Science.gov

Sample records for 7-channel imager mounted

  1. Space radar image of Mount Everest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These are two comparison images of Mount Everest and its surroundings, along the border of Nepal and Tibet. The peak of Mount Everest, the highest elevation on Earth at 8,848 meters (29,028 feet), can be seen near the center of each image. The image at the top was acquired through thick cloud cover by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image on the bottom is an optical photograph taken by the Endeavour crew under clear conditions during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR on October 10, 1994. Both images show an area approximately 70 kilometers by 38 kilometers (43 miles by 24 miles) that is centered at 28.0 degrees north latitude and 86.9 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Radar illumination is from the top of the frame. The optical photograph has been geometrically adjusted to better match the area shown in the radar image. Many features of the Himalayan terrain are visible in both images. Snow covered areas appear white in the optical photograph while the same areas appear bright blue in the radar image. The radar image was taken in early spring and shows deep snow cover, while the optical photograph was taken in late summer and shows minimum snow cover. The curving and branching features seen in both images are glaciers. The two wavelengths and multiple polarizations of the SIR-C radar are sensitive to characteristics of the glacier surfaces that are not detected by conventional photography, such as the ice roughness, water content and stratification. For this reason, the glaciers show a variety of colors in the radar image (blue, purple, red

  2. AO corrected satellite imaging from Mount Stromlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennet, F.; Rigaut, F.; Price, I.; Herrald, N.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics have been developing adaptive optics systems for space situational awareness. As part of this program we have developed satellite imaging using compact adaptive optics systems for small (1-2 m) telescopes such as those operated by Electro Optic Systems (EOS) from the Mount Stromlo Observatory. We have focused on making compact, simple, and high performance AO systems using modern high stroke high speed deformable mirrors and EMCCD cameras. We are able to track satellites down to magnitude 10 with a Strehl in excess of 20% in median seeing.

  3. Whole mount nuclear fluorescent imaging: convenient documentation of embryo morphology.

    PubMed

    Sandell, Lisa L; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Trainor, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    Here, we describe a relatively inexpensive and easy method to produce high quality images that reveal fine topological details of vertebrate embryonic structures. The method relies on nuclear staining of whole mount embryos in combination with confocal microscopy or conventional wide field fluorescent microscopy. In cases where confocal microscopy is used in combination with whole mount nuclear staining, the resulting embryo images can rival the clarity and resolution of images produced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescent nuclear staining may be performed with a variety of cell permeable nuclear dyes, enabling the technique to be performed with multiple standard microscope/illumination or confocal/laser systems. The method may be used to document morphology of embryos of a variety of organisms, as well as individual organs and tissues. Nuclear stain imaging imposes minimal impact on embryonic specimens, enabling imaged specimens to be utilized for additional assays.

  4. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.

    But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural process

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar

  5. Image-guided surgical microscope with mounted minitracker.

    PubMed

    Caversaccio, M; Garcia-Giraldez, J; Gonzalez-Ballester, M; Marti, G

    2007-02-01

    A new image-guided microscope using augmented reality overlays has been developed. Unlike other systems, the novelty of our design consists in mounting a precise mini and low-cost tracker directly on the microscope to track the motion of the surgical tools and the patient. Correctly scaled cut-views of the pre-operative computed tomography (CT) stack can be displayed on the overlay, orthogonal to the optical view or even including the direction of a clinical tool. Moreover, the system can manage three-dimensional models for tumours or bone structures and allows interaction with them using virtual tools, showing trajectories and distances. The mean error of the overlay was 0.7 mm. Clinical accuracy has shown results of 1.1-1.8 mm.

  6. Flight instruments and helmet-mounted SWIR imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tim; Green, John; Jacobson, Mickey; Grabski, Greg

    2011-06-01

    Night vision technology has experienced significant advances in the last two decades. Night vision goggles (NVGs) based on gallium arsenide (GaAs) continues to raise the bar for alternative technologies. Resolution, gain, sensitivity have all improved; the image quality through these devices is nothing less than incredible. Panoramic NVGs and enhanced NVGs are examples of recent advances that increase the warfighter capabilities. Even with these advances, alternative night vision devices such as solid-state indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) focal plane arrays are under development for helmet-mounted imaging systems. The InGaAs imaging system offers advantages over the existing NVGs. Two key advantages are; (1) the new system produces digital image data, and (2) the new system is sensitive to energy in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectrum. While it is tempting to contrast the performance of these digital systems to the existing NVGs, the advantage of different spectral detection bands leads to the conclusion that the technologies are less competitive and more synergistic. It is likely, by the end of the decade, pilots within a cockpit will use multi-band devices. As such, flight decks will need to be compatible with both NVGs and SWIR imaging systems. Insertion of NVGs in aircraft during the late 70's and early 80's resulted in many "lessons learned" concerning instrument compatibility with NVGs. These "lessons learned" ultimately resulted in specifications such as MIL-L-85762A and MIL-STD-3009. These specifications are now used throughout industry to produce NVG-compatible illuminated instruments and displays for both military and civilian applications. Inserting a SWIR imaging device in a cockpit will require similar consideration. A project evaluating flight deck instrument compatibility with SWIR devices is currently ongoing; aspects of this evaluation are described in this paper. This project is sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL).

  7. Space Radar Image of Mount Pinatubo Volcano, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These are color composite radar images showing the area around Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. The images were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 (left image) and October 5,1994 (right image). The images are centered at about 15 degrees north latitude and 120.5 degrees east longitude. Both images were obtained with the same viewing geometry. The color composites were made by displaying the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in green; and the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in blue. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 65 kilometers (25 miles by 40 miles). The main volcanic crater on Mount Pinatubo produced by the June 1991 eruptions and the steep slopes on the upper flanks of the volcano are easily seen in these images. Red on the high slopes shows the distribution of the ash deposited during the 1991 eruption, which appears red because of the low cross-polarized radar returns at C and L bands. The dark drainages radiating away from the summit are the smooth mudflows, which even three years after the eruptions continue to flood the river valleys after heavy rain. Comparing the two images shows that significant changes have occurred in the intervening five months along the Pasig-Potrero rivers (the dark area in the lower right of the images). Mudflows, called 'lahars,' that occurred during the 1994 monsoon season filled the river valleys, allowing the lahars to spread over the surrounding countryside. Three weeks before the second image was obtained, devastating lahars more than doubled the area affected in the Pasig-Potrero rivers, which is clearly visible as the increase in dark area on the lower right of the images. Migration of deposition to the east (right) has affected many communities. Newly affected areas included the community

  8. Advanced imaging techniques II: using a compound microscope for photographing point-mount specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital imaging technology has revolutionized the practice photographing insects for scientific study. Herein described are lighting and mounting techniques designed for imaging micro Hymenoptera. Techniques described here are applicable to all small insects, as well as other invertebrates. The ke...

  9. Imaging the Mount St. Helens Magmatic Systems using Magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, G. J.; Caldwell, T. G.; Heise, W.; Bibby, H. M.; Chertkoff, D. G.; Burgess, M. K.; Cull, J. P.; Cas, R. A.

    2009-05-01

    A detailed magnetotelluric survey of Mount St. Helens shows that a conduit like zone of high electrical conductivity beneath the volcano is connected to a larger zone of high conductivity at 15 km depth that extends eastward to Mount Adams. We interpret this zone to be a region of connected melt that acts as the reservoir for the silicic magma being extruded at the time of the magnetotelluric survey. This interpretation is consistent with a mid-crustal origin for the silicic component of the Mount St. Helens' magmas and provides an elegant explanation for a previously unexplained feature of the seismicity observed at the time of the catastrophic eruption in 1980. This zone of high mid-crustal conductivity extends northwards to near Mount Rainier suggesting a single region of connected melt comparable in size to the largest silicic volcanic systems known.

  10. Radiation correction method for infrared polarization imaging system with front-mounted polarizer.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Jin, Weiqi; Xia, Runqiu; Li, Li; Wang, Xia

    2016-11-14

    The architecture of imaging polarimeters with front-mounted polarizer generally used in infrared imaging polarimetry has significant influence on the imaging process of the systems and further calculation of the polarization information of the observed scenario. In this study, the imaging process of infrared polarization imaging system with front-mounted polarizer is analyzed, a radiation correction method based on the modified infrared imaging model of such a system is proposed, and both laboratory and outdoor experiments are performed to verify its effect. Experimental results show that the proposed correction method can effectively eliminate the adverse effects of the radiation introduced by front-mounted polarizer, which significantly reduces scene radiation measurement error and improves the calculation accuracy of the polarization information.

  11. Advanced astigmatism-corrected tandem Wadsworth mounting for small-scale spectral broadband imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Lin, Guan-yu

    2013-01-01

    Tandem gratings of double-dispersion mount make it possible to design an imaging spectrometer for the weak light observation with high spatial resolution, high spectral resolution, and high optical transmission efficiency. The traditional tandem Wadsworth mounting is originally designed to match the coaxial telescope and large-scale imaging spectrometer. When it is used to connect the off-axis telescope such as off-axis parabolic mirror, it presents lower imaging quality than to connect the coaxial telescope. It may also introduce interference among the detector and the optical elements as it is applied to the short focal length and small-scale spectrometer in a close volume by satellite. An advanced tandem Wadsworth mounting has been investigated to deal with the situation. The Wadsworth astigmatism-corrected mounting condition for which is expressed as the distance between the second concave grating and the imaging plane is calculated. Then the optimum arrangement for the first plane grating and the second concave grating, which make the anterior Wadsworth condition fulfilling each wavelength, is analyzed by the geometric and first order differential calculation. These two arrangements comprise the advanced Wadsworth mounting condition. The spectral resolution has also been calculated by these conditions. An example designed by the optimum theory proves that the advanced tandem Wadsworth mounting performs excellently in spectral broadband.

  12. 3D imaging of magnetic particles using the 7-channel magnetoencephalography device without pre-magnetization or displacement of the sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpov, M. A.; Ustinin, M. N.; Rykunov, S. D.; Yurenya, A. Y.; Naurzakov, S. P.; Grebenkin, A. P.; Panchenko, V. Y.

    2017-04-01

    SQUID-based magnetoencephalography device was used for the measurement of a magnetic noise generated by ferrofluid in the stationary standing vial. It was found that a free surface of the ferrofluid generates spontaneous magnetic field sufficient to detect the presence of nanoparticles in the experimental setup. The spatial distribution of elementary magnetic sources was reconstructed by the frequency-pattern analysis of multichannel time series. The localization of ferrofluids was performed based on the analysis of quasirandom time series in two cases of oscillation source. One of them was infrasound from outer noise, and another one was the human heartbeat. These results are prospective for 3D imaging of magnetic particles without pre-magnetization.

  13. Whole-mount imaging demonstrates hypervascularity of the pancreatic ducts and other pancreatic structures.

    PubMed

    El-Gohary, Yousef; Tulachan, Sidhartha; Branca, Maria; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Guo, Ping; Prasadan, Krishna; Shiota, Chiyo; Gittes, George K

    2012-03-01

    Confocal microscopy in combination with commercial software is frequently used to generate three-dimensional images of tissue architecture. Here we report a novel, whole-mount imaging protocol technique that allows detailed three-dimensional imaging of adult pancreatic structures. This technique provides an improved appreciation of the anatomical detail of pancreatic structures and of the relationship between the pancreatic ducts and islets. In addition, imaging of the pancreatic ducts revealed a previously unappreciated high degree of hypervascularity.

  14. Seismic image of the Mount Spurr magmatic system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, J.A.; Villasenor, A.; Benz, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    The three-dimenisonal P-wave velocity structure of Moutn Spurr is determined to depths of 10km by tomographic inversion of 3754 first-arriving P-wave times from local earthquakes recorded by a permanent network of 11 seismographs. Results show a prominent low-velocity zone extending from the surface to 3-4km below sea level beneath the southeastern flank of Crater Peak, spatially coincident with a geothermal system. P-wave velocities in this low-velocity zone are approximately 20% slower than those in the shallow crystalline basement rocks. Beneath Crater Peak an approximately 3km-wide zone of relative low velocities correlates with a near-vertical band of seismicity, suggestive of a magmatic conduit. No large low-velocity zone indicative of a magma chamber occurs within the upper 10km of the crust. These observations are consistent with petrologic and geochemical studies suggesting that Crater Peak magmas originate in the lower crust or upper mantle and have s short residence time in the shallow crust. Earthquakes relocaetd using the three-dimensional velocity structure correlate well with surface geology and other geophysical observations; thus, they provide additional constraints on the kinematics of the Mount Spurr magmatic system.

  15. Mounting of Escherichia coli spheroplasts for AFM imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Claretta J; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Allison, David P; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2005-11-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the location of numerous, chemically specific transporters and recognition elements. Investigation of this membrane in vivo by atomic force microscopy (AFM) requires removal of the cell wall and stable immobilization of the spheroplast. AFM images demonstrate that spheroplasts can be secured with warm gelatin applied to the mica substrate just before the addition of a spheroplast suspension. The resulting preparation can be repeatedly imaged by AFM over the course of several hours. Confocal fluorescence imaging confirms the association of the spheroplasts with the gelatin layer. Gelatin molecules are known to reorder into a network after heating. Entrapment within this gelatin network is believed to be responsible for the immobilization of spheroplasts on mica.

  16. Stable flexure mounting of a MEMS deformable mirror for the GPI Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Alexis; Erickson, Darren; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Bierden, Paul; Cornelissen, Steven; Palmer, Dave

    2008-07-01

    Small deformable mirrors (DMs) produced using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques have been used in thermally stable, bench-top laboratory environments. With advances in MEMS DM technology, a variety of field applications are becoming more common, such as the Gemini Planet Imager's (GPI) adaptive optics system. Instruments at the Gemini Observatory operate in conditions where fluctuating ambient temperature, varying gravity orientations and humidity and dust can have a significant affect on DM performance. As such, it is crucial that the mechanical design of the MEMS DM be tailored to the environment. GPI's approach has been to mount the MEMS DM using high performance optical mounting techniques rather than a typical laboratory set-up. This paper discusses the design of the opto-mechanical mounting scheme for a 4096 actuator MEMS DM, developed by Boston Micromachines Corporation for use in the GPI adaptive optics system. Flexures have been incorporated into the DM mount to reduce deformations on the optical surface due to thermal fluctuations. These flexures have also been sized to maintain alignment under varying gravity vector orientations. Finally, a system for environmentally sealing the mirror has been designed to prevent degradation due to humidity effects. A plan for testing the mechanical mount to ensure that it meets GPI's performance and environmental requirements is also presented.

  17. 47 CFR 95.7 - Channel sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel sharing. 95.7 Section 95.7... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.7 Channel sharing. (a) Channels or channel pairs (one 462... and use of channels to reduce interference and to make the most effective use of the facilities....

  18. 47 CFR 95.7 - Channel sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel sharing. 95.7 Section 95.7... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.7 Channel sharing. (a) Channels or channel pairs (one 462... and use of channels to reduce interference and to make the most effective use of the facilities....

  19. Image enhancement and color constancy for a vehicle-mounted change detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tektonidis, Marco; Monnin, David

    2016-10-01

    Vehicle-mounted change detection systems allow to improve situational awareness on outdoor itineraries of inter- est. Since the visibility of acquired images is often affected by illumination effects (e.g., shadows) it is important to enhance local contrast. For the analysis and comparison of color images depicting the same scene at different time points it is required to compensate color and lightness inconsistencies caused by the different illumination conditions. We have developed an approach for image enhancement and color constancy based on the center/surround Retinex model and the Gray World hypothesis. The combination of the two methods using a color processing function improves color rendition, compared to both methods. The use of stacked integral images (SII) allows to efficiently perform local image processing. Our combined Retinex/Gray World approach has been successfully applied to image sequences acquired on outdoor itineraries at different time points and a comparison with previous Retinex-based approaches has been carried out.

  20. Multilayer mounting enables long-term imaging of zebrafish development in a light sheet microscope.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Anna; Mickoleit, Michaela; Weber, Michael; Huisken, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Light sheet microscopy techniques, such as selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), are ideally suited for time-lapse imaging of developmental processes lasting several hours to a few days. The success of this promising technology has mainly been limited by the lack of suitable techniques for mounting fragile samples. Embedding zebrafish embryos in agarose, which is common in conventional confocal microscopy, has resulted in severe growth defects and unreliable results. In this study, we systematically quantified the viability and mobility of zebrafish embryos mounted under more suitable conditions. We found that tubes made of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) filled with low concentrations of agarose or methylcellulose provided an optimal balance between sufficient confinement of the living embryo in a physiological environment over 3 days and optical clarity suitable for fluorescence imaging. We also compared the effect of different concentrations of Tricaine on the development of zebrafish and provide guidelines for its optimal use depending on the application. Our results will make light sheet microscopy techniques applicable to more fields of developmental biology, in particular the multiview long-term imaging of zebrafish embryos and other small organisms. Furthermore, the refinement of sample preparation for in toto and in vivo imaging will promote other emerging optical imaging techniques, such as optical projection tomography (OPT).

  1. Optimized SIFTFlow for registration of whole-mount histology to reference optical images.

    PubMed

    Shojaii, Rushin; Martel, Anne L

    2016-10-01

    The registration of two-dimensional histology images to reference images from other modalities is an important preprocessing step in the reconstruction of three-dimensional histology volumes. This is a challenging problem because of the differences in the appearances of histology images and other modalities, and the presence of large nonrigid deformations which occur during slide preparation. This paper shows the feasibility of using densely sampled scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features and a SIFTFlow deformable registration algorithm for coregistering whole-mount histology images with blockface optical images. We present a method for jointly optimizing the regularization parameters used by the SIFTFlow objective function and use it to determine the most appropriate values for the registration of breast lumpectomy specimens. We demonstrate that tuning the regularization parameters results in significant improvements in accuracy and we also show that SIFTFlow outperforms a previously described edge-based registration method. The accuracy of the histology images to blockface images registration using the optimized SIFTFlow method was assessed using an independent test set of images from five different lumpectomy specimens and the mean registration error was [Formula: see text].

  2. Comparison between skin-mounted fiducials and bone-implanted fiducials for image-guided neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, Jennifer; Harris, Steven S.; Stefansic, James D.; Sillay, Karl; Galloway, Robert L., Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Point-based registration for image-guided neurosurgery has become the industry standard. While the use of intrinsic points is appealing because of its retrospective nature, affixing extrinsic objects to the head prior to scanning has been demonstrated to provide much more accurate registrations. Points of reference between image space and physical space are called fiducials. The extrinsic objects which generate those points are fiducial markers. The markers can be broken down into two classifications: skin-mounted and bone-implanted. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages. Skin-mounted fiducials require simply sticking them on the patient in locations suggested by the manufacturer, however, they can move with tractions placed on the skin, fall off and perhaps the most dangerous problem, they can be replaced by the patient. Bone implanted markers being rigidly affixed to the skull do not present such problems. However, a minor surgical intervention (analogous to dental work) must be performed to implant the markers prior to surgery. Therefore marker type and use has become a decision point for image-guided surgery. We have performed a series of experiments in an attempt to better quantify aspects of the two types of markers so that better informed decisions can be made. We have created a phantom composed of a full-size plastic skull [Wards Scientific Supply] with a 500 ml bag of saline placed in the brain cavity. The skull was then sealed. A skin mimicking material, DragonSkinTM [SmoothOn Company] was painted onto the surface and allowed to dry. Skin mounted fiducials [Medtronic-SNT] and bone-implanted markers [Z-Kat]were placed on the phantom. In addition, three additional bone-implanted markers were placed (two on the base of the skull and one in the eye socket for use as targets). The markers were imaged in CT and 4 MRI sequences (T1-weighted, T2 weighted, SPGR, and a functional series.) The markers were also located in physical space using an Optotrak

  3. Airborne thermal infrared imaging of the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. J.; Vallance, J. W.; Logan, M.; Wessels, R.; Ramsey, M.

    2005-12-01

    A helicopter-mounted forward-looking infrared imaging radiometer (FLIR) documented the explosive and effusive activity at Mount St. Helens during the 2004-2005 eruption. A gyrostabilzed gimbal controlled by a crew member houses the FLIR radiometer and an optical video camera attached at the lower front of the helicopter. Since October 1, 2004 the system has provided an unprecedented data set of thermal and video dome-growth observations. Flights were conducted as frequently as twice daily during the initial month of the eruption (when changes in the crater and dome occurred rapidly), and have been continued on a tri-weekly basis during the period of sustained dome growth. As with any new technology, the routine use of FLIR images to aid in volcano monitoring has been a learning experience in terms of observation strategy and data interpretation. Some of the unique information that has been derived from these data to date include: 1) Rapid identification of the phreatic nature of the early explosive phase; 2) Observation of faulting and associated heat flow during times of large scale deformation; 3) Venting of hot gas through a short lived crater lake, indicative of a shallow magma source; 4) Increased heat flow of the crater floor prior to the initial dome extrusion; 5) Confirmation of new magma reaching the surface; 6) Identification of the source of active lava extrusion, dome collapse, and block and ash flows. Temperatures vary from ambient, in areas insulated by fault gouge and talus produced during extrusion, to as high as 500-740 degrees C in regions of active extrusion, collapse, and fracturing. This temperature variation needs to be accounted for in the retrieval of eruption parameters using satellite-based techniques as such features are sub-pixel size in satellite images.

  4. A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2014-06-02

    An optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD), which enables optical superposition of digital information onto the direct view of the physical world and maintains see-through vision to the real world, is a vital component in an augmented reality (AR) system. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art OST-HMD technology is the well-known accommodation-convergence mismatch problem caused by the fact that the image source in most of the existing AR displays is a 2D flat surface located at a fixed distance from the eye. In this paper, we present an innovative approach to OST-HMD designs by combining the recent advancement of freeform optical technology and microscopic integral imaging (micro-InI) method. A micro-InI unit creates a 3D image source for HMD viewing optics, instead of a typical 2D display surface, by reconstructing a miniature 3D scene from a large number of perspective images of the scene. By taking advantage of the emerging freeform optical technology, our approach will result in compact, lightweight, goggle-style AR display that is potentially less vulnerable to the accommodation-convergence discrepancy problem and visual fatigue. A proof-of-concept prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, and true 3D virtual display.

  5. Fixed mount wavefront sensor

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    A rigid mount and method of mounting for a wavefront sensor. A wavefront dissector, such as a lenslet array, is rigidly mounted at a fixed distance relative to an imager, such as a CCD camera, without need for a relay imaging lens therebetween.

  6. Design of an automated cart and mount for a hyperspectral imaging system to be used in produce fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefcourt, Alan M.; Kistler, Ross; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this project was to construct a cart and a mounting system that would allow a hyperspectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system (HLIFIS) to be used to detect fecal material in produce fields. Fecal contaminated produce is a recognized food safety risk. Previous research demonstrated the HLIFIS could detect fecal contamination in a laboratory setting. A cart was designed and built, and then tested to demonstrate that the cart was capable of moving at constant speeds or at precise intervals. A mounting system was designed and built to facilitate the critical alignment of the camera's imaging and the laser's illumination fields, and to allow the HLIFIS to be used in both field and laboratory settings without changing alignments. A hardened mount for the Powell lens that is used to produce the appropriate illumination profile was also designed, built, and tested.

  7. Curiosity’s robotic arm-mounted Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI): Characterization and calibration status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ravine, Michael A.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; McNair, Sean; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Duston, Brian M.; Wilson, Reg G.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Kennedy, Megan R.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Supulver, Kimberley D.; Lipkaman, Leslie J.; Krezoski, Gillian M.; McBride, Marie J.; Jones, Tessa L.; Nixon, Brian E.; Van Beek, Jason K.; Krysak, Daniel J.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    2015-01-01

    MAHLI (Mars Hand Lens Imager) is a 2-megapixel, Bayer pattern color CCD camera with a macro lens mounted on a rotatable turret at the end of the 2-meters-long robotic arm aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. The camera includes white and longwave ultraviolet LEDs to illuminate targets at night. Onboard data processing services include focus stack merging and data compression. Here we report on the results and status of MAHLI characterization and calibration, covering the pre-launch period from August 2008 through the early months of the extended surface mission through February 2015. Since landing in Gale crater in August 2012, MAHLI has been used for a wide range of science and engineering applications, including distinction among a variety of mafic, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks; investigation of grain-scale rock, regolith, and eolian sediment textures and structures; imaging of the landscape; inspection and monitoring of rover and science instrument hardware concerns; and supporting geologic sample selection, extraction, analysis, delivery, and documentation. The camera has a dust cover and focus mechanism actuated by a single stepper motor. The transparent cover was coated with a thin film of dust during landing, thus MAHLI is usually operated with the cover open. The camera focuses over a range from a working distance of 2.04 cm to infinity; the highest resolution images are at 13.9 µm per pixel; images acquired from 6.9 cm show features at the same scale as the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imagers at 31 µm/pixel; and 100 µm/pixel is achieved at a working distance of ~26.5 cm. The very highest resolution images returned from Mars permit distinction of high contrast silt grains in the 30–40 µm size range. MAHLI has performed well; the images need no calibration in order to achieve most of the investigation’s science and engineering goals. The positioning and repeatability of robotic arm placement of the MAHLI camera head have

  8. VP Structure of Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA, imaged with local earthquake tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, G.P.; Moran, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new P-wave velocity model for Mount St. Helens using local earthquake data recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Stations and Cascades Volcano Observatory since the 18 May 1980 eruption. These data were augmented with records from a dense array of 19 temporary stations deployed during the second half of 2005. Because the distribution of earthquakes in the study area is concentrated beneath the volcano and within two nearly linear trends, we used a graded inversion scheme to compute a coarse-grid model that focused on the regional structure, followed by a fine-grid inversion to improve spatial resolution directly beneath the volcanic edifice. The coarse-grid model results are largely consistent with earlier geophysical studies of the area; we find high-velocity anomalies NW and NE of the edifice that correspond with igneous intrusions and a prominent low-velocity zone NNW of the edifice that corresponds with the linear zone of high seismicity known as the St. Helens Seismic Zone. This low-velocity zone may continue past Mount St. Helens to the south at depths below 5??km. Directly beneath the edifice, the fine-grid model images a low-velocity zone between about 2 and 3.5??km below sea level that may correspond to a shallow magma storage zone. And although the model resolution is poor below about 6??km, we found low velocities that correspond with the aseismic zone between about 5.5 and 8??km that has previously been modeled as the location of a large magma storage volume. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Design of an automated cart and mount for a hyperspectral imaging system to be used in produce fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project was to construct a cart and a mounting system that would allow a hyperspectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system (HLIFIS) to be used to detect fecal material in produce fields. Fecal contaminated produce is a recognized food safety risk. Previous research demonstrate...

  10. Body-mounted robotic instrument guide for image-guided cryotherapy of renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Nobuhiko; Song, Sang-Eun; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Arimitsu, Yasumichi; Fujimoto, Kosuke; Kato, Takahisa; Tuncali, Kemal; Tani, Soichiro; Tokuda, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Image-guided cryotherapy of renal cancer is an emerging alternative to surgical nephrectomy, particularly for those who cannot sustain the physical burden of surgery. It is well known that the outcome of this therapy depends on the accurate placement of the cryotherapy probe. Therefore, a robotic instrument guide may help physicians aim the cryotherapy probe precisely to maximize the efficacy of the treatment and avoid damage to critical surrounding structures. The objective of this paper was to propose a robotic instrument guide for orienting cryotherapy probes in image-guided cryotherapy of renal cancers. The authors propose a body-mounted robotic guide that is expected to be less susceptible to guidance errors caused by the patient’s whole body motion. Methods: Keeping the device’s minimal footprint in mind, the authors developed and validated a body-mounted, robotic instrument guide that can maintain the geometrical relationship between the device and the patient’s body, even in the presence of the patient’s frequent body motions. The guide can orient the cryotherapy probe with the skin incision point as the remote-center-of-motion. The authors’ validation studies included an evaluation of the mechanical accuracy and position repeatability of the robotic instrument guide. The authors also performed a mock MRI-guided cryotherapy procedure with a phantom to compare the advantage of robotically assisted probe replacements over a free-hand approach, by introducing organ motions to investigate their effects on the accurate placement of the cryotherapy probe. Measurements collected for performance analysis included accuracy and time taken for probe placements. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess if either or both organ motion and the robotic guide impacted these measurements. Results: The mechanical accuracy and position repeatability of the probe placement using the robotic instrument guide were 0.3 and 0.1 mm, respectively, at a depth

  11. Monitoring eruptive activity at Mount St. Helens with TIR image data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, R.G.; Hook, S.J.; Ramsey, M.S.; Realmuto, V.J.; Schneider, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) data from the MASTER airborne imaging spectrometer were acquired over Mount St. Helens in Sept and Oct, 2004, before and after the onset of recent eruptive activity. Pre-eruption data showed no measurable increase in surface temperatures before the first phreatic eruption on Oct 1. MASTER data acquired during the initial eruptive episode on Oct 14 showed maximum temperatures of ???330??C and TIR data acquired concurrently from a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) camera showed maximum temperatures ???675??C, in narrow (???1-m) fractures of molten rock on a new resurgent dome. MASTER and FLIR thermal flux calculations indicated a radiative cooling rate of ???714 J/m2/S over the new dome, corresponding to a radiant power of ???24 MW. MASTER data indicated the new dome was dacitic in composition, and digital elevation data derived from LIDAR acquired concurrently with MASTER showed that the dome growth correlated with the areas of elevated temperatures. Low SO2 concentrations in the plume combined with sub-optimal viewing conditions prohibited quantitative measurement of plume SO2. The results demonstrate that airborne TIR data can provide information on the temperature of both the surface and plume and the composition of new lava during eruptive episodes. Given sufficient resources, the airborne instrumentation could be deployed rapidly to a newly-awakening volcano and provide a means for remote volcano monitoring. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Monitoring Eruptive Activity at Mount St. Helens with TIR Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Hook, S. J.; Ramsey, M. S.; Realmuto, V. J.; Schneider, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) data from the MASTER airborne imaging spectrometer were acquired over Mount St. Helens in Sept and Oct, 2004, before and after the onset of recent eruptive activity. Pre-eruption data showed no measurable increase in surface temperatures before the first phreatic eruption on Oct 1. MASTER data acquired during the initial eruptive episode on Oct 14 showed maximum temperatures of similar to approximately 330 C and TIR data acquired concurrently from a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) camera showed maximum temperatures similar to approximately 675 C, in narrow (approximately 1-m) fractures of molten rock on a new resurgent dome. MASTER and FLIR thermal flux calculations indicated a radiative cooling rate of approximately 714 J/m(exp 2)/s over the new dome, corresponding to a radiant power of approximately 24 MW. MASTER data indicated the new dome was dacitic in composition, and digital elevation data derived from LIDAR acquired concurrently with MASTER showed that the dome growth correlated with the areas of elevated temperatures. Low SO2 concentrations in the plume combined with sub-optimal viewing conditions prohibited quantitative measurement of plume SO2. The results demonstrate that airborne TIR data can provide information on the temperature of both the surface and plume and the composition of new lava during eruptive episodes. Given sufficient resources, the airborne instrumentation could be deployed rapidly to a newly-awakening volcano and provide a means for remote volcano monitoring.

  13. Subsurface Imaging at Mount St. Helens with a Large-N Geophone Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. M.; Schmandt, B.; Levander, A.; Kiser, E.; Vidale, J. E.; Moran, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The 900-instrument Mount St. Helens nodal array recorded continuous data for approximately two weeks in the summer of 2014 and provides a remarkable opportunity to interrogate the structure beneath an active arc volcano. Two separate imaging techniques are applied to constrain both the distribution of microseismicity and subsurface velocity structure. Reverse-time source imaging is applied to the 10 km3 region beneath the volcanic edifice where most of cataloged seismicity occurred during the experiment. These efforts resulted in an order of magnitude increase in earthquake detections over the normal monitoring operations of the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. Earthquake locations resolve a narrow, ≤1 km wide, vertical lineament of seismicity that extends from the surface to 4 km depth directly beneath the summit crater, consistent with the historical event distribution of Waite and Moran[2009]. This feature is interpreted as a fracture network that acts as a conduit connecting an underlying magma chamber to the surface. Moho imaging is achieved using the near-offset (< 30 km) PmP phase generated by the iMUSH active source shots that occurred during the deployment. The PmP arrivals are enhanced using short-term-average over long-term-average processing and then migrated using a 3D velocity model. The observed Moho depths range from 35-40 km with a slight eastward deepening across the Mt St Helens fracture zone. Significant variations are observed in the Moho reflectivity. Large amplitude PmP energy is observed in shots originating from the north and east whereas shots from the south-west display little-to-no PmP energy. The region above the reflective Moho is approximately coincident with areas displaying reduced lower-crustal velocities in the initial iMUSH tomography models and may therefore contain fluids and/or partial melt. Additional evidence for lower crustal fluids in this region is provided by deep-long-period (DLP) events which have historically been

  14. Disposable patient-mounted geared robot for image-guided needle insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Charles; Kato, Takahisa; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Patient-mounted robotic needle guidance is an emerging method of needle insertion in percutaneous ablation therapies. During needle insertion, patient-mounted robots can account for patient body movement, unlike gantry or floor mounted devices, and still increase the accuracy and precision of needle placement. Patient-mounted robots, however, require repeated sterilisation, which is often a difficult process with complex devices; overcoming this challenge is therefore key to the success of a patient mounted robot. To eliminate the need for repeated sterilization, we have developed a disposable patient-mounted robot with two rings as a kinematic structure: an angled upper ring both rotates and revolves about the lower ring. Using this structure, the robot has a clinically suitable range of needle insertion angles with a remote center of motion. To achieve disposability, our structure applies a disposable gear transmission component which detachably interfaces with non-disposable driving motors. With a manually driven prototype of the gear trains, we assessed whether the kinematic structure of the two rings can be operated only by using input pinions locating at outside of the kinematic structure. Our tests confirmed that the input pinions were able to rotate both upper and lower rings independently. We also determined a linear relationship of rotation transmission with the gear trains and determined that the rotation transmission between the pinions and the two rings were within 3 % of error from the designed value. Our robot introduces a novel approach to patient-mounted robots, and has potential to enable sterile and accurate needle guidance in percutaneous ablation therapies.

  15. Integrated image monitoring system using head-mounted display for gasless single-port clampless partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kazunori; Saito, Kazutaka; Komai, Yoshinobu; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-12-01

    A novel head-mounted display (HMD) offers a higher quality of endoscopic imagery in front of the eyes regardless of head position. We present an application of the HMD system as a personal integrated multi-image monitoring system in gasless single-port clampless partial nephrectomy (PN). Our HMD system displayed multiple forms of information as integrated, sharp, high-contrast images both seamlessly and synchronously using a four-split screen. The surgeon wearing an HMD display could continuously and simultaneously monitor the endoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) video and intraoperative ultrasound images. In addition, the operator can rotate the 3D video image using fingertip movements on the finger tracking system. All two clampless partial nephrectomies were safely completed within the operative time, blood loss was within usual limits and there were no complications. The integrated image HMD system might facilitate maneuverability and safety in minimally invasive clampless PN.

  16. The preliminary results: Internal seismic velocity structure imaging beneath Mount Lokon

    SciTech Connect

    Firmansyah, Rizky; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Kristianto

    2015-04-24

    Historical records that before the 17{sup th} century, Mount Lokon had been dormant for approximately 400 years. In the years between 1350 and 1400, eruption ever recorded in Empung, came from Mount Lokon’s central crater. Subsequently, in 1750 to 1800, Mount Lokon continued to erupt again and caused soil damage and fall victim. After 1949, Mount Lokon dramatically increased in its frequency: the eruption interval varies between 1 – 5 years, with an average interval of 3 years and a rest interval ranged from 8 – 64 years. Then, on June 26{sup th}, 2011, standby alert set by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. Peak activity happened on July 4{sup th}, 2011 that Mount Lokon erupted continuously until August 28{sup th}, 2011. In this study, we carefully analyzed micro-earthquakes waveform and determined hypocenter location of those events. We then conducted travel time seismic tomographic inversion using SIMULPS12 method to detemine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio structures beneath Lokon volcano in order to enhance our subsurface geological structure. During the tomographic inversion, we started from 1-D seismic velocities model obtained from VELEST33 method. Our preliminary results show low Vp, low Vs, and high Vp/Vs are observed beneath Mount Lokon-Empung which are may be associated with weak zone or hot material zones. However, in this study we used few station for recording of micro-earthquake events. So, we suggest in the future tomography study, the adding of some seismometers in order to improve ray coverage in the region is profoundly justified.

  17. Kv7 Channels Can Function without Constitutive Calmodulin Tethering

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, Araitz; Alaimo, Alessandro; Etxeberría, Ainhoa; Fernández-Orth, Juncal; Zamalloa, Teresa; Roura-Ferrer, Meritxell; Villace, Patricia; Areso, Pilar; Casis, Oscar; Villarroel, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    M-channels are voltage-gated potassium channels composed of Kv7.2-7.5 subunits that serve as important regulators of neuronal excitability. Calmodulin binding is required for Kv7 channel function and mutations in Kv7.2 that disrupt calmodulin binding cause Benign Familial Neonatal Convulsions (BFNC), a dominantly inherited human epilepsy. On the basis that Kv7.2 mutants deficient in calmodulin binding are not functional, calmodulin has been defined as an auxiliary subunit of Kv7 channels. However, we have identified a presumably phosphomimetic mutation S511D that permits calmodulin-independent function. Thus, our data reveal that constitutive tethering of calmodulin is not required for Kv7 channel function. PMID:21980481

  18. KV7 channels are involved in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation of porcine coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hedegaard, E R; Nielsen, B D; Kun, A; Hughes, A D; Krøigaard, C; Mogensen, S; Matchkov, V V; Fröbert, O; Simonsen, U

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hypoxia causes vasodilatation of coronary arteries, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that hypoxia reduces intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by opening of K channels and release of H2S. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Porcine coronary arteries without endothelium were mounted for measurement of isometric tension and [Ca2+]i, and the expression of voltage-gated K channels KV7 channels (encoded by KCNQ genes) and large-conductance calcium-activated K channels (KCa1.1) was examined. Voltage clamp assessed the role of KV7 channels in hypoxia. KEY RESULTS Gradual reduction of oxygen concentration from 95 to 1% dilated the precontracted coronary arteries and this was associated with reduced [Ca2+]i in PGF2α (10 μM)-contracted arteries whereas no fall in [Ca2+]i was observed in 30 mM K-contracted arteries. Blockers of ATP-sensitive voltage-gated potassium channels and KCa1.1 inhibited hypoxia-induced dilatation in PGF2α-contracted arteries; this inhibition was more marked in the presence of the Kv7 channel blockers, XE991 and linopirdine, while a KV7.1 blocker, failed to change hypoxic vasodilatation. XE991 also inhibited H2S- and adenosine-induced vasodilatation. PCR revealed the expression of KV7.1, KV7.4, KV7.5 and KCa1.1 channels, and KCa1.1, KV7.4 and KV7.5 were also identified by immunoblotting. Voltage clamp studies showed the XE991-sensitive current was more marked in hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSION The KV7.4 and KV7.5 channels, which we identified in the coronary arteries, appear to have a major role in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation. The voltage clamp results further support the involvement of KV7 channels in this vasodilatation. Activation of these KV7 channels may be induced by H2S and adenosine. PMID:24111896

  19. Radar imaging of glaciovolcanic stratigraphy, Mount Wrangell caldera, Alaska - Interpretation model and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Garry K. C.; Cross, Guy M.; Benson, Carl S.

    1989-01-01

    Glaciological measurements and an airborne radar sounding survey of the glacier lying in Mount Wrangell caldera raise many questions concerning the glacier thermal regime and volcanic history of Mount Wrangell. An interpretation model has been developed that allows the depth variation of temperature, heat flux, pressure, density, ice velocity, depositional age, and thermal and dielectric properties to be calculated. Some predictions of the interpretation model are that the basal ice melting rate is 0.64 m/yr and the volcanic heat flux is 7.0 W/sq m. By using the interpretation model to calculate two-way travel time and propagation losses, radar sounding traces can be transformed to give estimates of the variation of power reflection coefficient as a function of depth and depositional age. Prominent internal reflecting zones are located at depths of approximately 59-91m, 150m, 203m, and 230m. These internal reflectors are attributed to buried horizons of acidic ice, possibly intermixed with volcanic ash, that were deposited during past eruptions of Mount Wrangell.

  20. Prox1 expression in the endolymphatic sac revealed by whole-mount fluorescent imaging of Prox1-GFP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2015-01-30

    This study describes a technical breakthrough in endolymphatic sac research, made possible by the use of the recently generated Prox1-GFP transgenic mouse model. Whole-mount imaging techniques through the decalcified temporal bone and three-dimensional observations of Prox1-GFP mouse tissue revealed the positive labeling of the endolymphatic sac in adult stage, and allowed, for the first time, the GFP-based identification of endolymphatic sac epithelial cells. Prox1 expression was observed in all parts of the endolymphatic sac epithelia. In intermediate portion of the endolymphatic sac, mitochondria-rich cells did not express Prox1, although ribosome-rich cells showed strong GFP labeling. The anatomical relationship between the endolymphatic sac and the surrounding vasculature was directly observed. In the endolymphatic sac, expression of Prox1 may suggest progenitor cell-like pluripotency or developmental similarity to systemic lymphatic vessels in other organs. This whole-mount imaging technique of the endolymphatic sac can be combined with other conventional histological, sectioning, and labeling techniques and will be very useful for future endolymphatic sac research.

  1. Non-uniform object counting method in large-format pyramid images applied to CD31 vessel counting in whole-mount digital pathology sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Mayan; Hill, Melissa L.; Liu, Kela; Mainprize, James G.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2016-03-01

    Whole-mount pathology imaging has the potential to revolutionize clinical practice by preserving context lost when tissue is cut to fit onto conventional slides. Whole-mount digital images are very large, ranging from 4GB to greater than 50GB, making concurrent processing infeasible. Block-processing is a method commonly used to divide the image into smaller blocks and process them individually. This approach is useful for certain tasks, but leads to over-counting objects located on the seams between blocks. This issue is exaggerated as the block size decreases. In this work we apply a novel technique to enumerate vessels, a clinical task that would benefit from automation in whole-mount images. Whole-mount sections of rabbit VX2 tumors were digitized. Color thresholding was used to segment the brown CD31- DAB stained vessels. This vessel enumeration was applied to the entire whole-mount image in two distinct phases of block-processing. The first (whole-processing) phase used a basic grid and only counted objects that did not intersect the block's borders. The second (seam-processing) phase used a shifted grid to ensure all blocks captured the block-seam regions from the original grid. Only objects touching this seam-intersection were counted. For validation, segmented vessels were randomly embedded into a whole-mount image. The technique was tested on the image using 24 different block-widths. Results indicated that the error reaches a minimum at a block-width equal to the maximum vessel length, with no improvement as the block-width increases further. Object-density maps showed very good correlation between the vessel-dense regions and the pathologist outlined tumor regions.

  2. Combustor mount

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, H.S.

    1986-07-01

    For a gas turbine engine, mounting means are described for attaching the annular burner to the engine case including a mount lug having a relatively flat surface extending from and secured to the annular burner, a mount pin attached to the engine case having one end extending through an opening in the flat surface of the mount lug, a bushing frictionally engaging the pin and extending through the opening, and having a flange surrounding the opening and bearing against one side of the flat surface, a washer fitted over the pin and bearing against the opposite side of the flat surface to sandwich with the flange the mount lug, and the bushing having an increased internal diameter portion adjacent the washer and weldment means securing the washer to the mount lug.

  3. Very shallow dyke intrusion and potential slope failure imaged by ground deformation: The 28 December 2014 eruption on Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    On 28 December 2014, eruptive activity resumed at Mount Etna with fire fountain activity feeding two lava flows on the eastern and southwestern upper flanks of the volcano. Unlike all previous summit activity, this eruption produced clear deformation at the summit of the volcano. GPS displacements and Sentinel-1A ascending interferograms were calculated in order to image the ground deformation pattern accompanying the eruption. The displacements observed by GPS depict a local ground deformation pattern, affecting only the upper part of the volcano. Despite snow cover on the summit, differential interferometry synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) data allowed obtaining more detail on the ground deformation pattern on the upper eastern side of the volcano. Three-dimensional GPS displacements inversion located a very shallow NE-SW intrusion just beneath the New Southeast Crater. However, this model cannot justify all the deformation observed by DInSAR thus revealing a gravitational failure of the lava flow field.

