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Sample records for 7-d-old broccoli sprouts

  1. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-02-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition.

  2. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods.

  3. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Broccoli is a Brassica vegetable that is believed to possess chemopreventive properties. Selenium also shows promise as an anticancer agent. Thus, selenium enrichment of broccoli has the potential to enhance the anticancer properties of broccoli sprouts. Method Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were prepared using a sodium selenite solution. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and compared with those of a control broccoli sprout extract. Results Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were superior to normal broccoli sprouts in inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing prostate-specific antigen secretion, and inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts but, not normal broccoli sprouts, induced a downregulation of the survival Akt/mTOR pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest that selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts could potentially be used as an alternative selenium source for prostate cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:19943972

  4. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W; Ourisson, Philippe J; Degnan, Frederick H

    2006-01-01

    Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75%) of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing) was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply. PMID:16630354

  5. Improvement of the nutraceutical quality of broccoli sprouts by elicitation.

    PubMed

    Natella, Fausta; Maldini, Mariateresa; Nardini, Mirella; Azzini, Elena; Foddai, Maria Stella; Giusti, Anna Maria; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina

    2016-06-15

    Epidemiological studies show an inverse association between Brassica consumption and chronic diseases. Phytochemicals are thought to be beneficial for human health and therefore responsible for this protective effect. Increasing their levels into Brassica food is considered an expedient nutritional strategy that can be achieved through the manipulation of growth conditions by elicitors. In this work we systematically evaluated the influence of treatment with different elicitors (sucrose, mannitol, NaCl, 1-aminocyclopropane-L-carboxylic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate) on the phytochemical composition of broccoli sprouts. The content of total and single glucosinolates, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, vitamin C and E and β-carotene was assessed. The exposure to different elicitors produced concentration- and elicitor-dependent specific changes in the content of all the phytochemicals considered. Sucrose, identified as the most effective elicitor by principal component analysis, induced a significant increase of total and specific glucosinolates, vitamin C, total anthocyanins and polyphenols. Sucrose is likely to represent an effective tool to increase the nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. PMID:26868554

  6. Synergy between broccoli sprout extract and selenium in the upregulation of thioredoxin reductase in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wu, Kun; Howie, A Forbes; Beckett, Geoffrey J; Wang, Wei; Bao, Yongping

    2008-09-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates and selenium (Se) can up-regulate thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) in cultured human HepG2 and MCF-7 cells [Zhang et al. (2003). Synergy between sulforaphane and selenium in the induction of thioredoxin reductase 1 requires both transcriptional and translational modulation. Carcinogenesis, 24, 497-503; Wang et al. (2005). Sulforaphane, erucin and iberin up-regulate thioredoxin reductase expression in human MCF-7 cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 1417-1421] at both the protein and mRNA levels. In this study, broccoli sprout extract (a rich source of the isothiocyanates sulforaphane and iberin) and Se interacted synergistically to induce TR1 in immortalised human hepatocytes. Broccoli sprout extracts containing 1.6, 4 and 8μM isothiocyanates were tested for their ability to induce TR1 at the protein and mRNA level. Although induction of TR1 mRNA by broccoli sprout extract (1.6-8μM) was only 1.7-2.2-fold, co-treatment with Se (0.2-1μM) enhanced the expression of TR1 mRNA (3.0-3.3-fold). Moreover, broccoli sprout extract induced the cellular concentration of TR1 and TR enzymatic activity, an induction that was augmented by Se addition. Thus, broccoli sprout extract (8μM) and Se induced cellular TR1 concentration and enzymatic activity 3.7- and 5-fold respectively, whereas, Se or broccoli sprout extract alone produced an induction of only approximately 2-fold. These data suggest that dietary isothiocyanates from broccoli sprouts and Se are important agents in the regulation of redox status in human liver cells. The synergistic effect between isothiocyanates and Se at physiologically-relevant concentrations on the induction of TR1 may play an important role in protection against oxidative stress.

  7. Bioavailability and inter-conversion of sulforaphane and erucin in human subjects consuming broccoli sprouts or broccoli supplement in a cross-over study design

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, John D.; Hsu, Anna; Riedl, Ken; Bella, Deborah; Schwartz, Steven J.; Stevens, Jan F.; Ho, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Broccoli consumption may reduce the risk of various cancers and many broccoli supplements are now available. The bioavailability and excretion of the mercapturic acid pathway metabolites isothiocyanates after human consumption of broccoli supplements has not been tested. Two important isothiocyanates from broccoli are sulforaphane and erucin. We employed a cross-over study design in which 12 subjects consumed 40 grams of fresh broccoli sprouts followed by a 1 month washout period and then the same 12 subjects consumed 6 pills of a broccoli supplement. As negative controls for isothiocyanate consumption four additional subjects consumed alfalfa sprouts during the first phase and placebo pills during the second. Blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours during each phase and analyzed for sulforaphane and erucin metabolites using LC-MS/MS. The bioavailability of sulforaphane and erucin is dramatically lower when subjects consume broccoli supplements compared to fresh broccoli sprouts. The peaks in plasma concentrations and urinary excretion were also delayed when subjects consumed the broccoli supplement. GSTP1 polymorphisms did not affect the metabolism or excretion of sulforaphane or erucin. Sulforaphane and erucin are able to interconvert in vivo and this interconversion is consistent within each subject but variable between subjects. This study confirms that consumption of broccoli supplements devoid of myrosinase activity does not produce equivalent plasma concentrations of the bioactive isothiocyanate metabolites compared to broccoli sprouts. This has implications for people who consume the recommended serving size (1 pill) of a broccoli supplement and believe they are getting equivalent doses of isothiocyanates. PMID:21816223

  8. Absorption and chemopreventive targets of sulforaphane in humans following consumption of broccoli sprouts or a myrosinase-treated broccoli sprout extract

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, Lauren L.; Hsu, Anna; Wong, Carmen P.; Stevens, Jan F.; Bella, Deborah; Yu, Tian-Wei; Pereira, Clifford B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Christensen, John Mark; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Williams, David E.; Shannon, Jackilen; Ho, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Scope Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from crucifers, has numerous health benefits. SFN bioavailability from dietary sources is a critical determinant of its efficacy in humans. A key factor in SFN absorption is the release of SFN from its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, by myrosinase. Dietary supplements are used in clinical trials to deliver consistent SFN doses, but myrosinase is often inactivated in available supplements. We evaluated SFN absorption from a myrosinase-treated broccoli sprout extract (BSE) and are the first to report effects of twice daily, oral dosing on SFN exposure in healthy adults. Methods and results Subjects consumed fresh broccoli sprouts or the BSE, each providing 200 μmol SFN daily, as a single dose and as two 100-μmol doses taken 12 h apart. Using HPLC-MS/MS, we detected ~3 x higher SFN metabolite levels in plasma and urine of sprout consumers, indicating enhanced SFN absorption from sprouts. Twelve-hour dosing retained higher plasma SFN metabolite levels at later time points than 24-hour dosing. No dose responses were observed for molecular targets of SFN (i.e. heme oxygenase-1, histone deacetylase activity, p21). Conclusion We conclude that the dietary form and dosing schedule of SFN may impact SFN absorption and efficacy in human trials. PMID:25522265

  9. Mutations in cauliflower and sprout broccoli grown from seeds flown in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong; Huang, Congli; Zhang, Keping; Sun, Yeqing

    2010-11-01

    Cauliflower and sprout broccoli are widely planted vegetables particularly in Fujian Province, China. To study the mutation in these two types of vegetables induced from spaceflight, we flew the seeds on the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite which orbited the Earth for 18 days. After returning to the Earth, the cauliflower seeds were planted for two generations and the sprout broccoli seeds for one generation at the Xiamen Agriculture Research Institute. Of the 12 cauliflowers planted for the first generation, two showed significant phenotypical changes in both the size of the plant and the weight of the flower head. In addition, most of the space flown plants were found to be resistant to the black rot attack in the field. Cauliflowers planted for the second generation from the seeds in one of the two plants that displayed phenotypical changes in the first generation showed similar mutations. For the first generation of sprout broccoli, the rate of emergence from the flown seeds was lower than that of the control by 30%. No significant changes in the phenotype between the sprout broccolis planted from the flown seeds and the control were observed except one of the mutated sprout broccolis showed a change in the appearance in the lesser bud of the chief flower head. Results of the study demonstrated that DNA damages in some of the genes may have occurred in the seeds flown in space, and some of the changes in the genes may have inherited from the first to the second generation. The improved resistance to the black rot attack and increased size of the flower head are apparently beneficial.

  10. Glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. italica) as conditioned by sulphate supply during germination.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Balibrea, Santiago; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Sulphur (S) fertilization is essential for primary and secondary metabolism in cruciferous foods. Deficient, suboptimal, or excessive S affects the growth and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in adult plants. Nevertheless, there is little information regarding the influence of S fertilization on sprouts and seedlings. An experiment was set up to evaluate the effect of S fertilization, supplied as K(2)SO(4) at 0, 15, 30, and 60 mg/L, on the glucosinolate content of broccoli sprouts during the germination course of 3, 6, 9, and 12 d after sowing. Glucosinolate concentration was strongly influenced by germination, causing a rapid increase during the first 3 d after sowing, and decreasing afterwards. The S supply increased aliphatic and total glucosinolate content at the end of the monitored sprouting period. S-treated sprouts, with S(15), S(30), and S(60) at 9 and 12 d after sowing presented enhanced glucosinolate content. Overall, both germination time and S fertilization were key factors in maximizing the bioactive health-promoting phytochemicals of broccoli. Practical Application: Germination with sulphate is a simple and inexpensive way to obtain sprouts that contain much higher levels of glucosinolates (health promoting compounds), than the corresponding florets from the same seeds.

  11. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet. PMID:26988507

  12. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet.

  13. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Natella, Fausta; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Langridge, James; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird's-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle). We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant's developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of an

  14. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Natella, Fausta; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Langridge, James; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2015-06-15

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird's-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle). We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant's developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of an

  15. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Natella, Fausta; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Langridge, James; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle). We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant’s developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of an

  16. Effect of Se treatment on glucosinolate metabolism and health-promoting compounds in the broccoli sprouts of three cultivars.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyun; Liu, Yanlong; Xie, Lin; Pan, Siyi

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli sprouts are natural functional foods for cancer prevention because of their high glucosinolate (GSL) content and high selenium (Se) accumulation capacity. The regulation mechanism of Se on GSL metabolism in broccoli sprouts was explored. In particular, the effects of Se treatment (100 μmol/L selenite and selenate) on the Se, sulfur (S), glucosinolate and sulforaphane contents; myrosinase activity and health-promoting compounds (ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, total phenolics and flavonoids) of three, 5 day old, cultivars were investigated. The treatment did not influence the total GSL and ascorbic acid contents; significantly increased the myrosinase activity and sulforaphane, anthocyanin and flavonoids contents; and decreased the total phenolics content. The increase in sulforaphane during early growth can be primarily attributed to the increased myrosinase activity caused by Se treatment. Broccoli sprouts with suitable selenite and selenate concentrations, in the early growth days, could be desirable for improved human health.

  17. Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Yanaka, Akinori; Fahey, Jed W; Fukumoto, Atsushi; Nakayama, Mari; Inoue, Souta; Zhang, Songhua; Tauchi, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hideo; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2009-04-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4(R)-methylsulfinylbutane] is abundant in broccoli sprouts in the form of its glucosinolate precursor (glucoraphanin). SF is powerfully bactericidal against Helicobacter pylori infections, which are strongly associated with the worldwide pandemic of gastric cancer. Oral treatment with SF-rich broccoli sprouts of C57BL/6 female mice infected with H. pylori Sydney strain 1 and maintained on a high-salt (7.5% NaCl) diet reduced gastric bacterial colonization, attenuated mucosal expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta, mitigated corpus inflammation, and prevented expression of high salt-induced gastric corpus atrophy. This therapeutic effect was not observed in mice in which the nrf2 gene was deleted, strongly implicating the important role of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins in SF-dependent protection. Forty-eight H. pylori-infected patients were randomly assigned to feeding of broccoli sprouts (70 g/d; containing 420 micromol of SF precursor) for 8 weeks or to consumption of an equal weight of alfalfa sprouts (not containing SF) as placebo. Intervention with broccoli sprouts, but not with placebo, decreased the levels of urease measured by the urea breath test and H. pylori stool antigen (both biomarkers of H. pylori colonization) and serum pepsinogens I and II (biomarkers of gastric inflammation). Values recovered to their original levels 2 months after treatment was discontinued. Daily intake of sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts for 2 months reduces H. pylori colonization in mice and improves the sequelae of infection in infected mice and in humans. This treatment seems to enhance chemoprotection of the gastric mucosa against H. pylori-induced oxidative stress.

  18. The intake of broccoli sprouts modulates the inflammatory and vascular prostanoids but not the oxidative stress-related isoprostanes in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Medina, Sonia; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Ferreres, Federico; Gil, José Ignacio; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2015-04-15

    Current evidence supports the positive association between the consumption of plant foods and health. In this work, we assessed the effect of consuming a half-serving (30 g) or one serving (60 g) of broccoli sprouts on the urinary concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress (isoprostanes) and inflammation (prostaglandins and thromboxanes). Twenty-four volunteers participated in the project. A quantitative determination of sulforaphane and its mercapturic derivatives, eicosanoids, and total vitamin C in urine was performed. The intake of broccoli sprouts produced an increase in the urinary concentrations of sulforaphane metabolites and vitamin C. Among the 13 eicosanoids analyzed, tetranor-PGEM and 11β-PGF2α as well as 11-dehydro-TXB2 showed a significant decrease in their urinary concentrations after the ingestion of broccoli sprouts. Therefore, the consumption of broccoli sprouts modulated the excretion of biomarkers linked to inflammation and vascular reactions without exerting a significant influence on the oxidation of phospholipids in vivo.

  19. Assessing the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se ...

  20. Assessment of the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Fabricio William; Faquin, Valdemar; Yang, Yong; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2013-07-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts increased concomitantly with increasing Se doses. Selenate was superior to selenite in inducing total Se accumulation, but selenite is equally effective as selenate in promoting SeMSCys synthesis in sprouts. Increasing sulfur doses reduced total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts treated with selenate, but not in those with selenite. Examination of five broccoli cultivars reveals that sprouts generally have better fractional ability than florets to convert inorganic Se into SeMSCys. Distinctive glucosinolate profiles between sprouts and florets were observed, and sprouts contained approximately 6-fold more glucoraphanin than florets. In contrast to florets, glucosinolate content was not affected by Se treatment in sprouts. Thus, Se-enriched broccoli sprouts are excellent for simultaneous accumulation of chemopreventive compounds SeMSCys and glucoraphanin.

  1. Rapid and Sustainable Detoxication of Airborne Pollutants by Broccoli Sprout Beverage: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Bing; Kensler, Kevin H.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Muñoz, Alvaro; Johnson, Jamie L.; Groopman, John D.; Fahey, Jed W.; Talalay, Paul; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tao-Yang; Qian, Geng-Sun; Carmella, Steven G.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Broccoli sprouts are a convenient and rich source of the glucosinolate, glucoraphanin, which can generate the chemopreventive agent, sulforaphane, an inducer of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and other cytoprotective enzymes. A broccoli sprout-derived beverage providing daily doses of 600 μmol glucoraphanin and 40 μmol sulforaphane was evaluated for magnitude and duration of pharmacodynamic action in a 12-week randomized clinical trial. Two hundred and ninety-one study participants were recruited from the rural He-He Township, Qidong, in the Yangtze River delta region of China, an area characterized by exposures to substantial levels of airborne pollutants. Exposure to air pollution has been associated with lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. Urinary excretion of the mercapturic acids of the pollutants, benzene, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde, were measured before and during the intervention using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid and sustained, statistically significant (p ≤ 0.01) increases in the levels of excretion of the glutathione-derived conjugates of benzene (61%), acrolein (23%), but not crotonaldehyde were found in those receiving broccoli sprout beverage compared with placebo. Excretion of the benzene-derived mercapturic acid was higher in participants who were GSTT1-positive compared to the null genotype, irrespective of study arm assignment. Measures of sulforaphane metabolites in urine indicated that bioavailability did not decline over the 12-week daily dosing period. Thus, intervention with broccoli sprouts enhances the detoxication of some airborne pollutants and may provide a frugal means to attenuate their associated long-term health risks. PMID:24913818

  2. Thermally induced degradation of sulfur-containing aliphatic glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and model systems.

    PubMed

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Platz, Stefanie; Mewis, Inga; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Kroh, Lothar W

    2012-03-01

    Processing reduces the glucosinolate (GSL) content of plant food, among other aspects due to thermally induced degradation. Since there is little information about the thermal stability of GSL and formation of corresponding breakdown products, the thermally induced degradation of sulfur-containing aliphatic GSL was studied in broccoli sprouts and with isolated GSL in dry medium at different temperatures as well as in aqueous medium at different pH values. Desulfo-GSL have been analyzed with HPLC-DAD, while breakdown products were estimated using GC-FID. Whereas in the broccoli sprouts structural differences of the GSL with regard to thermal stability exist, the various isolated sulfur-containing aliphatic GSL degraded nearly equally and were in general more stable. In broccoli sprouts, methylsulfanylalkyl GSL were more susceptible to degradation at high temperatures, whereas methylsulfinylalkyl GSL were revealed to be more affected in aqueous medium under alkaline conditions. Besides small amounts of isothiocyanates, the main thermally induced breakdown products of sulfur-containing aliphatic GSL were nitriles. Although they were most rapidly formed at comparatively high temperatures under dry heat conditions, their highest concentrations were found after cooking in acidic medium, conditions being typical for domestic processing.

  3. An Open Study of Sulforaphane-rich Broccoli Sprout Extract in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shiina, Akihiro; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Oda, Yasunori; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Yoshida, Taisuke; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by severe cognitive impairment. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Sulforaphane (SFN) extracted from broccoli sprout is an agent with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effect of SFN on cognitive impairment in medicated patients with schizophrenia. Methods We recruited a total of 10 outpatients with schizophrenia, all of whom gave informed consent. Participants took 3 tablets of SFN, consisting of 30 mg of SFN-glucosinolate per day, for 8 weeks. Clinical symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and cognitive function using the Japanese version of CogState battery were evaluated at the beginning of the study and at week 8. Results A total of 7 patients completed the trial. The mean score in the Accuracy component of the One Card Learning Task increased significantly after the trial. However, we detected no other significant changes in participants. Conclusion This result suggests that SFN has the potential to improve cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25912539

  4. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts on Nasal Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus in Smokers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Terry L.; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Haibo; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Müller, Loretta; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Meyer, Megan; Murphy, Paula C.; Jones, Shannon; Letang, Blanche; Robinette, Carole; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants. Objectives Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate) for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV. Results In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03) and influenza sequences (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whileNAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:24910991

  5. Analysis and anti-Helicobacter activity of sulforaphane and related compounds present in broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L.) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Kim, Jun-Ran; Ahn, Young-Joon; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2010-06-01

    A crude methanol extract prepared from fresh broccoli sprouts was extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol sequentially. Residual water fraction was obtained from the residual aqueous layer. The greatest inhibition zones (>5 cm) were noted for Helicobacter pylori strain by the chloroform extract, followed by the hexane extract (5.03 cm), the ethyl acetate extract (4.90 cm), the butanol extract (3.10 cm), and the crude methanol extract (2.80 cm), whereas the residual water fraction did not show any inhibition zone. Including sulforaphane, five sulforaphane-related compounds were positively identified in the chloroform extract, of which 5-methylsulfinylpentylnitrile was found in the greatest concentration (475.7 mg/kg of fresh sprouts), followed by sulforaphane (222.6 mg/kg) and 4-methylsulfinylbutylnitrile (63.0 mg/kg). Among 18 sulforaphane and related compounds synthesized (6 amines, 6 isothiocyanates, and 6 nitriles), 2 amines, 6 isothiocyanates, and 1 nitrile exhibited >5 cm inhibitory zones for H. pylori strain. The results indicate that broccoli sprouts can be an excellent food source for medicinal substances.

  6. Phase 1 Study of a Sulforaphane-Containing Broccoli Sprout Homogenate for Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Doss, Jennifer F; Jonassaint, Jude C; Garrett, Melanie E; Ashley-Koch, Allison E; Telen, Marilyn J; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited hemoglobinopathy worldwide. Our previous results indicate that the reduced oxidative stress capacity of sickle erythrocytes may be caused by decreased expression of NRF2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2), an oxidative stress regulator. We found that activation of NRF2 with sulforaphane (SFN) in erythroid progenitors significantly increased the expression of NRF2 targets HMOX1, NQO1, and HBG1 (subunit of fetal hemoglobin) in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that NRF2 activation with SFN may offer therapeutic benefits for SCD patients by restoring oxidative capacity and increasing fetal hemoglobin concentration. To test this hypothesis, we performed a Phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation study of SFN, contained in a broccoli sprout homogenate (BSH) that naturally contains SFN, in adults with SCD. The primary and secondary study endpoints were safety and physiological response to NRF2 activation, respectively. We found that BSH was well tolerated, and the few adverse events that occurred during the trial were not likely related to BSH consumption. We observed an increase in the mean relative whole blood mRNA levels for the NRF2 target HMOX1 (p = 0.02) on the last day of BSH treatment, compared to pre-treatment. We also observed a trend toward increased mean relative mRNA levels of the NRF2 target HBG1 (p = 0.10) from baseline to end of treatment, but without significant changes in HbF protein. We conclude that BSH, in the provided doses, is safe in stable SCD patients and may induce changes in gene expression levels. We therefore propose investigation of more potent NRF2 inducers, which may elicit more robust physiological changes and offer clinical benefits to SCD patients. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01715480. PMID:27071063

  7. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Ushida, Yusuke; Shiozawa, Hirokazu; Umeda, Rumiko; Tsuruya, Kota; Aoki, Yudai; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate effects of dietary supplementation of sulforaphane (SF)-rich broccoli sprout (BS) extract on hepatic abnormalities in Japanese male participants. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial, male participants with fatty liver received either BS capsules containing glucoraphanin [GR; a precursor of SF (n = 24)] or placebo (n = 28) for 2 mo. Liver function markers, serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and an oxidative stress marker, urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were measured and compared in participants before and after the trial period. In an animal model, chronic liver failure was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by successive intraperitoneal injection with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) for 4 wk. Concomitantly, rats received AIN-76 diets supplemented with or without BS extract. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed, and their sera and livers were collected to measure serum liver function markers and hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, a prototypical phase 2 antioxidant enzyme. RESULTS: Dietary supplementation with BS extract containing SF precursor GR for 2 mo significantly decreased serum levels of liver function markers, ALT [median (interquartile range), before: 54.0 (34.5-79.0) vs after supplementation: 48.5 (33.3-65.3) IU/L, P < 0.05] and γ-GTP [before: 51.5 (40.8-91.3) vs after: 50.0 (37.8-85.3) IU/L, P < 0.05], as well as the alkali phosphatase activity. Placebo showed no significant effects on the markers. The urinary level of 8-OHdG, an established oxidative stress marker, was significantly reduced in participants who had received BS capsules but not the placebo [before: 6.66 (5.51-9.03) vs after: 5.49 (4.89-6.66) ng/mg-creatinine, P < 0.05]. The reduction of urinary 8-OHdG was significantly correlated with decreased levels of

