500 cd/m2 and luminous efficiency of 1.7-3.1 cd/A. It was confirmed that the devices containing the polymers with 3,6,9-triarylcarbazole moieties demonstrate considerably better OLED performance than that of device with polymer containing unsubstituted carbazole rings due to its higher ionization potential and accordingly worse hole injecting properties. The device containing hole-transporting layer of polymer with 3,6-di(1-naphthyl)-9-phenylcarbazole units exhibited the best overall performance with rather low turn on voltage of 4.4 V, maximum photometric efficiency exceeding 3.1 cd/A and maximum brightness of about 7500 cd/m2.

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF A NOVEL CAROTENOID-ENRICHED, METAL-RESISTANT MICROALGA ISOLATED FROM AN ACIDIC RIVER IN HUELVA (SPAIN)(1).

    PubMed

    Garbayo, Inés; Torronteras, Rafael; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Casal, Carlos; Mogedas, Benito; Ruiz-Domínguez, María C; Márquez, Carmen; Vaquero, Isabel; Fuentes-Cordero, Juan L; Fuentes, Rocío; González-Del-Valle, Manuel; Vílchez, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    A heavy-metal-resistant, carotenoid-enriched novel unicellular microalga was isolated from an acidic river in Huelva, Spain. The isolated ribosomal 18S subunit rDNA sequence showed homology with known sequences from green microalgae, the closest sequence (98% homology) belonging to the genus Coccomyxa. The isolated microalga therefore was an up to now uncultured microalga. The microalga was isolated from Tinto River area (Huelva, Spain), an acidic river that exhibits very low pH (1.7-3.1) with high concentrations of sulfuric acid and heavy metals, including Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Al. Electron micrographs show that the microalga contains a large chloroplast with a presence of lipid droplets, an increased number of starch bodies as well as electron-dense deposits and plastoglobules, the last observed only in iron-exposed cells. Unlike other acidophile microalgae, the isolated microalga showed high growth rates when cultivated photoautotrophycally (up to 0.6 d(-1) ) in a suitable culture medium prepared at our laboratory. The growth was shown to be iron dependent. When the microalga is grown in fluidized bed reactors, the high growth rates resulted in unexpectedly high productivities for being a microalga that naturally grows in acidic environments (0.32 g·L(-1) ·d(-1) ). The microalga also grows optimally on reduced carbon sources, including glucose and urea, and at an optimal temperature of 35°C. The alga pigment profile is particularly rich in carotenoids, especially lutein, suggesting that the microalga might have potential for antioxidant production, namely, xanthophylls.

  2. Inhibition of gastric secretion by omeprazole and efficiency of calcium carbonate on the control of hyperphosphatemia in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hardy, P; Sechet, A; Hottelart, C; Oprisiu, R; Abighanem, O; Said, S; Rasombololona, M; Brazier, M; Moriniere, P; Achard, J M; Pruna, A; Fournier, A

    1998-07-01

    Contradictions exist in the literature regarding the effect of gastric secretion inhibition on phosphate absorption. In healthy controls, omeprazole would decrease the hyperphosphatemia or the hyperphosphaturia induced by an acute phosphate load, suggesting an inhibition of phosphate absorption. In chronic hemodialysis patients, gastric hypersecretion is associated with hyperphosphatemia, but inhibition of gastric hypersecretion by ranitidine in those receiving calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as a phosphate binder would paradoxically exacerbate their hyperphosphatemia. Because of these conflicting observations, we performed an open crossover study on 16 chronic stable hemodialyzed patients with a daily mean intake of 9.4+/-4 g of CaCO3, and we compared the plasmatic predialysis levels of phosphate, calcium, protides, bicarbonates, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), urea, and creatininemia during 2 successive periods of 2 months, the first one without omeprazole and the second one with 20 mg omeprazole intake in the morning. Phosphatemia increased with omeprazole but not significantly from 1.80+/-0.38 to 1.89+/-0.42 mM whereas corrected calcemia decreased significantly (p = 0.04) from 2.41+/-0.18 to 2.36+/-0.16 mM as did bicarbonatemia from 26.7+/-3.5 to 25.7+/-3.1 mM (p < 0.05). No change in creatininemia or in blood urea was observed, suggesting the stable efficiency of dialysis as well as the stable intakes of protein and therefore of phosphate during the two study periods. In conclusion, inhibition of gastric secretion by omeprazole increases the plasmatic phosphate predialytic level but in a nonsignificant way. This increase may be explained by a slight but significant concomitant decrease of calcemia and bicarbonatemia. These results do not support the phosphate binding efficiency of CaCO3 being decreased by the inhibition of gastric acid secretion.

  3. Micrometeorological measurements over 3 years reveal differences in N2 O emissions between annual and perennial crops.

    PubMed

    Abalos, Diego; Brown, Shannon E; Vanderzaag, Andrew C; Gordon, Robert J; Dunfield, Kari E; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Perennial crops can deliver a wide range of ecosystem services compared to annual crops. Some of these benefits are achieved by lengthening the growing season, which increases the period of crop water and nutrient uptake, pointing to a potential role for perennial systems to mitigate soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. Employing a micrometeorological method, we tested this hypothesis in a 3-year field experiment with a perennial grass-legume mixture and an annual corn monoculture. Given that N2 O emissions are strongly dependent on the method of fertilizer application, two manure application options commonly used by farmers for each crop were studied: injection vs. broadcast application for the perennial; fall vs. spring application for the annual. Across the 3 years, lower N2 O emissions (P < 0.001) were measured for the perennial compared to the annual crop, even though annual N2 O emissions increased tenfold for the perennial after ploughing. The percentage of N2 O lost per unit of fertilizer applied was 3.7, 3.1 and 1.3 times higher for the annual for each consecutive year. Differences in soil organic matter due to the contrasting root systems of these crops are probably a major factor behind the N2 O reduction. We found that a specific manure management practice can lead to increases or reductions in annual N2 O emissions depending on environmental variables. The number of freeze-thaw cycles during winter and the amount of rainfall after fertilization in spring were key factors. Therefore, general manure management recommendations should be avoided because interannual weather variability has the potential to determine if a specific practice is beneficial or detrimental. The lower N2 O emissions of perennial crops deserve further research attention and must be considered in future land-use decisions. Increasing the proportion of perennial crops in agricultural landscapes may provide an overlooked opportunity to regulate N2 O emissions.

  4. Effects of a Multimedia Project on Users' Knowledge about Normal Forgetting and Serious Memory Loss

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Diane Feeney; Tarlow, Barbara J.; Jones, Richard N.; Sandaire, Johnny

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the project was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a CD-ROM–based multimedia program as a tool to increase user's knowledge about the differences between “normal” forgetfulness and more serious memory loss associated with Alzheimer's disease. Design and Measurements: The research was a controlled randomized study conducted with 113 adults who were recruited from the community and who expressed a concern about memory loss in a family member. The intervention group (n=56) viewed a module entitled “Forgetfulness: What's Normal and What's Not” on a laptop computer in their homes; the control group (n=57) did not. Both groups completed a 25-item knowledge-about-memory-loss test (primary outcome) and a sociodemographic and technology usage questionnaire; the intervention group also completed a CD-ROM user's evaluation. Results: The mean (SD) number of correct responses to the knowledge test was 14.2 (4.5) for controls and 19.7 (3.1) for intervention participants. This highly significant difference (p<0.001) corresponds to a very large effect size. The program was most effective for participants with a lower level of self-reported prior knowledge about memory loss and Alzheimer's disease (p=0.02). Viewers were very satisfied with the program and felt that it was easy to use and understand. They particularly valued having personal access to a confidential source that permitted them to become informed about memory loss without public disclosure. Conclusion: This multimedia CD-ROM technology program provides an efficient and effective means of teaching older adults about memory loss and ways to distinguish benign from serious memory loss. It uniquely balances public community outreach education and personal privacy. PMID:12087119

  5. Utilizing the salutogenic paradigm to investigate well-being among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and other adversities.

    PubMed

    Dube, Shanta R; Rishi, Shobhana

    2017-02-26

    The long-term negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences are well documented. However, less is known about salutogenesis (well-being) among adult survivors of childhood adversity. The 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed to assess the contribution of four health promoting factors (physical activity, smoking abstinence, educational level, social-emotional support) with positive health-related quality of life (HRQoL), among adults who retrospectively reported childhood abuse or exposure to other childhood toxic stressors (n=12,032) and separately for adults who reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Outcomes examined included positive self-rated health (good/very good/excellent); mentally unhealthy days (MUDS) and physically unhealthy days (PUDS) in the past 30 days. After controlling for demographic characteristics and existing health conditions, physical activity (p<.05), smoking abstinence (p<.05), education of high school or greater (p<.05), and social-emotional support (p<.05) were associated with positive HRQoL outcomes among adult survivors of childhood adversity and adult survivors of CSA. Each unit increase of the health promoting factor score (0-4) resulted in adjusted odds ratio of 2.1 (95% CI: 1.3-2.4) for self-rated health and 1.6 (95%CI: 1.1-2.6) for <14 PUDs among male CSA survivors; among female survivors the adjusted odds ratios were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.8-3.2) for self-rated health, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7-3.1) for <14 MUDs, and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.6-3.0) for <14 PUDs. The study validates that a large proportion of adults survive childhood adversities and underscores the importance of the salutogenic paradigm to identify strategies that may contribute to well-being.

  6. Dietary taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy in the fox.

    PubMed

    Moise, N S; Pacioretty, L M; Kallfelz, F A; Stipanuk, M H; King, J M; Gilmour, R F

    1991-02-01

    Taurine deficiency has been implicated as a potential cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the relationship between taurine and myocardial function is presently unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dilated cardiomyopathy in the fox is associated with dietary taurine deficiency. A total of 68 foxes from farms with a history of death caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and 14 foxes from a farm with no history of dilated cardiomyopathy were studied. Dilated cardiomyopathy was diagnosed by echocardiography in 48% of the foxes from one farm with a positive history and in none of the foxes from the control farm. Foxes less than 9 months of age were more commonly affected than older foxes (p = 0.03). Plasma taurine concentrations were significantly less (p less than 0.01) in foxes that had dilated cardiomyopathy (26.8 +/- 16.4 nmol/ml) than in the control foxes (99.3 +/- 60.2 nmol/ml). A significantly higher (p less than 0.01) incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy was present in foxes with a history of a sibling or offspring that died of dilated cardiomyopathy than in foxes without a family history of cardiac death. In one fox with dilated cardiomyopathy that was tested, the myocardial taurine concentration was lower (1.7 mumol/gm wet weight) than that of control foxes (7.3 +/- 1.6 mumol/gm wet weight). Hepatic cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase activity was significantly less (p less than 0.001) in foxes with dilated cardiomyopathy (0.97 +/- 0.2 nmol/mm.mg protein) than in control foxes (2.11 +/- 0.07 nmol CO2/mm.mg protein).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Ouabain-like compound changes rapidly on physical exercise in humans and dogs: effects of beta-blockade and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Müller-Ehmsen, Jochen; Krämer, Ulrike; Hambarchian, Njde; Zobel, Carsten; Schwinger, Robert H G; Neu, Horst; Kirch, Ulrike; Grünbaum, Ernst-Günther; Schoner, Wilhelm

    2005-05-01

    Ouabain, an inhibitor of the sodium pump, has been identified as a constituent of bovine adrenal glands. We were interested whether the release of this cardiotonic steroid is stimulated by physical exercise. Hence, athletes and healthy dogs were subjected to ergometry. Ouabain-like compound (OLC) was measured in venous blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as by (86)Rb+ uptake inhibition (as ouabain equivalents). OLC increased in venous blood of athletes after 15 minutes of ergometry from 2.5+/-0.5 to 86.0+/-27.2 nmol/L (n=51; P<0.001), as did the concentration of a circulating inhibitor of the sodium pump from 7.3+/-1.7 to 129.8+/-51 nmol/L (ouabain equivalents, P<0.05). Half-maximal increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure occurred at 5.1+/-1.2 nmol/L and at 30+/-1 nmol/L OLC, respectively. On rest, OLC decreased in humans and dogs with a half-life of 3 to 5 minutes. In beagles exposed to moderate exercise on a treadmill for 13 minutes, levels of OLC increased 46-fold (from 3.7+/-0.8 to 166.9+/-91.8 nmol/L; n=6; P<0.005). This effect was suppressed when the dogs had been treated for 3 weeks with the beta1-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol or the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril. We conclude that OLC changes rapidly during exercise and is under the control of norepinephrine and angiotensin II.

  8. Influence of sulfur fertilization on the amounts of free amino acids in wheat. correlation with baking properties as well as with 3-aminopropionamide and acrylamide generation during baking.

    PubMed

    Granvogl, Michael; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter; Tucher, Sabine Von; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-05-16

    Sulfur (S) fertilization has been long-known to influence the amounts of total free amino acids in plants. To determine the impact of S deficiency in wheat on the concentration of, in particular, free asparagine, the spring wheat cultivar 'Star' was grown in a laboratory scale (5 L pot) at five different levels of S fertilization. After maturity, the kernels were milled into white flours (1-5) and analyzed for their contents of total S and total nitrogen as well as for free amino acids and glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose. Extremely high concentrations of free asparagine (Asn; 3.9-5.7 g/kg) were determined in flours 1 and 2 (30 and 60 mg of S), whereas much lower amounts (0.03-0.4 g/kg) were present in flours grown at higher S levels. The amounts of the reducing carbohydrates were, however, scarcely affected by S fertilization. In agreement with the high amount of Asn in flours 1 and 2, heating of both flours led to the generation of very high amounts of acrylamide (1.7-3.1 mg/kg) as well as of 3-aminopropionamide (40-76 mg/kg). Similar concentrations were measured in crispbread prepared from both flours. Application of rheological measurements on doughs prepared from each flour and a determination of the loaf volume of bread baked therefrom clearly indicated that flours 1 and 2 would be excluded from commercial bread processing due to their poor technological properties. Two commercial flours showed relatively low concentrations of acrylamide after a thermal treatment.

  9. Cancer incidence in the first-degree relatives of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Auranen, A.; Pukkala, E.; Mäkinen, J.; Sankila, R.; Grénman, S.; Salmi, T.

    1996-01-01

    Cancer incidence was studied among 3072 first-degree relatives of 559 unselected ovarian cancer patients. Among cohort members there were 306 cancer cases. The overall cancer incidence was not increased: the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) in males was 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.8-1.1) and in females 1.0 (0.8-1.1). The female relatives had a significantly increased risk for ovarian cancer (SIR 2.8, 1.8-4.2). The excess was attributable to sisters only (SIR 3.7, 2.3-5.7). The relative risk for ovarian cancer among sisters decreased both by increasing age of the sister and by increasing age at diagnosis of the index patient: the SIRs were 7.3 (1.5-21.4), 4.5 (1.6-9.8) and 3.1 (1.7-5.4) for sisters of index patients diagnosed in age < 45, 45-54 and 55-75 years respectively. The age dependency of the risk supports the role of genetic factors in familial ovarian cancer. Although the risk of ovarian cancer among sisters from families with breast cancer (SIR 9.2, 3.7-19.0) was significantly higher than among sisters from families with no breast cancer patients (SIR 2.9, 1.6-4.8, rate ratio 3.1, P < 0.05), the excess was not solely attributable to coaggregation of breast and ovarian cancer. Among the 27 families with two or more ovarian cancers, only sisters were affected in 24 families, which might implicate recessive inheritance or shared environmental factors influencing ovarian cancer risk in sisters. PMID:8688336

  10. Profitability and Market Value of Orphan Drug Companies: A Retrospective, Propensity-Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Dyfrig A.; Poletti-Hughes, Jannine

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns about the high cost of orphan drugs has led to questions being asked about the generosity of the incentives for development, and associated company profits. Methods We conducted a retrospective, propensity score matched study of publicly-listed orphan companies. Cases were defined as holders of orphan drug market authorisation in Europe or the USA between 2000–12. Control companies were selected based on their propensity for being orphan drug market authorisation holders. We applied system General Method of Moments to test whether companies with orphan drug market authorization are valued higher, as measured by the Tobin’s Q and market to book value ratios, and are more profitable based on return on assets, than non-orphan drug companies. Results 86 companies with orphan drug approvals in European (4), USA (61) or both (21) markets were matched with 258 controls. Following adjustment, orphan drug market authorization holders have a 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.6% to 18.7%) higher return on assets than non-orphan drug companies; Tobin’s Q was higher by 9.9% (1.0% to 19.7%); market to book value by 15.7% (3.1% to 30.0%) and operating profit by 516% (CI 19.8% to 1011%). For each additional orphan drug sold, return on assets increased by 11.1% (0.6% to 21.3%), Tobin’s Q by 2.7% (0.2% to 5.2%), and market to book value ratio by 5.8% (0.7% to 10.9%). Conclusions Publicly listed pharmaceutical companies that are orphan drug market authorization holders are associated with higher market value and greater profits than companies not producing treatments for rare diseases. PMID:27768685

  11. Predicting sexual and nonsexual recidivism in a consecutive sample of juveniles convicted of sexual offences.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia

    2011-12-01

    Reliable and valid risk assessments are essential for responding adequately to juveniles who have sexually offended (JSO). Given the lack of specific research focusing on the JSO population, the present study aims at confirming and expanding previous findings based on clinical samples dealing with risk assessments of JSO. The predictive power of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol (J-SOAP-II) and the Sexual Offence Severity (SOS) Scale are evaluated retrospectively by analyzing forensic, police, and judicial files in a consecutive sample of 223 adolescents (mean age of 15.7 years, SD=2.1 years) who had been convicted of a sexual crime in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2008. Based on local official recidivism data (mean follow-up period=4.3 years; SD=2.5 years), univariate and multivariate predictions of sexual and nonsexual recidivism are tested by use of the J-SOAP-II and the SOS Scale in logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses. Sexual recidivism (n=7, 3.1%) is best predicted by a multivariate model, including the J-SOAP-II Adjustment Scale and the SOS Scale (ROC: Area under the curve [AUC]=.818). Nonsexual violent (n=37, 16.6%) and general recidivism (n=100, 44.8%) are only moderately predicted by the J-SOAP-II impulsive/antisocial behavior scale (AUC=.677 and .662, respectively). In conclusion, the J-SOAP-II adjustment scale, the J-SOAP-II impulsive/antisocial behavior scale, and the SOS Scale may be helpful for screening purposes in JSO, but additional risk assessment seems necessary. Overall, further research is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of risk factors in JSO.