  4. The Short Wave Aerostat-Mounted Imager (SWAMI): A novel platform for acquiring remotely sensed data from a tethered balloon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vierling, L.A.; Fersdahl, M.; Chen, X.; Li, Z.; Zimmerman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new remote sensing system called the Short Wave Aerostat-Mounted Imager (SWAMI). The SWAMI is designed to acquire co-located video imagery and hyperspectral data to study basic remote sensing questions and to link landscape level trace gas fluxes with spatially and temporally appropriate spectral observations. The SWAMI can fly at altitudes up to 2 km above ground level to bridge the spatial gap between radiometric measurements collected near the surface and those acquired by other aircraft or satellites. The SWAMI platform consists of a dual channel hyperspectral spectroradiometer, video camera, GPS, thermal infrared sensor, and several meteorological and control sensors. All SWAMI functions (e.g. data acquisition and sensor pointing) can be controlled from the ground via wireless transmission. Sample data from the sampling platform are presented, along with several potential scientific applications of SWAMI data. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Real-time image enhancement for vehicle mounted and man portable display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Teresa; Lee, Harry; Manville, Drew; Vogel, Dieter; Walker, Mark; Cloud, Gene; Puritz, James A.

    2007-04-01

    It is critical in surveillance applications to be able to extract features in imagery that may be of interest to the viewer at any time of the day or night. Infrared (IR) imagery is ideally suited for producing these types of images. However, even this imagery is not always optimal. Processing the imagery with a local area image operator can enhance additional features and characteristics in the image that provide the viewer with an improved understanding of the scene being observed. This paper discusses the development of two algorithms for image enhancement for infrared imagery using local area processing. The enhancement algorithm extends theory previously developed for medical applications. Algorithm differences addressed include application to IR imagery and to a panning camera rather than still imagery. It also discusses the obstacles encountered and overcome for insertion of this algorithm into a 10" gimbaled midwave infrared imaging system for a variety of real-time processing applications. This technology is directly applicable to driver's vision enhancement systems as well as other night visions systems such as night vision goggles.

  6. Whole-mount confocal imaging of nuclei in giant feeding cells induced by root-knot nematodes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice

    2012-07-01

    • Excellent visualization of nuclei was obtained here using a whole-mount procedure adapted to provide high-resolution images of large, irregularly shaped nuclei. The procedure is based on tissue clearing, and fluorescent staining of nuclear DNA with the dye propidium iodide. • The method developed for standard confocal imaging was applied to large multicellular root swellings, named galls, induced in plant hosts by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. • Here, we performed a functional analysis, and examined the nuclear structure in giant feeding cells overexpressing the cell cycle inhibitor Kip-related protein 4 (KRP4). Ectopic KRP4 expression in galls led to aberrant nuclear structure, disturbing giant cell expansion and nematode reproduction. In vivo live-cell imaging of GFP-KRP4 demonstrated that this protein co-localizes to chromosomes from prophase to late anaphase during cell cycle progression. • The data presented here suggest the involvement of KRP4 during mitotic progression in plant cells. The detailed results obtained using confocal analysis also demonstrate the potential utility of a rapid, easy-to-use clearing method for the analysis of the nuclei of certain Arabidopsis mutants and other complex plant nuclei.

  7. An update: improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon-mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, George R; Mansfield, Jessica C; Christmas, Jacqueline T; Witterick, Eleanor; Fricker, Mark D; Grant, Murray R; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Everson, Richard M; Moger, Julian; Love, John

    2014-01-01

    Plant leaves are optically complex, which makes them difficult to image by light microscopy. Careful sample preparation is therefore required to enable researchers to maximize the information gained from advances in fluorescent protein labeling, cell dyes and innovations in microscope technologies and techniques. We have previously shown that mounting leaves in the non-toxic, non-fluorescent perfluorocarbon (PFC), perfluorodecalin (PFD) enhances the optical properties of the leaf with minimal impact on physiology. Here, we assess the use of the PFCs, PFD, and perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (PP11) for in vivo plant leaf imaging using four advanced modes of microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. For every mode of imaging tested, we observed an improved signal when leaves were mounted in PFD or in PP11, compared to mounting the samples in water. Using an image analysis technique based on autocorrelation to quantitatively assess LSCM image deterioration with depth, we show that PP11 outperformed PFD as a mounting medium by enabling the acquisition of clearer images deeper into the tissue. In addition, we show that SRS microscopy can be used to image PFCs directly in the mesophyll and thereby easily delimit the "negative space" within a leaf, which may have important implications for studies of leaf development. Direct comparison of on and off resonance SRS micrographs show that PFCs do not to form intracellular aggregates in live plants. We conclude that the application of PFCs as mounting media substantially increases advanced microscopy image quality of living mesophyll and leaf vascular bundle cells.

  8. Comparison Of Solar Surface Features In HMI Images And Mount Wilson Images Found By The Automatic Bayesian Classification System AutoClass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. G.; Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Bayesian automatic classification system AutoClass has been applied to daily solar magnetogram and intensity images taken at the 150 Foot Solar Tower at Mount Wilson to find and identify classes of solar surface features which are associated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and, using those identifications, to improve modeling of TSI variations over time. (Ulrich, et al, 2010) AutoClass does this by a two step process in which it: (1) finds, without human supervision, a set of class definitions based on specified attributes of a sample of the image data pixels, such as magnetic field and intensity in the case of MWO images, and (2) applies the class definitions thus found to new data sets to identify automatically in them the classes found in the sample set. HMI high resolution images embody four observables-magnetic field, continuum intensity, line depth and line width-in contrast to MWO's two-magnetic field and intensity. In this study, we apply AutoClass to the HMI image observables to derive solar surface feature classes and compare the characteristic statistics of those classes to the MWO classes. The ability to categorize automatically surface features in the HMI images holds out the promise of consistent, relatively quick and manageable analysis of the large quantity of data available in these images. Given that the classes found in MWO images using AutoClass have been found to improve modeling of TSI, application of AutoClass to the more complex HMI images should enhance understanding of the physical processes at work in solar surface features and their implications for the solar-terrestrial environment. Ulrich, R.K., Parker, D, Bertello, L. and Boyden, J. 2010, Solar Phys. , 261 , 11.

  9. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, Harold H.

    1987-01-01

    A mirror mount (10) is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror (28) while keeping the location of a point (56) on the surface of the mirror (28) fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount (10). Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders (30,32) that are bearing (52) mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell (42) that is air bearing (72,74) mounted to move between a clamp (60) and an upper pedestal bearing (44). The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell (42) lie upon the point (56). Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror (28) by a pair of pitch paddles (34) and a pair of roll paddles (36) that are independently and separately moved by control rods (76,80) driven by motors (78,82).

  10. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1986-03-21

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors.

  11. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1987-11-10

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors. 5 figs.

  12. Tomographic Imaging of the Magmatic System at Mount St. Helens with the iMUSH Broadband Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulberg, C. W.; Creager, K. C.; Levander, A.; Kiser, E.; Moran, S. C.; Abers, G. A.; Schmandt, B.; Vidale, J. E.; Houston, H.; Denlinger, R. P.; Williams, M. C. B.

    2015-12-01

    We deployed 70 broadband seismometers in the summer of 2014 to image the velocity structure beneath Mount St. Helens (MSH), Washington, USA as part of a collaborative project called imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH). Our goal is to illuminate the MSH magmatic system, using active- and passive-source seismology, magnetotellurics and petrology. Details of the velocity structure, coupled with other geophysical and geologic data, can help constrain the geometry and physical state of any bodies of melt beneath the volcano. The broadband array has a diameter of ~100 km centered on MSH with an average station spacing of 10 km, and will remain deployed through summer 2016. It is augmented by dozens of permanent stations in the area. We determine P-wave arrival times using Antelope software and incorporate permanent network picks for the region. We use the program struct3DP to invert travel times to obtain a 3-D seismic velocity model and relocate hypocenters, computing travel times using a 3-D eikonal-equation solver. There were more than 500 useable local events during the first year of iMUSH broadband recording, which to date have provided 5000 arrival times, with the number growing rapidly. The local events include 23 active shots that were set off in the summer of 2014 as part of the iMUSH experiment, which recorded with good signal-to-noise ratios across the entire array. The absolute P times will be augmented by differential times calculated by cross-correlation between observations at the same station for nearby event pairs. These will be incorporated into our model using double-difference tomography. We anticipate that our 3D velocity model will provide the highest resolution image of volcanic plumbing at MSH thus far. Our model interpretation will incorporate results from active-source and ambient noise tomography, receiver functions, magnetotellurics, and petrology.

  13. Use of thermal infrared imaging for monitoring renewed dome growth at Mount St. Helens, 2004: Chapter 17 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, David J.; Vallance, James W.; Wessels, Rick L.; Logan, Matthew; Ramsey, Michael S.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    A helicopter-mounted thermal imaging radiometer documented the explosive vent-clearing and effusive phases of the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 2004. A gyrostabilized gimbal controlled by a crew member housed the radiometer and an optical video camera attached to the nose of the helicopter. Since October 1, 2004, the system has provided thermal and video observations of dome growth. Flights conducted as frequently as twice daily during the initial month of the eruption monitored rapid changes in the crater and 1980-86 lava dome. Thermal monitoring decreased to several times per week once dome extrusion began. The thermal imaging system provided unique observations, including timely recognition that the early explosive phase was phreatic, location of structures controlling thermal emissions and active faults, detection of increased heat flow prior to the extrusion of lava, and recognition of new lava extrusion. The first spines, 1 and 2, were hotter when they emerged (maximum temperature 700-730°C) than subsequent spines insulated by as much as several meters of fault gouge. Temperature of gouge-covered spines was about 200°C where they emerged from the vent, and it decreased rapidly with distance from the vent. The hottest parts of these spines were as high as 500-730°C in fractured and broken-up regions. Such temperature variation needs to be accounted for in the retrieval of eruption parameters using satellite-based techniques, as such features are smaller than pixels in satellite images.

  14. Mount Etna, heart of the Mediterranean, in science, narrative, and images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behncke, Boris; Patanè, Domenico; Mirella, Turco; Turi, Caggegi; Marco, Aliotta; Alfio, Amantia; Massimo, Cantarero; Francesco, Ciancitto

    2015-04-01

    A keen urge, enticing and potent at the same time, as only real passion can be, had taken hold of our hearts. It was thanks to Etna that we met. It had helped bring together communication, photography and volcanology into one single project, namely to share our emotions and those of the volcano and pass them on to whoever might believe in similar values. Two men and one woman, two Sicilians and one German, on the slopes of the mountain. Chance is the grand master of science, events, coincidences, facts and illusions which come to a crossroads where the spirit may feel at liberty. So here we are then, to tell you of the pulsating heart of a body in constant evolution, about half a million years old, to tell of the red "blood" feeding it, its destructive power, its growth and its dimensions changing in time: all evidence that our planet is very much alive. Because Etna volcano, locally called "Mungibeddu" or "a Muntagna", embodies the vital force of the Earth, to which we owe our existence. We have sought to combine science, narrative and images to meet the tastes of our cultured compatriots, those living beyond the Alps as well as those from overseas. Rightly so, because Etna belongs to humanity, and we have the privilege of dwelling in its arms. We also have the duty and the pleasure to share its existence with the few who may not know it, with the many who would like to understand its unusual aspects in greater depth and with those who walk its paths and explore its precipices perhaps to find their inner selves. The volcano shares the fears of the farm workers and of the inhabitants; it diffuses the intoxicating scent of the earth, air, water and wind. It feeds on the melancholic lullabies of those who have lost a loved one, those who have challenged the laws of nature. And always, at each moment, it is close to us, even as far as the sea of salty air and tears that mothers sometimes weep.

  15. Mapping hydrothermally altered rocks on Mount Rainier, Washington, with Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Zimbelman, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Mount Rainier has produced numerous Holocene debris flows, the largest of which contain clays and other minerals derived from hydrothermally altered rocks on the volcano's edifice. Imagery from an advanced airborne sensor was used to map altered rocks at Mount Rainier and demonstrates their distinctly nonuniform distribution. The mapping of altered rocks helps to identify edifice failure surfaces and to recognize the source areas for the largest debris flow events. Remote sensing methods like those used at Mount Rainier can enhance ground-based mapping efforts and should prove useful for rapidly identifying hazardous sectors at other volcanoes.

  16. SU-E-J-213: Imaging and Treatment Isocenter Verification of a Gantry Mounted Proton Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S; Goddu, S; Rankine, L; Klein, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Mevion proton therapy machine is the first to feature a gantry mounted sychro-cyclotron. In addition, the system utilizes a 6D motion couch and kV imaging for precise proton therapy. To quantify coincidence between these systems, isocentricity tests were performed based on kV imaging alignment using radiochromic film. Methods: The 100 ton gantry and 6D robotic couch can rotate 190° around isocenter to provide necessary beam angles for treatment. The kV sources and detector panels are deployed as needed to acquire orthogonal portals. Gantry and couch mechanical isocenter were tested using star-shots and radiochromic-film (RCF). Using kV imaging, the star-shot phantom was aligned to an embedded fiducial and the isocenter was marked on RCF with a pinprick. The couch and gantry stars were performed by irradiating films at every 45° and 30°, respectively. A proton beam with a range and modulation-width of 18 cm was used. A Winston-Lutz test was also performed at the same gantry and couch rotations using a custom jig holding RCF and a tungsten ball placed at isocenter. A 2 cm diameter circular aperture was used for the irradiation. Results: The couch star-shot indicated a minimum tangent circle of 0.6 mm, with a 0.9 mm offset from the manually marked isocenter. The gantry star-shot showed a 0.6 mm minimum tangent circle with a 0.5 mm offset from the pinprick. The Winston Lutz test performed for gantry rotation showed a maximum deviation from center of 0.5 mm. Conclusion: Based on star-shots and Winston-Lutz tests, the proton gantry and 6D couch isocentricity are within 1 mm. In this study, we have shown that the methods commonly utilized for Linac characterization can be applied to proton therapy. This revolutionary proton therapy system possesses excellent agreement between the mechanical and radiation isocenter, providing highly precise treatment.

  17. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.; Bender, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for "X" and "Y" tilts of the mirror only. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time.

  18. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister with callouts and characteristics. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  20. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister with callouts. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. Eruption dynamics at Mount St. Helens imaged from broadband seismic waveforms: Interaction of the shallow magmatic and hydrothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, G.P.; Chouet, B.A.; Dawson, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    The current eruption at Mount St. Helens is characterized by dome building and shallow, repetitive, long-period (LP) earthquakes. Waveform cross-correlation reveals remarkable similarity for a majority of the earthquakes over periods of several weeks. Stacked spectra of these events display multiple peaks between 0.5 and 2 Hz that are common to most stations. Lower-amplitude very-long-period (VLP) events commonly accompany the LP events. We model the source mechanisms of LP and VLP events in the 0.5-4 s and 8-40 s bands, respectively, using data recorded in July 2005 with a 19-station temporary broadband network. The source mechanism of the LP events includes: 1) a volumetric component modeled as resonance of a gently NNW-dipping, steam-filled crack located directly beneath the actively extruding part of the new dome and within 100 m of the crater floor and 2) a vertical single force attributed to movement of the overlying dome. The VLP source, which also includes volumetric and single-force components, is 250 m deeper and NNW of the LP source, at the SW edge of the 1980s lava dome. The volumetric component points to the compression and expansion of a shallow, magma-filled sill, which is subparallel to the hydrothermal crack imaged at the LP source, coupled with a smaller component of expansion and compression of a dike. The single-force components are due to mass advection in the magma conduit. The location, geometry and timing of the sources suggest the VLP and LP events are caused by perturbations of a common crack system.

  2. Laser Scanning–Based Tissue Autofluorescence/Fluorescence Imaging (LS-TAFI), a New Technique for Analysis of Microanatomy in Whole-Mount Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hidetoshi; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Bhat, Ramray; Ghajar, Cyrus M.; Seiki, Motoharu; Bissell, Mina J.

    2012-01-01

    Intact organ structure is essential in maintaining tissue specificity and cellular differentiation. Small physiological or genetic variations lead to changes in microanatomy that, if persistent, could have functional consequences and may easily be masked by the heterogeneity of tissue anatomy. Current imaging techniques rely on histological, two-dimensional sections requiring sample manipulation that are essentially two dimensional. We have developed a method for three-dimensional imaging of whole-mount, unsectioned mammalian tissues to elucidate subtle and detailed micro- and macroanatomies in adult organs and embryos. We analyzed intact or dissected organ whole mounts with laser scanning–based tissue autofluorescence/fluorescence imaging (LS-TAFI). We obtained clear visualization of microstructures within murine mammary glands and mammary tumors and other organs without the use of immunostaining and without probes or fluorescent reporter genes. Combining autofluorescence with reflected light signals from chromophore-stained tissues allowed identification of individual cells within three-dimensional structures of whole-mounted organs. This technique could be useful for rapid diagnosis of human clinical samples and possibly the effect of subtle variations such as low dose radiation. PMID:22542846

  3. Conductive carbon tape used for support and mounting of both whole animal and fragile heat-treated tissue sections for MALDI MS imaging and quantitation.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Richard J A; Nilsson, Anna; Borg, Daniel; Langridge-Smith, Pat R R; Harrison, David J; Mackay, C Logan; Iverson, Suzanne L; Andrén, Per E

    2012-08-30

    Analysis of whole animal tissue sections by MALDI MS imaging (MSI) requires effective sample collection and transfer methods to allow the highest quality of in situ analysis of small or hard to dissect tissues. We report on the use of double-sided adhesive conductive carbon tape during whole adult rat tissue sectioning of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) embedded animals, with samples mounted onto large format conductive glass and conductive plastic MALDI targets, enabling MSI analysis to be performed on both TOF and FT-ICR MALDI mass spectrometers. We show that mounting does not unduly affect small molecule MSI detection by analyzing tiotropium abundance and distribution in rat lung tissues, with direct on-tissue quantitation achieved. Significantly, we use the adhesive tape to provide support to embedded delicate heat-stabilized tissues, enabling sectioning and mounting to be performed that maintained tissue integrity on samples that had previously been impossible to adequately prepare section for MSI analysis. The mapping of larger peptidomic molecules was not hindered by tape mounting samples and we demonstrate this by mapping the distribution of PEP-19 in both native and heat-stabilized rat brains. Furthermore, we show that without heat stabilization PEP-19 degradation fragments can detected and identified directly by MALDI MSI analysis.

  4. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.; Bender, D.A.

    1994-10-04

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for ''X'' and ''Y'' tilts of the mirror only is disclosed. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time. 4 figs.

  5. EMU helmet mounted display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose (Inventor); Smith, Stephen (Inventor); Plough, Alan (Inventor); Clarke, Robert (Inventor); Mclean, William (Inventor); Fournier, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A helmet mounted display device is disclosed for projecting a display on a flat combiner surface located above the line of sight where the display is produced by two independent optical channels with independent LCD image generators. The display has a fully overlapped field of view on the combiner surface and the focus can be adjusted from a near field of four feet to infinity.

  6. Apollo Telescope Mount Spar Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard the Skylab. The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image shows the ATM spar assembly. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the 10-foot long canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into the rack, a complex frame, and was protected by the solar shield.

  7. RetFM-J, an ImageJ-based module for automated counting and quantifying features of nuclei in retinal whole-mounts.

    PubMed

    Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Christopher, Mark A; Lewis, Carly J; Meyer, Kacie J; Rudd, Danielle S; Dutca, Laura M; Wang, Kai; Garvin, Mona K; Scheetz, Todd E; Abràmoff, Michael D; Harper, Matthew M; Anderson, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    The present article introduces RetFM-J, a semi-automated ImageJ-based module that detects, counts, and collects quantitative data on nuclei of the inner retina from H&E-stained whole-mounted retinas. To illustrate performance, computer-derived outputs were analyzed in inbred C57BL/6J mice. Automated characterization yielded computer-derived outputs that closely matched manual counts. As a method using open-source software that is freely available, inexpensive staining reagents that are robust, and imaging equipment that is routine to most laboratories, RetFM-J could be utilized in a wide variety of experiments benefiting from high-throughput, quantitative, uniform analyses of total cellularity in the inner retina.

  8. Mount St. Helens Rebirth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    could be seen falling from the sky over the Great Plains, more than 1500 km distant. This image was acquired by Landsat 7 on Aug. 22, 1999. It was produced at 30-m resolution using bands 3, 2, and 1 to display red, green, and blue, respectively ('true color'). Some of the effects of the massive eruption on May 18, 1980, can still be seen clearly, especially on the northern and eastern flanks of Mount St. Helens, which are still mostly barren (shades of white and gray). The crater is in the center of the image. Note the streaking from the crater (gray on the image). These are the remnants of pyroclastic flows (superheated avalanches of gas, ash and pieces of rock) that carved deep channels down the slopes and onto the relatively flat areas near the base of the mountain. The partially-filled Spirit Lake can be seen just to the northeast of the crater (blue-black on the image), and the where most of the energy was directed during the blast is the gray area immediately to the northwest of the crater. However, on other parts of the mountain, the rejuvenation process is obvious. Ash deposits have supplied minerals which have accelerated vegetation growth (various shades of green). Though far from what it looked like 20 years ago, Mount St Helens is actively recovering. Data courtesy Landsat 7 project and EROS Data Center. Caption by James Foster, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  9. Helmet-Mounted Liquid-Crystal Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steve; Plough, Alan; Clarke, Robert; Mclean, William; Fournier, Joseph; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1991-01-01

    Helmet-mounted binocular display provides text and images for almost any wearer; does not require fitting for most users. Accommodates users from smallest interpupillary distance to largest. Two liquid-crystal display units mounted in helmet. Images generated seen from any position head can assume inside helmet. Eyes directed to position for best viewing.

  10. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  11. Integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS): design considerations of tumour tracking with linac gantry-mounted diagnostic x-ray systems with flat-panel detectors.

    PubMed

    Berbeco, Ross I; Jiang, Steve B; Sharp, Gregory C; Chen, George T; Mostafavi, Hassan; Shirato, Hiroki

    2004-01-21

    The design of an integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS), consisting of gantry mounted diagnostic (kV) x-ray tubes and fast read-out flat-panel amorphous-silicon detectors, has been studied. The system is meant to be capable of three main functions: radiographs for three-dimensional (3D) patient set-up, cone-beam CT and real-time tumour/marker tracking. The goal of the current study is to determine whether one source/panel pair is sufficient for real-time tumour/marker tracking and, if two are needed, the optimal position of each relative to other components and the isocentre. A single gantry-mounted source/imager pair is certainly capable of the first two of the three functions listed above and may also be useful for the third, if combined with prior knowledge of the target's trajectory. This would be necessary because only motion in two dimensions is visible with a single imager/source system. However, with previously collected information about the trajectory, the third coordinate may be derived from the other two with sufficient accuracy to facilitate tracking. This deduction of the third coordinate can only be made if the 3D tumour/marker trajectory is consistent from fraction to fraction. The feasibility of tumour tracking with one source/imager pair has been theoretically examined here using measured lung marker trajectory data for seven patients from multiple treatment fractions. The patients' selection criteria include minimum mean amplitudes of the tumour motions greater than 1 cm peak-to-peak. The marker trajectory for each patient was modelled using the first fraction data. Then for the rest of the data, marker positions were derived from the imager projections at various gantry angles and compared with the measured tumour positions. Our results show that, due to the three dimensionality and irregular trajectory characteristics of tumour motion, on a fraction-to-fraction basis, a 'monoscopic' system (single source/imager) is inadequate for

  12. Integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS): design considerations of tumour tracking with linac gantry-mounted diagnostic x-ray systems with flat-panel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbeco, Ross I.; Jiang, Steve B.; Sharp, Gregory C.; Chen, George T. Y.; Mostafavi, Hassan; Shirato, Hiroki

    2004-01-01

    The design of an integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS), consisting of gantry mounted diagnostic (kV) x-ray tubes and fast read-out flat-panel amorphous-silicon detectors, has been studied. The system is meant to be capable of three main functions: radiographs for three-dimensional (3D) patient set-up, cone-beam CT and real-time tumour/marker tracking. The goal of the current study is to determine whether one source/panel pair is sufficient for real-time tumour/marker tracking and, if two are needed, the optimal position of each relative to other components and the isocentre. A single gantry-mounted source/imager pair is certainly capable of the first two of the three functions listed above and may also be useful for the third, if combined with prior knowledge of the target's trajectory. This would be necessary because only motion in two dimensions is visible with a single imager/source system. However, with previously collected information about the trajectory, the third coordinate may be derived from the other two with sufficient accuracy to facilitate tracking. This deduction of the third coordinate can only be made if the 3D tumour/marker trajectory is consistent from fraction to fraction. The feasibility of tumour tracking with one source/imager pair has been theoretically examined here using measured lung marker trajectory data for seven patients from multiple treatment fractions. The patients' selection criteria include minimum mean amplitudes of the tumour motions greater than 1 cm peak-to-peak. The marker trajectory for each patient was modelled using the first fraction data. Then for the rest of the data, marker positions were derived from the imager projections at various gantry angles and compared with the measured tumour positions. Our results show that, due to the three dimensionality and irregular trajectory characteristics of tumour motion, on a fraction-to-fraction basis, a 'monoscopic' system (single source/imager) is inadequate for

  13. Aircraft engine-mounted camera system for long wavelength infrared imaging of in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Markham, James; Cosgrove, Joseph; Scire, James; Haldeman, Charles; Agoos, Ian

    2014-12-01

    This paper announces the implementation of a long wavelength infrared camera to obtain high-speed thermal images of an aircraft engine's in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades. Long wavelength thermal images were captured of first-stage blades. The achieved temporal and spatial resolutions allowed for the identification of cooling-hole locations. The software and synchronization components of the system allowed for the selection of any blade on the turbine wheel, with tuning capability to image from leading edge to trailing edge. Its first application delivered calibrated thermal images as a function of turbine rotational speed at both steady state conditions and during engine transients. In advance of presenting these data for the purpose of understanding engine operation, this paper focuses on the components of the system, verification of high-speed synchronized operation, and the integration of the system with the commercial jet engine test bed.

  14. Aircraft engine-mounted camera system for long wavelength infrared imaging of in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, James; Cosgrove, Joseph; Scire, James; Haldeman, Charles; Agoos, Ian

    2014-12-01

    This paper announces the implementation of a long wavelength infrared camera to obtain high-speed thermal images of an aircraft engine's in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades. Long wavelength thermal images were captured of first-stage blades. The achieved temporal and spatial resolutions allowed for the identification of cooling-hole locations. The software and synchronization components of the system allowed for the selection of any blade on the turbine wheel, with tuning capability to image from leading edge to trailing edge. Its first application delivered calibrated thermal images as a function of turbine rotational speed at both steady state conditions and during engine transients. In advance of presenting these data for the purpose of understanding engine operation, this paper focuses on the components of the system, verification of high-speed synchronized operation, and the integration of the system with the commercial jet engine test bed.

  15. Development of mid-infrared spectrometer with an image slicer (MIRSIS) for ground-based astronomy: developing optical and mechanical mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yoshiko Kataza; Kataza, Hirokazu; Sato, Keigo; Manabe, Kei; Mitsui, Kenji; Okada, Norio; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Nishino, Tetsuo; Tomita, Koji; Tosa, Masamune; Onaka, Takashi

    2008-07-01

    Mid-Infrared Spectrometer with an Image Slicer (MIRSIS) is a 10micron band spectrometer for ground-based observations. Based on the optical design reported in Okamoto et al. (2006), we recently developed most of optical elements and their mounts. There, we adopted designs based on an ultra-precision cut for the slice mirrors and the pupil mirrors. We also designed and partly manufactured the optical parts with switching/adjusting mechanism with cryogenic step motors. Since MIRSIS has a very complicated stereoscopic configuration of optical elements, we developed a method to adjust the optical alignment where relative positional markers and a three-dimensional measuring system are combined. We confirmed that we can achieve position and angular adjustment with error down to 0.1mm and 0.05degree through alignment test with a pair of mirrors.

  16. Coma morphology and dust-emission pattern of periodic Comet Halley. I - High-resolution images taken at Mount Wilson in 1910

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, S. M.; Sekanina, Z.

    1984-01-01

    A radial/rotational shift-difference algorithm has been developed to improve visibility of the May-June 1910 high-resolution images taken at Mount Wilson of Comet Halley. Dust features for a period of up to three days were identified, which consisted of discrete active areas emitting dust continuously from the sunlit hemisphere of the rotating nucleus. A lower limit of the comet's rotation period was approximated at one day, and expansion velocities of the dust features were determined to be in the range of 0.2-0.3 km/s. Based on relative photometry of a bright jet, it was proposed that the column density of dust ejecta in the jet exceeded the density in the coma by a factor greater than or approximately equal to two, and that, if narrow along the line of light, the jet might have had a particle number concentration much higher than the coma background. Also noted are numerous ion features.

  17. Long distance observations with the ChemCam Remote Micro-Imager: Eroded Mount Sharp deposits on Gale Crater floor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, Horton; Gasnault, Olivier; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Le Deit, Laetitia; Wiens, Roger; Anderson, Ryan; Herkenhoff, Ken; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bridges, Nathan; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jacob, Samantha; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Curiosity's ChemCam includes a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) to provide context for the laser pits, to obtain long-range images, and for passive reflectance spectra (400-840 nm). Use of the RMI has been enhanced by a new autofocus algorithm using onboard analysis of RMI images. The RMI has the finest pixel scale on the rover with 19.6 μrad/pixel (1024x1024 grayscale), compared to Mastcam M100 color images (74 μrad/pixel). The pixel scale for RMI images is ~2 cm at 1 km, and ~26 cm at 12 km, beyond which HiRISE orbital resolution (25 cm/pixel) is better. Note: useful resolution of geological features requires 3-5 pixels. A major question for Gale Crater (age 3.6 BY), is whether the presently truncated deposits on Mt. Sharp originally extended across the crater floor, prior to the deposition of Peace Vallis and other fans at 3.2 BY? HiRISE imagery shows early, partly eroded deposits in the vicinity of the Peace Vallis fan, but the materials could have been impact related. Long distance RMI images of the deposits, however, confirm the presence of eroded buttes with at least 8-10 horizontal layers (0.8-1.6 m thick) in one example, consistent with a sedimentary origin. The layered buttes rise as much as 12 meters above the surrounding deposits. The later deposits embay the lower portions of the buttes and are probably a phase of the later Peace Vallis fan. The RMI images show the presence of blocks in this fan unit of about 50-80 cm, consistent with an enhanced retention of craters that has been noted for this unit. Another RMI observation just above the Peace Vallis channel shows an eroded bench or series of layered hills at the same level, that could also indicate early sediment deposits prior to Peace Vallis fan. Conclusions - The RMI images (and HiRISE images of other crater floor deposits) suggest at least some deposits possibly related to Mt. Sharp were present on the crater floor near the Peace Vallis fan and now are highly eroded, but their original thickness is

  18. Co-Registration of MEG and ULF MRI using a 7 channel low-Tc SQUID system

    SciTech Connect

    Magnelind, Per E; Sandin, Jan H; Volegov, Petr L; Matlashov, Andrei N; Owens, Tuba; Gomez, John J; Espy, Michelle A

    2010-01-01

    In human brain imaging, e.g. pre-surgical mapping, it is highly desired to obtain images with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, no single imaging device is capable of producing both a high spatial resolution anatomical image and a high temporal resolution functional image. During the last couple of years significant efforts have been directed towards magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fields comparable to the Earth's field, i.e. microtesla fields, or lower fields. The fields in this range are called ultra-low fields (ULF). Interestingly, the idea of magnetic resonance at microtesla fields is more than 50 years old. In ULF MR it is essential to use pre-polarization to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal from the precessing spins, since the magnetization from the measurement field alone is very small. Even with the present level of prepolarization the ULF images are not as highly resolved as their high-field counterparts. By using a 7 channel system equipped with low transition temperature (T{sub c}) Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) to perform both ULF MRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG), it is possible to coregister a lower resolution ULF MR image and an MEG image obtained during one run. Thereby, the MEG data is aligned to the ULF MR image after performing a calibration run with a phantom. The ULF MR image can then be used to align the MEG data onto a high-field MR image. Recently, our group presented the first brain images obtained by ULF MRI. The MR imaging was combined with an MEG session performed a posteriori. The subject's head was moved in between the MRI run and the MEG run and no reference coils were used to quantify the translation. The main reason for the translation of the head was to improve the coverage of the auditory evoked response. In this paper, we report interleaved ULF MRI and MEG measurements co-registered in the same system.

  19. Identifying Clinically Significant Prostate Cancers using 3-D In Vivo Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging with Whole-Mount Histology Validation.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Mark L; Glass, Tyler J; Miller, Zachary A; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Buck, Andrew; Polascik, Thomas J; Gupta, Rajan T; Brown, Alison F; Madden, John; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2016-06-01

    Overly aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) treatment adversely affects patients and places an unnecessary burden on our health care system. The inability to identify and grade clinically significant PCa lesions is a factor contributing to excessively aggressive PCa treatment, such as radical prostatectomy, instead of more focal, prostate-sparing procedures such as cryotherapy and high-dose radiation therapy. We have performed 3-D in vivo B-mode and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging using a mechanically rotated, side-fire endorectal imaging array to identify regions suspicious for PCa in 29 patients being treated with radical prostatectomies for biopsy-confirmed PCa. Whole-mount histopathology analyses were performed to identify regions of clinically significant/insignificant PCa lesions, atrophy and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Regions of suspicion for PCa were reader-identified in ARFI images based on boundary delineation, contrast, texture and location. These regions of suspicion were compared with histopathology identified lesions using a nearest-neighbor regional localization approach. Of all clinically significant lesions identified on histopathology, 71.4% were also identified using ARFI imaging, including 79.3% of posterior and 33.3% of anterior lesions. Among the ARFI-identified lesions, 79.3% corresponded to clinically significant PCa lesions, with these lesions having higher indices of suspicion than clinically insignificant PCa. ARFI imaging had greater sensitivity for posterior versus anterior lesions because of greater displacement signal-to-noise ratio and finer spatial sampling. Atrophy and benign prostatic hyperplasia can cause appreciable prostate anatomy distortion and heterogeneity that confounds ARFI PCa lesion identification; however, in general, ARFI regions of suspicion did not coincide with these benign pathologies.

  20. Thalamic Kv7 channels: pharmacological properties and activity control during noxious signal processing

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Manuela; Szkudlarek, Hanna J; Coulon, Philippe; Meuth, Patrick; Kanyshkova, Tatyana; Nguyen, Xuan Vinh; Göbel, Kerstin; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Meuth, Sven G; Pape, Hans-Christian; Budde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The existence of functional Kv7 channels in thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons and the effects of the K+-current termed M-current (IM) on thalamic signal processing have long been debated. Immunocytochemical evidence suggests their presence in this brain region. Therefore, we aimed to verify their existence, pharmacological properties and function in regulating activity in neurons of the ventrobasal thalamus (VB). Experimental Approach Characterization of Kv7 channels was performed by combining in vitro, in vivo and in silico techniques with a pharmacological approach. Retigabine (30 μM) and XE991 (20 μM), a specific Kv7 channel enhancer and blocker, respectively, were applied in acute brain slices during electrophysiological recordings. The effects of intrathalamic injection of retigabine (3 mM, 300 nL) and/or XE991 (2 mM, 300 nL) were investigated in freely moving animals during hot-plate tests by recording behaviour and neuronal activity. Key Results Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 subunits were found to be abundantly expressed in TC neurons of mouse VB. A slow K+-current with properties of IM was activated by retigabine and inhibited by XE991. Kv7 channel activation evoked membrane hyperpolarization, a reduction in tonic action potential firing, and increased burst firing in vitro and in computational models. Single-unit recordings and pharmacological intervention demonstrated a specific burst-firing increase upon IM activation in vivo. A Kv7 channel-mediated increase in pain threshold was associated with fewer VB units responding to noxious stimuli, and increased burst firing in responsive neurons. Conclusions and Implications Kv7 channel enhancement alters somatosensory activity and may reflect an anti-nociceptive mechanism during acute pain processing. PMID:25684311

  1. KV7 channels in the human detrusor: channel modulator effects and gene and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Bientinesi, Riccardo; Mancuso, Cesare; Martire, Maria; Bassi, Pier Francesco; Sacco, Emilio; Currò, Diego

    2017-02-01

    Voltage-gated type 7 K(+) (KV7 or KCNQ) channels regulate the contractility of various smooth muscles. With this study, we aimed to assess the role of KV7 channels in the regulation of human detrusor contractility, as well as the gene and protein expression of KV7 channels in this tissue. For these purposes, the isolated organ technique, RT-qPCR, and Western blot were used, respectively. XE-991, a selective KV7 channel blocker, concentration-dependently contracted the human detrusor; mean EC50 and Emax of XE-991-induced concentration-response curve were 14.1 μM and 28.8 % of the maximal bethanechol-induced contraction, respectively. Flupirtine and retigabine, selective KV7.2-7.5 channel activators, induced concentration-dependent relaxations of bethanechol-precontracted strips, with maximal relaxations of 51.6 and 51.8 % of the precontraction, respectively. XE-991 blocked the relaxations induced by flupirtine and retigabine. All five KCNQ genes were found to be expressed in the detrusor with KCNQ4 being the most expressed among them. Different bands, having sizes similar to some of reported KV7.1, 7.4, and 7.5 channel subunit isoforms, were detected in the detrusor by Western blot with the KV7.4 band being the most intense among them. In conclusion, KV7 channels contribute to set the basal tone of the human detrusor. In addition, KV7 channel activators significantly relax the detrusor. The KV7.4 channels are probably the most important KV7 channels expressed in the human detrusor. These data suggest that selective KV7.4 channel activators might represent new pharmacological tools for inducing therapeutic relaxation of the detrusor.

  2. Sharp-Tip Silver Nanowires Mounted on Cantilevers for High-Aspect-Ratio High-Resolution Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuezhi; Zhu, Yangzhi; Kim, Sanggon; Liu, Qiushi; Byrley, Peter; Wei, Yang; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Kaili; Fan, Shoushan; Yan, Ruoxue; Liu, Ming

    2016-11-09

    Despite many efforts to fabricate high-aspect-ratio atomic force microscopy (HAR-AFM) probes for high-fidelity, high-resolution topographical imaging of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured surfaces, current HAR probes still suffer from unsatisfactory performance, low wear-resistivity, and extravagant prices. The primary objective of this work is to demonstrate a novel design of a high-resolution (HR) HAR AFM probe, which is fabricated through a reliable, cost-efficient benchtop process to precisely implant a single ultrasharp metallic nanowire on a standard AFM cantilever probe. The force-displacement curve indicated that the HAR-HR probe is robust against buckling and bending up to 150 nN. The probes were tested on polymer trenches, showing a much better image fidelity when compared with standard silicon tips. The lateral resolution, when scanning a rough metal thin film and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SW-CNTs), was found to be better than 8 nm. Finally, stable imaging quality in tapping mode was demonstrated for at least 15 continuous scans indicating high resistance to wear. These results demonstrate a reliable benchtop fabrication technique toward metallic HAR-HR AFM probes with performance parallel or exceeding that of commercial HAR probes, yet at a fraction of their cost.

  3. Mount St. Helens Flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington State was acquired on August 8, 2000 and covers an area of 37 by 51 km. Mount Saint Helens, a volcano in the Cascade Range of southwestern Washington that had been dormant since 1857, began to show signs of renewed activity in early 1980. On 18 May 1980, it erupted with such violence that the top of the mountain was blown off, spewing a cloud of ash and gases that rose to an altitude of 19 kilometers. The blast killed about 60 people and destroyed all life in an area of some 180 square kilometers (some 70 square miles), while a much larger area was covered with ash and debris. It continues to spit forth ash and steam intermittently. As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation decreased from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters. The simulated fly-over was produced by draping ASTER visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's 3-D stereo bands. The color was computer enhanced to create a 'natural' color image, where the vegetation appears green. The topography has been exaggerated 2 times to enhance the appearance of the relief. Landsat7 aquired an image of Mt. St. Helens on August 22, 1999. Image and animation courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  4. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  5. The use of multispectral thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Realmuto, V.J.; Abrams, M.J.; Buongiorno, M.F.; Pieri, D.C. )

    1994-01-10

    The authors have found that image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) can be used to make estimates of the SO[sub 2] content of volcanic plumes. TIMS image data are most applicable to the study of partially transparent SO[sub 2] plumes, such as those released during quiescent periods or nonexplosive eruptions. The estimation procedure is based on the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code, which the authors use to model the radiance perceived by TIMS as it views the ground through an SO[sub 2] plume. The input to the procedure includes the altitudes of the aircraft and ground, the altitude and thickness of the SO[sub 2] plume, the emissivity of the ground, and altitude profiles of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. They use the TIMS data to estimate both ground temperatures beneath a plume and SO[sub 2] concentrations within a plume. Applying this procedure to TIMS data acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on July 29, 1986, the authors estimate that the SO[sub 2] flux from the volcano was approximately 6700 t d[sup [minus]1]. The use of TIMS to study SO[sub 2] plumes represents a bridge between highly localized methods, such as correlation spectroscopy or direct sampling, and small-scale mapping techniques involving satellite instruments such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer or Microwave Limb Sounder. The authors require further airborne experiments to refine their estimation procedure. This refinement is a necessary preparation for the scheduled 1998 launch of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer, which will allow large-scale multispectral thermal infrared image data to be collected over virtually any volcano on Earth at least once every 16 days.

  6. The use of multispectral thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Abrams, Michael J.; Buongiorno, M. Fabrizia; Pieri, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We have found that image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) can be used to make estimates of the SO2 content of volcanic plumes. TIMS image data are most applicable to the study of partially transparent SO2 plumes, such as those released during quiescent periods or nonexplosive eruptions. The estimation procedure is based on the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code, which we use to model the radiance perceived by TIMS as it views the ground through an SO2 plume. The input to the procedure includes the altitudes of the aircraft and ground, the altitude and thickness of the SO2 plume, the emissivity of the ground, and altitude profiles of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. We use the TIMS data to estimate both ground temperatures beneath a plume and SO2 concentrations within a plume. Applying our procedure to TIMS data acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on July 29, 1986, we estimate that the SO2 flux from the volcano was approximately 6700 t d(exp -1). The use of TIMS to study SO2 plumes represents a bridge between highly localized methods, such as correlation spectroscopy or direct sampling, and small-scale mapping techniques involving satellite instruments such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer or Microwave Limb Sounder. We require further airborne experiments to refine our estimation procedure. This refinement is a necessary preparation for the schedueled 1998 launch of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer, which will allow large-scale multispectral thermal infrared image data to be collected over virtually any volcano on Earth at least once every 16 days.

  7. Activation of TRPM7 channels by small molecules under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, T; Schäfer, S; Linseisen, M; Sytik, L; Gudermann, T; Chubanov, V

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7) is a cation channel covalently linked to a protein kinase domain. TRPM7 is ubiquitously expressed and regulates key cellular processes such as Mg(2+) homeostasis, motility, and proliferation. TRPM7 is involved in anoxic neuronal death, cardiac fibrosis, and tumor growth. The goal of this work was to identify small molecule activators of the TRPM7 channel and investigate their mechanism of action. We used an aequorin bioluminescence-based assay to screen for activators of the TRPM7 channel. Valid candidates were further characterized using patch clamp electrophysiology. We identified 20 drug-like compounds with various structural backbones that can activate the TRPM7 channel. Among them, the δ opioid antagonist naltriben was studied in greater detail. Naltriben's action was selective among the TRP channels tested. Naltriben activates TRPM7 currents without prior depletion of intracellular Mg(2+) even under conditions of low PIP2. Moreover, naltriben interfered with the effect of the TRPM7 inhibitor NS8593. Finally, our experiments with TRPM7 variants carrying mutations in the pore, TRP, and kinase domains indicate that the site of TRPM7 activation by this small-molecule ligand is most likely located in or near the TRP domain. In conclusion, we identified the first organic small-molecule activators of TRPM7 channels, thus providing new experimental tools to study TRPM7 function in native cellular environments.

  8. Magnetic core mounting system

    DOEpatents

    Ronning, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    A mounting apparatus for an electromagnetic device such as a transformer of inductor includes a generally planar metallic plate as a first heat sink, and a metallic mounting cup as a second heat sink. The mounting cup includes a cavity configured to receive the electromagnetic device, the cavity being defined by a base, and an axially-extending annular sidewall extending from the base to a flange portion of the mounting cup. The mounting cup includes first and second passages for allowing the leads of first and second windings of the electromagnetic device to be routed out of the cavity. The cavity is filled with a polyurethane potting resin, and the mounting cup, including the potted electromagnetic device, is mounted to the plate heat sink using fasteners. The mounting cup, which surrounds the electromagnetic device, in combination with the potting resin provides improved thermal transfer to the plate heat sink, as well as providing resistance to vibration and shocks.