  8. Broccoli sprout extract induces detoxification-related gene expression and attenuates acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazutaka; Ushida, Yusuke; Ishijima, Tomoko; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Inakuma, Takahiro; Yajima, Nobuhiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of broccoli sprout extract (BSEx) on liver gene expression and acute liver injury in the rat. METHODS: First, the effects of BSEx on liver gene expression were examined. Male rats were divided into two groups. The Control group was fed the AIN-76 diet, and the BSEx group was fed the AIN-76 diet containing BSEx. After a 10-d feeding period, rats were sacrificed and their livers were used for DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. Next, the effects of BSEx on acute liver injury were examined. In experiments using acute liver injury models, 1000 mg/kg acetaminophen (APAP) or 350 mg/kg D-galactosamine (D-GalN) was used to induce injury. These male rats were divided into four groups: Control, BSEx, Inducer (APAP or D-GalN), and Inducer+BSEx. The feeding regimens were identical for the two analyses. Twenty-four hours following APAP administration via p.o. or D-GalN administration via i.p., rats were sacrificed to determine serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances accumulation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. RESULTS: Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that BSEx upregulated the expression of genes related to detoxification and glutathione synthesis in normal rat liver. The levels of AST (70.91 ± 15.74 IU/mL vs 5614.41 ± 1997.83 IU/mL, P < 0.05) and ALT (11.78 ± 2.08 IU/mL vs 1297.71 ± 447.33 IU/mL, P < 0.05) were significantly suppressed in the APAP + BSEx group compared with the APAP group. The level of GSH (2.61 ± 0.75 nmol/g tissue vs 1.66 ± 0.59 nmol/g tissue, P < 0.05) and liver GST activity (93.19 ± 16.55 U/g tissue vs 51.90 ± 16.85 U/g tissue, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the APAP + BSEx group compared with the APAP group. AST (4820.05 ± 3094.93 IU/mL vs 12465.63 ± 3223.97 IU/mL, P < 0.05) and ALT (1808.95 ± 1014.04 IU/mL vs

  9. Effects of the 3D-clinorotation on endogenous substances of broccoli sprout (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraishi, K.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyagawa, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges in this century We are studying on space agriculture to provide foods for space living people However careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances and food safety of plants cultivated in space Broccoli sprout Brassica oleracea var italica is known to produce sulforaphane 4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate which is effective to function as an antioxidant and enhance immunity Because of such substance it is recognized to be good food materials Broccoli sprouts were then cultivated for 3 days under the 3D-clinorotation The amount of sulforaphane produced by this treatment showed no significant difference compared to the ground control Secondly we examined population of microorganisms adhered on the surface of sprout cultivated under the 3D-clinorotation Number of the microorganisms colony formed was statistically higher than the control Mold species was identified to penicillium sp based on the microscopic observation Poor construction of plant cell wall elements cellulose lignin etc is well known effects of microgravity Defense function of the broccoli plant cells might be weakened against microorganism We also speculate other possible causes for the high rate of contamination such as photosynthetic activity of the plant or microclimate air flow heat transport and humidity around the seedling affected by pseudo-microgravity or the 3D-clinorotation Those factors may relate to the difference in proliferation

  10. Broccoli sprout extract prevents diabetic cardiomyopathy via Nrf2 activation in db/db T2DM mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Wang, Shudong; Ji, Honglei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jing; Tan, Yi; Wintergerst, Kupper; Zheng, Yang; Sun, Jian; Cai, Lu

    2016-01-01

    To develop a clinic-relevant protocol for systemic up-regulation of NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), male db/db and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were given sulforaphane (SFN, an Nrf2 activator) and its natural source, broccoli sprout extract (BSE) by gavage every other day for 3 months, with four groups: vehicle (0.1 ml/10 g), BSE-low dose (estimated SFN availability at 0.5 mg/kg), BSE-high dose (estimated SFN availability at 1.0 mg/kg), and SFN (0.5 mg/kg). Cardiac function and pathological changes (hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative damage) were assessed by echocardiography and histopathological examination along with Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Both BSE and SFN significantly prevented diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Mechanistically, BSE, like SFN, significantly up-regulated Nrf2 transcriptional activity, evidenced by the increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and its downstream gene expression. This resulted in a significant prevention of cardiac oxidative damage and inflammation. For all these preventive effects, BSE at high dose provided a similar effect as did SFN. These results indicated that BSE at high dose prevents DCM in a manner congruent with SFN treatment. Therefore, it suggests that BSE could potentially be used as a natural and safe treatment against DCM via Nrf2 activation. PMID:27457280

  11. The Effects of Broccoli Sprout Extract Containing Sulforaphane on Lipid Peroxidation and Helicobacter pylori Infection in the Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Young Woon; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Jung-Wook; Shim, Jae-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The aims of this study were to investigate whether a broccoli sprout extract containing sulforaphane (BSES) inhibited the Helicobacter pylori infection density and exerted an antioxidative effect on gastric mucosal damage. Methods The enrolled subjects were randomized in a double-blinded manner into three groups. Finally, 33 H. pylori (+) BSES treatment subjects (group A), 28 H. pylori (+) placebo subjects (group B), and 28 H. pylori (−) BSES treatment subjects (group C) were studied. H. pylori infection density was indirectly quantified by a 13C-urea breath test (UBT), and the ammonia concentration in gastric juice aspirates was measured through gastroscopic examination. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative damage biomarker, and reduced glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant biomarker, were measured in the gastric mucosa by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results BSES treatment did not significantly affect the UBT values or ammonia concentration in group A (p=0.634 and p=0.505, respectively). BSES treatment did significantly reduce mucosal MDA concentrations in group A (p<0.05) and group C (p<0.001), whereas the gastric mucosal GSH concentrations did not differ before and after treatment in any of the groups. Conclusions BSES did not inhibit the H. pylori infection density. However, BSES prevented lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa and may play a cytoprotective role in H. pylori-induced gastritis. PMID:25287166

  12. Broccoli sprout extract prevents diabetic cardiomyopathy via Nrf2 activation in db/db T2DM mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zheng; Wang, Shudong; Ji, Honglei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jing; Tan, Yi; Wintergerst, Kupper; Zheng, Yang; Sun, Jian; Cai, Lu

    2016-01-01

    To develop a clinic-relevant protocol for systemic up-regulation of NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), male db/db and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were given sulforaphane (SFN, an Nrf2 activator) and its natural source, broccoli sprout extract (BSE) by gavage every other day for 3 months, with four groups: vehicle (0.1 ml/10 g), BSE-low dose (estimated SFN availability at 0.5 mg/kg), BSE-high dose (estimated SFN availability at 1.0 mg/kg), and SFN (0.5 mg/kg). Cardiac function and pathological changes (hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative damage) were assessed by echocardiography and histopathological examination along with Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Both BSE and SFN significantly prevented diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Mechanistically, BSE, like SFN, significantly up-regulated Nrf2 transcriptional activity, evidenced by the increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and its downstream gene expression. This resulted in a significant prevention of cardiac oxidative damage and inflammation. For all these preventive effects, BSE at high dose provided a similar effect as did SFN. These results indicated that BSE at high dose prevents DCM in a manner congruent with SFN treatment. Therefore, it suggests that BSE could potentially be used as a natural and safe treatment against DCM via Nrf2 activation. PMID:27457280

  13. Modulation of the metabolism of airborne pollutants by glucoraphanin-rich and sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout beverages in Qidong, China

    PubMed Central

    Kensler, Thomas W.; Ng, Derek; Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Muñoz, Alvaro; Egner, Patricia A.; Chen, Jian Guo; Qian, Geng Sun; Chen, Tao Yang; Fahey, Jed W.; Talalay, Paul; Groopman, John D.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables reduces the risk of several types of cancers and chronic degenerative diseases. In particular, broccoli sprouts are a convenient and rich source of the glucosinolate, glucoraphanin, which can release the chemopreventive agent, sulforaphane, an inducer of glutathione S-transferases. Two broccoli sprout-derived beverages, one sulforaphane-rich (SFR) and the other glucoraphanin-rich (GRR), were evaluated for pharmacodynamic action in a crossover clinical trial design. Study participants were recruited from the farming community of He Zuo Township, Qidong, China, previously documented to have a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma with concomitant exposures to aflatoxin and more recently characterized with exposures to substantive levels of airborne pollutants. Fifty healthy participants were randomized into two treatment arms. The study protocol was as follows: a 5 days run-in period, a 7 days administration of beverage, a 5 days washout period and a 7 days administration of the opposite beverage. Urinary excretion of the mercapturic acids of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, ethylene oxide and benzene were measured both pre- and postinterventions using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Statistically significant increases of 20–50% in the levels of excretion of glutathione-derived conjugates of acrolein, crotonaldehyde and benzene were seen in individuals receiving SFR, GRR or both compared with their preintervention baseline values. No significant differences were seen between the effects of SFR versus GRR. Intervention with broccoli sprouts may enhance detoxication of airborne pollutants and attenuate their associated health risks. PMID:22045030

  14. UV-B Irradiation Changes Specifically the Secondary Metabolite Profile in Broccoli Sprouts: Induced Signaling Overlaps with Defense Response to Biotic Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Mewis, Inga; Schreiner, Monika; Nguyen, Chau Nhi; Krumbein, Angelika; Ulrichs, Christian; Lohse, Marc; Zrenner, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Only a few environmental factors have such a pronounced effect on plant growth and development as ultraviolet light (UV). Concerns have arisen due to increased UV-B radiation reaching the Earth’s surface as a result of stratospheric ozone depletion. Ecologically relevant low to moderate UV-B doses (0.3–1 kJ m–2 d–1) were applied to sprouts of the important vegetable crop Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), and eco-physiological responses such as accumulation of non-volatile secondary metabolites were related to transcriptional responses with Agilent One-Color Gene Expression Microarray analysis using the 2×204 k format Brassica microarray. UV-B radiation effects have usually been linked to increases in phenolic compounds. As expected, the flavonoids kaempferol and quercetin accumulated in broccoli sprouts (the aerial part of the seedlings) 24 h after UV-B treatment. A new finding is the specific UV-B-mediated induction of glucosinolates (GS), especially of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GS and 4-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS, while carotenoids and Chl levels remained unaffected. Accumulation of defensive GS metabolites was accompanied by increased expression of genes associated with salicylate and jasmonic acid signaling defense pathways and up-regulation of genes responsive to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Concomitantly, plant pre-exposure to moderate UV-B doses had negative effects on the performance of the caterpillar Pieris brassicae (L.) and on the population growth of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Moreover, insect-specific induction of GS in broccoli sprouts was affected by UV-B pre-treatment. PMID:22773681

  15. Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica) sprouts and extracts rich in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates affect cholesterol metabolism and genes involved in lipid homeostasis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cantú, Laura N; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Arriola-Vucovich, Jennifer; Díaz-De La Garza, Rocio I; Fahey, Jed W; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2011-02-23

    This study investigated the effects of broccoli sprouts (BS) on sterol and lipid homeostasis in Syrian hamsters with dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. Treatments included freeze-dried BS containing 2 or 20 μmol of glucoraphanine (BSX, BS10X), glucoraphanine-rich BS extract (GRE), sulforaphane-rich BS extract (SFE), and simvastatin. Each experimental diet was offered to eight animals (male and female) for 7 weeks. Hepatic cholesterol was reduced by BS10X and SFE treatments in all animals. This correlated with a down-regulation of gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP-1 and -2) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) caused by GRE and SFE diets. BS10X caused changes in gene expression in a gender-specific manner; additionally, it increased coprostanol excretion in females. With the same concentration of glucoraphanin, consumption of broccoli sprouts (BS10X) had more marked effects on cholesterol homeostasis than GRE; this finding reinforces the importance of the matrix effects on the bioactivity of functional ingredients.

  16. Dietary Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprout Extracts during Juvenile and Adolescence Can Prevent Phencyclidine-Induced Cognitive Deficits at Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Yumi; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Ishima, Tamaki; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Ushida, Yusuke; Takeda, Masatoshi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in cognitive impairment, which is a core symptom of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a hallmark of the pathophysiology of this disease is the dysfunction of cortical inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), which is also involved in cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a central role in the inducible expressions of many cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Keap1 is a cytoplasmic protein that is essential for the regulation of Nrf2 activity. Here, we found that pretreatment with SFN attenuated cognitive deficits, the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells, and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP). Furthermore, PCP-induced cognitive deficits were improved by the subsequent subchronic administration of SFN. Interestingly, the dietary intake of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate precursor of SFN) during the juvenile and adolescence prevented the onset of PCP-induced cognitive deficits as well as the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the brain at adulthood. Moreover, the NRF2 gene and the KEAP1 gene had an epistatic effect on cognitive impairment (e.g., working memory and processing speed) in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that SFN may have prophylactic and therapeutic effects on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Therefore, the dietary intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprouts during the juvenile and adolescence may prevent the onset of psychosis at adulthood. PMID:26107664

  17. Dietary Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprout Extracts during Juvenile and Adolescence Can Prevent Phencyclidine-Induced Cognitive Deficits at Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Yumi; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Ishima, Tamaki; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Ushida, Yusuke; Takeda, Masatoshi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in cognitive impairment, which is a core symptom of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a hallmark of the pathophysiology of this disease is the dysfunction of cortical inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), which is also involved in cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a central role in the inducible expressions of many cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Keap1 is a cytoplasmic protein that is essential for the regulation of Nrf2 activity. Here, we found that pretreatment with SFN attenuated cognitive deficits, the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells, and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP). Furthermore, PCP-induced cognitive deficits were improved by the subsequent subchronic administration of SFN. Interestingly, the dietary intake of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate precursor of SFN) during the juvenile and adolescence prevented the onset of PCP-induced cognitive deficits as well as the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the brain at adulthood. Moreover, the NRF2 gene and the KEAP1 gene had an epistatic effect on cognitive impairment (e.g., working memory and processing speed) in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that SFN may have prophylactic and therapeutic effects on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Therefore, the dietary intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprouts during the juvenile and adolescence may prevent the onset of psychosis at adulthood.

  18. Dietary Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprout Extracts during Juvenile and Adolescence Can Prevent Phencyclidine-Induced Cognitive Deficits at Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Yumi; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Ishima, Tamaki; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Ushida, Yusuke; Takeda, Masatoshi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in cognitive impairment, which is a core symptom of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a hallmark of the pathophysiology of this disease is the dysfunction of cortical inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), which is also involved in cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a central role in the inducible expressions of many cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Keap1 is a cytoplasmic protein that is essential for the regulation of Nrf2 activity. Here, we found that pretreatment with SFN attenuated cognitive deficits, the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells, and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP). Furthermore, PCP-induced cognitive deficits were improved by the subsequent subchronic administration of SFN. Interestingly, the dietary intake of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate precursor of SFN) during the juvenile and adolescence prevented the onset of PCP-induced cognitive deficits as well as the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the brain at adulthood. Moreover, the NRF2 gene and the KEAP1 gene had an epistatic effect on cognitive impairment (e.g., working memory and processing speed) in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that SFN may have prophylactic and therapeutic effects on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Therefore, the dietary intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprouts during the juvenile and adolescence may prevent the onset of psychosis at adulthood. PMID:26107664

  19. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts and Live Attenuated Influenza Virus on Peripheral Blood Natural Killer Cells: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Loretta; Meyer, Megan; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Zhou, Haibo; Zhang, Hongtao; Jones, Shannon; Robinette, Carole; Noah, Terry L.; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing antiviral host defense responses through nutritional supplementation would be an attractive strategy in the fight against influenza. Using inoculation with live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) as an infection model, we have recently shown that ingestion of sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) reduces markers of viral load in the nose. To investigate the systemic effects of short-term BSH supplementation in the context of LAIV-inoculation, we examined peripheral blood immune cell populations in non-smoking subjects from this study, with a particular focus on NK cells. We carried out a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study measuring the effects of BSH (N = 13) or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate, ASH; N = 16) on peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to a standard nasal vaccine dose of LAIV in healthy volunteers. Blood was drawn prior to (day-1) and post (day2, day21) LAIV inoculation and analyzed for neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, T cells, NKT cells, and NK cells. In addition, NK cells were enriched, stimulated, and assessed for surface markers, intracellular markers, and cytotoxic potential by flow cytometry. Overall, LAIV significantly reduced NKT (day2 and day21) and T cell (day2) populations. LAIV decreased NK cell CD56 and CD158b expression, while significantly increasing CD16 expression and cytotoxic potential (on day2). BSH supplementation further increased LAIV-induced granzyme B production (day2) in NK cells compared to ASH and in the BSH group granzyme B levels appeared to be negatively associated with influenza RNA levels in nasal lavage fluid cells. We conclude that nasal influenza infection may induce complex changes in peripheral blood NK cell activation, and that BSH increases virus-induced peripheral blood NK cell granzyme B production, an effect that may be important for enhanced antiviral defense responses. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:26820305

  20. Nutraceutical Improvement Increases the Protective Activity of Broccoli Sprout Juice in a Human Intestinal Cell Model of Gut Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ferruzza, Simonetta; Natella, Fausta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Murgia, Chiara; Rossi, Carlotta; Trošt, Kajetan; Mattivi, Fulvio; Nardini, Mirella; Maldini, Mariateresa; Giusti, Anna Maria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Scaccini, Cristina; Sambuy, Yula; Morelli, Giorgio; Baima, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts' juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor α under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a group of phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids. PMID:27529258

  1. Nutraceutical Improvement Increases the Protective Activity of Broccoli Sprout Juice in a Human Intestinal Cell Model of Gut Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ferruzza, Simonetta; Natella, Fausta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Murgia, Chiara; Rossi, Carlotta; Trošt, Kajetan; Mattivi, Fulvio; Nardini, Mirella; Maldini, Mariateresa; Giusti, Anna Maria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Scaccini, Cristina; Sambuy, Yula; Morelli, Giorgio; Baima, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts’ juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor α under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a group of phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids. PMID:27529258

  2. Healthy food trends -- Brussels sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... belong to the cabbage family, which also includes kale, broccoli, collard greens, and cauliflower. In fact, Brussels ... Brussels sprouts rank high in antioxidants, just after kale and spinach. Antioxidants are substances that can help ...

  3. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety.

  4. Composition and physiological profiling of sprout-associated microbial communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matos, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Fett, William F.

    2002-01-01

    The native microfloras of various types of sprouts (alfalfa, clover, sunflower, mung bean, and broccoli sprouts) were examined to assess the relative effects of sprout type and inoculum factors (i.e., sprout-growing facility, seed lot, and inoculation with sprout-derived inocula) on the microbial community structure of sprouts. Sprouts were sonicated for 7 min or hand shaken with glass beads for 2 min to recover native microfloras from the surface, and the resulting suspensions were diluted and plated. The culturable fraction was characterized by the density (log CFU/g), richness (e.g., number of types of bacteria), and diversity (e.g., microbial richness and evenness) of colonies on tryptic soy agar plates incubated for 48 h at 30 degrees C. The relative similarity between sprout-associated microbial communities was assessed with the use of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) based on patterns of utilization of 95 separate carbon sources. Aerobic plate counts of 7.96 +/- 0.91 log CFU/g of sprout tissue (fresh weight) were observed, with no statistically significant differences in microbial cell density, richness, or diversity due to sprout type, sprout-growing facility, or seed lot. CLPP analyses revealed that the microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts are more similar than those associated with the other sprout types tested. Variability among sprout types was more extensive than any differences between microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts from different sprout-growing facilities and seed lots. These results indicate that the subsequent testing of biocontrol agents should focus on similar organisms for alfalfa and clover, but alternative types may be most suitable for the other sprout types tested. The inoculation of alfalfa sprouts with communities derived from various sprout types had a significant, source-independent effect on microbial community structure, indicating that the process of

  5. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied.

  6. Power sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, M. M. J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper explains how a large number of sprouts were used as a battery of cells and connected together to power a set of LED Christmas lights. All relevant calculations to find the number of sprouts needed, their arrangement in series and parallel, the charge stored on the required capacitor and the capacitor charging time are illustrated.

  7. Impact of selenium supply on Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolate accumulation in selenium-biofortified Brassica sprouts.

    PubMed

    Avila, Fabricio William; Yang, Yong; Faquin, Valdemar; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2014-12-15

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, green cabbage, Chinese cabbage, kale, and Brussels sprouts) were used. We found that Se-biofortified Brassica sprouts all were able to synthesize significant amounts of SeMSCys. Analysis of glucosinolate profiles revealed that each Brassica crop accumulated different types and amounts of glucosinolates. Cauliflower sprouts had high total glucosinolate content. Broccoli sprouts contained high levels of glucoraphanin, a precursor for potent anticancer compound. Although studies have reported an inverse relationship between accumulation of Se and glucosinolates in mature Brassica plants, Se supply generally did not affect glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica sprouts. Thus, Brassica vegetable sprouts can be biofortified with Se for the accumulation of SeMSCys without negative effects on chemopreventive glucosinolate contents.

  8. Impact of selenium supply on se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates accumulation in selenium-biofortified brassica sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, ...

  9. Biotic elicitors effectively increase the glucosinolates content in Brassicaceae sprouts.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2014-02-26

    Several biotic elicitors have been used in Brassicaceae species to enhance their phytochemical quality. However, there is no comparison between elicitors under controlled growth conditions. In order to draw general conclusions about the use of elicitors to enrich ready-to-eat sprouts in health-promoting glucosinolates, the aim of this study was to unveil the effect of the phytohormones methyl jasmonate (25 μM), jasmonic acid (150 μM), and salicylic acid (100 μM), the oligosaccharides glucose (277 mM) and sucrose (146 mM), and the amino acid dl-methionine (5 mM) as elicitors over 8-day sprouting Brassica oleraceae (broccoli), Brassica napus (rutabaga cabbage), Brassica rapa (turnip), and Raphanus sativus (China rose radish and red radish), representative species high in glucosinolates previously studied. Results indicated that the phytohormones methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid and the sugars acted as effective elicitors, increasing the total glucosinolate contents of the sprouts, particularly, glucoraphanin (from 183 to 294 mg·100 g(-1) in MeJA-treated broccoli sprouts), glucoraphenin (from 33 to 124 mg·100 g(-1) and from 167 to 227 mg·100 g(-1) in MeJA-treated China rose radish and red radish, respectively), and glucobrassicin (from 23.4 to 91.0 mg·100 g(-1) and from 29.6 to 186 mg·100 g(-1) in MeJA-treated turnip and rutabaga sprouts, respectively).

  10. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  11. A Winter Sprout Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1985-01-01

    Illustrates a method by which individual students or small groups can make a compact, self-sufficient system supplying all the growth needs for bean sprouts. Outlines several activities that can be completed while the bean sprouts are growing. (DH)

  12. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  13. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment.

  14. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment. PMID:27357030

  15. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts. PMID:24054243

  16. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts.

  17. Sulforaphane Bioavailability from Glucoraphanin-Rich Broccoli: Control by Active Endogenous Myrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Holtzclaw, W. David; Wehage, Scott L.; Wade, Kristina L.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Talalay, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Glucoraphanin from broccoli and its sprouts and seeds is a water soluble and relatively inert precursor of sulforaphane, the reactive isothiocyanate that potently inhibits neoplastic cellular processes and prevents a number of disease states. Sulforaphane is difficult to deliver in an enriched and stable form for purposes of direct human consumption. We have focused upon evaluating the bioavailability of sulforaphane, either by direct administration of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate, or β-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfate), or by co-administering glucoraphanin and the enzyme myrosinase to catalyze its conversion to sulforaphane at economic, reproducible and sustainable yields. We show that following administration of glucoraphanin in a commercially prepared dietary supplement to a small number of human volunteers, the volunteers had equivalent output of sulforaphane metabolites in their urine to that which they produced when given an equimolar dose of glucoraphanin in a simple boiled and lyophilized extract of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, when either broccoli sprouts or seeds are administered directly to subjects without prior extraction and consequent inactivation of endogenous myrosinase, regardless of the delivery matrix or dose, the sulforaphane in those preparations is 3- to 4-fold more bioavailable than sulforaphane from glucoraphanin delivered without active plant myrosinase. These data expand upon earlier reports of inter- and intra-individual variability, when glucoraphanin was delivered in either teas, juices, or gelatin capsules, and they confirm that a variety of delivery matrices may be equally suitable for glucoraphanin supplementation (e.g. fruit juices, water, or various types of capsules and tablets). PMID:26524341

  18. Selecting sprouts of brassicaceae for optimum phytochemical composition.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-11-14

    Cruciferous foods (Brassicaceae spp.) are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. Edible sprouts are becoming popular fresh foods and, therefore, the phytochemical profiling of nine varieties of Brassicaceae (broccoli, kohlrabi, red cabbage, rutabaga, turnip, turnip greens, radish, garden cress, and white mustard) was evaluated for this purpose. The glucosinolates in seeds were significantly higher than in sprouts, and day 8 of germination was considered the optimum for consumption. The sprouts with higher concentrations of glucosinolates in 8-day-old sprouts were white mustard, turnip, and kohlrabi (∼815, ∼766, and ∼653 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively). Red cabbage and radish presented great total glucosinolates content (∼516 and ∼297 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively, in 8-day-old sprouts) and also higher total phenolic contents, biomass, and antioxidant capacity. The selection of the best performers in terms of germination quality and phytochemical composition is the key to optimize new fresh foods enriched in health-bioactive compounds. Further research on the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds in Brassica foods will allow backing of recommendations for dietarily effective dosages for nutrition and health. PMID:23061899

  19. Selecting sprouts of brassicaceae for optimum phytochemical composition.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-11-14

    Cruciferous foods (Brassicaceae spp.) are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. Edible sprouts are becoming popular fresh foods and, therefore, the phytochemical profiling of nine varieties of Brassicaceae (broccoli, kohlrabi, red cabbage, rutabaga, turnip, turnip greens, radish, garden cress, and white mustard) was evaluated for this purpose. The glucosinolates in seeds were significantly higher than in sprouts, and day 8 of germination was considered the optimum for consumption. The sprouts with higher concentrations of glucosinolates in 8-day-old sprouts were white mustard, turnip, and kohlrabi (∼815, ∼766, and ∼653 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively). Red cabbage and radish presented great total glucosinolates content (∼516 and ∼297 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively, in 8-day-old sprouts) and also higher total phenolic contents, biomass, and antioxidant capacity. The selection of the best performers in terms of germination quality and phytochemical composition is the key to optimize new fresh foods enriched in health-bioactive compounds. Further research on the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds in Brassica foods will allow backing of recommendations for dietarily effective dosages for nutrition and health.