  12. Impact of Missing Data for Body Mass Index in an Epidemiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C; Herring, Amy H; Howards, Penelope P; Waller, D Kim; Johnson, Candice Y

    2016-07-01

    Objective To assess the potential impact of missing data on body mass index (BMI) on the association between prepregnancy obesity and specific birth defects. Methods Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) were analyzed. We assessed the factors associated with missing BMI data among mothers of infants without birth defects. Four analytic methods were then used to assess the impact of missing BMI data on the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and three birth defects; spina bifida, gastroschisis, and cleft lip with/without cleft palate. The analytic methods were: (1) complete case analysis; (2) assignment of missing values to either obese or normal BMI; (3) multiple imputation; and (4) probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Results Of NBDPS control mothers 4.6 % were missing BMI data, and most of the missing values were attributable to missing height (~90 %). Missing BMI data was associated with birth outside of the US (aOR 8.6; 95 % CI 5.5, 13.4), interview in Spanish (aOR 2.4; 95 % CI 1.8, 3.2), Hispanic ethnicity (aOR 2.0; 95 % CI 1.2, 3.4), and <12 years education (aOR 2.3; 95 % CI 1.7, 3.1). Overall the results of the multiple imputation and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were similar to the complete case analysis. Conclusions Although in some scenarios missing BMI data can bias the magnitude of association, it does not appear likely to have impacted conclusions from a traditional complete case analysis of these data.

  13. Sex differences in insulin action and body fat distribution in overweight and obese middle-aged and older men and women.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Cynthia M; Goldberg, Andrew P; Nicklas, Barbara J; Sorkin, John D; Ryan, Alice S

    2008-08-01

    Controversy exists as to whether there are differences in insulin action between older men and women, and what factors contribute to these differences. This study tests the hypothesis that sex differences in regional fat distribution contribute to a disparity in insulin sensitivity in older men vs. older women. Healthy, older (50-71 years), sedentary men (n = 28) and women (n = 29) were recruited to participate in the study. Body fat, fat-free mass (FFM), and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue areas were measured by DXA and computed tomography (CT). For measurements of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (M), insulin was infused at a constant rate of 240 pmol.m(-2).min(-1), and M was calculated between the 90th and 120th min of the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. The men weighed 16% more and had 16% higher waist and 4% lower hip circumferences than women (p < 0.05 for all). Total fat mass and SAT were 21% and 33% lower and FFM was 49% higher in men than in women, whereas waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and VAT:SAT ratio were 21% and 56% higher in men than in women (p < 0.05 for all). Although insulin concentrations during the glucose clamp were higher in men, M was 47% lower in men vs. women (21.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 46.7 +/- 3.1 micromol.L(-1).kg FFM(-1).min(-1), p < 0.05). The sex-related differences in M persisted after controlling for insulin concentrations during the glucose clamp, for waist, WHR, and VAT:SAT. Older men are more insulin resistant than women, despite lower body fat and subcutaneous abdominal fat. This difference in insulin sensitivity is not explained by abdominal fat distribution, therefore other metabolic factors contribute to the sex differences in insulin sensitivity.

  14. In vitro hepatic metabolism of cediranib, a potent vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitor: interspecies comparison and human enzymology.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Utermoehl, Timothy; Spear, Michael; Pollard, Christopher R J; Pattison, Christine; Rollison, Helen; Sarda, Sunil; Ward, Michelle; Bushby, Nick; Jordan, Angela; Harrison, Mike

    2010-10-01

    The in vitro metabolism of cediranib (4-[(4-fluoro-2-methyl-1H-indol-5-yl)oxy]-6-methoxy-7-[3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)propoxy]quinazoline), a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of all three VEGF receptors in late-stage development for the treatment of colorectal cancer and recurrent glioblastoma was investigated in hepatic proteins from preclinical species and humans using radiolabeled material. In human hepatocyte cultures, oxidative and conjugative metabolic pathways were identified, with pyrrolidine N(+)-glucuronidation being the major route. The primary oxidative pathways were di-and trioxidations and pyrrolidine N-oxidation. All metabolites with the exception of the N(+)-glucuronide metabolite were observed in rat and cynomolgus monkey hepatocyte preparations. Additional metabolism studies in liver microsomes from these or other preclinical species (CD-1 mouse, Han Wistar rat, Dunkin Hartley guinea pig, Göttingen mini-pig, New Zealand White rabbit, beagle dog, and cynomolgus and rhesus monkey) indicated that the N(+)-glucuronide metabolite was not formed in these additional species. Incubations with recombinant flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes and inhibition studies using the nonselective cytochrome P450 (P450) chemical inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole in human hepatocytes indicated that FMO1 and FMO3 contributed to cediranib N-oxidation, whereas UGT1A4 had a major role in cediranib N(+)-glucuronidation. P450 enzymes had only a minor role in the metabolism of cediranib. In conclusion, species differences in the formation of the N(+)-glucuronide metabolite of cediranib were observed. All other metabolites of cediranib found in humans were also detected in rat and cynomolgus monkey. Non-P450 enzymes are predominantly involved in the metabolism of cediranib, and this suggests that clinical drug interactions involving other coadministered drugs are unlikely.

  15. In vivo and in vitro fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved European mouflon [Ovis gmelini musimon] spermatozoa used to restore genetically rare and isolated populations.

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Leoni, Giovanni G; Bogliolo, Luisa; Bebbere, Daniela; Succu, Sara; Rosati, Irma; Ledda, Sergio; Naitana, Salvatore

    2005-02-01

    European mouflon sheep are an endangered species of ovidae residing primarily in the mountenous habitat of the islands of Sardinia and Corsica. The purpose of this study was to assess the fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved European mouflon spermatozoa after AI in synchronized mouflon and domestic ewes and after IVF in in vitro matured mouflon and domestic ewe oocytes collected by OPU technique. Domestic ram (Ovis aries) spermatozoa served as control. Semen was collected by artificial vagina from three mouflons and three domestic rams during the breeding season and was cryopreserved. At thawing, no significant differences in sperm viability were found between the wild and the domestic species (53.1 +/- 4.6% versus 56.0 +/- 4.7%) whereas the percentage of acrosome-intact sperm was lower in mouflon (55.5 +/- 4.6%) than in ram semen (62.7 +/- 3.1%; P < 0.05). Lambing rate did not differ between synchronized mouflon and domestic ewes (5/11 versus 8/12) after 150 and 156 days of pregnancy, respectively. After two OPU sessions, 87 and 132 oocytes were collected from three hyperstimulated mouflon and three domestic ewes. Cryopreserved/thawed semen was inseminated with an endoscope into the uterus of corresponding species during the non-breeding season. The oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro; 61/73 mouflon and 81/101 domestic ewe oocytes were found to be fertilized. From these, we obtained 6/61 and 17/81 blastocysts. After vitrification and thawing, the hatching rate showed no significant difference between mouflon and sheep blastocysts (4/6 versus 14/17). In conclusion, our data showed that cryopreserved mouflon spermatozoa can be successfully used to carry out a genuine and complete program of genetic restoration in small and isolated groups of European mouflons.

  16. Evaluation of electrode polarity on defibrillation efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bardy, G H; Ivey, T D; Allen, M D; Johnson, G; Greene, H L

    1989-02-15

    The effect of electrode polarity on defibrillation thresholds in humans is unknown. This prospective, randomized evaluation of electrode polarity on defibrillation thresholds was performed in 21 survivors of ventricular fibrillation (VF) undergoing cardiac surgery. Defibrillation was always performed with 2 identical large rectangular, wire mesh electrodes positioned over the anterior wall of the right ventricle and the posterolateral wall of the left ventricle. The initial electrode polarity for the left ventricular (LV) electrode was chosen randomly for determination of the defibrillation threshold. Subsequently, electrode polarity was reversed. The defibrillation threshold was defined as the lowest pulse amplitude that would effectively terminate VF with a single discharge delivered 10 seconds after initiation of an episode of VF with alternating current. For each defibrillation pulse, voltage, current, resistance and delivered energy were recorded. Of the 21 patients, 15 (71%) had a lower defibrillation threshold when the LV electrode was positive, 2 patients (10%) had a lower defibrillation threshold when the LV electrode was negative and 4 patients (19%) had equal defibrillation thresholds (within 0.5 J) regardless of polarity. The mean leading edge defibrillation threshold voltage was 370 +/- 88 volts when the LV electrode was negative and 320 +/- 109 volts (14% less) when the LV electrode was positive (p = 0.014). Mean leading edge defibrillation threshold current was 9.3 +/- 3.1 amps when the LV electrode was negative compared to 7.7 +/- 3.1 amps (17% less) when the LV electrode was positive (p = 0.0033). There were no differences in resistance with the 2 configurations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Perspectives of the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, J W; Narbutt, J; Lesiak, A; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Szkop, A; Wink, J; Czerwińska, A

    2014-11-01

    Statistical analysis of the daily course of exposures to TL-01 tube radiation for 93 psoriatic patients from the Medical University of Łódź during 20-day phototherapy shows that the dose of 1 J/cm(2) represents a unit of single exposure necessary for psoriasis healing. This value is converted to the antipsoriatic effective dose of 317.9 J/m(2) using the TL-01 lamp irradiance spectrum and the antipsoriatic action spectrum. It is proposed that the daily exposure of 317.9 J/m(2) serves as the standard antipsoriatic dose (SAPD) providing a link between the cabinet and the out-door exposures and it could be used for planning heliotherapy in Poland. A model is proposed to calculate ambient antipsoriatic doses for 3 h exposures around the local noon (9 am-12 am GMT) based on satellite measurements of ozone and cloud characteristics. The model constants are determined by a comparison with pertaining antipsoriatic doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometer in central Poland. It is found that 3 h exposures to solar radiation in the period 15 May-15 September provides the mean (2005-2013) doses in the range 2.7-3.1 SAPD over Poland. Thus, heliotherapy could be treated as an alternative to the cabinet phototherapy for almost 4 months. It seems that the most effective site for antipsoriatic heliotherapy is the south/east part of Poland (the Bieszczady Mountains). The heliotherapy could be carried out in existing national health centers equipped with the standard easy-to-use biometers for on-line monitoring of UV level and controlling duration of sunbathing to avoid erythema risks. It is even possible to control the antipsoriatic heliotherapy by a patient himself, using low-cost hand-held instruments measuring UV index.

  18. A Comparison of the Modified Score for the Assessment of Chronic Rheumatoid Affections of the Hands and the Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index in Hand Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sautner, Judith; Andel, Ingrid; Rintelen, Bernhard; Leeb, Burkhard F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the modified score for the assessment and quantification of chronic rheumatoid affections of the hands (M-SACRAH) with the Australian/Canadian osteoarthritis hand index (AUSCAN) in hand osteoarthritis (HOA). Both are self-administered patient questionnaires, being designed to assess functional status, stiffness, and pain in affected patients, despite some differences in format, compass and arrangement of questions. Methods. 66 HOA patients (51 females), attending the outpatient clinic, were included. Patients completed the AUSCAN (15 visual analogue scales) (VAS) and the M-SACRAH (12 VAS). Results. AUSCAN-pain amounted to a mean of 41.9 (±2.9 SEM), AUSCAN-stiffness to 53.1 (3.7) and AUSCAN function to 42.6 (3.2). M-SACRAH-function amounted to 25.4 (2.4), M-SACRAH-stiffness to 42.6 (3.0), and M-SACRAH-pain to 43.7 (3.1). The total mean M-SACRAH was 37.2 (2.4) (all P's < .0001). The three respective domains of the two scores correlated significantly: pain: r = 0.73, stiffness: r = 0.75, and function: r = 0.76 (all P's < .0001). The four identical items in both scores also correlated significantly. No significant gender specific differences were observed. Conclusion. Despite a different scope of items, a significant high correlation of these two scores evaluating HOA patients could be demonstrated. We conclude that both scores are equivalently valuable for the assessment of health status in these patients. PMID:20107563

  19. Effects of nebivolol versus metoprolol on sodium sensitivity and renal sodium handling in hypertensive Hispanic postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Preston, Richard A; Afshartous, David; Materson, Barry J; Rodco, Rolando; Alonso, Alberto B

    2014-08-01

    Several consistent lines of evidence indicate an association between sodium sensitivity and impaired nitric oxide bioactivity. Nevertheless, whether restoring nitric oxide in humans by pharmacological means can ameliorate sodium sensitivity has not been investigated. Because nebivolol has been demonstrated to increase nitric oxide bioactivity in both laboratory and clinical investigations, we hypothesized that nebivolol might ameliorate sodium sensitivity and improve renal sodium handling in comparison to metoprolol. We therefore conducted a randomized, 2-treatment-period crossover trial in 19 Hispanic postmenopausal women with hypertension to determine the comparative effects of nebivolol versus metoprolol on (1) 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure response to an increase in dietary sodium from 5 days of low sodium to 5 days of high sodium, (2) renal natriuretic response to a 1-L saline challenge, and (3) asymmetrical dimethylarginine. Clinic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly reduced after 4 weeks of treatment with both nebivolol and metoprolol. Twenty-four–hour mean systolic blood pressure increased sharply from low sodium to high sodium for both nebivolol and metoprolol. Nevertheless, the increases in blood pressure did not differ between the 2 drugs: 7.7 (3.1, 12.3) mm Hg with metoprolol and 9.3 (4.6, 13.9) mm Hg with nebivolol (P=0.63). Furthermore, we observed no differences between the drugs in natriuretic response to saline challenge or asymmetrical dimethylarginine. In a sodium-sensitive population, at doses sufficient to produce reductions in blood pressure and heart rate, nebivolol did not demonstrate a significant effect on sodium sensitivity or sodium handling compared with metoprolol.

  20. Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Methanobacterium congolense: global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Men, Yujie; Feil, Helene; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh B; Johnson, David R.; Lee, Patrick K. H.; West, Kimberlee A; Zinder, Stephen H.; Andersen, Gary L.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (DE195) was grown in a sustainable syntrophic association with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DVH) as a co-culture, as well as with DVH and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium congolense (MC) as a tri-culture using lactate as the sole energy and carbon source. In the co- and tri-cultures, maximum dechlorination rates of DE195 were enhanced by approximately three times (11.0 0.01 lmol per day for the co-culture and 10.1 0.3 lmol per day for the tri-culture) compared with DE195 grown alone (3.8 0.1 lmol per day). Cell yield of DE195 was enhanced in the co-culture (9.0 0.5107 cells per lmol Cl released, compared with 6.8 0.9107 cells per lmol Cl released for the pure culture), whereas no further enhancement was observed in the tri-culture (7.3 1.8107 cells per lmol Cl released). The transcriptome of DE195 grown in the co-culture was analyzed using a wholegenome microarray targeting DE195, which detected 102 significantly up- or down-regulated genes compared with DE195 grown in isolation, whereas no significant transcriptomic difference was observed between co- and tri-cultures. Proteomic analysis showed that 120 proteins were differentially expressed in the co-culture compared with DE195 grown in isolation. Physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic results indicate that the robust growth of DE195 in co- and tri-cultures is because of the advantages associated with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri-culture provided no significant additional benefits beyond those of DVH.

  1. Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Methanobacterium congolense: global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Men, Yujie; Feil, Helene; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Shah, Manesh B.; Johnson, David R.; Lee, Patrick K. H.; West, Kimberlee A.; Zinder, Stephen H.; Andersen, Gary L.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2011-09-01

    Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (DE195) was grown in a sustainable syntrophic association with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DVH) as a co-culture, as well as with DVH and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium congolense (MC) as a tri-culture using lactate as the sole energy and carbon source. In the co- and tri-cultures, maximum dechlorination rates of DE195 were enhanced by approximately three times (11.0 0.01 lmol per day for the co-culture and 10.1 0.3 lmol per day for the tri-culture) compared with DE195 grown alone (3.8 0.1 lmol per day). Cell yield of DE195 was enhanced in the co-culture (9.0 0.5107 cells per lmol Cl released, compared with 6.8 0.9107 cells per lmol Cl released for the pure culture), whereas no further enhancement was observed in the tri-culture (7.3 1.8107 cells per lmol Cl released). The transcriptome of DE195 grown in the co-culture was analyzed using a wholegenome microarray targeting DE195, which detected 102 significantly up- or down-regulated genes compared with DE195 grown in isolation, whereas no significant transcriptomic difference was observed between co- and tri-cultures. Proteomic analysis showed that 120 proteins were differentially expressed in the co-culture compared with DE195 grown in isolation. Physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic results indicate that the robust growth of DE195 in co- and tri-cultures is because of the advantages associated with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri-culture provided no significant additional benefits beyond those of DVH.

  2. Effect of several doses of zeolite A on feed intake, energy metabolism and on mineral metabolism in dairy cows around calving.

    PubMed

    Grabherr, H; Spolders, M; Fürll, M; Flachowsky, G

    2009-04-01

    The object of the present study was to determine the influence of different zeolite A doses on dry matter intake (DMI) and mineral metabolism, and to evaluate an optimum dosage for preventing hypocalcaemia. Eighty pregnant dry cows were assigned to four groups (I-IV). They were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum. Groups II, III and IV received an average daily dose of 12, 23 and 43 g zeolite A/kg DM for the last 2 weeks prepartum. Individually DMI was recorded daily. Blood and urine samples were taken before, during and after zeolite A supplementation. Serum was analysed for Ca, Mg, P(i), K, non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Urine was analysed for Ca, Mg, P(i), K and net acid-base excretion (NABE). After calving, milk yield (fat corrected milk) and milk composition were determined. During zeolite A supplementation, mean DMI of Group IV (7.3 +/- 1.3 kg/cow/day) was significantly lower compared to Groups I-III (10.1, 10.9, 9.5 kg/cow/day). The reduced feed intake of Group IV resulted in significantly increased BHB as well as decreased NABE after calving. Zeolite A supplementation in higher doses (III and IV) had a stabilizing effect on Ca metabolism around calving for older cows, whereas cows in Groups I and II showed a subclinical hypocalcaemia. The mean serum Mg concentration decreased significantly in older cows in Group IV at calving. The mean P(i) concentration in cows of Group IV decreased into ranges of hypophosphataemia already 1 week after beginning of zeolite A feeding. The mean DMI postpartum as well as the milk yield was not affected by zeolite A supplementation. Feeding of 23 g zeolite A/kg DM TMR prepartum proved to be an adequate dosage for reducing subclinical hypocalcaemia frequency without significant effects on feed intake and P(i) concentration in serum.

  3. Invariance in current dipole moment density across brain structures and species: physiological constraint for neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shingo; Okada, Yoshio

    2015-05-01

    Although anatomical constraints have been shown to be effective for MEG and EEG inverse solutions, there are still no effective physiological constraints. Strength of the current generator is normally described by the moment of an equivalent current dipole Q. This value is quite variable since it depends on size of active tissue. In contrast, the current dipole moment density q, defined as Q per surface area of active cortex, is independent of size of active tissue. Here we studied whether the value of q has a maximum in physiological conditions across brain structures and species. We determined the value due to the primary neuronal current (q primary) alone, correcting for distortions due to measurement conditions and secondary current sources at boundaries separating regions of differing electrical conductivities. The values were in the same range for turtle cerebellum (0.56-1.48 nAm/mm(2)), guinea pig hippocampus (0.30-1.34 nAm/mm(2)), and swine neocortex (0.18-1.63 nAm/mm(2)), rat neocortex (~2.2 nAm/mm(2)), monkey neocortex (~0.40 nAm/mm(2)) and human neocortex (0.16-0.77 nAm/mm(2)). Thus, there appears to be a maximum value across the brain structures and species (1-2 nAm/mm(2)). The empirical values closely matched the theoretical values obtained with our independently validated neural network model (1.6-2.8 nAm/mm(2) for initial spike and 0.7-3.1 nAm/mm(2) for burst), indicating that the apparent invariance is not coincidental. Our model study shows that a single maximum value may exist across a wide range of brain structures and species, varying in neuron density, due to fundamental electrical properties of neurons. The maximum value of q primary may serve as an effective physiological constraint for MEG/EEG inverse solutions.