  9. Gas hydrate characterization and grain-scale imaging of recovered cores from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Laura A.; Lorenson, T.D.; Pinkston, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and gas chromatography methods, we investigated the physical states, grain characteristics, gas composition, and methane isotopic composition of two gas-hydrate-bearing sections of core recovered from the BPXA–DOE–USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well situated on the Alaska North Slope. The well was continuously cored from 606.5 m to 760.1 m depth, and sections investigated here were retrieved from 619.9 m and 661.0 m depth. X-ray analysis and imaging of the sediment phase in both sections shows it consists of a predominantly fine-grained and well-sorted quartz sand with lesser amounts of feldspar, muscovite, and minor clays. Cryogenic SEM shows the gas-hydrate phase forming primarily as a pore-filling material between the sediment grains at approximately 70–75% saturation, and more sporadically as thin veins typically several tens of microns in diameter. Pore throat diameters vary, but commonly range 20–120 microns. Gas chromatography analyses of the hydrate-forming gas show that it is comprised of mainly methane (>99.9%), indicating that the gas hydrate is structure I. Here we report on the distribution and articulation of the gas-hydrate phase within the cores, the grain morphology of the hydrate, the composition of the sediment host, and the composition of the hydrate-forming gas.

  10. Gas hydrate characterization and grain-scale imaging of recovered cores from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Lorenson, T.D.; Pinkston, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and gas chromatography methods, we investigated the physical states, grain characteristics, gas composition, and methane isotopic composition of two gas-hydrate-bearing sections of core recovered from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well situated on the Alaska North Slope. The well was continuously cored from 606.5. m to 760.1. m depth, and sections investigated here were retrieved from 619.9. m and 661.0. m depth. X-ray analysis and imaging of the sediment phase in both sections shows it consists of a predominantly fine-grained and well-sorted quartz sand with lesser amounts of feldspar, muscovite, and minor clays. Cryogenic SEM shows the gas-hydrate phase forming primarily as a pore-filling material between the sediment grains at approximately 70-75% saturation, and more sporadically as thin veins typically several tens of microns in diameter. Pore throat diameters vary, but commonly range 20-120 microns. Gas chromatography analyses of the hydrate-forming gas show that it is comprised of mainly methane (>99.9%), indicating that the gas hydrate is structure I. Here we report on the distribution and articulation of the gas-hydrate phase within the cores, the grain morphology of the hydrate, the composition of the sediment host, and the composition of the hydrate-forming gas. ?? 2009.

  11. Tropical forest phenology and metabolism: Integrated analysis of tower-mounted camera images and tower derived GPP for interpreting ecosystem scale processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Hayek, M.; Stark, S. C.; Smith, M.; Wiedemann, K.; Marostica, S.; Ferreira, M.; Woodcock, T.; Prohaska, N.; da Silva, R.; Nelson, B. W.; Huete, A. R.; Saleska, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Seasonal and interannual patterns of leaf development and metabolism are a central topic of global change ecology. However, the seasonality of leaf development in tropical forests remains poorly understood due to the relatively low variation in climate, the high biodiversity of tropical biomes and the limitations of current observation techniques. In this study, we aim to demonstrate the feasibility of using near-surface remote sensing techniques to understand the phenology of an evergreen tropical forest (Tapajos National Forest or TNF site, Santarem, Para, Brazil), and how this phenology affects the metabolism of tropical vegetation. Two continuous years (2010-2011) of daily images from a tower mounted three-channel (red, green, and near-infrared) TetraCAM ADC camera were analyzed for this study. A new approach was developed based on an automatic image classification scheme which decomposed the images into two components (leaves and bare wood) to extract seasonality of leaf development. A confusion matrix method was used to assess the accuracy of image classification. MODIS EVI composites (MOD13Q1) were also acquired and processed for the TNF site (5km*5km). The camera based phenology information was first compared with MODIS EVI, and then combined with tower based eddy covariance measurements at the same site to quantify the effect of canopy-scale phenology on ecosystem metabolism. We found that: (1) Tower-based images revealed a clear seasonal pattern in leaf phenology that was supported by confusion matrix analysis. Matrix analysis gave a 96.7% user accuracy (user accuracy represents the probability that an image pixel classification actually corresponds to that category on the ground) for the leaf component, based on 24 images in 2010 (2 images per month). The tower-based pattern matched that retrieved from satellites (camera-sensed leaf phenology vs monthly MODIS EVI (01/2010-12/2011, R2=0.57, P-value<0.01). This suggests that quality-controlled MODIS EVI

  12. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  13. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  14. The C-terminus of Kv7 channels: a multifunctional module.

    PubMed

    Haitin, Yoni; Attali, Bernard

    2008-04-01

    Kv7 channels (KCNQ) represent a family of voltage-gated K(+) channels which plays a prominent role in brain and cardiac excitability. Their physiological importance is underscored by the existence of mutations in human Kv7 genes, leading to severe cardiovascular and neurological disorders such as the cardiac long QT syndrome and neonatal epilepsy. Kv7 channels exhibit some structural and functional features that are distinct from other Kv channels. Notably, the Kv7 C-terminus is long compared to other K(+) channels and is endowed with characteristic structural domains, including coiled-coils, amphipatic alpha helices containing calmodulin-binding motifs and basic amino acid clusters. Here we provide a brief overview of current insights and as yet unsettled issues about the structural and functional attributes of the C-terminus of Kv7 channels. Recent data indicate that the proximal half of the Kv7 C-terminus associates with one calmodulin constitutively bound to each subunit. Epilepsy and long QT mutations located in this proximal region impair calmodulin binding and can affect channel gating, folding and trafficking. The distal half of the Kv7 C-terminus directs tetramerization, employing tandem coiled-coils. Together, the data indicate that the Kv7 C-terminal domain is a multimodular structure playing a crucial role in channel gating, assembly and trafficking as well as in scaffolding the channel complex with signalling proteins.

  15. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage.

  16. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.

    1994-11-08

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.

  17. Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mount St. Helens was captured one week after the March 8, 2005, ash and steam eruption, the latest activity since the volcano's reawakening in September 2004. The new lava dome in the southeast part of the crater is clearly visible, highlighted by red areas where ASTER's infrared channels detected hot spots from incandescent lava. The new lava dome is 155 meters (500 feet) higher than the old lava dome, and still growing.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 21.9 by 24.4 kilometers (13.6 by 15.1 miles) Location: 46.2 degrees North latitude, 122.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 8, 3, and 1 Original Data Resolution

  18. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and a device for simultaneously locking the post assembly and the key assembly in a fixed position.

  19. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1983-11-04

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and means for simultaneously locking said post assembly and said key assembly in a fixed position.

  20. Spherical mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Jay L. (Inventor); Messick, Glenn C. (Inventor); Nardell, Carl A. (Inventor); Hendlin, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A spherical mounting assembly for mounting an optical element allows for rotational motion of an optical surface of the optical element only. In that regard, an optical surface of the optical element does not translate in any of the three perpendicular translational axes. More importantly, the assembly provides adjustment that may be independently controlled for each of the three mutually perpendicular rotational axes.

  1. Optoelectronic Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R. F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Chu, Dahwey; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2004-10-05

    An optoelectronic mounting structure is provided that may be used in conjunction with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. The mounting structure may be a flexible printed circuit board. Thermal vias or heat pipes in the head region may transmit heat from the mounting structure to the heat spreader. The heat spreader may provide mechanical rigidity or stiffness to the heat region. In another embodiment, an electrical contact and ground plane may pass along a surface of the head region so as to provide an electrical contact path to the optoelectronic devices and limit electromagnetic interference. In yet another embodiment, a window may be formed in the head region of the mounting structure so as to provide access to the heat spreader. Optoelectronic devices may be adapted to the heat spreader in such a manner that the devices are accessible through the window in the mounting structure.

  2. A filter mount for the Euclid mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Rory; Grözinger, Ulrich; Bizenberger, Peter; Krause, Oliver

    2011-09-01

    We present two designs of a filter mounting structure for the Near-Infrared Imaging Photometer (NIP) planned for the Euclid dark energy space mission. The three large near-infrared filters - with a 127 mm diameter, 12 mm thickness and a 330 g mass per element - are challenging to mount. We present the design considerations, finite element analysis and results from the first prototyping campaign of these structures. The rationale behind the down-selection between the two designs is detailed and we conclude with recommendations on future developments of mounts of this type. The results presented here are based on work performed during the Euclid Assessment Study.

  3. NIF small mirror mount

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T

    1999-07-01

    A number of small mirror mounts have been identified that meet the stringent stability, wave front, and cleanliness standards of the NIF. These requirements are similar to those required in other performance critical optical design applications. Future design teams would conserve time and effort if recognized standards were established for mirror mount design and performance characteristics. Standards for stability, physical features, wave front distortion, and cleanliness would simplify the qualification process considerably. At this point such standards are not difficult to define, as the technical support work has been performed repeatedly by mirror mount consumers and suppliers.

  4. Mounting for ceramic scroll

    DOEpatents

    Petty, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    A mounting for a ceramic scroll on a metal engine block of a gas turbine engine includes a first ceramic ring and a pair of cross key connections between the first ceramic ring, the ceramic scroll, and the engine block. The cross key connections support the scroll on the engine block independent of relative radial thermal growth and for bodily movement toward an annular mounting shoulder on the engine. The scroll has an uninterrupted annular shoulder facing the mounting shoulder on the engine block. A second ceramic ring is captured between mounting shoulder and the uninterrupted shoulder on the scroll when the latter is bodily shifted toward the mouting shoulder to define a gas seal between the scroll and the engine block.

  5. Mechanical strain isolator mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Gordon E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Certain devices such as optical instruments must preserve their alignmental integrity while being subjected to mechanical strain. A mechanical strain isolator mount is provided to preserve the alignmental integrity of an alignment sensitive instrument. An alignment sensitive instrument is mounted on a rectangular base. Flexural legs are connected at their proximal ends to the rectangular base. Flexural legs are also spaced parallel to the sides. Mounting pads are connected to the legs at the distal end and the mechanical strain isolator mount is attached to the substrate by means of threaded bolts. When a mounting pad and its respective leg is subjected to lateral strain in either the X or Y direction via the substrate, the respective leg relieves the strain by bending in the direction of the strain. An axial strain on a mounting pad in the Z direction is relieved by a rotational motion of the legs in the direction of the strain. When the substrate is stress free, the flexural legs return to their original condition and thus preserve the original alignment integrity of the alignment sensitive instrument.

  6. Kv7 channels regulate pairwise spiking covariability in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Ocker, Gabriel Koch; Doiron, Brent

    2014-07-15

    Low-threshold M currents are mediated by the Kv7 family of potassium channels. Kv7 channels are important regulators of spiking activity, having a direct influence on the firing rate, spike time variability, and filter properties of neurons. How Kv7 channels affect the joint spiking activity of populations of neurons is an important and open area of study. Using a combination of computational simulations and analytic calculations, we show that the activation of Kv7 conductances reduces the covariability between spike trains of pairs of neurons driven by common inputs. This reduction is beyond that explained by the lowering of firing rates and involves an active cancellation of common fluctuations in the membrane potentials of the cell pair. Our theory shows that the excess covariance reduction is due to a Kv7-induced shift from low-pass to band-pass filtering of the single neuron spike train response. Dysfunction of Kv7 conductances is related to a number of neurological diseases characterized by both elevated firing rates and increased network-wide correlations. We show how changes in the activation or strength of Kv7 conductances give rise to excess correlations that cannot be compensated for by synaptic scaling or homeostatic modulation of passive membrane properties. In contrast, modulation of Kv7 activation parameters consistent with pharmacological treatments for certain hyperactivity disorders can restore normal firing rates and spiking correlations. Our results provide key insights into how regulation of a ubiquitous potassium channel class can control the coordination of population spiking activity.

  7. Retigabine holds KV7 channels open and stabilizes the resting potential

    PubMed Central

    Corbin-Leftwich, Aaron; Mossadeq, Sayeed M.; Ha, Junghoon; Ruchala, Iwona; Le, Audrey Han Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    The anticonvulsant Retigabine is a KV7 channel agonist used to treat hyperexcitability disorders in humans. Retigabine shifts the voltage dependence for activation of the heteromeric KV7.2/KV7.3 channel to more negative potentials, thus facilitating activation. Although the molecular mechanism underlying Retigabine’s action remains unknown, previous studies have identified the pore region of KV7 channels as the drug’s target. This suggested that the Retigabine-induced shift in voltage dependence likely derives from the stabilization of the pore domain in an open (conducting) conformation. Testing this idea, we show that the heteromeric KV7.2/KV7.3 channel has at least two open states, which we named O1 and O2, with O2 being more stable. The O1 state was reached after short membrane depolarizations, whereas O2 was reached after prolonged depolarization or during steady state at the typical neuronal resting potentials. We also found that activation and deactivation seem to follow distinct pathways, suggesting that the KV7.2/KV7.3 channel activity displays hysteresis. As for the action of Retigabine, we discovered that this agonist discriminates between open states, preferentially acting on the O2 state and further stabilizing it. Based on these findings, we proposed a novel mechanism for the therapeutic effect of Retigabine whereby this drug reduces excitability by enhancing the resting potential open state stability of KV7.2/KV7.3 channels. To address this hypothesis, we used a model for action potential (AP) in Xenopus laevis oocytes and found that the resting membrane potential became more negative as a function of Retigabine concentration, whereas the threshold potential for AP firing remained unaltered. PMID:26880756

  8. Vibration isolation mounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Sam D. (Inventor); Bastin, Paul H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system is disclosed for mounting a vibration producing device onto a spacecraft structure and also for isolating the vibration forces thereof from the structure. The system includes a mount on which the device is securely mounted and inner and outer rings. The rings and mount are concentrically positioned. The system includes a base (secured to the structure) and a set of links which are interconnected by a set of torsion bars which allow and resist relative rotational movement therebetween. The set of links are also rotatably connected to a set of brackets which are rigidly connected to the outer ring. Damped leaf springs interconnect the inner and outer rings and the mount allow relative translational movement therebetween in X and Y directions. The links, brackets and base are interconnected and configured so that they allow and resist translational movement of the device in the Z direction so that in combination with the springs they provide absorption of vibrational energy produced by the device in all three dimensions while providing rotational stiffness about all three axes to prevent undesired rotational motions.

  9. Pressure vessel bottle mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A mounting assembly for mounting a composite pressure vessel to a vehicle includes a saddle having a curved surface extending between two pillars for receiving the vessel. The saddle also has flanged portions which can be bolted to the vehicle. Each of the pillars has hole in which is mounted the shaft portion of an attachment member. A resilient member is disposed between each of the shaft portions and the holes and loaded by a tightening nut. External to the holes, each of the attachment members has a head portion to which a steel band is attached. The steel band circumscribes the vessel and translates the load on the springs into a clamping force on the vessel. As the vessel expands and contracts, the resilient members expand and contract so that the clamping force applied by the band to the vessel remains constant.

  10. Mounted drilling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Manten, H.

    1982-07-20

    The drilling apparatus includes a mount in the form of a cylindrical member defining an elongated passageway and being provided with two opposite guiding rails each being formed with an elongated recessed channel communicating with the passageway; a rotary drive for holding a drill rod has a non-rotating casing provided with guiding elements movable in the recesses of the guiding rails; a feeding mechanism for advancing the rotary drive includes either tooth racks arranged in the recesses of the guiding rails and driving pinions mounted on the casing of the rotary drive or cylinder and piston units located in the recesses of the guide rails and cooperating with feed cables or chains. The mount is supported on a mobile undercarriage which is provided with two pairs of vertically adjustable supporting legs.

  11. MOUNT BALDY WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finnell, Tommy L.; Soule, John H.

    1984-01-01

    The Mount Baldy Wilderness, Arizona, was surveyed for mineral resources and was judged to have little or no promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. No mineral deposits, mining claims, or concentrations of trace metals were recognized within the area. No oil test holes have been drilled within the area; holes drilled about 35 mi north of the area were not productive. Further study of the Mount Baldy Wilderness would seem warranted only in the event that economic deposits of minerals or petroleum are found in nearby areas.

  12. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  13. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  14. Intra-eruption Geologic Map from an X-band Radar Image During the May 18, 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, C. W.; Elston, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    The use of side-looking airborne radar images for geologic interpretations has increased with the Vesuvian exploration projects. Interpretation of images without ground truth relies on examples in terrestrial environments for which geologic data are available.

  15. Dengue virus-induced autophagosomes and changes in endomembrane ultrastructure imaged by electron tomography and whole-mount grid-cell culture techniques.

    PubMed

    Gangodkar, Shobha; Jain, Preksha; Dixit, Nishikant; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Basu, Atanu

    2010-01-01

    The biogenesis events and formation of dengue virus (DENV) in the infected host cells remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we examined the ultrastructural changes associated with DENV-2 replication in three susceptible host cells, C6/36, Vero and SK Hep1, a cell line of human endothelial origin, using transmission electron microscopy, whole-mount grid-cell culture techniques and electron tomography (ET). The prominent feature in C6/36 cells was the formation of large perinuclear vacuoles with mature DENV particles, and on-grid whole-mount examination of the infected Vero cells showed different forms of DENV core structures associated with cellular membranes within 48 h after infection. Distinct multivesicular structures and prominent autophagic vesicles were seen in the infected SK Hep1 cells when compared with the other two cell lines. ET showed the three-dimensional organization of these vesicles as a continuous system. This is the first report of ET-based analysis of DENV-2 replication in a human endothelial cell line. These results further emphasizes the strong role played by intracellular host membranes-virus interactions in the biogenesis of DENV and strongly argues for the possibility of targeting compounds to block such structure formation as key anti-dengue agents.

  16. Housing And Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  17. Mount Erebus activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An international team of scientists reports that unusually high seismic activity joggled Mount Erebus last fall. However, the Antarctic volcano showed no external signs of an eruption.When scientists from the United States, Japan, and New Zealand returned to the world's southernmost active volcano last November for their annual field expedition, they found that seismic stations recorded 650 small tremors on October 8; prior to that, the number of quakes had averaged between 20 and 80 per day. The October 8 maximum was followed by 140 on October 9 and 120 on October 10. Philip R. Kyle, assistant professor of geochemistry at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro and leader of the team studying Mount Erebus, noted that some of the strongest earthquakes recorded during the team's 3 years of observations occurred on October 8; these registered less than 2 on the Richter scale.

  18. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Robert F.; Pak, Donald J.

    2004-10-26

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  19. Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mount Wilson Observatory, located in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, California, was founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale with financial support from Andrew Carnegie. In the 1920s and 1930s, working at the 2.5 m Hooker telescope, Edwin Hubble made two of the most important discoveries in the history of astronomy: first, that `nebulae' are actually island universes—galaxies—each with bil...

  20. Thread-Mounted Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Stanley W.

    1988-01-01

    Thread-mounted thermocouple developed to accurately measure temperature of surrounding material. Comprised of threaded rod or bolt drilled along length, dual-hole ceramic insulator rod, thermocouple wire, optional ceramic filler, and epoxy resin. In contact with and takes average temperature of, surrounding material. Fabricated easily in size and metal to suit particular application. Because of simplicity and ability to measure average temperature, widespread use of design foreseen in varity of applications.

  1. Solar panel mounting assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Eiden, G.E.

    1990-01-02

    This patent describes a mounting assembly for pivotally connecting a solar panel or collector to a base. The mounting assembly comprising: a frame whereupon the solar panel or collector can be mounted; a first plate connected to the frame, the plate having a pivot hole and a plurality of angle displacement holes each being equidistant from the pivot hole; a second plate connected to the base and situated substantially parallel to the first plate. The second plate having a pivot hole and an angle displacement hole being situated substantially the same distance apart from the second plate pivot hole as the distance between the pivot and displacement holes of the first plate; a pivot shaft received through the plate pivot hole and the second plate pivot hole whereby the frame and first plate can pivot with respect to the second plate and the base; an angle displacement shaft selectively received through the second plate angle displacement hole and any one of the first plate angle displacement holes whereby the frame and first plate can be selectively angularly fixed with respect to the second plate and the base; a U-member having two legs, the second plate being connected to the U-member; and, a selectively rotable shaft.

  2. Monitoring Mount Baker Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malone, S.D.; Frank, D.

    1976-01-01

    Hisotrically active volcanoes in the conterminous United States are restricted to the Cascade Range and extend to the Cascade Range and extend from Mount Baker near the Canadian border to Lassen Peak in northern California. Since 1800 A.D, most eruptive activity has been on a relatively small scale and has not caused loss of life or significant property damage. However, future  volcanism predictably will have more serious effects because of greatly increased use of land near volcanoes during the present century. (See "Appraising Volcanic Hazards of the Cascade Range of the Northwestern United States," Earthquake Inf. Bull., Sept.-Oct. 1974.) The recognition an impending eruption is highly important in order to minimize the potential hazard to people and property. Thus, a substantial increase in hydrothermal activity at Mount Baker in March 1975 ( see "Mount Baker Heating Up," July-Aug. 1975 issue) was regarded as a possible first signal that an eruption might occur, and an intensive monitoring program was undertaken. 

  3. A clearer view of the insect brain—combining bleaching with standard whole-mount immunocytochemistry allows confocal imaging of pigment-covered brain areas for 3D reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Stöckl, Anna L.; Heinze, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    In the study of insect neuroanatomy, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of neurons and neuropils have become a standard technique. As images have to be obtained from whole-mount brain preparations, pigmentation on the brain surface poses a serious challenge to imaging. In insects, this is a major problematic in the first visual neuropil of the optic lobe, the lamina, which is obstructed by the pigment of the retina as well as by the pigmented fenestration layer. This has prevented inclusion of this major processing center of the insect visual system into most neuroanatomical brain atlases and hinders imaging of neurons within the lamina by confocal microscopy. It has recently been shown that hydrogen peroxide bleaching is compatible with immunohistochemical labeling in insect brains, and we therefore developed a simple technique for removal of pigments on the surface of insect brains by chemical bleaching. We show that our technique enables imaging of the pigment-obstructed regions of insect brains when combined with standard protocols for both anti-synapsin-labeled as well as neurobiotin-injected samples. This method can be combined with different fixation procedures, as well as different fluorophore excitation wavelengths without negative effects on staining quality. It can therefore serve as an effective addition to most standard histology protocols used in insect neuroanatomy. PMID:26441552

  4. KV7 channels contribute to paracrine, but not metabolic or ischemic, regulation of coronary vascular reactivity in swine.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Adam G; Fu, Lijuan; Noblet, Jillian N; Casalini, Eli D; Sassoon, Daniel; Berwick, Zachary C; Kassab, Ghassan S; Tune, Johnathan D; Dick, Gregory M

    2016-03-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and voltage-dependent K(+) (KV) channels play key roles in regulating coronary blood flow in response to metabolic, ischemic, and paracrine stimuli. The KV channels responsible have not been identified, but KV7 channels are possible candidates. Existing data regarding KV7 channel function in the coronary circulation (limited to ex vivo assessments) are mixed. Thus we examined the hypothesis that KV7 channels are present in cells of the coronary vascular wall and regulate vasodilation in swine. We performed a variety of molecular, biochemical, and functional (in vivo and ex vivo) studies. Coronary arteries expressed KCNQ genes (quantitative PCR) and KV7.4 protein (Western blot). Immunostaining demonstrated KV7.4 expression in conduit and resistance vessels, perhaps most prominently in the endothelial and adventitial layers. Flupirtine, a KV7 opener, relaxed coronary artery rings, and this was attenuated by linopirdine, a KV7 blocker. Endothelial denudation inhibited the flupirtine-induced and linopirdine-sensitive relaxation of coronary artery rings. Moreover, linopirdine diminished bradykinin-induced endothelial-dependent relaxation of coronary artery rings. There was no effect of intracoronary flupirtine or linopirdine on coronary blood flow at the resting heart rate in vivo. Linopirdine had no effect on coronary vasodilation in vivo elicited by ischemia, H2O2, or tachycardia. However, bradykinin increased coronary blood flow in vivo, and this was attenuated by linopirdine. These data indicate that KV7 channels are expressed in some coronary cell type(s) and influence endothelial function. Other physiological functions of coronary vascular KV7 channels remain unclear, but they do appear to contribute to endothelium-dependent responses to paracrine stimuli.

  5. KV7 channels contribute to paracrine, but not metabolic or ischemic, regulation of coronary vascular reactivity in swine

    PubMed Central

    Goodwill, Adam G.; Fu, Lijuan; Noblet, Jillian N.; Casalini, Eli D.; Berwick, Zachary C.; Kassab, Ghassan S.; Tune, Johnathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and voltage-dependent K+ (KV) channels play key roles in regulating coronary blood flow in response to metabolic, ischemic, and paracrine stimuli. The KV channels responsible have not been identified, but KV7 channels are possible candidates. Existing data regarding KV7 channel function in the coronary circulation (limited to ex vivo assessments) are mixed. Thus we examined the hypothesis that KV7 channels are present in cells of the coronary vascular wall and regulate vasodilation in swine. We performed a variety of molecular, biochemical, and functional (in vivo and ex vivo) studies. Coronary arteries expressed KCNQ genes (quantitative PCR) and KV7.4 protein (Western blot). Immunostaining demonstrated KV7.4 expression in conduit and resistance vessels, perhaps most prominently in the endothelial and adventitial layers. Flupirtine, a KV7 opener, relaxed coronary artery rings, and this was attenuated by linopirdine, a KV7 blocker. Endothelial denudation inhibited the flupirtine-induced and linopirdine-sensitive relaxation of coronary artery rings. Moreover, linopirdine diminished bradykinin-induced endothelial-dependent relaxation of coronary artery rings. There was no effect of intracoronary flupirtine or linopirdine on coronary blood flow at the resting heart rate in vivo. Linopirdine had no effect on coronary vasodilation in vivo elicited by ischemia, H2O2, or tachycardia. However, bradykinin increased coronary blood flow in vivo, and this was attenuated by linopirdine. These data indicate that KV7 channels are expressed in some coronary cell type(s) and influence endothelial function. Other physiological functions of coronary vascular KV7 channels remain unclear, but they do appear to contribute to endothelium-dependent responses to paracrine stimuli. PMID:26825518

  6. The Mount Wilson magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.; Boyden, J. E.; Bruning, D. H.; Clark, M. K.; Crist, H. W.; Labonte, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    In the summer of 1957, an instrument quite similar to the prototype solar magnetograph described by Babcock (1953) was installed at the 150-foot tower telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory, and daily magnetograph observations of the full disk of the sun were started. During the following years, the instrument was modified and improved on several occasions. The present investigation is concerned with the present state of the magnetograph, which was largely rebuilt during 1981. Attention is given to the spectrograph entrance slit, the diffraction grating, the exit slit, the employed microprocessor, the setup procedure, the magnetic signal, the Doppler signal, and a solar magnetogram.

  7. MOUNT WASHINGTON WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Edward M.; Causey, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, Mount Washington Wilderness, Oregon has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources. Abundant cinder resources occur in the wilderness, but other large volume cinder deposits are available outside the wilderness and closer to markets. Analysis of the geothermal potential of the High Cascades province cannot be made without data on the subsurface thermal and hydrologic regimes which can only be provided by deep drill holes. Several deep holes could be drilled in areas outside the wildernesses of the High Cascades, from which extrapolations of the geothermal potential of the wildernesses could be made.

  8. Rebuilding Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, Steve P.; Ramsey, David W.; Messerich, James A.; Thompson, Ren A.

    2006-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, Washington exploded in a spectacular and devastating eruption that shocked the world. The eruption, one of the most powerful in the history of the United States, removed 2.7 cubic kilometers of rock from the volcano's edifice, the bulk of which had been constructed by nearly 4,000 years of lava-dome-building eruptions. In seconds, the mountain's summit elevation was lowered from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters, leaving a north-facing, horseshoe-shaped crater over 2 kilometers wide. Following the 1980 eruption, Mount St. Helens remained active. A large lava dome began episodically extruding in the center of the volcano's empty crater. This dome-building eruption lasted until 1986 and added about 80 million cubic meters of rock to the volcano. During the two decades following the May 18, 1980 eruption, Crater Glacier formed tongues of ice around the east and west sides of the lava dome in the deeply shaded niche between the lava dome and the south crater wall. Long the most active volcano in the Cascade Range with a complex 300,000-year history, Mount St. Helens erupted again in the fall of 2004 as a new period of dome building began within the 1980 crater. Between October 2004 and February 2006, about 80 million cubic meters of dacite lava erupted immediately south of the 1980-86 lava dome. The erupting lava separated the glacier into two parts, first squeezing the east arm of the glacier against the east crater wall and then causing equally spectacular crevassing and broad uplift of the glacier's west arm. Vertical aerial photographs document dome growth and glacier deformation. These photographs enabled photogrammetric construction of a series of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) showing changes from October 4, 2004 to February 9, 2006. From the DEMs, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications were used to estimate extruded volumes and growth rates of the new lava dome. The DEMs were also used to quantify dome

  9. Use of a Novel Rover-mounted Fluorescence Imager and Fluorescent Probes to Detect Biological Material in the Atacama Desert in Daylight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, S.; Pane, D.; Warren-Rhodes, K.; Cockell, C.; Ernst, L. A.; Minkley, E.; Fisher, G.; Emani, S.; Wettergreen, D. S.; Wagner, M.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed an imaging system, the Fluorescence Imager (FI), for detecting fluorescence signals from sparse microorganisms and biofilms during autonomous rover exploration. The fluorescence signals arise both from naturally occurring chromophores, such as chlorophyll of cyanobacteria and lichens, and from fluorescent probes applied to soil and rocks. Daylight imaging has been accomplished by a novel use of a high-powered flashlamp synchronized to a CCD camera. The fluorescent probes are cell permanent stains that have extremely low intrinsic fluorescence (quantum yields less than 0.01) and a large fluorescence enhancement (quantum yields greater than 0.4) when bound to the target. Each probe specifically targets either carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids or membrane lipids, the four classes of macromolecules found in terrestrial life. The intent of the probes is to interrogate the environment for surface and endolithic life forms.

  10. Surface mount component jig

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  11. Experimental validation of a Monte Carlo-based kV x-ray projection model for the Varian linac-mounted cone-beam CT imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazos, Dimitrios; Pokhrel, Damodar; Su, Zhong; Lu, Jun; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2008-03-01

    Fast and accurate modeling of cone-beam CT (CBCT) x-ray projection data can improve CBCT image quality either by linearizing projection data for each patient prior to image reconstruction (thereby mitigating detector blur/lag, spectral hardening, and scatter artifacts) or indirectly by supporting rigorous comparative simulation studies of competing image reconstruction and processing algorithms. In this study, we compare Monte Carlo-computed x-ray projections with projections experimentally acquired from our Varian Trilogy CBCT imaging system for phantoms of known design. Our recently developed Monte Carlo photon-transport code, PTRAN, was used to compute primary and scatter projections for cylindrical phantom of known diameter (NA model 76-410) with and without bow-tie filter and antiscatter grid for both full- and half-fan geometries. These simulations were based upon measured 120 kVp spectra, beam profiles, and flat-panel detector (4030CB) point-spread function. Compound Poisson- process noise was simulated based upon measured beam output. Computed projections were compared to flat- and dark-field corrected 4030CB images where scatter profiles were estimated by subtracting narrow axial-from full axial width 4030CB profiles. In agreement with the literature, the difference between simulated and measured projection data is of the order of 6-8%. The measurement of the scatter profiles is affected by the long tails of the detector PSF. Higher accuracy can be achieved mainly by improving the beam modeling and correcting the non linearities induced by the detector PSF.

  12. Cardiac muscle organization revealed in 3-D by imaging whole-mount mouse hearts using two-photon fluorescence and confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sivaguru, Mayandi; Fried, Glenn; Sivaguru, Barghav S; Sivaguru, Vignesh A; Lu, Xiaochen; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Saif, M Taher A; Lin, Brian; Sadayappan, Sakthivel

    2015-11-01

    The ability to image the entire adult mouse heart at high resolution in 3-D would provide enormous advantages in the study of heart disease. However, a technique for imaging nuclear/cellular detail as well as the overall structure of the entire heart in 3-D with minimal effort is lacking. To solve this problem, we modified the benzyl alcohol:benzyl benzoate (BABB) clearing technique by labeling mouse hearts with periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain. We then imaged the hearts with a combination of two-photon fluorescence microscopy and automated tile-scan imaging/stitching. Utilizing the differential spectral properties of PAS, we could identify muscle and nuclear compartments in the heart. We were also able to visualize the differences between a 3-month-old normal mouse heart and a mouse heart that had undergone heart failure due to the expression of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) gene mutation (t/t). Using 2-D and 3-D morphometric analysis, we found that the t/t heart had anomalous ventricular shape, volume, and wall thickness, as well as a disrupted sarcomere pattern. We further validated our approach using decellularized hearts that had been cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts, which were tracked using a nuclear label. We were able to detect the 3T3 cells inside the decellularized intact heart tissue, achieving nuclear/cellular resolution in 3-D. The combination of labeling, clearing, and two-photon microscopy together with tiling eliminates laborious and time-consuming physical sectioning, alignment, and 3-D reconstruction.

  13. Mount Zion Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan Mount Zion Cemetery/ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mount Zion Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Combat vehicle crew helmet-mounted display: next generation high-resolution head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Scott A.

    1994-06-01

    The Combat Vehicle Crew Head-Mounted Display (CVC HMD) program is an ARPA-funded, US Army Natick Research, Development, and Engineering Center monitored effort to develop a high resolution, flat panel HMD for the M1 A2 Abrams main battle tank. CVC HMD is part of the ARPA High Definition Systems (HDS) thrust to develop and integrate small (24 micrometers square pels), high resolution (1280 X 1024 X 6-bit grey scale at 60 frame/sec) active matrix electroluminescent (AMEL) and active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD) for head mounted and projection applications. The Honeywell designed CVC HMD is a next generation head-mounted display system that includes advanced flat panel image sources, advanced digital display driver electronics, high speed (> 1 Gbps) digital interconnect electronics, and light weight, high performance optical and mechanical designs. The resulting dramatic improvements in size, weight, power, and cost have already led to program spin offs for both military and commercial applications.

  15. Helmet-Mounted Display Of Clouds Of Harmful Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Barengoltz, Jack B.; Schober, Wayne R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed helmet-mounted opto-electronic instrument provides real-time stereoscopic views of clouds of otherwise invisible toxic, explosive, and/or corrosive gas. Display semitransparent: images of clouds superimposed on scene ordinarily visible to wearer. Images give indications on sizes and concentrations of gas clouds and their locations in relation to other objects in scene. Instruments serve as safety devices for astronauts, emergency response crews, fire fighters, people cleaning up chemical spills, or anyone working near invisible hazardous gases. Similar instruments used as sensors in automated emergency response systems that activate safety equipment and emergency procedures. Both helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions used at industrial sites, chemical plants, or anywhere dangerous and invisible or difficult-to-see gases present. In addition to helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions, there could be hand-held version. In some industrial applications, desirable to mount instruments and use them similarly to parking-lot surveillance cameras.

  16. Mount Shasta Snowpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Full-size images June 17, 2001 (2.0 MB JPEG) June 14, 2000 (2.1 MB JPEG) Light snowfall in the winter of 2000-01 led to a dry summer in the Pacific Northwest. The drought led to a conflict between farmers and fishing communities in the Klamath River Basin over water rights, and a series of forest fires in Washington, Oregon, and Northern California. The pair of images above, both acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, show the snowpack on Mt. Shasta in June 2000 and 2001. On June 14, 2000, the snow extends to the lower slopes of the 4,317-meter (14,162-foot) volcano. At nearly the same time this year (June 17, 2001) the snow had retreated well above the tree-line. The drought in the region was categorized as moderate to severe by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) reported that streamflow during June was only about 25 percent of the average. Above and to the left of Mt. Shasta is Lake Shastina, a reservoir which is noticeably lower in the 2001 image than the 2000 image. Images courtesy USGS EROS Data Center and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  17. Mount Rainier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS

  18. Adjustable Optical Mount Is More Rigid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Bill G.; Coombs, David S.; Jones, Irby W.; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Improved mount for lens or mirror in laser offers rigidity similar to that of nonadjustable optical mount. In comparison with older adjustable optical mounts, this one less susceptible to movements and distortions caused by vibrations and by thermal expansions and contractions. Mount contains neither adjustment rods (which grow or shrink as temperature varies) nor springs (which transmit vibrations to mounted optic).

  19. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Kwijong; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyoung; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-06-01

    The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA) detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL) mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  20. Preparation of samples for leaf architecture studies, a method for mounting cleared leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Vasco, Alejandra; Thadeo, Marcela; Conover, Margaret; Daly, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Several recent waves of interest in leaf architecture have shown an expanding range of approaches and applications across a number of disciplines. Despite this increased interest, examination of existing archives of cleared and mounted leaves shows that current methods for mounting, in particular, yield unsatisfactory results and deterioration of samples over relatively short periods. Although techniques for clearing and staining leaves are numerous, published techniques for mounting leaves are scarce. • Methods and Results: Here we present a complete protocol and recommendations for clearing, staining, and imaging leaves, and, most importantly, a method to permanently mount cleared leaves. • Conclusions: The mounting protocol is faster than other methods, inexpensive, and straightforward; moreover, it yields clear and permanent samples that can easily be imaged, scanned, and stored. Specimens mounted with this method preserve well, with leaves that were mounted more than 35 years ago showing no signs of bubbling or discoloration. PMID:25225627

  1. Voltage-sensing phosphatase reveals temporal regulation of TRPC3/C6/C7 channels by membrane phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Itsuki, Kyohei; Imai, Yuko; Okamura, Yasushi; Abe, Kihachiro; Inoue, Ryuji; Mori, Masayuki X

    2012-01-01

    TRPC3/C6/C7 channels, a subgroup of classical/canonical TRP channels, are activated by diacylglycerol produced via activation of phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled receptors. Recognition of the physiological importance of these channels has been steadily growing, but the mechanism by which they are regulated remains largely unknown. We recently used a membrane-resident danio rerio voltage-sensing phosphatase (DrVSP) to study TRPC3/C6/C7 regulation and found that the channel activity was controlled by PtdIns(4,5)P(2)-DAG signaling in a self-limiting manner (Imai Y et al., the Journal of Physiology, 2012). In this addendum, we present the advantages of using DrVSP as a molecular tool to study PtdIns(4,5)P(2) regulation. DrVSP should be readily applicable for studying phosphoinositide metabolism-linked channel regulation as well as lipid dynamics. Furthermore, in comparison to other modes of self-limiting ion channel regulation, the regulation of TRPC3/C6/C7 channels seems highly susceptible to activation signal strength, which could potentially affect both open duration and the time to peak activation and inactivation. Dysfunction of such self-limiting regulation may contribute to the pathology of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract and brain, as these channels are broadly distributed and affected by numerous neurohormonal agonists.

  2. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis.

  3. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  4. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1995-03-21

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis. 7 figures.

  5. Dry tilt network at Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Johnson, Daniel J.; Symonds, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to its primary responsibility of monitoring active Mount St. Helens, the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) has been charged with obtaining baseline geodetic and geochemical information at each of the other potentially active Cascade volcanoes. Dry tilt and/or trilateration networks were established during 1975-82 at Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, Mount Hood, Mount Shasta, Lassen Peak, Crater Lake, and Long Valley caldera; coverage was extended during September 1982 to include Mount Rainier.

  6. The head-mounted microscope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery.

  7. Automated inspection of solder joints for surface mount technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Robert M.; Park, Hyun Soo; Fan, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at NASA/GSFC evaluated various automated inspection systems (AIS) technologies using test boards with known defects in surface mount solder joints. These boards were complex and included almost every type of surface mount device typical of critical assemblies used for space flight applications: X-ray radiography; X-ray laminography; Ultrasonic Imaging; Optical Imaging; Laser Imaging; and Infrared Inspection. Vendors, representative of the different technologies, inspected the test boards with their particular machine. The results of the evaluation showed limitations of AIS. Furthermore, none of the AIS technologies evaluated proved to meet all of the inspection criteria for use in high-reliability applications. It was found that certain inspection systems could supplement but not replace manual inspection for low-volume, high-reliability, surface mount solder joints.

  8. SXI Prototype mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This final report describes the work performed from June 1993 to January 1995. The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule.

  9. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  10. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  11. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  12. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  13. Optical mounts for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimovich, Mark E.; Griffee, Jonathan C.; Goodding, James C.

    2009-08-01

    Development and testing of a lightweight-kinematic optical mount with integrated passive vibration-and-shock mitigation technologies and simple / robust optical alignment functionality is presented. Traditionally, optical mounts are designed for use in laboratory environments where the thermal-mechanical environments are carefully controlled to preserve beam path conditions and background disturbances are minimized to facilitate precise optically based measurements. Today's weapon and surveillance systems, however, have optical sensor suites where static and dynamic alignment performance in the presence of harsh operating environments is required to nearly the same precision and where the system cannot afford the mass of laboratory-grade stabilized mounting systems. Jitter and alignment stability is particularly challenging for larger optics operating within moving vehicles and aircraft where high shock and significant temperature excursions occur. The design intent is to have the mount be suitable for integration into existing defense and security optical systems while also targeting new commercial and military components for improved structural dynamic and thermal distortion performance. A mount suitable for moderate-sized optics and an integrated disturbance-optical metrology system are described. The mount design has performance enhancements derived from the integration of proven aerospace mechanical vibration and shock mitigation technologies (i.e. multi-axis passive isolation and integral damping), precision alignment adjustment and lock-out functionality, high dimensional stability materials and design practices which provide benign optical surface figure errors under harsh thermal-mechanical loading. Optical jitter, alignment, and wave-front performance testing of an eight-inch-aperture optical mount based on this design approach are presented to validate predicted performance improvements over an existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) design.

  14. Hardware Photos: Image Showing JWST Engineering Demonstration Mirror, Mounted Ready for Machining at AXYS and Image Showing HIP Can Containing Light Mirrors 1 and 2 Ready for Mirror Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, Sean

    2004-01-01

    The images in this viewgraph presentation have the following captions: 1) EDU mirror after being sawed in half; 2) EDU Delivered to Axsys; 3) Be EDU Blank Received and Machining Started; 4) Loaded HIP can for flight PM segments 1 and 2; 5) Flight Blanks 1 and 2 Loaded into HIP Can at Brush-Wellman; 6) EDU in Machining at Axsys.

  15. KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine protects against acute stress-induced impairments of spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Huang, P; Lu, Q; Zhou, M; Guo, L; Xu, X

    2014-11-07

    Spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) are impaired by stress. KCNQ/Kv7 channels are closely associated with memory and the KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine represents neuroprotective effects. This study aims to test whether KCNQ/Kv7 channel activation prevents acute stress-induced impairments of spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP. Rats were placed on an elevated platform in the middle of a bright room for 30 min to evoke acute stress. The expression of KCNQ/Kv7 subunits was analyzed at 1, 3 and 12 h after stress by Western blotting. Spatial memory was examined by the Morris water maze (MWM) and the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) in the hippocampal CA1 area was recorded in vivo. Acute stress transiently decreased the expression of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 in the hippocampus. Acute stress impaired the spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP, the KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine prevented the impairments, and the protective effects of flupirtine were blocked by XE-991 (10,10-bis(4-Pyridinylmethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenone), a selective KCNQ channel blocker. Furthermore, acute stress decreased the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) at Ser9 in the hippocampus, and flupirtine inhibited the reduction. These results suggest that the KCNQ/Kv7 channels may be a potential target for protecting both hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory retrieval from acute stress influences.

  16. Ice Volumes on Cascade Volcanoes: Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Three Sisters, and Mount Shasta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn L.; Kennard, Paul M.

    1986-01-01

    During the eruptions of Mount St. Helens the occurrence of floods and mudflows made apparent the need for predictive water-hazard analysis of other Cascade volcanoes. A basic requirement for such analysis is information about the volumes and distributions of snow and ice on other volcanoes. A radar unit contained in a backpack was used to make point measurements of ice thickness on major glaciers of Mount Rainier, Wash.; Mount Hood, Oreg.; the Three Sisters, Oreg.; and Mount Shasta, Calif. The measurements were corrected for slope and were used to develop subglacial contour maps from which glacier volumes were measured. These values were used to develop estimation methods for finding volumes of unmeasured glaciers. These methods require a knowledge of glacier slope, altitude, and area and require an estimation of basal shear stress, each estimate derived by using topographic maps updated by aerial photographs. The estimation methods were found to be accurate within ?20 percent on measured glaciers and to be within ?25 percent when applied to unmeasured glaciers on the Cascade volcanoes. The estimation methods may be applicable to other temperate glaciers in similar climatic settings. Areas and volumes of snow and ice are as follows: Mount Rainier, 991 million ft2, 156 billion ft3; Mount Hood, 145 million ft2, 12 billion ft3; Three Sisters, 89 million ft2, 6 billion ft3; and Mount Shasta, 74 million ft2, 5 billion ft3. The distribution of ice and firn patches within 58 glacierized basins on volcanoes is mapped and listed by altitude and by watershed to facilitate water-hazard analysis.