  20. Combination treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nei, D; Enomoto, K; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of prolonged dry-heat treatment (50 degrees C) alone or in combination with chemical treatments (1% oxalic acid, 0.03% phytic acid, 50% ethanol, electrolyzed acidic water, and electrolyzed alkaline water) in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. Dry-heat treatment for 17 or 24 h alone could reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below detectable levels in radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, but was unable to reduce the pathogen numbers to below the detectable level in mung bean seeds. In addition, dry-heat treatment for 17 h plus sanitizer treatments were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not eliminate the pathogen from radish and alfalfa seeds. Seventeen hours of dry heat followed by a 1.0-kGy dose of irradiation completely eliminated E. coli O157:H7 from radish and mung bean seeds, whereas only a minimum radiation dose of 0.25 kGy was required to completely eliminate the pathogen from broccoli and alfalfa seeds. Dry heat in combination with radiation doses of up to 1.0 kGy did not negatively impact the seed germination rate or length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish seeds or the length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish sprouts, but did decrease the length of mung bean sprouts.

  1. Sprouting Interest in Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Describes an alternative approach to the familiar paper cup and seed project in which students make grass heads out of nylon mesh stockings, sawdust, wire, rubber bands, plastic eyes, and grass seed. Students can observe the effects of light, sprouting rates, and the height and color of the sprouts on these grass heads. This creative activity is…

  2. Automatic Sprout Grower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Self-contained seed-sprouting system provides environment for sprouting seeds quickly and easily. Sprouting container standard 6-oz package for dehydrated food and drink mixes in Space Shuttle. About 4 g of dry alfalfa or radish seeds vacuum-sealed in each cup, like freeze-dried foods. Sixteen cups suspended in tray. Air-and-water inlet tube links each cup to system of tubes and solenoid valves alternately furnish air and water and remove stale air. Peristaltic pump supplies water from vinyl medical-fluid bag. Small diaphragm pump supplies and exhausts air. Small circuit board times movements of air and water. Kit offers advantages to home gardeners. Apartment dwellers use it for steady production of homegrown sprouts even though they have no garden space.

  3. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1–42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  4. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1-42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  5. Comparison of bioactive phytochemical content and release of isothiocyanates in selected brassica sprouts.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Bagatta, Manuela; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Angelino, Donato; Gennari, Lorenzo; Ninfali, Paolino; Rollin, Patrick; Iori, Renato

    2013-11-01

    The consumption of brassica sprouts as raw vegetables provides a fair amount of glucosinolates (GLs) and active plant myrosinase, which enables the breakdown of GLs into health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITCs). This study reports the determination of the main constituents related to human health found in edible sprouts of two Brassica oleracea varieties, broccoli and Tuscan black kale, and two Raphanus sativus varieties, Daikon and Sango. Radish sprouts exhibited the highest ability to produce ITCs, with Daikon showing the greatest level of conversion of GLs into bioactive ITCs (96.5%), followed by Sango (90.0%). Tuscan black kale gave a value of 68.5%, whereas broccoli displayed the lowest with 18.7%. ITCs were not the exclusive GL breakdown products in the two B. oleracea varieties, since nitriles were also produced, thus accounting for the lower conversion observed. Measuring the release of plant ITCs is a valuable tool in predicting the potential level of exposure to these bioactive compounds after the consumption of raw brassica sprouts.

  6. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Nam, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sun Mi; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Dae-Ok; Baek, Nam-in; Eom, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    It is known that common buckwheat sprouts contain several flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and quercetrin, whereas tartary buckwheat sprouts contain only rutin. In this study, we evaluated flavonoids present in buckwheat sprouts and identified a previously unreported flavonoid. Simultaneous detection by HPLC was used to separate rutin and a compound that was not separated in previous studies. We used a novel HPLC elution gradient method to successfully separate rutin and the previously unidentified compound, for which we performed structural analysis. The identification of six flavonoids by HPLC was confirmed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The newly identified compound, [M+H](+) =611.17, was identified by NMR as the rutin epimer quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Unlike common buckwheat sprout, tartary buckwheat sprout contained rutin as a main flavonoid, whereas other flavonoids appeared only in trace amounts or were not detected. Quercetin-3-O-robinobioside was not detected in tartary buckwheat sprout.

  7. Effectiveness of a spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated broccoli and radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Micheli, Sean; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of fresh produce has continued to increase over the past decade. Sprouts, such as mung bean, alfalfa, radish, and broccoli, are minimally processed and have been sources for foodborne illness. Currently, a 20,000 ppm calcium hypochlorite soak is recommended for the treatment of sprouting seeds. In this study, the efficacy of an antimicrobial carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated sprouting seeds. Antimicrobial treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in nanoemulsions (4000 or 8000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. Following treatment, surviving cells were determined by performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens. Treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3 log CFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on radish seeds when soaked for 60 min at concentrations ≥4000 (0.4%) ppm carvacrol. This treatment method was not affective on contaminated broccoli seeds. Total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative treatment method for contaminated radish seeds. PMID:26187822

  8. Effectiveness of a spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated broccoli and radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Micheli, Sean; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of fresh produce has continued to increase over the past decade. Sprouts, such as mung bean, alfalfa, radish, and broccoli, are minimally processed and have been sources for foodborne illness. Currently, a 20,000 ppm calcium hypochlorite soak is recommended for the treatment of sprouting seeds. In this study, the efficacy of an antimicrobial carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated sprouting seeds. Antimicrobial treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in nanoemulsions (4000 or 8000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. Following treatment, surviving cells were determined by performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens. Treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3 log CFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on radish seeds when soaked for 60 min at concentrations ≥4000 (0.4%) ppm carvacrol. This treatment method was not affective on contaminated broccoli seeds. Total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative treatment method for contaminated radish seeds.

  9. Maximizing plant density affects broccoli yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased demand for fresh market bunch broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the United States east coast. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding southeastern commercial markets. This broccoli plant density study was carr...

  10. Flavonoid synthesis in buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) sprout grown under pseudo-microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Iwasawa, Hiroko; Hiraishi, Kanae; Sato, Seigo; Miyagawa, Teruo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We are studying space agriculture to provide foods and oxygen for space habitats. However, careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in plants, which will be cultivated in space. We found that production of functional substances is affected by gravity in broccoli sprout (Brassica coleracea var. italica). The production of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate), in broccoli was slightly affected by gravity. Buckwheat is also known to produce several species of flavonoids, which act as an antioxidant, and enhance immunity of human. Such production of physiologically active substances, those agricultural species are accepted as good food materials. Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated for 4 days under the 3D-clinorotation. The amount of flavonoids, such as orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vitexin, rutin, produced by this treatment showed significant differences compared to those in the ground control. We examined effects of the gravity to the flavonoid synthesis pathways.

  11. Regulation of potato tuber sprouting.

    PubMed

    Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Following tuber induction, potato tubers undergo a period of dormancy during which visible bud growth is inhibited. The length of the dormancy period is under environmental, physiological and hormonal control. Sucrose availability is one prerequisite for bud break. In the absence of sucrose, no bud break occurs. Thus, sucrose is likely to serve as nutrient and signal molecule at the same time. The mode of sucrose sensing is only vaguely understood, but most likely involves trehalose-6-phosphate and SnRK1 signalling networks. This conclusion is supported by the observation that ectopically manipulation of trehalose-6-phosphate levels influences the length of the dormancy period. Once physiological competence is achieved, sprouting is controlled by the level of phytohormones. Two phytohormones, ABA and ethylene, are supposed to suppress tuber sprouting; however, the exact role of ethylene remains to be elucidated. Cytokinins and gibberellins are required for bud break and sprout growth, respectively. The fifth classical phytohormone, auxin, seems to play a role in vascular development. During the dormancy period, buds are symplastically isolated, which changes during bud break. In parallel to the establishment of symplastic connectivity, vascular tissue develops below the growing bud most likely to support the outgrowing sprout with assimilates mobilised in parenchyma cells. Sprouting leads to major quality losses of stored potato tubers. Therefore, control of tuber sprouting is a major objective in potato breeding. Although comparative transcriptome analysis revealed a large number of genes differentially expressed in growing versus dormant buds, no master-regulator of potato tuber sprouting has been identified so far.

  12. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sprouts URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002875.htm Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts To use the ... green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ...

  13. Potato tuber dormancy and postharvest sprout control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For an indeterminate period of time following harvest, potatoes will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. Dormancy is gradually lost during postharvest storage and the resultant sprouting is detrimental to the nutritional and processing qualities of potatoes. Because of this, sprouting resu...

  14. Agronomy of strip intercropping broccoli with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic broccoli growers in California typically control aphids by intercropping broccoli with strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.) which attracts hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) that are important predators of aphids. A three year study with transplanted organic broccoli in Salinas, ...

  15. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Talwinder Singh; Chiu, Mei-Chen M; Chapman, Mary H

    2008-06-01

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Previously, we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only, and 6 with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose was the negative control. Relative to cholestyramine, in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli, 10%; Brussels sprouts and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper, 7%; and cabbage, 5%. These results point to the significantly different (P < or = .05) health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved the in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green

  16. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Talwinder Singh; Chiu, Mei-Chen M; Chapman, Mary H

    2008-06-01

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Previously, we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only, and 6 with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose was the negative control. Relative to cholestyramine, in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli, 10%; Brussels sprouts and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper, 7%; and cabbage, 5%. These results point to the significantly different (P < or = .05) health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved the in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green

  17. Free radical scavenging, antiproliferative activities and profiling of variations in the level of phytochemicals in different parts of broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica).

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Ashun; Sharma, Upendra; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Singh, Bikram; Arora, Saroj

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the seeds of Broccoli (cultivar Palam samridhi) at different stages of development were being analysed for their antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. Among the antioxidant assays performed, a remarkable inhibition of superoxide radicals i.e. 94.25% observed with extracts of five days old sprout (PS5) at 2 mg/ml concentration. Although, all the extracts showed high cytotoxicity but the floret extract (PSF) found to be most effective with IC₅₀ value of 25.94 μg/ml while leaves extract (PSL) was least effective. The cell cycle analysis showed increased G₀/G₁ phase population as compare to positive control camptothecin. Profiling of various phytochemicals executed by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in order to correlate the bioactivities of the extracts. A wide variation observed in the profile of GLS hydrolytic products of different extracts obtained from the seeds, sprouts (three, five and seven days), leaves and florets.

  18. Glucoraphanin and other glucosinolates in heads of broccoli cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) emerged as an increasingly popular vegetable of North American consumers during the second half of the 20th Century, with per captita consumption increasing nearly eight fold during this period. Likewise, production and consumption of broccoli has also i...

  19. Update: intervention strategies for producing safe sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are still foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls due to pathogen contaminated sprouts. Contaminated seeds, used for sprouting, are considered the main source of the problem. A review of seed contamination strategies, both chemical and non-thermal, will be presented. The chemical in...

  20. Genetic regulation of glucoraphanin accumulation in Beneforté broccoli.

    PubMed

    Traka, Maria H; Saha, Shikha; Huseby, Stine; Kopriva, Stanislav; Walley, Peter G; Barker, Guy C; Moore, Jonathan; Mero, Gene; van den Bosch, Frans; Constant, Howard; Kelly, Leo; Schepers, Hans; Boddupalli, Sekhar; Mithen, Richard F

    2013-06-01

    · Diets rich in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) have been associated with maintenance of cardiovascular health and reduction in risk of cancer. These health benefits have been attributed to glucoraphanin that specifically accumulates in broccoli. The development of broccoli with enhanced concentrations of glucoraphanin may deliver greater health benefits. · Three high-glucoraphanin F1 broccoli hybrids were developed in independent programmes through genome introgression from the wild species Brassica villosa. Glucoraphanin and other metabolites were quantified in experimental field trials. Global SNP analyses quantified the differential extent of B. villosa introgression · The high-glucoraphanin broccoli hybrids contained 2.5-3 times the glucoraphanin content of standard hybrids due to enhanced sulphate assimilation and modifications in sulphur partitioning between sulphur-containing metabolites. All of the high-glucoraphanin hybrids possessed an introgressed B. villosa segment which contained a B. villosa Myb28 allele. Myb28 expression was increased in all of the high-glucoraphanin hybrids. Two high-glucoraphanin hybrids have been commercialised as Beneforté broccoli. · The study illustrates the translation of research on glucosinolate genetics from Arabidopsis to broccoli, the use of wild Brassica species to develop cultivars with potential consumer benefits, and the development of cultivars with contrasting concentrations of glucoraphanin for use in blinded human intervention studies.

  1. A new broccoli × broccoli immortal mapping population and framework genetic map: tools for breeders and complex trait analysis.

    PubMed

    Walley, Peter Glen; Carder, John; Skipper, Emma; Mathas, Evy; Lynn, James; Pink, David; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky

    2012-02-01

    A unique broccoli × broccoli doubled haploid (DH) population has been created from the F(1) of a cross between two DH broccoli lines derived from cultivars Green Duke and Marathon. We genotyped 154 individuals from this population with simple sequence repeat and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers to create a B. oleracea L. var. italica 'intra-crop' specific framework linkage map. The map is composed of nine linkage groups with a total length of 946.7 cM. Previous published B. oleracea maps have been constructed using diverse crosses between morphotypes of B. oleracea; this map therefore represents a useful breeding resource for the dissection of broccoli specific traits. Phenotype data have been collected from the population over five growing seasons; the framework linkage map has been used to locate quantitative trait loci for agronomically important broccoli traits including head weight (saleable yield), head diameter, stalk diameter, weight loss and relative weight loss during storage, as well as traits for broccoli leaf architecture. This population and associated linkage map will aid breeders to directly map agronomically important traits for the improvement of elite broccoli cultivars. PMID:22038485

  2. Pre-soaking of seeds enhances pressure inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on crimson clover, red clover, radish and broccoli seeds.

    PubMed

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang

    2010-02-28

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at a level of 600 MPa at 20 degrees C to decontaminate crimson clover, red clover, radish and broccoli seeds inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were evaluated. Salmonella was generally more pressure-resistant than E. coli O157:H7 on clover and radish seeds except on broccoli seeds where the trend was reversed. In addition, the application of HHP differentially affected seeds' germinability and the order of pressure tolerance of the seeds was such that red clover>crimson clover approximately broccoli >radish seeds with final germination percentages ranging from 85-100% while their untreated counterparts had final germination percentages of 99-100%. Pre-soaking the different types of seeds in water for 30, 60 or 90 min at ambient temperature followed by HHP at 600 MPa for 2 or 5 min at 20 degrees C significantly (P<0.05) enhanced the pressure inactivation of the inoculated pathogens. Moreover, the ability of HHP-treated seeds to germinate also varied as a function of the pre-soaking duration and the seed type. Pre-soaking radish and broccoli seeds for 30 min prior to HHP (2 or 5 min) resulted in germination percentages of sprouting compared to 99 and 100% respectively for untreated seeds. In addition, this condition did not significantly (P>0.05) reduce the sprout yield. The treatment also resulted in a reduction of a 5 log initial load of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to an undetectable level (neither pathogen was detected in 2-g seed

  3. Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern.

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, P. J.; Beuchat, L. R.; Slutsker, L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with raw seed sprouts have occurred in several countries. Subjective evaluations indicate that pathogens can exceed 107 per gram of sprouts produced from inoculated seeds during sprout production without adversely affecting appearance. Treating seeds and sprouts with chlorinated water or other disinfectants fails to eliminate the pathogens. A comprehensive approach based on good manufacturing practices and principles of hazard analysis and critical control points can reduce the risk of sprout-associated disease. Until effective measures to prevent sprout-associated illness are identified, persons who wish to reduce their risk of foodborne illness from raw sprouts are advised not to eat them; in particular, persons at high risk for severe complications of infections with Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7, such as the elderly, children, and those with compromised immune systems, should not eat raw sprouts. PMID:10511518

  4. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  5. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  6. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may... produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae,...

  7. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  8. Modifying the processing and handling of frozen broccoli for increased sulforaphane formation.

    PubMed

    Dosz, Edward B; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2013-09-01

    Frozen broccoli can provide a cheaper product, with a longer shelf life and less preparation time than fresh broccoli. We previously showed that several commercially available frozen broccoli products do not retain the ability to generate the cancer-preventative agent sulforaphane. We hypothesized that this was because the necessary hydrolyzing enzyme myrosinase was destroyed during blanching, as part of the processing that frozen broccoli undergoes. This study was carried out to determine a way to overcome loss of hydrolyzing activity. Industrial blanching usually aims to inactivate peroxidase, although lipoxygenase plays a greater role in product degradation during frozen storage of broccoli. Blanching at 86 °C or higher inactivated peroxidase, lipoxygenase, and myrosinase. Blanching at 76 °C inactivated 92% of lipoxygenase activity, whereas there was only an 18% loss in myrosinase-dependent sulforaphane formation. We considered that thawing frozen broccoli might disrupt membrane integrity, allowing myrosinase and glucoraphanin to come into contact. Thawing frozen broccoli for 9 h did not support sulforaphane formation unless an exogenous source of myrosinase was added. Thermal stability studies showed that broccoli root, as a source of myrosinase, was not more heat stable than broccoli floret. Daikon radish root supported some sulforaphane formation even when heated at 125 °C for 10 min, a time and temperature comparable to or greater than microwave cooking. Daikon radish (0.25%) added to frozen broccoli that was then allowed to thaw supported sulforaphane formation without any visual alteration to that of untreated broccoli.

  9. Effect of industrial freezing on the stability of chemopreventive compounds in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Alanís-Garza, Pedro A; Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Mora-Nieves, José Luis; Mora-Mora, Juan Pablo; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2015-05-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) is largely consumed all over the world and has a high economic importance. Likewise, broccoli contains high levels of glucosinolates, carotenoids and total phenols, which are related with the prevention of chronic diseases. The present project's objective was to evaluate the effect of industrial freezing on the stability of bioactive molecules in seven commercial broccoli cultivars (Tlaloc®, Endurance®, Florapack®, Domador®, Steel®, Iron Man® and Avenger®). In general, industrial freezing increased the extractability of total glucosinolates, whereas total phenols remained constant in most broccoli cultivars. Likewise, broccoli subjected to industrial freezing showed higher levels of total carotenoids (∼60-300% higher) as compared with fresh broccoli. Results suggest that bioactive compounds in frozen broccoli would be more bioavailable than in raw.

  10. The Broccoli Syndrome: Higher Education's Pubdown Of The Minority Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Penfield; Delworth, Ursula

    1973-01-01

    The assumption underlying the broccoli syndrome is that minority group students are not familiar with a whole range of Anglo goodies''. This article points out how, as the minority student is enlightened time and again to such facts'', he perceives inherent racism in his enlightener.'' (JC)

  11. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Broccoli EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long-Fang O.; Lin, Chun-Hung; Lai, Ying-Mi; Huang, Jia-Yuan; Sung, Zinmay Renee

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate major developmental processes in Arabidopsis. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), the VEFS domain-containing PcG gene, regulates diverse genetic pathways and is required for vegetative development and plant survival. Despite widespread EMF2-like sequences in plants, little is known about their function other than in Arabidopsis and rice. To study the role of EMF2 in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Elegance) development, we identified two broccoli EMF2 (BoEMF2) genes with sequence homology to and a similar gene expression pattern to that in Arabidopsis (AtEMF2). Reducing their expression in broccoli resulted in aberrant phenotypes and gene expression patterns. BoEMF2 regulates genes involved in diverse developmental and stress programs similar to AtEMF2 in Arabidopsis. However, BoEMF2 differs from AtEMF2 in the regulation of flower organ identity, cell proliferation and elongation, and death-related genes, which may explain the distinct phenotypes. The expression of BoEMF2.1 in the Arabidopsis emf2 mutant (Rescued emf2) partially rescued the mutant phenotype and restored the gene expression pattern to that of the wild type. Many EMF2-mediated molecular and developmental functions are conserved in broccoli and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the restored gene expression pattern in Rescued emf2 provides insights into the molecular basis of PcG-mediated growth and development. PMID:22537758

  12. A phase II study of sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extracts in men with recurrent prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alumkal, Joshi J.; Slottke, Rachel; Schwartzman, Jacob; Cherala, Ganesh; Munar, Myrna; Graff, Julie N.; Beer, Tomasz M.; Ryan, Christopher W.; Koop, Dennis R.; Gibbs, Angela; Gao, Lina; Flamiatos, Jason F.; Tucker, Erin; Kleinschmidt, Richard; Mori, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Diets high in cruciferous vegetables are associated with lower risk of incidence of prostate cancer, including aggressive forms of this disease. Human intervention studies with cruciferous vegetable-rich diets also demonstrate modulation of gene expression in important pathways in prostate cells. Sulforaphane is a constituent of these foods postulated to harbor the anti-neoplastic activity based on multiple tumor models. Our own work demonstrates that sulforaphane inhibits AR signaling in prostate cancer cells. Here, we report results from the first clinical trial of sulforaphane-rich extracts in men with prostate cancer. We treated 20 patients who had recurrent prostate cancer with 200μmoles/day of sulforaphane-rich extracts for a maximum period of 20 weeks and determined the proportion of patients with ≥50% PSA declines, the primary endpoint. Only one subject experienced a ≥50% PSA decline. Thus, the primary endpoint was not achieved. Seven patients experienced smaller PSA declines (<50%). There was also a significant lengthening of the on-treatment PSA doubling time (PSADT) compared with the pre-treatment PSADT [6.1 months pre-treatment vs. 9.6 months on-treatment (p=0.044)]. Finally, treatment with sulforaphane-rich extracts was safe with no Grade 3 adverse events. Treatment with 200μmoles/day of sulforaphane-rich extracts did not lead to ≥50% PSA declines in the majority of patients. However, because of the safety of treatment and the effects on PSADT modulation, further studies, including those with higher doses, may be warranted to clarify the role of sulforaphane as a prevention agent or treatment agent. PMID:25431127

  13. Enhancement of broccoli indole glucosinolates by methyl jasmonate treatment and effects on prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ann G; Juvik, John A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2014-11-01

    Broccoli is rich in bioactive components, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, which may impact cancer risk. The glucosinolate profile of broccoli can be manipulated through treatment with the plant stress hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Our objective was to produce broccoli with enhanced levels of indole glucosinolates and determine its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Brassica oleracea var. Green Magic was treated with a 250 μM MeJA solution 4 days prior to harvest. MeJA-treated broccoli had significantly increased levels of glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin (P < .05). Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice (n = 99) were randomized into three diet groups at 5-7 weeks of age: AIN-93G control, 10% standard broccoli powder, or 10% MeJA broccoli powder. Diets were fed throughout the study until termination at 20 weeks of age. Hepatic CYP1A was induced with MeJA broccoli powder feeding, indicating biological activity of the indole glucosinolates. Following ∼ 15 weeks on diets, neither of the broccoli treatments significantly altered genitourinary tract weight, pathologic score, or metastasis incidence, indicating that broccoli powder at 10% of the diet was ineffective at reducing prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model. Whereas broccoli powder feeding had no effect in this model of prostate cancer, our work demonstrates the feasibility of employing plant stress hormones exogenously to stimulate changes in phytochemical profiles, an approach that may be useful for optimizing bioactive component patterns in foods for chronic-disease-prevention studies.