  4. Antimicrobial constituents and synergism effect of the essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Alpinia galanga.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Kamkaen, Narisa

    2014-02-01

    From the fresh leaf sheathes of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and rhizomes of galanga (Alpinia galanga) light yellow and colorless oils, respectively, were obtained by hydrodistillation and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) in yields of 0.24% and 0.03%, and 0.11% and trace (w/w), respectively. By GC/MS analysis, five major constituents were identified in lemongrass oil, E-citral, Z-citral, beta-myrcene, selina-6-en-4-ol, and cis-ocimene, and five in galanga oil, 1,8-cineole, phenol 4-(2-propenyl)-acetate, dl-limonene, alpha-pinene, and a-terpineol. Three major components of the combined lemongrass and galanga oils (ratio 7:3, 1:1, 3:7) were 1,8-cineole (46.3%, 31.5%, 19.3%), E-citral (12.8%, 22.7%, 32.8%) and Z-citral (8.5%, 15.2%, 21.6%). The MICs of lemongrass and galanga oils were: against Staphylococcus aureus 0.5% and 4%, v/v, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 40% and >40%,v/v, against Streptococcus bovis 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v, and against Candida albicans 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v. Citral (from lemongrass oil) gave greater potentiation than 1,8-cineole (from galanga oil). The combination profiles of galanga oil with lemongrass oil (volume ratios 3:7, 1:1, and 7:3) were tested against the four pathogenic microorganisms. Synergistic activity was best noted for only one ratio (volume ratio 3:7) as the sigmafic< 1 against all tested microorganisms. The present investigation provides evidenc that the utilization of two essential oils in combination should be assessed for synergistic antimicrobial activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose.

  5. Effects of exercise on hepcidin response and iron metabolism during recovery.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Landers, Grant; Wiegerinck, Erwin T; Swinkels, Dorine W; Trinder, Debbie

    2009-12-01

    Urinary hepcidin, inflammation, and iron metabolism were examined during the 24 hr after exercise. Eight moderately trained athletes (6 men, 2 women) completed a 60-min running trial (15-min warm-up at 75-80% HR(peak) + 45 min at 85-90% HR(peak)) and a 60-min trial of seated rest in a randomized, crossover design. Venous blood and urine samples were collected pretrial, immediately posttrial, and at 3, 6, and 24 hr posttrial. Samples were analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum iron, serum ferritin, and urinary hepcidin. The immediate postrun levels of IL-6 and 24-hr postrun levels of CRP were significantly increased from baseline (6.9 and 2.6 times greater, respectively) and when compared with the rest trial (p < or = .05). Hepcidin levels in the run trial after 3, 6, and 24 hr of recovery were significantly greater (1.7-3.1 times) than the pre- and immediate postrun levels (p < or = .05). This outcome was consistent in all participants, despite marked variation in the magnitude of rise. In addition, the 3-hr postrun levels of hepcidin were significantly greater than at 3 hr in the rest trial (3.0 times greater, p < or = .05). Hepcidin levels continued to increase at 6 hr postrun but failed to significantly differ from the rest trial (p = .071), possibly because of diurnal influence. Finally, serum iron levels were significantly increased immediately postrun (1.3 times, p < or = .05). The authors concluded that high-intensity exercise was responsible for a significant increase in hepcidin levels subsequent to a significant increase in IL-6 and serum iron.

  6. Cellular prion protein regulates the motor behaviour performance and anxiety-induced responses in genetically modified mice.

    PubMed

    Lobão-Soares, Bruno; Walz, Roger; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Calvo, Fabrício; Terzian, Ana Luiza Bernardes; da Silva, Juliana Almeida; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne; Bianchin, Marino Muxfeldt

    2007-10-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a sialoglycoprotein involved in neuroplasticity processes and synaptic transmission. This study investigated behavioural responses (balance in the rota-rod test at 24 rpm, motility in the open-field test, anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test) in Zurich developed wild-type adult mice (WT, controls of normal PrP(C) expression), in knockout (KO) mice (Prnp(0/0), with no PrP(C) expression), and in PrP(C) overexpressing Tg-20 mice. After 8 min in the rota-rod test, Tg-20 animals presented significantly fewer falls (1.08+/-1.56 falls) than both WT (7.27+/-4.36) and KO (7.6+/-6.15) mice (p<0.01). In the open field test, Tg-20 animals showed significantly increased motility [rearing=23.4+/-7.85, crossing=97.30+/-32.11) when compared with KO mice (rearing=5.45+/-3.69 and crossing=59.73+/-15.43) or WT mice (rearing=6.5+/-20.23 and crossing=45.18+/-20.33) (p<0.01). In the elevated plus-maze test, Tg-20 mice showed less anxiety (head projections=7.3+/-1.62) when compared with WT animals (3.38+/-0.67) (p<0.05). Moreover, KO mice spent more time in the centre of the plus maze (37.80+/-5.57 s) than did WT mice (22.57+/-3.82) (p<0.05). PrP(C) overexpressing mice evoked increased motility, less anxiety, and increased equilibrium when compared with WT control animals in the behavioural protocols used. KO animals also tended to evoke fewer anxiety-related responses in the elevated plus-maze test. These findings indicate that the levels of PrP(C) in adult life are associated with possible changes in motility, anxiety, and equilibrium.

  7. Mid-term evaluation of Sorin Soprano bioprostheses in patients with a small aortic annulus

    PubMed

    Vohra, Hunaid A; Whistance, Robert N; Bolgeri, Marco; Velissaris, Theodore; Tsang, Geoffrey M K; Barlow, Clifford W; Ohri, Sunil K

    2010-03-01

    We set to examine the mid-term outcome after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with Soprano pericardial stented bioprosthesis measuring 7+/-3.1% and 81.0+/-6.9%, respectively. At last follow-up, 86.7% (n=52) of survivors were in NYHA class I/II. AVR with Soprano bioprosthesis measuring

  8. Genomic and Expression Analyses of Cold-Adapted Microorganisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Bakermans, Corien; Bergholz, Peter W.; Rodrigues, Debora F.; Vishnivetskaya, T.; Ayala-del-Río, Hector L.; Tiedje, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Contents 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Ecological evidence of bacterial adaptation to cold 7.2.1 Characteristics of cold environments and implications for microbial ecology 7.2.2 Ecological adaptation in Exiguobacterium spp. and Psychrobacter spp. 7.3 Gene Expression Responses to the Cold 7.3.1 Fundamentals of Gene Expression Responses to Cold 7.3.2 Acclimation for Life in Cold Habitats 7.3.2.1 Translation and Chaperone Proteins: Safeguarding the functional units of cellular physiology 7.3.2.2 Carbon and Energy metabolism: resource efficiency over long generation times 7.3.2.3 Amino Acid Biosynthesis: Species-specific responses to species-specific deficiencies 7.3.2.4 Compatible solutes: a concomitant response in cryoenvironments 7.3.2.5 Membrane fluidity: A major role in the overall metabolic rate at temperature 7.3.2.6 The cell wall at low temperature: A poorly understood growth rate determinant 7.3.2.7 Transporters: The balance between local nutrient uptake and depletion 7.3.2.8 Genome plasticity. The potential role of transposases and repeated sequences. 7.4 Protein adaptations to cold 7.4.1 The low temperature challenge 7.4.2 The stability activity relationship 7.4.3 Structural features of cold adapted enzymes. 7.4.4 Hydrophobic interactions 7.4.5 Electrostatic interactions 7.4.5.1 Arginine 7.4.5.2 Acidic residues 7.4.6 Structural elements 7.4.6.1 -helices and -sheets 7.4.6.2 Proline and Glycine 7.4.6.3 Disordered regions 7.5 Comparison of cold- and warm-adapted Exiguobacterium strains 7.5.1 Phylogeny reflects adaptations to environmental conditions 7.5.2 Genomic comparison of two strains 7.6 Summary and future directions

  9. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccarelli, C.; Pacini, F.; Lippi, F.; Elisei, R.; Arganini, M.; Miccoli, P.; Pinchera, A.

    1988-12-01

    We report on 49 patients younger than 18 years at diagnosis, of 776 patients with thyroid cancer, seen in our institution in the last 17 years. Female/male ratio was 2.2:1. Histologic type was papillary in 44, follicular in 4, and medullary in 1. Initial treatment was near-total thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection. Surgical complications (vocal cord palsy, permanent hypoparathyroidism, or both) were found in 25 patients and were usually associated with more advanced primary tumors. At surgery, node metastases were present in 73% of the patients and lung metastases, detected by chest x ray films, in 6%. Patients were treated with thyroid suppressive therapy and, except the one with medullary cancer, with radioiodine (131I) therapy. After a mean follow-up of 7.7 +/- 4.4 years (range, 1 to 17 years), one patient with lung metastases died of respiratory failure. Of 36 patients who have been followed up more than 4 years, 22 (61.1%) are now cured, and 14 have metastases (to lymph nodes, 2; to nodes and lung, 10; and to lung, 2). Since 1977 serum thyroglobulin (Tg) was used routinely as a tumor marker for differentiated thyroid cancer. After operation, Tg was elevated in all patients both not receiving (mean +/- SE, 902 +/- 380 ng/ml) and receiving (44 +/- 15 ng/ml) suppressive therapy; after 131I treatment, serum Tg dropped to 104 +/- 50 and 7.3 +/- 1.7 ng/ml, without and with suppressive therapy, respectively. Of 11 patients with lung metastases treated with 131I, respiratory function, as assessed by means of spirometry, was normal in three, mildly reduced in six, and severely impaired in two (including the one who died). In conclusion, our study indicates that thyroid cancer in young patients is rather advanced at initial examination and usually associated with node and, less frequently, lung metastases.

  10. Computerized version of the Wisconsin card sorting test in children with high-functioning autistic disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Emi; Oki, Junichi; Yahara, Nozomi; Fujieda, Kenji

    2005-04-01

    To determine executive dysfunctions in children with autistic disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we investigated high-functioning autistic (full scale IQ score >or==70), ADHD, and control children using the computerized version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Data were obtained from 17 autistic children (16 boys and 1 girl, mean age+/-SD: 12.5+/-4.3), 22 ADHD children (20 boys and 2 girls, mean age+/-SD 11.3+/-2.6), and 25 control children (13 boys and 12 girls, mean age+/-SD: 12.7+/-3.1). Performances, indicated by mean number of categories achieved (5.4 in autistic, 6.5 in ADHD, and 8.8 in control group), total errors (38.2, 38.4, and 25.6, respectively), perseverative errors (11.4, 13.5, and 5.7), nonperseverative errors (27.1, 25.0, and 19.9), and Nelson type perseverative errors (8.9, 8.4, and 2.3), were significantly poorer in both autistic and ADHD groups than control group (P<0.01). Comparing the autistic group to the ADHD group, there were no significant differences in age, gender, scores of full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ), verbal or performance IQ, number of categories achieved or errors. The ADHD group, however, showed more frequent Milner type perseverative errors than the autistic group (P<0.05). The present study suggests that some kinds of executive function are more impaired in children with ADHD than in those with high-functioning autism, and that Milner type perseverative errors is useful parameter to differentiate the executive dysfunctions between autistic and ADHD children.

  11. Phosphorylation of bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase suggests a link between Ca2+ signalling and anaplerotic pathway control in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Hill, Allyson T; Ying, Sheng; Plaxton, William C

    2014-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the native protein kinase [BTPC (bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase)-K (BTPC Ser451 kinase)] that in vivo phosphorylates Ser451 of the BTPC subunits of an unusual Class-2 PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) carboxylase hetero-octameric complex of developing COS (castor oil seeds). COS BTPC-K was highly purified by PEG fractionation and hydrophobic size-exclusion anion-exchange and affinity chromatographies. BTPC-K phosphorylated BTPC strictly at Ser451 (Km=1.0 μM; pH optimum=7.3), a conserved target residue occurring within an intrinsically disordered region, as well as the protein histone III-S (Km=1.7 μM), but not a COS plant-type PEP carboxylase or sucrose synthase or α-casein. Its activity was Ca2+- (K0.5=2.7 μM) and ATP- (Km=6.6 μM) dependent, and markedly inhibited by trifluoperazine, 3-phosphoglycerate and PEP, but insensitive to calmodulin or 14-3-3 proteins. BTPC-K exhibited a native molecular mass of ~63 kDa and was soluble rather than membrane-bound. Inactivation and reactivation occurred upon BTPC-K's incubation with GSSG and then DTT respectively. Ser451 phosphorylation by BTPC-K inhibited BTPC activity by ~50% when assayed under suboptimal conditions (pH 7.3, 1 mM PEP and 10 mM L-malate). Our collective results indicate a possible link between cytosolic Ca2+ signalling and anaplerotic flux control in developing COS.

  12. The contribution of dissolving star clusters to the population of ultra faint objects in the outer halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contenta, Filippo; Gieles, Mark; Balbinot, Eduardo; Collins, Michelle L. M.

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, several ultra faint objects (UFOs, MV ≳ -3.5) have been discovered in the outer halo of the Milky Way. For some of these objects, it is not clear whether they are star clusters or (ultra faint) dwarf galaxies. In this work, we quantify the contribution of star clusters to the population of UFOs. We extrapolated the mass and Galactocentric radius distribution of the globular clusters using a population model, finding that the Milky Way contains about 3.3^{+7.3}_{-1.6} star clusters with MV ≳ -3.5 and Galactocentric radius ≥20 kpc. To understand whether dissolving clusters can appear as UFOs, we run a suite of direct N-body models, varying the orbit, the Galactic potential, the binary fraction and the black hole (BH) natal kick velocities. In the analyses, we consider observational biases such as luminosity limit, field stars and line-of-sight projection. We find that star clusters contribute to both the compact and the extended population of UFOs: clusters without BHs appear compact with radii ∼5 pc, while clusters that retain their BHs after formation have radii ≳ 20 pc. The properties of the extended clusters are remarkably similar to those of dwarf galaxies: high-inferred mass-to-light ratios due to binaries, binary properties mildly affected by dynamical evolution, no observable mass segregation and flattened stellar mass function. We conclude that the slope of the stellar mass function as a function of Galactocentric radius and the presence/absence of cold streams can discriminate between dark matter-free and dark matter-dominated UFOs.

  13. Effect of decompression craniotomy on increase of contusion volume and functional outcome after controlled cortical impact in mice.

    PubMed

    Zweckberger, Klaus; Stoffel, Michael; Baethmann, Alexander; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2003-12-01

    If, how, and when decompressive craniotomy should be used for the treatment of increased intracranial pressure after traumatic brain injury are widely discussed clinical subjects. Despite the large number of clinical studies addressing this issue, experimental evidence of a beneficial or detrimental role of decompressive craniotomy after brain trauma is sparse. Therefore, we investigated the influence of craniotomy on intracranial pressure, contusion volume, and functional outcome in a model of traumatic brain injury in mice. Male C57/Bl6 mice were craniotomized above the right parietal cortex and were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury. In control mice, the craniotomy was closed immediately after trauma, whereas in treated animals the craniotomy was left open. In control mice intracranial pressure (ICP) increased to a maximum of 23.7 +/- 3.1 mm Hg 6 h after trauma (p < 0.001), while in craniotomized animals, no ICP increase was observed. Twenty-four hours after trauma, the point in time of maximal lesion expansion, contusion volume in craniotomized mice was 40% smaller as compared to controls (18.3 +/- 2.0 vs. 30.2 +/- 3.5 mm(3), p < 0.04). Furthermore, craniotomized mice showed significantly improved motor function in a beam walking task (p < 0.04) and faster recovery of body weight after trauma (p < 0.02). Our results demonstrate that craniotomy blunts post-traumatic ICP increase, significantly reduces secondary brain damage and improves functional outcome after experimental TBI. Careful clinical evaluation of craniotomy as a therapeutic option after TBI in man may therefore be indicated.

  14. The cumulative effect of different childhood trauma types on self-reported symptoms of adult male depression and PTSD, substance abuse and health-related quality of life in a large active-duty military cohort.

    PubMed

    Agorastos, Agorastos; Pittman, James O E; Angkaw, Abigail C; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Hansen, Christian J; Aversa, Laura H; Parisi, Sarah A; Barkauskas, Donald A; Baker, Dewleen G

    2014-11-01

    History of childhood trauma (CT) is highly prevalent and may lead to long-term consequences on physical and mental health. This study investigated the independent association of CT with symptoms of adult depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as well as current tobacco consumption and alcohol abuse in a large homogenous cohort of 1254 never-deployed, young male Marines enrolled in the Marine Resiliency Study. Independent effects of CT history, number and type of CT on outcomes were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models. Our results suggested dose-dependent negative effect of an increasing number of trauma types of CT on depression, PTSD and HRQoL. Experience of single CT type demonstrated overall weak effects, while history of multiple CT types distinctively increased the likelihood of adult PTSD symptomology (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.2), poor mental (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and physical HRQoL (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Risk for depression symptoms was similar for both single and multiple CT (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8 and OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.5 respectively). CT history had no effects on current tobacco use and alcohol abuse. Our study thus provides evidence for substantial additive effect of different CT types on adult mental and physical health with increasing levels of exposure.