  17. VIBRATION DAMPING AND SHOCK MOUNT

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, D.J.; Forman, G.W.

    1963-12-10

    A shock absorbing mount in which vibrations are damped by an interference fit between relatively movable parts of the mount is described. A pair of generally cup-shaped parts or members have skirt portions disposed in an oppositely facing nesting relationship with the skirt of one member frictionally engaging the skirt of the other. The outermost skirt may be slotted to provide spring-like segments which embrace the inner skirt for effecting the interference fit. Belleville washers between the members provide yieldable support for a load carried by the mount. When a resonant frequency of vibration forces acting upon the moumt attains a certain level the kinetic energy of these forces is absorbed by sliding friction between the parts. (AEC)

  18. Mounting clips for panel installation

    DOEpatents

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco

    2017-02-14

    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  19. Precision alignment and mounting apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alignment and mounting apparatus for mounting two modules (10,12) includes a first portion having a cylindrical alignment pin (16) projecting normal to a module surface, a second portion having a three-stage alignment guide (18) including a shoehorn flange (34), a Y-slot (42) and a V-block (22) which sequentially guide the alignment pin (16) with successively finer precision and a third portion in the form of a spring-loaded captive fastener (20) for connecting the two modules after alignment is achieved.

  20. Head Mounted Display with a Roof Mirror Array Fold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention includes a head mounted display (HMD) worn by a user. The HMD includes a display projecting an image through an optical lens. The HMD also includes a one-dimensional retro reflective array receiving the image through the optical lens at a first angle with respect to the display and deflecting the image at a second angle different than the first angle with respect to the display. The one-dimensional retro reflective array reflects the image in order to project the image onto an eye of the user.

  1. Cyanoacrylate glue as an alternative mounting medium for resin-embedded semithin sections.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Yun; Phillips, Gael E; Kempf, Margit; Cuttle, Leila; Kimble, Roy M; McMillan, James R

    2010-01-01

    Commercially available generic Superglue (cyanoacrylate glue) can be used as an alternative mounting medium for stained resin-embedded semithin sections. It is colourless and contains a volatile, quick-setting solvent that produces permanent mounts of semithin sections for immediate inspection under the light microscope. Here, we compare the use of cyanoacrylate glue for mounting semithin sections with classical dibutyl phthalate xylene (DPX) in terms of practical usefulness, effectiveness and the quality of the final microscopic image.

  2. Mount Holyoke College Reshapes Reengineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Madeline; Beretska, Sandra; Morrissey, Debra

    1999-01-01

    Reports on two reengineering projects at Mount Holyoke College (Massachusetts) that led participants to conclude that business process reengineering (BPR) in higher education involves a magnitude of cultural change that differentiates it significantly from BPR in the corporate world. The two projects involved redesigning a library department and…

  3. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  4. Cryogenically cooled detector pin mount

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Jr., William E; Chrisp, Michael P

    2014-06-03

    A focal plane assembly facilitates a molybdenum base plate being mounted to another plate made from aluminum. The molybdenum pin is an interference fit (press fit) in the aluminum base plate. An annular cut out area in the base plate forms two annular flexures.

  5. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  6. Helmet-Mounted Display Symbology and Stabilization Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD) presents flight, sensor, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information and to view sensor images while looking off boresight.

  7. [Water cults on Soratte Mount].

    PubMed

    Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Mount Soratte is a limestone ridge that rises on a lonely plateau of Pliocene tuff on the right of the Tiber, about forty kilometers North of Rome. Studies related to human settlements during prehistory in this territory have been sporadic and occasional. The first evidence of prehistoric cults on mount Soratte has been found in the early Fifties when ajar, dating back to Neolithic times, was discovered in the cave of the Meri. The jar was placed in a position to be always filled of water and indicates the existence of ancient practices of worship linked to groundwater. In the Middle Ages, although caves became a step towards the Hell, dripping caves were often associated with the magical-religious and therapeutic aspects of water linked to fertility in the popular imagination. In the cave church of the Saint Romana, on the eastern slope of Mount Soratte close to Meri, there is a small marble basin near the altar and the water drips from the rock above it. This water is taken out for devotion and drunk by mothers who did not get milk from their breasts. Recently, the water of the Saint Romana would have drained as a result of an act of sacrilege, albeit unintentionally, as reported in a oral testimony. Overall, the territory of Mount Soratte is characterized by a sharp and clear karst. This causes the water, that collects on the inside, coming out in many springs all around the valley. This water is collected to supply fountains used years ago by farmers and livestock and nowadays may represent a cultural space of social life with the aim to build a strong link with the territory and a new awareness of the past and history of the countryside around Mount Soratte.

  8. TRPM7 channel regulates PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of hepatic stellate cells via PI3K and ERK pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ling Zhan, Shuxiang; Huang, Cheng; Cheng, Xi; Lv, Xiongwen; Si, Hongfang; Li, Jun

    2013-11-01

    TRPM7, a non-selective cation channel of the TRP channel superfamily, is implicated in diverse physiological and pathological processes including cell proliferation. Recently, TRPM7 has been reported in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Here, we investigated the contribution role of TRPM7 in activated HSC-T6 cell (a rat hepatic stellate cell line) proliferation. TRPM7 mRNA and protein were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot in rat model of liver fibrosis in vivo and PDGF-BB-activated HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Both mRNA and protein of TRPM7 were dramatically increased in CCl{sub 4}-treated rat livers. Stimulation of HSC-T6 cells with PDGF-BB resulted in a time-dependent increase of TRPM7 mRNA and protein. However, PDGF-BB-induced HSC-T6 cell proliferation was inhibited by non-specific TRPM7 blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or synthetic siRNA targeting TRPM7, and this was accompanied by downregulation of cell cycle proteins, cyclin D1, PCNA and CDK4. Blockade of TRPM7 channels also attenuated PDGF-BB induced expression of myofibroblast markers as measured by the induction of α-SMA and Col1α1. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT, associated with cell proliferation, decreased in TRPM7 deficient HSC-T6 cells. These observations suggested that TRPM7 channels contribute to perpetuated fibroblast activation and proliferation of PDGF-BB induced HSC-T6 cells via the activation of ERK and PI3K pathways. Therefore, TRPM7 may constitute a useful target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Upregulation of TRPM7 mRNA and protein in the fibrotic livers from CCl{sub 4}-treated rats. • Increasing expression of TRPM7 mRNA and protein during HSC activation. • Blockade of TRPM7 inhibited the PDGF-BB induced proliferation of HSC-T6 cells. • Blockade of TRPM7 decreased α-SMA and Col1α1 expressions in activated HSC-T6 cells. • TRPM7 up-regulation contributes to the activation of ERK and AKT pathways.

  9. 3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Han-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Seong-Bok; Zhang, HuiJun; Li, BoNi; Ji, Yeong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hoo; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2015-12-14

    We propose a bar-type three-dimensional holographic head mounted display using two holographic optical elements. Conventional stereoscopic head mounted displays may suffer from eye fatigue because the images presented to each eye are two-dimensional ones, which causes mismatch between the accommodation and vergence responses of the eye. The proposed holographic head mounted display delivers three-dimensional holographic images to each eye, removing the eye fatigue problem. In this paper, we discuss the configuration of the bar-type waveguide head mounted displays and analyze the aberration caused by the non-symmetric diffraction angle of the holographic optical elements which are used as input and output couplers. Pre-distortion of the hologram is also proposed in the paper to compensate the aberration. The experimental results show that proposed head mounted display can present three-dimensional see-through holographic images to each eye with correct focus cues.

  10. A passive vibration-cancelling isolation mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Alan O.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of an idealized passive vibration-cancelling two-terminal mount with one degree of freedom at each mechanical terminal isolating a nonrigid machine from a nonrigid foundation is presented. To evaluate a vibration-cancelling (VC) mount, its effectiveness as a function of frequency is compared with the effectiveness of both conventional and compound mounts isolating a rigid machine from a nonrigid foundation. The comparisons indicate that a carefully designed and manufactured VC mount should provide substantially greater vibration reduction at its cancellation frequency than either a conventional or compound mount having the same low frequency stiffness, i.e., stiffness at the natural frequency of the machine mount system.

  11. Modulation of human Nav1.7 channel gating by synthetic α-scorpion toxin OD1 and its analogs

    PubMed Central

    Motin, Leonid; Durek, Thomas; Adams, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nine different voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms are responsible for inducing and propagating action potentials in the mammalian nervous system. The Nav1.7 channel isoform plays an important role in conducting nociceptive signals. Specific mutations of this isoform may impair gating behavior of the channel resulting in several pain syndromes. In addition to channel mutations, similar or opposite changes in gating may be produced by spider and scorpion toxins binding to different parts of the voltage-gated sodium channel. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of the α-scorpion toxin OD1 and 2 synthetic toxin analogs on the gating properties of the Nav1.7 sodium channel. All toxins potently inhibited channel inactivation, however, both toxin analogs showed substantially increased potency by more than one order of magnitude when compared with that of wild-type OD1. The decay phase of the whole-cell Na+ current was substantially slower in the presence of toxins than in their absence. Single-channel recordings in the presence of the toxins revealed that Na+ current inactivation slowed due to prolonged flickering of the channel between open and closed states. Our findings support the voltage-sensor trapping model of α-scorpion toxin action, in which the toxin prevents a conformational change in the domain IV voltage sensor that normally leads to fast channel inactivation. PMID:26646206

  12. Defects in TRPM7 channel function deregulate thrombopoiesis through altered cellular Mg2+ homeostasis and cytoskeletal architecture

    PubMed Central

    Stritt, Simon; Nurden, Paquita; Favier, Remi; Favier, Marie; Ferioli, Silvia; Gotru, Sanjeev K.; van Eeuwijk, Judith M M.; Schulze, Harald; Nurden, Alan T.; Lambert, Michele P.; Turro, Ernest; Burger-Stritt, Stephanie; Matsushita, Masayuki; Mittermeier, Lorenz; Ballerini, Paola; Zierler, Susanna; Laffan, Michael A.; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Braun, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Mg2+ plays a vital role in platelet function, but despite implications for life-threatening conditions such as stroke or myocardial infarction, the mechanisms controlling [Mg2+]i in megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets are largely unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin-like 7 channel (TRPM7) is a ubiquitous, constitutively active cation channel with a cytosolic α-kinase domain that is critical for embryonic development and cell survival. Here we report that impaired channel function of TRPM7 in MKs causes macrothrombocytopenia in mice (Trpm7fl/fl-Pf4Cre) and likely in several members of a human pedigree that, in addition, suffer from atrial fibrillation. The defect in platelet biogenesis is mainly caused by cytoskeletal alterations resulting in impaired proplatelet formation by Trpm7fl/fl-Pf4Cre MKs, which is rescued by Mg2+ supplementation or chemical inhibition of non-muscle myosin IIA heavy chain activity. Collectively, our findings reveal that TRPM7 dysfunction may cause macrothrombocytopenia in humans and mice. PMID:27020697

  13. Modulation of human Nav1.7 channel gating by synthetic α-scorpion toxin OD1 and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Motin, Leonid; Durek, Thomas; Adams, David J

    2016-01-01

    Nine different voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms are responsible for inducing and propagating action potentials in the mammalian nervous system. The Nav1.7 channel isoform plays an important role in conducting nociceptive signals. Specific mutations of this isoform may impair gating behavior of the channel resulting in several pain syndromes. In addition to channel mutations, similar or opposite changes in gating may be produced by spider and scorpion toxins binding to different parts of the voltage-gated sodium channel. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of the α-scorpion toxin OD1 and 2 synthetic toxin analogs on the gating properties of the Nav1.7 sodium channel. All toxins potently inhibited channel inactivation, however, both toxin analogs showed substantially increased potency by more than one order of magnitude when compared with that of wild-type OD1. The decay phase of the whole-cell Na(+) current was substantially slower in the presence of toxins than in their absence. Single-channel recordings in the presence of the toxins revealed that Na(+) current inactivation slowed due to prolonged flickering of the channel between open and closed states. Our findings support the voltage-sensor trapping model of α-scorpion toxin action, in which the toxin prevents a conformational change in the domain IV voltage sensor that normally leads to fast channel inactivation.

  14. Sample mounts for microcrystal crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Stum, Zachary (Inventor); O'Neill, Kevin (Inventor); Kmetko, Jan (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Sample mounts (10) for mounting microcrystals of biological macromolecules for X-ray crystallography are prepared by using patterned thin polyimide films (12) that have curvature imparted thereto, for example, by being attached to a curved outer surface of a small metal rod (16). The patterned film (12) preferably includes a tapered tip end (24) for holding a crystal. Preferably, a small sample aperture is disposed in the film for reception of the crystal. A second, larger aperture can also be provided that is connected to the sample aperture by a drainage channel, allowing removal of excess liquid and easier manipulation in viscous solutions. The curvature imparted to the film (12) increases the film's rigidity and allows a convenient scoop-like action for retrieving crystals. The polyimide contributes minimally to background and absorption, and can be treated to obtain desired hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

  15. Sample mounts for microcrystal crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Stum, Zachary (Inventor); O'Neill, Kevin (Inventor); Kmetko, Jan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Sample mounts (10) for mounting microcrystals of biological macromolecules for X-ray crystallography are prepared by using patterned thin polyimide films (12) that have curvature imparted thereto, for example, by being attached to a curved outer surface of a small metal rod (16). The patterned film (12) preferably includes a tip end (24) for holding a crystal. Preferably, a small sample aperture is disposed in the film for reception of the crystal. A second, larger aperture can also be provided that is connected to the sample aperture by a drainage channel, allowing removal of excess liquid and easier manipulation in viscous solutions. The curvature imparted to the film (12) increases the film's rigidity and allows a convenient scoop-like action for retrieving crystals. The polyimide contributes minimally to background and absorption, and can be treated to obtain desired hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

  16. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  17. Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount Spar and Sun End

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image depicts the sun end and spar of the ATM flight unit showing individual telescopes. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into a complex frame named the rack, and was protected by the solar shield.

  18. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrat, J.

    1989-01-01

    From the south, snow-covered Mount St. Helens looms proudly under a fleecy halo of clouds, rivaling the majestic beauty of neighboring Mount Rainer, Mount Hood, and Mount Adams. Salmon fishermen dot the shores of lakes and streams in the mountain's shadow, trucks loaded with fresh-cut timber barrel down backroads, and deer peer out from stands of tall fir trees. 

  19. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

    1997-12-30

    A fixture is described for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface. 3 figs.

  20. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

  1. Multi-Mounted X-Ray Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jian; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    Most existing X-ray computed tomography (CT) techniques work in single-mounted mode and need to scan the inspected objects one by one. It is time-consuming and not acceptable for the inspection in a large scale. In this paper, we report a multi-mounted CT method and its first engineering implementation. It consists of a multi-mounted scanning geometry and the corresponding algebraic iterative reconstruction algorithm. This approach permits the CT rotation scanning of multiple objects simultaneously without the increase of penetration thickness and the signal crosstalk. Compared with the conventional single-mounted methods, it has the potential to improve the imaging efficiency and suppress the artifacts from the beam hardening and the scatter. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with a developed multi-mounted X-ray CT prototype system. We believe that this technique is of particular interest for pushing the engineering applications of X-ray CT. PMID:27073911

  2. EVALUATION OF HELICOPTER-MOUNTED MOTION PICTURE, HIGH MAGNIFICATION AND TELEVISION CAMERA SYSTEMS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    HELICOPTERS, MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS), CAMERAS, VIETNAM, VIBRATION, CAMERA MOUNTS, TELESCOPES, CAMERA LENSES, PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGES, AERIAL...RECONNAISSANCE, MILITARY INTELLIGENCE, AERIAL CAMERAS, TELEVISION CAMERAS, PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM , COLOR FILM , TELEVISION EQUIPMENT.

  3. Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, Christopher G.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1997-01-01

    On June 15, 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines exploded in the second largest volcanic eruption on Earth this century. This eruption deposited more than 1 cubic mile (5 cubic kilometers) of volcanic ash and rock fragments on the volcano's slopes. Within hours, heavy rains began to wash this material down into the surrounding lowlands in giant, fast-moving mudflows called lahars. In the next four rainy seasons, lahars carried about half of the deposits off the volcano, causing even more destruction in the lowlands than the eruption itself.

  4. MOUNT MORIAH ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Robert R.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey identified the northeastern part of the Mount Moriah Roadless Area in extreme east-central Nevada as an area of probable potential for the occurrence of small, isolated deposits containing lead and zinc. Many active quarries in a unique high-quality decorative building stone occur in the area and have substantiated mineral-resource potential. Further studies in the roadless area might include detailed mapping of exposed Prospect Mountain Quartzite building stone units and notation of their suitability for quarrying. More detailed geochemical studies in the area of probable base-metal resource potential might include additional stream-sediment sampling and sampling along fault zones.

  5. Dual resolution, vacuum compatible optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Halpin, John Michael [Tracy, CA

    2011-10-04

    An optical mount for an optical element includes a mounting plate, a lever arm pivot coupled to mounting plate, and an adjustment plate. The optical mount also includes a flexure pivot mechanically coupling the adjustment plate to the mounting plate and a lever arm. The optical mount further includes a first adjustment device extending from the adjustment plate to make contact with the lever arm at a first contact point. A projection of a line from the first contact point to a pivot point, measured along the lever arm, is a first predetermined distance. The optical mount additionally includes a second adjustment device extending from the adjustment plate to make contact with the lever arm at a second contact point. A projection of a line from the second contact point to the pivot point, measured along the lever arm, is a second predetermined distance greater than the first predetermined distance.

  6. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOEpatents

    Faulder, Leslie J.; Frey, deceased, Gary A.; Nielsen, Engward W.; Ridler, Kenneth J.

    1997-01-01

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion.

  7. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOEpatents

    Faulder, L.J.; Frey, G.A.; Nielsen, E.W.; Ridler, K.J.

    1997-08-05

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion. 3 figs.

  8. Molecular Expression and Pharmacological Evidence for a Functional Role of Kv7 Channel Subtypes in Guinea Pig Urinary Bladder Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Afeli, Serge A. Y.; Malysz, John; Petkov, Georgi V.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated Kv7 (KCNQ) channels are emerging as essential regulators of smooth muscle excitability and contractility. However, their physiological role in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) remains to be elucidated. Here, we explored the molecular expression and function of Kv7 channel subtypes in guinea pig DSM by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, and isometric tension recordings. In whole DSM tissue, mRNAs for all Kv7 channel subtypes were detected in a rank order: Kv7.1~Kv7.2Kv7.3~Kv7.5Kv7.4. In contrast, freshly-isolated DSM cells showed mRNA expression of: Kv7.1~Kv7.2Kv7.5Kv7.3~Kv7.4. Immunohistochemical confocal microscopy analyses of DSM, conducted by using co-labeling of Kv7 channel subtype-specific antibodies and α-smooth muscle actin, detected protein expression for all Kv7 channel subtypes, except for the Kv7.4, in DSM cells. L-364373 (R-L3), a Kv7.1 channel activator, and retigabine, a Kv7.2-7.5 channel activator, inhibited spontaneous phasic contractions and the 10-Hz electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions of DSM isolated strips. Linopiridine and XE991, two pan-Kv7 (effective at Kv7.1-Kv7.5 subtypes) channel inhibitors, had opposite effects increasing DSM spontaneous phasic and 10 Hz EFS-induced contractions. EFS-induced DSM contractions generated by a wide range of stimulation frequencies were decreased by L-364373 (10 µM) or retigabine (10 µM), and increased by XE991 (10 µM). Retigabine (10 µM) induced hyperpolarization and inhibited spontaneous action potentials in freshly-isolated DSM cells. In summary, Kv7 channel subtypes are expressed at mRNA and protein levels in guinea pig DSM cells. Their pharmacological modulation can control DSM contractility and excitability; therefore, Kv7 channel subtypes provide potential novel therapeutic targets for urinary bladder dysfunction. PMID:24073284

  9. Mount Rainier, a decade volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, S.C.; Hooper, P.R. . Dept. of Geology); Eggers, A.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Mount Rainier, recently designated as a decade volcano, is a 14,410 foot landmark which towers over the heavily populated southern Puget Sound Lowland of Washington State. It last erupted in the mid-1800's and is an obvious threat to this area, yet Rainier has received little detailed study. Previous work has divided Rainier into two distinct pre-glacial eruptive episodes and one post-glacial eruptive episode. In a pilot project, the authors analyzed 253 well-located samples from the volcano for 27 major and trace elements. Their objective is to test the value of chemical compositions as a tool in mapping the stratigraphy and understanding the eruptive history of the volcano which they regard as prerequisite to determining the petrogenesis and potential hazard of the volcano. The preliminary data demonstrates that variation between flows is significantly greater than intra-flow variation -- a necessary condition for stratigraphic use. Numerous flows or groups of flows can be distinguished chemically. It is also apparent from the small variation in Zr abundances and considerable variation in such ratios as Ba/Nb that fractional crystallization plays a subordinate role to some form of mixing process in the origin of the Mount Rainier lavas.

  10. In Brief: Mount Wilson centennial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The 60-inch reflecting telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, in southern California, which helped scientists measure the Milky Way and determine our solar system's position within it, celebrates its 100th anniversary in December. ``The 60-inch continued the Copernican Revolution by dethroning the Sun from the center of our galaxy,'' noted observatory director Harold McAlister. The telescope, with its silver-on-glass reflectors, also established the basic design for observatory telescopes on Earth. Capable of operating in several different optical configurations, the telescope was the first one built primarily for photographic and spectrographic use. With its 5-foot-diameter mirror, the telescope was the largest in the world until 1917. The telescope is retired from active science but is made available to groups for viewing astronomical objects. The observatory was founded by astronomer George Ellery Hale under the auspices of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. For more information, visit http://www.mtwilson.edu.

  11. Mount St. Helens: the aftermath

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    During the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, ash fell over a 100,000 sq mile area to the east. The Idaho studies showed that, although the ashfall altered the food chains of some forest streams, within a year they fully recovered. The effects of ashfall on lake benthic organisms are still being assessed by sediment sampling. The Montana studies reported on snow avalanche models adapted to mudflows, trophic impact of ash deposits on Montana lakes, and the volcanic ash as nutrient subsidy to sub-alpine lakes. The Oregon studies reported herring and smelt egg and larvae damage due to suspended ash. The drainage patterns in eruption debris were studied along with the filling of Columbia River berths with ash.

  12. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  13. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  14. Optical Mounts for Cryogenic Beam Splitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudman, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Spring-loaded optical mounts maintain flatness and alinement of rigid, framed, or pellicle beam splitters over wide temperature range, despite differences in thermal expansion amoung materials. Mounts permit optical adjustments at ambient temperature even though optical system operated subsequently within few degrees of absolute zero. Mounts useful as holders for integrated-circuit master patterns, survey targets, vibrating membranes, noise- or pressure-sensing membranes, osmosis filters, and fuel-cell elements.

  15. Perspective with Landsat Overlay, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Kilimanjaro (Kilima Njaro or 'shining mountain' in Swahili), the highest point in Africa, reaches 5,895 meters (19,340 feet) above sea level, tall enough to maintain a permanent snow cap despite being just 330 kilometers (210 miles) south of the equator. It is the tallest free-standing mountain on the Earth's land surface world, rising about 4,600 meters (15,000 feet) above the surrounding plain. Kilimanjaro is a triple volcano (has three peaks) that last erupted perhaps more than 100,000 years ago but still exudes volcanic gases. It is accompanied by about 20 other nearby volcanoes, some of which are seen to the west (left) in this view, prominently including Mount Meru, which last erupted only about a century ago. The volcanic mountain slopes are commonly fertile and support thick forests, while the much drier grasslands of the plains are home to elephants, lions, and other savanna wildlife.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 7 satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved

  16. Novel Roles for Kv7 Channels in Shaping Histamine-Induced Contractions and Bradykinin-Dependent Relaxations in Pig Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingjuan; Li, Wennan; Hiett, S Christopher; Obukhov, Alexander G

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Kv7 channels are inhibited by agonists of Gq-protein-coupled receptors, such as histamine. Recent works have provided evidence that inhibition of vascular Kv7 channels may trigger vessel contractions. In this study, we investigated how Kv7 activity modulates the histamine-induced contractions in "healthy" and metabolic syndrome (MetS) pig right coronary arteries (CAs). We performed isometric tension and immunohistochemical studies with domestic, lean Ossabaw, and MetS Ossabaw pig CAs. We found that neither the Kv7.2/Kv7.4/Kv7.5 activator ML213 nor the general Kv7 inhibitor XE991 altered the tension of CA rings under preload, indicating that vascular Kv7 channels are likely inactive in the preloaded rings. Conversely, ML213 potently dilated histamine-pre-contracted CAs, suggesting that Kv7 channels are activated during histamine applications and yet partially inhibited by histamine. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed strong Kv7.4 immunostaining in the medial and intimal layers of the CA wall, whereas Kv7.5 immunostaining intensity was strong in the intimal but weak in the medial layers. The medial Kv7 immunostaining was significantly weaker in MetS Ossabaw CAs as compared to lean Ossabaw or domestic CAs. Consistently, histamine-pre-contracted MetS Ossabaw CAs exhibited attenuated ML213-dependent dilations. In domestic pig CAs, where medial Kv7 immunostaining intensity was stronger, histamine-induced contractions spontaneously decayed to ~31% of the peak amplitude within 4 minutes. Oppositely, in Ossabaw CAs, where Kv7 immunostaining intensity was weaker, the histamine-induced contractions were more sustained. XE991 pretreatment significantly slowed the decay rate of histamine-induced contractions in domestic CAs, supporting the hypothesis that increased Kv7 activity correlates with a faster rate of histamine-induced contraction decay. Alternatively, XE991 significantly decreased the amplitude of bradykinin-dependent dilations in pre-contracted CAs

  17. Novel Roles for Kv7 Channels in Shaping Histamine-Induced Contractions and Bradykinin-Dependent Relaxations in Pig Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xingjuan; Li, Wennan; Hiett, S. Christopher; Obukhov, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Kv7 channels are inhibited by agonists of Gq-protein-coupled receptors, such as histamine. Recent works have provided evidence that inhibition of vascular Kv7 channels may trigger vessel contractions. In this study, we investigated how Kv7 activity modulates the histamine-induced contractions in “healthy” and metabolic syndrome (MetS) pig right coronary arteries (CAs). We performed isometric tension and immunohistochemical studies with domestic, lean Ossabaw, and MetS Ossabaw pig CAs. We found that neither the Kv7.2/Kv7.4/Kv7.5 activator ML213 nor the general Kv7 inhibitor XE991 altered the tension of CA rings under preload, indicating that vascular Kv7 channels are likely inactive in the preloaded rings. Conversely, ML213 potently dilated histamine-pre-contracted CAs, suggesting that Kv7 channels are activated during histamine applications and yet partially inhibited by histamine. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed strong Kv7.4 immunostaining in the medial and intimal layers of the CA wall, whereas Kv7.5 immunostaining intensity was strong in the intimal but weak in the medial layers. The medial Kv7 immunostaining was significantly weaker in MetS Ossabaw CAs as compared to lean Ossabaw or domestic CAs. Consistently, histamine-pre-contracted MetS Ossabaw CAs exhibited attenuated ML213-dependent dilations. In domestic pig CAs, where medial Kv7 immunostaining intensity was stronger, histamine-induced contractions spontaneously decayed to ~31% of the peak amplitude within 4 minutes. Oppositely, in Ossabaw CAs, where Kv7 immunostaining intensity was weaker, the histamine-induced contractions were more sustained. XE991 pretreatment significantly slowed the decay rate of histamine-induced contractions in domestic CAs, supporting the hypothesis that increased Kv7 activity correlates with a faster rate of histamine-induced contraction decay. Alternatively, XE991 significantly decreased the amplitude of bradykinin-dependent dilations in pre

  18. Stereo Pair, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This stereoscopic view combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was

  19. Mount Meager landslide flow history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, L.; Allstadt, K.; Mangeney, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Stutzmann, E.; Bouchut, F.

    2013-12-01

    Gravitational instabilities, such as landslides, avalanches, or debris flows, play a key role in erosional processes and represent one of the major natural hazards in mountainous, coastal, and volcanic regions. Despite the great amount of field, experimental and numerical work devoted to this problem, the understanding of the physical processes at work in gravitational flows is still an open issue, in particular due to the lack of observations relevant to their dynamics. In this context, the seismic signal generated by gravitational flows is a unique opportunity to obtain information on their dynamics. Indeed, as shown recently by Favreau et al., (2010), simulation of the seismic signal generated by landslides makes it possible to discriminate different flow scenarios and estimate rheological parameters. Global and regional seismic networks continuously record gravitational instabilities, so this new method will help gather new data on landslide behavior, particularly when combined with a landslide numerical modeling. Using this approach, we focus on the 6 August 2010 Mount Meager landslide: a 48.5 Mm3 rockslide-debris flow occurring in the Mount Meager Volcanic complex in the Southwest British Columbia. This landslide traveled over 12.7 km in just a few minutes time and was recorded by 25 broadband seismic stations. The time history of the forces exerted by the landslide on the ground surface was inverted from the seismic waveforms. The forcing history revealed the occurrence of a complicated initiation and showed features attributable to flow over a complicated path that included two sharp turns and runup at a valley wall barrier. To reliably interpret this signal and thus obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the landslide, we ran simulations for a range of scenarios by varying the coefficient of friction and the number, mass, and timings of subevents and compute the forces generated in each case. By comparing the results of these simulations to the

  20. Mount Meager landslide flow history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Laurent; Allstadt, Kate; Mangeney, Anne; Yann, capdeville; Eleonore, Stutzmann; François, Bouchut

    2014-05-01

    Gravitational instabilities, such as landslides, avalanches, or debris flows, play a key role in erosional processes and represent one of the major natural hazards in mountainous, coastal, and volcanic regions. Despite the great amount of field, experimental and numerical work devoted to this problem, the understanding of the physical processes at work in gravitational flows is still an open issue, in particular due to the lack of observations relevant to their dynamics. In this context, the seismic signal generated by gravitational flows is a unique opportunity to obtain information on their dynamics. Indeed, as shown recently by Favreau et al., (2010), simulation of the seismic signal generated by landslides makes it possible to discriminate different flow scenarios and estimate rheological parameters. Global and regional seismic networks continuously record gravitational instabilities, so this new method will help gather new data on landslide behavior, particularly when combined with a landslide numerical modeling. Using this approach, we focus on the 6 August 2010 Mount Meager landslide: a 48.5 Mm3 rockslide-debris flow occurring in the Mount Meager Volcanic complex in the Southwest British Columbia. This landslide traveled over 12.7 km in just a few minutes time and was recorded by 25 broadband seismic stations. The time history of the forces exerted by the landslide on the ground surface was inverted from the seismic waveforms. The forcing history revealed the occurrence of a complicated initiation and showed features attributable to flow over a complicated path that included two sharp turns and runup at a valley wall barrier. To reliably interpret this signal and thus obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the landslide, we ran simulations for a range of scenarios by varying the coefficient of friction and the number, mass, and timings of subevents and compute the forces generated in each case. By comparing the results of these simulations to the

  1. 78 FR 59954 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Michigan State Police, Mount Pleasant Post, Mount Pleasant, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Michigan State Police, Mount Pleasant Post, Mount Pleasant, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Michigan State Police... the Michigan State Police, Mount Pleasant Post. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer...

  2. Sting-Mounted Flow Survey Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, G. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Flow survey instrumentation integral part of model support system. Drive motor, limit switches, and position transducer contained within streamlined housing and operable in near vacuum wing-tunnel environment. Sting-mounted system has advantages over conventional wall-mounted flow-field survey equipment, include more efficiently utilized run time, higher position accuracy, and fewer runs to map flow field.

  3. A flexible cruciform journal bearing mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, A. E.; Geiger, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Flexible mount achieves low roll, pitch and yaw stiffnesses while maintaining high radial stiffness by holding bearing pad in fixed relationship to deep web cruciform member and holding this member in fixed relationship to bearing support. This mount has particular application in small, high performance gas turbines.

  4. Mm-wave power meter mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, D. L.; Oltmans, D. A.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    E-band thermistor mount and a technique for adjusting a temperature compensating thermistor to provide an electrically balanced bridge are used for measuring RF power in the mm-wavelength. The mount is relatively insensitive to temperature effects that cause measurement errors in single ended circuits.

  5. Three-point spherical mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    A three-point spherical mirror mount for use with lasers is disclosed. The improved mirror mount is adapted to provide a pivot ring having an outer surface with at least three spaced apart mating points to engage an inner spherical surface of a support housing.

  6. Three-point spherical mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1984-01-23

    A three-point spherical mirror mount for use with lasers is disclosed. The improved mirror mount is adapted to provide a pivot ring having an outer surface with at least three spaced apart mating points to engage an inner spherical surface of a support housing.

  7. 49 CFR 179.10 - Tank mounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank mounting. 179.10 Section 179.10... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.10 Tank mounting. (a) The manner in which tanks are attached to the...

  8. Flow Through Surface Mounted Continuous Slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, A.; Ali, M. A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ribs are used inside certain gas-turbine blades as passive devices to enhance heat transfer. Slits in those ribs are utilized to control the primary shear layer. The role of secondary flow through a continuous slit behind a surface mounted rib is investigated herein in a rectangular duct using hotwire anemometry and particle image velocimetry. Changing the open-area-ratio and the slit's location within the rib dominate the observed shear layer. The behavior of discrete Fourier modes of the velocity fluctuations generated by different configurations is explored. Two distinct flow mechanisms are observed in the rib's wake. Both mechanisms are explained on the basis of large-scale spectral peak in the shear layer. The results show the successful impact of changing the open-area-ratio by manipulating the small-scale vortices at the leeward corner of the rib, which is suspected to be the potential cause of surface ``hot spots'' in a variety of engineering devices with heat transfer. Eventually, the size and location of the slit are seen to be an additional parameter that can be used to control the fluid flow structures behind rib turbulators.

  9. A miniaturized pointing mount for Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, C. G.; Howell, T., Jr.; Nicaise, P. D.; Parker, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A Miniaturized Pointing Mount (MPM) for Spacelab missions is defined and simulation results are described. This mount is proposed to complement the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS). It uses the same mount isolator concept as the Spacelab IPS but is much more efficient and economical for the accommodation of small shuttle payloads. The MPM is built from star tracker assemblies left over from the Apollo Telescope Mount program thereby assuring low cost and development risk. Simulation results indicate a high level of instrument stability can be expected. The short development time of the MPM would permit it to serve as a precursor to the Spacelab IPS for verifying critical new concepts such as the mount isolation and hold down mechanisms.

  10. Solar rotation measurements at Mount Wilson. II - Systematic instrumental effects and the absolute rotation rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labonte, B. J.; Howard, R.

    1981-01-01

    Possible sources of systematic error in solar Doppler rotational velocities are examined. Scattered light is shown to affect the Mount Wilson solar rotation results, but this effect is not enough to bring the spectroscopic results in coincidence with the sunspot rotation. Interference fringes at the spectrograph focus at Mount Wilson have in two intervals affected the rotation results. It has been possible to correlate this error with temperature and thus correct for it. A misalignment between the entrance and exit slits is a possible source of error, but for the Mount Wilson slit configuration, the amplitude of this effect is negligibly small. Rapid scanning of the solar image also produces no measurable effect.

  11. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park. Its fertile slopes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in June. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to blue and white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space

  12. Single detector stereo-SCIDAR for Mount Stromlo: data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkiakoski, Visa; Osborn, James; Grosse, Doris; Thorn, Elliott; Piatrou, Piotr; Bennet, Francis; Rigaut, Francois

    2016-09-01

    Satellite tracking and imaging is conducted by the ANU Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) and Electro-Optic Systems at Mount Stromlo as part of the Space Environment Management Cooperative Research Centre to support debris tracking. To optimally design adaptive optics systems for those applications, it is important to know the atmospheric profile, i.e. how the turbulence is distributed as a function altitude. We have designed a new stereo-SCIDAR instrument1 to conduct a site characterisation campaign at Mount Stromlo site. This paper summarises our current progress: specifications, design choices and post-processing techniques. In particular, we compare two different post-processing algorithms for stereo-SCIDAR, using simulated data cubes. One of the codes is implemented by the RSAA, the other by the Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, University of Durham. The comparison shows that the current implementations of both codes produce decent results. However, we can see potential for further improvements.

  13. Activation of PPARβ/δ prevents hyperglycaemia-induced impairment of Kv7 channels and cAMP-mediated relaxation in rat coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Morales-Cano, Daniel; Moreno, Laura; Barreira, Bianca; Briones, Ana M; Pandolfi, Rachele; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Callejo, Maria; Mondejar-Parreño, Gema; Cortijo, Julio; Salaices, Mercedes; Duarte, Juan; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Cogolludo, Angel

    2016-10-01

    PPARβ/δ activation protects against endothelial dysfunction in diabetic models. Elevated glucose is known to impair cAMP-induced relaxation and Kv channel function in coronary arteries (CA). Herein, we aimed to analyse the possible protective effects of the PPARβ/δ agonist GW0742 on the hyperglycaemic-induced impairment of cAMP-induced relaxation and Kv channel function in rat CA. As compared with low glucose (LG), incubation under high glucose (HG) conditions attenuated the relaxation induced by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin in CA and this was prevented by GW0742. The protective effect of GW0742 was supressed by a PPARβ/δ antagonist. In myocytes isolated from CA under LG, forskolin enhanced Kv currents and induced hyperpolarization. In contrast, when CA were incubated with HG, Kv currents were diminished and the electrophysiological effects of forskolin were abolished. These deleterious effects were prevented by GW0742. The protective effects of GW0742 on forskolin-induced relaxation and Kv channel function were confirmed in CA from type-1 diabetic rats. In addition, the differences in the relaxation induced by forskolin in CA incubated under LG, HG or HG + GW0742 were abolished by the Kv7 channel inhibitor XE991. Accordingly, GW0742 prevented the down-regulation of Kv7 channels induced by HG. Finally, the preventive effect of GW0742 on oxidative stress and cAMP-induced relaxation were overcome by the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA). Our results reveal that the PPARβ/δ agonist GW0742 prevents the impairment of the cAMP-mediated relaxation in CA under HG. This protective effect was associated with induction of PDK4, attenuation of oxidative stress and preservation of Kv7 channel function.

  14. Apparent Brecciation Gradient, Mount Desert Island, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, A. T.; Johnson, S. E.

    2004-05-01

    Mount Desert Island, Maine, comprises a shallow level, Siluro-Devonian igneous complex surrounded by a distinctive breccia zone ("shatter zone" of Gilman and Chapman, 1988). The zone is very well exposed on the southern and eastern shores of the island and provides a unique opportunity to examine subvolcanic processes. The breccia of the Shatter Zone shows wide variation in percent matrix and clast, and may represent a spatial and temporal gradient in breccia formation due to a single eruptive or other catastrophic volcanic event. The shatter zone was divided into five developmental stages based on the extent of brecciation: Bar Harbor Formation, Sols Cliffs breccia, Seeley Road breccia, Dubois breccia, and Great Head breccia. A digital camera was employed to capture scale images of representative outcrops using a 0.5 m square Plexiglas frame. Individual images were joined in Adobe Photoshop to create a composite image of each outcrop. The composite photo was then exported to Adobe Illustrator, which was used to outline the clasts and produce a digital map of the outcrop for analysis. The fractal dimension (Fd) of each clast was calculated using NIH Image and a Euclidean distance mapping method described by Bérubé and Jébrak (1999) to quantify the morphology of the fragments, or the complexity of the outline. The more complex the fragment outline, the higher the fractal dimension, indicating that the fragment is less "mature" or has had less exposure to erosional processes, such as the injection of an igneous matrix. Sols Cliffs breccia has an average Fd of 1.125, whereas Great Head breccia has an average Fd of 1.040, with the stages between having intermediate values. The more complex clasts of the Sols Cliffs breccia with a small amount (26.38%) of matrix material suggests that it is the first stage in a sequence of brecciation ending at the more mature, matrix-supported (71.37%) breccia of Great Head. The results of this study will be used to guide isotopic

  15. Flat mount preparation for observation and analysis of zebrafish embryo specimens stained by whole mount in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christina N; Li, Yue; Marra, Amanda N; Verdun, Valerie; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-07-17

    The zebrafish embryo is now commonly used for basic and biomedical research to investigate the genetic control of developmental processes and to model congenital abnormalities. During the first day of life, the zebrafish embryo progresses through many developmental stages including fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, segmentation, and the organogenesis of structures such as the kidney, heart, and central nervous system. The anatomy of a young zebrafish embryo presents several challenges for the visualization and analysis of the tissues involved in many of these events because the embryo develops in association with a round yolk mass. Thus, for accurate analysis and imaging of experimental phenotypes in fixed embryonic specimens between the tailbud and 20 somite stage (10 and 19 hours post fertilization (hpf), respectively), such as those stained using whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), it is often desirable to remove the embryo from the yolk ball and to position it flat on a glass slide. However, performing a flat mount procedure can be tedious. Therefore, successful and efficient flat mount preparation is greatly facilitated through the visual demonstration of the dissection technique, and also helped by using reagents that assist in optimal tissue handling. Here, we provide our WISH protocol for one or two-color detection of gene expression in the zebrafish embryo, and demonstrate how the flat mounting procedure can be performed on this example of a stained fixed specimen. This flat mounting protocol is broadly applicable to the study of many embryonic structures that emerge during early zebrafish development, and can be implemented in conjunction with other staining methods performed on fixed embryo samples.

  16. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  17. Primary succession in Mount Pinatubo

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E; del Moral, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation structure on the east flank of Mount Pinatubo was investigated to determine the inventory of species at 15 y post-eruption, then to ascertain environmental variables that have influenced the early patterns of primary succession. Unconstrained and constrained ordination methods were used to determine the influence of spatial, elevation, and substrate patterns on vegetation. Vegetation was assigned to one of 3 habitat types. Scours were eroded flat surfaces, terraces were perched flat surfaces, and talus piles were created along the canyon edges as mass waste events. The influence of habitat type on vegetation was multifaceted because they represent different conditions and different histories. The talus piles have preferential access to colonists from the vegetation on the canyon walls above and a more benign microclimate than the exposed terrace and scour sites. Scoured sites on the valley floor exhibited the least vegetation cover, as these substrates had the least mature surfaces and the most restricted capacity for root exploration. Perched terraces exhibited greater plant dominance than did the other habitats in the early stages of succession because of the ubiquitous appearance of Parasponia rugosa as initial colonists on these relatively flat surfaces. Polynomial canonical correspondence analysis was more closely aligned with the pattern of vegetation than linear canonical correspondence analysis, and therefore more closely approximated accurate descriptions of correlations among site ordination positions and measured variables. These results confirm that a variety of statistical approaches can clarify applications for restoration ecology following landslide and volcanic disturbances or agriculture and forestry anthropogenic disturbances in the lowland tropics. PMID:24505499

  18. Floods at Mount Clemens, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiitala, S.W.; Ash, Arlington D.

    1962-01-01

    The approximate areas inundated during the flood of April 5-6, 1947, by Clinton River, North Branch and Middle Branch of Clinton River, and Harrington Drain, in Clinton Township, Macomb County, Mich., are shown on a topographic map base to record the flood hazard in graphical form. The flood of April 1947 is the highest known since 1934 and probably since 1902. Greater floods are possible, but no attempt was made to define their probable overflow limits.The Clinton River Cut-Off Canal, a flood-relief channel which diverts flow directly into Lake St. Clair from a point about 1500 feet downstream from Gratiot Avenue (about 9 miles upstream from the mouth) has been in operation since October 1951. The approximate limits of overflow that would results from a flood equivalent in discharge to that of April 1947, and occurring with the Cut-Off Canal in operation, are also shown. Although the Cut-Off Canal may reduce the frequency and depth of flooding it will not necessarily eliminate future flooding in the area. Improvements and additions to the drainage systems in the basin, expanding urbanization, new highways, and other cultural changes may influence the inundation pattern of future floods.The preparation of this flood inundation map was financed through a cooperative agreement between Clinton Township, Macomb County, Mich., and the U.S. Geological Survey.Backwater curves used to define the profile for a hypothetical flood on the Clinton River downstream from Moravian Drive, equivalent in discharge to the 1947 flood, but occurring with the present Cut-Off Canal in operation; flood stage established at the gaging station on Clinton River at Mount Clemens; and supplementary floodmark elevations were furnished by the Corps of Engineers.Bench-mark elevations and field survey data, used in the analysis of floods on Harrington Drain, were furnished by the Macomb County Drain Commission.