  14. Neuroprotective Effect of Brassica oleracea Sprouts Crude Juice in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Masci, Alessandra; Mattioli, Roberto; Costantino, Paolo; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Punzi, Pasqualina; Giordano, Cesare; Pinto, Alessandro; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; d'Erme, Maria; Mosca, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ) aberrant production and aggregation are major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), causing neuronal death via oxidative stress. Several studies have highlighted the importance of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds in the treatment of AD, but complex food matrices, characterized by a different relative content of these phytochemicals, have been neglected. In the present study, we analyzed the protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells treated with the fragment Aβ25–35 by two crude juices of broccoli sprouts containing different amounts of phenolic compounds as a result of different growth conditions. Both juices protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cell viability, nuclear chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation measurements. These effects were mediated by the modulation of the mitochondrial function and of the HSP70 gene transcription and expression. Furthermore, the juices upregulated the intracellular glutathione content and mRNA levels or activity of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Although the effects of the two juices were similar, the juice enriched in phenolic compounds showed a greater efficacy in inducing the activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway. PMID:26180595

  15. Microbiological examination of vegetable seed sprouts in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoikyung; Lee, Youngjun; Beuchat, Larry R; Yoon, Bong-June; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2009-04-01

    Sprouted vegetable seeds used as food have been implicated as sources of outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. We profiled the microbiological quality of sprouts and seeds sold at retail shops in Seoul, Korea. Ninety samples of radish sprouts and mixed sprouts purchased at department stores, supermarkets, and traditional markets and 96 samples of radish, alfalfa, and turnip seeds purchased from online stores were analyzed to determine the number of total aerobic bacteria (TAB) and molds or yeasts (MY) and the incidence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Enterobacter sakazakii. Significantly higher numbers of TAB (7.52 log CFU/g) and MY (7.36 log CFU/g) were present on mixed sprouts than on radish sprouts (6.97 and 6.50 CFU/g, respectively). Populations of TAB and MY on the sprouts were not significantly affected by location of purchase. Radish seeds contained TAB and MY populations of 4.08 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively, whereas populations of TAB were only 2.54 to 2.84 log CFU/g and populations of MY were 0.82 to 1.69 log CFU/g on alfalfa and turnip seeds, respectively. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected on any of the sprout and seed samples tested. E. sakazakii was not found on seeds, but 13.3% of the mixed sprout samples contained this potentially pathogenic bacterium.

  16. Interaction between atmospheric CO2 and glucosinolates in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Schonhof, I; Kläring, H-P; Krumbein, A; Schreiner, M

    2007-01-01

    Total and individual glucosinolate contents of broccoli cv Marathon were assessed at ambient CO2 (430-480 ppm) and elevated atmospheric CO2 (685-820 ppm) to determine the ecological relationship between changing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and phytochemicals. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration had a differing effect on individual glucosinolates and glucosinolate groups. Total glucosinolate content increased at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration as a result of a strong increase in both methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates glucoraphanin and glucoiberin. In contrast, indole glucosinolates simultaneously decreased, predominantly because of a reduction of glucobrassicin and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin contents. We conclude that changes in N content and N/S ratios as well as alterations in photochemical processes at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration can influence total and individual glucosinolates contents of Brassicaceae, as demonstrated in the greenhouse, for broccoli.

  17. Effect of Se treatment on the volatile compounds in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jiayu; Wu, Jie; Zuo, Jinhua; Fan, Linlin; Shi, Junyan; Gao, Lipu; Li, Miao; Wang, Qing

    2017-02-01

    Broccoli contains high levels of bioactive compounds but deteriorates and senesces easily. In the present study, freshly harvested broccoli was treated with selenite and stored at two different temperatures. The effect of selenite treatment on sensory quality and postharvest physiology were analyzed. Volatile components were assessed by HS-SPME combined with GC-MS and EN. The metabolism of Se and S was also examined. Results indicated that Se treatment had a significant effect on maintaining the sensory quality, suppressing the respiration intensity and ethylene production, as well as increasing the content of Se and decreasing the content of S. In particular, significant differences in the composition of volatile compounds were present between control and Se-treated. The differences were mainly due to differences in alcohols and sulfide compounds. These results demonstrate that Se treatment can have a positive effect on maintaining quality and enhancing its sensory quality through the release of volatile compounds. PMID:27596413

  18. Remote sensing of water and nitrogen stress in broccoli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikha, Diael-Deen Mohamed

    Remote sensing is being used in agriculture for crop management. Ground based remote sensing data acquisition system was used for collection of high spatial and temporal resolution data for irrigated broccoli crop. The system was composed of a small cart that ran back and forth on a rail system that was mounted on a linear move irrigation system. The cart was equipped with a sensor that had 4 discrete wavelengths; 550 nm, 660 nm, 720 nm, and 810 nm, and an infrared thermometer, all had 10 nm bandwidth. A global positioning system was used to indicate the cart position. The study consisted of two parts; the first was to evaluate remotely sensed reflectance and indices in broccoli during the growing season, and determine whether remotely sensed indices or standard deviation of indices can distinguish between nitrogen and water stress in broccoli, and the second part of the study was to evaluate remotely sensed indices and standard deviation of remotely sensed indices in broccoli during daily changes in solar zenith angle. Results indicated that nitrogen was detected using Ratio Vegetation index, RVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, and also using the reflectance in the Near-Infrared, NIR, bands. The Red reflectance band capability of showing stress was not as clear as the previous indices and bands reflectance. The Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, was the most successful index. The Crop Water Stress Index was able to detect water stress but it was highly affected by the solar zenith angle change along the day.

  19. Quantitative trait loci mapping of heat tolerance in a doubled haploid population of broccoli using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broccoli is a cool weather vegetable crop with a vernalization requirement to initiate and maintain floral development. Breeding for heat tolerance in broccoli has the potential to both expand viable production areas and extend the growing season. A doubled haploid (DH) population of broccoli (Bras...

  20. Current intervention strategies for the microbial safety of sprouts.

    PubMed

    Sikin, Adi Md; Zoellner, Claire; Rizvi, Syed S H

    2013-12-01

    Sprouts have gained popularity worldwide due to their nutritional values and health benefits. The fact that their consumption has been associated with numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness threatens the $250 million market that this industry has established in the United States. Therefore, sprout manufacturers have utilized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommended application of 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite solution to seeds before germination as a preventative method. Concentrations of up to 200 ppm of chlorine wash are also commonly used on sprouts. However, chlorine-based treatment achieves on average only 1- to 3-log reductions in bacteria and is associated with negative health and environmental issues. The search for alternative strategies has been widespread, involving chemical, biological, physical, and hurdle processes that can achieve up to 7-log reductions in bacteria in some cases. The compilation here of the current scientific data related to these techniques is used to compare their efficacy for ensuring the microbial safety of sprouts and their practicality for commercial producers. Of specific importance for alternative seed and sprout treatments is maintaining the industry-accepted germination rate of 95% and the sensorial attributes of the final product. This review provides an evaluation of suggested decontamination technologies for seeds and sprouts before, during, and after germination and concludes that thermal inactivation of seeds and irradiation of sprouts are the most practical stand-alone microbial safety interventions for sprout production.

  1. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  2. Biomimetic model to reconstitute angiogenic sprouting morphogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc-Huy T; Stapleton, Sarah C; Yang, Michael T; Cha, Susie S; Choi, Colin K; Galie, Peter A; Chen, Christopher S

    2013-04-23

    Angiogenesis is a complex morphogenetic process whereby endothelial cells from existing vessels invade as multicellular sprouts to form new vessels. Here, we have engineered a unique organotypic model of angiogenic sprouting and neovessel formation that originates from preformed artificial vessels fully encapsulated within a 3D extracellular matrix. Using this model, we screened the effects of angiogenic factors and identified two distinct cocktails that promoted robust multicellular endothelial sprouting. The angiogenic sprouts in our system exhibited hallmark structural features of in vivo angiogenesis, including directed invasion of leading cells that developed filopodia-like protrusions characteristic of tip cells, following stalk cells exhibiting apical-basal polarity, and lumens and branches connecting back to the parent vessels. Ultimately, sprouts bridged between preformed channels and formed perfusable neovessels. Using this model, we investigated the effects of angiogenic inhibitors on sprouting morphogenesis. Interestingly, the ability of VEGF receptor 2 inhibition to antagonize filopodia formation in tip cells was context-dependent, suggesting a mechanism by which vessels might be able to toggle between VEGF-dependent and VEGF-independent modes of angiogenesis. Like VEGF, sphingosine-1-phosphate also seemed to exert its proangiogenic effects by stimulating directional filopodial extension, whereas matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors prevented sprout extension but had no impact on filopodial formation. Together, these results demonstrate an in vitro 3D biomimetic model that reconstitutes the morphogenetic steps of angiogenic sprouting and highlight the potential utility of the model to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the complex series of events involved in neovascularization. PMID:23569284

  3. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  4. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  5. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  6. Potential of different mechanical and thermal treatments to control off-flavour generation in broccoli puree.

    PubMed

    Koutidou, Maria; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Acharya, Parag

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was scientifically investigate the impact of the sequence of different thermo-mechanical treatments on the volatile profile of differently processed broccoli puree, and to investigate if any relationship persists between detected off-flavour changes and microstructural changes as a function of selected process conditions. Comparison of the headspace GC-MS fingerprinting of the differently processed broccoli purees revealed that an adequate combination of processing steps allows to reduce the level of off-flavour volatiles. Moreover, applying mechanical processing before or after the thermal processing at 90°C determines the pattern of broccoli tissue disruption, resulting into different microstructures and various enzymatic reactions inducing volatile generation. These results may aid the identification of optimal process conditions generating a reduced level of off-flavour in processed broccoli. In this way, broccoli can be incorporated as a food ingredient into mixed food products with limited implications on sensorial consumer acceptance. PMID:27664669

  7. Effects of various heating methods on glucosinolate, carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of heating (i.e. boiling, steaming and microwaving) on carotenoid, tocopherol and glucosinolate concentrations in broccoli. We detected five glucosinolate peaks in broccoli representing glucoraphanin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. Various heating methods affected the concentrations of nutrients and health-promoting compounds in cruciferous vegetables. The concentrations of five glucosinolates in broccoli significantly decreased after different heating methods, and the rate of decrease was higher with increased cooking time. Cooking broccoli significantly increased the apparent concentrations of lutein, β-carotene and α- and γ-tocopherols. Our results clearly show that health-promoting compounds in broccoli are significantly affected by different heating methods and that all heating treatments reduced glucosinolate concentrations. However, carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations were increased by various heating methods, and a longer heating time increased their extractability.

  8. Potential of different mechanical and thermal treatments to control off-flavour generation in broccoli puree.

    PubMed

    Koutidou, Maria; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Acharya, Parag

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was scientifically investigate the impact of the sequence of different thermo-mechanical treatments on the volatile profile of differently processed broccoli puree, and to investigate if any relationship persists between detected off-flavour changes and microstructural changes as a function of selected process conditions. Comparison of the headspace GC-MS fingerprinting of the differently processed broccoli purees revealed that an adequate combination of processing steps allows to reduce the level of off-flavour volatiles. Moreover, applying mechanical processing before or after the thermal processing at 90°C determines the pattern of broccoli tissue disruption, resulting into different microstructures and various enzymatic reactions inducing volatile generation. These results may aid the identification of optimal process conditions generating a reduced level of off-flavour in processed broccoli. In this way, broccoli can be incorporated as a food ingredient into mixed food products with limited implications on sensorial consumer acceptance.

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  11. Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Charlotte N; Derdemezis, Christos; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Doleman, Joanne F; Saha, Shikha; Leung, Wing; Potter, John F; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mithen, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Scope Cruciferous-rich diets have been associated with reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), which may be due to the action of isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in these vegetables. This study tests the hypothesis that a diet rich in high glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli will reduce plasma LDL-C. Methods and results One hundred and thirty volunteers were recruited to two independent double-blind, randomly allocated parallel dietary intervention studies, and were assigned to consume either 400 g standard broccoli or 400 g HG broccoli per week for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were quantified before and after the intervention. In study 1 (37 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL-C by 7.1% (95% CI: –1.8%, –12.3%, p = 0.011), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 1.8% (95% CI +3.9%, –7.5%, ns). In study 2 (93 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1% (95% CI: –2.1%, –8.1%, p = 0.001), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 2.5% (95% CI: +0.8%, –5.7%, ns). When data from the two studies were combined the reduction in LDL-C by the HG broccoli was significantly greater than standard broccoli (p = 0.031). Conclusion Evidence from two independent human studies indicates that consumption of high glucoraphanin broccoli significantly reduces plasma LDL-C. PMID:25851421

  12. Phenological and phytochemical changes correlate with differential interactions of Verticillium dahliae with broccoli and cauliflower.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, S M C; Vallad, G E; Park, S-Y; Kang, S; Koike, S T; Bolda, M; Burman, P; Polonik, W; Subbarao, K V

    2011-05-01

    Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis subvar. cauliflora) is susceptible to wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae but broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica subvar. cyamosa) is not. Infection of broccoli and cauliflower by a green fluorescent protein-expressing isolate of V. dahliae was examined using epifluorescence and confocal laser-scanning microscopy to follow infection and colonization in relation to plant phenology. Plant glucosinolate, phenolic, and lignin contents were also assayed at 0, 4, 14, and 28 days postinoculation. V. dahliae consistently infected and colonized the vascular tissues of all cauliflower plants regardless of age at inoculation, with the pathogen ultimately appearing in the developing seed; however, colonization decreased with plant age. In broccoli, V. dahliae infected and colonized root and stem xylem tissues of plants inoculated at 1, 2, or 3 weeks postemergence. However, V. dahliae colonized only the root xylem and the epidermal and cortical tissues of broccoli plants inoculated at 4, 5, and 6 weeks postemergence. The frequency of reisolation of V. dahliae from the stems (4 to 22%) and roots (10 to 40%) of mature broccoli plants was lower than for cauliflower stems (25 to 64%) and roots (31 to 71%). The mean level of aliphatic glucosinolates in broccoli roots was 6.18 times higher than in the shoots and did not vary with age, whereas it was 3.65 times higher in cauliflower shoots than in the roots and there was a proportional increase with age. Indole glucosinolate content was identical in both cauliflower and broccoli, and both indole and aromatic glucosinolates did not vary with plant age in either crop. Qualitative differences in characterized glucosinolates were observed between broccoli and cauliflower but no differences were observed between inoculated and noninoculated plants for either broccoli or cauliflower. However, the phenolic and lignin contents were significantly higher in broccoli following inoculation than in

  13. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yuri; Makino, Teruhiko; Mizawa, Megumi; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS) is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption. PMID:27478657

  14. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS) is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption. PMID:27478657

  15. Heat Transfer during Blanching and Hydrocooling of Broccoli Florets.

    PubMed

    Iribe-Salazar, Rosalina; Caro-Corrales, José; Hernández-Calderón, Óscar; Zazueta-Niebla, Jorge; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Carrazco-Escalante, Marco; Vázquez-López, Yessica

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this work was to simulate heat transfer during blanching (90 °C) and hydrocooling (5 °C) of broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. Italica) and to evaluate the impact of these processes on the physicochemical and nutrimental quality properties. Thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity [line heat source], specific heat capacity [differential scanning calorimetry], and bulk density [volume displacement]) of stem and inflorescence were measured as a function of temperature (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 °C). The activation energy and the frequency factor (Arrhenius model) of these thermophysical properties were calculated. A 3-dimensional finite element model was developed to predict the temperature history at different points inside the product. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental temperature histories was carried out. Quality parameters (firmness, total color difference, and vitamin C content) and peroxidase activity were measured. The satisfactory validation of the finite element model allows the prediction of temperature histories and profiles under different process conditions, which could lead to an eventual optimization aimed to minimize the nutritional and sensorial losses in broccoli florets.

  16. Heat Transfer during Blanching and Hydrocooling of Broccoli Florets.

    PubMed

    Iribe-Salazar, Rosalina; Caro-Corrales, José; Hernández-Calderón, Óscar; Zazueta-Niebla, Jorge; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Carrazco-Escalante, Marco; Vázquez-López, Yessica

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this work was to simulate heat transfer during blanching (90 °C) and hydrocooling (5 °C) of broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. Italica) and to evaluate the impact of these processes on the physicochemical and nutrimental quality properties. Thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity [line heat source], specific heat capacity [differential scanning calorimetry], and bulk density [volume displacement]) of stem and inflorescence were measured as a function of temperature (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 °C). The activation energy and the frequency factor (Arrhenius model) of these thermophysical properties were calculated. A 3-dimensional finite element model was developed to predict the temperature history at different points inside the product. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental temperature histories was carried out. Quality parameters (firmness, total color difference, and vitamin C content) and peroxidase activity were measured. The satisfactory validation of the finite element model allows the prediction of temperature histories and profiles under different process conditions, which could lead to an eventual optimization aimed to minimize the nutritional and sensorial losses in broccoli florets. PMID:26502365

  17. Broccoli seed extract: Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Yang, Hui; Li, Yongning; Lynch, B; Jia, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    Potential health benefits have been attributed to broccoli consumption. Hence, there is potential for use of broccoli seed extract (BSE) in food or for use as a dietary supplement. To assess the potential safety of a BSE product, three genotoxicity experiments, including an Ames, in vivo mouse micronucleus, and in vivo mouse sperm abnormality assay, were carried out. BSE was subject to an acute oral toxicity test and was evaluated in a 30-day feeding study in rats. BSE showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames assay and no evidence of genotoxic potential in the in vivo assays at doses up to 10 g/kg body weight (bw). The LD50 of BSE in rats was >10 g/kg bw/d. In the 30-day feeding study, in which BSE was administered in the diet to provide doses of 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg bw/d, no toxicological significant effects were noted on body weight, body weight gain, organ weights, or on the results of hematological, clinical chemistry and histopathological evaluations. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 3.0 g/kg bw/d, the highest dose tested. Collectively, these results support the safe use of BSE as a food ingredient or product. PMID:26271574

  18. Broccoli/weed/soil discrimination by optical reflectance using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico

    1995-04-01

    Broccoli is grown extensively in Scotland, and has become one of the main vegetables cropped, due to its high yields and profits. Broccoli, weed and soil samples from 6 different farms were collected and their spectra obtained and analyzed using discriminant analysis. High crop/weed/soil discrimination success rates were encountered in each farm, but the selected wavelengths varied in each farm due to differences in broccoli variety, weed species incidence and soil type. In order to use only three wavelengths, neural networks were introduced and high crop/weed/soil discrimination accuracies for each farm were achieved.

  19. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour.

    PubMed

    Sur, R; Nagi, H P; Sharma, S; Sekhon, K S

    1993-07-01

    Sound and sprouted flours (24 and 48 hr) from bread wheat (WL-1562), durum wheat (PBW-34) and triticale (TL-1210) were stored at room temperature (34.8 degrees C) and relative humidity (66.7%) for 0, 45, 90 and 135 days to assess the changes in physico-chemical and baking properties. Protein, gluten, sedimentation value, starch and crude fat decreased during storage in all the samples; however, the decrease was more in sprouted flours. Free amino acids, proteolytic activity, diastatic activity and damaged starch decreased with increase in storage period. Total sugars and free fatty acids increased more rapidly in the flours of sprouted wheats during 135 days of storage. Loaf volume of breads decreased during storage in both sound and sprouted flour but the mean percent decrease in loaf volume was more in stored sound flours. Aging of sprouted flour for 45 days improved the cookie and cake making properties but further storage was of no value for these baked products. Chapati making properties of stored sound and sprouted flour were inferior to that of fresh counterparts. PMID:8332585

  20. Impact of thermal processing on sulforaphane yield from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In broccoli, sulforaphane forms when the glucosinolate glucoraphanin is hydrolyzed by the endogenous plant thiohydrolase myrosinase. A myrosinase cofactor directs hydrolysis away from formation of bioactive sulforaphane and toward an inactive product, sulforaphane nitrile. The cofactor is more hea...

  1. Effect of light on quality and bioactive compounds in postharvest broccoli florets.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Yao, Di; Xu, Feng; Wang, Huiqian; Zheng, Yonghua

    2015-04-01

    The effect of light treatment (fluorescent and light-emitting diode (LED) green light) on shelf life, visual quality and bioactive compounds in broccoli florets was investigated. The results showed that light treatment extended shelf life and inhibited the decrease of H value and chlorophyll contents in broccoli florets stored at 25 °C. The content of total phenols and glucosinolates were markedly increased by LED green light, but no effect on sulforaphane. Fluorescent and LED green light treatment significantly increased DPPH radical scavenging activity in broccoli, but little effect was found between the two light treatments. These results indicated that LED green light could be a useful technique for extending shelf life, maintaining visual quality and preventing decrease of bioactive compounds in broccoli florets.

  2. Garlic sprouting is associated with increased antioxidant activity and concomitant changes in the metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Zakarova, Alexandra; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Jung-Hye; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-02-26

    Although garlic (Allium sativum) has been extensively studied for its health benefits, sprouted garlic has received little attention. We hypothesized that sprouting garlic would stimulate the production of various phytochemicals that improve health. Ethanolic extracts from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when assessed with in vitro assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Extracts from garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas extracts from raw garlic had relatively low antioxidant activity. Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 5-6 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the finding that garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.

  3. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in different maturation stages of broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica) biofortified with selenium.

    PubMed

    Bachiega, Patricia; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Schwarz, Kélin; Tezotto, Tiago; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    In this work, three different broccoli maturity stages subjected to biofortification with selenium were evaluated for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Antioxidant trials have shown that the maturation stages biofortified with selenium had significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, especially seedlings. Although non-polar extracts of all samples show antiproliferative activity, the extract of broccoli seedlings biofortified with selenium stood out, presenting cytocidal activity for a glioma line (U251, GI50 28.5 mg L(-1)).

  4. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in different maturation stages of broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica) biofortified with selenium.

    PubMed

    Bachiega, Patricia; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Schwarz, Kélin; Tezotto, Tiago; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    In this work, three different broccoli maturity stages subjected to biofortification with selenium were evaluated for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Antioxidant trials have shown that the maturation stages biofortified with selenium had significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, especially seedlings. Although non-polar extracts of all samples show antiproliferative activity, the extract of broccoli seedlings biofortified with selenium stood out, presenting cytocidal activity for a glioma line (U251, GI50 28.5 mg L(-1)). PMID:26213037

  5. Compositional and Proteomic Analyses of Genetically Modified Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Harboring an Agrobacterial Gene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, “Green King”. Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined. PMID:25170807

  6. Control of isoperoxidases involved in chlorophyll degradation of stored broccoli (Brassica oleracea) florets by heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Funamoto, Yoshio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2006-02-01

    Changes in isoperoxidases involved in chlorophyll (Chl) degradation of stored broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) florets and their control by heat treatment (HT) were determined. Chl a and b contents in non-heat-treated broccoli florets decreased greatly after 2 days at 15 degrees C, whereas the contents in heat-treated florets (50 degrees C for 2 h) showed almost no change. Three isoperoxidases involved in Chl degradation were detected by means of molecular exclusion chromatography and the molecular weights of those isoperoxidases were about 95 (Type I), 67 (Type II) and 56 (Type III) kDa, respectively. Only Type I was detected in broccoli florets immediately after harvest, and its activity in non-heat-treated broccoli increased greatly during storage. Both Type II and Type III were present in non-heat-treated broccoli with floret senescence. HT suppressed the enhancement of all of the isoperoxidase activities. Cycloheximide treatment also effectively retarded the increase in Types I, II and III isoperoxidase activities concomitant with the suppression of floret yellowing. The K(m) values corresponding to Chl a of Type II and Type III were lower than Type I, and the V(max)/K(m) values corresponding to Chl a of Type II and Type III were higher than Type I. This suggests that both Types II and III could be closely associated with Chl degradation in broccoli florets and that HT might inhibit floret senescence by suppression of isoperoxidase activities.