  15. Quantification and Assessment of Interfraction Setup Errors Based on Cone Beam CT and Determination of Safety Margins for Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cubillos Mesías, Macarena; Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Thoelking, Johannes; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik; Wertz, Hansjoerg

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To quantify interfraction patient setup-errors for radiotherapy based on cone-beam computed tomography and suggest safety margins accordingly. Material and Methods Positioning vectors of pre-treatment cone-beam computed tomography for different treatment sites were collected (n = 9504). For each patient group the total average and standard deviation were calculated and the overall mean, systematic and random errors as well as safety margins were determined. Results The systematic (and random errors) in the superior-inferior, left-right and anterior-posterior directions were: for prostate, 2.5(3.0), 2.6(3.9) and 2.9(3.9)mm; for prostate bed, 1.7(2.0), 2.2(3.6) and 2.6(3.1)mm; for cervix, 2.8(3.4), 2.3(4.6) and 3.2(3.9)mm; for rectum, 1.6(3.1), 2.1(2.9) and 2.5(3.8)mm; for anal, 1.7(3.7), 2.1(5.1) and 2.5(4.8)mm; for head and neck, 1.9(2.3), 1.4(2.0) and 1.7(2.2)mm; for brain, 1.0(1.5), 1.1(1.4) and 1.0(1.1)mm; and for mediastinum, 3.3(4.6), 2.6(3.7) and 3.5(4.0)mm. The CTV-to-PTV margins had the smallest value for brain (3.6, 3.7 and 3.3mm) and the largest for mediastinum (11.5, 9.1 and 11.6mm). For pelvic treatments the means (and standard deviations) were 7.3 (1.6), 8.5 (0.8) and 9.6 (0.8)mm. Conclusions Systematic and random setup-errors were smaller than 5mm. The largest errors were found for organs with higher motion probability. The suggested safety margins were comparable to published values in previous but often smaller studies. PMID:26930196

  16. A prospective study on the incidence of dog bites and management in a rural Cambodian, rabies-endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Ponsich, Aurelia; Goutard, Flavie; Sorn, San; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    Rabies circulates intensely in Cambodia, mainly affecting rural populations. We conducted a prospective study to estimate the baseline incidence of potentially infective dog bites in rural villages of Siem Reap province, Cambodia. The study was conducted in a convenience sample of 844 families totaling 1779 persons in four villages. The study collected data in a total of 802.3 person-years. Trained village health workers (VHW) exhaustively documented consecutive dog bites at the end of each month. Between May 15th and November 15th, 2011, a total of 40 attacks (43 bites; 1.07 bites per attack) were notified by 39 persons (50% female; one suffered two distinct incidents) to VHW. The all-age attack rate for bites over this 6-month period was 2.3% (CI95%: 1.7-3.1%), with a global incidence rate estimated at 4.84 bites/100 person-years (CI95%: 3.5-6.6). The mean age in bite victims was 20.8±18.9years (median 12.5; interquartile range 6-36; range 1-63). The dog was identified in 39 (97.5%) of cases, being the household dog in 9 (22.5%) of cases. Bites were classified as severe (WHO Category III-broken skin with bleeding) in 33 (82.5%) of cases with a severe dog bites incidence estimated at 4/100 person-years (CI95%: 2.8-5.6). The bites involved the hand or face in 1 (2.5%) case each (both Category III). In 20 incidents (50%), only rice was applied to the wounds. There were no suspected or confirmed human rabies deaths during the study period but one dog died after biting (2 others were lost to follow-up and 14 were put down by their owner). Our study documented an extremely high incidence of dog bites in of rural Cambodian adults and children. Adapted control policies for canine vaccination are urgently needed.

  17. Effect of deoxyspergualin on vascular rejection in canine kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, K; Takahashi, K; Nemoto, K; Okada, M; Yasuo, M; Hayasaka, Y; Toma, H; Ota, K

    1994-08-01

    Deoxyspergualin (DSG), an analogue of spergualin produced by Bacillus laterosporus, has a strong immunosuppressive effect in various transplantation models. In this study, we investigated the effect of DSG on vascular rejection in canine kidney transplantation. To enhance vascular rejection, donor-specific blood transfusion (DST) was carried out on days 28, 21 and 14 preceding kidney transplantation. After DST, the donor kidney was transplanted to the recipient iliac fossa. The recipient animals were divided into five groups: namely, Group 1 (n = 7), no treatment; Group 2 (n = 6), DST only; Group 3 (n = 5), DSG only (treated with DSG intravenously at 1.2 mg./kg./day for the first 3 days after transplantation, 1.0 mg./kg./day for the following 3 days and 0.8 mg./kg./day for the following 8 days); Group 4 (n = 6), DST and DSG treatment (same protocol as Group 3); and Group 5 (n = 5), DST and cyclosporine (CsA) (treated with CsA orally at 10 mg./kg./day for 14 days after transplantation). In Group 2, DST treatment significantly reduced kidney graft survival time (8.6 +/- 2.2 days) compared with Group 1 (14.1 +/- 5.5 days). Despite DST, DSG treatment (Group 4) significantly prolonged graft survival time (29.5 +/- 2.6 days), whereas treatment with CsA (Group 5) did not prolong survival time (14.1 +/- 5.5 days) (Group 4 versus 5, p < 0.01). The onset of rejection was significantly delayed in Group 4 (22.1 +/- 2.7 days) compared with Groups 2 (5.7 +/- 2.4 days) and 5 (13.0 +/- 5.7 days) (p < 0.01). In contrast, the interval between rejection onset and animal death was significantly reduced in Groups 2 (3.0 +/- 0.6 days) and 5 (2.4 +/- 1.0 days) compared with Group 4 (7.3 +/- 1.7 days) (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that DSG successfully prevented humoral-type (accelerated acute-type) rejections. Histologically, nonDST groups (Groups 1 and 3) showed minimum vascular rejection. In contrast, all recipients in Group 2 showed severe vascular rejection, as did 80% of Cs

  18. Cotinine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Levels in the Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Cord at Birth and in the Urine from Pregnant Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Julia de Barros; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Flávia Valladão

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls). We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances’ concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey’s test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5–13.5], p<0.001 in the urine; 25 [11.9–52.9], p<0.001 in the amniotic fluid; and 2.6 [1.0–6.8], p = 0.044 in the umbilical cord blood. The mean ratios of 1-hydroxypyrene concentration between smokers and controls were 7.3 [1.6–29.6], p = 0.003 in the urine and 1.3 [1.0–1.7], p = 0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7–4.7], p<0.001. There were no significant differences between controls and passive smokers. When comparing the three groups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only. PMID:25549364

  19. Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Patrick A.; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Love, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) causes cancer and possibly other adverse health outcomes. Arsenic-based drugs are permitted in poultry production; however, the contribution of chicken consumption to iAs intake is unknown. Objectives: We sought to characterize the arsenic species profile in chicken meat and estimate bladder and lung cancer risk associated with consuming chicken produced with arsenic-based drugs. Methods: Conventional, antibiotic-free, and organic chicken samples were collected from grocery stores in 10 U.S. metropolitan areas from December 2010 through June 2011. We tested 116 raw and 142 cooked chicken samples for total arsenic, and we determined arsenic species in 65 raw and 78 cooked samples that contained total arsenic at ≥ 10 µg/kg dry weight. Results: The geometric mean (GM) of total arsenic in cooked chicken meat samples was 3.0 µg/kg (95% CI: 2.5, 3.6). Among the 78 cooked samples that were speciated, iAs concentrations were higher in conventional samples (GM = 1.8 µg/kg; 95% CI: 1.4, 2.3) than in antibiotic-free (GM = 0.7 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) or organic (GM = 0.6 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.5, 0.8) samples. Roxarsone was detected in 20 of 40 conventional samples, 1 of 13 antibiotic-free samples, and none of the 25 organic samples. iAs concentrations in roxarsone-positive samples (GM = 2.3 µg/kg; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.1) were significantly higher than those in roxarsone-negative samples (GM = 0.8 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.0). Cooking increased iAs and decreased roxarsone concentrations. We estimated that consumers of conventional chicken would ingest an additional 0.11 µg/day iAs (in an 82-g serving) compared with consumers of organic chicken. Assuming lifetime exposure and a proposed cancer slope factor of 25.7 per milligram per kilogram of body weight per day, this increase in arsenic exposure could result in 3.7 additional lifetime bladder and lung cancer cases per 100,000 exposed persons. Conclusions: Conventional chicken meat had higher i

  20. The effects of oral nafazatrom (= BAY g 6575) on canine coronary artery thrombosis and myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, V B

    1983-01-01

    The in-vivo effects of the new antithrombotic compound nafazatrom on experimental thrombosis of the left circumflex coronary artery, on hemodynamics and on ultimate infarct size were studied in pentobarbital-anesthetized, open-chest dogs. Coronary artery thrombosis was induced by low amperage stimulation (150 microA, DC for 6 hr) of the circumflex artery intimal lining. The effects of oral pretreatment of 1%-Tylose suspension as drug diluent and 5 mg/kg nafazatrom plus vehicle were determined. Both agents were administered twice a day before onset of current stimulation. In the drug vehicle group, coronary thrombosis caused severe hemodynamic alterations, e.g. blood pressure and left ventricular pressure decrease, as well as reduction in the LV dP/dtmax associated with increases in end-diastolic filling pressure and heart rate. Time to coronary artery occlusion was delayed by nafazatrom (5.2 +/- 1.1 vs 3.1 +/- 0.4 hr, p less than 0.05). Smaller blood pressure and LV dP/dtmax reductions and minor heart rate and filling pressure increases around the time of thrombus formation suggested cardioprotection with the drug. Smaller R wave changes and S-T segment elevation indicated minor ischemia at the time of occlusive coronary artery occlusion in nafazatrom-treated hearts (24 +/- 0.5 vs 72 +/- 7% ST segment elevation, p less than 0.01). Thrombus wet weight was 18.4 +/- 2.6 mg in the nafazatrom group, but 63.7 +/- 3.1 mg in controls (p less than 0.01). Thus, ultimate infarct size was smaller in nafazatrom-treated hearts as related to left ventricular mass (8.4 +/- 1.4 vs 32.3 +/- 3.1%, p less than 0.02) or to the occluded artery perfusion area at risk for infarction (16 +/- 3.4 vs 53 +/- 6.2%, p less than 0.05). No ex-vivo effect of nafazatrom on collagen-induced platelet aggregation was observed. These results may indicate efficacy of the drug in prevention of acute coronary artery disease as one cause of ischemic jeopardy of the myocardium and/or therapeutic value in

  1. Folinic acid improves verbal communication in children with autism and language impairment: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Frye, R E; Slattery, J; Delhey, L; Furgerson, B; Strickland, T; Tippett, M; Sailey, A; Wynne, R; Rose, S; Melnyk, S; Jill James, S; Sequeira, J M; Quadros, E V

    2016-10-18

    We sought to determine whether high-dose folinic acid improves verbal communication in children with non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and language impairment in a double-blind placebo control setting. Forty-eight children (mean age 7 years 4  months; 82% male) with ASD and language impairment were randomized to receive 12 weeks of high-dose folinic acid (2 mg kg(-1) per day, maximum 50 mg per day; n=23) or placebo (n=25). Children were subtyped by glutathione and folate receptor-α autoantibody (FRAA) status. Improvement in verbal communication, as measured by a ability-appropriate standardized instrument, was significantly greater in participants receiving folinic acid as compared with those receiving placebo, resulting in an effect of 5.7 (1.0,10.4) standardized points with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d=0.70). FRAA status was predictive of response to treatment. For FRAA-positive participants, improvement in verbal communication was significantly greater in those receiving folinic acid as compared with those receiving placebo, resulting in an effect of 7.3 (1.4,13.2) standardized points with a large effect size (Cohen's d=0.91), indicating that folinic acid treatment may be more efficacious in children with ASD who are FRAA positive. Improvements in subscales of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, the Autism Symptom Questionnaire and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children were significantly greater in the folinic acid group as compared with the placebo group. There was no significant difference in adverse effects between treatment groups. Thus, in this small trial of children with non-syndromic ASD and language impairment, treatment with high-dose folinic acid for 12 weeks resulted in improvement in verbal communication as compared with placebo, particularly in those participants who were positive for FRAAs.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 18 October 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.168.

  2. Validation of a commercial process for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of whole muscle beef jerky.

    PubMed

    Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Call, Jeffrey E; Luchansky, John B

    2008-05-01

    We validated the lethality of three time and temperature regimens for commercial processing of whole muscle beef jerky. A total of ca. 8.9 log CFU per strip of multiple-strain cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Listeria monocytogenes were separately applied onto the surface of beef strips that were treated as follows: (i) inoculated but not marinated or (ii) inoculated and then marinated. A total of three beef strips for each treatment in each of three trials were separately inoculated with a cocktail of one of the three pathogens and placed on the top, middle, and bottom racks of a loading truck. The strips on the rack were loaded into a commercial smokehouse and cooked and dried for 1.5, 2.5, or 3.5 h at a target temperature of 180 degrees F (82.2 degrees C) with constant (natural hickory) smoking, but without the addition of humidity. Regardless of how the strips were treated or where the strips were placed on the loading rack, drying for 1.5, 2.5, or 3.5 h to a target temperature of 180 degrees F (average of 177.2 +/- 5.6 degrees F [80.7 +/- 3.1 degrees C]), with constant smoke at an initial average relative humidity of 63.1% to a final average relative humidity of 20.9% resulted in a decrease of > or = 7.3 log CFU per strip (> or = 6.9 log CFU/g) for each of the three pathogen cocktails. Of note, marinated strips that were cooked and dried for 2.5 and 3.5 h or nonmarinated strips cooked or dried for 3.5 h also satisfied the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service standard of identity (moisture-to-protein ratio < or = 0.75:1) and/or shelf-stability (water activity < or = 0.8) requirements for jerky.

  3. Long-term effects of treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure on lung function in patients with overlap syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Javier; Cabello, Jorge; Sánchez-Alarcos, José M F; Alvarez-Sala, Rudolfo; Espinós, Domingo; Alvarez-Sala, José L

    2002-03-01

    We assessed the effects of chronic nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on lung function in a series of unselected patients with overlap syndrome, and we determined whether there were differences in the response induced by CPAP between hypercapnic (PaCO2 > or =45 mm Hg) and eucapnic patients with overlap syndrome. The study population included 55 unselected patients (48 men, mean age of 58.5 +/- 10.5 years) with a concurrent diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) who had been referred to the Department of Pulmonology of our hospital over 2 consecutive years and in whom work-up studies resulted in the prescription of nasal CPAP therapy. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) greater than or equal to 10 in the cardiorespiratory polygraphy was required for the diagnosis of OSAHS. A forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) less than 80% and FEV1-forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 70% of the reference values were required for the diagnosis of COPD. Control lung function studies and arterial blood gas measurements were performed at 6 and 18 months of CPAP therapy. These patients with overlap syndrome accounted for 28.5% of all patients with OSAHS treated with CPAP during the study period. The mean AHI was 37.3 +/- 26.1 and the mean CPAP level 7.3 +/- 1.3 cm H2O. Thirty-three patients were hypercapnic (PaCO2 > or = 45 mm Hg) and 22 eucapnic. The hypercapnic group had higher AHI value (44.3 +/- 26.9) than the eucapnic group (28.6 +/- 21.9) (P < 0.05). After 6 months of CPAP therapy, there were statistically significant increases in PaO2, FEV1, and FVC, accompanied by significant decreases in PaCO2, serum bicarbonate levels, and alveolar-arterial oxygen difference. Response of overlap syndrome patients to CPAP therapy was superior in the hypercapnic group, particularly in relation to improvement of arterial blood gases. However, statistically significant differences in all

  4. Prediction of New Clinical Vertebral Fractures in Elderly Men using Finite Element Analysis of CT Scans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Sanyal, Arnav; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Palermo, Lisa; Jekir, Michael; Christensen, John; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cummings, Steven R.; Orwoll, Eric; Black, Dennis M.; Keaveny, Tony M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertebral strength, as estimated by finite element analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans, has not yet been compared against areal bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for prospectively assessing the risk of new clinical vertebral fractures. To do so, we conducted a case-cohort analysis of 306 men aged 65 yrs and older, which included 63 men who developed new clinically-identified vertebral fractures and 243 men who did not, all observed over an average of 6.5 years. Non-linear finite element analysis was performed on the baseline CT scans, blinded to fracture status, to estimate L1 vertebral compressive strength and a load-to-strength ratio. Volumetric BMD by quantitative CT and areal BMD by DXA were also evaluated. We found that, for the risk of new clinical vertebral fracture, the age-adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation change for areal BMD (3.2; 95% CI: 2.0–5.2) was significantly lower (p<0.005) than for strength (7.2; 3.6–14.1), numerically lower than for volumetric BMD (5.7; 3.1–10.3), and similar for the load-to-strength ratio (3.0; 2.1–4.3). After also adjusting for race, BMI, clinical center, and areal BMD, all these hazard ratios remained highly statistically significant, particularly those for strength (8.5; 3.6–20.1) and volumetric BMD (9.4; 4.1–21.6). The area-under-the-curve for areal BMD (AUC=0.76) was significantly lower than for strength (AUC=0.83, p=0.02), volumetric BMD (AUC=0.82, p=0.05), and the load-to-strength ratio (AUC=0.82, p=0.05). We conclude that, compared to areal BMD by DXA, vertebral compressive strength and volumetric BMD consistently improved vertebral fracture risk assessment in this cohort of elderly men. PMID:22190331

  5. Biomarkers of benefit from cetuximab-based therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: interaction of EGFR ligand expression with RAS/RAF, PIK3CA genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of patients with KRAS-wild type advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) fail anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. We studied EGFR-axis messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and RAS, RAF, PIK3CA mutations in order to identify additional biomarkers of cetuximab efficacy. Methods Previously genotyped (KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA mutations) formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour biopsies of 226 cetuximab-treated CRC patients (1st to 3rd line therapy) were assessed for mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its ligands EGF, Transofrming Growth Factor-a (TGFA), Amphiregulin (AREG) and Epiregulin (EREG) with real time quantitative PCR. Mutations were detected in 72 (31.9%) tumours for KRAS, in 6 (2.65%) for BRAF, in 7 (3.1%) for NRAS and in 37 (16.4%) for PIK3CA. Results Only PIK3CA mutations occasionally coexisted with other gene mutations. In univariate analysis, prognostic significance for survival ( from metastases until death) was seen for BRAF mutations (Hazard Ratio HR 8.1, 95% CI 3.4-19), codon 12-only KRAS mutations (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.1-2.4), high AREG mRNA expression only in KRAS wild type CRC (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.3-0.7) and high EREG mRNA expression irrespective of KRAS mutation status (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.28-0.7). EREG tumoural mRNA expression was significantly associated with a 2.26-fold increased likelihood of objective response to cetuximab therapy (RECIST 1.1). In multivariate analysis, favourable predictive factors were high AREG mRNA in KRAS wild type tumours, high EREG mRNA, low Ephrin A2 receptor mRNA. Cetuximab-treated patients with AREG-low KRAS wild type CRC fared very poorly, their survival being similar to KRAS mutant CRC. Patients with KRAS codon 13 or other non-codon 12 mutations had a median survival (30 months, 95% CI 20–35) similar to that of patients with KRAS wild-type (median survival 29 months, 95% CI 25–35), in contrast to patients with KRAS codon 12 mutations who fared worse (median survival 19