  19. The Biophysical Basis Underlying Gating Changes in the p.V1316A Mutant Nav1.7 Channel and the Molecular Pathogenesis of Inherited Erythromelalgia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Wei; Lai, Hsing-Jung; Huang, Po-Yuan; Lee, Ming-Jen; Kuo, Chung-Chin

    2016-09-01

    The Nav1.7 channel critically contributes to the excitability of sensory neurons, and gain-of-function mutations of this channel have been shown to cause inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) with neuropathic pain. In this study, we report a case of a severe phenotype of IEM caused by p.V1316A mutation in the Nav1.7 channel. Mechanistically, we first demonstrate that the Navβ4 peptide acts as a gating modifier rather than an open channel blocker competing with the inactivating peptide to give rise to resurgent currents in the Nav1.7 channel. Moreover, there are two distinct open and two corresponding fast inactivated states in the genesis of resurgent Na+ currents. One is responsible for the resurgent route and practically existent only in the presence of Navβ4 peptide, whereas the other is responsible for the "silent" route of recovery from inactivation. In this regard, the p.V1316A mutation makes hyperpolarization shift in the activation curve, and depolarization shift in the inactivation curve, vividly uncoupling inactivation from activation. In terms of molecular gating operation, the most important changes caused by the p.V1316A mutation are both acceleration of the transition from the inactivated states to the activated states and deceleration of the reverse transition, resulting in much larger sustained as well as resurgent Na+ currents. In summary, the genesis of the resurgent currents in the Nav1.7 channel is ascribable to the transient existence of a distinct and novel open state promoted by the Navβ4 peptide. In addition, S4-5 linker in domain III where V1316 is located seems to play a critical role in activation-inactivation coupling, chiefly via direct modulation of the transitional kinetics between the open and the inactivated states. The sustained and resurgent Na+ currents may therefore be correlatively enhanced by specific mutations involving this linker and relevant regions, and thus marked hyperexcitability in corresponding neural tissues as well as

  20. The Biophysical Basis Underlying Gating Changes in the p.V1316A Mutant Nav1.7 Channel and the Molecular Pathogenesis of Inherited Erythromelalgia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chiung-Wei; Huang, Po-Yuan; Lee, Ming-Jen; Kuo, Chung-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The Nav1.7 channel critically contributes to the excitability of sensory neurons, and gain-of-function mutations of this channel have been shown to cause inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) with neuropathic pain. In this study, we report a case of a severe phenotype of IEM caused by p.V1316A mutation in the Nav1.7 channel. Mechanistically, we first demonstrate that the Navβ4 peptide acts as a gating modifier rather than an open channel blocker competing with the inactivating peptide to give rise to resurgent currents in the Nav1.7 channel. Moreover, there are two distinct open and two corresponding fast inactivated states in the genesis of resurgent Na+ currents. One is responsible for the resurgent route and practically existent only in the presence of Navβ4 peptide, whereas the other is responsible for the “silent” route of recovery from inactivation. In this regard, the p.V1316A mutation makes hyperpolarization shift in the activation curve, and depolarization shift in the inactivation curve, vividly uncoupling inactivation from activation. In terms of molecular gating operation, the most important changes caused by the p.V1316A mutation are both acceleration of the transition from the inactivated states to the activated states and deceleration of the reverse transition, resulting in much larger sustained as well as resurgent Na+ currents. In summary, the genesis of the resurgent currents in the Nav1.7 channel is ascribable to the transient existence of a distinct and novel open state promoted by the Navβ4 peptide. In addition, S4–5 linker in domain III where V1316 is located seems to play a critical role in activation–inactivation coupling, chiefly via direct modulation of the transitional kinetics between the open and the inactivated states. The sustained and resurgent Na+ currents may therefore be correlatively enhanced by specific mutations involving this linker and relevant regions, and thus marked hyperexcitability in corresponding neural tissues as

  1. 3D head mount display with single panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuchang; Huang, Junejei

    2014-09-01

    The head mount display for entertainment usually requires light weight. But in the professional application has more requirements. The image quality, field of view (FOV), color gamut, response and life time are considered items, too. A head mount display based on 1-chip TI DMD spatial light modulator is proposed. The multiple light sources and splitting images relay system are the major design tasks. The relay system images the object (DMD) into two image planes to crate binocular vision. The 0.65 inch 1080P DMD is adopted. The relay has a good performance which includes the doublet to reduce the chromatic aberration. Some spaces are reserved for placing the mirror and adjustable mechanism. The mirror splits the rays to the left and right image plane. These planes correspond to the eyepieces objects and image to eyes. A changeable mechanism provides the variable interpupillary distance (IPD). The folding optical path makes sure that the HMD center of gravity is close to the head and prevents the uncomfortable downward force being applied to head or orbit. Two RGB LED assemblies illuminate to the DMD in different angle. The light is highly collimated. The divergence angle is small enough such that one LED ray would only enters to the correct eyepiece. This switching is electronic controlled. There is no moving part to produce vibration and fast switch would be possible. Two LED synchronize with 3D video sync by a driving board which also controls the DMD. When the left eye image is displayed on DMD, the LED for left optical path turns on. Vice versa for right image and 3D scene is accomplished.

  2. Modeling and control of the driving system of slant mount telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wangping; Wang, Ya; Cai, Ziyuan; Tian, Yan

    2016-10-01

    The angle between slant and azimuth axes is 45 degrees in slant-mount telescopes, which use the slant rotation to replace altitude movement in traditional mounts. The circular motion can achieve more smooth driving in altitude direction, and can effectively overcome problems in traditional mounts such as vibrations around the zenith. It is a hot topic in researches of current astronomical instruments. While the vertical displacement of the structure is composed by circle rotation of the slant axis, which causes displacements of the two direction coupled. Moreover, the slant rotation can also leads to the revolving movement of CCD images of the tracking system. These two problems bring great challenges to the slant mount driving. In this paper, based on a slant mount, we establish accurate mathematical model of the drive system to effectively compensate for the revolving movement of the image field, decompose in real time the deviation of vertical and horizontal directions by the decoupling algorithm, and design the control system using FPGA to carry out testing experiments. We strive to solve the displacement coupling and the image revolving movement problem, and thus provide a feasible technical support for driving control of slant mounts.

  3. Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles)west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar

  4. Vibration dissipation mount for motors or the like

    DOEpatents

    Small, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    A vibration dissipation mount which permits the mounting of a motor, generator, or the like such that the rotatable shaft thereof passes through the mount and the mount permits the dissipation of self-induced and otherwise induced vibrations wherein the mount comprises a pair of plates having complementary concave and convex surfaces, a semi-resilient material being disposed therebetween.

  5. Anaglyph, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This anaglyph combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space

  6. Mount Shasta Wilderness study area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, R.L.; Tuchek, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Mount Shasta Wilderness study area was surveyed in 1975. It lies wholly on the slopes and summit area of Mount Shasta and consists almost entirely of the products of geologically young volcanism. Small deposits of volcanic cinders and pumice are present. The volcanic system of Mount Shasta is judged to have probable resource potential for geothermal energy but that potential is least within the wilderness study area boundaries. Because any geothermal energy resource beneath the volcano would lie at considerable depths, exploration or development would be most likely at lower altitudes on the gentler slopes outside the study area.

  7. Mounting with compliant cylinders for deformable mirrors.

    PubMed

    Reinlein, Claudia; Goy, Matthias; Lange, Nicolas; Appelfelder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A method is presented to mount large aperture unimorph deformable mirrors by compliant cylinders (CC). The CCs are manufactured from a soft silicone, and shear testing is performed in order to evaluate the Young's modulus. A scale mirror model is assembled to evaluate mount-induced change of piezoelectric deformation, and its applicability for tightly focusing mirrors. Experiments do not show any decrease of piezoelectric stroke. Further it is shown that the changes of surface fidelity by the attachment of the deformable mirror to its mount are neglectable.

  8. MOUNT SHASTA WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Robert L.; Tuchek, Ernest T.

    1984-01-01

    The Mount Shasta Wilderness lies wholly on the slopes and summit area of Mount Shasta and consists almost entirely of the products of geologically young volcanism. Small deposits of volcanic cinders and pumice are present. The volcanic system of Mount Shasta is judged to have probable resource potential for geothermal energy but that potential is least within the wilderness study area boundaries. Because any geothermal energy resource beneath the volcano would lie at considerable depths, exploration or development would be most likely at lower altitudes on the gentler slopes outside the study area.

  9. Two degree of freedom camera mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A two degree of freedom camera mount. The camera mount includes a socket, a ball, a first linkage and a second linkage. The socket includes an interior surface and an opening. The ball is positioned within an interior of the socket. The ball includes a coupling point for rotating the ball relative to the socket and an aperture for mounting a camera. The first and second linkages are rotatably connected to the socket and slidably connected to the coupling point of the ball. Rotation of the linkages with respect to the socket causes the ball to rotate with respect to the socket.

  10. Single detector stereo-SCIDAR for Mount Stromlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Doris; Bennet, Francis; Korkiakoski, Visa; Rigaut, Francois; Thorn, Elliott

    2016-07-01

    Satellite tracking and imaging is conducted by the ANU Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Electro-Optic Systems (EOS) at Mount Stromlo Observatory, Canberra, Australia, as part of the Space Environment Management Cooperative Research Centre (SERC) to support the development in space situational awareness. Atmospheric turbulence leads to distortions in the measured data. Adaptive optics (AO) systems counteract those distortions and improve the resolution of the tracking and imaging systems. To assist in the design of the AO systems, we need to gather information on the atmosphere at Mount Stromlo: r0, τ 0, and the turbulence Cn2 profile. With the SCIntillation Detection And Ranging (SCIDAR) Technique the scintillation of two stars is measured and their autocorrelation function is computed, providing a measurement of the turbulence profile. This technique usually uses one detector recording the two images of the stars simultaneously. However, the images overlap leading to an underestimation of the Cn2 values. The introduction of stereo-SCIDAR1 over- comes this issue by separating the two stars and imaging them on two separate image sensors. To reduce costs, we introduce a new stereo-SCIDAR system separating the beams from the two stars, but using only one single detector. This has been shown for a Low Layer SCIDAR (LOLAS) system with wide double stars (200 arcsec). We investigate this technique by detecting the scintillation patterns of double stars with separation from 10 to 25 arcsec, allowing some flexibility in the altitude span and resolution, while retaining a simple optical setup. We selected a low noise sCMOS camera as the imager. We show the current design of this system and investigate its feasibility for further development.

  11. Progress made in understanding Mount Rainier's hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Vallance, J.W.; Pringle, P.T.

    2001-01-01

    At 4392 m high, glacier-clad Mount Rainier dominates the skyline of the southern Puget Sound region and is the centerpiece of Mount Rainier National Park. About 2.5 million people of the greater Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area can see Mount Rainier on clear days, and 150,000 live in areas swept by lahars and floods that emanated from the volcano during the last 6,000 years (Figure 1). These lahars include the voluminous Osceola Mudflow that floors the lowlands south of Seattle and east of Tacoma, and which was generated by massive volcano flank-collapse. Mount Rainier's last eruption was a light dusting of ash in 1894; minor pumice last erupted between 1820 and 1854; and the most recent large eruptions we know of were about 1100 and 2300 years ago, according to reports from the U.S. Geological Survey.

  12. The 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the volcanic unrest at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines began when steam explosions occurred on April 2, 1991. The unrest culminated ten weeks later in the world's largest eruption in more than half a century. 

  13. High frequency testing of rubber mounts.

    PubMed

    Vahdati, Nader; Saunders, L Ken Lauderbaugh

    2002-04-01

    Rubber and fluid-filled rubber engine mounts are commonly used in automotive and aerospace applications to provide reduced cabin noise and vibration, and/or motion accommodations. In certain applications, the rubber mount may operate at frequencies as high as 5000 Hz. Therefore, dynamic stiffness of the mount needs to be known in this frequency range. Commercial high frequency test machines are practically nonexistent, and the best high frequency test machine on the market is only capable of frequencies as high as 1000 Hz. In this paper, a high frequency test machine is described that allows test engineers to study the high frequency performance of rubber mounts at frequencies up to 5000 Hz.

  14. Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tousey, R

    1977-04-01

    This introductory paper describes Skylab and the course of events that led to this complex space project. In particular it covers the Apollo Telescope Mount and its instruments and the method of operation of the ATM mission.

  15. Side mounted EMS for aluminium scrap melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, M.; Tallbaeck, G.; Hanley, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    Normally the electromagnetic stirrer (EMS) is placed below the furnace. However it has recently been found that the EMS can also be placed at the side of the furnace, still giving good stirring. This makes it possible to install EMS on most existing furnaces. The side-mounted EMS is compared with the standard bottom-mounted stirrer with respect to installation, melting time and flow pattern in the melt. The major conclusion is that a side-mounted EMS is practical and will give about as good a performance as the bottom-mounted. Melting time estimates are based upon 3-D fluid flow and heat transfer predictions in combination with a simplified scrap melting theory. Predicted melting times are in fair agreement with operational data for mechanically stirred and electromagnetically bottom stirred furnaces.

  16. History and hazards of Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Mount Rainier is an active volcano that first erupted about half a million years ago. Because of Rainier's great height (14,410 feet above sea level) and northerly location, glaciers have cut deeply into its lavas, making it appear deceptively older than it actually is. Mount Rainier is known to have erupted as recently as in the 1840s, and large eruptions took place as recently as about 1,000 and 2,300 years ago.

  17. Mount Rainier: living with perilous beauty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Kevin M.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Driedger, Carolyn L.

    1998-01-01

    Mount Rainier is an active volcano reaching more than 2.7 miles (14,410 feet) above sea level. Its majestic edifice looms over expanding suburbs in the valleys that lead to nearby Puget Sound. USGS research over the last several decades indicates that Mount Rainier has been the source of many volcanic mudflows (lahars) that buried areas now densely populated. Now the USGS is working cooperatively with local communities to help people live more safely with the volcano.

  18. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  19. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1989-03-14

    This patent describes a motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  20. Model mount system for testing flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, M. G. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A wind tunnel model mount system is disclosed for effectively and accurately determining the effects of attack and airstream velocity on a model airfoil or aircraft. The model mount system includes a rigid model attached to a splitter plate which is supported away from the wind tunnel wall several of flexible rods. Conventional instrumentation is employed to effect model rotation through a turntable and to record model flutter data as a function of the angle of attack versus dynamic pressure.

  1. Volcanic hazards at Mount Shasta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight R.; Nichols, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    The eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington, in 1980 served as a reminder that long-dormant volcanoes can come to life again. Those eruptions, and their effects on people and property, also showed the value of having information about volcanic hazards well in advance of possible volcanic activity. This pamphlet about Mount Shasta provides such information for the public, even though the next eruption may still be far in the future.

  2. Isolation Mounting for Charge-Coupled Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, W. C.; Salomon, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    CCD's suspended by wires under tension. Remote thermoelectric cooling of charge coupled device allows vibration isolating mounting of CCD assembly alone, without having to suspend entire mass and bulk of thermoelectric module. Mounting hardware simple and light. Developed for charge-coupled devices (CCD's) in infrared telescope support adaptable to sensors in variety of environments, e.g., sensors in nuclear reactors, engine exhausts and plasma chambers.

  3. Raster graphic helmet-mounted display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beamon, William S.; Moran, Susanna I.

    1990-01-01

    A design of a helmet mounted display system is presented, including a design specification and development plan for the selected design approach. The requirements for the helmet mounted display system and a survey of applicable technologies are presented. Three helmet display concepts are then described which utilize lasers, liquid crystal display's (LCD's), and subminiature cathode ray tubes (CRT's), respectively. The laser approach is further developed in a design specification and a development plan.

  4. Gravity Probe B Detector Mount Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) detector mount assembly is shown in comparison to the size of a dime. The assembly is used to detect exactly how much starlight is coming through different beams from the beam splitter in the telescope. The measurements from the tiny chips inside are what keeps GP-B aimed at the guide star. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Paul Ehrensberger, Stanford University.)

  5. The mounting system of lenses in ASPIICS coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselý, Martin; Vít, Tomáš; Pleštil, Jan

    2016-11-01

    This article describes the mounting system of lenses in a coronagraph ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). ASPIICS is developed and produced in cooperation of twenty partners from seven countries. It is a part of the ESA's PROBA-3 mission, which includes a formation flight of a pair of satellites at orbit. Coronagraph itself consists of three objectives, where the last one is composed by one objective tube for each lens plus holder and Lyot stop. To achieve high accuracy of mounting of the individual lenses, it was necessary to achieve tight geometric and dimensional tolerances for manufacturing of the objectives barrels. In order to minimize the stress and to prevent the displacement of the lens from ideal position during a temperature change on orbit, an athermal solution was proposed. This is achieved by inserting a Teflon ring of a suitable thickness between the lens surface, objective barrel and the spring washer with a precisely defined contact force. It was necessary to find a suitable technological process of manufacturing, because of the specific behavior of PTFE during turning and complex design of other parts. All parameters of mounting system were repeatedly verified by a thermomechanical analysis in FEM software, based on tests of real parts.

  6. "Split Cast Mounting: Review and New Technique".

    PubMed

    Gundawar, S M; Pande, Neelam A; Jaiswal, Priti; Radke, U M

    2014-12-01

    For the fabrication of a prosthesis, the Prosthodontist meticulously performs all the steps. The laboratory technician then make every effort/strives to perform the remaining lab procedures. However when the processed dentures are remounted on the articulator, some changes are seen. These changes may be divided into two categories: Pre-insertion and post-insertion changes, which deal with the physical properties of the materials involved (Parker, J Prosthet Dent 31:335-342, 1974). Split cast mounting is the method of mounting casts on the articulator. It is essentially a maxillary cast constructed in two parts with a horizontal division. The procedure allows for the verification of the accuracy of the initial mounting and the ease of removal and replacement of the cast. This provides a precise means of correcting the changes in occlusion occurring as a result of the processing technique (Nogueira et al., J Prosthet Dent 91:386-388, 2004). Instability of the split mounting has always been a problem to the Prosthodontist thereby limiting its use. There are various materials mentioned in the literature. The new technique by using Dowel pins and twill thread is very easy, cheaper and simple way to stabilize the split mounting. It is useful and easy in day to day laboratory procedures. The article presents different methods of split cast mounting and the new procedure using easily available materials in prosthetic laboratory.

  7. Head-mounted spatial instruments: Synthetic reality or impossible dream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Grunwald, Arthur; Velger, Mordekhai

    1988-01-01

    A spatial instrument is defined as a display device which has been either geometrically or symbolically enhanced to better enable a user to accomplish a particular task. Research conducted over the past several years on 3-D spatial instruments has shown that perspective displays, even when viewed from the correct viewpoint, are subject to systematic viewer biases. These biases interfere with correct spatial judgements of the presented pictorial information. It is also found that deliberate, appropriate geometric distortion of the perspective projection of an image can improve user performance. These two findings raise intriguing questions concerning the design of head-mounted spatial instruments. The design of such instruments may not only require the introduction of compensatory distortions to remove the neutrally occurring biases but also may significantly benefit from the introduction of artificial distortions which enhance performance. These image manipulations, however, can cause a loss of visual-vestibular coordination and induce motion sickness. Additionally, adaptation to these manipulations is apt to be impaired by computational delays in the image display. Consequently, the design of head-mounted spatial instruments will require an understanding of the tolerable limits of visual-vestibular discord.

  8. Performance considerations for high-definition head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Oliver J.; Larimer, James O.; Gille, Jennifer

    1992-07-01

    We will discuss design image-optimization for helmet mounted displays (HMDs) in the context of a system engineering approach that includes a description of natural targets in the field, a description of perceptual characteristics of the human visual system, and device specifications that relate to these ecological and human-factors parameters that ultimately determine task performance. We will consider two HMD system as examples: the GEN III (AN/PVS-7A) night vision goggle (NVG) system and the SIPE helmet system (Soldier''s Integrated Protective Ensemble), both developed by S-TRON for use by the US Army.

  9. Multilayer mounting for long-term light sheet microscopy of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael; Mickoleit, Michaela; Huisken, Jan

    2014-02-27

    Light sheet microscopy is the ideal imaging technique to study zebrafish embryonic development. Due to minimal photo-toxicity and bleaching, it is particularly suited for long-term time-lapse imaging over many hours up to several days. However, an appropriate sample mounting strategy is needed that offers both confinement and normal development of the sample. Multilayer mounting, a new embedding technique using low-concentration agarose in optically clear tubes, now overcomes this limitation and unleashes the full potential of light sheet microscopy for real-time developmental biology.

  10. Functional expression of KCNQ (Kv7) channels in guinea pig bladder smooth muscle and their contribution to spontaneous activity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, U A; Carson, C; Johnston, L; Joshi, S; Gurney, A M; McCloskey, K D

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aim of the study was to determine whether KCNQ channels are functionally expressed in bladder smooth muscle cells (SMC) and to investigate their physiological significance in bladder contractility. Experimental Approach KCNQ channels were examined at the genetic, protein, cellular and tissue level in guinea pig bladder smooth muscle using RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, patch-clamp electrophysiology, calcium imaging, detrusor strip myography, and a panel of KCNQ activators and inhibitors. Key Results KCNQ subtypes 1–5 are expressed in bladder detrusor smooth muscle. Detrusor strips typically displayed TTX-insensitive myogenic spontaneous contractions that were increased in amplitude by the KCNQ channel inhibitors XE991, linopirdine or chromanol 293B. Contractility was inhibited by the KCNQ channel activators flupirtine or meclofenamic acid (MFA). The frequency of Ca2+-oscillations in SMC contained within bladder tissue sheets was increased by XE991. Outward currents in dispersed bladder SMC, recorded under conditions where BK and KATP currents were minimal, were significantly reduced by XE991, linopirdine, or chromanol, and enhanced by flupirtine or MFA. XE991 depolarized the cell membrane and could evoke transient depolarizations in quiescent cells. Flupirtine (20 μM) hyperpolarized the cell membrane with a simultaneous cessation of any spontaneous electrical activity. Conclusions and Implications These novel findings reveal the role of KCNQ currents in the regulation of the resting membrane potential of detrusor SMC and their important physiological function in the control of spontaneous contractility in the guinea pig bladder. PMID:23586426

  11. A Novel Approach to Surgical Instructions for Scrub Nurses by Using See-Through-Type Head-Mounted Display.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Sasaki, Asami; Sato, Chikage; Yamazaki, Mutsuko; Takayasu, Junya; Tanaka, Naofumi; Okabayashi, Norie; Hirano, Hiromi; Saito, Kazutaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2015-08-01

    In order to facilitate assists in surgical procedure, it is important for scrub nurses to understand the operation procedure and to share the operation status with attending surgeons. The potential utility of head-mounted display as a new imaging monitor has been proposed in the medical field. This study prospectively evaluated the usefulness of see-through-type head-mounted display as a novel intraoperative instructional tool for scrub nurses. From January to March 2014, scrub nurses who attended gasless laparoendoscopic single-port radical nephrectomy and radical prostatectomy wore the monocular see-through-type head-mounted display (AiRScouter; Brother Industries Ltd, Nagoya, Japan) displaying the instruction of the operation procedure through a crystal panel in front of the eye. Following the operation, the participants completed an anonymous questionnaire, which evaluated the image quality of the head-mounted display, the helpfulness of the head-mounted display to understand the operation procedure, and adverse effects caused by the head-mounted display. Fifteen nurses were eligible for the analysis. The intraoperative use of the head-mounted display could help scrub nurses to understand the surgical procedure and to hand out the instruments for the operation with no major head-mounted-display wear-related adverse event. This novel approach to support scrub nurses will help facilitate technical and nontechnical skills during surgery.

  12. Modal analysis of gear housing and mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Teik C.; Singh, Rajendra; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1989-01-01

    Dynamic finite element analysis of a real gear housing is presented. The analysis was conducted for the housing without the rotating components (gears, shafts, and bearings). Both rigid and flexible mounting conditions for the gear housing are considered in this analysis. The flexible support simulates the realistic mounting condition on a rotorcraft, and the rigid one is analyzed for comparison purposes. The effect of gear housing stiffeners is also evaluated. The results indicate that the first six natural modes of the flexibly mounted gear housing in the 0 to 200 Hz range correspond to the translational and rotational rigid body vibration modes of the housing. Above this range, the housing plate elastic modes begin to occur. In the case of the rigid mount, only the housing plate elastic modes are observed which are verified by modal analysis experiments. Parametric studies show that the housing plate stiffeners and rigid mounts tend to increase most of the natural frequencies, the lower ones being affected the most.

  13. Comparison of Gating Properties and Use-Dependent Block of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 Channels by Anti-Arrhythmics Mexiletine and Lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Mi, Jianxun; Lu, Ka; Lu, Yanxin; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Mexiletine and lidocaine are widely used class IB anti-arrhythmic drugs that are considered to act by blocking voltage-gated open sodium currents for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias and relief of pain. To gain mechanistic insights into action of anti-arrhythmics, we characterized biophysical properties of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells and compared their use-dependent block in response to mexiletine and lidocaine using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. While the voltage-dependent activation of Nav1.5 or Nav1.7 was not affected by mexiletine and lidocaine, the steady-state fast and slow inactivation of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 were significantly shifted to hyperpolarized direction by either mexiletine or lidocaine in dose-dependent manner. Both mexiletine and lidocaine enhanced the slow component of closed-state inactivation, with mexiletine exerting stronger inhibition on either Nav1.5 or Nav1.7. The recovery from inactivation of Nav1.5 or Nav1.7 was significantly prolonged by mexiletine compared to lidocaine. Furthermore, mexiletine displayed a pronounced and prominent use-dependent inhibition of Nav1.5 than lidocaine, but not Nav1.7 channels. Taken together, our findings demonstrate differential responses to blockade by mexiletine and lidocaine that preferentially affect the gating of Nav1.5, as compared to Nav1.7; and mexiletine exhibits stronger use-dependent block of Nav1.5. The differential gating properties of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 in response to mexiletine and lidocaine may help explain the drug effectiveness and advance in new designs of safe and specific sodium channel blockers for treatment of cardiac arrhythmia or pain.

  14. 14 CFR 33.23 - Engine mounting attachments and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine mounting attachments and structure... mounting attachments and structure. (a) The maximum allowable limit and ultimate loads for engine mounting attachments and related engine structure must be specified. (b) The engine mounting attachments and...

  15. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope mount final design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Shawn; Gressler, William; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Gessner, Chuck; Warner, Mike; Barr, Jeff; Lotz, Paul J.; Schumacher, German; Wiecha, Oliver; Angeli, George; Andrew, John; Claver, Chuck; Schoening, Bill; Sebag, Jacques; Krabbendam, Victor; Neill, Doug; Hileman, Ed; Muller, Gary; Araujo, Constanza; Orden Martinez, Alfredo; Perezagua Aguado, Manuel; García-Marchena, Luis; Ruiz de Argandoña, Ismael; Romero, Francisco M.; Rodríguez, Ricardo; Carlos González, José; Venturini, Marco

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status and details of the large synoptic survey telescope1,2,3 mount assembly (TMA). On June 9th, 2014 the contract for the design and build of the large synoptic survey telescope mount assembly (TMA) was awarded to GHESA Ingeniería y Tecnología, S.A. and Asturfeito, S.A. The design successfully passed the preliminary design review on October 2, 2015 and the final design review January 29, 2016. This paper describes the detailed design by subsystem, analytical model results, preparations being taken to complete the fabrication, and the transportation and installation plans to install the mount on Cerro Pachón in Chile. This large project is the culmination of work by many people and the authors would like to thank everyone that has contributed to the success of this project.

  16. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  17. Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

  18. Mathematical Basis of Knowledge Discovery and Autonomous Intelligent Architectures - Eye-Tracking and Head-Mounted Display/Tracking Computer System for the Remote Control of Robots and Manipulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-14

    High resolution image zone (HRIZ) on computer monitors , displays for collective use and helmet-mounted ones; C). Zone of higher interest displaying...monitor; 2). 3D control of the high-resolution zone in displayed image (HRIZ), for helmet-mounted displays, computer monitors and any displays for...for helmet-mounted displays, computer monitors and any displays for collective use; 3). 3D control of image zone of perception concern (with added

  19. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Mount Shasta, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The volcanic nature of Mount Shasta is clearly evident in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the northwest. At over 4,300 meters (14,000 feet), Mount Shasta is California's tallest volcano and part of the Cascade chain of volcanoes extending south from Washington. The twin summits of Shasta and Shastina tower over a lava flow on the flank of the volcano. Cutting across the lava flow is the bright line of a railroad. The bright area at the right edge is the town of Weed.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an online mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space

  20. High density interconnection technology - Surface mount technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menozzi, G.

    The design features of surface mount technology (SMT) circuits for data transmission, engineering and aerospace applications are examined. Details of pin out, dual face, and interconnection techniques employed for SMT circuits mounted on plastic or ceramic leadless chip carriers are explored. The industrial processes applied to obtain the SMT boards are discussed, along with methods for quality assurance, especially for the soldered connections. SMT installations in the form of 4 Mbit multilayer circuits for an ESA project and a 32-bit mainframe computer are described.

  1. 3D-additive manufactured optical mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Ciscel, David; Wooten, John

    2015-09-01

    The Area Defense Anti-Munitions (ADAM) is a low cost and effective high power laser weapon system. It's designed to address and negate important threats such as short-range rockets, UAVs, and small boats. Many critical optical components operate in the system. The optics and mounts must accommodate thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain an exceptional wave front during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) developed, designed, and currently operates ADAM. This paper covers the design and development of a key monolithic, flexured, titanium mirror mount that was manufactured by CalRAM using additive processes.

  2. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  3. Threat Posed by Mounting Vigilantism in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Perro’s body was found in the trunk of a vehicle occu- pied by Ismael Quintero Oliver, 32, and Marcos Érik Pérez Mora, 21, who belonged to a”Drivers...POSED BY MOUNTING VIGILANTISM IN MEXICO George W. Grayson U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE ,....~ .... :!iO.L STRATEGIC STUDIES INSTITUTE Report...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Threat Posed by Mounting Vigilantism in Mexico 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. Summit firn caves, mount rainier, washington.

    PubMed

    Kiver, E P; Mumma, M D

    1971-07-23

    Heat and steam from the crater fumaroles have melted over 5700 feet (1737 meters) of cave passage in the ice-filled east crater of Mount Rainier. The caves are in approximate balance with the present geothermal heat release. Future changes in the thermal activity of the summit cone will cause corresponding changes in cave passage dimensions, location, and ceiling and wall ablation features.

  5. Dish-mounted latent heat buffer storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dish-mounted latent heat storage subsystems for Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling engines operating at 427 C, 816 C, and 816 C respectively are discussed. Storage requirements definition, conceptual design, media stability and compatibility tests, and thermal performance analyses are considered.

  6. Earthquake swarms on Mount Erebus, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminuma, Katsutada; Baba, Megumi; Ueki, Sadato

    1986-12-01

    Mount Erebus (3794 m), located on Ross Island in McMurdo Sound, is one of the few active volcanoes in Antartica. A high-sensitivity seismic network has been operated by Japanese and US parties on and around the Volcano since December, 1980. The results of these observations show two kinds of seismic activity on Ross Island: activity concentrated near the summit of Mount Erebus associated with Strombolian eruptions, and micro-earthquake activity spread through Mount Erebus and the surrounding area. Seismicity on Mount Erebus has been quite high, usually exceeding 20 volcanic earthquakes per day. They frequently occur in swarms with daily counts exceeding 100 events. Sixteen earthquake swarms with more than 250 events per day were recorded by the seismic network during the three year period 1982-1984, and three notable earthquake swarms out of the sixteen were recognized, in October, 1982 (named 82-C), March-April, 1984 (84-B) and July, 1984 (84-F). Swarms 84-B and 84-F have a large total number of earthquakes and large Ishimoto-Iida's "m"; hence these two swarms are presumed to constitute on one of the precursor phenomena to the new eruption, which took place on 13 September, 1984, and lasted a few months.

  7. Eurofighter helmet-mounted display: status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Stephen J.; Cameron, Alexander A.

    2000-06-01

    BAE SYSTEMS are developing a high performance Helmet Mounted Display system for the Eurofighter/Typhoon combat aircraft. This paper presents an overview of the design solutions, as well as details of the development program status. Finally, it gives some indicators as to future growth applications.

  8. Fixture for mounting small parts for processing

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Larry R.; Gomez, Veronica M.; Thomas, Michael H.

    1990-01-01

    A fixture for mounting small parts, such as fusion target spheres or microelectronic components. A glass stalk is drawn and truncated near its tip. The truncated end of the glass stalk is dipped into silicone rubber forming an extending streamer. After the rubber cures for approximately 24 hours, a small part is touched to the streamer, and will be held securely throughout processing.

  9. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  10. Shock absorbing mount for electrical components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, R. F., Jr.; Mayne, R. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A shock mount for installing electrical components on circuit boards is described. The shock absorber is made of viscoelastic material which interconnects the electrical components. With this system, shocks imposed on one component of the circuit are not transmitted to other components. A diagram of a typical circuit is provided.

  11. 49 CFR 179.10 - Tank mounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tank mounting. 179.10 Section 179.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS General Design...

  12. Cooling/grounding mount for hybrid circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagstad, B.; Estrada, R.; Mandel, H.

    1981-01-01

    Extremely short input and output connections, adequate grounding, and efficient heat removal for hybrid integrated circuits are possible with mounting. Rectangular clamp holds hybrid on printed-circuit board, in contact with heat-conductive ground plate. Clamp is attached to ground plane by bolts.

  13. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  14. Mount Wilson Staff Reaction to Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    By 1950 Mount Wilson astronomers had come to accept light pollution by Los Angeles and its environs as inevitable. Those concerned with measurements of faint objects transferred their research to Caltech's Palomar Observatory (see, for example, Baade 1948) under the terms of an agreement between Carnegie and Caltech. Others took advantage of reduced pressure on the Mount Wilson telescopes to undertake major scientific programs that could tolerate the Los Angeles sky (Arp 1956, Sandage & Kowal 1986, Sandage & Fouts 1987, Vaughan & Preston 1980, Wilson 1974). However, these adjustments in style produced no remedy for the progressive deterioration that accompanied advancing age of the Mount Wilson facilities and lack of investment at a polluted site. The accelerating imbalance in demand for the Mount Wilson and Palomar facilities began to weigh on the Carnegie-Caltech joint operation. In the 1960's Carnegie attempted to redress the imbalance by developing a dark-sky site at Las Campanas, Chile, but the telescopes (1.0-m, 2.5-m) it could provide in the 1970's failed to arouse sufficient interest among Caltech astronomers, who opted to discontinue joint operation of the Carnegie and Caltech observatories in 1980. To fulfill its own need for a large telescope at a dark site Carnegie withdrew from the Mount Wilson operation in 1985, redirecting all of its resources to Las Campanas, and soon thereafter organized the Magellan Consortium that built and now operate two superb 6.5-m telescopes at the Las Campanas Observatory. This outcome is the legacy of Los Angeles lights. Arp, H. C. 1956, AJ, 61, 15 Baade, W. 1948, PASP, 60, 230 Sandage, A. R., & Kowal, C. 1986, AJ, 91, 1140 Sandage, A. R., & Fouts, G. 1987, AJ, 93, 74 Vaughan, A. H., & Preston, G. W. 1980, PASP, 92, 385 Wilson, O. C. 1978, ApJ, 226, 379

  15. Systems and methods for mirror mounting with minimized distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonille, Scott R. (Inventor); Wallace, Thomas E. (Inventor); Content, David A. (Inventor); Wake, Shane W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for mounting a mirror for use in a telescope includes attaching the mirror to a plurality of adjustable mounts; determining a distortion in the mirror caused by the plurality adjustable mounts, and, if the distortion is determined to be above a predetermined level: adjusting one or more of the adjustable mounts; and determining the distortion in the mirror caused by the adjustable mounts; and in the event the determined distortion is determined to be at or below the predetermined level, rigidizing the adjustable mounts.

  16. Graphene as a protein crystal mounting material to reduce background scatter

    PubMed Central

    Wierman, Jennifer L.; Alden, Jonathan S.; Kim, Chae Un; McEuen, Paul L.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2013-01-01

    The overall signal-to-noise ratio per unit dose for X-ray diffraction data from protein crystals can be improved by reducing the mass and density of all material surrounding the crystals. This article demonstrates a path towards the practical ultimate in background reduction by use of atomically thin graphene sheets as a crystal mounting platform for protein crystals. The results show the potential for graphene in protein crystallography and other cases where X-ray scatter from the mounting material must be reduced and specimen dehydration prevented, such as in coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of microscopic objects. PMID:24068843

  17. A history of helmet mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Bob; Melzer, James

    2015-05-01

    In more than 40 years of development, the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) has become a key part of the equipment for fixed and rotary wing pilots and ground soldiers, proving to be a force multiplier and reducing user workload. Rockwell Collins has been a key player in the development of modern HMD technology and is currently fielding major HMDs supporting pilots around the world including the Joint Hemet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) and Strike Eye. This paper will outline the history of HMDs over the last 40 years for fixed wing, rotorcraft and soldiers and discuss Rockwell Collins' role. We will discuss the development and testing required for introduction of HMDs into the modern pilot environment. Within the paper we will point out some of the misconceptions, facts and legends of HMDS.

  18. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Barrat, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Mount St. Helens' eruption has taught geologists invaluable lessons about how volcanoes work. Such information will be crucial in saving lives and property when other dormant volcanoes in the northwestern United States--and around the world--reawaken, as geologists predict they someday will. Since 1912, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory have pioneered the study of volcanoes through work on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. In Vancouver, Wash., scientists at the Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory are studying the after-effects of Mount St. Helens' catalysmic eruption as well as monitoring a number of other now-dormant volcanoes in the western United States. This paper briefly reviews the similarities and differences between the Hawaiian and Washington volcanoes and what these volcanoes are teaching the volcanologists.

  19. Painless acute myocardial infarction on Mount Kilimanjaro.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Nasiruddin; Rajhy, Mubina; Bapumia, Mustaafa

    2016-03-17

    An individual experiencing dyspnoea or syncope at high altitude is commonly diagnosed to have high-altitude pulmonary edema or cerebral edema. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis. There have been very rare cases of AMI reported only from Mount Everest. We report a case of painless ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that occurred while climbing Mount Kilimanjaro. A 51-year-old man suffered dyspnoea and loss of consciousness near the mountain peak, at about 5600 m. At a nearby hospital, he was treated as a case of high-altitude pulmonary edema. ECG was not obtained. Two days after the incident, he presented to our institution with continued symptoms of dyspnoea, light-headedness and weakness, but no pain. He was found to have inferior wall and right ventricular STEMI complicated by complete heart block. He was successfully managed with coronary angioplasty, with good recovery.

  20. The Geologic Story of Mount Rainier

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Ice-clad Mount Rainier, towering over the landscape of western Washington, ranks with Fuji-yama in Japan, Popocatepeti in Mexico, and Vesuvius in Italy among the great volcanoes of the world. At Mount Rainier, as at other inactive volcanoes, the ever-present possibility of renewed eruptions gives viewers a sense of anticipation, excitement, and apprehension not equaled by most other mountains. Even so, many of us cannot imagine the cataclysmic scale of the eruptions that were responsible for building the giant cone which now stands in silence. We accept the volcano as if it had always been there, and we appreciate only the beauty of its stark expanses of rock and ice, its flower-strewn alpine meadows, and its bordering evergreen forests. Mount Rainier owes its scenic beauty to many features. The broad cone spreads out on top of a major mountain range - the Cascades. The volcano rises about 7,000 feet above its 7,000-foot foundation, and stands in solitary splendor - the highest peak in the entire Cascade Range. Its rocky ice-mantled slopes above timberline contrast with the dense green forests and give Mount Rainier the appearance of an arctic island in a temperate sea, an island so large that you can see its full size and shape only from the air. The mountain is highly photogenic because of the contrasts it offers among bare rock, snowfields, blue sky, and the incomparable flower fields that color its lower slopes, shadows cast by the multitude of cliffs, ridges, canyons, and pinnacles change constantly from sunrise to sunset, endlessly varying the texture and mood of the mountain. The face of the mountain also varies from day to day as its broad snowfields melt during the summer. The melting of these frozen reservoirs makes Mount Rainier a natural resource in a practical as well as in an esthetic sense, for it ensures steady flows of water for hydroelectric power in the region, regardless of season. Seen from the Puget Sound country to the west, Mount Rainier has

  1. Helmet mounted display systems for helicopter simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Bucher, Nancy; Runnings, David

    1989-01-01

    Simulation scientists continually pursue improved flight simulation technology with the goal of closely replicating the 'real world' physical environment. The presentation/display of visual information for flight simulation is one such area enjoying recent technical improvements that are fundamental for conducting simulated operations close to the terrain. Detailed and appropriate visual information is especially critical for Nap-Of-the-Earth (NOE) helicopter flight simulation where the pilot maintains an 'eyes-out' orientation to avoid obstructions and terrain. This paper elaborates on the visually coupled Wide Field Of View Helmet Mounted Display (WFOVHMD) system technology as a viable visual display system for helicopter simulation. In addition the paper discusses research conducted on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator that examined one critical research issue for helmet mounted displays.

  2. Shaft mount for data coupler system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, James R., Jr. (Inventor); Lord, Mark T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for mounting a data transmission apparatus to a rotating, tapered, and instrumented shaft is provided. This device permits attachment without interfering with shaft rotation or the accuracy of data output, and prevents both radial and axial slippage of the data transmission apparatus. The mounting device consists of a sleeve assembly which is attached to the shaft by means of clamps that are situated at some distance removed from the instrumented area of the shaft. The data transmission device is secured to the sleeve such that the entire assembly rotates with the shaft. Shim adjustments between sleeve sections assure that a minimum compressive load is transferred to the instrumented area of the shaft and a rubber lining is affixed to a large portion of the interior surface of the sleeve to absorb vibration.

  3. Micro-inverter solar panel mounting

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, John; Gilchrist, Phillip Charles

    2016-02-02

    Processes, systems, devices, and articles of manufacture are provided. Each may include adapting micro-inverters initially configured for frame-mounting to mounting on a frameless solar panel. This securement may include using an adaptive clamp or several adaptive clamps secured to a micro-inverter or its components, and using compressive forces applied directly to the solar panel to secure the adaptive clamp and the components to the solar panel. The clamps can also include compressive spacers and safeties for managing the compressive forces exerted on the solar panels. Friction zones may also be used for managing slipping between the clamp and the solar panel during or after installation. Adjustments to the clamps may be carried out through various means and by changing the physical size of the clamps themselves.

  4. MOUNT ZIRKEL WILDERNESS AND VICINITY, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, George L.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of metallic and nonmetallic mineralization have been identified from surface occurrences within the Mount Zirkel Wilderness and vicinity, Colorado. Three areas of probable copper-lead-zinc-silver-gold resource potential, two areas of probable chrome-platinum resource potential, four areas of probable uranium-thorium resource potential, two areas of probable molybdenum resource potential, and one area of probable fluorspar potential were identified. No potential for fossil fuel or geothermal resources was identified.

  5. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R.

    1991-12-31

    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  6. Solar rotation results at Mount Wilson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.; Adkins, J. M.; Boyden, J. E.; Cragg, T. A.; Gregory, T. S.; Labonte, B. J.; Padilla, S. P.; Webster, L.

    1983-01-01

    Solar rotation results from Doppler velocity measurements made at Mount Wilson over a period of more than 14 years are presented based on a single reduction procedure. The observations were made with the wavelength 5250.2 A line of Fe I, and wavelength shifts of the line were simultaneously recorded. Data from 188 rotations are presented. Measurements of scattered light along with its effect on the measured rotation rate are given.

  7. Fracture Control for NIRSpec Kinematic Mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorel, M.; Novo, F.; Jollet, D.; Sinnema, G.; Jentsch, M.

    2014-06-01

    An ESA contribution to the JWST is the Near Infra-Red Spectrograph (NIRSpec) capable of high-resolution spectroscopy. The development of the NIRSpec was commissioned to Astrium. This contribution deals with the fracture control for the optical bench kinematic (OBK) mounts which are critical structural elements of the NIRSpec platform. A summary of the main activities is given as well as difficulties encountered throughout the process and solutions adopted.

  8. Indexing Mount For Rotation Of Optical Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Donald J., Jr.; Barnes, Norman P.

    1993-01-01

    Indexing mount for polarizer, wave plate, birefringent plate, or other optical component facilitates rotation of component to one or more preset angles. Includes hexagonal nut holding polarizer or other optical component. Ball bearing loaded by screw engages notch on cylindrical extension of nut engaging bracket. Time-consuming and tedious angular adjustment unnecessary: component turned quickly and easily, by hand or by use of wrench, to preset angular positions maintained by simple ball-detent mechanism.