  7. Comparison of the effect of raw and blanched-frozen broccoli on DNA damage in colonocytes.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Anthony; Fuller, Zoë; Collins, Andrew R; Ratcliffe, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables may protect against colorectal cancer. Cruciferous vegetables are rich in a number of bioactive constituents including polyphenols, vitamins and glucosinolates. Before consumption, cruciferous vegetables often undergo some form of processing that reduces their content of bioactive constituents and may determine whether they exert protective effects. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of raw and blanched-frozen broccoli to protect colonocytes against DNA damage, improve antioxidant status and induce xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME). Fifteen Landrace × Large White male pigs were divided into five age-matched and weight-matched sets (79 days, SD 3, and 34·7 kg, SD 3·9, respectively). Each set consisted of siblings to minimize genetic variation. Within each set, pigs received a cereal-based diet, unsupplemented (control) or supplemented with 600 g day(-1) of raw or blanched-frozen broccoli for 12 days. The consumption of raw broccoli caused a significant 27% increase in DNA damage in colonocytes (p = 0·03) relative to the control diet, whereas blanched-frozen broccoli had no significant effect. Both broccoli diets had no significant effect on plasma antioxidant status or hepatic and colonic XME. This study is the first to report that the consumption of raw broccoli can damage DNA in porcine colonocytes.

  8. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Silvio J; Yuan, Youxi; Faquin, Valdemar; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Li, Li

    2011-04-27

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here, we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expresion. We found that the total Se content varied with over 2-fold difference among the leaf tissues of broccoli accessions when the plants were treated with 20 μM Na(2)SeO(4). Approximately half of total Se accumulated in leaves was Se-methylselenocysteine and selenomethionine. Transcriptional regulation of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate sulfurylase and selenocysteine Se-methyltransferase gene expression might contribute to the different levels of Se accumulation in broccoli. Total glucosinolate contents were not affected by the concentration of selenate application for the majority of broccoli accessions. Essential micronutrients (i.e., Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) remained unchanged among half of the germplasm. Moreover, the total antioxidant capacity was greatly stimulated by selenate in over half of the accessions. The diverse genotypic variation in Se, glucosinolate, and antioxidant contents among accessions provides the opportunity to breed broccoli cultivars that simultaneously accumulate Se and other health benefit compounds.

  9. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-08-28

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, "Green King". Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined.

  10. Cultivation conditions and selenium fertilization alter the phenolic profile, glucosinolate, and sulforaphane content of broccoli.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Banuelos, Gary; Finley, John W

    2005-01-01

    Broccoli is a food often consumed for its potential health-promoting properties. The health benefits of broccoli are partly associated with secondary plant compounds that have bioactivity; glucosinolates and phenolic acids are two of the most abundant and important in broccoli. In an effort to determine how variety, stress, and production conditions affect the production of these bioactive components broccoli was grown in the greenhouse with and without selenium (Se) fertilization, and in the field under conventional or organic farming procedures and with or without water stress. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify 12 primary phenolic compounds. Variety had a major effect: There was a preponderance of flavonoids in the Majestic variety, but hydroxycinnamic esters were relatively more abundant in the Legacy variety. Organic farming and water stress decreased the overall production of phenolics. Se fertilization increased glucosinolates in general, and sulforaphane in particular, up to a point; above that Se fertilization decreased glucosinolate production. Organic farming and water stress also decreased glucosinolate production. These data show environmental and genetic variation in phenolics and glucosinolates in broccoli, and warn that not all broccoli may contain all health-promoting bioactive components. They further show that selection for one bioactive component (Se) may decrease the content of other bioactive components such as phenolics and glucosinolates. PMID:16117613

  11. Nutritional quality of organic, conventional, and seasonally grown broccoli using vitamin C as a marker.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Shahla M; Feldman, Charles; Kane, Shannon; Hazhin, Taraneh

    2008-02-01

    Organically labeled vegetables are considered by many consumers to be healthier than non-organic or 'conventional' varieties. However, whether the organic-labeled vegetables contain more nutrients is not clear. The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional quality of broccoli using vitamin C, a fragile and abundant nutrient, in broccoli as a biomarker. The vitamin C content was assayed (2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol method) in broccoli samples obtained from supermarkets that are considered the point of consumer consumption. These samples were obtained during different seasons when the broccoli could be either harvested locally or shipped far distances. The findings indicate that vitamin C could be used as a marker under a controlled laboratory environment with some limitations and, although the vitamin C content of organically and conventionally labeled broccoli was not significantly different, significant seasonal changes have been observed. The fall values for vitamin C were almost twice as high as those for spring for both varieties (P=0.021 for organic and P=0.012 for conventional). The seasonal changes in vitamin C content are larger than the differences between organically labeled and conventionally grown broccoli.

  12. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, "Green King". Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined. PMID:25170807

  13. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-02-01

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10-15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, including isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, vitexin, and rutin were separated from buckwheat sprouts by HPLC and identified by LC-MS. The highest rutin content in germinated buckwheat was found to be 15.8 mg/100 g DW at 20 h after germination. Buckwheat sprouts contained five kinds of major phenols. The highest amounts of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin were measured at day 3, with the exception of rutin, and then a gradual decrease was observed as the sprouts grew. The quantities of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin at day 3 were 5.8, 11.7, 26.2, and 28.9 mg/100 g FW, respectively. The rutin content rapidly increased to 109.0 mg/100 g FW until day 6. The highest total phenols in buckwheat sprouts were 162.9 mg/100 g FW at day 6. Germinated buckwheat soaked for 20 h and buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 6 days were rich in dietary phenol(s), which makes these plants a valuable functional food for human consumption. PMID:24425891

  14. Prevention of oxidative DNA damage in rats by brussels sprouts.

    PubMed

    Deng, X S; Tuo, J; Poulsen, H E; Loft, S

    1998-03-01

    The alleged cancer preventive effects of cruciferous vegetables could be related to protection from mutagenic oxidative DNA damage. We have studied the effects of Brussels sprouts, some non-cruciferous vegetables and isolated glucosinolates on spontaneous and induced oxidative DNA damage in terms of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in groups of 6-8 male Wistar rats. Excess oxidative DNA damage was induced by 2-nitropropane (2-NP 100 mg/kg). Four days oral administration of 3 g of cooked Brussels sprouts homogenate reduced the spontaneous urinary 8-oxodG excretion by 31% (p<0.05) whereas raw sprouts, beans and endive (1:1), isolated indolyl glucosinolates and breakdown products had no significant effect. An aqueous extract of cooked Brussels sprouts (corresponding to 6.7 g vegetable per day for 4 days) decreased the spontaneous 8-oxodG excretion from 92 +/- 12 to 52 +/- 15 pmol/24 h (p<0.05). After 2-NP administration the 8-oxodG excretion was increased to 132 +/- 26 pmol/24 h (p<0.05) whereas pretreatment with the sprouts extract reduced this to 102 +/- 30 pmol/24 h (p<0.05). The spontaneous level of 8-oxodG in nuclear DNA from liver and bone marrow was not significantly affected by the sprouts extract whereas the level decreased by 27% in the kidney (p<0.05). In the liver 2-NP increased the 8-oxodG levels in nuclear DNA 8.7 and 3.8 times (p<0.05) 6 and 24 h after dose, respectively. The sprouts extract reduced this increase by 57% (p<0.05) at 6 h whereas there was no significant effect at 24 h. In the kidneys 2-NP increased the 8-oxodG levels 2.2 and 1.2 times (p<0.05) 6 and 24 h after dose, respectively. Pretreatment with the sprouts extract abolished these increases (p<0.05). Similarly, in the bone marrow the extract protected completely (p<0.05) against a 4.9-fold 2-NP induced increase (p<0.05) in the 8-oxodG level. These findings demonstrate that cooked Brussels sprouts contain bioactive substance(s) with a potential for reducing the physiological

  15. Induction of Phase 2 Antioxidant Enzymes by Broccoli Sulforaphane: Perspectives in Maintaining the Antioxidant Activity of Vitamins A, C, and E

    PubMed Central

    Boddupalli, Sekhar; Mein, Jonathan R.; Lakkanna, Shantala; James, Don R.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is recognized as an important part of a healthy diet. Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables in particular has been associated with a decreased risk of several degenerative and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Members of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage, accumulate significant concentrations of glucosinolates, which are metabolized in vivo to biologically active isothiocyanates (ITCs). The ITC sulforaphane, which is derived from glucoraphanin, has garnered particular interest as an indirect antioxidant due to its extraordinary ability to induce expression of several enzymes via the KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Nrf2/ARE gene products are typically characterized as Phase II detoxification enzymes and/or antioxidant (AO) enzymes. Over the last decade, human clinical studies have begun to provide in vivo evidence of both Phase II and AO enzyme induction by SF. Many AO enzymes are redox cycling enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis and activity of free radical scavengers such as vitamins A, C, and E. In this review, we present the existing evidence for induction of PII and AO enzymes by SF, the interactions of SF-induced AO enzymes and proposed maintenance of the essential vitamins A, C, and E, and, finally, the current view of genotypic effects on ITC metabolism and AO enzyme induction and function. PMID:22303412

  16. Mass-based metabolomic analysis of soybean sprouts during germination.

    PubMed

    Gu, Eun-Ji; Kim, Dong Wook; Jang, Gwang-Ju; Song, Seong Hwa; Lee, Jae-In; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Bo-Min; Cho, Yeongrae; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the metabolite profile of soybean sprouts at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4days after germination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) to understand the relationship between germination and nutritional quality. Data were analyzed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and sprout samples were separated successfully using their PLS-DA scores. Fifty-eight metabolites, including macromolecular derivatives related to energy production, amino acids, myo-inositol metabolites, phytosterols, antioxidants, isoflavones, and soyasaponins, contributed to the separation. Amino acids, myo-inositol metabolites, isoflavone aglycones, B soyasaponins, antioxidants, and phytosterols, associated with health benefits and/or taste quality, increased with germination time while isoflavone glycosides and DDMP soyasaponins decreased. Based on these metabolites, the metabolomic pathway associated with energy production in soybean sprouts is suggested. Our data suggest that sprouting is a useful processing step to improve soybean nutritional quality, and metabolomic analysis is useful in understanding nutritional change during sprouting. PMID:27664639

  17. Angiogenic sprouting is regulated by endothelial cell expression of Slug

    PubMed Central

    Welch-Reardon, Katrina M.; Ehsan, Seema M.; Wang, Kehui; Wu, Nan; Newman, Andrew C.; Romero-Lopez, Monica; Fong, Ashley H.; George, Steven C.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hughes, Christopher C. W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Snail family of zinc-finger transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved proteins that control processes requiring cell movement. Specifically, they regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) where an epithelial cell severs intercellular junctions, degrades basement membrane and becomes a migratory, mesenchymal-like cell. Interestingly, Slug expression has been observed in angiogenic endothelial cells (EC) in vivo, suggesting that angiogenic sprouting may share common attributes with EMT. Here, we demonstrate that sprouting EC in vitro express both Slug and Snail, and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of either inhibits sprouting and migration in multiple in vitro angiogenesis assays. We find that expression of MT1-MMP, but not of VE-Cadherin, is regulated by Slug and that loss of sprouting as a consequence of reduced Slug expression can be reversed by lentiviral-mediated re-expression of MT1-MMP. Activity of MMP2 and MMP9 are also affected by Slug expression, likely through MT1-MMP. Importantly, we find enhanced expression of Slug in EC in human colorectal cancer samples compared with normal colon tissue, suggesting a role for Slug in pathological angiogenesis. In summary, these data implicate Slug as an important regulator of sprouting angiogenesis, particularly in pathological settings. PMID:24554431

  18. The effect of essential oil formulations for potato sprout suppression.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N

    2010-04-01

    The concerns over safety and environmental impact of synthetic pesticides such as chlorpropham (CIPC) has stimulated interest in finding environmentally benign, natural sprout suppressants, including essential oils. The effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia multiflora essential oils on sprout growth and decay of stored potatoes has been investigated. Formulations of essential oils with alumina, bentonite, or kaolin, both with and without Triton X-100 additive, were tested. These formulations have been compared to the pulverized plant materials themselves as well as wick-volatilized essential oils. The results showed that the tested oils possess compositions that make them suitable for application as sprout suppressants. Additionally, the formulation seems to be able to reduce the volatility of the essential oil and artificially extend dormancy of stored potatoes.

  19. Influences of Cry1Ac broccoli on larval survival and oviposition of diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. PMID:25843583

  20. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. PMID:25156799

  1. Influences of Cry1Ac Broccoli on Larval Survival and Oviposition of Diamondback Moth

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. PMID:25843583

  2. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability.

  3. Influences of Cry1Ac broccoli on larval survival and oviposition of diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management.

  4. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting induced by botulinum toxin type A

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Xiang, Yi; Hu, Xingyue; Cai, Huaying

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A is a potent muscle relaxant that blocks the transmission and release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A has served as an effective and safe therapy for strabismus and focal dystonia. However, muscular weakness is temporary and after 3–4 months, muscle strength usually recovers because functional recovery is mediated by nerve sprouting and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction. Acrylamide may produce neurotoxic substances that cause retrograde necrotizing neuropathy and inhibit nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A. This study investigated whether acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. A tibial nerve sprouting model was established through local injection of botulinum toxin type A into the right gastrocnemius muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats. Following intramuscular injection, rats were given intraperitoneal injection of 3% acrylamide every 3 days for 21 days. Nerve sprouting appeared 2 weeks after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A and single-fiber electromyography revealed abnormal conduction at the neuromuscular junction 1 week after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. Following intraperitoneal injection of acrylamide, the peak muscle fiber density decreased. Electromyography jitter value were restored to normal levels 6 weeks after injection. This indicates that the maximal decrease in fiber density and the time at which functional conduction of neuromuscular junction was restored were delayed. Additionally, the increase in tibial nerve fibers was reduced. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A and may be used to prolong the clinical dosage of botulinum toxin type A. PMID:25317170

  5. Effect of temperature on sorption isotherms of Brussels sprout.

    PubMed

    Irzyniec, Zbigniew; Klimczak, Jolanta

    2003-02-01

    The effect of temperature (0, 20 and 40 degrees C) on the sorptivity of freeze-dried Brussels sprout was studied. It was checked which of the sorption isotherm equations that included temperature was the best to estimate experimental data. The surface area of a monolayer and isosteric heat of sorption was calculated. From the tested equations the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) and Oswin equations appeared to be the best for describing sorption isotherms of freeze-dried Brussels sprout. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation was found suitable for the calculation of pure isosteric heat of sorption.

  6. Using genotyping-by-sequencing to develop broccoli markers for construction of a high-density linkage map and to identify quantitative trait loci associated with heat tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress reduces the yield and quality of broccoli heads imposing seasonal and geographic limits to broccoli production. For the most part, the risk of producing broccoli with head defects (uneven beads, bracts in heads, etc.) induced by high temperatures has restricted commercial production in t...

  7. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean sprouts are considered as natural and healthy food by Asian consumers. However, sprouts are often associated with outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and recalls due to contamination of seeds with human pathogens. Irradiation may be used to inactivate pathogens on seeds and sprouts. In this stu...

  8. Effect of pre-harvest sprouting on physicochemical changes of proteins in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High moisture before harvest can cause sprouting of the wheat kernel, which is termed as pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). The aim of this study was to examine the variation in physicochemical properties of proteins and free asparagine concentration in PHS damaged (sprouted) hard red and white spring whe...

  9. Alfalfa seed germination and yield ratio and alfalfa sprout microbial keeping quality following irradiation of seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rajkowski, K T; Thayer, D W

    2001-12-01

    Foods can be treated with gamma radiation, a nonthermal food process, to inactivate foodborne pathogens and fungi, to kill insects on or in fruits and vegetables, and to increase shelf life. Gamma irradiation is especially well suited for these treatments because of its ability to penetrate commercial pallets of foods. Irradiated fruits, vegetables, poultry, and hamburger have been received favorably by the public and are now available in supermarkets. The use of irradiation on fresh alfalfa sprouts was studied to determine its effect on keeping quality as related to aerobic microbial load. After an irradiation dose of 2 kGy, the total aerobic count decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-5) CFU/g, and the total coliform counts decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-0) CFU/g. The results showed that the sprouts maintained their structure after irradiation, and the keeping quality was extended to 21 days, which is an increase of 10 days from the usual shelf life. The effect of various doses of irradiation on alfalfa seeds as measured by percent germination and yield ratio (wt/wt) of sprouts was determined. There was little effect on the percent germination, but as the dose increased, the yield ratio of alfalfa sprouts decreased. As the length of growing time increased, so did the yield ratio of the lower dose irradiated seeds (1 to 2 kGy). The irradiation process can be used to increase the shelf life of alfalfa sprouts, and irradiating alfalfa seeds at doses up to 2 kGy does not unacceptably decrease the yield ratio for production of alfalfa sprouts. PMID:11770628

  10. Metabolism of phenolic compounds by Lactobacillus spp. during fermentation of cherry juice and broccoli puree.

    PubMed

    Filannino, Pasquale; Bai, Yunpeng; Di Cagno, Raffaela; Gobbetti, Marco; Gänzle, Michael G

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the metabolism of phenolic acids and flavonoids during lactic acid fermentation of cherry juice and broccoli puree for potential food and pharmaceutical purposes. When fermenting cherry juice and broccoli puree, Lactobacillus spp. exhibited strain-specific metabolism of phenolic acid derivatives. The metabolism of protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids through phenolic acid decarboxylases and reductases differed between mMRS and cherry juice and broccoli puree. The synthesis of reduced compounds was the highest during food fermentations and the substrate seemed to modulate the metabolism of phenolic compounds. The reduction of phenolic acids involves a hydrogen donor and the re-oxidation of the reduced co-factor NADH, which may provide a metabolic advantage through NAD(+) regeneration. Quinic acid reduction may replace fructose and pyruvate as hydrogen acceptors, and it may provide an energetic advantage to heterofermentative bacteria when growing in broccoli puree lacking of fructose. This study demonstrated that phenolics metabolism may confer a selective advantage for lactobacilli in vegetable and fruit fermentation, and the metabolic routes are strongly dependent on the intrinsic factors of substrate. Fermented cherry juice and broccoli puree, due to the selected bacterial bioconversion pathways, are enriched in phenolic derivative with high human bioavailability and biological activity.

  11. Investigation of functional properties and color changes of corn extrudates enriched with broccoli or olive paste.

    PubMed

    Bisharat, Ghassan I; Katsavou, Ioanna D; Panagiotou, Nikolaos M; Krokida, Magdalini K; Maroulis, Zacharias B

    2015-12-01

    Following the tendency of replacing common food snacks with healthier food products, extruded snacks with corn flour and broccoli (4-10%) or olive paste (4-8%) were investigated in this study. The effect of material characteristics, including feed moisture content (14-19%), and broccoli or olive paste concentration, and extrusion conditions, including screw speed (150-250 r/min), and extrusion temperature (140-180 ℃), on the functional properties (water absorption index, water solubility index, and oil absorption index), as well as color change (ΔE) of the extruded snacks was studied. Regression analysis showed that screw speed did not significantly influence (p > 0.05) the properties. After mathematical modelling it was found that broccoli and olive paste concentration, as well as temperature increment, caused a decrease in water absorption index (minimum of 5.6 and 6.4 g/g sample, respectively) and an increase in water solubility index (maximum of 18.7 and 10.9 g/100 g sample, respectively), while feed moisture presented opposite tendency. Higher extrusion temperature led to an increment of oil absorption index (approximately to 1.2 and 1 mL/g sample) and decrement of color changes. Finally, feed moisture and broccoli concentration lowered oil absorption index and color of corn/broccoli extrudates, while olive paste concentration caused their increment. PMID:25406135

  12. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Woo Tae; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Nam, Sang-Yong; Jho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-02-01

    Here we present previously unreported glucosinolate production by hairy root cultures of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica). Growth media greatly influenced the growth and glucosinolate content of hairy root cultures of broccoli. Seven glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin, were identified by analysis of the broccoli hairy root cultures. Both half and full strength B5 and SH media enabled the highest accumulation of glucosinolates. In most cases, the levels of glucosinolates were higher in SH and BS media. Among the 7 glucosinolates, the accumulation of neoglucobrassicin was very high, irrespective of growth medium. The neoglucobrassicin content was 7.4-fold higher in SH medium than 1/2 MS, in which its level was the lowest. The 1/2 B5 medium supported the production of the highest amounts of glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, the levels for which were 36.2- and 7.9- fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. The 1/2 SH medium enabled the highest accumulation of glucoraphanin and gluconapin in the broccoli hairy root cultures, whose levels were 1.8- and 4.6-fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. Our results suggest that hairy root cultures of broccoli could be a valuable alternative approach for the production of glucosinolate compounds.

  13. Investigation of functional properties and color changes of corn extrudates enriched with broccoli or olive paste.

    PubMed

    Bisharat, Ghassan I; Katsavou, Ioanna D; Panagiotou, Nikolaos M; Krokida, Magdalini K; Maroulis, Zacharias B

    2015-12-01

    Following the tendency of replacing common food snacks with healthier food products, extruded snacks with corn flour and broccoli (4-10%) or olive paste (4-8%) were investigated in this study. The effect of material characteristics, including feed moisture content (14-19%), and broccoli or olive paste concentration, and extrusion conditions, including screw speed (150-250 r/min), and extrusion temperature (140-180 ℃), on the functional properties (water absorption index, water solubility index, and oil absorption index), as well as color change (ΔE) of the extruded snacks was studied. Regression analysis showed that screw speed did not significantly influence (p > 0.05) the properties. After mathematical modelling it was found that broccoli and olive paste concentration, as well as temperature increment, caused a decrease in water absorption index (minimum of 5.6 and 6.4 g/g sample, respectively) and an increase in water solubility index (maximum of 18.7 and 10.9 g/100 g sample, respectively), while feed moisture presented opposite tendency. Higher extrusion temperature led to an increment of oil absorption index (approximately to 1.2 and 1 mL/g sample) and decrement of color changes. Finally, feed moisture and broccoli concentration lowered oil absorption index and color of corn/broccoli extrudates, while olive paste concentration caused their increment.

  14. High amounts of broccoli in pasta-like products: nutritional evaluation and sensory acceptability.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Gerritsen, L; Dekker, M; van der Linden, E; Scholten, E

    2013-11-01

    Pasta and noodles were enriched with concentrations of broccoli powder (BP) up to 30% (v/v). To ensure the benefits from the broccoli nutrients, their leakage during cooking should be prevented. Such leakage is determined by the microstructure. In a previous study we have shown that the microstructure can change dramatically in such broccoli-enriched products. In this article we investigated the amount of nutrients retained within the product. As a representative of nutrients we have chosen glucosinolates (GLs). Therefore, we have investigated the concentration of these phytochemicals in dried and cooked pasta and noodles. We have found that glucosinolates present in the pasta and noodles increase linearly with the volume fraction of BP up to 20%. At 30% BP the retained amount of GLs was equal to that of 20% BP and did not increase further. Therefore incorporation of 30% BP does not lead to additional health benefits over incorporation of 20% BP. We conclude that the nutritional function of our pasta-like products can be improved by enrichment up to 20% broccoli. This value is much higher than that found in common commercial products (which is a few percent). In this article we also briefly address the sensory acceptability of such products. Up to 20% broccoli the products turned out to remain acceptable. Combining this with our results on texture analysis we conclude that the GLs release, sensory acceptability and textural properties are related via the microstructure.

  15. Using weighted trait indices to select the best performing broccoli hybrids in multi-site and multi-year trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding and implementing evaluation data from vegetable trials conducted across multiple years and environments by multiple raters presents numerous challenges. In order to select new broccoli hybrids suitable for eastern production, the SCRI East Coast Broccoli Project has conducted over 32 p...