  6. Subchronic effects of inhaled ambient particulate matter on glucose homeostasis and target organ damage in a type 1 diabetic rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yuan-Horng; Charles, Chou C.-K.; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Tung, Chun-Liang; Li, Ya-Ru; Lo, Kai; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular effects, and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients might be susceptible to these effects. The chief chronic injuries resulting from DM are small vascular injuries (micro-vascular complications) or large blood vessel injuries (macro-vascular complications). However, toxicological data regarding the effects of PM on DM-related cardiovascular complications is limited. Our objective was to investigate whether subchronic PM exposure alters glucose homeostasis and causes cardiovascular complications in a type 1 DM rat model. We constructed a real world PM{sub 2.5} exposure system, the Taipei Air Pollution Exposure System for Health Effects (TAPES), to continuously deliver non-concentrated PM for subchronic exposure. A type 1 DM rat model was induced using streptozotocin. Between December 22, 2009 and April 9, 2010, DM rats were exposed to PM or to filtered air (FA) using TAPES in Taipei, Taiwan, 24 h/day, 7 days/week, for a total of 16 weeks. The average concentrations (mean [SD]) of PM{sub 2.5} in the exposure and control chambers of the TAPES were 13.30 [8.65] and 0.13 [0.05] μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was significantly elevated after exposure to PM compared with exposure to FA (mean [SD], 7.7% [3.1%] vs. 4.7% [1.0%], P < 0.05). Interleukin 6 and fibrinogen levels were significantly increased after PM exposure. PM caused focal myocarditis, aortic medial thickness, advanced glomerulosclerosis, and accentuation of tubular damage of the kidney (tubular damage index: 1.76 [0.77] vs. 1.15 [0.36], P < 0.001). PM exposure might induce the macro- and micro-vascular complications in DM through chronic hyperglycemia and systemic inflammation. - Highlights: • The study demonstrated cardiovascular and renal effects of PM in a rat model of DM. • TAPES is a continuous, real world, long-term PM exposure system. • HbA1c, a marker of glycemic

  7. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes, and whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopes of the Bozhushan granite, Yunnan province, SW China: Constraints on petrogenesis and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Bi, Xian-Wu; Zhong, Hong; Lan, Jiang-Bo; Zhao, Cheng-Hai; Zhu, Jing-Jing

    2015-03-01

    The Bainiuchang silver-polymetallic ore deposit is a super-large deposit in the western part of the South China tungsten-tin province (or the Nanling tungsten-tin province). The deposit is spatially and temporally associated with the Bozhushan granite pluton. Our new data indicate that the Bozhushan granitoids formed at 86-87 Ma. The granitoids are geochemically consistent with A-type granite. The Bozhushan pluton consists predominantly of biotite granite that is characterized by weakly peraluminous to metaluminous compositions and high alkali contents (Na2O + K2O = 7.51-9.06 wt.%). The granitic rocks are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) Rb, Th, U, and K, but relatively depleted in Ba and Sr. In addition, they have high Zr + Nb + Ce + Y contents (310-478 ppm) and high 10,000× Ga/Al ratios (2.7-3.1). The temperatures of the parental magmas for the Bozhushan granites are estimated to be 790-842 °C based on the zircon saturation thermometer. Isotopically, the Bozhushan granites are characterized by elevated initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7126-0.7257) and low εNd values (-11.2 to -12.4), and high δ18O values (7.91-9.58‰) and low εHf values (-9.5 to -6.1) for zircon crystals, which indicate a dominant continental crustal source. The two-stage Hf model ages vary from 1.53 to 1.86 Ga. The isotopic compositions support the interpretation that the granitic rocks formed by melting of the Meso- and Neoproterozoic metasedimentary basements of the Cathaysia block. These results, together with geological records in the other parts of the western Cathaysia block, suggest that the formation of the Bozhushan A-type granites is related to lithospheric extension and asthenospheric upwelling that are associated with the change of plate motion in Late-Cretaceous.

  8. Biogenic nitrogen and carbon in Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides from an Archean chert, Marble Bar, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, Daniele L.; Hashizume, Ko; Orberger, Beate; Gallien, Jean-Paul; Cloquet, Christophe; Massault, Marc

    2007-02-01

    To quantify and localize nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in Archean rocks from the Marble Bar formation, Western Australia, and to gain insights on their origin and potential biogenicity, we conducted nuclear reaction analyses (NRA) and carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio measurements on various samples from the 3460-Myr-old Fe-rich Marble Bar chert. The Marble Bar chert formed during the alteration of basaltic volcanoclastic rocks with Fe- and Si-rich hydrothermal fluids, and the subsequent precipitation of magnetite, carbonates, massive silica, and, locally, sulfides. At a later stage, the magnetite, sulfides, and carbonates were replaced by Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides. Nuclear reaction analyses indicate that most of the N and C resides within these Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides, but a minor fraction is found in K-feldspars and Ba-mica dispersed in the silica matrix. The N and C isotopic composition of Fe-oxides suggests the presence of a unique biogenic source with δ 15NAIR values from +6.0 +/- 0.5‰ to 7.3 +/- 1.1‰ and a δ 13CPDB value of -19.9 +/- 0.1‰. The C and N isotope ratios are similar to those observed in Proterozoic and Phanerozoic organic matter. Diffusion-controlled fractionation of N and C released during high combustion temperatures indicates that these two elements are firmly embedded within the iron oxides, with activation energies of 18.7 +/- 3.7 kJ/mol for N and 13.0 +/- 3.8 kJ/mol for C. We propose that N and C were chemisorbed on iron and were subsequently embedded in the crystals during iron oxidation and crystal growth. The Fe-isotopic composition of the Marble Bar chert (δ 56Fe = -0.38 +/- 0.02‰) is similar to that measured in iron oxides formed by direct precipitation of iron from hydrothermal plumes in contact with oxygenated waters. To explain the N and C isotopic composition of Marble Bar chert, we propose either (1) a later addition of N and C at the end of Archean when oxygen started to rise or (2) an earlier development of localized oxygenated

  9. Seasonal variations in the body composition of lightweight rowers.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, F L; Payne, W R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To monitor the seasonal body composition alterations in 18 lightweight rowers (six females, 12 males) across a rowing season incorporating preseason, early competition, competition, and postseason. METHODS: Subject age was 23.1 (SD 4.5) years, height 170.8 (5.6) cm (female, 23.5 (3.5) years, 180.5 (2.7) cm (male). Body weight, fat mass, and fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed using dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA-L Lunar) and skinfold techniques. Weight control techniques were documented before major regattas by a questionnaire. RESULTS: Female body weight was reduced from 61.3 (2.9) to 57.0 (1.1) kg (5.9%), while male body weight was reduced from 75.6 (3.1) to 69.8 (1.6) kg (7.8%) preseason to competition season respectively. These body weight reductions were mirrored by a significant reduction in fat mass as indicated by the sum of skinfolds [female seven sites: 80.9 (8.1) to 68.2 (11.8) mm; male eight sites: 54.2 (8.7) to 41.8 (4.8) mm], percentage body fat [female 22.1 (1.0) to 19.7 (2.4)%; male 10.0 (0.9) to 7.8 (0.8)%], and total fat [female 12.5 (5.2) to 10.9 (1.4) kg; male 7.3 (1.9) to 5.6 (1.8) kg] (DXA). In contrast, no changes were observed in FFM despite a season of intensive rowing training. Seasonal body weight control was achieved through reduced total energy and dietary fat intakes. Acute body weight reductions were achieved by exercise in 73.3% of participants, food restriction in 71.4%, and fluid restrictions in 62.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal body weight alterations in lightweight rowers are in response to a significant reduction in fat mass. However, the weight restrictions appear to be limiting an increase in FFM which could be beneficial to rowing performance. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9015590

  10. Effects of freezing/thawing on motile sperm subpopulations of boar and donkey ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Flores, E; Taberner, E; Rivera, M M; Peña, A; Rigau, T; Miró, J; Rodríguez-Gil, J E

    2008-10-01

    The main aim of this study is to assess the influence of freeze/thawing on motile sperm subpopulations in ejaculates from two phylogenetically different mammalian species, boar and donkey. Our results indicate that, whereas boar and donkey sperm respond very differently in their mean motion characteristics to freezing/thawing, this process did not change the existence of a 4-subpopulations structure in the ejaculates in either species when these subpopulations were defined by taking values of curvilinear velocity (VCL) as reference. Moreover, the freezing/thawing-linked changes in mean sperm-motion characteristics in both boar and donkey semen were especially due to changes in the proportion among each concrete subpopulation. In this way, the freezing/thawing-induced mean increase in motion characteristics observed in boar sperm was a result of the decrease in the percentage of sperm in Subpopulation 1 (from 53.9%+/-4.7% to 31.2%+/-3.9% after thawing) and a concomitant increase of sperm from Subpopulations 3 (from 13.3%+/-2.5% to 32.6%+/-3.9% after thawing) and 4 (from 3.4%+/-0.9% to 8.0%+/-1.1% after thawing). On the contrary, changes in mean motility of frozen/thawed donkey sperm were linked to an increase in the percentage of sperm in Subpopulation 1 (from 31.5%+/-4.3% to 58.8%+/-4.9% after thawing) and a concomitant decrease of sperm from Subpopulations 3 (from 32.4%+/-3.2% to 6.6%+/-1.8% after thawing) and 4 (from 12.2%+/-2.5% to 7.3%+/-1.9% after thawing). In conclusion, our results seem to indicate that motility changes induced by the freezing/thawing protocol are linked to concomitant changes in both the specific parameters and, more importantly, to the specific percentage of each of the motile sperm subpopulations. These changes did not affect the overall proportion of motile sperm present in both boar and donkey, which is conserved despite the detrimental effect caused by freezing/thawing in both species. Finally, the presence of some kind of motile sperm

  11. SU-E-T-289: Dose-Volume-Effect Relationships for Lung Cancer Patients Treated with SBRT On a Prospective Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Mayyas, E; Brown, S; Liu, J; Kim, J; Sun, Z; Devpura, S; Ajlouni, M; Siddiqui, F; Movsas, B; Chetty, I

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is commonly used to treat early stage lung tumors. This study was designed to evaluate associations between dose, volume and clinical outcomes including analysis of both clinical toxicity scores and quality of life (QOL) data for non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with SBRT. Preliminary results are presented. Methods: Sixty-seven NSCLC patients, 46 primarily with early stage, and 21 with recurrent disease were treated with dose regimens consisting mainly of 12 Gy x 4 fractions, and 3 or 5 fractions at lower dose, for patients with recurrent disease (Table 1). Follow-up data is being collected at baseline, after treatment and at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post-treatment. Clinical follow-up data acquired to date was assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Clinical and Toxicity Scoring forms. QOL data was evaluated using the EQ-5D, and FACT-TOI validated surveys. All outcomes surveys are collected within an “in-house” developed outcomes database. Results: The median follow-up was 3.5±0.8 months. Mean lung doses (MLD) were converted to BED-2 Gy using the linear-quadratic model with an alpha/beta=3.0. Average MLD was 3.7+3.1 Gy (range: 0.4–20.9 Gy). The percentages of patients with > grade 2 cough, dyspnea and fatigue were 13.3, 17.0, 6.3%, respectively. Preliminary analyses (at 3 months after SBRT) show a mild correlation between MLD > 2 Gy and > grade 2 cough (borderline significant) and dyspnea (significant, p<0.05). One patient was observed with a grade 3 cough. Given the short follow-up, tumor control is not yet assessable. Conclusion: The SBRT dose fractionation regimen of 12 Gy x 4 was well tolerated at early time points. Additional follow-up is required to assess the long-term clinical outcome efficacy and toxicity profiles of the dose regimen.

  12. Identifying past earthquakes on an active normal fault (Magnola, Italy) from the chemical analysis of its exhumed carbonate fault plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcaillet, Julien; Manighetti, Isabelle; Chauvel, Catherine; Schlagenhauf, Aloé; Nicole, Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    A normal fault scarp exhumed by repeated strong earthquakes is made of a series of rupture zones that were exposed, thus weathered, over significantly different time spans. We show that such differential weathering can be detected in the chemical content of the fault scarp rocks, and its signature used as a base to decipher the past earthquake history of the fault. We focus on the Magnola normal fault, Central Italy, whose Holocene seismic slip history has already been determined by Palumbo et al. (ESPL, 225, 163-176, 2004) from in situ36Cl cosmic ray exposure dating of the fault limestone scarp surface. Five major earthquakes were found to have occurred over the last 12 ka, with slips of 1.5-3 m and recurrence times of 0.7-3.1 ka. We analyze the major and trace element concentrations of 15 carbonate samples collected from base to top of the 10 m-high Magnola Holocene scarp, next to the previous sampling done by Palumbo et al. [Palumbo, L., Benedetti, L., Bourlès, D., Cinque, A., Finkel, R., 2004. Slip history of the Magnola fault (Apennines, Central Italy) from 36Cl surface exposure dating: evidence for strong earthquake over Holocene. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 225, 163-176.]. We find that most element concentrations decrease upscarp at a rate averaging 5%/m. This decrease is attributed to leaching and re-precipitation of purer calcite that increase with exposure time. Superimposed to the overall leaching, concentration peaks are found at the transition zones separating the earthquake ruptures. These concentration peaks likely result from enrichment of the scarp sections that remained stuck in the 30-50 cm-thick impurity-rich upper soil during the quiescence periods that separated the earthquakes. Because the rare earth elements (REE) are among those most significantly enriched at the earthquake transition zones, they are the best chemical markers of past large seismic events. We finally propose a first-order model that reproduces adequately the observations. Our

  13. Temperature-dependent Henry's law constants of atmospheric organics of biogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Leng, Chunbo; Kish, J Duncan; Kelley, Judas; Mach, Mindy; Hiltner, Joseph; Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Yong

    2013-10-10

    There have been growing interests in modeling studies to understand oxidation of volatile organic compounds in the gas phase and their mass transfer to the aqueous phase for their potential roles in cloud chemistry, formation of secondary organic aerosols, and fate of atmospheric organics. Temperature-dependent Henry's law constants, key parameters in the atmospheric models to account for mass transfer, are often unavailable. In the present work, we investigated gas-liquid equilibriums of isoprene, limonene, α-pinene, and linalool using a bubble column technique. These compounds, originating from biogenic sources, were selected for their implications in atmospheric cloud chemistry and secondary organic aerosol formation. We reported Henry's law constants (K(H)), first order loss rates (k), and gas phase diffusion coefficients over a range of temperatures relevant to the lower atmosphere (278-298 K) for the first time. The measurement results of K(H) values for isoprene, limonene, α-pinene, and linalool at 298 K were 0.036 ± 0.003; 0.048 ± 0.004; 0.029 ± 0.004; and 21.20 ± 0.30 mol L(-1) atm(-1), respectively. The fraction for these compounds in stratocumulus and cumulonimbus clouds at 278 K were also estimated in this work (isoprene, 1.0 × 10(-6), 6.8 × 10(-6); limonene, 1.5 × 10(-6), 1.0 × 10(-5); α-pinene, 4.5 × 10(-7), 3.1 × 10(-6); and linalool, 6.2 × 10(-4), 4.2 × 10(-3)). Our measurements in combination with literature results indicated that noncyclic alkenes could have smaller K(H) values than those of cyclic terpenes and that K(H) values may increase with an increasing number of double bonds. It was also shown that estimated Henry's law constants and their temperature dependence based on model prediction can differ from experimental results considerably and that direct measurements of temperature-dependent Henry's law constants of atmospheric organics are necessary for future work.

  14. Sensitivity of Photolysis Frequencies and Key Tropospheric Oxidants in a Global Model to Cloud Vertical Distributions and Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hongyu; Crawford, James H.; Considine, David B.; Platnick, Steven; Norris, Peter M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Pierce, Robert B.; Chen, Gao; Yantosca, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Clouds affect tropospheric photochemistry through modification of solar radiation that determines photolysis frequencies. As a follow-up study to our recent assessment of the radiative effects of clouds on tropospheric chemistry, this paper presents an analysis of the sensitivity of such effects to cloud vertical distributions and optical properties (cloud optical depths (CODs) and cloud single scattering albedo), in a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). GEOS-Chem was driven with a series of meteorological archives (GEOS1- STRAT, GEOS-3 and GEOS-4) generated by the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation system. Clouds in GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-3 have more similar vertical distributions (with substantially smaller CODs in GEOS1-STRAT) while those in GEOS-4 are optically much thinner in the tropical upper troposphere. We find that the radiative impact of clouds on global photolysis frequencies and hydroxyl radical (OH) is more sensitive to the vertical distribution of clouds than to the magnitude of column CODs. With random vertical overlap for clouds, the model calculated changes in global mean OH (J(O1D), J(NO2)) due to the radiative effects of clouds in June are about 0.0% (0.4%, 0.9%), 0.8% (1.7%, 3.1%), and 7.3% (4.1%, 6.0%), for GEOS1-STRAT, GEOS-3 and GEOS-4, respectively; the geographic distributions of these quantities show much larger changes, with maximum decrease in OH concentrations of approx.15-35% near the midlatitude surface. The much larger global impact of clouds in GEOS-4 reflects the fact that more solar radiation is able to penetrate through the optically thin upper-tropospheric clouds, increasing backscattering from low-level clouds. Model simulations with each of the three cloud distributions all show that the change in the global burden of ozone due to clouds is less than 5%. Model perturbation experiments with GEOS-3, where the magnitude of 3-D CODs are progressively varied from -100% to 100%, predict only modest

  15. Time-resolved electron temperature and electron density measurements in a nanosecond pulse filament discharge in H2-He and O2-He mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roettgen, A.; Shkurenkov, I.; Simeni Simeni, M.; Adamovich, I. V.; Lempert, W. R.

    2016-10-01

    Time evolution of electron density and electron temperature in a nanosecond pulse, diffuse filament electric discharge in H2-He and O2-He mixtures at a pressure of 100 Torr is studied by Thomson/pure rotational Raman scattering and kinetic modeling. The discharge is sustained between two spherical electrodes separated by a 1 cm gap and powered by high voltage pulses ~150 ns duration. Discharge energy coupled to the plasma filament 2-3 mm in diameter is 4-5 mJ/pulse, with specific energy loading of up to ~0.3 eV/molecule. At all experimental conditions, a rapid initial rise of electron temperature and electron density during the discharge pulse is observed, followed by the decay in the afterglow, over ~100 ns-1 µs. Electron density in the afterglow decays more rapidly as H2 or O2 fraction in the mixture is increased. In He/H2 mixtures, this is likely due to more rapid recombination of electrons in collisions with \\text{H}2+ and \\text{H}3+ ions, compared to recombination with \\text{He}2+ ions. In O2/He mixtures, electron density decay in the afterglow is affected by recombination with \\text{O}2+ and \\text{O}4+ ions, while the effect of three-body attachment is relatively minor. Peak electron number densities and electron temperatures are n e  =  (1.7-3.1) · 1014 cm-3 and T e  =  2.9-5.5 eV, depending on gas mixture composition. Electron temperature in the afterglow decays to approximately T e  ≈  0.3 eV, considerably higher compared to the gas temperature of T  =  300-380 K, inferred from O2 pure rotational Raman scattering spectra, due to superelastic collisions. The experimental results in helium and O2-He mixtures are compared with kinetic modeling predictions, showing good agreement.