  9. Cantilever mounted resilient pad gas bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A gas-lubricated bearing is described, employing at least one pad mounted on a rectangular cantilever beam to produce a lubricating wedge between the face of the pad and a moving surface. The load-carrying and stiffness characteristics of the pad are related to the dimensions and modulus of elasticity of the beam. The bearing is applicable to a wide variety of types of hydrodynamic bearings.

  10. Fixture for mounting small parts for processing

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, L.R.; Gomez, V.M.; Thomas, M.H.

    1990-05-29

    A fixture for mounting small parts, such as fusion target spheres or microelectronic components is disclosed. A glass stalk is drawn and truncated near its tip. The truncated end of the glass stalk is dipped into silicone rubber forming an extending streamer. After the rubber cures for approximately 24 hours, a small part is touched to the streamer, and will be held securely throughout processing. 5 figs.

  11. Mounts For Selective Rotation And Translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Blade-in-groove bearings stacked to obtain necessary degrees of freedom. Mounting system allows panels to be tilted, rotated, and translated selectively. Developed for large solar reflectors or antennas composed of hexagonal panels about 6 ft. wide and 6 in. thick. With system, each panel tilted around two axes to focus antenna. At same time, each panel translates along these axes to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction without affecting focus.

  12. New mounting improves solar-cell efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Method boosts output by about 20 percent by trapping and redirecting solar radiation without increasing module depth. Mounted solar-cell array is covered with internally reflecting plate. Plate is attached to each cell by transparent adhesive, and space between cells is covered with layer of diffusely reflecting material. Solar energy falling on space between cells is diffused and reflected internally by plate until it is reflected onto solar cell.

  13. Dynamics of the Mount Nyiragongo lava lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgi, P.-Y.; Darrah, T. H.; Tedesco, D.; Eymold, W. K.

    2014-05-01

    The permanent and presently rising lava lake at Mount Nyiragongo constitutes a major potential geological hazard to the inhabitants of the Virunga volcanic region in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Rwanda. Based on two field campaigns in June 2010 and 2011, we estimate the lava lake level from the southeastern crater rim (~400 m diameter) and lava lake area (~46,550 m2), which constrains, respectively, the lava lake volume (~9 × 106 m3) and volume flow rate needed to keep the magma in a molten state (0.6 to 3.5 m3 s-1). A bidirectional magma flow model, which includes the characterization of the conduit diameter and funnel-shaped lava lake geometry, is developed to constrain the amount of magma intruded/emplaced within the magmatic chamber and rift-related structures that extend between Mount Nyiragongo's volcanic center and the city of Goma, DRC, since Mount Nyiragongo's last eruption (17 January 2002). Besides matching field data of the lava lake level covering the period 1977 to 2002, numerical solutions of the model indicate that by 2022, 20 years after the January 2002 eruption, between 300 and 1700 × 106 m3 (0.3 to 1.7 km3) of magma could have intruded/emplaced underneath the edifice, and the lava lake volume could exceed 15 × 106 m3.

  14. Disruptive advancement in precision lens mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Doucet, Michel; Côté, Patrice; Gauvin, Jonny; Anctil, Geneviève

    2015-09-01

    Threaded rings are used to fix lenses in a large portion of opto-mechanical assemblies. This is the case for the low cost drop-in approach in which the lenses are dropped into cavities cut into a barrel and clamped with threaded rings. The walls of a cavity are generally used to constrain the lateral and axial position of the lens within the cavity. In general, the drop-in approach is low cost but imposes fundamental limitations especially on the optical performances. On the other hand, active alignment methods provide a high level of centering accuracy but increase the cost of the optical assembly. This paper first presents a review of the most common lens mounting techniques used to secure and center lenses in optical systems. Advantages and disadvantages of each mounting technique are discussed in terms of precision and cost. Then, the different contributors which affect the centering of a lens when using the drop-in approach, such as the threaded ring, friction, and manufacturing errors, are detailed. Finally, a patent pending lens mounting technique developed at INO that alleviates the drawbacks of the drop-in and the active alignment approaches is introduced. This innovative auto-centering method requires a very low assembly time, does not need tight manufacturing tolerances and offers a very high level of centering accuracy, usually less than 5 μm. Centering test results performed on real optical assemblies are also presented.

  15. 4. Panama Mount. Note concrete ring and metal rail. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Panama Mount. Note concrete ring and metal rail. Note cliff erosion under foundation at left center. Looking 297° W. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey DETAIL SHOWING MOUNT CLARE Copy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey DETAIL SHOWING MOUNT CLARE Copy of Lithograph, titled 'Bird's Eye View of Baltimore' Edward Sachse & Co., 1869 - Mount Clare, Bayard & South Monroe Streets, Carroll Park, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  17. 14 CFR 23.363 - Side load on engine mount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.363 Side load on engine mount. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed...

  18. 14 CFR 23.363 - Side load on engine mount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.363 Side load on engine mount. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed...

  19. 14 CFR 23.363 - Side load on engine mount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.363 Side load on engine mount. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed...

  20. 14 CFR 23.363 - Side load on engine mount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.363 Side load on engine mount. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed...

  1. 14 CFR 23.363 - Side load on engine mount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.363 Side load on engine mount. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed...

  2. Quality investigation of surface mount technology using phase-shifting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonsri, Chantira; Buranasiri, Prathan

    2016-09-01

    Applying of a phase-shifting digital holography combined with compressive sensing to inspect the soldering quality of surface mount technology (SMT) which is a method for producing electronic circuits. In SMT, the components are mounted and connected with each other directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). By reconstructing the multidimensional images from a few samples of SMT, the results are solved by an optimization problem. In this paper, two problems have been concerned. The first one is to examine the devices and the soldering quality of connections between them, which are in micro-scaled. The second is to observe the effect of heat treatment of soldering material and devices on the surface mount board.

  3. Diagenetic Crystal Clusters and Dendrites, Lower Mount Sharp, Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R.; Van Beek, J.; Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Thompson, L.; Wiens, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Farmer, J.; Minitti, M.; Shieber, J.; Oehler, D.

    2015-01-01

    Since approximately Sol 753 (to sol 840+) the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover has been investigating the Pahrump locality. Mapping of HiRise images suggests that the Pahrup locality represents the first occurrence of strata associated with basal Mount Sharp. Considerable efforts have been made to document the Pahrump locality in detail, in order to constrain both depositional and diagenetic facies. The Pahrump succession consists of approximately 13 meters of recessive-weathering mudstone interbedded with thin (decimeter-scale) intervals of more erosionally resistant mudstone, and crossbedded sandstone in the upper stratigraphic levels. Mudstone textures vary from massive, to poorly laminated, to well-laminated. Here we investigate the distribution and structure of unusual diagenetic features that occur in the lowermost portion of the Pahrump section. These diagenetic features consist of three dimensional crystal clusters and dendrites that are erosionally resistant with respect to the host rock.

  4. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Frustum mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Frustum mounted on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center as it is being prepared to be mated with the Nose Cap and Forward Skirt. The Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. The three main parachutes are deployed to reduce speed as the SRBs descend to a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean where they are recovered refurbished and reused. In this view the assembly is rotated so that the four Separation Motors are in view and aligned with the approximate centerline of the image. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Designing the integrated helmet-mounted display for pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu

    1998-08-01

    The design of an integrated helmet-mounted display for pilots is described. The purpose of the design is to provide sufficient information, fine comfort for wear, and low cost. Some factors are considered and compromised in the design. A 3rd generation image intensifier, a half inch cathode ray tube, two combiner eyepieces, and some optical assembly are used in the display. The optical axes of the objective lens, the intensifier, and the combiners are put on one plane with the line of sight of the water. A intensifying channel, a display channel and a see-through channel are included in the display system. These channel present fight symbology and objective scene by multiform way. Accordingly, the design has a great redundance, and the display has fine reliability and the location of the CG, low cost and weight.

  6. Effects of Structural Flexibility on Aircraft-Engine Mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis extends technique for design of widely used type of vibration-isolating mounts for aircraft engines, in which rubber mounting pads located in plane behind center of gravity of enginepropeller combination. New analysis treats problem in statics. Results of simple approach useful in providing equations for design of vibrationisolating mounts. Equations applicable in usual situation in which engine-mount structure itself relatively light and placed between large mass of engine and other heavy components of airplane.

  7. Mounting apparatus for a nozzle guide vane assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.L.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-09-12

    The present invention provides a ceramic nozzle guide assembly with an apparatus for mounting it to a metal nozzle case that includes an intermediate ceramic mounting ring. The mounting ring includes a plurality of projections that are received within a plurality of receptacles formed in the nozzle case. The projections of the mounting ring are secured within the receptacles by a ceramic retainer that allows contact between the two components only along arcuate surfaces thus eliminating sliding contact between the components. 8 figs.

  8. Mounting apparatus for a nozzle guide vane assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a ceramic nozzle guide assembly with an apparatus for mounting it to a metal nozzle case that includes an intermediate ceramic mounting ring. The mounting ring includes a plurality of projections that are received within a plurality of receptacles formed in the nozzle case. The projections of the mounting ring are secured within the receptacles by a ceramic retainer that allows contact between the two components only along arcuate surfaces thus eliminating sliding contact between the components.

  9. Integral Flexure Mounts for Metal Mirrors for Cryogenic Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zewari, S. Wahid; Hylan, Jason E.; Irish, Sandra M.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Conkey, Shelly B.

    2006-01-01

    Semi-kinematic, six-degree-of-freedom flexure mounts have been incorporated as integral parts of metal mirrors designed to be used under cryogenic conditions as parts of an astronomical instrument. The design of the mirrors and their integral flexure mounts can also be adapted to other instruments and other operating temperatures. In comparison with prior kinematic cryogenic mirror mounts, the present mounts are more compact and can be fabricated easily using Ram-EDM (electrical discharge machining) process

  10. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  11. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  12. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  13. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  14. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  15. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires...

  16. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires...

  17. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires...

  18. 75 FR 1285 - Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMES) AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Rules and Procedures to Govern the Use of Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations in Certain Frequency Bands... Rules for Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMES). Form Number: Not Applicable. Type of Review:...

  19. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  20. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank mountings. 178.255-11 Section 178.255-11... Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-11 Tank mountings. (a) Tanks shall be designed and fabricated with... this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting...

  1. A recurrent KCNQ2 pore mutation causing early onset epileptic encephalopathy has a moderate effect on M current but alters subcellular localization of Kv7 channels.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Affef; Devaux, Jérôme J; Molinari, Florence; Alcaraz, Gisèle; Michon, François-Xavier; Sutera-Sardo, Julie; Becq, Hélène; Lacoste, Caroline; Altuzarra, Cécilia; Afenjar, Alexandra; Mignot, Cyril; Doummar, Diane; Isidor, Bertrand; Guyen, Sylvie N; Colin, Estelle; De La Vaissière, Sabine; Haye, Damien; Trauffler, Adeline; Badens, Catherine; Prieur, Fabienne; Lesca, Gaetan; Villard, Laurent; Milh, Mathieu; Aniksztejn, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    dominant-negative effect on wild-type subunits but alters the preferential axonal targeting of heteromeric Kv7 channels. Our data suggest that the disease severity is not necessarily a consequence of a strong inhibition of M current and that additional mechanisms such as abnormal subcellular distribution of Kv7 channels could be determinant.

  2. Activation of axonal Kv7 channels in human peripheral nerve by flupirtine but not placebo - therapeutic potential for peripheral neuropathies: results of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flupirtine is an analgesic with muscle-relaxing properties that activates Kv7 potassium channels. Kv7 channels are expressed along myelinated and unmyelinated peripheral axons where their activation is expected to reduce axonal excitability and potentially contribute to flupirtine’s clinical profile. Trial design To investigate the electrical excitability of peripheral myelinated axons following orally administered flupirtine, in-vitro experiments on isolated peripheral nerve segments were combined with a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase I clinical trial (RCT). Methods Threshold tracking was used to assess the electrical excitability of myelinated axons in isolated segments of human sural nerve in vitro and motoneurones to abductor pollicis brevis (APB) in situ in healthy subjects. In addition, the effect of flupirtine on ectopic action potential generation in myelinated axons was examined using ischemia of the lower arm. Results Flupirtine (3-30 μM) shortened the relative refractory period and increased post-conditioned superexcitability in human myelinated axons in vitro. Similarly, in healthy subjects the relative refractory period of motoneurones to APB was reduced 2 hours after oral flupirtine but not following placebo. Whether this effect was due to a direct action of flupirtine on peripheral axons or temperature could not be resolved. Flupirtine (200 mg p.o.) also reduced ectopic axonal activity induced by 10 minutes of lower arm ischemia. In particular, high frequency (ca. 200 Hz) components of EMG were reduced in the post-ischemic period. Finally, visual analogue scale ratings of sensations perceived during the post-ischemic period were reduced following flupirtine (200 mg p.o.). Conclusions Clinical doses of flupirtine reduce the excitability of peripheral myelinated axons. Trial registration ClinicalTrials registration is NCT01450865. PMID:23394517

  3. 30 Cool Facts about Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn; Liz, Westby; Faust, Lisa; Frenzen, Peter; Bennett, Jeanne; Clynne, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Commemorating the 30th anniversary of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens 1-During the past 4,000 years, Mount St. Helens has erupted more frequently than any other volcano in the Cascade Range. 2-Most of Mount St. Helens is younger than 3,000 years old (younger than the pyramids of Egypt). 3-Some Native American names that refer to smoke at the volcano include- Lawala Clough, Low-We- Lat-Klah, Low-We-Not- Thlat, Loowit, Loo-wit, Loo-wit Lat-kla, and Louwala-Clough. 4-3,600 years ago-Native Americans abandoned hunting grounds devastated by an enormous eruption four times larger than the May 18, 1980 eruption. 5-1792-Captain George Vancouver named the volcano for Britain's ambassador to Spain, Alleyne Fitzherbert, also known as Baron St. Helens. 6-1975-U.S. Geological Survey geologists forecasted that Mount St. Helens would erupt again, 'possibly before the end of the century.' 7-March 20, 1980-A magnitude 4.2 earthquake signaled the reawakening of the volcano after 123 years. 8-Spring 1980-Rising magma pushed the volcano's north flank outward 5 feet per day. 9-Morning of May 18, 1980- The largest terrestrial landslide in recorded history reduced the summit by 1,300 feet and triggered a lateral blast. 10-Within 3 minutes, the lateral blast, traveling at more than 300 miles per hour, blew down and scorched 230 square miles of forest. 11-Within 15 minutes, a vertical plume of volcanic ash rose over 80,000 feet. 12-Afternoon of May 18, 1980-The dense ash cloud turned daylight into darkness in eastern Washington, causing streetlights to turn on in Yakima and Ritzville. 13-The volcanic ash cloud drifted east across the United States in 3 days and encircled Earth in 15 days. 14-Lahars (volcanic mudflows) filled rivers with rocks, sand, and mud, damaging 27 bridges and 200 homes and forcing 31 ships to remain in ports upstream. 15-The May 18, 1980 eruption was the most economically destructive volcanic event in U.S. history. 16-Small plants and trees beneath winter snow

  4. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  5. Mount Zirkel Wilderness and vicinity, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, G.L.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of metallic and nonmetallic mineralization have been identified from surface occurrences within the Mount Zirkel Wilderness and vicinity, Colorado. Three areas of probable copper-lead-zinc-silver-gold resource potential, two areas of probable chrome-platinum resource potential, four areas of probable uranium-thorium resource potential, two areas of probable molybdenum resource potential, and one area of probable fluorspar potential were identified by studies in 1965-1973 by the USGS and USBM. No potential for fossil fuel or geothermal resources was identified.

  6. Star tracker for the Apollo telescope mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The star tracker for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the Skylab vehicle and mission. The functions of the star tracker are presented, as well as descriptions of the optical-mechanical assembly (OMA) and the star tracker electronics (STE). Also included are the electronic and mechanical specifications, interface and operational requirements, support equipment and test requirements, and occultation information. Laboratory functional tests, environmental qualification tests, and life tests have provided a high confidence factor in the performance of the star tracker in the laboratory and on the Skylab mission.

  7. Habitat changes: Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frisina, M.R.; Keigley, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In 1984, a rest-rotation grazing system was established on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area (MHWMA) in southwest Montana. The area is a mixture of wet and dry meadow types, grass/shrublands, and forest. Prior to implementing the grazing system, photo-monitoring points were established on the MHWMA at locations were cattle concentrate were grazing. The area consists of a three pasture rest-rotation system incorporating 20,000 acres. Photo essays revealed changes in riparian, lowland, and upland sites within the grazing system. In addition, gross changes in the amount of willow present were documented.

  8. Mount St. Helens Volcano, WA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mount St. Helens Volcano (46.0N, 122.0W) and its blast zone can be seen in this northeast looking infrared view. Mt. Rainier and Mt. Adams can also be seen in the near area. The Columbia River can be seen at the bottom of the view. When Mt. St. Helens erupted on 18 May 80, the top 1300 ft. disappeared within minutes. The blast area covered an area of more than 150 sq. miles and sent thousands of tons of ash into the upper atmosphere.

  9. High Speed Rotor Head Mounted Instrumentation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hee, Leonard; Reynolds, R. S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has been investigating the air flow of a rotor blade on a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter in-flight. This paper will address the hardware problems and solutions used to design and fabricate an instrumentation system on top of a UH-60 main rotor head. The instrumentation system consisted of 10 data systems operating in parallel and collected data from 370 sensors that are mounted in four rotor blades and on the rotating rotor head. The data was recorded on board the aircraft and simultaneously down linked to the ground station at 7.5 MHz.

  10. Timing considerations of Helmet Mounted Display performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tharp, Gregory; Liu, Andrew; French, Lloyd; Lai, Steve; Stark, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    The Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system developed in our lab should be a useful teleoperator systems display if it increases operator performance of the desired task; it can, however, introduce degradation in performance due to display update rate constraints and communication delays. Display update rates are slowed by communication bandwidth and/or computational power limitations. We used simulated 3D tracking and pick-and-place tasks to characterize performance levels for a range of update rates. Initial experiments with 3D tracking indicate that performance levels plateau at an update rate between 10 and 20 Hz. We have found that using the HMD with delay decreases performance as delay increases.

  11. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2008-10-14

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, for use with a photovoltaic assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending generally perpendicular to the central portion. Each arm has an outer portion with each outer portion having an outer end. At least one frame surface-disrupting element is at each outer end. The central portion defines a plane with the frame surface-disrupting elements pointing towards the plane. In some examples each arm extends from the central portion at an acute angle to the plane.

  12. Eruptive history of Mount Katmai, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Edward; Fierstein, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Compositionally, products of Mount Katmai represent an ordinary medium-K arc array, both tholeiitic and calcalkaline, that extends from 51.6% to 72.3% SiO2. Values of 87Sr/86Sr range from 0.70335 to 0.70372, correlating loosely with fractionation indices. The 5–6 km3 of continuously zoned andesite-dacite magma (58%–68% SiO2) that erupted at Novarupta in 1912 was withdrawn from beneath Mount Katmai and bears close compositional affinity with products of that edifice, not with pre-1912 products of the adjacent Trident cluster. Evidence is presented that the 7–8 km3 of high-silica rhyolite (77% SiO2) released in 1912 is unlikely to have been stored under Novarupta or Trident. Pre-eruptive contiguity with the andesite-dacite reservoir is suggested by (1) eruption of ∼3 km3 of rhyolite magma first, followed by mutual mingling in fluctuating proportions; (2) thermal and redox continuity of the whole zoned sequence despite the wide compositional gap; (3) Nd, Sr, O isotopic, and rare earth element (REE) affinities of the whole array; (4) compositional continuity of the nearly aphyric rhyolite with the glass (melt) phase of the phenocryst-rich dacite; and (5) phase-equilibrium experiments that indicate similar shallow pre-eruptive storage depths (3–6 km) for rhyolite, dacite, and andesite.

  13. Calibration apparatus for recess mounted pressure transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolini, Michael A.; Miller, William T., Jr.; Baals, Robert A.; Martin, Ruth M.

    1992-04-01

    Measurement of surface pressure fluctuations is important in aerodynamic studies and is conventionally accomplished via thin surface mounted transducers. These transducers contaminate the airflow, leading to the use of transducers located beneath the surface and communicating thereto via a pipette. This solution creates its own problem of transducer calibration due to the structure of the pipette. A calibration apparatus and method for calibrating a pressure transducer are provided. The pressure transducer is located within a test structure having a pipette leading from an outer structure surface to the pressure transducer. The calibration apparatus defines an acoustic cavity. A first end of the acoustic cavity is adapted to fluidly communicate with the pipette leading to the pressure transducer, wherein a channel is formed from the acoustic cavity to the transducer. An acoustic driver is provided for acoustically exciting fluid in the acoustic cavity to generate pressure waves which propagate to the pressure transducer. A pressure sensing microphone is provided for sensing the pressure fluctuations in the cavity near the cavity end, whereby this sensed pressure is compared with a simultaneously pressure sensed by the pressure transducer to permit calibration of the pressure transducer sensings. Novel aspects of the present invention include its use of a calibration apparatus to permit in-situ calibration of recess mounted pressure transducers.

  14. Volcanic hazards at Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond; Mullineaux, Donal Ray

    1967-01-01

    Mount Rainier is a large stratovolcano of andesitic rock in the Cascade Range of western Washington. Although the volcano as it now stands was almost completely formed before the last major glaciation, geologic formations record a variety of events that have occurred at the volcano in postglacial time. Repetition of some of these events today without warning would result in property damage and loss of life on a catastrophic scale. It is appropriate, therefore, to examine the extent, frequency, and apparent origin of these phenomena and to attempt to predict the effects on man of similar events in the future. The present report was prompted by a contrast that we noted during a study of surficial geologic deposits in Mount Rainier National Park, between the present tranquil landscape adjacent to the volcano and the violent events that shaped parts of that same landscape in the recent past. Natural catastrophes that have geologic causes - such as eruptions, landslides, earthquakes, and floods - all too often are disastrous primarily because man has not understood and made allowance for the geologic environment he occupies. Assessment of the potential hazards of a volcanic environment is especially difficult, for prediction of the time and kind of volcanic activity is still an imperfect art, even at active volcanoes whose behavior has been closely observed for many years. Qualified predictions, however, can be used to plan ways in which hazards to life and property can be minimized. The prediction of eruptions is handicapped because volcanism results from conditions far beneath the surface of the earth, where the causative factors cannot be seen and, for the most part, cannot be measured. Consequently, long-range predictions at Mount Rainier can be based only on the past behavior of the volcano, as revealed by study of the deposits that resulted from previous eruptions. Predictions of this sort, of course, cannot be specific as to time and locale of future events, and

  15. Full waveform ambient noise tomography of Mount Rainer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, A. F.; Shen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mount Rainier towers over the landscape of western Washington, ranking with Fuji-yama in Japan, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Mt. Vesuvius in Italy, as one of the great stratovolcanoes of the world. Notwithstanding it's picturesque stature, Mt. Rainier is potentially the most devastating stratovolcano in North America, with more than 3.5 million people living beneath its shadow in the Seattle-Tacoma area. The primary hazard posed by the volcano is in the form of highly destructive volcanic debris flows (lahars). These lahars form when water and/or melted ice erode away and entrain preexisting volcanic sediment. At Mt. Rainier these flows are often initiated by sector collapse of the volcano's hydrothermally rotten flanks and compounded from Mt. Rainier's extensive snow and glacial ice coverage. It is therefore imperative to ascertain the extent of summit hydrothermal alteration within the volcano, and determine areas prone to collapse. Despite being one of the sixteen volcanoes globally designated by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior as warranting detailed and focused study, Mt. Rainier remains enigmatic both in terms of shallow internal structure and the degree of summit hydrothermal alteration. We image this shallow internal structure and areas of possible summit alteration using ambient noise tomography. Our full waveform forward modeling includes high-resolution topography, allowing us to accurately account for the effects of topography on the propagation of short-period Rayleigh waves. Empirical Green's functions were extracted from 80 stations within 200 km of Mount Rainier and compared with synthetic greens functions over multiple frequency bands from 2-28 seconds. The preliminary model shows a broad (60 km wide) low shear-wave velocity anomaly in the mid-crust beneath the volcano. The mid-crust low-velocity body extends to the surface beneath the volcano summit in a narrow near-vertical conduit, the

  16. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... project area. The exploratory drilling in this area would be phased over the course of six years; 51 holes... drilling on the Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District. There are two areas identified for exploration; the Bajillos project area is approximately 2,894 acres and is located in T. 12 N, R. 8...

  17. Deposits of large volcanic debris avalanches at Mount St. Helens and Mount Shasta volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Glicken, H.

    1985-01-01

    Large volcanic debris avalanches are among the world's largest mass movements. The rockslide-debris avalanche of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens produced a 2.8 km/sup 3/ deposit and is the largest historic mass movement. A Pleistocene debris avalanche at Mount Shasta produced a 26 km/sup 3/ deposit that may be the largest Quaternary mass movement. The hummocky deposits at both volcanoes consist of rubble divided into (1) block facies that comprises unconsolidated pieces of the old edifice transported relatively intact, and (2) matrix facies that comprises a mixture of rocks from the old mountain and material picked up from the surrounding terrain. At Mount St. Helens, the juvenile dacite is found in the matrix facies, indicating that matrix facies formed from explosions of the erupting magma as well as from disaggregation and mixing of blocks. The block facies forms both hummocks and interhummock areas in the proximal part of the St. Helens avalanche deposit. At Mount St. Helens, the density of the old cone is 21% greater than the density of the avalanche deposit. Block size decreases with distance. Clast size, measured in the field and by sieving, coverages about a mean with distance, which suggests that blocks disaggregated and mixed together during transport.

  18. Cotton phenotyping with lidar from a track-mounted platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Andrew N.; Gore, Michael A.; Thompson, Alison

    2016-05-01

    High-Throughput Phenotyping (HTP) is a discipline for rapidly identifying plant architectural and physiological responses to environmental factors such as heat and water stress. Experiments conducted since 2010 at Maricopa, Arizona with a three-fold sensor group, including thermal infrared radiometers, active visible/near infrared reflectance sensors, and acoustic plant height sensors, have shown the validity of HTP with a tractor-based system. However, results from these experiments also show that accuracy of plant phenotyping is limited by the system's inability to discriminate plant components and their local environmental conditions. This limitation may be overcome with plant imaging and laser scanning which can help map details in plant architecture and sunlit/shaded leaves. To test the capability for mapping cotton plants with a laser system, a track-mounted platform was deployed in 2015 over a full canopy and defoliated cotton crop consisting of a scanning LIDAR driven by Arduinocontrolled stepper motors. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at 0.1 m/s while collecting LIDAR scans at 25 Hz (0.1667 deg. beam). These tests showed that an autonomous LIDAR platform can reduce HTP logistical problems and provide the capability to accurately map cotton plants and cotton bolls. A prototype track-mounted platform was developed to test the use of LIDAR scanning for High- Throughput Phenotyping (HTP). The platform was deployed in 2015 at Maricopa, Arizona over a senescent cotton crop. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at <1 m/s while collecting LIDAR scans at 25 Hz (0.1667 deg. beam). Scanning data mapped the canopy heights and widths, and detected cotton bolls.

  19. Seasonality of Shallow Icequakes at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, H. A.; Aster, R. C.; Kyle, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Background (non-eruptive) seismicity at Mount Erebus Volcano is dominated by icequake activity on its extensive ice fields and glaciers. We examine icequake seismograms recorded by both long-running and temporary densification deployments spanning seven years (2003-2009) to assess event frequency, size, apparent seasonality, event mechanism, and geographic distribution. In addition to generally investigating mountain glacial ice seismicity in cold and dry glacial environments, we also hope to exploit icequakes as local sources for tomographic imaging of the volcano’s interior in conjunction with 2008-2010 active source and explosive volcanism data. Using Antelope-based methodologies, we determined the distribution and magnitude of a subset of well-recorded icequakes using data from the long-running Mount Erebus Volcano Network (MEVO) network, as well as two dense IRIS PASSCAL supported temporary networks deployed during 2008 and 2009 (the MEVO network consists of six broadband and nine short period stations with environmental data streams; the dense arrays consisted of 24 broadband stations arranged in two concentric rings around the volcano and 99 short period stations deployed near the summit of Erebus volcano and along the Terror-Erebus axis of Ross Island). During each of the seven years, we note a number of large icequake swarms (up to many hundreds of events per day). We hypothesize that many of these events occur in very shallow ice, based on the apparent ambient temperature-driven seasonality of the events. Specifically, approximately 43% of the events occur between March and May and approximately 30% occur between October and December. Each of these times feature rapidly changing ambient air temperatures due to the high latitude appearance/disappearance of the sun. A shallow mechanism is predicted by 1-D thermal skin depth calculations that show that annual temperature fluctuations decay by 1/e within the top few meters of ice.

  20. TGF-β1-elevated TRPM7 channel regulates collagen expression in hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β1/Smad pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ling; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Wu, Baoming; Ma, Taotao; Liu, Xuejiao; Zhu, Qian; Zhan, Shuxiang; Li, Jun

    2014-10-15

    Transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into myofibroblasts plays a critical role in the development of liver fibrosis, since myofibroblasts are the key cells responsible for excessive deposition of ECM proteins. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a non-selective cation channel with protein serine/threonine kinase activity, has been demonstrated to function in the proliferation of activated HSCs. Here, we investigated the functional role of TRPM7 in collagen deposition in activated HSC-T6 cells (a rat hepatic stellate cell line). TRPM7 mRNA and protein were measured by Real-time PCR and Western blot in TGF-β1-activated HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Results demonstrated that TRPM7 protein was dramatically increased in fibrotic human livers. Stimulation of HSC-T6 cells with TGF-β1 increased TRPM7 mRNA and protein level in a time-dependent manner. Nevertheless, TGF-β1-elicited upregulation of TRPM7 in HSC-T6 cells was abrogated by SB431542 (TGF-β1 receptor blocker) or SIS3 (inhibitor of Smad3 phosphorylation). Additionally, blockade of TRPM7 channels with non-specific TRPM7 blocker 2-APB or synthetic siRNA targeting TRPM7 attenuated TGF-β1-induced expression of myofibroblast markers, as measured by the induction of α-SMA and Col1α1. Silencing TRPM7 also increased the ratio of MMPs/TIMPs by increasing MMP-13 expression and decreasing TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels. Strikingly, phosphorylation of p-Smad2 and p-Smad3, associated with collagen production, was decreased in TRPM7 deficient HSC-T6 cells. These observations suggested that TGF-β1 elevates TRPM7 expression in HSCs via Smad3-dependant mechanisms, which in turn contributes Smad protein phosphorylation, and subsequently increases fibrous collagen expression. Therefore, TRPM7 may constitute a useful target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Upregulation of TRPM7 protein in human fibrotic livers • Upregulation of TRPM7 by TGF-β1 elicited Smad signaling in HSC-T6 cells

  1. High-Performance Wireless Internet Connection to Mount Laguna Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etzel, P. B.; Braun, H.-W.

    2000-12-01

    A 45 Mbit/sec full-duplex wireless Internet backbone is now under construction that will connect SDSU's Mount Laguna Observatory (MLO) to the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), which is located on the campus of UCSD. The SDSU campus is connected to the SDSC via Abilene/OC3 (Internet2) at 155 Mbit/sec. The MLO-SDSC backbone is part of the High-Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (HPWREN) project. Other scientific applications include earthquake monitoring from a remote array of automated seismic stations operated by researchers at the UCSD Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, and environmental monitoring at Ecology field stations administered by SDSU. Educational initiatives include bringing the Internet to schools and educational centers at remote Indian reservations such as Pala and Rincon. HPWREN will allow SDSU astronomers and their collaborators to transmit CCD images to their home institutions while observations are being made. Archive retrieval of images from on-campus data bases, for comparison purposes, could easily be done. SDSU desires to build a modern, large telescope at MLO. HPWREN would support both robotic and remote observing capabilities for such a telescope. Astronomers could observe at their home institutions with multiple workstations to feed command and control instructions, data, and slow-scan video, which would give them the "feel" of being in a control room next to the telescope. HPWREN was funded by the NSF under grant ANI-0087344.

  2. Fire and forest history at Mount Rushmore.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter M; Wienk, Cody L; Symstad, Amy J

    2008-12-01

    Mount Rushmore National Memorial in the Black Hills of South Dakota is known worldwide for its massive sculpture of four of the United States' most respected presidents. The Memorial landscape also is covered by extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest that has not burned in over a century. We compiled dendroecological and forest structural data from 29 plots across the 517-ha Memorial and used fire behavior modeling to reconstruct the historical fire regime and forest structure and compare them to current conditions. The historical fire regime is best characterized as one of low-severity surface fires with occasional (> 100 years) patches (< 100 ha) of passive crown fire. We estimate that only approximately 3.3% of the landscape burned as crown fire during 22 landscape fire years (recorded at > or = 25% of plots) between 1529 and 1893. The last landscape fire was in 1893. Mean fire intervals before 1893 varied depending on spatial scale, from 34 years based on scar-to-scar intervals on individual trees to 16 years between landscape fire years. Modal fire intervals were 11-15 years and did not vary with scale. Fire rotation (the time to burn an area the size of the study area) was estimated to be 30 years for surface fire and 800+ years for crown fire. The current forest is denser and contains more small trees, fewer large trees, lower canopy base heights, and greater canopy bulk density than a reconstructed historical (1870) forest. Fire behavior modeling using the NEXUS program suggests that surface fires would have dominated fire behavior in the 1870 forest during both moderate and severe weather conditions, while crown fire would dominate in the current forest especially under severe weather. Changes in the fire regime and forest structure at Mount Rushmore parallel those seen in ponderosa pine forests from the southwestern United States. Shifts from historical to current forest structure and the increased likelihood of crown fire justify the need for

  3. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Mount Shasta, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At more than 4,300 meters (14,000 feet ), Mount Shasta is California's tallest volcano and part of the Cascade chain of volcanoes extending south from Washington. This computer-generated perspective viewed from the west also includes Shastina, a slightly smaller volcanic cone left of Shasta's summit and Black Butte, another volcano in the right foreground.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 41.4 deg. North lat., 122.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: looking east Image Data: Landsat Bands 3,2,1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 1 arcsecond

  4. A head-mounted compressive three-dimensional display system with polarization-dependent focus switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Kun; Moon, Seokil; Lee, Byounghyo; Jeong, Youngmo; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-10-01

    A head-mounted compressive three-dimensional (3D) display system is proposed by combining polarization beam splitter (PBS), fast switching polarization rotator and micro display with high pixel density. According to the polarization state of the image controlled by polarization rotator, optical path of image in the PBS can be divided into transmitted and reflected components. Since optical paths of each image are spatially separated, it is possible to independently focus both images at different depth positions. Transmitted p-polarized and reflected s-polarized images can be focused by convex lens and mirror, respectively. When the focal lengths of the convex lens and mirror are properly determined, two image planes can be located in intended positions. The geometrical relationship is easily modulated by replacement of the components. The fast switching of polarization realizes the real-time operation of multi-focal image planes with a single display panel. Since it is possible to conserve the device characteristic of single panel, the high image quality, reliability and uniformity can be retained. For generating 3D images, layer images for compressive light field display between two image planes are calculated. Since the display panel with high pixel density is adopted, high quality 3D images are reconstructed. In addition, image degradation by diffraction between physically stacked display panels can be mitigated. Simple optical configuration of the proposed system is implemented and the feasibility of the proposed method is verified through experiments.

  5. Design of refractive/diffractive objective for head-mounted night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Fu, Ru-Lian; Sun, Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Wu

    A refractive/diffractive objective for head-mounted night vision goggle was designed. This objective consists of six elements, including one binary surface and two hyperboloids. It has a 40[degree sign] field of view, a 1.25 f-number, and a 18 mm image diameter, with a compact structure and a light weight. All optical specifications reach proposed designing targets. Besides, we considered fabrication issues about special surfaces of the system.

  6. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOEpatents

    West, John Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus for mounting a photovoltaic (PV) module on a surface, including a support with an upper surface, a lower surface, tabs, one or more openings, and a clip comprising an arm and a notch, where the apparatus resists wind forces and seismic forces and creates a grounding electrical bond between the PV module, support, and clip. The invention further includes a method for installing PV modules on a surface that includes arranging supports in rows along an X axis and in columns along a Y axis on a surface such that in each row the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the longest side of a PV module and in each column the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the shortest side of a PV module.

  7. Mount Vesuvius: 2000 years of volcanological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandone, Roberto; Giacomelli, Lisetta; Gasparini, Paolo

    1993-11-01

    Mount Vesuvius had eruptions ranging between VEI 5+ to 0-1 during the last 2000 years. Infrequent explosive eruptions are recorded during the period 79 AD to 1631. Since the violent explosive eruption of 1631, the volcano has been in persistent activity, rebuilding the morphology that it had before that eruption. A succession of explosive and effusive eruptions occurred until 1944, with a predominance of short and violent episodes until 1872 and longer effusive eruptions since that date. Two factors mainly controlled the character of volcanic activity during this period: (1) the strength of the cone, which allowed, in the earlier period, an easy fracturing, rapid drainage, and pressure release of the magma column; (2) the interaction between magma and water, which enhanced the explosivity of several eruptions. The volcano appears to have reached a stage of quiescence because it finally attained a shape of equilibrium in which the height of the mountain is sufficient to counterbalance the buoyancy of the magma.

  8. Reusable vibration resistant integrated circuit mounting socket

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Craig N.

    1995-01-01

    This invention discloses a novel form of socket for integrated circuits to be mounted on printed circuit boards. The socket uses a novel contact which is fabricated out of a bimetallic strip with a shape which makes the end of the strip move laterally as temperature changes. The end of the strip forms a barb which digs into an integrated circuit lead at normal temperatures and holds it firmly in the contact, preventing loosening and open circuits from vibration. By cooling the contact containing the bimetallic strip the barb end can be made to release so that the integrated circuit lead can be removed from the socket without damage either to the lead or to the socket components.

  9. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOEpatents

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2010-12-28

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  10. TRISTAR III: helmet-mounted display symbology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Sharkey, Thomas J.; Lee, Alan G.

    1995-05-01

    The US Army Aviation RDEC's Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) in cooperation with the Department of Defense Flight Symbology Working Group, the United Kingdom's Defense Research Agency (DRA), and The Technology Cooperative Program Helicopter Technical Panel 6 (HTP6), conducted a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) symbology investigation using AFDD's Crew Station Research and Development Facility helicopter simulator located at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. The objectives of the experiment were to examine HMD symbology stabilization, pitch ladders, flight path presentations, and tasks and measures that capture objective and subjective performance differences. Symbology presentation techniques closely modeled specific presentations found in the US Army's AH- 64D Apache helicopter and proposed symbology techniques for the RAH-Comanche and Longbow Apache rotorcraft. Eight helicopter pilots from DOD and DRA participated in the study flying simulated low-altitude rotorcraft maneuvers. This paper describes the simulation flight tests, test results, implications of test findings and recommendations for future HMD investigations.

  11. Reusable vibration resistant integrated circuit mounting socket

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C.N.

    1993-12-31

    This invention discloses a novel form of socket for integrated circuits to be mounted on printed circuit boards. The socket uses a novel contact which is fabricated out of a bimetallic strip with a shape which makes the end of the strip move laterally as temperature changes. The end of the strip forms a barb which digs into an integrated circuit lead at normal temperatures and hold it firmly in the contact, preventing loosening and open circuits from vibration. By cooling the contact containing the bimetallic strip the barb end can be made to release so that the integrated circuit lead can be removed from the socket without damage either to the lead or to the socket components.

  12. Mount St. Helens' volcanic ash: hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Vallyathan, V; Mentnech, M S; Stettler, L E; Dollberg, D D; Green, F H

    1983-04-01

    Volcanic ash samples from four Mount St. Helens' volcanic eruptions were subjected to mineralogical, analytical, and hemolytic studies in order to evaluate their potential for cytotoxicity and fibrogenicity. Plagioclase minerals constituted the major component of the ash with free crystalline silica concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 7.2%. The in vitro hemolytic activity of the volcanic ash was compared to similar concentrations of cytotoxic and inert minerals. The ash was markedly hemolytic, exhibiting an activity similar to chrysotile asbestos, a known fibrogenic agent. The hemolysis of the different ash samples varied with particle size but not with crystalline silica concentration. The results of these studies taken in conjunction with the results of our animal studies indicate a fibrogenic potential of volcanic ash in heavily exposed humans.

  13. A visit to Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption displaced roughly 2.6 km[sup 3] of rock and devastated more than 500 km[sup 2] of forest, mostly to the north of the mountain. Trees within 10--15 km of the mountain peak were burned and uprooted. Beyond that, high winds and flying debris created a blowdown zone. Up to 150 m of rock and ice covered some areas. Accumulations of ash were measured as much as 330 km from the volcano. Mud flows choked nearby rivers and streams. Two years later, the US Congress established the 44,000-hectare Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. The Act essentially directed the USDA Forest Service to allow the area to recover naturally. The paper reviews what changes the ecosystem has been going through since the eruption and the lessons learned that suggest some new resource management techniques.

  14. In the wake of Mount St Helens.

    PubMed

    Nania, J; Bruya, T E

    1982-04-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St Helens, Washington State's most active volcano, erupted violently. Volcanic eruptions in recent geologic history have demonstrated tremendous environmental impact and caused significant loss of human life. Volcanic ash expelled during the eruption was deposited on much of eastern Washington and had a profound effect on local air quality. Although ash is relatively inert, analysis revealed a small but significant amount of free crystalline silica, the causative agent of silicosis. The fine particles of ash were of respirable size, and there was a remarkable increase in the volume of respiratory cases seen in emergency departments during the period of high airborne particulate levels. Numerous cases of injury indirectly related to the fall of ash were also seen. The long-term effect of exposure to this volcanic ash is unknown. A prompt, coordinated community medical response is necessary to protect the general population from the potential hazard of exposure to volcanic ash.

  15. In the wake of Mount St Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Nania, J.; Bruya, T.E.

    1982-04-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St Helens, Washington State's most active volcano, erupted violently. Volcanic eruptions in recent geologic history have demonstrated tremendous environmental impact and caused significant loss of human life. Volcanic ash expelled during the eruption was deposited on much of eastern Washington and had a profound effect on local air quality. Although ash is relatively inert, analysis revealed a small but significant amount of free crystalline silica, the causative agent of silicosis. The fine particles of ash were of respirable size, and there was a remarkable increase in the volume of respiratory cases seen in emergency departments during the period of high airborne particulate levels. Numerous cases of injury indirectly related to the fall of ash were also seen. The long-term effect of exposure to this volcanic ash is unknown. A prompt, coordinated community medical response is necessary to protect the general population from the potential hazard of exposure to volcanic ash.

  16. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  17. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  18. Renewed unrest at Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, John A.

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO),a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has detected unrest at Mount Spurr volcano, located about 125 km west of Anchorage, Alaska, at the northeast end of the Aleutian volcanic arc.This activity consists of increased seismicity melting of the summit ice cap, and substantial rates of C02 and H2S emission.The current unrest is centered beneath the volcano's 3374-m-high summit, whose last known eruption was 5000–6000 years ago. Since then, Crater Peak, 2309 m in elevation and 4 km to the south, has been the active vent. Recent eruptions occurred in 1953 and 1992.

  19. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.; Silva, L.L.

    1988-05-10

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole. 6 figs.

  20. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole.

  1. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    SciTech Connect

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2014-06-10

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  2. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    SciTech Connect

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2012-09-04

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures to be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  3. Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    VIANCO, PAUL T.

    1999-09-23

    Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.

  4. Hydrothermal processes at Mount Rainier, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Field studies and thermal-infrared mapping at Mount Rainier indicate areas of active hydrothermal alteration where excess surface heat flux is about 9 megawatts. Three representative settings include: (1) An extensive area (greater than 12,000 m/sup 2/) of heated ground and slightly acidic boiling-point fumaroles at 76-82/sup 0/C at East and West Craters on the volcano's summit; (2) A small area (less than 500 m/sup 2/) of heated ground and sub-boiling-point fumaroles at 55-60/sup 0/C on the upper flank at Disappointment Cleaver, and other probably similar areas at Willis Wall, Sunset Amphitheater, and the South Tahoma and Kautz headwalls; (3) Sulfate and carbon dioxide enriched thermal springs at 9-24/sup 0/C on the lower flank of the volcano in valley walls beside the Winthrop and Paradise Glaciers. In addition, chloride- and carbon dioxide-enriched thermal springs issue from thin sediments that overlie Tertiary rocks at, or somewhat beyond, the base of the volcanic edifice in valley bottoms of the Nisqually and Ohanapecosh Rivers where maximum spring temperatures are 19-25/sup 0/C, respectively, and where extensive travertine deposits have developed. The heat flow, distribution of thermal activity, and nature of alteration products indicate that a narrow, central hydrothermal system exists within Mount Rainier forming steam-heated snowmelt at the summit craters and localized leakage of steam-heated fluids within 2 kilometers of the summit. The lateral extent of the hydrothermal system is limited in that only sparse, neutral sulfate-enriched thermal water issues from the lower flank of the cone. Simulations of geochemical mass transfer suggest that the thermal springs may be derived from an acid sulfate-chloride parent fluid which has been neutralized by reaction with andesite and highly diluted with shallow ground water.