  16. Evaluation of different cooking conditions on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) to improve the nutritional value and consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Bongoni, Radhika; Verkerk, Ruud; Steenbekkers, Bea; Dekker, Matthijs; Stieger, Markus

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to gain insights into the effect of the cooking method on the liking as well as the retention of glucosinolates in broccoli. With this knowledge it can be concluded whether the health aspects of broccoli be improved by the cooking method without deteriorating sensory perception. For this, broccoli was cooked by methods commonly applied by consumers: boiling with a cold (water) start; boiling with a hot (water) start; and steaming. Firmness, greenness and amount of total glucosinolates in cooked broccoli were instrumentally determined. Sensory evaluation by untrained consumers (n = 99) for liking and sensory attributes intensity rating were performed on broccoli cooked by steaming and boiling-cold start at three time points, which resulted in 'high', 'medium', 'low' firm broccoli samples. At the end of cooking, steaming showed an increase in the amount of total glucosinolates (+17%). Boiling-hot start (-41%) and boiling-cold start (-50%) showed a decrease in amount of total glucosinolates. Sensory evaluation did not show statistically significant differences between steaming and boiling-cold start in liking at 'high' and 'medium' firmness; and in the attribute intensity ratings (except for juiciness at 'medium' firmness, and flavour at 'medium' and 'low' firmness). This study demonstrates that medium firm broccoli showed optimum liking and that steaming compared to boiled-cold start showed higher amount of glucosinolates. It is concluded that the health aspects of broccoli can be improved without reducing the sensory aspects by optimising the cooking method.

  17. Evaluation of different cooking conditions on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) to improve the nutritional value and consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Bongoni, Radhika; Verkerk, Ruud; Steenbekkers, Bea; Dekker, Matthijs; Stieger, Markus

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to gain insights into the effect of the cooking method on the liking as well as the retention of glucosinolates in broccoli. With this knowledge it can be concluded whether the health aspects of broccoli be improved by the cooking method without deteriorating sensory perception. For this, broccoli was cooked by methods commonly applied by consumers: boiling with a cold (water) start; boiling with a hot (water) start; and steaming. Firmness, greenness and amount of total glucosinolates in cooked broccoli were instrumentally determined. Sensory evaluation by untrained consumers (n = 99) for liking and sensory attributes intensity rating were performed on broccoli cooked by steaming and boiling-cold start at three time points, which resulted in 'high', 'medium', 'low' firm broccoli samples. At the end of cooking, steaming showed an increase in the amount of total glucosinolates (+17%). Boiling-hot start (-41%) and boiling-cold start (-50%) showed a decrease in amount of total glucosinolates. Sensory evaluation did not show statistically significant differences between steaming and boiling-cold start in liking at 'high' and 'medium' firmness; and in the attribute intensity ratings (except for juiciness at 'medium' firmness, and flavour at 'medium' and 'low' firmness). This study demonstrates that medium firm broccoli showed optimum liking and that steaming compared to boiled-cold start showed higher amount of glucosinolates. It is concluded that the health aspects of broccoli can be improved without reducing the sensory aspects by optimising the cooking method. PMID:24853375

  18. Temperature variation effect on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber sprouting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, high-value vegetable production in the Southeast US used methyl bromide to control a multitude of pests, including weeds. In the absence of methyl bromide, control of nutsedges has become problematic. A greater understanding of the factors that regulate the sprouting of nutsedges fro...

  19. Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-06-13

    Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion. PMID:22568492

  20. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-18

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  1. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  2. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... additive may be used as a flavor enhancer in food at a level not in excess of that reasonably required to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section...

  3. Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-06-13

    Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion.

  4. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  5. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Sprouting Angiogenesis: Proteases Pave the Way.

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, A; Fibbi, G; Margheri, F; Biagioni, A; Luciani, C; Del Rosso, M; Chillà, A

    2015-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis consists of the expansion and remodelling of existing vessels, where the vascular sprouts connect each other to form new vascular loops. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells, with high proliferative potential, able to differentiate into mature Endothelial Cells (ECs) during the neovascularization process. In addition to this direct structural role EPCs improve neovascularization, also secreting numerous pro-angiogenic factors able to enhance the proliferation, survival and function of mature ECs, and other surrounding progenitor cells. While sprouting angiogenesis by mature ECs involves resident ECs, the vasculogenic contribution of EPCs is a high hurdle race. Bone marrowmobilized EPCs have to detach from the stem cell niche, intravasate into bone marrow vessels, reach the hypoxic area or tumour site, extravasate and incorporate into the new vessel lumen, thus complementing the resident mature ECs in sprouting angiogenesis. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of the main protease systems able to control each of these steps. The pivotal protease systems here described, involved in vascular patterning in sprouting angiogenesis, are the matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), the serineproteinases urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) associated with its receptor (uPAR) and receptorassociated plasminogen/plasmin, the neutrophil elastase and the cathepsins. Since angiogenesis plays a critical role not only in physiological but also in pathological processes, such as in tumours, controlling the contribution of EPCs to the angiogenic process, through the regulation of the protease systems involved, could yield new opportunities for the therapeutic prospect of efficient control of pathological angiogenesis. PMID:26321757

  6. The water factor in harvest-sprouting of hard red spring wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Sprouting in unthreshed, ripe, hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is induced by rain, but sprouting does not necessarily occur because the crop is wetted. The spike and grain water conditions conducive to sprouting were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Sprouting did not occur in field growing wheat wetted to 110% water concentration until the spike water concentration was reduced to 12% and maintained at this concentration for 2 days before wetting. When cut at growth stage 11.3, Feekes scale, Saratovskaya 20 (USSR) sprouted after 4 days drying, Olaf and Alex between 7 and 15 days drying and Columbus, recognized for its resistance to harvest time sprouting, after more than 15 days drying. Sprouting potential was enhanced after 4 wetting drying cycles in which any wetted interval was too brief to permit sufficient water imbibition to initiate sprouting. At harvest ripeness, grain water concentration exceeded spike water concentration by 0.7 percentage units. Following 6 months storage, 20% of the kernels in 300 spike bundles (simulating windrows) sprouted within 28 hrs after initiation of wetting to saturation (150% water concentration). Ninety percent sprouting occurred within 8 days in bundles maintained at 75% water concentration and higher, but less sprouting occurred in bundles dried to 50% water concentration before resaturation.

  7. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  8. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. PMID:23411305

  9. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane.

  10. The effects of UV radiation during the vegetative period on antioxidant compounds and postharvest quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Topcu, Yasin; Dogan, Adem; Kasimoglu, Zehra; Sahin-Nadeem, Hilal; Polat, Ersin; Erkan, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effects of supplementary UV radiation during the vegetative period on antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and postharvest quality of broccoli heads during long term storage was studied. The broccolis were grown under three different doses of supplementary UV radiation (2.2, 8.8 and 16.4 kJ/m(2)/day) in a soilless system in a glasshouse. Harvested broccoli heads were stored at 0 °C in modified atmosphere packaging for 60 days. The supplementary UV radiation (280-315 nm) during the vegetative period significantly decreased total carotenoid, the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content but increased the ascorbic acid, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of broccolis. All supplementary UV treatments slightly reduced the antioxidant activity of the broccolis, however, no remarkable change was observed between 2.2 and 8.8 kJ/m(2) radiation levels. The sinigrin and glucotropaeolin contents of the broccolis were substantially increased by UV treatments. The prolonged storage period resulted in decreased ascorbic acid, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as antioxidant activity. Discoloration of the heads, due to decreased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, was also observed with prolonged storage duration. Glucosinolates levels showed an increasing tendency till the 45th day of storage, and then their levels started to decline. The weight loss of broccoli heads during storage progressively increased with storage time in all treatments. Total soluble solids, solids content and titratable acidity decreased continuously during storage. Titratable acidity was not affected by UV radiation doses during the storage time whereas soluble solids and solids content (dry matter) were significantly affected by UV doses. Supplementary UV radiation increased the lightness (L*) and chroma (C*) values of the broccoli heads. Pre-harvest UV radiation during vegetative period seems to be a promising tool for increasing the beneficial health components

  11. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures.

  12. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

    2004-10-01

    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  13. The effects of Selenocysteine Se-Methyltransferase on Selenium metabolism in Broccoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se) plays an indispensable role in human nutrition and has suggested to have important health benefits, including as a cancer preventative agent. Se-methylselenocysteine, a monomethylated form of Se, has been shown to be one of the most effective chemopreventative compounds. Broccoli is ...

  14. Metabolomic assessment reveals a stimulatory effect of calcium treatment on glucosinolates contents in broccoli microgreen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preharvest calcium application has been shown to increase broccoli microgreen yield and extend shelf life. Here we investigated the effect of calcium application on its metabolome using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem with mass spectrometry (HRMS). The data collected were...

  15. Characterization of a cinnamoyl derivative from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets.

    PubMed

    Survay, Nazneen Shaik; Kumar, Brajesh; Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Ko, Eunyoung; Lee, Choonghwan; Choi, Jung Nam; Yoon, Do-Young; Jung, Yi-Sook; Park, Se Won

    2010-12-01

    A new intact glucosinolate Cinnamoyl derivative [6'-O-trans-(4″- hydroxy cinnamoyl)-4-(methylsulphinyl) butyl glucosinolate] (A) has been isolated from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets. The compound was isolated and characterized by LC, MS-ESI, FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as (1)H-(1)H COSY, DEPT 135° spectrometric experiments.

  16. Establishing an eastern broccoli industry: where are we and where do we need to go?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) entitled “Establishing an Eastern Broccoli Industry” has been underway since the fall of 2010 and funded under the USDA Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI), which was established as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This project has brought together research...

  17. Impact of thermal processing on sulforaphane yield from broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica).

    PubMed

    Wang, Grace C; Farnham, Mark; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2012-07-11

    In broccoli, sulforaphane forms when the glucosinolate glucoraphanin is hydrolyzed by the endogenous plant thiohydrolase myrosinase. A myrosinase cofactor directs hydrolysis away from the formation of bioactive sulforaphane and toward an inactive product, sulforaphane nitrile. The cofactor is more heat sensitive than myrosinase, presenting an opportunity to preferentially direct hydrolysis toward sulforaphane formation through regulation of thermal processing. Four broccoli cultivars were microwave heated, boiled, or steamed for various lengths of time. Production of nitrile during hydrolysis of unheated broccoli varied among cultivars from 91 to 52% of hydrolysis products (Pinnacle > Marathon > Patriot > Brigadier). Boiling and microwave heating caused an initial loss of nitrile, with a concomitant increase in sulforaphane, followed by loss of sulforaphane, all within 1 min. In contrast, steaming enhanced sulforaphane yield between 1.0 and 3.0 min in all but Brigadier. These data are proof of concept that steaming for 1.0-3.0 min provides less nitrile and more sulforaphane yield from a broccoli meal.

  18. Purification and characterization of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase).

    PubMed

    Mahn, Andrea; Angulo, Alejandro; Cabañas, Fernanda

    2014-12-01

    Myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.147) from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by concanavalin A affinity chromatography, with an intermediate dialysis step, resulting in 88% recovery and 1318-fold purification. These are the highest values reported for the purification of any myrosinase. The subunits of broccoli myrosinase have a molecular mass of 50-55 kDa. The native molecular mass of myrosinase was 157 kDa, and accordingly, it is composed of three subunits. The maximum activity was observed at 40 °C and at pH below 5.0. Kinetic assays demonstrated that broccoli myrosinase is subjected to substrate (sinigrin) inhibition. The Michaelis-Menten model, considering substrate inhibition, gave Vmax equal to 0.246 μmol min(-1), Km equal to 0.086 mM, and K(I) equal to 0.368 mM. This is the first study about purification and characterization of broccoli myrosinase.

  19. Effects of pre- and postharvest calcium treatments on shelf life and postharvest quality of broccoli microgreens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microgreens’ extremely short shelf life limits their commercial usage. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of pre- and post- harvest treatments using different forms of calcium on the postharvest quality and shelf-life of broccoli microgreens. Preharvest spray with calcium lactate, ...

  20. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement.

  1. Using regional broccoli trial data to select experimental hybrids for input into advanced yield trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large amount of phenotypic trait data are being generated in regional trials that are implemented as part of the Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) project entitled “Establishing an Eastern Broccoli Industry”. These data are used to identify the best entries in the trials for inclusion in ...

  2. Identification of the phenolic components of collard greens, kale, and Chinese broccoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An LC-MS profiling method was used to comprehensively study the phenolic components of collard greens, kale, and Chinese broccoli. This study led to the identification of 45 flavonoids and 13 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. All three plant materials contained kaempferol glycosides and acylgentio...

  3. Dielectric properties and heating rate of broccoli powder as related to radio-frequency heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, Salmonella contamination was identified in low-moisture foods including dried vegetable powder. Radio Frequency (RF) dielectric heating is a potential alternative pasteurization method with short heating time. Dielectric properties of broccoli powder with 6.9, 9.1, 12.2, and 14.9%, w. b....

  4. Influence of UV Light on Phenolic Content of Broccoli and Tomato Samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cultivars of tomato and broccoli samples were grown in high tunnels covered with two contrasting materials of similar thickness (0.152mm) and durability (4-year polyethylene). One material (Dura-film Super 4) blocked ultraviolet (UV) radiation (< 380 nm) and the other material (Tyco Tufflite IV...

  5. Influence of UV Light on Phenolic Acid Content of Broccoli Samples (Brassica oleracea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influence of environmental factors (such as rainfall, pests, soil, irrigation levels, and fertilization) on the phenolic composition of fruits and vegetables is well documented in the literature. We have evaluated the significance of ultraviolet light on the phenolic composition of broccoli samples....

  6. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement. PMID:26971329

  7. Hibernating myocardium results in partial sympathetic denervation and nerve sprouting.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Stanley F; Ovchinnikov, Vladislav; Canty, John M; Fallavollita, James A

    2013-01-15

    Hibernating myocardium due to chronic repetitive ischemia is associated with regional sympathetic nerve dysfunction and spontaneous arrhythmic death in the absence of infarction. Although inhomogeneity in regional sympathetic innervation is an acknowledged substrate for sudden death, the mechanism(s) responsible for these abnormalities in viable, dysfunctional myocardium (i.e., neural stunning vs. sympathetic denervation) and their association with nerve sprouting are unknown. Accordingly, markers of sympathetic nerve function and nerve sprouting were assessed in subendocardial tissue collected from chronically instrumented pigs with hibernating myocardium (n = 18) as well as sham-instrumented controls (n = 7). Hibernating myocardium exhibited evidence of partial sympathetic denervation compared with the normally perfused region and sham controls, with corresponding regional reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase protein (-32%, P < 0.001), norepinephrine uptake transport protein (-25%, P = 0.01), and tissue norepinephrine content (-45%, P < 0.001). Partial denervation induced nerve sprouting with regional increases in nerve growth factor precursor protein (31%, P = 0.01) and growth associated protein-43 (38%, P < 0.05). All of the changes in sympathetic nerve markers were similar in animals that developed sudden death (n = 9) compared with electively terminated pigs with hibernating myocardium (n = 9). In conclusion, sympathetic nerve dysfunction in hibernating myocardium is most consistent with partial sympathetic denervation and is associated with regional nerve sprouting. The extent of sympathetic remodeling is similar in animals that develop sudden death compared with survivors; this suggests that sympathetic remodeling in hibernating myocardium is not an independent trigger for sudden death. Nevertheless, sympathetic remodeling likely contributes to electrical instability in combination with other factors.

  8. Broccoli Consumption Interacts with GSTM1 to Perturb Oncogenic Signalling Pathways in the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Traka, Maria; Gasper, Amy V.; Melchini, Antonietta; Bacon, James R.; Needs, Paul W.; Frost, Victoria; Chantry, Andrew; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Ortori, Catharine A.; Barrett, David A.; Ball, Richard Y.; Mills, Robert D.; Mithen, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest that people who consume more than one portion of cruciferous vegetables per week are at lower risk of both the incidence of prostate cancer and of developing aggressive prostate cancer but there is little understanding of the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we quantify and interpret changes in global gene expression patterns in the human prostate gland before, during and after a 12 month broccoli-rich diet. Methods and Findings Volunteers were randomly assigned to either a broccoli-rich or a pea-rich diet. After six months there were no differences in gene expression between glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) positive and null individuals on the pea-rich diet but significant differences between GSTM1 genotypes on the broccoli-rich diet, associated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling pathways. Comparison of biopsies obtained pre and post intervention revealed more changes in gene expression occurred in individuals on a broccoli-rich diet than in those on a pea-rich diet. While there were changes in androgen signalling, regardless of diet, men on the broccoli diet had additional changes to mRNA processing, and TGFβ1, EGF and insulin signalling. We also provide evidence that sulforaphane (the isothiocyanate derived from 4-methylsuphinylbutyl glucosinolate that accumulates in broccoli) chemically interacts with TGFβ1, EGF and insulin peptides to form thioureas, and enhances TGFβ1/Smad-mediated transcription. Conclusions These findings suggest that consuming broccoli interacts with GSTM1 genotype to result in complex changes to signalling pathways associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis in the prostate. We propose that these changes may be mediated through the chemical interaction of isothiocyanates with signalling peptides in the plasma. This study provides, for the first time, experimental evidence obtained in humans to support observational studies

  9. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the homocysteine S-methyltransferase from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Lyi, Sangbom M; Zhou, Xin; Kochian, Leon V; Li, Li

    2007-04-01

    Plants are known for their unique ability to synthesize methionine from S-methylmethionine (SMM) and homocysteine using the enzyme SMM: homocysteine S-methyltransferase (HMT) in the SMM cycle. Two cDNAs exhibiting HMT activity were cloned from broccoli and functionally expressed in E. coli. One cDNA, that encodes an enzyme with high substrate specificity for homocysteine, was designated as BoHMT1. The other cDNA was the BoSMT gene that we previously characterized and encodes a selenocysteine methyltransferase (Lyi, S.M., Heller, L.I., Rutzke, M., Welch, R.M., Kochian, L.V., Li, L., 2005. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the selenocysteine Se-methyltransferase gene and Se-methylselenocysteine synthesis in broccoli. Plant Physiol. 138, 409-420). Both exist as single gene sequences in the broccoli genome. While BoSMT expression was extremely low or undetectable in broccoli plants unless the plants were exposed to selenium, the BoHMT1 mRNA accumulated in most tissues of the plant except older leaves. In contrast to BoSMT whose expression was dramatically upregulated by treating plants with selenate, the transcript levels of BoHMT1 were not markedly affected in plants exposed to selenium. BoHMT1 expression responded significantly to changes in plant sulfur status. However, its expression was not dramatically affected in plants treated with methionine, SMM, homocysteine, or the heavy metal, cadmium. The differences in the substrate specificity and gene expression in response to changes in plant sulfur and selenium status between BoHMT1 and BoSMT suggest that the enzymes encoded by these two genes play distinct roles in sulfur and selenium metabolism in broccoli.

  10. BROCCOLI: Software for fast fMRI analysis on many-core CPUs and GPUs

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Anders; Dufort, Paul; Villani, Mattias; LaConte, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is becoming ever more computationally demanding as temporal and spatial resolutions improve, and large, publicly available data sets proliferate. Moreover, methodological improvements in the neuroimaging pipeline, such as non-linear spatial normalization, non-parametric permutation tests and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches, can dramatically increase the computational burden. Despite these challenges, there do not yet exist any fMRI software packages which leverage inexpensive and powerful graphics processing units (GPUs) to perform these analyses. Here, we therefore present BROCCOLI, a free software package written in OpenCL (Open Computing Language) that can be used for parallel analysis of fMRI data on a large variety of hardware configurations. BROCCOLI has, for example, been tested with an Intel CPU, an Nvidia GPU, and an AMD GPU. These tests show that parallel processing of fMRI data can lead to significantly faster analysis pipelines. This speedup can be achieved on relatively standard hardware, but further, dramatic speed improvements require only a modest investment in GPU hardware. BROCCOLI (running on a GPU) can perform non-linear spatial normalization to a 1 mm3 brain template in 4–6 s, and run a second level permutation test with 10,000 permutations in about a minute. These non-parametric tests are generally more robust than their parametric counterparts, and can also enable more sophisticated analyses by estimating complicated null distributions. Additionally, BROCCOLI includes support for Bayesian first-level fMRI analysis using a Gibbs sampler. The new software is freely available under GNU GPL3 and can be downloaded from github (https://github.com/wanderine/BROCCOLI/). PMID:24672471

  11. Effects of sulfur fertilization on the accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals in radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-08-01

    The effects of sulfur fertilization on the growth profile, the contents of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls, total phenolics, and the FRAP value in radish seeds and sprouts were investigated. The concentrations of glucosinolates and antioxidants in sprouts were strongly influenced by the process of germination. Sulfur fertilization induced significant increases in the contents of individual glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and total phenolics. The phenolic contents in sprouts cultivated using 20, 60, or 100 mg/L sulfate were 20.7%, 40.4%, and 40.8% higher, respectively, than those of 7-day-old control sprouts. No detectable effects were observed on the contents of 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin and vitamin C. In addition, the accumulation of anthocyanins in 7-day-old sprouts decreased by 14.8-39.3% upon sulfur fertilization. These findings indicated that the application of sulfur fertilization has the potential to enhance the levels of health-promoting compounds in radish sprouts.

  12. Environmental factors during seed development and their influence on pre-harvest sprouting in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciha, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of pre-harvest sprouting of wheat is surveyed and a literature review of the effects of environmental conditions on pre-harvest sprouting is presenting. Physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes occurring within the wheat seed during germination, harvest, and storage are discussed. The effects of moisture, humidity, and temperature, particularly on seed dormancy, are considered. Procedures used in Europe for predicting the potential for sprouting are evaluated.

  13. Acute O 3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment.

    PubMed

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Jones, Wendy S; Burton, Andrew J; Nagy, John; Kubiske, Mark E

    2011-09-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O(3)) concentration (110-490 nmol mol(-1)) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O(3) pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O(3) exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O(3) and/or CO(2) for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O(3) damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O(3) damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O(3) damage as it directly controlled O(3) uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O(3) exposure. Moreover, elevated CO(2) did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O(3) dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O(3) levels.

  14. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  15. Comparison of phenolic compositions between common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Zaidul, I S M; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Mukasa, Yuji; Hashimoto, Naoto; Takigawa, Sigenobu; Noda, Takahiro; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2008-10-15

    The phenolic compositions of non-germinated/germinated seeds and seed sprouts (at 6-10 day-old) of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheats were investigated. Phenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid, four C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin vitexin, isovitexin), rutin and quercetin, were determined in the seed sprouts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the edible parts of common buckwheat sprouts, individual phenolics significantly increased during sprout growth from 6 to 10 days after sowing (DAS), whereas in tartary buckwheat sprouts they did not. While the sum contents of phenolic compounds in the edible part (mean 24.4mg/g DW at 6-10 DAS) of tartary buckwheat sprouts were similar to those of common buckwheat sprouts, rutin contents in the non-germinated/germinated seeds (mean 14.7mg/g DW) and edible parts (mean 21.8mg/g DW) of tartary buckwheat were 49- and 5-fold, respectively, higher than those of common buckwheat. Extracts of the edible parts of both species showed very similar free radical-scavenging activities (mean 1.7μmol trolox eq/g DW), suggesting that the overall antioxidative activity might be affected by the combination of identified phenolics and unidentified (minor) components. Therefore, buckwheat seed sprouts are recommended for their high antioxidative activity, as well as being an excellent dietary source of phenolic compounds, particularly tartary buckwheat sprouts, being rich in rutin.

  16. Terminal sprouting in partially denervated muscle of the mouse: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Torigoe, K

    1988-08-01

    Terminal sprouting in the mouse gastrocnemius muscle was examined by scanning electron microscopy after partial denervation. After one of the two muscle nerves in the medial head was cut, terminal sprouts arose from the outer edge of the intact motor endplates and grew out onto a connective tissue layer on the muscle fibres. The sprouts were very slender along their length, although some had a varicose appearance. The terminal tip of the sprouts was swollen in an amoeba-shaped configuration, forming a growth cone. Several shorter projections surrounded the initial part of a long terminal sprout, whilst in the centre the varicosity had a spindle shape like a diamond: the former most likely indicated the processes of a Schwann cell, and the latter may be a Schwann cell soma. Such swelling patterns suggested that the sprout initially grew out from a growth cone and then the Schwann cells migrated into the growing sprout. The sprouts had no synaptic connections with their muscle fibres at least during the growth cone-forming stage. No structural changes to guide the growing terminal sprouts could be recognized on the flat surface of the muscle fibres. PMID:3193131

  17. Dissociation between mossy fiber sprouting and rapid kindling with low-frequency stimulation of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Armitage, L L; Mohapel, P; Jenkins, E M; Hannesson, D K; Corcoran, M E

    1998-01-19

    In an attempt to determine whether sprouting of mossy fibers is invariably correlated with kindling of seizures, we subjected rats to rapid kindling with long trains of low-frequency stimulation of the amygdala that resulted in development of generalized seizures within a mean of five stimulations. For comparison, we subjected other rats to conventional kindling with short trains of high-frequency stimulation of the amygdala that resulted in development of generalized seizures within a mean of 13 stimulations. We found no evidence of mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus of rats killed one day after completion of rapid kindling, as compared to yoked controls, although significant sprouting was seen in rats killed one day after completion of conventional kindling. When we examined tissue from rats killed 20 days after rapid kindling, however, we did find significant sprouting, suggesting that mossy fiber sprouting can be triggered by rapid kindling if sufficient survival time is allowed. The observed disparity between completion of rapid low-frequency kindling and detection of mossy fiber sprouting suggests that mossy fiber sprouting may be associated more with sustained survival time after neuronal activation than with kindling per se. Furthermore, the similar time course of conventional kindling and of mossy fiber sprouting obscures the determination of a causal role of mossy fiber sprouting in conventional kindling.