  16. Comparison of Two Methods for Noninvasive Determination of Stroke Volume During Orthostatic Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, Donald F.; Ratliff, Duane A.; Sithole, Joseph; Convertino, Victor A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The real time, beat-by-beat, non-invasive determination of stroke volume (SV) is an important parameter in many aerospace related physiologic protocols. In this study, we compared simultaneous estimates of SV calculated from peripheral pulse waveforms with a more conventional non-invasive technique. Methods: Using a prospective, randomized blinded protocol, ten males and nine females completed 12-mm tilt table protocols. The relative change (%(Delta)) in beat-to-beat SV was estimated non-invasively from changes in pulse waveforms measured by application of infrared finger photoplethysmography (IFP) with a Portapres(Registered TradeMark) blood pressure monitoring device and by thoracic impedance cardiography (TIC). The %(Delta) SV values were calculated from continuous SV measurements in the supine posture and over the first 10 s (T1), second 10 s (T2), and 3.5 minutes (T3) of 80deg head-up tilt (HUT). Results: The average %(Delta) SV measured by IFP at T1 (-11.7 +/- 3.7 %) was statistically less (P <0.02) than the average %(Delta) SV measured by TIC at T1 (-21.7 +/- 3.1 %), while the average %(Delta) SV measured by 1FF at T2 (-16.2 +/- 3.9 %) and T3 (-19.1 +/- 3.8 %) were not statistically distinguishable (P > or = 0.322) than the average %(Delta) SV measured by TIC at T2 (-21.8 +/- 2.5 %), and T3 (-22.6 +/- 2.9 %). Correlation coefficients (r(sup 2)) between IFP and TIC were 0.117 (T1), 0.387 (T2), and 0.7 18 (T3). Conclusion: IFP provides beat-to-beat (real time) assessment of %(Delta) SV after 20 sec of transition to an orthostatic challenge that is comparable to the commonly accepted TIC. Our data support the notion that IFP technology which has flown during space missions can be used to accurately assess physiological status and countermeasure effectiveness for orth static problems that may arise in astronauts after space flight. While the peripherally measured IFP response is slightly delayed, the ease of implementing this monitor in the field is

  17. Short dialyzed children respond less to growth hormone than patients prior to dialysis. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Wühl, E; Haffner, D; Nissel, R; Schaefer, F; Mehls, O

    1996-06-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is a new treatment modality for short children with chronic renal failure (CRF) prior to and during dialysis. It is difficult to analyze whether dialysis patients respond less to rhGH than children with CRF on conservative treatment because they are older and often in a pubertal age range. One hundred and eight patients were treated with 28-30 IU rhGH/kg per week for at least 1 year. We analyzed the growth response to rhGH in 56 prepubertal patients aged less than 10 years at the start of rhGH treatment; 38 children with a mean age of 6.5 +/- 2.4 years were on conservative treatment (CT) and 18 patients with a mean age of 6.5 +/- 2 years on dialysis treatment (D). Mean height velocity was 4.9 +/- 2.3 cm/year in children on CT and 4.6 +/- 1.8 cm/year in children on D. During the 1st treatment year, height velocity was 9.5 +/- 3.8 cm/year in CT patients and 7.3 +/- 1.3 cm/year in D patients (P < 0.05). The change in height was +1.1 +/- 0.8 standard deviation (SD) in CT patients and +0.5 +/- 0.4 SD in D patients (P < 0.005). During the 2nd treatment year, the change in height was again greater in CT patients (0.5 +/- 0.4 SD vs. 0.2 +/- 0.4 SD; P < 0.05). The difference in height velocity and change in height standard deviation score was also significant when a subgroup of patients was matched for sex, age, height. Height velocity and the change in height velocity during rhGH treatment were not correlated with residual renal function, the degree of anemia, or metabolic acidosis. We conclude that short children on D respond less to rhGH than short children on CT, indicating a greater insensitivity to rhGH during D treatment.

  18. Self-management of oral anticoagulants with a whole blood prothrombin-time monitor in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Eldor, Amiram; Schwartz, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of oral anticoagulants (OAC) in reducing the incidence of stroke in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has been well documented. The intensity of OAC therapy and deviations in the prothrombin time (PT) are the strongest risk factor for bleeding complications in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate a more rigorous regulation of OAC by the use of a portable whole blood PT-monitor (CoaguChek) in elderly patients with AF (age 65-80 years). The study group consisted of 20 patients, of whom 17 were evaluable, which were trained to use to CoaguChek monitor and adjust their anticoagulant dose for 12 months. The control group, 20 patients matched for age, gender and the duration of OAC treatment, were tested in an anticoagulant clinic and their OAC dose was adjusted by a physician. To validate the PT-monitor results, the patients performed a total of 129 simultaneous venous blood PT tests at various time points. The correlation coefficient R(2) was 0.707 indicating the accuracy of the CoaguChek results. The self-managed patients perform more frequent measurements 46 +/- 8.9 vs. 15.7 +/- 3.1 PT tests per patient. They demonstrated a within the therapeutic range INR in 80.5% of the tests (95% confidence interval, 76.5-84.1%) as compared to 72.4% (95% confidence interval, 68.5-76.5%) in the control group (p = 0.057). The median value for all CoaguChek International Normalized Ratio (INR) recordings was within therapeutic range in the self-management group as well as in the control group. There were fewer INR results below or above the therapeutic range in the study group. None of the patients had hemorrhagic or thrombotic events during the study. Overall, the study group expressed high satisfaction from using the home monitor. We conclude that home PT monitoring and self-management of OAC are feasible in a motivated population of elderly patients with atrial fibrillation and are probably cost effective.

  19. Horizontal vestibuloocular reflex evoked by high-acceleration rotations in the squirrel monkey. I. Normal responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, L. B.; Lasker, D. M.; Backous, D. D.; Hullar, T. E.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The horizontal angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) evoked by high-frequency, high-acceleration rotations was studied in five squirrel monkeys with intact vestibular function. The VOR evoked by steps of acceleration in darkness (3,000 degrees /s(2) reaching a velocity of 150 degrees /s) began after a latency of 7.3 +/- 1.5 ms (mean +/- SD). Gain of the reflex during the acceleration was 14.2 +/- 5.2% greater than that measured once the plateau head velocity had been reached. A polynomial regression was used to analyze the trajectory of the responses to steps of acceleration. A better representation of the data was obtained from a polynomial that included a cubic term in contrast to an exclusively linear fit. For sinusoidal rotations of 0.5-15 Hz with a peak velocity of 20 degrees /s, the VOR gain measured 0.83 +/- 0.06 and did not vary across frequencies or animals. The phase of these responses was close to compensatory except at 15 Hz where a lag of 5.0 +/- 0.9 degrees was noted. The VOR gain did not vary with head velocity at 0.5 Hz but increased with velocity for rotations at frequencies of >/=4 Hz (0. 85 +/- 0.04 at 4 Hz, 20 degrees /s; 1.01 +/- 0.05 at 100 degrees /s, P < 0.0001). No responses to these rotations were noted in two animals that had undergone bilateral labyrinthectomy indicating that inertia of the eye had a negligible effect for these stimuli. We developed a mathematical model of VOR dynamics to account for these findings. The inputs to the reflex come from linear and nonlinear pathways. The linear pathway is responsible for the constant gain across frequencies at peak head velocity of 20 degrees /s and also for the phase lag at higher frequencies being less than that expected based on the reflex delay. The frequency- and velocity-dependent nonlinearity in VOR gain is accounted for by the dynamics of the nonlinear pathway. A transfer function that increases the gain of this pathway with frequency and a term related to the third power of head

  20. Short-course eflornithine in Gambian trypanosomiasis: a multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Pépin, J.; Khonde, N.; Maiso, F.; Doua, F.; Jaffar, S.; Ngampo, S.; Mpia, B.; Mbulamberi, D.; Kuzoe, F.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine whether 7 days of intravenous eflornithine (100 mg/kg every 6 h) was as effective as the standard 14-day regimen in the treatment of late-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis. METHODS: A total of 321 patients (274 new cases, 47 relapsing cases) were randomized at four participating centres in Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda to one of these treatment regimens and followed up for 2 years. RESULTS: Six patients died during treatment, one of whom was on the 7-day regimen, whereas the other five had been on the 14-day regimen (P = 0.2). The response to eflornithine differed markedly between Uganda and other countries. Among new cases in Uganda, the 2-year probability of cure was 73% on the 14-day course compared with 62% on the 7-day regimen (hazard ratio (HR) for treatment failure, 7-day versus 14-day regimen: 1.45, 95% CI: 0.7, 3.1, P = 0.3). Among new cases in Côte d'Ivoire, Congo, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo combined, the 2-year probability of cure was 97% on the 14-day course compared with 86.5% on the 7-day regimen (HR for treatment failure, 7-day vs 14-day: 6.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 31.0, P = 0.003). Among relapsing cases in all four countries, the 2-year probability of cure was 94% with 7 days and 100% with 14 days of treatment. Factors associated with a higher risk of treatment failure were: a positive lymph node aspirate (HR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.8-9.4), a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white cell count > or = 100/mm3 (HR 3.5; 95% CI: 1.1-10.9), being treated in Uganda (HR 2.9; 95% CI: 1.4-5.9), and CSF trypanosomes (HR 1.9; 95% CI: 0.9-4.1). Being stuporous on admission was associated with a lower risk of treatment failure (HR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.02-1.4) as was increasing age (HR 0.977; 95% CI: 0.95-1.0, for each additional year of age). DISCUSSION: The 7-day course of eflornithine is an effective treatment of relapsing cases

  1. [Variability of the cytological parameters of Pinus sylvestris L. seeds from the unique Hrenovskoy pine forest].

    PubMed

    Butorina, A K; Cherkashina, O N; Chernodubov, A I; Avdeeva, I A

    2005-06-01

    pines in the Hrenovskoy pine forest can be considered to be satisfactory. However, the presence of micronuclei in all variants and the decrease in MI in some individual plants (which was, on average, 6.1 +/- 0.03% in the sample studied, i.e., significantly lower than that of P. sylvestris from the Usmanskii pine forest (7.3 +/- 1.2%), where the conditions are optimal for this species) may serve as the bioindicators of the deterioration of both the state of trees themselves and the ecological conditions in the Hrenovskoy pine forest. Therefore, the population structure of this valuable autochtonic stand should be reproduced urgently.

  2. Age-related differences of neutrophil activation in a skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion model.

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Arian; Reynolds, Christopher; Neumeister, Michael W; Wilhelmi, Bradon J; Song, Yao-Hua; Naffziger, Ryan; Glatz, Frank R; Russell, Robert C

    2003-04-01

    viability was observed in the mature adult rats when compared with young adolescent rats (23.7+/-3.1% NBT staining vs. 32.3+/-13.7% NBT staining, p=0.189) after 24 hours of reperfusion. The authors present evidence of an attenuated IR injury in young adolescent animals when compared with mature adult rats. These findings emphasize the importance that studies involving IR injury should be performed with consideration of animal age.

  3. Mechanisms of blood pressure regulation that differ in men repeatedly exposed to high-G acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that repeated exposure to high acceleration (G) would be associated with enhanced functions of specific mechanisms of blood pressure regulation. We measured heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (), mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, forearm and leg vascular resistance, catecholamines, and changes in leg volume (%DeltaLV) during various protocols of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), carotid stimulation, and infusions of adrenoreceptor agonists in 10 males after three training sessions on different days over a period of 5-7 days using a human centrifuge (G trained). These responses were compared with the same measurements in 10 males who were matched for height, weight, and fitness but did not undergo G training (controls). Compared with the control group, G-trained subjects demonstrated greater R-R interval response to equal carotid baroreceptor stimulation (7.3 +/- 1.2 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.4 ms/mmHg, P = 0.02), less vasoconstriction to equal low-pressure baroreceptor stimulation (-1.4 +/- 0.2 vs. -2.6 +/- 0.3 U/mmHg, P = 0.01), and higher HR (-1.2 +/- 0.2 vs. -0.5 +/- 0.1 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1), P = 0.01) and alpha-adrenoreceptor response (32.8 +/- 3.4 vs. 19.5 +/- 4.7 U/mmHg, P = 0.04) to equal dose of phenylephrine. During graded LBNP, G-trained subjects had less decline in and SV, %DeltaLV, and elevation in thoracic impedance. G-trained subjects also had greater total blood (6,497 +/- 496 vs. 5,438 +/- 228 ml, P = 0.07) and erythrocyte (3,110 +/- 364 vs. 2,310 +/- 96 ml, P = 0.06) volumes. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to repeated high G is associated with increased capacities of mechanisms that underlie blood pressure regulation.

  4. Characteristics of Glucose Metabolism in Nordic and South Asian Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Erik Fink; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in people of South Asian ethnicity than in people of Western European origin. To investigate the source of these differences, we compared insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, glucose and lipid metabolism in South Asian and Nordic subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods Forty-three Nordic and 19 South Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes were examined with intra-venous glucose tolerance test, euglycemic clamp including measurement of endogenous glucose production, indirect calorimetry measuring glucose and lipid oxidation, and dual x-ray absorptiometry measuring body composition. Results Despite younger mean ± SD age (49.7±9.4 vs 58.3±8.3 years, p = 0.001), subjects of South Asian ethnicity had the same diabetes duration (9.3±5.5 vs 9.6±7.0 years, p = 0.86), significantly higher median [inter-quartile range] HbA1c (8.5 [1.6] vs 7.3 [1.6] %, p = 0.024) and lower BMI (28.7±4.0 vs 33.2±4.7 kg/m2, p<0.001). The South Asian group exhibited significantly higher basal endogenous glucose production (19.1 [9.1] vs 14.4 [6.8] µmol/kgFFM⋅min, p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between the groups in total glucose disposal (39.1±20.4 vs 39.2±17.6 µmol/kgFFM⋅min, p = 0.99) or first phase insulin secretion (AUC0–8 min: 220 [302] vs 124 [275] pM, p = 0.35). In South Asian subjects there was a tendency towards positive correlations between endogenous glucose production and resting and clamp energy expenditure. Conclusions Subjects of South Asian ethnicity with type 2 diabetes, despite being younger and leaner, had higher basal endogenous glucose production, indicating higher hepatic insulin resistance, and a trend towards higher use of carbohydrates as fasting energy substrate compared to Nordic subjects. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the observed differences in prevalence of type 2 diabetes between the ethnic groups. PMID:24391858

  5. Determination of some enzymes and macro- and microelements in stallion seminal plasma and their correlations to semen quality.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Sandra; Bergmann, Martin; Bostedt, Hartwig

    2006-07-15

    Seminal plasma is very important for sperm metabolism as well as sperm function and survival and transport in the female genital tract. Analysis of enzyme activities and concentrations of elements can estimate integrity and function of sperm cell membranes. In man much data are available about biochemical analyses of seminal plasma. However, not many studies have been conducted in horses yet. We collected ejaculates from 72 stallions, measured the volume, obtained seminal plasma by centrifugation and examined spermatozoa with light microscopy for motility, concentration, for dead sperm and morphology. Of seminal plasma fluid, we measured activities of aspartate-amino-transferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), acid phosphatase (AcP) and lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as concentrations of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), total and ionised calcium (Ca(TOTAL)/Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), phosphate (P), chloride (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). In addition, correlations among different parameters in light microscopy and seminal plasma were statistically examined by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Median enzyme activities for AST, GGT, AlP, AcP and LDH were 80.0, 7,500, 30,200, 20.0, 81.0 IU/L, respectively. Concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Ca(TOTAL), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), P, Cl were 110.5, 22.1, 2.9, 1.7, 3.1, 1.1 and 114.5 mmol/L, and of microelements Cu, Fe and Zn were 17.8, 1.9 and 13.2 micromol/L, respectively. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between semen volume as well as sperm concentration and AST, GGT, AlP, AcP and LDH as well as Fe and Zn. This made us propose a primary testicular and epididymal origin of these parameters. Significant correlation between GGT and motility may be a sign for its function for cell protection against free radicals. LDH activity significantly correlates with motility and progressive motility, live:dead-ratio and pathomorphology. In our study, LDH seems to

  6. Sensitivity of photolysis frequencies and key tropospheric oxidants in a global model to cloud vertical distributions and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyu; Crawford, James H.; Considine, David B.; Platnick, Steven; Norris, Peter M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Pierce, Robert B.; Chen, Gao; Yantosca, Robert M.

    2009-05-01

    Clouds directly affect tropospheric photochemistry through modification of solar radiation that determines photolysis frequencies. As a follow-up study to our recent assessment of these direct radiative effects of clouds on tropospheric chemistry, this paper presents an analysis of the sensitivity of such effects to cloud vertical distributions and optical properties (cloud optical depths (CODs) and cloud single scattering albedo), in a global three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model. The model was driven with a series of meteorological archives (GEOS-1 in support of the Stratospheric Tracers of Atmospheric Transport mission, or GEOS1-STRAT, GEOS-3, and GEOS-4) generated by the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) data assimilation system. Clouds in GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-3 have more similar vertical distributions (with substantially smaller CODs in GEOS1-STRAT) while those in GEOS-4 are optically much thinner in the tropical upper troposphere. We find that the radiative impact of clouds on global photolysis frequencies and hydroxyl radical (OH) is more sensitive to the vertical distribution of clouds than to the magnitude of column CODs. With random vertical overlap for clouds, the model calculated changes in global mean OH (J(O1D), J(NO2)) due to the radiative effects of clouds in June are about 0.0% (0.4%, 0.9%), 0.8% (1.7%, 3.1%), and 7.3% (4.1%, 6.0%) for GEOS1-STRAT, GEOS-3, and GEOS-4, respectively; the geographic distributions of these quantities show much larger changes, with maximum decrease in OH concentrations of ˜15-35% near the midlatitude surface. The much larger global impact of clouds in GEOS-4 reflects the fact that more solar radiation is able to penetrate through the optically thin upper tropospheric clouds, increasing backscattering from low-level clouds. Model simulations with each of the three cloud distributions all show that the change in the global burden of ozone due to clouds is less than 5%. Model perturbation experiments

  7. Balloon-borne measurement of the aerosol size distribution from an Icelandic flood basalt eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignelles, D.; Roberts, T. J.; Carboni, E.; Ilyinskaya, E.; Pfeffer, M.; Dagsson Waldhauserova, P.; Schmidt, A.; Berthet, G.; Jegou, F.; Renard, J.-B.; Ólafsson, H.; Bergsson, B.; Yeo, R.; Fannar Reynisson, N.; Grainger, R. G.; Galle, B.; Conde, V.; Arellano, S.; Lurton, T.; Coute, B.; Duverger, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    We present in situ balloon-borne measurements of aerosols in a volcanic plume made during the Holuhraun eruption (Iceland) in January 2015. The balloon flight intercepted a young plume at 8 km distance downwind from the crater, where the plume is ∼15 min of age. The balloon carried a novel miniature optical particle counter LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) which measures particle number concentration and size distribution in the plume, alongside a meteorological payload. We discuss the possibility of calculating particle flux by combining LOAC data with measurements of sulfur dioxide flux by ground-based UV spectrometer (DOAS). The balloon passed through the plume at altitude range of 2.0-3.1 km above sea level (a.s.l.). The plume top height was determined as 2.7-3.1 km a.s.l., which is in good agreement with data from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite. Two distinct plume layers were detected, a non-condensed lower layer (300 m thickness) and a condensed upper layer (800 m thickness). The lower layer was characterized by a lognormal size distribution of fine particles (0.2 μm diameter) and a secondary, coarser mode (2.3 μm diameter), with a total particle number concentration of around 100 cm-3 in the 0.2-100 μm detection range. The upper layer was dominated by particle centered on 20 μm in diameter as well as containing a finer mode (2 μm diameter). The total particle number concentration in the upper plume layer was an order of magnitude higher than in the lower layer. We demonstrate that intercepting a volcanic plume with a meteorological balloon carrying LOAC is an efficient method to characterize volcanic aerosol properties. During future volcanic eruptions, balloon-borne measurements could be carried out easily and rapidly over a large spatial area in order to better characterize the evolution of the particle size distribution and particle number concentrations in a volcanic plume.