  5. The Mount Rainier Lahar Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A. B.; Murray, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    To mitigate the risk of unheralded lahars from Mount Rainier, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pierce County, Washington, installed a lahar-detection system on the Puyallup and Carbon rivers that originate on Mount Rainier's western slopes. The system, installed in 1998, is designed to automatically detect the passage of lahars large enough to potentially affect populated areas downstream (approximate volume threshold 40 million cubic meters), while ignoring small lahars, earthquakes, extreme weather and floods. Along each river valley upstream, arrays of independent lahar-monitoring stations equipped with geophones and short tripwires telemeter data to a pair of redundant computer base stations located in and near Tacoma at existing public safety facilities that are staffed around the clock. Monitored data consist of ground-vibration levels, tripwire status, and transmissions at regular intervals. The base stations automatically evaluate these data to determine if a dangerous lahar is passing through the station array. The detection algorithm requires significant ground vibration to occur at those stations in the array that are above the anticipated level of inundation, while lower level `deadman' stations, inundated by the flow, experience tripwire breakage or are destroyed. Once a base station detects a lahar, it alerts staff who execute a call-down of public-safety officials and schools, initiating evacuation of areas potentially at risk. Because the system's risk-mitigation task imposes high standards of reliability on all components, it has been under test for several years. To date, the system has operated reliably and without false alarms, including during the nearby M6.8 Nisqually Earthquake on February 28, 2001. The system is being turned over to Pierce County, and activated as part of their lahar warning system.

  6. Analysis of impact of suspension rubber mounts on ride comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bao; Chen, Zheming; Lei, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Two multi-body car models with rubber mounts and without rubber mounts have been built up to research how the suspension rubber mounts impact ride comfort. The comfort mount was used to simulate the impact process. Two scenarios have been set up, and time integrations have been performed to get the acceleration-time histories of seat surface in the x-, y-, and z-direction. A MATLAB program was compiled to calculate the weighted RMS acceleration. For the first scenario, the relative difference of weighted RMS acceleration between the car models with rubber mounts and without rubber mounts gradually decreases as the road roughness increases. For the second scenario, the relative difference increases as the driving speed increases. The conclusion shows that the change of driving speed or road roughness impacts ride comfort. Especially for high driving speed this impact is quite obvious.

  7. Unit moment analysis as a guide to mirror mount design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Coronato, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Unit moment analysis minimizes the computational overhead associated with mirror mount design. Since mirrors operate in the linear domain with respect to stress/strain, it is possible to use the principle of superposition to determine overall optical surface deflection from a variety of sources. Surface deflection is calculated by FEA (finite element analysis) when applying unit loads at single mounting point. Deflection coefficients relating moments with surface deflection can be derived from the results of this analysis. These deflection coefficients are then applied, using the principle of superposition, to find the maximum tolerable moments associated with the mirror mount. Finally, manufacturing tolerances as well as environmental effects can be included to determine the required mirror mount compliance. This design approach is applicable to a wide range of mounting types, including classical kinematic and flexure mounts.

  8. A multiple pointing-mount control strategy for space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    A new disturbance-adaptive control strategy for multiple pointing-mount space platforms is proposed and illustrated by consideration of a simplified 3-link dynamic model of a multiple pointing-mount space platform. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new platform control strategy. The simulation results also reveal a system 'destabilization phenomena' that can occur if the set of individual platform-mounted experiment controllers are 'too responsive.'

  9. Horse-Mounted Troops in Low Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    agency. HORSE -MOUNTED TROOPS IN LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT BY Lieutenant Colonel Peter W. J. Onoszko, IN Senior Service College Fellow Tufts University...COMPLETING FORM i. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Horse ...Mounted Troops in Low Intensity Conflict Individual Study Project An argument for the development of a horse -mounted_ capability within United States

  10. The Cooling of a Pod-Mounted Avionic System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-22

    describes the principles and testing of the air cooling of - the pod-mounted Orpheus day and night aerial reconnaissance system, since 1974 operational with...describes the principles and testing of the air cooling of the pod-mounted Orpheus day and night aerial reconnaissance system, since 1974 operational...comprising 3 day-light cameras, was replaced by an ad- va. *d pod-mounted day and night reconnaissance system. This so-called Orpheus -system had been

  11. 1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS GLACIER VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Deadwood Creek Bridge, Spanning Deadwood Creek on Mather Memorial Parkway, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  12. Static Performance of a Wing-Mounted Thrust Reverser Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center to study the static aerodynamic performance of a wing-mounted thrust reverser concept applicable to subsonic transport aircraft. This innovative engine powered thrust reverser system is designed to utilize wing-mounted flow deflectors to produce aircraft deceleration forces. Testing was conducted using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0, a supercritical left-hand wing section attached via a pylon, and wing-mounted flow deflectors attached to the wing section. Geometric variations of key design parameters investigated for the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept included flow deflector angle and chord length, deflector edge fences, and the yaw mount angle of the deflector system (normal to the engine centerline or parallel to the wing trailing edge). All tests were conducted with no external flow and high pressure air was used to simulate core and fan engine exhaust flows. Test results indicate that the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept can achieve overall thrust reverser effectiveness levels competitive with (parallel mount), or better than (normal mount) a conventional cascade thrust reverser system. By removing the thrust reverser system from the nacelle, the wing-mounted concept offers the nacelle designer more options for improving nacelle aero dynamics and propulsion-airframe integration, simplifying nacelle structural designs, reducing nacelle weight, and improving engine maintenance access.

  13. Convenient mounting method for electrical measurements of thin samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, L. G.; Summers, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A method for mounting thin samples for electrical measurements is described. The technique is based on a vacuum chuck concept in which the vacuum chuck simultaneously holds the sample and established electrical contact. The mounting plate is composed of a glass-ceramic insulating material and the surfaces of the plate and vacuum chuck are polished. The operation of the vacuum chuck is examined. The contacts on the sample and mounting plate, which are sputter-deposited through metal masks, are analyzed. The mounting method was utilized for van der Pauw measurements.

  14. Retired NASA F-18 being mounted on pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stadium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    While workers on the ground steady the craft with guy ropes, workers atop a high-lift truck align the mounting plates as an F/A-18 Hornet airplane formerly flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center is mounted on a 28-foot-tall pedestal in front of the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. The aircraft was loaned to the city for pulbic display after its recent retirement by Dryden, which is located at nearby Edwards, California. The blue-and-white twin-jet aircraft was flown as a safety chase and support aircraft by NASA Dryden for about nine years before being retired. Known as 'The Hangar,' the stadium is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  15. Distribution of melt beneath Mount St Helens and Mount Adams inferred from magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Graham J.; Caldwell, T. Grant; Heise, Wiebke; Chertkoff, Darren G.; Bibby, Hugh M.; Burgess, Matt K.; Cull, James P.; Cas, Ray A. F.

    2009-11-01

    Three prominent volcanoes that form part of the Cascade mountain range in Washington State (USA)-Mounts St Helens, Adams and Rainier-are located on the margins of a mid-crustal zone of high electrical conductivity. Interconnected melt can increase the bulk conductivity of the region containing the melt, which leads us to propose that the anomalous conductivity in this region is due to partial melt associated with the volcanism. Here we test this hypothesis by using magnetotelluric data recorded at a network of 85 locations in the area of the high-conductivity anomaly. Our data reveal that a localized zone of high conductivity beneath this volcano extends downwards to join the mid-crustal conductor. As our measurements were made during the recent period of lava extrusion at Mount St Helens, we infer that the conductivity anomaly associated with the localized zone, and by extension with the mid-crustal conductor, is caused by the presence of partial melt. Our interpretation is consistent with the crustal origin of silicic magmas erupting from Mount St Helens, and explains the distribution of seismicity observed at the time of the catastrophic eruption in 1980 (refs 9, 10).

  16. Distribution of melt beneath Mount St Helens and Mount Adams inferred from magnetotelluric data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, G.J.; Caldwell, T.G.; Heise, W.; Chertkoff, D.G.; Bibby, H.M.; Burgess, M.K.; Cull, J.P.; Cas, Ray A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Three prominent volcanoes that form part of the Cascade mountain range in Washington State (USA)Mounts StHelens, Adams and Rainierare located on the margins of a mid-crustal zone of high electrical conductivity1,5. Interconnected melt can increase the bulk conductivity of the region containing the melt6,7, which leads us to propose that the anomalous conductivity in this region is due to partial melt associated with the volcanism. Here we test this hypothesis by using magnetotelluric data recorded at a network of 85 locations in the area of the high-conductivity anomaly. Our data reveal that a localized zone of high conductivity beneath thisvolcano extends downwards to join the mid-crustal conductor. As our measurements were made during the recent period of lava extrusion at Mount St Helens, we infer that the conductivity anomaly associated with the localized zone, and by extension with the mid-crustal conductor, is caused by the presence of partial melt. Our interpretation is consistent with the crustal origin of silicic magmas erupting from Mount St Helens8, and explains the distribution of seismicity observed at the time of the catastrophic eruption in 1980 (refs9, 10). ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fiske, Richard S.; Hopson, Clifford Andrae; Waters, Aaron Clement

    1963-01-01

    Mount Rainier National Park includes 378 square miles of rugged terrain on the west slope of the Cascade Mountains in central Washington. Its mast imposing topographic and geologic feature is glacier-clad Mount Rainier. This volcano, composed chiefly of flows of pyroxene andesite, was built upon alt earlier mountainous surface, carved from altered volcanic and sedimentary rocks invaded by plutonic and hypabyssal igneous rocks of great complexity. The oldest rocks in the park area are those that make up the Olmnapecosh Formation of late Eocene age. This formation is more than 10,000 feet thick, and consists almost entirely of volcanic debris. It includes some lensoid accumulations of lava and coarse mudflows, heaped around volcanic centers., but these are surrounded by vastly greater volumes of volcanic clastic rocks, in which beds of unstratified coarse tuff-breccia, about 30 feet in average thickness, alternate with thin-bedded breccias, sandstones, and siltstones composed entirely of volcanic debris. The coarser tuff-breccias were probably deposited from subaqueous volcanic mudflows generated when eruption clouds were discharged directly into water, or when subaerial ash flows and mudflows entered bodies of water. The less mobile mudflows and viscous lavas built islands surrounded by this sea of thinner bedded water-laid clastics. In compostion the lava flows and coarse lava fragments of the Ohanapecosh Formation are mostly andesite, but they include less abundant dacite, basalt, and rhyolite. The Ohanapecosh Formation was folded, regionally altered to minerals characteristic of the zeolite facies of metamorphism, uplifted, and deeply eroded before the overlying Stevens Ridge Formation of Oligocene or early Miocene age was deposited upon it. The Stevens Ridge rocks, which are about 3,000 feet in maximum total thickness, consist mainly of massive ash flows. These are now devitrified and altered, but they originally consisted of rhyodacite pumice lapilli and glass

  18. Overview of benefits, challenges, and requirements of wheeled-vehicle mounted infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John Lester; Clayton, Paul; Olsson, Stefan F.

    2013-06-01

    Requirements for vehicle mounted infrared sensors, especially as imagers evolve to high definition (HD) format will be detailed and analyzed. Lessons learned from integrations of infrared sensors on armored vehicles, unarmored military vehicles and commercial automobiles will be discussed. Comparisons between sensors for driving and those for situation awareness, targeting and other functions will be presented. Conclusions will be drawn regarding future applications and installations. New business requirements for more advanced digital image processing algorithms in the sensor system will be discussed. Examples of these are smarter contrast/brightness adjustments algorithms, detail enhancement, intelligent blending (IR-Vis) modes, and augmented reality.

  19. Perceptual design tradeoff considerations for viewing I2 and FLIR with current helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2008-04-01

    Providing both I2 (image intensified) and FLIR (forward looking infrared) images on a helmet-mounted display (HMD) requires perceptual design tradeoffs. Primary considerations center on the number, type, and placement of sensors. Perceptual drivers for these tradeoffs are derived from monocular versus biocular/binocular displays and offset of the sensors from the design eye. These conditions can create binocular rivalry, perceptual perspective distortion or hyperstereopsis, a binocular perceptual distortion that occurs when the sensors are positioned further apart than the interpupillary distance (IPD). Each of these perceptual tradeoff considerations is discussed.

  20. Analysis of potential debris flow source areas on Mount Shasta, California, by using airborne and satellite remote sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Hubbard, B.E.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing data from NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer, Hyperion, show hydrothermally altered rocks mainly composed of natroalunite, kaolinite, cristobalite, and gypsum on both the Mount Shasta and Shastina cones. Field observations indicate that much of the visible altered rock consists of talus material derived from fractured rock zones within and adjacent to dacitic domes and nearby lava flows. Digital elevation data were utilized to distinguish steeply sloping altered bedrock from more gently sloping talus materials. Volume modeling based on the imagery and digital elevation data indicate that Mount Shasta drainage systems contain moderate volumes of altered rock, a result that is consistent with Mount Shasta's Holocene record of mostly small to moderate debris flows. Similar modeling for selected areas at Mount Rainier and Mount Adams, Washington, indicates larger altered rock volumes consistent with the occurrence of much larger Holocene debris flows at those volcanoes. The availability of digital elevation and spectral data from spaceborne sensors, such as Hyperion and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER), greatly expands opportunities for studying potential debris flow source characteristics at stratovolcanoes around the world. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Portland, Mount Hood, & Columbia River Gorge, Oregon, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Portland, the largest city in Oregon, is located on the Columbia River at the northern end of the Willamette Valley. On clear days, Mount Hood highlights the Cascade Mountains backdrop to the east. The Columbia is the largest river in the American Northwest and is navigable up to and well beyond Portland. It is also the only river to fully cross the Cascade Range, and has carved the Columbia River Gorge, which is seen in the left-central part of this view. A series of dams along the river, at topographically favorable sites, provide substantial hydroelectric power to the region.

    This perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data substantially help in analyzing Landsat images by revealing the third dimension of Earth's surface, topographic height. The Landsat archive is managed by the U.S. Geological Survey's Eros Data Center (USGS EDC).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  2. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  5. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  6. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  7. View south from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area across a pile of removed gravestones to Mill Street houses. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. View north from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area across a pile of removed gravestones along the subtle ridgeline to the Doughty-Beck monument. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. View looking northeast across the east end of West Mount ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking northeast across the east end of West Mount Vernon Place; view includes the lion statue (also designed by Antoine Louis-Barye) as well as the Washington Apartments and Methodist Church in the background - Mount Vernon Place, Charles & Monument Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. Alternative mounting media for preservation of some protozoa.

    PubMed

    Criado-Fornelio, A; Heredero-Bermejo, I; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2014-10-01

    Protozoa resistant stages are disintegrated when mounted in toluene-based media. To overcome such problem, three toluene-free mountants were tested on preserve Acanthamoeba spp and gregarines. Two commercial glues based on cyanoacrylate or trimethoxysilane were suitable for preserving both cysts and trophozoites. Hoyer's medium showed good results for mounting gregarine oocysts.

  11. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  12. Volcanic fire and glacial ice: Mount Rogers National Recreation Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    In addition to containing the highest point in Virginia (Mount Rogers, elevation 5,729 feet), the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area (NRA) of the Jefferson National Forest is a window on the history of ancient volcanic eruptions and glacial movement.

  13. The CF6 jet engine performance improvement: New front mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The New Front Mount was evaluated in component tests including stress, deflection/distortion and fatigue tests. The test results demonstrated a performance improvement of 0.1% in cruise sfc, 16% in compressor stall margin and 10% in compressor stator angle margin. The New Front Mount hardware successfully completed 35,000 simulated flight cycles endurance testing.

  14. The forces and moments on airplane engine mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donely, Philip

    1936-01-01

    A resume of the equations and formulas for the forces and moments on an aircraft-engine mount is presented. In addition, available experimental data have been included to permit the computation of these forces and moments. A sample calculation is made and compared with present design conditions for engine mounts.

  15. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam

    2015-02-17

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  16. Mount Pinatubo, Philippine Islands as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    View of Mount Pinatubo, Philippine Islands. Subic Bay is at the lower left corner, with the sea at the left and Clark Air Force Base (abandoned after the eruption) is to the lower right of the volcano. A turquoise lake occupies the caldera just below the center of the photograph. Mount Pinatubo erupted in June, 1991 after several hundred years of quiet.

  17. Tilt networks of Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Johnson, Daniel J.; Murray, T.L.; Myers, Barbara

    1982-01-01

    In response to recent eruptions at Mount St. Helens and with support from the USGS Volcanic Hazards Program, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) has initiated a program to monitor all potentially-active volcanoes of the Cascade Range. As part of that effort, we installed tilt networks and obtained baseline measurements at Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, California during July 1981. At the same time, baseline electronic distance measurements (EDM) were made and fumarole surveys were conducted by other crews from CVO. Annual surveys are planned initially, with subsequent visits as conditions warrant. These geodetic and geochemical measurements supplement a program of continuous seismic monitoring of Cascade volcanoes by the USGS Office of Earthquake Studies in cooperation with local universities. Other tilt networks were established at Mount Baker in 1975 and at Mount St. Helens in 1981. EDM networks were established at Mount Baker in 1975, Mount St. Helens in 1980, and Crater Lake in 1981. Additional tilt and/or EDM networks are planned for Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Glacier Peak, Three Sisters, and Crater Lake as funds permit.

  18. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOEpatents

    Gruchalla, M.E.

    1994-09-13

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor of the transmission line has an aperture formed therein for receiving the device. The aperture splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material. One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the center conductor and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface. The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device. 10 figs.

  19. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOEpatents

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device (50) in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor (52) of the transmission line has an aperture (58) formed therein for receiving the device (50). The aperture (58) splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface (54), which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material (56). One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device (50) is directly connected to the center conductor 52 and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface (54). The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage ( 60) formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device.

  20. Flush mounting of thin film sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Flush mounting of a sensor on a surface is provided by first forming a recessed area on the surface. Next, an adhesive bonding mixture is introduced into the recessed area. The adhesive bonding mixture is chosen to provide thermal expansion matching with the surface surrounding the recessed area. A strip of high performance polymeric tape is provided, with the sensor attached to the underside thereof, and the tape is positioned over the recessed area so that it acts as a carrier of the sensor. A shim having flexibility so that it will conform to the surface surrounding the recessed area is placed over the tape, and a vacuum pad is placed over the shim. The area above the surface is then evacuated while holding the sensor flush with the surface during curing of the adhesive bonding mixture. After such curing, the pad, shim, and tape are removed from the sensor, electrical connections for the sensor are provided, after which the remaining space in the recessed area is filled with a polymeric foam.

  1. Evaluation of Helmet Mounted Display Alerting Symbology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Proposed helicopter helmet mounted displays will be used to alert the pilot to a variety of conditions, from threats to equipment problems. The present research was performed under the NASA Safe All-weather Flight Operations Research (SAFOR) program supported by a joint Army/NASA research agreement. The purpose of the research was to examine ways to optimize the alerting effectiveness of helmet display symbology. The research used two approaches to increasing the effectiveness of alerts. One was to increase the ability of the alert to attract attention by using the entire display surface. The other was to include information about the required response in the alert itself. The investigation was conducted using the NASA Ames Research Center's six-degree-of-freedom vertical motion simulator (VMS) with a rotorcraft cockpit. Helmet display symbology was based on the AH-64's pilot night vision system (PNVS), cruise mode symbology. A standardized mission was developed, that consisted of 11 legs. The mission included four tasks, which allowed variation in the frequency of alerts. The general trend in the data points to a small benefit from both the full-screen alert and the partial information alert.

  2. Overview of Mount Washington Icing Sensors Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryerson, Charles C.; Politovich, Marcia K.; Rancourt, Kenneth L.; Koenig, George G.; Reinking, Roger F.; Miller, Dean R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA, the FAA, the Department of Defense, the National Center for Atmospheric Research and NOAA are developing techniques for retrieving cloud microphysical properties from a variety of remote sensing technologies. The intent is to predict aircraft icing conditions ahead of aircraft. The Mount Washington Icing Sensors Project MWISP), conducted in April, 1999 at Mt. Washington, NH, was organized to evaluate technologies for the prediction of icing conditions ahead of aircraft in a natural environment, and to characterize icing cloud and drizzle environments. April was selected for operations because the Summit is typically in cloud, generally has frequent freezing precipitation in spring, and the clouds have high liquid water contents. Remote sensing equipment, consisting of radars, radiometers and a lidar, was placed at the base of the mountain, and probes measuring cloud particles, and a radiometer, were operated from the Summit. NASA s Twin Otter research aircraft also conducted six missions over the site. Operations spanned the entire month of April, which was dominated by wrap-around moisture from a low pressure center stalled off the coast of Labrador providing persistent upslope clouds with relatively high liquid water contents and mixed phase conditions. Preliminary assessments indicate excellent results from the lidar, radar polarimetry, radiosondes and summit and aircraft measurements.

  3. Designing a Vibrotactile Head-mounted Display.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Oliveira, Victor; Brayda, Luca; Nedel, Luciana; Maciel, Anderson

    2017-01-23

    Due to the perceptual characteristics of the head, vibrotactile Head-mounted Displays are built with low actuator density. Therefore, vibrotactile guidance is mostly assessed by pointing towards objects in the azimuthal plane. When it comes to multisensory interaction in 3D environments, it is also important to convey information about objects in the elevation plane. In this paper, we design and assess a haptic guidance technique for 3D environments. First, we explore the modulation of vibration frequency to indicate the position of objects in the elevation plane. Then, we assessed a vibrotactile HMD made to render the position of objects in a 3D space around the subject by varying both stimulus loci and vibration frequency. Results have shown that frequencies modulated with a quadratic growth function allowed a more accurate, precise, and faster target localization in an active head pointing task. The technique presented high usability and a strong learning effect for a haptic search across different scenarios in an immersive VR setup.

  4. Magnetotelluric investigations at Mount Hood, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mozley, E.C.; Goldstein, N.E.; Morrison, H.F.

    1986-10-01

    Magnetotelluric data, with both electric and magnetic field references for noise cancellation, were collected at accessible locations around and as close as possible to the Mount Hood andesite-dacite volcano. The purpose of the study was to identify and map conductive features and to relate them to the thermal regime of the region. Several conductors could be discerned. The shallowest, at a depth of around 500 m below the surface, was identified as a flow of heated water moving away from the summit: the deepest (--50 km) might be a melt zone in the upper mantle. Of particular interest is an elongate conductor that strikes N 10/sup 0/ W and extends from a depth of 12 km down to 22 km. Because the conductor strike is close to the trend of the chain of Cascade volcanoes and because of the high conductive thermal gradients reported for the area, this feature was initially believed to be a zone of partial melt following the volcanic axis. However, because no teleseismic P wave velocity anomaly has been found, the cause of the conductor is more problematic. While the existence of small zones of melt cannot be ruled out, it is possible that the conductor is caused by a large volume of intensely deformed rocks with brine-filled microfractures.

  5. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO2) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO in any condition of the fetus.

  6. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1997-01-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  7. Nd:YAG breech mounted laser igniter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Christopher R.; Myers, Michael J.; Myers, John D.; Gadson, Robert L.; Leone, Joseph; Fay, Josiah W.; Boyd, Kevin

    2005-09-01

    Nd:YAG lasers have been successfully used to demonstrate laser ignition of howitzer propellant charges including bag, stick, and the Modular Artillery Charge System (MACS). Breech Mount Laser Ignition Systems (BMLIS) have been designed, installed and tested on many artillery systems, including the US Army's M109A6 Paladin, M198, M777 Light Weight, Crusader, and Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon (NLOS-C). The NLOS-C incorporates advanced weapon technologies, to include a BMLIS. United Defense's Armament Systems Division has recently designed and built a NLOS-C System Demonstrator that uses a BMLIS that incorporates Kigre's patented square pulse technology. NLOS-C is one of the weapon systems being developed for use with the US Army's "systems of systems" Future Combat System (FCS), Manned Ground Vehicles (MGV) program, and is currently undergoing development testing at Yuma Proving Grounds. In this paper we discuss many technical aspects of an artillery laser ignition system and present BMLIS test data obtained from actual gun firings conducted with a number of different US Army howitzer platforms.

  8. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO₂) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO₂ was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO₂ was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO₂ was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO₂ without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO₂ in any condition of the fetus.

  9. Solutions to helmet-mounted display visual correction compatibility issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; van de Pol, Corina

    2002-08-01

    To meet the goal of 24-hour, all-weather operation, U.S. Army aviation uses a number of imaging sensor systems on its aircraft. Imagery provided by these systems is presented on helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Fielded systems include the Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used on the AH-64 Apache. Proposed future HMD systems such as the Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System (HIDSS) and the Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) scanning laser system are possible choices for the Army's RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. Ever present in current and future HMD systems is the incompatibility problem between the design-limited physical eye relief of the HMD and the need to provide for the integration of laser and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, as well as the need to address the changing optical and vision requirements of the aging aviator. This paper defines the compatibility issue, reviews past efforts to solve this problem (e.g., contact lenses, NBC masks, optical inserts, etc.), and identifies emerging techniques (e.g., refractive surgery, adaptive optics, etc.) that require investigation.

  10. Volcano hazards in the Mount Jefferson region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, Joseph S.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Conrey, Richard M.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Schilling, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    Mount Jefferson is a prominent feature of the landscape seen from highways east and west of the Cascades. Mount Jefferson (one of thirteen major volcanic centers in the Cascade Range) has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago. Geologic evidence shows that Mount Jefferson is capable of large explosive eruptions. The largest such eruption occurred between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago, and caused ash to fall as far away as the present-day town of Arco in southeast Idaho. Although there has not been an eruption at Mount Jefferson for some time, experience at explosive volcanoes elsewhere suggests that Mount Jefferson cannot be regarded as extinct. If Mount Jefferson erupts again, areas close to the eruptive vent will be severely affected, and even areas tens of kilometers (tens of miles) downstream along river valleys or hundreds of kilometers (hundreds of miles) downwind may be at risk. Numerous small volcanoes occupy the area between Mount Jefferson and Mount Hood to the north, and between Mount Jefferson and the Three Sisters region to the south. These small volcanoes tend not to pose the far-reaching hazards associated with Mount Jefferson, but are nonetheless locally important. A concern at Mount Jefferson, but not at the smaller volcanoes, is the possibility that small to- moderate sized landslides could occur even during periods of no volcanic activity. Such landslides may transform as they move into lahars (watery flows of rock, mud, and debris) that can inundate areas far downstream. The population at immediate risk in the Mount Jefferson region is small, but these residents as well as other people who visit the area for recreation and work purposes should be aware of the potential hazards. Probably the greatest concern in the Mount Jefferson region is the possibility that large lahars might enter reservoirs on either side of the volcano

  11. Laser housing having integral mounts and method of manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Herron, Michael Alan; Brickeen, Brian Keith

    2004-10-19

    A housing adapted to position, support, and facilitate aligning various components, including an optical path assembly, of a laser. In a preferred embodiment, the housing is constructed from a single piece of material and broadly comprises one or more through-holes; one or more cavities; and one or more integral mounts, wherein the through-holes and the cavities cooperate to define the integral mounts. Securement holes machined into the integral mounts facilitate securing components within the integral mounts using set screws, adhesive, or a combination thereof. In a preferred method of making the housing, the through-holes and cavities are first machined into the single piece of material, with at least some of the remaining material forming the integral mounts.

  12. Measurements of slope distances and vertical angles at Mount Baker and Mount Rainier, Washington, Mount Hood and Crater Lake, Oregon, and Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, California, 1980-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    Personnel of the U.S.Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory established trilateration networks at Mount Baker, Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Crater Lake, Mount Shasta, and Lassen Peak in 1980-1984. These networks are capable of detecting changes in slope distance of several centimeters or more. The networks were established to provide baseline information on potentially active volcanoes and were designed along guidelines found useful at Mount St. Helens. Periodic reoccupation of the networks is planned as part of the overall monitoring program of Cascades volcanoes. Methodology, slope distance and vertical angle data, maps of the networks, and benchmark descriptions are presented in this report. Written benchmark descriptions are augmented by photographs, which we have found by experience to very useful in relocating the marks. All repeat measurements at the six volcanoes are probably within measurement error.

  13. The Mount Wilson Ca ii K Plage Index Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, L.; Ulrich, R. K.; Boyden, J. E.

    2010-06-01

    It is well established that both total and spectral solar irradiance are modulated by variable magnetic activity on the solar surface. However, there is still disagreement about the contribution of individual solar features for changes in the solar output, in particular over decadal time scales. Ionized Ca ii K line spectroheliograms are one of the major resources for these long-term trend studies, mainly because such measurements have been available now for more than 100 years. In this paper we introduce a new Ca ii K plage and active network index time series derived from the digitization of almost 40 000 photographic solar images that were obtained at the 60-foot solar tower, between 1915 and 1985, as a part of the monitoring program of the Mount Wilson Observatory. We describe here the procedure we applied to calibrate the images and the properties of our new defined index, which is strongly correlated to the average fractional area of the visible solar disk occupied by plages and active network. We show that the long-term variation of this index is in an excellent agreement with the 11-year solar-cycle trend determined from the annual international sunspot numbers series. Our time series agrees also very well with similar indicators derived from a different reduction of the same data base and other Ca ii K spectroheliograms long-term synoptic programs, such as those at Kodaikanal Observatory (India), and at the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak (USA). Finally, we show that using appropriate proxies it is possible to extend this time series up to date, making this data set one of the longest Ca ii K index series currently available.

  14. The Qartaba Structure (Mount Lebanon): structural study and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, Chloé; Grasemann, Bernhard; Tari, Gabor

    2014-05-01

    The prominent Qartaba Anticline is located on the western side of the northern Mount Lebanon, one of the major physiographic elements in Lebanon. The studied part of this anticline (~20 km long, ~5 km wide) represents a large-scale box-fold structure bounded by two SW- and NE-vergent monoclines. The aim of the structural study on the Qartaba Anticline was to get a better understanding on the poorly known mechanism and timing of folding of the structure. The main data elements used in this study included vintage geologic maps, very high-resolution satellite images, a satellite-based Digital Elevation Model and numerous field measurements taken during several field trips in the Mount Lebanon area. The database was incorporated into an ArcGis platform in order to carry out quantitative remote sensing analysis to have a better three-dimensional understanding of the geometry of the Qartaba structure and to model it. Using the Three-Point-Method that was developed on a MatLab platform and adapted into an ArcGis toolbox, it was possible to determine dip and dip direction of the folded strata of the Qartaba Structure in order to build additional input data points besides the field observations. The results from the ArcGis Model show that the eastern and western flanks of the anticline represent oppositely verging monoclines with average dip values increasing from about 15° at the outer limits of the structure to 30° closer to the center area and reaching values up to almost 90° at the steepest part of the eastern flank. The strata become more or less horizontal on the top of the structure, just a few hundred meters away from the limbs of the anticline. Therefore, the whole structure resembles a large scale box-fold. The structural model of the Qartaba Anticline presents new constraints on the timing and the mechanism of deformation of the structure. This new model has important implications for the tectonic evolution of Lebanon, for example, the footprint of the Syrian

  15. The in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Balick, L.K.; Golanics, C.J.; Shines, J.E. ); Biggar, S.F.; Slater, P.N. . Optical Sciences Center)

    1991-01-01

    A convenient way that has been used to calibrate, in-flight, a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner is described. It used four large canvas panels laid out in a square with a Spectralon panel as a reference. A calibrated Barnes modular multispectral radiometer, carried on a 2.2-m boom was rotated around a 2.5-m high tripod at the center of the square. The radiometer sampled the four large panels and the Spectralon panel once every two minutes. Atmospheric spectral transmittance measurements were made using a filter radiometer on an autotracking mount during the morning of the flight. The reflectance and optical depth data were used in an atmospheric radiative transfer code to predict the spectral radiances at the scanner. The calibration was completed by comparing the image digital counts to the predicted spectral radiances. 7 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Late Holocene Eruptions of Mount Rainier, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallance, J. W.; Sisson, T. W.; Gardner, C. A.; McGeehin, J. P.; Champion, D. E.; Byman, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    Detailed stratigraphy, more than 20 radiocarbon ages, and paleomagnetic secular variation measurements indicate that eruptions of Mount Rainier clustered in three major periods during the past 3000 years. Products include a plinian fall deposit, several vulcanian falls, several fine ash falls that are associated with block-and-ash flows, and lahars that descended all major drainages that head on the volcano. Tephra layers are of two types: vesicle rich (chiefly pumice lapilli, scoria, and ash) and vesicle poor (chiefly fine-grained glass and lithic fragments). Pumice and glass shards in vesicle-rich deposits are microlite-poor and derive from explosive eruptions. Glass shards in vesicle-poor ashes have variable microlite contents and derive from minor explosions, or from ash clouds that billow up from block-and-ash pyroclastic flows. These findings contrast with those of previous studies that document only two eruptions, each associated with a pumiceous tephra layer, during the last 3000 years. The oldest eruptive period, called Summerland, began after 2700 cal yr BP with a vesicle-poor tephra and a collapse of hydrothermally altered rock on the west flank of the volcano that generated the Round Pass mudflow. Lava flows, fine ash falls and a pyroclastic flow erupted ca 2400 to 2500 cal yr BP. Intermittent eruptions produced more fine-grained ash falls, a possible pyroclastic flow and more lahars, then culminated in the plinian "C" fall to the NE and large lahars that flowed south, southeast, and west about 2200 cal yr BP. The Summerland period ended before 1600 cal yr BP with minor fall deposits and lahars. About 1000 cal yr BP, the Deadman Flat eruptions produced large lahars that contain distinctive prismatically-jointed glassy clasts, interpreted as juvenile components from pyroclastic flows, and co- ignimbrite ash in the headwaters of the White River. The lahars descended valleys to the NE and flowed 100 km to Puget Sound. Aggradation shortly after emplacement

  17. Installation of a Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to create a safe and comfortable environment for students to learn, a lot of electricity, which is generated from coal fired power plants, is used. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in Hong Kong with approximately 1,500 students, will be installing a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system with 302 solar panels. Not only will these panels be used to power a classroom, they will also serve as an educational opportunity for students to learn about the importance of renewable energy technology and its uses. There were four different options for the installation of the solar panels, and the final choice was made based on the loading capacity of the roof, considering the fact that overstressing the roof could prove to be a safety hazard. Moreover, due to consideration of the risk of typhoons in Hong Kong, the solar panel PV system will include concrete plinths as counterweights - but not so much that the roof would be severely overstressed. During and after the installation of the PV system, students involved would be able to do multiple calculations, such as determining the reduction of the school's carbon footprint. This can allow students to learn about the impact renewable energy can have on the environment. Another project students can participate in includes measuring the efficiency of the solar panels and how much power can be produced per year, which in turn can help with calculate the amount of money saved per year and when we will achieve economic parity. In short, the installation of the roof mounted PV system will not only be able to help save money for the school but also provide learning opportunities for students studying at the ISF Academy.

  18. Retired NASA F-18 being mounted on pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stadium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Workers carefully align a mounting bracket attached to an F/A-18 Hornet aircraft with the top of a pedestal in front of the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. The Blue-and-white twin-jet aircraft, formerly flown as a safety chase and support aircraft by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was loaned to the city for display following its recent retirement. Known as 'The Hangar,' the stadium is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  19. Retired NASA F-18 being mounted on pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stadium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An F/A-18 Hornet aircraft formerly flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is sandwiched between two groups of workers as they mount it atop a pedestal at the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. NASA Dryden had flown the blue-and-white twin-jet as a safety chase and support aircraft for about nine years prior to its recent retirement. The aircraft is now in loan to the city for public display. Known as 'The Hangar,' the stadium is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  20. Scattering matrices of volcanic ash particles of Mount St. Helens, Redoubt, and Mount Spurr Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MuñOz, O.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J. W.; Veihelmann, B.; van der Zande, W. J.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Rose, W. I.

    2004-08-01

    We present measurements of the whole scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle at a wavelength of 632.8 nm in the scattering angle range 3°-174° of randomly oriented particles taken from seven samples of volcanic ashes corresponding to four different volcanic eruptions: the 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption, the 1989-1990 Redoubt eruption, and the 18 August and 17 September 1992 Mount Spurr eruptions. The samples were collected at different distances from the vent. The samples studied contain large mass fractions of fine particles and were chosen to represent ash that could remain in the atmosphere for at least hours or days. They include fine ashfall samples that fell at a variety of distances from the volcano and pyroclastic flows that retained their fine fractions. Together, they represent a range of ashes likely to remain in the atmosphere in volcanic clouds following eruptions from convergent plate boundary volcanoes, Earth's most important group of explosive sources of ash. All measured scattering matrix elements are confined to rather limited domains when plotted as functions of the scattering angle following the general trends presented by irregular mineral particles. This similarity in the scattering behavior justifies the construction of an average scattering matrix for volcanic ash particles as a function of the scattering angle. To facilitate the use of the average scattering matrix for multiple-scattering calculations with polarization included, we present a synthetic scattering matrix based on the average scattering matrix for volcanic ashes and the assumption that the diffraction forward scattering peak is the same for randomly oriented nonspherical particles and projected-surface-area-equivalent spheres. This synthetic scattering matrix is normalized so that the average of its 1-1 element over all directions equals unity. It is available in the full range from 0° to 180° and can be used, for example, for interpretation of

  1. Silicon Carbide Mounts for Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindemann, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Etalon mounts for tunable Fabry- Perot interferometers can now be fabricated from reaction-bonded silicon carbide structural components. These mounts are rigid, lightweight, and thermally stable. The fabrication of these mounts involves the exploitation of post-casting capabilities that (1) enable creation of monolithic structures having reduced (in comparison with prior such structures) degrees of material inhomogeneity and (2) reduce the need for fastening hardware and accommodations. Such silicon carbide mounts could be used to make lightweight Fabry-Perot interferometers or could be modified for use as general lightweight optical mounts. Heretofore, tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer structures, including mounting hardware, have been made from the low-thermal-expansion material Invar (a nickel/iron alloy) in order to obtain the thermal stability required for spectroscopic applications for which such interferometers are typically designed. However, the high mass density of Invar structures is disadvantageous in applications in which there are requirements to minimize mass. Silicon carbide etalon mounts have been incorporated into a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer of a prior design that originally called for Invar structural components. The strength, thermal stability, and survivability of the interferometer as thus modified are similar to those of the interferometer as originally designed, but the mass of the modified interferometer is significantly less than the mass of the original version.

  2. A miniature infrared sight for both weapon-mounted and handheld security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Terre, William A.; Frank, Jeff; Malmberg, Roy; Switzer, Larry; Antesberger, Wayne; Newsome, Gwendolyn

    2004-08-01

    Thermal weapon sights have been used by the U.S. military for decades. More recently, there has been a growing interest in infrared imagers for paramilitary and civilian applications such as law-enforcement and homeland defense. However, traditional weapon sights are not always ideal products for these applications because they do not typically have form-factor or features allowing them to be readily employed as general-purpose imagers off the weapon. Simply stated, most law-enforcement agencies cannot afford a dedicated sniper scope. Instead, this market demands a thermal imager that can be employed in a variety of situations, both weapon-mounted and handheld. Described herein is a new infrared sight that provides this multi-use capability. Based around the Omega imaging core developed by Indigo Systems, this lightweight system employs a unique housing design that mounts to a weapon rail or tripod or is held comfortably in one hand for use as a short-range "pocket scope". Key aspects of the design are discussed, with particular focus on ergonomics, human factors, and advanced features that enhance its utility in a multi-use role.

  3. Evaluation of engineering plastic for rollover protective structure (ROPS) mounting.

    PubMed

    Comer, R S; Ayers, P D; Liu, J

    2007-04-01

    Agriculture has one of the highest fatality rates of any industry in America. Tractor rollovers are a significant contributor to the high death rate. Rollover protective structures (ROPS) have helped lower these high fatality rates on full-size tractors. However, a large number of older tractors still do not use ROPS due to the difficulty of designing and creating a mounting structure. To help reduce this difficulty, engineering plastics were evaluated for use in a ROPS mounting structure on older tractors. The use of engineering plastics around axle housings could provide a uniform mounting configuration as well as lower costs for aftermarket ROPS. Various plastics were examined through shear testing, scale model testing, and compressive strength testing. Once a material was chosen based upon strength and cost, full-scale testing of the plastic's strength on axle housings was conducted. Finally, a mounting structure was tested in static ROPS tests, and field upset tests were performed in accordance with SAE Standard J2194. Initial tests revealed that the ROPS mounting structure and axle housing combination had higher torsional strength with less twisting than the axle housing alone. An engineering plastic ROPS mounting structure was easily successful in withstanding the forces applied during the static longitudinal and lateral ROPS tests. Field upset testing revealed that the mounting structure could withstand the impact loads seen during actual upsets without a failure. During both static testing and field upset testing, no permanent twisting of the mounting structure was found. Engineering plastic could therefore be a viable option for a universal ROPS mounting structure for older tractors.

  4. Side mounted V-type 4-cycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, A.; Kato, K.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a V-type four-cycle engine having overhead camshafts and a crankshaft, comprising: idle gear trains, the idle gear tram extending between the crankshaft and a camshaft and including idle gears; a gear retainer having first and second axles for rotatably mounting the idle gears; the first axle including a journal portion having a cylindrical surface about a first axial centerline and mounting portions having a cylindrical surface about a second axial centerline displaced from the first axial centerline; the mounting portions being supported by the gear retainer; and means for retaining the journal portion in selectable angular orientation with respect to the gear retainer.

  5. Body-worn optical wireless link to helmet mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, David W.; Watson, Malcolm A.; White, Henry J.

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes a prototype demonstration of a high bandwidth data link between the fuselage of an aircraft and a helmet mounted display. A single data receiver, powered by battery and equipped with a light-collecting optical antenna to increase optical gain, is worn on the body of the pilot, with a fast-modulated laser transmitter mounted in the pilot's seat area. The combination covered the expected range of body movement that a pilot typically undergoes during a flight. Uncompressed, {140Mbps video data is streamed over the free-space link to a BAE Systems helmet mounted display (Q-Sight™) worn by the pilot.

  6. Earth viewing with a shuttleborne experiment pointing mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwens, R. P.; Mayo, R. A.; Spector, V. A.; Van Vooren, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The article considers the attitude determination and the control problems of the shuttleborne earth-viewing pointing mounts (EPMs). Per-axis pointing performance requirements are identified for troposphere/stratosphere pollution, tropical storm research, and urban air pollution. Ephemeris error contributions to earth pointing are discussed and candidate attitude reference systems are described. Primary interfaces between the orbiter flight control system, Spacelab, pallet-mounted EPM, and control subsystems are outlined. A block diagram is given of the EPM-mounted stellar-inertial attitude reference system. The system's performance is evaluated on the basis of the inertial sensor and a three-axis covariance analysis.

  7. The azimuth axes mechanisms for the ATST telescope mount assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, Hans J.; Weis, Ulrich; Dreyer, Oliver; Jeffers, Paul F.; Bonomi, Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    The ATST Telescope Mount Assembly uses for the Azimuth axes mechanisms bearing and drive technologies as developed for the machine tool industry. An overview on the ATST mount project and design and its verification by analysis, simulation and tests are given in two separate papers of this conference. This paper describes the main design and accuracy features of the bearing and drive subsystems, their adaption to the ATST mount and their influence on the telescope structural design, and gives a hint to the challenges in the upcoming manufacturing, installation and commissioning phases.

  8. How crawler track-mounted conveyors improve bulk handling's economics

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, G.P.

    1984-11-01

    Crawler track-mounted conveyors can be used in most applications formerly requiring stacking, reclaiming or movement from excavators to bench conveyors. The crawler track-mounted conveyor has been automated for push button operation and allows mobilization of in-pit operations for the movement of overburden, minerals and coal. In-pit mobilization of crushers, the use of mobilized steep angle conveyor for the removal of coal from the pit, and the movement of overburden from excavation to spoil can all be done more economically when a combination of a crawler track mounted conveyor is used in conjunction with a shiftable or fixed conveyor.