  18. Effect of meal composition and cooking duration on the fate of sulforaphane following consumption of broccoli by healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rungapamestry, Vanessa; Duncan, Alan J; Fuller, Zoë; Ratcliffe, Brian

    2007-04-01

    The isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, has been implicated in the cancer-protective effects of brassica vegetables. When broccoli is consumed, sulforaphane is released from hydrolysis of glucoraphanin by plant myrosinase and/or colonic microbiota. The influence of meal composition and broccoli-cooking duration on isothiocyanate uptake was investigated in a designed experiment. Volunteers (n 12) were each offered a meal, with or without beef, together with 150 g lightly cooked broccoli (microwaved 2.0 min) or fully cooked broccoli (microwaved 5.5 min), or a broccoli seed extract. They received 3 g mustard containing pre-formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) with each meal. Urinary output of allyl (AMA) and sulforaphane (SFMA) mercapturic acids, the biomarkers of production of AITC and sulforaphane respectively, were measured for 24 h after meal consumption. The estimated yield of sulforaphane in vivo was about 3-fold higher after consumption of lightly cooked broccoli than fully cooked broccoli. Absorption of AITC from mustard was about 1.3-fold higher following consumption of the meat-containing meal compared with the non meat-containing alternative. The meal matrix did not significantly influence the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin and its excretion as SFMA from broccoli. Isothiocyanates may interact with the meal matrix to a greater extent if they are ingested pre-formed rather than after their production from hydrolysis of glucosinolates in vivo. The main influence on the production of isothiocyanates in vivo is the way in which brassica vegetables are cooked, rather than the effect of the meal matrix.

  19. Mint essential oil can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alteration of apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Dudai, Nativ; Fischer, Ravit; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Shoseyov, Oded; Eshel, Dani

    2010-06-01

    Sprouting of potatoes during storage, due to tuber dormancy release, is associated with weight loss and softening. Sprout-preventing chemicals, such as chlorpropham (CIPC), can negatively impact the environment and human health. Monthly thermal fogging with mint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil (MEO) inhibited sprouting in eight potato cultivars during large-volume 6-month storage: the tubers remained firm with 38% lower weight loss after 140 days of storage. The sprout-inhibitory action may be nullified: treated tubers washed with water resumed sprouting within days, with reduced apical dominance. MEO application caused local necrosis of the bud meristem, and a few weeks later, axillary bud (AX) growth was induced in the same sprouting eye. MEO components analysis showed that 73% of its content is the monoterpene R-carvone. Tubers treated with synthetic R-carvone in equivalent dose, 4.5 microl l(-1), showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of MEO. Surprisingly, 0.5 microl l(-1) of MEO or synthetic R-carvone catalyzed AX sprouting in the tuber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an essential oil vapor inducing early sprouting of potato tubers. R-carvone caused visible damage to the meristem membrane at sprout-inhibiting, but not sprout-inducing doses, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. After 5 days' exposure to R-carvone, its derivatives transcarveol and neo-dihydrocarveol were found in buds of tubers treated with the inhibitory dose, suggesting biodegradation. These experiments demonstrate the potential of MEO vapor as an environmentally friendly alternative to CIPC in stored potatoes and as a research tool for the control of sprouting in plants.

  20. Dendrites of rod bipolar cells sprout in normal aging retina

    PubMed Central

    Liets, Lauren C.; Eliasieh, Kasra; van der List, Deborah A.; Chalupa, Leo M.

    2006-01-01

    The aging nervous system is known to manifest a variety of degenerative and regressive events. Here we report the unexpected growth of dendrites in the retinas of normal old mice. The dendrites of many rod bipolar cells in aging mice were observed to extend well beyond their normal strata within the outer plexiform layer to innervate the outer nuclear layer where they appeared to form contacts with the spherules of rod photoreceptors. Such dendritic sprouting increased with age and was evident at all retinal eccentricities. These results provide evidence of retinal plasticity associated with normal aging. PMID:16880381

  1. Influence of different blanching methods on colour, ascorbic acid and phenolics content of broccoli.

    PubMed

    Severini, C; Giuliani, R; De Filippis, A; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2016-01-01

    Lack of nutrients in cooking water, high energetic costs, high water consumption and recycling are some drawbacks of vegetable blanching. Those disadvantages could be bypassed using microwave blanching. Three blanching methods (microwave, boiling water and steaming) were compared in this study in order to determine their effects on some functional properties of broccoli. In addition, the thermal damage on broccoli colour was evaluated. The effectiveness of each blanching process was performed measuring the lost of peroxidase activity, that results more rapidly in microwaves and steam treatments (50 and 60 s respectively) than in boiling water treatment (120 s). The colour indexes did not allow to discriminate a significant difference among treatments. The increase of treatment time caused a vitamin C decrease in samples blanched by boiling water and steam; this trend was not observed in microwaved samples. The phenols content did not significantly vary depending both on type and on time of treatment.

  2. Insecticide residues in head lettuce, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, and broccoli grown in fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Miao-Fan; Chen, Jung-Fang; Syu, Jing-Jing; Pei, Chi; Chien, Hsiu-Pao

    2014-04-23

    The residues of four insecticides belonging to different families were studied on head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linn. var. capitata DC.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Skeels), and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) after pesticide application. To reduce application variability, a tank mix of acetamiprid 20% SP, chlorpyrifos 22.5% EC, deltamethrin 2.4% SC, and methomyl 40% SP was applied at recommended and double doses. Initial deposits of all pesticides on head lettuce were higher than those of the other three crops. The residues of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) at recommended preharvest intervals (PHIs) on head lettuce and Chinese broccoli treated with higher doses. The residues of methomyl on head lettuce also showed the same phenomenon. PMID:24684565

  3. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  4. Neural networks using broadband spectral discriminators reduces illumination required for broccoli identification in weedy fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico

    1996-03-01

    Statistical discriminative analysis and neural networks were used to prove that crop/weed/soil discrimination by optical reflectance was feasible. The wavelengths selected as inputs on those neural networks were ten nanometers width, reducing the total collected radiation for the sensor. Spectral data collected from several farms having different weed populations were introduced to discriminant analysis. The best discriminant wavelengths were used to build a wavelength histogram which selected the three best spectral broadbands for broccoli/weed/soil discrimination. The broadbands were analyzed using a new single broadband discriminator index named the discriminative integration index, DII, and the DII values obtained were used to train a neural network. This paper introduces the index concept, its results and its use for minimizing artificial lightning requirements with broadband spectral measurements for broccoli/weed/soil discrimination.

  5. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25620234

  6. Extraction, chemical characterization and biological activity determination of broccoli health promoting compounds.

    PubMed

    Ares, Ana M; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José

    2013-10-25

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) contains substantial amount of health-promoting compounds such as vitamins, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, and dietary essential minerals; thus, it benefits health beyond providing just basic nutrition, and consumption of broccoli has been increasing over the years. This review gives an overview on the extraction and separation techniques, as well as the biological activity of some of the above mentioned compounds which have been published in the period January 2008 to January 2013. The work has been distributed according to the different families of health promoting compounds discussing the extraction procedures and the analytical techniques employed for their characterization. Finally, information about the different biological activities of these compounds has been also provided.

  7. In-gel imaging of RNA processing using Broccoli reveals optimal aptamer expression strategies

    PubMed Central

    Filonov, Grigory S.; Kam, Christina W.; Song, Wenjiao; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY RNA aptamers can be expressed in cells to influence and image cellular processes. Aptamer folding is maintained by inserting the aptamers into highly structured RNA scaffolds. Here we show that commonly used RNA scaffolds exhibit unexpected instability and cleavage in bacterial and mammalian cells. Using an in-gel staining approach for rapid and simple detection of Spinach- or Broccoli-tagged RNAs in cells, we monitored the processing of RNAs tagged with scaffolded aptamers, revealing endonucleolytic cleavage, RNA instability and poor expression. We reengineered a natural three-way junction structure to generate an alternative scaffold that enables stable aptamer expression in cells. This scaffold was used to create cassettes containing up to four Broccoli units, markedly enhancing the brightness of mammalian cells expressing cassette-tagged RNAs. These experiments describe methods for screening RNA cleavage events in cells, and identify cell-compatible scaffolds that enable efficient tagging of RNAs with aptamers for cellular expression. PMID:26000751

  8. Influence of different blanching methods on colour, ascorbic acid and phenolics content of broccoli.

    PubMed

    Severini, C; Giuliani, R; De Filippis, A; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2016-01-01

    Lack of nutrients in cooking water, high energetic costs, high water consumption and recycling are some drawbacks of vegetable blanching. Those disadvantages could be bypassed using microwave blanching. Three blanching methods (microwave, boiling water and steaming) were compared in this study in order to determine their effects on some functional properties of broccoli. In addition, the thermal damage on broccoli colour was evaluated. The effectiveness of each blanching process was performed measuring the lost of peroxidase activity, that results more rapidly in microwaves and steam treatments (50 and 60 s respectively) than in boiling water treatment (120 s). The colour indexes did not allow to discriminate a significant difference among treatments. The increase of treatment time caused a vitamin C decrease in samples blanched by boiling water and steam; this trend was not observed in microwaved samples. The phenols content did not significantly vary depending both on type and on time of treatment. PMID:26787969

  9. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility. PMID:26396436

  10. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts.

  11. Properties of Field-Sprouted Sorghum and Its Performance in Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to investigate physicochemical and biochemical characteristics of field-sprouted grain sorghum and their fermentation performance in ethanol production. Five field-sprouted grain sorghum varieties, which received abnormally high rainfall during harvest, were used i...

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders

    PubMed Central

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Petronella, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak. PMID:27660774

  13. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  14. Transcriptional profile of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden during alfalfa sprout colonization

    PubMed Central

    Brankatschk, Kerstin; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

    2014-01-01

    Sprouted seeds represent a great risk for infection by human enteric pathogens because of favourable growth conditions for pathogens during their germination. The aim of this study was to identify mechanisms of interactions of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Weltevreden with alfalfa sprouts. RNA-seq analysis of S. Weltevreden grown with sprouts in comparison with M9-glucose medium showed that among a total of 4158 annotated coding sequences, 177 genes (4.3%) and 345 genes (8.3%) were transcribed at higher levels with sprouts and in minimal medium respectively. Genes that were higher transcribed with sprouts are coding for proteins involved in mechanisms known to be important for attachment, motility and biofilm formation. Besides gene expression required for phenotypic adaption, genes involved in sulphate acquisition were higher transcribed, suggesting that the surface on alfalfa sprouts may be poor in sulphate. Genes encoding structural and effector proteins of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, involved in survival within macrophages during infection of animal tissue, were higher transcribed with sprouts possibly as a response to environmental conditions. This study provides insight on additional mechanisms that may be important for pathogen interactions with sprouts. PMID:24308841

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders.

    PubMed

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Petronella, Nicholas; Tamber, Sandeep

    2016-09-22

    A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak.

  16. Effects of yeast polysaccharide on growth and flavonoid accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum sprout cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jianglin; Peng, Lianxin; Zou, Liang; Wang, Jingbo; Zhong, Lingyun; Xiang, Dabing

    2012-09-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS) on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat). Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures on day 6, the total rutin and quercentin content was effectively increased to 42.8 mg/gdw, or about 1.4-fold in comparison with the control of 31.2 mg/gdw. Feeding with 800 mg/L of YPS on day 9, the sprouts biomass was increased by about 8% compared to the control culture (0.99 gdw/100 sprouts versus 0.92 gdw/100 sprouts). Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. It could be an effective strategy for improving the functional quality of the F. tataricum sprouts provided with YPS.

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders.

    PubMed

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Petronella, Nicholas; Tamber, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak. PMID:27660774

  18. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    PubMed

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  19. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  20. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  1. Glucosinolates from pak choi and broccoli induce enzymes and inhibit inflammation and colon cancer differently.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Doris; Lehmann, Carsten; Florian, Simone; Barknowitz, Gitte; Haack, Michael; Mewis, Inga; Wiesner, Melanie; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Brigelius-Flohé, Regina; Kipp, Anna P

    2014-06-01

    High consumption of Brassica vegetables is considered to prevent especially colon carcinogenesis. The content and pattern of glucosinolates (GSLs) can highly vary among different Brassica vegetables and may, thus, affect the outcome of Brassica intervention studies. Therefore, we aimed to feed mice with diets containing plant materials of the Brassica vegetables broccoli and pak choi. Further enrichment of the diets by adding GSL extracts allowed us to analyze the impact of different amounts (GSL-poor versus GSL-rich) and different patterns (broccoli versus pak choi) of GSLs on inflammation and tumor development in a model of inflammation-triggered colon carcinogenesis (AOM/DSS model). Serum albumin adducts were analyzed to confirm the up-take and bioactivation of GSLs after feeding the Brassica diets for four weeks. In agreement with their high glucoraphanin content, broccoli diets induced the formation of sulforaphane-lysine adducts. Levels of 1-methoxyindolyl-3-methyl-histidine adducts derived from neoglucobrassicin were the highest in the GSL-rich pak choi group. In the colon, the GSL-rich broccoli and the GSL-rich pak choi diet up-regulated the expression of different sets of typical Nrf2 target genes like Nqo1, Gstm1, Srxn1, and GPx2. GSL-rich pak choi induced the AhR target gene Cyp1a1 but did not affect Ugt1a1 expression. Both colitis and tumor number were drastically reduced after feeding the GSL-rich pak choi diet while the other three diets had no effect. GSLs can act anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic but both effects depend on the specific amount and pattern of GSLs within a vegetable. Thus, a high Brassica consumption cannot be generally considered to be cancer-preventive.

  2. Glucosinolates from pak choi and broccoli induce enzymes and inhibit inflammation and colon cancer differently.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Doris; Lehmann, Carsten; Florian, Simone; Barknowitz, Gitte; Haack, Michael; Mewis, Inga; Wiesner, Melanie; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Brigelius-Flohé, Regina; Kipp, Anna P

    2014-06-01

    High consumption of Brassica vegetables is considered to prevent especially colon carcinogenesis. The content and pattern of glucosinolates (GSLs) can highly vary among different Brassica vegetables and may, thus, affect the outcome of Brassica intervention studies. Therefore, we aimed to feed mice with diets containing plant materials of the Brassica vegetables broccoli and pak choi. Further enrichment of the diets by adding GSL extracts allowed us to analyze the impact of different amounts (GSL-poor versus GSL-rich) and different patterns (broccoli versus pak choi) of GSLs on inflammation and tumor development in a model of inflammation-triggered colon carcinogenesis (AOM/DSS model). Serum albumin adducts were analyzed to confirm the up-take and bioactivation of GSLs after feeding the Brassica diets for four weeks. In agreement with their high glucoraphanin content, broccoli diets induced the formation of sulforaphane-lysine adducts. Levels of 1-methoxyindolyl-3-methyl-histidine adducts derived from neoglucobrassicin were the highest in the GSL-rich pak choi group. In the colon, the GSL-rich broccoli and the GSL-rich pak choi diet up-regulated the expression of different sets of typical Nrf2 target genes like Nqo1, Gstm1, Srxn1, and GPx2. GSL-rich pak choi induced the AhR target gene Cyp1a1 but did not affect Ugt1a1 expression. Both colitis and tumor number were drastically reduced after feeding the GSL-rich pak choi diet while the other three diets had no effect. GSLs can act anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic but both effects depend on the specific amount and pattern of GSLs within a vegetable. Thus, a high Brassica consumption cannot be generally considered to be cancer-preventive. PMID:24714741

  3. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections associated with eating alfalfa sprouts - United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-05-15

    On February 24, 2009, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services identified six isolates of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul with collection dates from February 7--14. Salmonella Saintpaul is not a commonly detected serotype; during 2008, only three Salmonella Saintpaul isolates were identified in Nebraska. This report summarizes the preliminary results of the investigation of this outbreak, which has identified 228 cases in 13 states and implicated the source as alfalfa sprouts produced at multiple facilities using seeds that likely originated from a common grower. On April 26, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC recommended that consumers not eat raw alfalfa sprouts, including sprout blends containing alfalfa sprouts, until further notice. On May 1, FDA alerted sprout growers and retailers that a seed supplier was withdrawing voluntarily from the market all lots of alfalfa seeds with a specific three-digit prefix. PMID:19444155

  4. Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the differences of two types of buckwheat sprouts, namely, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.), in general composition, functional components, and antioxidant capacity. The ethanol extracts of tartary buckwheat sprouts (TBS) had higher reducing power, free radical scavenging activity, and superoxide anion scavenging activity than those of common buckwheat sprouts (CBS). As for chelating effects on ferrous ions, CBS had higher values than TBS. Rutin was the major flavonoid found in these two types of buckwheat sprouts, and TBS was 5 fold higher in rutin than CBS. The antioxidant effects of buckwheat sprouts on human hepatoma HepG2 cells revealed that both of TBS and CBS could decrease the production of intracellular peroxide and remove the intracellular superoxide anions in HepG2 cells, but TBS reduced the cellular oxidative stress more effectively than CBS, possibly because of its higher rutin (and quercetin) content.

  5. Sympathetic Fiber Sprouting in Chronically Compressed Dorsal Root Ganglia Without Peripheral Axotomy

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Shelby Q.; Li, Chunling; Li, Huiqing; Xie, Wenrui; Pablo, Carmelita S.; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Sympathetic axonal sprouting in axotomized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) has been shown to be a major phenomenon implicated in neuropathic pain. However, it is not known whether sympathetic sprouting can occur in pathologic ganglia without peripheral axotomy. We thus examined presence and density of sympathetic axonal sprouting within DRG of rats subjected to a persistent compressive injury by inserting a stainless steel metal rod into L4 and L5 lumbar intervertebral foramen. Sympathetic axons were identified by immunohistochemical staining with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibodies. Results indicate that progressive increase in sympathetic axonal sprouting occurred in the bilateral DRGs between postoperative days 2 and 28. The sympathetic fiber density was greater on the lesion side than the contralateral side. In conclusion, chronic compressive injury of the DRG results in sympathetic sprouting in the non-axotomized ganglion and may partially contribute to the development and maintenance of certain pathological pain states. PMID:17387381

  6. The influence of processing and preservation on the retention of health-promoting compounds in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Galgano, F; Favati, F; Caruso, M; Pietrafesa, A; Natella, S

    2007-03-01

    In this work the effects of common household practices such as chilling, freezing, and cooking on vitamin C retention in broccoli (Marathon cv.), as well as their influence on the release of sulforaphane upon enzymatic hydrolysis of glucoraphanin by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase, were investigated. When chilled at 6 degrees C and 95% R.H. for 35 d, broccoli showed a vitamin C and sulforaphane loss of about 39% and 29%, respectively, while storage at -18 degrees C for 60 d resulted in similar losses, but mainly due to the blanching step. Boiling, steaming, microwaving, pressure-cooking, and the combined use of pressure and microwaves were the cooking methods investigated. Boiling and steaming caused significant vitamin C losses, 34% and 22%, respectively, while with the other treatments more than 90% retention was observed. Sulforaphane was no more detectable after boiling or steaming, while pressure/microwave cooking did not cause any significant loss. The quantitative distribution of these moieties in the florets and stems of fresh and chilled broccoli was also investigated.

  7. A role for ethylene in the yellowing of broccoli after harvest

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, M.S.; Downs, C.G.; Lill, R.E.; King, G.A. . Levin Research Center)

    1994-03-01

    Ethylene production from florets of Shogun harvested broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) held at 20C in darkness increased as the sepal tissues yellowed. The pattern of respiration rate and ethylene production from branchlets or entire heads was similar, although the magnitude of ethylene and carbon dioxide production appeared to be diluted by the other fleshy stem tissues. The reproductive structures, stamens and pistil, may have a role in determining the rate of sepal degreening, since removing them from florets reduced the yellowing rate. The pistil and stamens also had 7-fold higher levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase activity and more than double the ethylene production of other tissues within the floret. Stamen ACC oxidase activity was high on the first day after harvest, before yellowing became obvious. Changes in ACC oxidase activity of the pistil and stamens mirrored changes in ACC content in these tissues. The climacteric status of harvested broccoli was confirmed by exposure to 0.5% propylene. Propylene stimulated respiration and ethylene production and accelerated yellowing. Broccoli tissues did not respond to propylene immediately after harvest. In tissues aged in air before treatment, the time for response to propylene was shorter, a result suggesting a change in tissue sensitivity. Ethylene exposure induced a dose-dependent decline in hue angle, with 1 ppm ethylene giving the maximum response.

  8. CIPC and 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene Inhibit Sprout Growth Through Different Mechanisms and Do Not Extend Tuber Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) are sprout inhibitors used to control sprouting in commercial potato storages. CIPC interferes with microtubule function and is thought to suppress sprouting by inhibiting cell division. DMN is a natural product produced by potato tubers whose sp...

  9. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  10. Dietary chemoprevention of PhIP induced carcinogenesis in male Fischer 344 rats with tomato and broccoli.

    PubMed

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Sfanos, Karen S; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G; Brayton, Cory; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45) were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet), PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study), or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks). Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS) lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers.

  11. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli.

  12. Dietary broccoli mildly improves neuroinflammation in aged mice but does not reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Brigitte E; Chen, Yung-Ju; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress and heightened inflammatory response to infection. Dietary interventions to reduce these changes are therefore desirable. Broccoli contains glucoraphanin, which is converted to sulforaphane (SFN) by plant myrosinase during cooking preparation or digestion. Sulforaphane increases antioxidant enzymes including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase I and inhibits inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that dietary broccoli would support an antioxidant response in brain and periphery of aged mice and inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and sickness. Young adult and aged mice were fed control or 10% broccoli diet for 28 days before an intraperitoneal LPS injection. Social interactions were assessed 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after LPS, and mRNA was quantified in liver and brain at 24 hours. Dietary broccoli did not ameliorate LPS-induced decrease in social interactions in young or aged mice. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was unaffected by broccoli consumption but was induced by LPS in brain and liver of adult and aged mice. In addition, IL-1β was elevated in brain of aged mice without LPS. Broccoli consumption decreased age-elevated cytochrome b-245 β, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced glial activation markers in aged mice. Collectively, these data suggest that 10% broccoli diet provides a modest reduction in age-related oxidative stress and glial reactivity, but is insufficient to inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. Thus, it is likely that SFN would need to be provided in supplement form to control the inflammatory response to LPS.