  8. A randomized, double-blind study of 30 versus 20 mg dexmethylphenidate extended-release in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: late-day symptom control.

    PubMed

    Brams, Matthew; Turnbow, John; Pestreich, Linda; Giblin, John; Childress, Ann; McCague, Kevin; Muniz, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dexmethylphenidate extended-release (d-MPH-ER) 30 versus 20 mg in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 12-hour laboratory classroom setting. In a randomized, double-blind, 3-period × 3-treatment, crossover study, children aged 6 to 12 years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-diagnosed ADHD previously stabilized on MPH (40-60 mg/d) or D-MPH (20-30 mg/day) [corrected] were randomized to receive D-MPH-ER 20 mg/day, 30 mg/day, [corrected] or placebo for 7 days each. Primary efficacy measurements were change in the average SKAMP-Combined [corrected] score from predose to 10, 11, and 12 hours postdose [Avg(10-12)] between 30 mg [corrected] and 20 mg D-MPH-ER. Safety was assessed by adverse events, (AEs), [corrected] vital sign monitoring, and ECGs. [corrected] A total of 165 children were randomized, and 162 included in the intent-to-treat analysis. Mean Avg (10-12) change from pre-dose [corrected] in SKAMP-Combined score was significantly greater for D-MPH-ER 30 mg (-4.47) compared with D-MPH-ER 20 mg (-2.02; P = 0.002). Most common adverse events (≥ 3% in any group) were decreased appetite (6.1%, 4.9%, and 0%), headache (4.3%, 4.3%, and 1.9%), abdominal pain (3.7%, 3.1%, and 3.1%), and tachycardia (1.2%, 3.1%, and 0.6%) for D-MPH-ER 30 mg, D-MPH-ER 20 mg, and placebo, respectively). Significantly greater improvement in ADHD symptoms was noted with D-MPH-ER 30 mg compared with D-MPH-ER 20 mg at hours 10 through 12. Tolerability was comparable between doses. Dexmethylphenidate extended-release 30-mg dose may provide further benefit to patients who do not maintain optimal symptom control later in the day with D-MPH-ER 20 mg.

  9. Cardiovascular effects of anti-G suit and cooling garment during space shuttle re-entry and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Sondra A.; Charles, John B.; Fortner, G. William; Hurst, Victor 4th; Meck, Janice V.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many cardiovascular changes associated with spaceflight reduce the ability of the cardiovascular system to oppose gravity on return to Earth, leaving astronauts susceptible to orthostatic hypotension during re-entry and landing. Consequently, an anti-G suit was developed to protect arterial pressure during re-entry. A liquid cooling garment (LCG) was then needed to alleviate the thermal stress resulting from use of the launch and entry suit. METHODS: We studied 34 astronauts on 22 flights (4-16 d). Subjects were studied 10 d before launch and on landing day. Preflight, crewmembers were suited with their anti-G suits set to the intended inflation for re-entry. Three consecutive measurements of heart rate and arterial pressure were obtained while seated and then again while standing. Three subjects who inflated the anti-G suits also donned the LCG for landing. Arterial pressure and heart rate were measured every 5 min during the de-orbit maneuver, through maximum G-loading (max-G) and touch down (TD). After TD, crew-members again initiated three seated measurements followed by three standing measurements. RESULTS: Astronauts with inflated anti-G suits had higher arterial pressure than those who did not have inflated anti-G suits during re-entry and landing (133.1 +/- 2.5/76.1 +/- 2.1 vs. 128.3 +/- 4.2/79.3 +/- 2.9, de-orbit; 157.3 +/- 4.5/102.1 +/- 3.6 vs. 145.2 +/- 10.5/95.7 + 5.5, max-G; 159.6 +/- 3.9/103.7 +/- 3.3 vs. 134.1 +/- 5.1/85.7 +/- 3.1, TD). In the group with inflated anti-G suits, those who also wore the LCG exhibited significantly lower heart rates than those who did not (75.7 +/- 11.5 vs. 86.5 +/- 6.2, de-orbit; 79.5 +/- 24.8 vs. 112.1 +/- 8.7, max-G; 84.7 +/- 8.0 vs. 110.5 +/- 7.9, TD). CONCLUSIONS: The anti-G suit is effective in supporting arterial pressure. The addition of the LCG lowers heart rate during re-entry.

  10. SU-D-18A-04: Quantifying the Ability of Tumor Tracking to Spare Normal Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, A; Buzurovic, I; Hurwitz, M; Williams, C; Lewis, J; Mishra, P; Seco, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumor tracking allows for smaller tissue volumes to be treated, potentially reducing normal tissue damage. However, tumor tracking is a more complex treatment and has little benefit in some scenarios. Here we quantify the benefit of tumor tracking for a range of patients by estimating the dose of radiation to organs at risk and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for both standard and tracking treatment plans. This comparison is performed using both patient 4DCT data and extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) digital phantoms. Methods: We use 4DCT data for 10 patients. Additionally, we generate digital phantoms with motion derived from measured patient long tumor trajectories to compare standard and tracking treatment plans. The standard treatment is based on the average intensity projection (AIP) of 4DCT images taken over a breath cycle. The tracking treatment is based on doses calculated on images representing the anatomy at each time point. It is assumed that there are no errors in tracking the target. The NTCP values are calculated based on RTOG guidelines. Results: The mean reduction in the mean dose delivered was 5.5% to the lungs (from 7.3 Gy to 6.9 Gy) and 4.0% to the heart (from 12.5 Gy to 12.0 Gy). The mean reduction in the max dose delivered was 13% to the spinal cord (from 27.6 Gy to 24.0 Gy), 2.5% to the carina (from 31.7 Gy to 30.9 Gy), and 15% to the esophagus (from 69.6 Gy to 58.9 Gy). The mean reduction in the probability of 2nd degree radiation pneumonitis (RP) was 8.7% (3.1% to 2.8%) and the mean reduction in the effective volume was 6.8% (10.8% to 10.2%). Conclusions: Tumor tracking has the potential to reduce irradiation of organs at risk, and consequentially reduce the normal tissue complication probability. The benefits vary based on the clinical scenario. This study is supported by Varian Medical Systems, Inc.

  11. Structural Analysis of the Khoy Ophiolite, NW Iran from ASTER Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurmond, A. K.; Abdel-Salam, M.; Yin, Z.; Hassanipak, A.; Ghazi, A. M.

    2002-05-01

    The Khoy ophiolite in northwestern Iran, along the Turkish border, represents a remnant of oceanic lithosphere formed in the Mesozoic Neotethys. This northwest-southeast trending ophiolite complex consists, from northeast to southwest of a well-defined basal metamorphic zone, peridotites (mainly harzburgites and dunites) and serpentinized peridotites, gabbros, dikes, and extensive amount of pillowand massive basalts and basaltic andesite. The associated sedimentary rocks include a variety of late Cretaceous deep- and shallow-marine rock. These include pelagic fossiliferous carbonates which are mixed with pillow basalts and the basaltic andesites as interlayers or exotic blocks. Also present are extensive units of radiolarian chert which are interbedded within the basalts and basaltic andesites. Analysis of the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery covering the Khoy ophiolite and published geological maps allowed us to distinguish between different rocks types and interpret regional structures. ASTER has three bands (1 to 3) in the Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR), six bands (4 to 9) in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) and 5 bands (10 to 14) in the Thermal Infrared (TIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. We used 3-2-1, and 7-3-1 ASTER false-color images and 4/7-3/4-2/1 ASTER band-ratio image for this study. The complex is divided into three NW-trending, SW-verging nappes. Upper serpentinized ultramafic rocks and lower amphibolites forming an allochthon with will-developed klippes of ultramafic rocks dominate the northeastern nappe. This nappe is thrust across shelf sediments dominated by limestones of late Cretaceous age that occupy the region to the northeast of the Khoy ophiolite complex. Superimposition of ENE-trending folds on the nappe structures produced domical structures that eroded to form tectonic widows where the amphiolites are exposed within the ultramafic rocks. The central nappe is an allochthon made up

  12. Risk factors for hyperlipidemia in long-term pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, D M; Palmer, J; Polinsky, M S; Braas, C; Conley, S B; Baluarte, H J

    2000-02-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HL) is a common problem in adult renal transplant (TP) recipients, contributing to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic TP nephropathy. There are multiple causes of HL post renal TP in adult patients, including pre TP HL, immunosuppressive agents, renal dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia secondary to nephrotic syndrome, obesity, and conditions that lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of HL in 62 pediatric renal TP recipients (15.4+/-4.2 years, range-3.0-22.3 years) with long-term (6.7+/-3.1 years) functioning [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 66.7+/-23.2 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)] allografts. The mean serum cholesterol (C) level was 205. 5+/-43.6 mg/dl. Thirty-two patients (51.6%) exhibited elevated serum C levels. The mean serum triglyceride (TG) level was 157.3+/-88.4 mg/dl. Serum TG levels were elevated in 32 patients (51.6%). In patients with elevated serum levels of either C or TG, the mean low-density lipoprotein level (LDL) was 138.6+/-44.1 mg/dl (normal <130 mg/dl) and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level 54.6+/-15.9 mg/dl (normal>34 mg/dl). Of those patients studied, 45.5% had high LDL levels, whereas 9.1% exhibited low HDL levels. The two risk factors for elevated serum C levels in our patient population were pre-TP HL and increased years since TP. The only risk factor for elevated serum TG levels was reduced GFR. A family history of HL had a significant deleterious impact upon serum levels of C (P=0.01), but did not affect serum TG levels (P=0.7). Years on dialysis prior to TP, history of prior TP, gender, body mass index, and disease leading to ESRD had no influence upon the development of post-TP HL. We conclude that post-renal TP HL is a significant problem in pediatric renal TP recipients.

  13. Effect of stocking rate on pasture production, milk production, and reproduction of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, K A; Penno, J W; Lancaster, J A S; Roche, J R

    2008-05-01

    Ninety-four cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 stocking rates (2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.7, and 4.3 cows/ha) in a completely randomized design for 3 years. Herds were seasonal calving, with only minor differences in grazing management to optimize the profitability of each stocking rate (SR). Pasture production and quality data, milk and milk component data, and reproduction data were collected, averaged for SR treatment, and linear and quadratic contrasts on SR were evaluated. In addition, the Wilmink exponential model (y(t) = a + b x e((-0.05t) )+ c x t) was fitted to milk yield within lactation, and the parameters were averaged by SR treatment and analyzed as above. The median variation explained by the function for individual lactations was 84%. The amount of pasture grown tended to increase, and the quality of the pasture on offer increased linearly with increasing SR, reducing some of the negative impact of SR on the availability of pasture per cow. Milk production per cow declined linearly with increasing SR, although there was a tendency for most production variables to decline quadratically, with the negative effect of SR declining with increasing SR. The effect on milk production per cow was primarily because of a lower peak milk yield and a greater post-peak decline (less persistent milk profile), although a decline in lactation length with increasing SR was responsible for 24% of the effect of SR on milk yield. Milk production per hectare increased linearly with increasing SR, and there was only a small difference (approximately 3%/cow per ha) in the efficiency of converting feed dry matter into milk energy. Stocking rate did not affect reproductive success. The data are consistent with the need for a more robust measure of SR than cows per hectare because farms will differ in the genetic merit of their cows and in the potential to produce pasture. We introduce the concept of a comparative SR, whereby the carrying capacity of the farm is defined by the BW of

  14. Quantification of Holocene Asian monsoon rainfall from spatially separated cave records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chaoyong; Henderson, Gideon M.; Huang, Junhua; Xie, Shucheng; Sun, Ying; Johnson, Kathleen R.

    2008-02-01

    A reconstruction of Holocene rainfall is presented for southwest China — an area prone to drought and flooding due to variability in the East Asian monsoon. The reconstruction is derived by comparing a new high-resolution stalagmite δ18O record with an existing record from the same moisture transport pathway. The new record is from Heshang Cave (30°27'N, 110°25'E; 294 m) and shows no sign of kinetic or evaporative effects so can be reliably interpreted as a record of local rainfall composition and temperature. Heshang lies 600 km downwind from Dongge Cave which has a published high-resolution δ18O record (Wang, Y.J., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., He, Y.Q., Kong, X.G., An, Z.S., Wu, J.Y., Kelly, M.J., Dykoski, C.A., Li, X.D., 2005. The Holocene Asian monsoon: links to solar changes and North Atlantic climate. Science 308, 854-857). By differencing co-eval δ18O values for the two caves, secondary controls on δ18O (e.g. moisture source, moisture transport, non-local rainfall, temperature) are circumvented and the resulting Δ δ18O signal is controlled directly by the amount of rain falling between the two sites. This is confirmed by comparison with rainfall data from the instrumental record, which also allows a calibration of the Δ δ18O proxy. The calibrated Δ δ18O record provides a quantitative history of rainfall in southwest China which demonstrates that rainfall was 8% higher than today during the Holocene climatic optimum (≈ 6 ka), but only 3% higher during the early Holocene. Significant multi-centennial variability also occurred, with notable dry periods at 8.2 ka, 4.8-4.1 ka, 3.7-3.1 ka, 1.4-1.0 ka and during the Little Ice Age. This Holocene rainfall record provides a good target with which to test climate models. The approach used here, of combining stalagmite records from more than one location, will also allow quantification of rainfall patterns for past times in other regions.

  15. Strength training increases training-specific multifinger coordination in humans.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Kun; Hsu, Jeffrey; Karol, Sohit; Hurley, Ben F

    2008-10-01

    .323+/-0.002, p<.01), and force-stabilizing coordination increased only in G3 (from 0.207+/-0.106 to 0.727+/-0.071, p<.01). Finger strength, measured by the maximal voluntary finger force of pressing 4 fingers, increased significantly in all training groups (from 103.7+/-3.1 N to 144.0+/-3.6 N for training groups, all p<.001). Finger-force errors, quantified by the deviations between the required force profiles (20% maximal voluntary force) presented to the subjects and the actual force produced, decreased significantly with ST for all the training groups (all p<.05). Finger independence also decreased significantly for all the training groups (p<.05). We conclude that the neuromuscular system adaptations to multifinger ST are specific to the training protocol being employed, yielding improvements in different types of multifinger coordination (i.e., coordination-specific ST), finger-force control, and finger strength and a decrease in finger independence. Finger independence, depending on the nature of the task, might or might not be favorable to certain task performances. We suggest that ST protocol should be carefully designed for the improvement of specific coordination of multieffector motor systems.

  16. The impact of haemodialysis arteriovenous fistula on haemodynamic parameters of the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Carlo; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Rossi, Luigi; Vigo, Valentina; Lomonte, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Background Satisfactory vascular access flow (Qa) of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is necessary for haemodialysis (HD) adequacy. The aim of the present study was to further our understanding of haemodynamic modifications of the cardiovascular system of HD patients associated with an AVF. The main objective was to calculate using real data in what way an AVF influences the load of the left ventricle (LLV). Methods All HD patients treated in our dialysis unit and bearing an AVF were enrolled into the present observational cross-sectional study. Fifty-six patients bore a lower arm AVF and 30 an upper arm AVF. Qa and cardiac output (CO) were measured by means of the ultrasound dilution Transonic Hemodialysis Monitor HD02. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated; total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR) was calculated as MAP/CO; resistance of AVF (AR) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) are connected in parallel and were respectively calculated as AR = MAP/Qa and SVR = MAP/(CO − Qa). LLV was calculated on the principle of a simple physical model: LLV (watt) = TPVR·CO2. The latter was computationally divided into the part spent to run Qa through the AVF (LLVAVF) and that part ensuring the flow (CO − Qa) through the vascular system. The data from the 86 AVFs were analysed by categorizing them into lower and upper arm AVFs. Results Mean Qa, CO, MAP, TPVR, LLV and LLVAVF of the 86 AVFs were, respectively, 1.3 (0.6 SD) L/min, 6.3 (1.3) L/min, 92.7 (13.9) mmHg, 14.9 (3.9) mmHg·min/L, 1.3 (0.6) watt and 19.7 (3.1)% of LLV. A statistically significant increase of Qa, CO, LLV and LLVAVF and a statistically significant decrease of TPVR, AR and SVR of upper arm AVFs compared with lower arm AVFs was shown. A third-order polynomial regression model best fitted the relationship between Qa and LLV for the entire cohort (R2 = 0.546; P < 0.0001) and for both lower (R2 = 0.181; P < 0.01) and upper arm AVFs (R2 = 0.663; P < 0.0001). LLVAVF calculated as % of LLV rose with

  17. Multiple outflows in the bipolar planetary nebula M1-16: A molecular line study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wootten, Alwyn; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Wild, W.

    1994-01-01

    stars, probably as a result of enhancement of the CN and HCO(+) abundances due to photochemistry induced by the stellar UV. The CS J = 2-1, SiO J = 2-1 (v = 0), and SiS J = 6-5 lines were not detected to low levels. For the high-excitation molecules, adequate collisional excitation of rotational levels and survival against photodissociation by the UV radiation requires significant clumping of the molecular gas into clumps with H2 densities approximately 10(exp 5)/cu cm. The IRAS fluxes of M1-16, assuming negligible contribution from line emission, imply the presence of about (1.7-0.4) x 10(exp -3) solar mass of cool dust (temperature around 50 K) and a smaller quantity, (2.7-3.1) x 10(exp -6) solar mass, of warmer dust (temperature around 125 K) for a power-law emissivity index p = 1-2. The evolutionary nature of M1-16 cannot be explained by existing single-star models of post-AGB evolution. The very high (13)C/(12)C abundance ratio in M1-16 suggests a possible evolutionary connection between M1-16 and the rare class of J-type silicate-carbon stars which also have high (13)C/(12)C ratios and are thought to be binary systems with accretion disks.