  9. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF CUPOLA ATOP OPERATOR'S CABIN WHICH MOUNTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF CUPOLA ATOP OPERATOR'S CABIN WHICH MOUNTS SIGNAL HORNS, WEATHER VANE - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. VIEW SOUTHEAST, ECCENTRIC HOUSE, INTERIOR, NOTE DOUBLE OVER MOUNTED ECCENTRICS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST, ECCENTRIC HOUSE, INTERIOR, NOTE DOUBLE OVER MOUNTED ECCENTRICS WITH ATTACHED ROD LINES ON GEAR ASSEMBLY. - South Penn Oil Company, G. M. Mead Lot 492 Lease, Morrison Run Field, Clarendon, Warren County, PA

  11. 7. VIEW FROM NEAR INSPIRATION POINT, MOUNT RAINIER IN BACKGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW FROM NEAR INSPIRATION POINT, MOUNT RAINIER IN BACKGROUND, HAER HISTORIAN RICHARD QUIN HOLDING SCALE STICK - Stevens Canyon Highway, Between Paradise, WA, & State Highway 123, Ashford, Pierce County, WA

  12. FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. FEATURE C. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH REMNANT OF MOUNT, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE C. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH REMNANT OF MOUNT, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF GUN MOUNT ON TERRACE, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF GUN MOUNT ON TERRACE, LOOKING EAST (1992). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 22, Armament Laboratory & Gun Range, On flightline between Tenth & Eleventh Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  15. FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 10. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CELL 4, MOUNTING STAND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CELL 4, MOUNTING STAND. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  17. 7. VAL CAMERA STATION, INTERIOR VIEW OF CAMERA MOUNT, COMMUNICATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VAL CAMERA STATION, INTERIOR VIEW OF CAMERA MOUNT, COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT AND STORAGE CABINET. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Stations, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at northeast (starboard) elevator tower. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. Inexpensive mount for a large millimeter-wavelength telescope.

    PubMed

    Padin, S

    2014-07-10

    A telescope mount with a single-point force support at the center of gravity of the primary mirror is proposed in order to eliminate much of the structure and cost of a large, millimeter-wavelength telescope. The single-point support gives repeatable thermal and gravitational deformation, so the surface of the primary can be controlled based on lookup tables for elevation and temperature. The new design is most appropriate for a survey telescope because locating the support above the vertex of the primary limits the range of motion of the mount to about 1 rad. A 30 m diameter, λ=850  μm telescope with the proposed mount is a factor of 4 lighter than a design with a conventional elevation-over-azimuth mount, and roughly half the cost.

  20. DE LAVAUD CASTING FACING NORTH, NOTE CORE MOUNTED IN PREPARATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DE LAVAUD CASTING FACING NORTH, NOTE CORE MOUNTED IN PREPARATION FOR NEXT PIPE CASTING. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  1. BATON ROUGE NATIONAL CEMETERY PLAQUE MOUNTED ON BASE OF FLAGPOLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATON ROUGE NATIONAL CEMETERY PLAQUE MOUNTED ON BASE OF FLAGPOLE, WITH NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES PLAQUE AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Baton Rouge National Cemetery, 220 North 19th Street, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, LA

  2. 6. ROOF DETAIL OF MIRROR MOUNTS FOR VIEWING LAUNCH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ROOF DETAIL OF MIRROR MOUNTS FOR VIEWING LAUNCH FROM INSIDE BLOCKHOUSE, PAD A IN BACKGROUND; VIEW TO EAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28401, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. High Stability Optical Mount for Space Laser Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosciarello, P.; Di Carmine, E.

    2014-06-01

    In the frame of Atmospheric Lidar (ATLID) project, one of the active instruments foreseen to be boarded on the EarthCARE satellite, a high stability optical mount has been designed, developed and tested in order to fulfil the tight program requirements.A description of the design solution developed, manufactured and qualified for the most critical optical mount inside the PLH, located on the Laser Master Oscillator Plate (the laser resonance cavity), is presented. In order to minimize optical mount mass and envelope, the developed solution foresees a glued interface (I/F) between the mechanical support and the mirror.A collection of stability results obtained on the optical mount breadboards is also presented, including a description of environmental tests performed and the way to assess the mirror stability after each environmental test, as well as the acceptance criteria derived in order to establish the flight worthiness of the manufactured and assembled hardware.

  4. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  5. The Alaska resource data files: Mount Katmai (MK) quadrangle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Church, Stanley E.; Bickerstaff, Damon P.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Mount Katmai 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  6. Support for equipment - Quick mounting with quick release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, W. W., II; Jacobson, H. B.

    1970-01-01

    Temporary support device for equipment consists of pin bracket for attachment to item and socket bracket for mounting on any structure. System is adaptable to broad range of temporary storage media. No engagement, release, or adjustment of components is required.

  7. 14. BRIDGE ABUTMENT AND ARCH TRUSS MOUNTING PLATE SHOWING EYEBAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BRIDGE ABUTMENT AND ARCH TRUSS MOUNTING PLATE SHOWING EYE-BAR CONNECTION AND EYE-BAR PIN LOCATION - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  8. Deterioration of the high-mounted brake light.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D L

    1995-10-01

    An unusually high failure rate in the high-mounted, center brake light was observed in a survey of normal local traffic. Such failure increases the potential for delay or error in perception of the rear lights by following drivers.

  9. 212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH STREET, SOUTH SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  10. VIEW FACING NORTH OF WEST QUARRY WALL, WITH METAL MOUNTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING NORTH OF WEST QUARRY WALL, WITH METAL MOUNTING BOLT FOR DERRICK VISIBLE - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 1, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  11. Angular Alignment Testing of Laser Mirror Mounts Under Temperature Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, K. T.; DeYoung, R. J.; Sandford, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    A number of commercial and custom-built laser mirror mounts were tested for angular alignment sensitivity during temperature cycling from room temperature (20 C) to 40 C. A Nd:YAG laser beam was reflected off a mirror that was held by the mount under test and was directed to a position-sensitive detector. Horizontal and vertical movement of the reflected beam was recorded, and the angular movement, as a function of temperature (coefficient of thermal tilt (CTT)) was calculated from these data. In addition, the amount of hysteresis in the movement after cycling from room temperature to 40 C and back was determined. All commercial mounts showed greater angular movement than the simpler National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (NASA LASE) custom mirror mounts.

  12. 2. DETAIL OF CEILING MOUNTED EXHAUST FAN USED TO REMOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF CEILING MOUNTED EXHAUST FAN USED TO REMOVE STEAM FROM SCALDING/SCRAPING AREA ON LEVEL 4 - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. Surface-mounted flat conductor cable for home wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.; Carden, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The concepts are discussed which are being considered and developed for surface-mounted wiring using flat conductor cable. Safety aspects, problems being encountered, and advantages are also discussed.

  14. 10. Storage and shipping container, ballistic missile, mounted on ballistic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Storage and shipping container, ballistic missile, mounted on ballistic missile trailer, view from left front - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  15. 11. Storage and shipping container, ballistic missile, mounted on ballistic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Storage and shipping container, ballistic missile, mounted on ballistic missile trailer, view from left side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. The 2013 Eruptions of Pavlof and Mount Veniaminof Volcanoes, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. J.; Waythomas, C. F.; Wallace, K.; Haney, M. M.; Fee, D.; Pavolonis, M. J.; Read, C.

    2013-12-01

    Pavlof Volcano and Mount Veniaminof on the Alaska Peninsula erupted during the summer of 2013 and were monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) using seismic data, satellite and web camera images, a regional infrasound array and observer reports. An overview of the work of the entire AVO staff is presented here. The 2013 eruption of Pavlof Volcano began on May 13 after a brief and subtle period of precursory seismicity. Two volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes at depths of 6-8 km on April 24 preceded the onset of the eruption by 3 weeks. Given the low background seismicity at Pavlof, the VTs were likely linked to the ascent of magma. The onset of the eruption was marked by subtle pulsating tremor that coincided with elevated surface temperatures in satellite images. Activity during May and June was characterized by lava fountaining and effusion from a vent near the summit. Seismicity consisted of fluctuating tremor and numerous explosions that were detected on an infrasound array (450 km NE) and as ground-coupled airwaves at local and distant seismic stations (up to 650 km). Emissions of ash and sulfur dioxide were observed in satellite data extending as far as 300 km downwind at altitudes of 5-7 km above sea level. Ash collected in Sand Point (90 km E) were well sorted, 60-150 micron diameter juvenile glass shards, many of which had fluidal forms. Automated objective ash cloud detection and cloud height retrievals from the NOAA volcanic cloud alerting system were used to evaluate the hazard to aviation. A brief reconnaissance of Pavlof in July found that lava flows on the NW flank consist of rubbly, clast rich, 'a'a flows composed of angular blocks of agglutinate and rheomorphic lava. There are at least three overlapping flows, the longest of which extends about 5 km from the vent. Eruptive activity continued through early July, and has since paused or stopped. Historical eruptions of Mount Veniaminof volcano have been from an intracaldera cone within a 10

  17. Vibration isolation of automotive vehicle engine using periodic mounting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiri, S.

    2005-05-01

    Customer awareness and sensitivity to noise and vibration levels have been raised through increasing television advertisement, in which the vehicle noise and vibration performance is used as the main market differentiation. This awareness has caused the transportation industry to regard noise and vibration as important criteria for improving market shares. One industry that tends to be in the forefront of the technology to reduce the levels of noise and vibration is the automobile industry. Hence, it is of practical interest to reduce the vibrations induced structural responses. The automotive vehicle engine is the main source of mechanical vibrations of automobiles. The engine is vulnerable to the dynamic action caused by engine disturbance force in various speed ranges. The vibrations of the automotive vehicle engines may cause structural failure, malfunction of other parts, or discomfort to passengers because of high level noise and vibrations. The mounts of the engines act as the transmission paths of the vibrations transmitted from the excitation sources to the body of the vehicle and passengers. Therefore, proper design and control of these mounts are essential to the attenuation of the vibration of platform structures. To improve vibration resistant capacities of engine mounting systems, vibration control techniques may be used. For instance, some passive and semi-active dissipation devices may be installed at mounts to enhance vibration energy absorbing capacity. In the proposed study, a radically different concept is presented whereby periodic mounts are considered because these mounts exhibit unique dynamic characteristics that make them act as mechanical filters for wave propagation. As a result, waves can propagate along the periodic mounts only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is completely blocked within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The experimental arrangements, including the design of

  18. Mount Rainier: learning to live with volcanic risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, C.L.; Scott, K.M.

    2002-01-01

    Mount Rainier in Washington state is an active volcano reaching more than 2.7 miles (14,410 feet) above sea level. Its majestic edifice looms over expanding suburbs in the valleys that lead to nearby Puget Sound. USGS research over the last several decades indicates that Mount Rainier has been the source of many volcanic mudflows (lahars) that buried areas now densely populated. Now the USGS is working cooperatively with local communities to help people live more safely with the volcano.

  19. View south across Mount Zion Cemetery lawn to some unmoved ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south across Mount Zion Cemetery lawn to some unmoved monuments (from left to right: Williams, Doughty-Beck, Beason, and Baker) with Mill Street houses in the background. A pile of removed gravestones sits between the Doughty-Beck and Beason monuments. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, R.

    2004-12-01

    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.

  1. An improved storage bulb mount for DSN hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dachel, P. R.; Russell, D. P.; Tucker, T. K.; Stratman, L. B.

    1979-01-01

    The presently used JPL hydrogen maser suspended atomic storage bulb and a rigid, single-plane mounted bulb are compared. The new bulb incorporates three major design changes: (1) mounting design; (2) alterations to the collimator; and (3) decrease in mass. These design changes are expected to increase the long-term stability of the frequency standard by reducing its sensitivity to vibration and thermal effects.

  2. Impact absorbing blade mounts for variable pitch blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravenhall, R.; Salemme, C. T.; Adamson, A. P. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A variable pitch blade and blade mount are reported that are suitable for propellers, fans and the like and which have improved impact resistance. Composite fan blades and blade mounting arrangements permit the blades to pivot relative to a turbine hub about an axis generally parallel to the centerline of the engine upon impact of a large foreign object, such as a bird. Centrifugal force recovery becomes the principal energy absorbing mechanism and a blade having improved impact strength is obtained.

  3. Using a Head-Mounted Camera to Infer Attention Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitow, Clara; Stenberg, Gunilla; Billard, Aude; von Hofsten, Claes

    2013-01-01

    A head-mounted camera was used to measure head direction. The camera was mounted to the forehead of 20 6- and 20 12-month-old infants while they watched an object held at 11 horizontal (-80° to + 80°) and 9 vertical (-48° to + 50°) positions. The results showed that the head always moved less than required to be on target. Below 30° in the…

  4. Testing tail-mounted transmitters with Myocastor coypus (nutria)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merino, S.; Carter, J.; Thibodeaux, G.

    2007-01-01

    We developed a tail-mounted radio-transmitter for Myocastor coypus (nutria) that offers a practical and efficient alternative to collar or implant methods. The mean retention time was 96 d (range 57-147 d, n = 7), making this a practical method for short-term studies. The tail-mounts were less injurious to animals than collars and easier for field researchers to implement than either collars or surgically implanted transmitters.

  5. Volcano collapse promoted by hydrothermal alteration and edifice shape, Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, M.E.; Sisson, T.W.; Brien, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Catastrophic collapses of steep volcano flanks threaten many populated regions, and understanding factors that promote collapse could save lives and property. Large collapses of hydrothermally altered parts of Mount Rainier have generated far-traveled debris flows; future flows would threaten densely populated parts of the Puget Sound region. We evaluate edifice collapse hazards at Mount Rainier using a new three-dimensional slope stability method incorporating detailed geologic mapping and subsurface geophysical imaging to determine distributions of strong (fresh) and weak (altered) rock. Quantitative three-dimensional slope stability calculations reveal that sizeable flank collapse (>0.1 km3) is promoted by voluminous, weak, hydrothermally altered rock situated high on steep slopes. These conditions exist only on Mount Rainier's upper west slope, consistent with the Holocene debris-flow history. Widespread alteration on lower flanks or concealed in regions of gentle slope high on the edifice does not greatly facilitate collapse. Our quantitative stability assessment method can also provide useful hazard predictions using reconnaissance geologic information and is a potentially rapid and inexpensive new tool for aiding volcano hazard assessments.

  6. Primary mirror and mount technology for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melugin, Ramsey K.; Chang, L. S.; Mansfield, J. A.; Howard, Steven D.

    1989-01-01

    Candidate technologies for a lightweight primary mirror for the SOFIA telescope are evaluated for both mirror blank fabrication and polishing. Two leading candidates for the type mirror blank are considered: the frit-bonded, structured form, and the thin meniscus form. The feasible mirror is required to be very lightweight with an areal density of approximately 100 kg/sq m, have an f/ratio near 1.0, and have surface quality that permits imaging in the visible as well as the infrared. Also considered are the results of a study conducted to assess the feasibility of designing a suitable mounting system for the primary mirror. The requirements for the mount design are given both in terms of the environmental conditions and the expected optical performance. PATRAN and NASTRAN programs are used to model mirror and mounting. The sandwich-type mirror made of ultra low expansion silica with square cells in the core, is modeled using equivalent solid elements for the core. The design study produces primary mirror surface deflections in 1g as a function of mirror elevation angles. The surface is analyzed using an optical analysis program, FRINGE, to give a prediction of the mirror optical performance. Results from this analysis are included.

  7. Mapping the distribution of neuroepithelial bodies of the rat lung. A whole-mount immunohistochemical approach.

    PubMed Central

    Avadhanam, K. P.; Plopper, C. G.; Pinkerton, K. E.

    1997-01-01

    We report an immunohistochemical method for mapping the distribution of neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) in whole-mount preparations of the intrapulmonary airways. The lungs of 8- and 50-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed with ethanol-acetic acid by intratracheal instillation. The major axial airway path of the infracardiac lobe was exposed and isolated by microdissection. NEBs were identified by calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity and their distribution mapped by generation and branch-point number. A distinct pattern was noted with greater prevalence of NEBs in proximal airway generations compared with more distal airways. No significant difference was noted in the distribution pattern or absolute number of NEBs between neonates and adults when compared by airway generation. NEBs were found more frequently on the ridges of the bifurcation than in other regions of the bifurcating airway wall. The ease of identification of total numbers of NEBs and their specific location by airway generation in whole-mount preparations of the bronchial tree completely removes the necessity of examining multiple sections and performing extensive morphometric procedures. Whole-mount airway preparations allow for the analysis and comparison of larger sample sizes per experimental group without labor-intensive approaches. The application of this method should enhance our knowledge of the role of NEBs in lung development and in response to disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9060823

  8. Interface mobilities for characterization of structure-borne sound sources resiliently mounted via multiple contact points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiowetz, S.; Bonhoff, H. A.

    2013-10-01

    This paper introduces an expansion of the interface mobility method for structure-borne sound sources that are resiliently mounted to a receiving structure at multiple discrete contact points. Subsystems of source, receiver and isolators are represented by Fourier transforms of their mobility matrices. Along with the source activity, a formulation for the transmitted power fed into the receiver is obtained. Furthermore, the source descriptor and a coupling function for resiliently mounted multi-point sources are obtained which both form recognized concepts for structure-borne sound source characterization. The method is based on a neglection of cross-order terms which describe a coupling between Fourier coefficients of different order. With regard to a subsystem of discretely placed isolators, cross-order terms were found to account for variations of isolator parameters along the contact points. In a set of numerical studies it was shown that errors introduced by neglecting cross-order terms are most pronounced in the higher frequency region where isolators show resonant behavior due to internal wave effects. A subsystem of identical isolators is completely described by equal-order terms, therefore no error is introduced considering such cases. Moreover, errors inherent in the rigidly mounted case due to cross-order source or receiver mobilities are reduced significantly when isolator mobilities are large compared to those from source and receiver. Findings from theoretical studies were validated in practical settings considering structure-borne sound transmission from a ship diesel engine and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device.

  9. Control Performance of ER Engine Mount Subjected to Temperature Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H. J.; Choi, S. B.; Kim, K. S.

    A key function of engine mount of vehicle systems is to support engine mass and isolate noise and vibration from engine disturbance forces. One of attractive candidates to achieve this goal is to utilize a semi-active ER engine mount. By applying this, we can effectively control damping force and hence the noise and vibration by just controlling the intensity of electric field. However, control performance of the engine mount may be very sensitive to temperature variation during engine operation. In this work, we investigate dynamic and control performances of ER engine mount with respect to the temperature variation. In order to undertake this, a flow-mode type of ER engine mount is designed and manufactured. Displacement transmissibility is experimentally evaluated for 1 degree of freedom. The ER engine mount is then incorporated with full-vehicle model in order to investigate vibration control performance. After formulating the governing equation of motion, a semi-active controller is designed. The controller is implemented through a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS), and control responses such as acceleration level at various engine speeds are evaluated in the frequency and time domains.

  10. Geologic map of Mount Gareloi, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort to both monitor and study all historically active volcanoes in Alaska, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) undertook a field program at Mount Gareloi in the summer of 2003. During a month-long period, seismic networks were installed at Mount Gareloi and the neighboring Tanaga volcanic cluster. During this time, we undertook the first geologic field study of the volcano since Robert Coats visited Gareloi Island for four days in 1946. Understanding the geology of this relatively small island is important from a hazards perspective, because Mount Gareloi lies beneath a heavily trafficked air route between North America and Asia and has frequently erupted airborne ash since 1760. At least two landslides from the island have deposited debris on the sea floor; thus, landslide-generated tsunamis are also a potential hazard. Since seismic instruments were installed in 2003, they have detected small but consistent seismic signals from beneath Mount Gareloi's edifice, suggesting an active hydrothermal system. Mount Gareloi is also important from the standpoint of understanding subduction-related volcanism, because it lies in the western portion of the volcanically active arc, where subduction is oblique to the arc front. Understanding the compositional evolution of Mount Gareloi fills a spatial gap in along-arc studies.

  11. Low cost volcano deformation monitoring: optical strain measurement and application to Mount St. Helens data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Thomas R.

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes an innovative method of volcano deformation measurements, applied to camera images taken from the 2004-2008 eruption period at Mount St. Helens. Dome growth was thought to be characterized by sustained, near-linear rates of a solid dacite plug. Through spatial digital image correlation (DIC) analysis of the camera images, new evidences arise that the deformation and strain rate of the spine was more complex. DIC yielded cumulative and incremental displacements, strain and shear planes at decimetre resolution. It was found that dome extrusion rates are highly non-linear, decelerating prior to partial collapse, followed by a pronounced dome extrusion increase and direction change. Associated processes have been identified through DIC, such as shallow landslides and reworking of talus apron material. The work highlights the strengths of camera strain monitoring, and illustrates that dome growth and collapse is a very dynamic process complexly interplaying with the surrounding.

  12. Geology and geochemistry of the Mount Riley-Mount Cox pluton, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Zimbelman, D.R.; Siems, D.F.; Kilburn, J.E.; Hubert, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Mount Riley-Mount Cox area is comprised of a relatively homogeneous pluton of rhyodacite rising some 1600 feet above the La Mesa surface. The pluton, of apparent Tertiary age, intrudes Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and Tertiary ( ) latite and tuff. The rhyodacite is holocrystalline, light gray to pinkish gray, porphyritic to microporphyritic, and locally banded. Phenocrysts include hornblende, quartz, biotite, and calcite. The phenocrysts range in size from 0.2 to 2 mm and make up one to fifteen percent of the rock. The phenocrysts often display a glomerophyric texture within a trachytic groundmass. The groundmass ranges from cryptocrystalline to very fine grained and is composed of plagioclase, quartz, potassium feldspar, hornblende/biotite, and iron-oxide material. Locally, the rhyodacite displays millimeter-scale banding and a poikilitic texture consisting of quartz oikiocrysts and plagioclase chadocrysts. The rhyodacite averages 68.74%, SiO/sub 2/, 0.39% TiO/sub 2/, 16.40% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 2.87% Fe/sub t/, 0.10% MnO, 1.21% MgO, 2.56% CaO, 3.79% Na/sub 2/O, and 3.96% K/sub 2/O. The rhyodacite is cut by veins and veinlets of brown to white calcite. The veins attain a maximum thickness of one meter, are locally bordered by calcite-cemented breccia zones, and locally include pyrite. The veins trend north or northwest, consistent with regional trends for the Rio Grande rift and the Texas Lineament, respectively. Sixty-five samples of rhyodacite, breccia, and vein were analyzed for 31 elements by emission-spectrographic methods. Trace-element data suggestive of hydrothermal mineralization was not recognized.

  13. Statistical and procedural issues in the use of heated taxidermic mounts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakken, G.S.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Boysen, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Studies using mounts have an inherently nested error structure; calibration and standardization should use the appropriate procedures and statistics. One example is that individual mount differences are nested within morphological factors related to species, age, or gender; without replication, mount differences may be confused with differences due to morphology. Also, the sensitivity of mounts to orientation to wind or sun is nested within mount; without replication, inadvertent variation in mount positioning may be confused with differences among mounts. Data on heat loss from a of 1-day-old mallard duckling mount are used to illustrate orientation sensitivity. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A helmet mounted display to adapt the telerobotic environment to human vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tharp, Gregory; Liu, Andrew; Yamashita, Hitomi; Stark, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    A Helmet Mounted Display system has been developed. It provides the capability to display stereo images with the viewpoint tied to subjects' head orientation. The type of display might be useful in a telerobotic environment provided the correct operating parameters are known. The effects of update frequency were tested using a 3D tracking task. The effects of blur were tested using both tracking and pick-and-place tasks. For both, researchers found that operator performance can be degraded if the correct parameters are not used. Researchers are also using the display to explore the use of head movements as part of gaze as subjects search their visual field for target objects.

  15. Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

    1999-07-01

    An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

  16. A critical role for chromatin in mounting a synergistic transcriptional response to GAL4-VP16.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C; Gralla, J D

    1994-01-01

    The role of chromatin in mounting a synergistic transcriptional response to GAL4-VP16 was investigated. Strong synergy was observed when chromatin templates were used in vitro. The synergy was severely reduced when naked DNA templates were transcribed. In vivo synergy was strong when nonreplicating templates were used. However, the use of replicating templates, which involved transient disruptions of chromatin, led to strong reductions in synergy. In both of these low-synergy responses, transcription levels were high. We infer that strong synergy has a requirement for chromatin that may be understood in terms of the competition between multiple activator molecules and histone cores for promoter DNA. Images PMID:8035798

  17. Visual Issues In The Use Of A Head-Mounted Monocular Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peli, Eli

    1989-11-01

    A miniature display device, recently available commercially, is aimed at providing a portable, inexpensive means of visual information communication. The display is head-mounted in front of one eye with the other eye's view of the environment unobstructed. Various visual phenomena are associated with this design. The consequences of these phenomena for visual safety, comfort, and efficiency of the user were evaluated: (1) The monocular, partially occluded mode of operation interrupts binocular vision. Presenting disparate images to each eye results in binocular rivalry. The two images may appear superimposed, with one image perceived with greater clarity or com letely dominant. Most observers can, use the display comfortably in this rivalrous mode. In many cases, it is easier to use the display in a peripheral position, slightly above or below the line of sight, thus permitting normal binocular vision of the environment. (2) As a head-mounted device, the displayed image is perceived to move during head movements due to the response of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. These movements affect the visibility of small letters during active head rotations and sharp accelerations. Adaptation is likely to reduce this perceived image motion. No evidence for postural instability or motion sickness was noted as a result of these conflicts between vis-ual and vestibular inputs. (3) Small displacements of the image are noted even without head motion, resulting from eye movements and the virtual lack of display persiste ce. These movements are noticed sponta e ously by few observers and are unlikely to interfere with the display use in most tasks.

  18. Comparison Study II: Double Star Measurements Made Using an Equatorial Mounted Refractor and an Alt-Az Mounted Reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas G.; Coombs, Lee C.

    2012-07-01

    Eight double stars with separations between 13 and 48 arc seconds were studied. Their separations and position angles were measured using an equatorial mounted refractor and and alt-az mounted reflector. A 2x Barlow lens was used along with a Celestron Micro Guide eyepiece to magnify the separation. Comparison of the possible effect of magnitude difference on the separation and position angle measurements was investigated.

  19. Airborne Magnetic and Electromagnetic Data map Rock Alteration and Water Content at Mount Adams, Mount Baker and Mount Rainier, Washington: Implications for Lahar Hazards and Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, C. A.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Horton, R.; Breit, G.; John, D.

    2007-12-01

    High resolution helicopter-borne magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) data flown over the rugged, ice-covered, highly magnetic and mostly resistive volcanoes of Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount Baker, along with rock property measurements, reveal the distribution of alteration, water and hydrothermal fluids that are essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards and understanding hydrothermal systems. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken stratovolcanoes, thereby increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far-traveled, destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly reduces the magnetization and resistivity of volcanic rock resulting in clear recognition of altered rock by helicopter magnetic and EM measurements. Magnetic and EM data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses of hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region, in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit, and in much of the central cone of Mount Baker. We identify the Sunset Amphitheater region and steep cliffs at the western edge of the central altered zone at Mount Adams as likely sources for future debris flows. In addition, the EM data identified water-saturated rocks in the upper 100-200 m of the three volcanoes. The water-saturated zone could extend deeper, but is beyond the detection limits of the EM data. Water in hydrothermal fluids reacts with the volcanic rock to produce clay minerals. The formation of clay minerals and presence of free water reduces the effective stress, thereby increasing the potential for slope failure, and acts, with entrained melting ice, as a lubricant to transform debris avalanches into lahars. Therefore, knowing the distribution of water is also important for hazard assessments. Finally, modeling requires extremely low

  20. Results of an external proficiency testing exercise on platelet dense-granule deficiency testing by whole mount electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Catherine P M; Moffat, Karen A; Spitzer, Ernie; Timleck, Marnie; Plumhoff, Elizabeth; Israels, Sara J; White, James

    2009-05-01

    Performance on specialized diagnostic tests for platelet disorders, including dense-granule deficiency, is rarely evaluated by external quality assessment (EQA). Members of the North American Specialized Coagulation Laboratory Association that evaluate platelet dense-granule deficiency commonly use whole-mount electron microscopy (EM) methods. This observation led us to develop a pilot EQA survey with standardized EM images and clinical samples on grids from a healthy control subject and a subject with dense-granule deficiency. The survey participants were 8 centers, including 2 with no experience in platelet whole mount EM. All participants, including inexperienced sites, correctly interpreted findings for the normal and dense-granule-deficient platelets. Among experienced sites, agreement was excellent (>82%) on platelet structures to count or not count as dense granules. Participants indicated that future EQA challenges should include clinical samples on grids and standardized images. This is the first report that platelet EM can be assessed by EQA.

  1. Correlation of diffusion-weighted MRI with whole mount radical prostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Van As, N; Charles-Edwards, E; Jackson, A; Jhavar, S; Reinsberg, S; Desouza, N; Dearnaley, D; Bailey, M; Thompson, A; Christmas, T; Fisher, C; Corbishley, C; Sohaib, S

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of benign central gland (bCG), benign peripheral zone (bPZ) and cancer using diffusion-weighted MRI and whole mount specimens. 11 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent diffusion-weighted MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. A single-shot echo planar image technique was used with b-values of 0 s mm(-2), 300 s mm(-2), 500 s mm(-2) and 800 s mm(-2). Whole mount specimens were compared with ADC maps. Areas of cancer, bCG and bPZ were identified, and regions of interest were drawn on ADC maps. Mean ADC values were recorded for all regions of interest, and paired t-tests were performed to compare mean values. Cancer was outlined in nine patients. In two patients, the tumours were too small to correlate with images; bCG was identified in 11 patients and bPZ was identified in 10 patients. Mean ADC values for bCG, bPZ and cancer were, 1.5 x 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (standard error (SE) = 0.04), 1.7 x 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (SE = 0.1), and 1.3 x 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (SE = 0.09), respectively. The most significant difference between benign tissue and cancer existed at b-values of 0-300 s mm(-2) (bCG vs cancer: mean difference = 0. 29, p = 0.001, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.17-0.41; bPZ vs cancer: mean difference = 0.34, p = 0.003, 95% CI = 0.18-0.61). In conclusion, we have confirmed, using whole mount verification, a significant difference in the ADC between benign tissue and cancer.

  2. Effect of structural flexibility on the design of vibration-isolating mounts for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Previous analyses of the design of vibration-isolating mounts for a rear-mounted engine to decouple linear and rotational oscillations are extended to take into account flexibility of the engine-mount structure. Equations and curves are presented to allow the design of mount systems and to illustrate the results for a range of design conditions.

  3. Mount Rainier: living safely with a volcano in your backyard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn L.; Scott, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Majestic Mount Rainier soars almost 3 miles (14,410 feet) above sea level and looms over the expanding suburbs of Seattle and Tacoma, Washington. Each year almost two million visitors come to Mount Rainier National Park to admire the volcano and its glaciers, alpine meadows, and forested ridges. However, the volcano's beauty is deceptive - U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research shows that Mount Rainier is one of our Nation's most dangerous volcanoes. It has been the source of countless eruptions and volcanic mudflows (lahars) that have surged down valleys on its flanks and buried broad areas now densely populated. To help people live more safely with the volcano, USGS scientists are working closely with local communities, emergency managers, and the National Park Service.

  4. Linear and/or curvilinear rail mount system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Jackie D. (Inventor); Harris, Lawanna L. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    One or more linear and/or curvilinear mounting rails are coupled to a structure. Each mounting rail defines a channel and at least one cartridge assembly is engaged in the channel. Each cartridge assembly includes a housing that slides within the channel. The housing defines a curvilinearly-shaped recess longitudinally aligned with the channel when the housing is in engagement therewith. The cartridge assembly also includes a cleat fitted in the recess for sliding engagement therealong. The cleat can be coupled to a fastener that passes through the mounting rail and the housing when the housing is so-engaged in the channel. The cleat is positioned in the recess by a position of the fastener.

  5. Integrated fiducial sample mount and software for correlated microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R McJunkin; Jill R. Scott; Tammy L. Trowbridge; Karen E. Wright

    2014-02-01

    A novel design sample mount with integrated fiducials and software for assisting operators in easily and efficiently locating points of interest established in previous analytical sessions is described. The sample holder and software were evaluated with experiments to demonstrate the utility and ease of finding the same points of interest in two different microscopy instruments. Also, numerical analysis of expected errors in determining the same position with errors unbiased by a human operator was performed. Based on the results, issues related to acquiring reproducibility and best practices for using the sample mount and software were identified. Overall, the sample mount methodology allows data to be efficiently and easily collected on different instruments for the same sample location.

  6. Piezoelectric resonator assembly with thin molybdenum mounting clips

    DOEpatents

    Peters, R. Donald

    1981-01-01

    A resonator mounting assembly wherein the resonator blank is mounted agai an essentially planar surface presented by a plurality of peripherally disposed mounting clips and bonded to this surface to provide substantially all the mechanical support for the blank in a direction normal to the major faces of the resonator blank, while being flexible in the directions parallel to said major faces so as to minimize radial stresses on the resonator blank, particularly during thermal cycling of the resonator assembly. The clips are fabricated of a low thermal expansion material, such as molybdenum, which also has considerable yield strength after exposure to processing temperatures; the bonding of the clips to the edges of the resonator blank can be achieved by a polyimide containing electrically conductive particles.

  7. Frequency response calibration of recess-mounted pressure transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolini, M. A.; Lorber, P. F.; Miller, W. T., Jr.; Covino, A. F., Jr.

    1991-03-01

    A technique is described for measuring the frequency response of pressure transducers mounted inside a model, where a narrow pipette leads to an orifice at the surface. An acoustic driver is mounted to a small chamber which has an opening at the opposite end with an O-ring seal to place over the orifice. A 3.18 mm (1/8 inch) reference microphone is mounted to one side of the chamber. The acoustic driver receives an input of white noise, and the transducer and reference microphone outputs are compared to obtain the frequency response of the pressure transducer. Selected results are presented in the form of power spectra for both the transducer and the reference, as well as the amplitude variation and phase shift between the two signals as a function of frequency. The effect of pipette length and the use of this technique for identifying both blocked orifices and faulty transducers are described.

  8. Frequency response calibration of recess-mounted pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcolini, M. A.; Lorber, P. F.; Miller, W. T., Jr.; Covino, A. F., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is described for measuring the frequency response of pressure transducers mounted inside a model, where a narrow pipette leads to an orifice at the surface. An acoustic driver is mounted to a small chamber which has an opening at the opposite end with an O-ring seal to place over the orifice. A 3.18 mm (1/8 inch) reference microphone is mounted to one side of the chamber. The acoustic driver receives an input of white noise, and the transducer and reference microphone outputs are compared to obtain the frequency response of the pressure transducer. Selected results are presented in the form of power spectra for both the transducer and the reference, as well as the amplitude variation and phase shift between the two signals as a function of frequency. The effect of pipette length and the use of this technique for identifying both blocked orifices and faulty transducers are described.

  9. Dynamics and control simulation of the Spacelab Experiment Pointing Mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, E. L.; Ward, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations were developed to evaluate the performance of four Experiment Pointing Mounts (EPM) being considered for Spacelab experiments in the 1980-1990 time frame. The system modeled compromises a multibody system consisting of the shuttle, a mechanical isolation device, the EPM, celestial and inertial sensors, bearings, gimbal torque motors and associated nonlinearities, the experiment payload, and control and estimator algorithms. Each mount was subjected to a common disturbance (shuttle vernier thruster firing and man push off) and command (stellar pointing or solar raster scan) input. The fundamental limitation common to all mounts was found to be sensor noise. System dynamics and hardware nonlinearities have secondary effects on pointing performance for sufficiently high bandwidth.

  10. Geologic map of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Crater Lake caldera collapsed about 6,850 yr B.P. during the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama, a High Cascade basaltic andesitic to dacitic volcanic center that was constructed during a period of about 400,000 yr. The caldera and the products of the climactic eruption are clear evidence for the presence of a shallow magma body that must have supported a hydrothermal system in the recent past. The geology of Mount Mazama has been mapped at a scale of 1:24,000 based on detailed study of the walls of Crater Lake caldera and mapping of the flanks of the volcano. The map shows lavas and fragmental deposits of Mount Mazama, lavas of nearby monogenetic volcanoes, pre-Mazama silicic volcanic rocks, products of the climactic eruption, and glacial deposits. Related topical studies of the volcanology, geochronology, petrology, and geochemistry of the Crater Lake area depend on field relations established by geologic mapping.

  11. Perceptual issues for color helmet-mounted displays: luminance and color contrast requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; Lattimore, Morris R.; Statz, Jonathan; Martin, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Color is one of the latest design characteristics of helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). It's inclusion in design specifications is based on two suppositions: 1) color provides an additional method of encoding information, and 2) color provides a more realistic, and hence more intuitive, presentation of information, especially pilotage imagery. To some degree, these two perceived advantages have been validated with head-down panel-mounted displays, although not without a few problems associated with visual physiology and perception. These problems become more prevalent when the user population expands beyond military aviators to a general user population, of which a significant portion may have color vision deficiencies. When color is implemented in HMDs, which are eyes-out, see-through displays, visual perception issues become an increased concern. A major confound with HMDs is their inherent see-through (transparent) property. The result is color in the displayed image combines with color from the outside (or in-cockpit) world, possibly producing a false perception of either or both images. While human-factors derived guidelines based on trial and error have been developed, color HMD systems still place more emphasis on colorimetric than perceptual standards. This paper identifies the luminance and color contrast requirements for see-through HMDs. Also included is a discussion of ambient scene metrics and the choice of symbology color.

  12. Applications of Augmented Vision Head-Mounted Systems in Vision Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Peli, Eli; Luo, Gang; Bowers, Alex; Rensing, Noa

    2007-01-01

    Vision loss typically affects either the wide peripheral vision (important for mobility), or central vision (important for seeing details). Traditional optical visual aids usually recover the lost visual function, but at a high cost for the remaining visual function. We have developed a novel concept of vision-multiplexing using augmented vision head-mounted display systems to address vision loss. Two applications are discussed in this paper. In the first, minified edge images from a head-mounted video camera are presented on a see-through display providing visual field expansion for people with peripheral vision loss, while still enabling the full resolution of the residual central vision to be maintained. The concept has been applied in daytime and nighttime devices. A series of studies suggested that the system could help with visual search, obstacle avoidance, and nighttime mobility. Subjects were positive in their ratings of device cosmetics and ergonomics. The second application is for people with central vision loss. Using an on-axis aligned camera and display system, central visibility is enhanced with 1:1 scale edge images, while still enabling the wide field of the unimpaired peripheral vision to be maintained. The registration error of the system was found to be low in laboratory testing. PMID:18172511

  13. Seasonal pattern of reverse mounting in the groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.S.; Koford, Rolf R.; Vehrencamp, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    We observed reverse mounting behavior in a color-banded population of Groove-billed Anis (Crotophaga sulcirostris) in Costa Rica. Sex was determined with measurements and laparotomies. Reverse mounting appeared nearly identical to mounting by males. Of 27 mountings in which at least one bird was banded, 15 were reverse mountings. Only reverse mountings (11 observations) were observed in the pre-breeding period. During the breeding season males mounted females in 12 of 16 mountings; one of the reverse mountings followed nest predation. The timing of reverse mounting in anis suggests that it has an adaptive function in courtship. The proximate mechanism may be differential timing between partners in the development of breeding condition or of sexual motivation.

  14. Rolling contact mounting arrangement for a ceramic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A combustor assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is mounted within a gas turbine engine housing having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the combustor assembly. The combustor assembly is constructed of a inlet end portion, a outlet end portion and a plurality of combustor ring segments positioned between the end portions. A mounting assembly is positioned between the combustor assembly and the gas turbine engine housing to allow for the difference in the rate of thermal expansion while maintaining axially compressive force on the combustor assembly to maintain contact between the separate components.

  15. Rolling contact mounting arrangement for a ceramic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.L.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-10-17

    A combustor assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is mounted within a gas turbine engine housing having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the combustor assembly. The combustor assembly is constructed of a inlet end portion, a outlet end portion and a plurality of combustor ring segments positioned between the end portions. A mounting assembly is positioned between the combustor assembly and the gas turbine engine housing to allow for the difference in the rate of thermal expansion while maintaining axially compressive force on the combustor assembly to maintain contact between the separate components. 3 figs.

  16. Psychiatric reactions to disaster: the Mount St. Helens experience.

    PubMed

    Shore, J H; Tatum, E L; Vollmer, W M

    1986-05-01

    Following the 1980 Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption, psychiatric reactions were studied in the disaster area and in a control community. Using the new criterion-based diagnostic method for psychiatric epidemiologic research, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, the authors found a significant prevalence of disaster-related psychiatric disorders. These Mount St. Helens disorders included depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress reaction. There was a progressive "dose-response" relationship in the comparison of control, low-exposure, and high-exposure groups. The dose-response pattern occurred among both the bereaved and the property-loss victims.

  17. Perspective view. notes on reverse: The main facade of Mount ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. notes on reverse: The main facade of Mount Atlas was built by Peter B. Whiting in 1790. All exterior woodwork except the cornice is said to be carved by Mr. Foley. Some original frames and casings around transom window over front door. Front door is also original. Some original beaded weatherboards on wall protected by basement entrance (poplar weatherboards). Porch added after 1900. Original mantelpiece with painting of girl above (may be a late eighteenth-century painting). Smokehouse to left is original. Charles B. Carter owned the house from 1801-35 and is buried in the cemetery nearby. - Mount Atlas, State Route 731 vicinity, Waterfall, Prince William County, VA

  18. Geology of the Ugashik-Mount Peulik Volcanic Center, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    The Ugashik-Mount Peulik volcanic center, 550 km southwest of Anchorage on the Alaska Peninsula, consists of the late Quaternary 5-km-wide Ugashik caldera and the stratovolcano Mount Peulik built on the north flank of Ugashik. The center has been the site of explosive volcanism including a caldera-forming eruption and post-caldera dome-destructive activity. Mount Peulik has been formed entirely in Holocene time and erupted in 1814 and 1845. A large lava dome occupies the summit crater, which is breached to the west. A smaller dome is perched high on the southeast flank of the cone. Pyroclastic-flow deposits form aprons below both domes. One or more sector-collapse events occurred early in the formation of Mount Peulik volcano resulting in a large area of debris-avalanche deposits on the volcano's northwest flank. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik center is a calcalkaline suite of basalt, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite, ranging in SiO2 content from 51 to 72 percent. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik magmas appear to be co-genetic in a broad sense and their compositional variation has probably resulted from a combination of fractional crystallization and magma-mixing. The most likely scenario for a future eruption is that one or more of the summit domes on Mount Peulik are destroyed as new magma rises to the surface. Debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows may then move down the west and, less likely, east flanks of the volcano for distances of 10 km or more. A new lava dome or series of domes would be expected to form either during or within some few years after the explosive disruption of the previous dome. This cycle of dome disruption, pyroclastic flow generation, and new dome formation could be repeated several times in a single eruption. The volcano poses little direct threat to human population as the area is sparsely populated. The most serious hazard is the effect of airborne volcanic ash on aircraft since Mount Peulik sits astride heavily traveled air routes connecting the U

  19. A Prototype Body-Mounted MRI-Compatible Robot for Needle Guidance in Shoulder Arthrography

    PubMed Central

    Monfaredi, R.; Seifabadi, R.; Iordachita, I.; Sze, R.; Safdar, N. M.; Sharma, K.; Fricke, S.; Krieger, A.; Cleary, K.

    2014-01-01

    A novel compact and lightweight patient-mounted MRI-compatible robot has been designed for MRI image-guided interventions. This robot is intended to enable MRI-guided needle placement as done in shoulder arthrography. The robot could make needle placement more accurate and simplify the current workflow by converting the traditional two-stage arthrography procedure (fluoroscopy-guided needle insertion followed by a diagnostic MRI scan) to a one-stage procedure (streamlined workflow all in MRI suite). The robot has 4 degrees of freedom (DOF), two for orientation of the needle and two for needle positioning. The mechanical design was based on several criteria including rigidity, MRI compatibility, compact design, sterilizability, and adjustability. The proposed workflow is discussed and initial MRI compatibility experiments are presented. The results show that artifacts in the region of interest are minimal and that MRI images of the shoulder were not adversely affected by placing the robot on a human volunteer. PMID:25473653

  20. Rotorcraft aircrew systems concepts airborne laboratory (RASCAL) helmet-mounted display flight research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindson, William S.; Njaka, Chima E.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Barnhart, Warren A.

    1994-06-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. One of the objectives of the research is to develop and integrate technologies for Automated Nap-of-the Earth (ANOE) flight. The principal elements of this system include video imaging sensors, advanced real-time image processing capabilities, a graphics supercomputer, a wide field-of-view color helmet mounted display (HMD), and an advanced fly-by-wire flight control system. The development methodology and the current status of the ANOE Flight Program are summarized, a description of the visionics system is provided, and the plans for the initial applications of the color HMD are presented.