  18. Impairment of GH responsiveness to GH-releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6) in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grugni, G; Guzzaloni, G; Morabito, F

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the GH-releasing activity of a synthetic hexapeptide, GHRP-6, in the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Sixteen PWS patients (7 males and 9 females, aged 12.7-38.3 yr), 15 with essential obesity (OB) (7 males and 8 females, aged 12.9-42.9 yr), and 8 short normal children (SN; 3 males and 5 females, aged 10.2-14.3 yr) underwent 2 tests on separate occasions, being challenged with GHRP-6 (1 microg/kg, iv) or GHRH (1 microg/kg, iv)+PD (60 or 120 mg for children or adults, po). Moreover, in 11 patients with PWS and in the group of SN, the GH response to at least 2 stimulation tests had been previously determined. GH was analyzed either as mean peak values (GHp, mcg/l), or as the area under the curve (AUC, mcg/l/h) and the net incremental area under the curve (nAUC, mcg/l/h). In the group of PWS subjects, GH responses to both GHRP-6 (GHp: 11.4+/-2.0; AUC: 588+/-113; nAUC: 483+/-108) and GHRH+PD (GHp: 7.3+/-1.8; AUC: 486+/-122; nAUC: 371+/-250) were significantly lower than those observed either in OB (GHRP-6: GHp: 25.7+/-3.2, p<0.003; AUC: 1833+/-305, p<0.005; nAUC: 1640+/-263, p<0.0001. GHRH+PD: GHp: 15.1+/-2.4, p<0.009; AUC: 1249+/-248, p<0.003; nAUC: 918+/-230, p<0.006) or in SN patients (GHRP-6: GHp: 39.1+/-3.1, p<0.0001; AUC: 2792+/-158, p<0.0001; nAUC: 2705+/-165, p<0.00005. GHRH+PD: GHp: 27.5+/-3.7, p<0.0001; AUC: 1873+/-251, p<0.0001; nAUC: 1692+/-219, p<0.0005). Unlike control groups, in PWS patients GH levels after GHRP-6 did not differ from those obtained after GHRH+PD. Interestingly, low IGF-I values were present in all PWS subjects. Furthermore, no patient with PWS showed normal GH response to the previously performed GH stimulation tests. As already reported, GH release after GHRP-6 or GHRH+PD was significantly lower in OB than in SN subjects. In conclusion, our data indicate that: 1) GH response to GHRP-6 is clearly impaired in PWS; 2) the blunted GH responses to the provocative stimuli in PWS are not an artifact of obesity

  19. Classroom Assessment Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2003-12-01

    and the learner should be carefully observed and monitored. Forrest says that Student Portfolios, which document learning in more detail, seldom reveal how teaching contributes to students' progress. Cerbin further indicates that a course portfolio is essentially, a like a manuscript of scholarly work in progress. In this example, it is a work that explains what, how, and why students learn or do not learn in a course. In this paper, the author reports on a dozen techniques that could perhaps be used to document assessment of student learning. References : Cerbin, W. (1993). Fostering a culture of teaching as scholarship. The Teaching Professor, 7(3), 1-2. Edgerton, R., Hutchings, P., & Quinlan, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio: Capturing the scholarship in teaching. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Forrest, A. (1990). Time will tell: Portfolio-assisted assessment of general education. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Linn, R., Baker, E., & Dunbar, S. (1991). Complex, Performance-based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria. Educational Researcher, 20 (8), 15-21. Narayanan, M. (2003). Assessment in Higher Education: Partnerships in Learning. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Seldin, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio. Bolton, MA: Anker. Young, C. O., Sr., & Young, L. H. (1999). Assessing Learning in Interactive Courses. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 10 (1), 63-76.

  20. Seasonal comparisons of sea ice concentration estimates derived from SSM/I, OKEAN and RADARSAT data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    highly correlated during winter, spring, and fall, with mean differences of less than 8.1% (SD < 15%) for the NASA Team algorithm, and less than 2.8 % (SD < 13.8%) for the Bootstrap algorithm. Respective differences between SSM/I NASA Team and SSM/I Bootstrap total concentrations were less than 5.3% (SD < 6.9%). Monthly mean differences between SSM/I and OKEAN differed annually by less than 6%, with smaller differences primarily in winter. The NASA Team and Bootstrap algorithms underestimated the total sea ice concentrations relative to the RADARSAT ScanSAR no more than 3.0% (SD<9 %) and 1.2% (SD < 7.5%) during cold months, and no more than 12% and 7% during summer, respectively. ScanSAR tended to estimate higher ice concentrations for ice concentrations greater than 50%, when compared to SSM/I during all months. ScanSAR underestimated total sea ice concentration by 2 % compared to the OKEAN-01 algorithm during cold months, and gave an overestimation by 2% during spring and summer months. Total NASA Team and Bootstrap sea ice concentration estimates derived from coincident SSM/I and OKEAN-01 data demonstrated mean differences no more than 5.3 % (SD < 7%), 3.1 % (SD < 5.5%), 2.0% (SD < 5.5%), and 7.3 % (SD < 10%) for fall, winter, spring, and summer periods, respectively. Large disagreements were observed between the OKEAN and NASA Team results in spring and summer for estimates of the first-year and multiyear age classes. The OKEAN-01 algorithm and data tended to estimate, on average, lower concentrations of young or first-year ice and higher concentrations of total and multiyear ice for all months and seasons. Our results contribute to the growing body of documentation about the levels of disparity obtained when seasonal sea ice concentrations are estimated using various types of satellite data and algorithms.

  1. [Using of a specialized fermented soy milk product on the basis of soybeans in cardiology practice].

    PubMed

    Siniavskiĭ, Iu A; Kraĭsman, V A; Suleĭmenova, Zh M

    2013-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the use of a specialized fermented milk product on the basis of soybeans in cardiology practice. 45 patients of both sexes (27 men and 18 women) aged 38 to 69 years (mean age 53.7 +/- 3.1 years) who underwent macrofocal myocardial infarction and abide in the acute period and the period of early rehabilitation have been observed. The data obtained by the comparison of the dynamics of clinical, laboratory and functional parameters in patients, strongly suggests the possibility of increasing the effectiveness of the basic treatment by anti-atherogenic diet with fermented soy drink, enriched with magnesium salts, water-soluble forms of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and selenium. 30-35 day inclusion of a fermented soy-based product in comprehensive treatment was accompanied by a marked lipid lowering effect, compared with the standard anti-atherogenic diet. Total cholesterol level in patients from the intervention group (n = 21) decreased by 36.3 per cent, thus reaching the standard level, the corresponding figure in the control group (n = 24) decreased by 24.7 per cent (the difference is statistically significant). Total number of rhythm and conduction disorders in patients receiving product was 1.43 per patient, while it reached 1.83 per patient on the basic therapy and a standard diet. The vast majority were beats, no cases of ventricular fibrillation and one case of atrioventricular block took place in patients from the experimental group. Paroxysmal and atrial fibrillation in the control group of patients were recorded 2 fold more often than in the main group. In addition, three cases of ventricular fibrillation were reported in patients from the control group. Early usage of soy drink 3 fold reduced the incidence of complications in the 10-14 day from the moment of macrofocal myocardial infarction. The frequency of angina attacks per week per patient more significantly reduced under nutritional support, compared with

  2. Longitudinal changes in adipose tissue of dairy cows from late pregnancy to lactation. Part 2: The SIRT-PPARGC1A axis and its relationship with the adiponectin system.

    PubMed

    Weber, M; Locher, L; Huber, K; Rehage, J; Tienken, R; Meyer, U; Dänicke, S; Webb, L; Sauerwein, H; Mielenz, M

    2016-02-01

    The transition period in dairy cows is characterized by major changes in glucose and adipose tissue metabolism. The Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) PPARγ co-activator 1α (PPARGC1A) axis might be related to the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) system to orchestrate the regulation of these processes. We aimed to assess the mRNA abundance of the aforementioned components in one visceral and one subcutaneous fat depot, together with the ADIPOQ concentrations in serum of dairy cows from late gestation to early lactation. In addition, the effect of 2 diets differing in energy density was tested. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were all kept on the same silage-based diet until d 42 antepartum. From then on until d 1 antepartum, 10 animals each were assigned to either high-concentrate (60:40 concentrate:roughage) or low-concentrate (30:70) diets. Both groups were further subdivided into a control and a niacin group, the latter receiving 24 g/d nicotinic acid from d -42 until d 24. From d 1 postpartum (p.p.) to d 24 p.p., the concentrate portion was increased from 30 to 50% for all cows. Biopsies of subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT) were taken at d -42, 1, 21, and 100 relative to parturition. Blood samples were drawn along with the biopsies as well as on d -21, -14, -7, -3, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 63, 82, and 100 relative to calving. Quantification of target mRNA was done using quantitative PCR and serum ADIPOQ concentration was measured via ELISA. The feeding regimen did not affect the variables examined. Serum ADIPOQ concentrations decreased toward parturition, returned to precalving levels within 1 wk after parturition, and remained on a constant level until the end of the experiment. The mRNA abundance of SIRT1, PPARGC1A, NAMPT, and the ADIPOQ receptors 1 (ADIPOR1) and 2 (ADIPOR2) changed in SCAT and RPAT during the considered time period. Comparing SCAT and RPAT, the mRNA of SIRT1, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 were more abundant in RPAT, whereas PPARGC1A and

  3. Preliminary analysis of relation between natural and anthropic elements in the calanco area of Podere Paiccia (Southern Tuscany - Italy): crowns of mudflow vs. erosion control practices (graticciate) during the period 1989-2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colica, Antonella; Martinelli, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    among numbers of crowns, in high, medium, low areas: 1:3:1), in 1 the number of crowns is greater in the high zones (7:3:1).When graticciate in the medium zones are destroyed, the numbers of crowns in the high zones grow, e.g. in 2, where the graticciate were totally destroyed since 2002, the ratios are before 2002, 2:3:1, after 8:4:1; in 2, since 2002 the numeric rates became similar to those of 1. In low zones in 1 and 2 the number of crowns decreases, while in 3 and 4, since 1989, generally grows during the time. These graticciate have not durable effect due to the lack of maintenance. It is advisable to carry out these erosion control pratices along all slopes and not only in medium and high zones. Using of graticciate vive (living fences) requires less maintenance and cause lower environmental impact. Future study will consist of a detailed monitoring of the current movements in slopes through frontal DEM photogrammetric reconstruction and subsequent intersection by map calculator with high definition DEM from LIDAR.

  4. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-06-30

    . Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was <100 mg/kg for all runs. (4) Foaminess was not an issue using the nominal antifoam addition strategy in these tests. (5) The high aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

  5. Late Cenozoic sedimentation in Pilot Knob Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittase, W. M.; Walker, J. D.; Kirby, E.; Andrew, J.; Wan, E.

    2012-12-01

    In Pilot Knob Valley (PKV), active inversion of a Pliocene-mid Pleistocene basin presents the opportunity to understand the spatial and temporal development of an enigmatic basin astride a major transform boundary in California. Here, a ~1000-m-thick package of exposed Late Cenozoic strata has been uplifted and tilted to the northeast. Based on new age and provenance data, we adopt the name Pilot Knob formation (PKfm) to describe much of these exposed rocks north of the Garlock fault (GF) and east of Christmas Canyon gate. Post-Miocene development of PKV is strongly influenced by the sinistral GF, the newly identified Marine Gate fault (MGF) and dextral Eastern California shear zone. The PKfm consists of three lithofacies members, from base to top: (1) rocks derived from Eagle Crags to the south; (2) Randsburg Wash lacustrine rocks; and (3) an upper member derived from the Slate Range. Tephrochronologic data from four PKfm ash samples brackets deposition of lacustrine Randsburg Wash Member rocks between 3.7-3.1 Ma and lacustrine rocks of the Slate Range Member between 1.2-0.6 Ma. A fifth tephrochronologic sample from lacustrine-distal alluvial sediments south of the GF near Christmas Canyon brackets deposition of a possible PKfm facies at ~3.1 Ma. A 3-stage tectonic model for northern PKV explains changing provenance patterns. Prior to ~3.1 Ma, the western PKV paleo-low lay north of the current GF adjacent to the southern Slate Range and connected to Searles Valley. The MGF cuts adjacent to the southern face of the Slate Range and southern Searles Valley with up to 7.5 km of sinistral oblique-normal slip between ~5-2.5 Ma. Eagle Crags fanglomerate deposition may continue after 3.7 Ma west of the Randsburg Wash-Searles Valley spillway, but these rocks have been eroded away. By ~3.7 Ma, northward progradation of Eagle Crags fanglomerate waned and lacustrine sediments were deposited north of the GF and east of the Randsburg Wash-Searles Valley spillway. At ~3.1 Ma

  6. Physiological responses in nonheat acclimated horses performing treadmill exercise in cool (20 degrees C/40% RH), hot dry (30 degrees C/40% RH) and hot humid (30 degrees C/80% RH) conditions.

    PubMed

    Marlin, D J; Scott, C M; Schroter, R C; Mills, P C; Harris, R C; Harris, P A; Orme, C E; Roberts, C A; Marr, C M; Dyson, S J; Barrelet, F

    1996-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different environmental conditions on physiological response to exercise. Four winter acclimatised, nonheat acclimated horses of different breeds were exercised at 20 degrees C/40% RH (CD), 30 degrees C/40% RH (HD) and 30 degrees C/80% RH (HH). The exercise test was designed to represent the structure and intensity of a One star Speed and Endurance test (competition exercise test [CET]). All 4 horses were able to complete the full CET (60 min + 30 min active recovery) in CD and HD, but only one horse completed the CET in HH. Two horses were stopped because of pronounced general fatigue and one because of a right atrial temperature (TRA) of 43 degrees C. Oxygen uptake on each phase was not different between CD and HD, but was higher during Phases B, C and D in HH. Mean peak TRA at the end of Phase D was 40.3 +/- 0.2, 41.6 +/- 0.4 and 42 +/- 0.3 degrees C for CD, HD and HH, respectively. Corresponding, mean peak rectal temperatures (TREC) following Phase D were 39.5 +/- 0.1, 40.6 +/- 0.1 and 41.5 +/- 0.1 degree C for CD, HD and HH, respectively. Mean time to peak TREC was 9.3 +/- 1.1 (CD), 7.3 +/- 1.8 (HD) and 10.8 +/- 2.3 (HH) min and was not significantly different between conditions (P > 0.05). Heat dissipation amounted to 83 +/- 1, 73 +/- 2 and 70 +/- 1% of heat production in CD, HD and HH, respectively. Weight loss was significantly correlated with both body surface area (CD r = 0.85; HD r = 0.87; HH r = 0.81) and bodyweight (CD r = 0.97; HD r = 0.93; HH r = 0.94). The greatest weight loss recorded was 4.6% bodyweight in one horse in HD. The mean increase in exercise intensity over the whole CET (in terms of VO2) of HD and HH and HH compared with CD was 5 +/- 3 and 14 +/- 3% higher, respectively. The exercise induced hyperthermia and the reduced capacity for heat dissipation produced partial compensatory responses in minute ventilation (VE), particularly during Phase C, when the horses were trotting. In

  7. Seasonal comparisons of sea ice concentration estimates derived from SSM/I, OKEAN, and RADARSAT data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    concentrations derived from OKEAN-01 and SSM/I satellite imagery were highly correlated during winter, spring, and fall, with mean differences of less than 8.1% (S.D. <15%) for the NASA Team algorithm, and less than 2.8% (S.D. <13.8%) for the Bootstrap algorithm. Respective differences between SSM/I NASA Team and SSM/I Bootstrap total concentrations were less than 5.3% (S.D. <6.9%). Monthly mean differences between SSM/I and OKEAN differed annually by less than 6%, with smaller differences primarily in winter. The NASA Team and Bootstrap algorithms underestimated the total sea ice concentrations relative to the RADARSAT ScanSAR no more than 3.0% (S.D. <9%) and 1.2% (S.D. <7.5%) during cold months, and no more than 12% and 7% during summer, respectively. ScanSAR tended to estimate higher ice concentrations for ice concentrations greater than 50%, when compared to SSM/I during all months. ScanSAR underestimated total sea ice concentration by 2% compared to the OKEAN-01 algorithm during cold months, and gave an overestimation by 2% during spring and summer months. Total NASA Team and Bootstrap sea ice concentration estimates derived from coincident SSM/I and OKEAN-01 data demonstrated mean differences of no more than 5.3% (S.D. <7%), 3.1% (S.D. <5.5%), 2.0% (S.D. <5.5%), and 7.3% (S.D. <10%) for fall, winter, spring, and summer periods, respectively. Large disagreements were observed between the OKEAN and NASA Team results in spring and summer for estimates of the first-year (FY) and multiyear (MY) age classes. The OKEAN-01 algorithm and data tended to estimate, on average, lower concentrations of young or FY ice and higher concentrations of total and MY ice for all months and seasons. Our results contribute to the growing body of documentation about the levels of disparity obtained when seasonal sea ice concentrations are estimated using various types of satellite data and algorithms. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Earth's earliest continental lithosphere, hydrothermal flux and crustal recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.

    1993-09-01

    The Kaapvaal craton in southern Africa and the Pilbara craton of northwestern Australia are the largest regions on Earth to have retained relatively pristine mid-Archaean rocks (3.0-4.0 Ga). The Kaapvaal craton covers about 1.2×10 6 km 2, and varies in lithospheric thickness between 170 and 350 km. At surface, the craton can be subdivided into a number of Archaean sub-domains; some of the subdomains are also well defined at depth, and local variations in tomography of the lithosphere correspond closely with subdomain boundaries at surface. The Archaean history of the Kaapvaal craton spans about 1 Gyr and can be conveniently subdivided into two periods, each of about the same length as the Phanerozoic. The first period, from circa 3.7-3.1 Ga, records the initial separation of the cratonic lithosphere from the asthenosphere, terminating with a major pulse of accretion tectonics between 3.2 and 3.1 Ga, which includes the formation of "paired metamorphic belts". This period of continental growth can be compared to plate tectonic processes occurring in modern-day oceanic basins. However, the difference is that in the mid-Archaean, these oceanic processes appear to have occurred in shallower water depths than the modern ocean basins. The second period, from circa 3.1-2.6 Ga, records intra-continental and continental-edge processes: continental growth during this period occurred predominantly through a combination of tectonic accretion of crustal fragments and subduction-related igneous processes, in much the same way as has been documented along the margins of the Pacific and Tethys oceans since the Mesozoic. The intra-oceanic processes resulted in small, but deep-rooted continental nucleii; the first separation of this early continental lithosphere could only have occurred when the mean elevation of mid-oceanicridges sank below sea-level. Substantial recycling of continental lithosphere into the mantle must have occurred during this period of Earth history. During the

  9. Toxic substances from coal combustion -- A comprehensive assessment

    SciTech Connect

    C.L. Senior; T. Panagiotou; F.E. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F Sarofim; J. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowsky; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco

    1999-11-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1999 to 30 September 1999. During this period the MIT INAA procedures were revised to improve the quality of the analytical results. Two steps have been taken to reduce the analytical errors. A new nitric acid leaching procedure, modified from ASTM procedure D2492, section 7.3.1 for determination of pyritic sulfur, was developed by USGS and validated. To date, analytical results have been returned for all but the last complete round of the four-step leaching procedure. USGS analysts in Denver have halted development of the cold vapor atomic fluorescence technique for mercury analysis procedure in favor of a new direct analyzer for Hg that the USGS is in the process of acquiring. Since early June, emphasis at USGS has been placed on microanalysis of clay minerals in project coals in preparation