  13. Dietary broccoli mildly improves neuroinflammation in aged mice but does not reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Brigitte E.; Chen, Yung-Ju; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress and heightened inflammatory response to infection. Dietary interventions to reduce these changes are therefore desirable. Broccoli contains glucoraphanin, which is converted to sulforaphane (SFN) by plant myrosinase during cooking preparation or digestion. SFN increases antioxidant enzymes including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and heme oxygenase I (HMOX1) and inhibits inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that dietary broccoli would support an antioxidant response in brain and periphery of aged mice and inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and sickness. Young adult and aged mice were fed control or 10% broccoli diet for 28 days prior to an intraperitoneal LPS injection. Social interactions were assessed 2, 4, 8, and 24 h following LPS, and mRNA quantified in liver and brain at 24 h. Dietary broccoli did not ameliorate LPS-induced decrease in social interactions in young or aged mice. Interleukin (IL)-1β expression was unaffected by broccoli consumption but was induced by LPS in brain and liver of adult and aged mice. Additionally, IL-1β was elevated in brain of aged mice without LPS. Broccoli consumption decreased age-elevated cytochrome b-245 β, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced glial activation markers in aged mice. Collectively, these data suggest that 10% broccoli diet provides a modest reduction in age-related oxidative stress and glial reactivity, but is insufficient to inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. Thus, it is likely that SFN would need to be provided in supplement form to control the inflammatory response to LPS. PMID:25439028

  14. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli. PMID:27446156

  15. Dietary chemoprevention of PhIP induced carcinogenesis in male Fischer 344 rats with tomato and broccoli.

    PubMed

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Sfanos, Karen S; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G; Brayton, Cory; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45) were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet), PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study), or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks). Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS) lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers. PMID:24312188

  16. Assessing the Public Health Impact and Effectiveness of Interventions To Prevent Salmonella Contamination of Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hongliu; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Sprouts have been a recurring public health challenge due to microbiological contamination, and Salmonella has been the major cause of sprout-associated outbreaks. Although seed treatment and microbiological testing have been applied as risk reduction measures during sprout production, the extent to which their effectiveness in reducing the public health risks associated with sprouts has not been well investigated. We conducted a quantitative risk assessment to measure the risk posed by Salmonella contamination in sprouts and to determine whether and how mitigation strategies can achieve a satisfactory risk reduction based on the assumption that the risk reduction achieved by a microbiological sampling and testing program at a given sensitivity is equivalent to that achieved by direct inactivation of pathogens. Our results indicated that if the sprouts were produced without any risk interventions, the health impact caused by sprouts contaminated with Salmonella would be very high, with a median annual estimated loss of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of 691,412. Seed treatment (with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite) or microbiological sampling and testing of spent irrigation water (SIW) alone could reduce the median annual impact to 734 or 4,856 DALYs, respectively. Combining seed treatment with testing of the SIW would further decrease the risk to 58 DALYs. This number could be dramatically lowered to 3.99 DALYs if sprouts were produced under conditions that included treating seeds with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite plus microbiological testing of seeds, SIW, and finished products. Our analysis shows that the public health impact due to Salmonella contamination in sprouts could be controlled if seeds are treated to reduce pathogens and microbiological sampling and testing is implemented. Future advances in intervention strategies would be important to improve sprout safety further.

  17. Total polyphenols and bioactivity of seeds and sprouts in several legumes.

    PubMed

    Chon, Sang-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Seeds and sprouts from legume crop plants have received attention as functional foods, because of their nutritive values including amino acid, fiber, trace elements, vitamins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Consumption of seeds and sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. The seeds and sprouts are excellent examples of functional food defined as lowering the risk of various diseases and/or exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value. Phenolic compounds are considered as secondary metabolites that are synthesized by plants during normal development and in response to stress conditions, and the compounds occur ubiquitously in plants as the diversified group of phytochemicals derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Plant phenolics include simple phenols, phenolic acids, coumarins, flavonoids, stilbenes, hydrolyzable and condensed tannins, lignans, and lignins. In plant, phenolics may act as phytoalexins, antifeedants, attractants for pollinators, contributors to the plant pigmentation, antioxidants, and protective agents against UV light, among others. In food, phenolics may contribute to the bitterness, astringency, color, flavor, odor, and oxidative stability of products. In addition, health-protecting capacity of some and antinutritional properties of other plant phenolics are of great importance to producers, processors and consumers. Several researches were conducted to compare the content of phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzyme activity from seeds and sprouts of legume plants. Total phenolics (TP) content and total flavonoids (TF) level were highest in soybean sprout extracts, followed by cowpea and mungbean sprout extracts (p < 0.05). DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) free radical scavenging activity was higher in cowpea or mungbean sprouts than in soybean sprouts. Among antioxidant enzymes

  18. Intake of bean sprouts influences melatonin and antioxidant capacity biomarker levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Herrera, Teresa; Cayuelas, L Tábata; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; de Pablo, Ángel L López; Arribas, Silvia M; Martin-Cabrejas, María A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous antioxidant hormone, which reduces with ageing and the low levels are associated with some chronic diseases. Germination of legumes increases the plant levels of melatonin, making sprouts a suitable food source of this hormone. However, information on its bioavailability after consumption is lacking. We aimed to evaluate in rats the effect of kidney bean sprout intake on the plasma levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (serotonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we compared the plasma bioavailability derived from kidney bean sprouts versus synthetic melatonin intake. Kidney beans were germinated for 6 days and an extract was prepared in water. Male young Sprague Dawley rats were used; blood and urine samples were obtained before and after 90 min of administration of kidney bean sprout extract via a gavage. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after sprout ingestion (16%, p < 0.05). This increment correlated with the urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin content, the principal biomarker of plasmatic melatonin levels (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity levels did not exhibit any significant variation. The comparison of the bioavailability between the melatonin contained in the kidney bean sprouts and in a synthetic solution evidenced slightly higher levels of plasmatic melatonin (17%) in rats fed with the solution of synthetic melatonin. We conclude that kidney bean sprouts could be a good source of dietary melatonin and other bioactive compounds known to have health benefits.

  19. Intake of bean sprouts influences melatonin and antioxidant capacity biomarker levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Herrera, Teresa; Cayuelas, L Tábata; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; de Pablo, Ángel L López; Arribas, Silvia M; Martin-Cabrejas, María A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous antioxidant hormone, which reduces with ageing and the low levels are associated with some chronic diseases. Germination of legumes increases the plant levels of melatonin, making sprouts a suitable food source of this hormone. However, information on its bioavailability after consumption is lacking. We aimed to evaluate in rats the effect of kidney bean sprout intake on the plasma levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (serotonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we compared the plasma bioavailability derived from kidney bean sprouts versus synthetic melatonin intake. Kidney beans were germinated for 6 days and an extract was prepared in water. Male young Sprague Dawley rats were used; blood and urine samples were obtained before and after 90 min of administration of kidney bean sprout extract via a gavage. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after sprout ingestion (16%, p < 0.05). This increment correlated with the urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin content, the principal biomarker of plasmatic melatonin levels (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity levels did not exhibit any significant variation. The comparison of the bioavailability between the melatonin contained in the kidney bean sprouts and in a synthetic solution evidenced slightly higher levels of plasmatic melatonin (17%) in rats fed with the solution of synthetic melatonin. We conclude that kidney bean sprouts could be a good source of dietary melatonin and other bioactive compounds known to have health benefits. PMID:26841704

  20. Effect of salinity stress on phenolic compounds and carotenoids in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kee-Jai; Kim, Bum-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Woong; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2012-12-01

    The effect of salinity stress on the nutritional quality of buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 1, 3, 5, and 7d was investigated by analysis of the antioxidant activity and levels of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Treatment with various concentrations of NaCl (10, 50, 100, and 200mM) resulted in an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in the sprouts compared with the control (0mM). The phenolic contents of sprouts treated with 10, 50, and 100mM after 7d of cultivation were 57%, 121%, and 153%, respectively, higher than that of the control (0mM NaCl). Moreover, the accumulation of phenolic compounds was primarily caused by an increase in the levels of 4 compounds: isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin. The carotenoid content of sprouts treated with 50 and 100mM NaCl was twice higher than that of the control. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of the sprouts was increased by NaCl treatment. Although the growth rate of sprouts decreased with >50mM NaCl, these results suggest that treatment of an appropriate concentration of NaCl improves the nutritional quality of sprouts, including the level of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity.

  1. Blocking CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding inhibits sprouting angiogenesis and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    PJ, Noy; P, Lodhia; K, Khan; X, Zhuang; DG, Ward; AR, Verissimo; A, Bacon; R, Bicknell

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified CLEC14A as a tumour endothelial marker. Here we show CLEC14A is a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Using a HUVEC spheroid sprouting assay we found CLEC14A to be a regulator of sprout initiation. Analysis of endothelial sprouting in aortic ring and in vivo subcutaneous sponge assays from clec14a+/+ and clec14a−/− mice revealed defects in sprouting angiogenesis in CLEC14A deficient animals. Tumour growth was retarded and vascularity reduced in clec14a−/− mice. Pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed MMRN2 binds to the extracellular region of CLEC14A. The CLEC14A-MMRN2 interaction was interrogated using mouse monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for their ability to block this interaction. Clone C4 but not C2 blocked CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding. C4 antibody perturbed tube formation and endothelial sprouting in vitro and in vivo, with a similar phenotype to loss of CLEC14A. Significantly, tumour growth was impaired in C4 treated animals and vascular density was also reduced in the C4 treated group. We conclude that CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding has a role in inducing sprouting angiogenesis during tumour growth, that has the potential to be manipulated in future anti-angiogenic therapy design. PMID:25745997

  2. Blocking CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding inhibits sprouting angiogenesis and tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Noy, P J; Lodhia, P; Khan, K; Zhuang, X; Ward, D G; Verissimo, A R; Bacon, A; Bicknell, R

    2015-11-19

    We previously identified CLEC14A as a tumour endothelial marker. Here we show that CLEC14A is a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Using a human umbilical vein endothelial cell spheroid-sprouting assay, we found CLEC14A to be a regulator of sprout initiation. Analysis of endothelial sprouting in aortic ring and in vivo subcutaneous sponge assays from clec14a(+/+) and clec14a(-/-) mice revealed defects in sprouting angiogenesis in CLEC14A-deficient animals. Tumour growth was retarded and vascularity reduced in clec14a(-/-) mice. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that MMRN2 binds to the extracellular region of CLEC14A. The CLEC14A-MMRN2 interaction was interrogated using mouse monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for their ability to block this interaction. Clone C4, but not C2, blocked CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding. C4 antibody perturbed tube formation and endothelial sprouting in vitro and in vivo, with a similar phenotype to loss of CLEC14A. Significantly, tumour growth was impaired in C4-treated animals and vascular density was also reduced in the C4-treated group. We conclude that CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding has a role in inducing sprouting angiogenesis during tumour growth, which has the potential to be manipulated in future antiangiogenic therapy design. PMID:25745997

  3. Isoflavone content and composition in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts germinated under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2015-03-18

    The influence of different germination conditions on isoflavone contents in chickpea sprouts was investigated in this study. Chickpea sprouts were germinated under different experimental conditions, including germination in the dark (GD), in the light (GL), under ethanol stress (GE), or under salt stress (GS) in the dark. The results demonstrated that the isoflavone contents in chickpea sprouts germinated with these various conditions significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to those in untreated chickpea seeds. The maximum amount of total isoflavones was obtained from chickpea sprouts in the GL group on day 8. The contents of formononetin and biochanin A in this group were 154 and 130 times higher, respectively, than in untreated seeds and 1.2 times higher than in sprouts in the GD group. Moreover, the isoflavone contents of chickpea sprouts in the GE and GS groups were also higher (p<0.05) than those in the GD group. A solution of 3% ethanol and 0.03 mol/L salt seemed to be the most optimal for isoflavone production among the solutions selected for this study. Most of the isoflavone contents significantly increased (p<0.05), especially formononetin and biochanin A, while the genistein content decreased with germination. Ononin, pseudobaptigenin, and glycitein glucoside acetylated were only detected in germinated chickpeas. This finding could expand the potential for the development of chickpea sprouts as a functional food.

  4. Effect of sprouting and light cycle on antioxidant activity of Brassica oleracea varieties.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ana Paula; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-12-15

    The antioxidant activity of sprouts from four Brassica oleracea varieties was evaluated using "in vitro" methods (total phenolic and flavonoid content; radical scavenging assays: DPPH, hydroxyl and peroxyl; and Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability Assay). Light cycles and sprouting influenced the potential antioxidant activity of sprouts and significant differences were observed between varieties. Generally, antioxidant activity decreased with sprouting and increased in the presence of light, whose discriminant effect was highly significant (P<0.001). Red cabbage sprouts produced under light cycles showed the highest antioxidant activity (57.11 μg mL(-1) Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability, 221.46 μg mL(-1) Hydroxyl radical scavenging, 279.02 μg mL(-1) Peroxyl radical scavenging). Among the traditional Portuguese brassica varieties, Penca cabbage sprouts produced under light presented higher antioxidant capacity, and also higher phenolic and flavonoid content (54.04 mg GAEg(-1) d.w. extract and 21.33 QEg(-1) d.w. extract, respectively) than Galega kale. The phenolic content of Brassica sprouts had a significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity.

  5. Outbreaks caused by sprouts, United States, 1998-2010: lessons learned and solutions needed.

    PubMed

    Dechet, Amy M; Herman, Karen M; Chen Parker, Cary; Taormina, Peter; Johanson, Joy; Tauxe, Robert V; Mahon, Barbara E

    2014-08-01

    After a series of outbreaks associated with sprouts in the mid-1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published guidelines in 1999 for sprouts producers to reduce the risk of contamination. The recommendations included treating seeds with an antimicrobial agent such as calcium hypochlorite solution and testing spent irrigation water for pathogens. From 1998 through 2010, 33 outbreaks from seed and bean sprouts were documented in the United States, affecting 1330 reported persons. Twenty-eight outbreaks were caused by Salmonella, four by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and one by Listeria. In 15 of the 18 outbreaks with information available, growers had not followed key FDA guidelines. In three outbreaks, however, the implicated sprouts were produced by firms that appeared to have implemented key FDA guidelines. Although seed chlorination, if consistently applied, reduces pathogen burden on sprouts, it does not eliminate the risk of human infection. Further seed and sprouts disinfection technologies, some recently developed, will be needed to enhance sprouts safety and reduce human disease. Improved seed production practices could also decrease pathogen burden but, because seeds are a globally distributed commodity, will require international cooperation. PMID:25076040

  6. Involvement of bacterial quorum-sensing signals in spoilage of bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Maria; Andersen, Jens Bo; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Flodgaard, Lars Ravn; Christensen, Henrik; Givskov, Michael; Gram, Lone

    2005-06-01

    Bacterial communication signals, acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), were extracted from samples of commercial bean sprouts undergoing soft-rot spoilage. Bean sprouts produced in the laboratory did not undergo soft-rot spoilage and did not contain AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria, although the bacterial population reached levels similar to those in the commercial sprouts, 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g. AHL-producing bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads) were isolated from commercial sprouts, and strains that were both proteolytic and pectinolytic were capable of causing soft-rot spoilage in bean sprouts. Thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed the presence of N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone in spoiled bean sprouts and in extracts from pure cultures of bacteria. During normal spoilage, the pH of the sprouts increased due to proteolytic activity, and the higher pH probably facilitated the activity of pectate lyase. The AHL synthetase gene (I gene) from a spoilage Pectobacterium was cloned, sequenced, and inactivated in the parent strain. The predicted amino acid sequence showed 97% homology to HslI and CarI in Erwinia carotovora. Spoilage of laboratory bean sprouts inoculated with the AHL-negative mutant was delayed compared to sprouts inoculated with the wild type, and the AHL-negative mutant did not cause the pH to rise. Compared to the wild-type strain, the AHL-negative mutant had significantly reduced protease and pectinase activities and was negative in an iron chelation (siderophore) assay. This is the first study demonstrating AHL regulation of iron chelation in Enterobacteriaceae. The present study clearly demonstrates that the bacterial spoilage of some food products is influenced by quorum-sensing-regulated phenotypes, and understanding these processes may be useful in the development of novel food preservation additives that specifically block the quorum-sensing systems.

  7. Vegetable product containing caseinomacropeptide and germinated seed and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Simsek, Sebnem; Buyukkestelli, Hulya Ilyasoglu

    2016-01-01

    In this study vegetable product containing germinated seed and sprouts of lentils and cowpeas, and caseinomacropeptide isolated from whey is produced. Three different forms of vegetable product namely puree (VP), freeze-dried (FD) and drum-dried (DD) are produced. Freeze-dried and DD forms are produced to diversify forms of utilization and to improve functionality such as increased shelf life and decreased storage space. Their beneficial effects on health are determined using in vitro methods. All forms displayed antioxidant activities against DPPH radical and oxygen radical, α-amylase inhibitory activities, bile acid binding capacities, and angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Freeze-dried product exhibited the strongest inhibition on α-amylase and ACE with the IC50 value 0.09 μM total phenolic and 0.82 mg protein/g sample, respectively when evaluated on the basis of serving size. PMID:26788011

  8. Residues of five pesticides in field-treated alfalfa seeds and alfalfa sprouts.

    PubMed

    Archer, T E; Gauer, W O

    1985-08-01

    Residues of five different pesticides applied to alfalfa seed crops were determined in the harvested seeds and in sprouts grown from these seeds. Although seeds are usually used for future production of alfalfa plants, some of these seeds may be sprouted for human food consumption. The pesticides studied--aldicarb (Temik), chlorothalonil (Bravo), chlorpyrifos (Lorsban), methamidophos (Monitor) and propargite (Comite)--were applied at a normal usage rate and at two to three times that rate. Residues on the seeds and sprouts, if any, were insignificant at rates of application.

  9. Effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on glucosinolates and antioxidant attributes in broccoli florets.

    PubMed

    Cai, Congxi; Miao, Huiying; Qian, Hongmei; Yao, Leishuan; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-11-01

    The effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on the contents of glucosinolates and antioxidants (vitamin C, polyphenols, carotenoid and chlorophyll), as well as the antioxidant capacity in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets were investigated in the present study. Our results showed that the glucosinolate accumulations were significantly decreased after pre-freezing processing, whereas elevated levels of phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll, and also antioxidant capacity were observed in frozen broccoli florets. The contents of vitamin C remained constant during above mentioned processing. In conclusion, the current industrial freezing processing method is a good practice for the preservation of main antioxidant nutrients in broccoli florets, although some improvements in pre-freezing processing, such as steam blanching and ice-water cooling, are needed to attenuate the decrease in glucosinolate content. PMID:27211670

  10. Cardiac Fibroblasts Support Endothelial Cell Proliferation and Sprout Formation but not the Development of Multicellular Sprouts in a Fibrin Gel Co-Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Twardowski, Rachel L.; Black, Lauren D.

    2014-01-01

    A primary impediment to cardiac tissue engineering lies in the inability to adequately vascularize the constructs to optimize survival upon implantation. During normal angiogenesis, endothelial cells (ECs) require a support cell to form mature patent lumens and it has been demonstrated that pericytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are all able to support the formation of mature vessels. In the heart, cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) provide important electrical and mechanical functions, but to date have not been sufficiently studied for their role in angiogenesis. To study CFs role in angiogenesis, we co-cultured different concentrations of various cell types in fibrin hemispheres with appropriate combinations of their specific media, to determine the optimal conditions for EC growth and sprout formation through DNA analysis, flow cytometry and immunohistology. ECs proliferated best when co-cultured with CFs and analysis of immunohistological images demonstrated that ECs formed the longest and most numerous sprouts with CFs as compared to MSCs. However, ECs were able to produce more multicellular sprouts when in culture with the MSCs. Moreover, these effects were dependent on the ratio of support cell to EC in co-culture. Overall, CFs provide a good support system for EC proliferation and sprout formation; however, MSCs allow for more multicellular sprouts, which is more indicative of the in vivo process. PMID:24435656

  11. Kinetics of the stability of broccoli (Brassica oleracea Cv. Italica) myrosinase and isothiocyanates in broccoli juice during pressure/temperature treatments.

    PubMed

    Van Eylen, D; Oey, I; Hendrickx, M; Van Loey, A

    2007-03-21

    The Brassicaceae plant family contains high concentrations of glucosinolates, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase yielding products having an anticarcinogenic activity. The pressure and temperature stabilities of endogenous broccoli myrosinase, as well as of the synthetic isothiocyanates sulforaphane and phenylethyl isothiocyanate, were studied in broccoli juice on a kinetic basis. At atmospheric pressure, kinetics of thermal (45-60 degrees C) myrosinase inactivation could be described by a consecutive step model. In contrast, only one phase of myrosinase inactivation was observed at elevated pressure (100-600 MPa) combined with temperatures from 10 up to 60 degrees C, indicating inactivation according to first-order kinetics. An antagonistic effect of pressure (up to 200 MPa) on thermal inactivation (50 degrees C and above) of myrosinase was observed indicating that pressure retarded the thermal inactivation. The kinetic parameters of myrosinase inactivation were described as inactivation rate constants (k values), activation energy (Ea values), and activation volume (Va values). On the basis of the kinetic data, a mathematical model describing the pressure and temperature dependence of myrosinase inactivation rate constants was constructed. The stability of isothiocyanates was studied at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range from 60 to 90 degrees C and at elevated pressures in the combined pressure-temperature range from 600 to 800 MPa and from 30 to 60 degrees C. It was found that isothiocyanates were relatively thermolabile and pressure stable. The kinetics of HP/T isothiocyanate degradation could be adequately described by a first-order kinetic model. The obtained kinetic information can be used for process evaluation and optimization to increase the health effect of Brassicaceae.

  12. Three-Dimensional Characterization of Mechanical Interactions between Endothelial Cells and Extracellular Matrix during Angiogenic Sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yue; Herath, Sahan C. B.; Wang, Qing-guo; Wang, Dong-an; Asada, H. Harry; Chen, Peter C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the three-dimensional cell-extracellular matrix interactions of endothelial cells that form multicellular structures called sprouts. We analyzed the data collected in-situ from angiogenic sprouting experiments and identified the differentiated interaction behavior exhibited by the tip and stalk cells. Moreover, our analysis of the tip cell lamellipodia revealed the diversity in their interaction behavior under certain conditions (e.g., when the heading of a sprout is switched approximately between the long-axis direction of two different lamellipodia). This study marks the first time that new characteristics of such interactions have been identified with shape changes in the sprouts and the associated rearrangements of collagen fibers. Clear illustrations of such changes are depicted in three-dimensional views. PMID:26903154

  13. Polyphenol oxidase expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers inhibited to sprouting by treatment with iodine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eolini, Francesco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Credi, Andrea; Rodríguez, Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y; Poggi, Valeria

    2004-08-01

    Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1 and EC 1.14.18.1) was undetectable in tuber peel, whereas in bud tissues featured an increase, followed by a decrease occurring simultaneously with the suppression of sprouting. The treatment of tubers with iodine strongly affected the expression of polyphenol oxidases at the transcriptional level. Polyphenol oxidase activity in buds poorly reflected the corresponding level of transcription; similarly, little differences were found among the enzyme isoforms expressed in buds as a function of length of exposure to iodine. These findings suggest that the induction of polyphenol oxidases mRNAs transcription could probe the inhibition of sprouting by iodine.

  14. Trace element water improves the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2007-10-31

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was grown in trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) and deionized water (DIW) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300 ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout but not the Se content. However, the levels of rutin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and DIW. The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300 ppm of TEW showed higher ferrous ion chelating activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract in the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and lowered reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion in the human Hep G2 cell. It was concluded that TEW could increase the antioxidant activities of buckwheat sprouts.

  15. Effect of dietary brussels sprouts with increased selenium content on mammary carcinogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stoewsand, G S; Anderson, J L; Munson, L; Lisk, D J

    1989-04-01

    Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea, L; Jade cross E, hybrid cultivar) were cultivated with inorganic selenium added to the plant growth medium. Sprague-Dawley, female, weanling rats were divided into groups and fed 20% brussels sprouts diets containing either 0.03, 0.58, 1.29, or 6.71 ppm of selenium naturally occurring in the sprouts. These diets were fed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after a single dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and the rats were then placed on a low selenium basal diet for an additional 25 weeks. All brussels sprouts diets reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Increased dietary levels of naturally occurring selenium did not further depress mammary tumorigenesis. The time periods of selenium feeding may have been too brief to observe any additional tumor reductions.

  16. Development of a method for the analysis of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengzu; Zhao, Pengyue; Shan, Weili; Gong, Yong; Jian, Qiu; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts. The sample preparation procedure was based on a QuEChERS method. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9985) and precision (RSDs ≤ 13.0%). Average recoveries of four PGRs ranged between 74.9% and 106.3% at spiking levels 0.05, 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1). The LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.27-9.3 μg kg(-1) and 0.90-31 μg kg(-1), respectively. The procedure was applied to 18 bean sprout samples, and benzyladenine was found in some of the analyzed samples.

  17. Ozone effects on yield quality of spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandermeiren, Karine; De Bock, Maarten; Horemans, Nele; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    The impact of elevated tropospheric ozone (O 3) on the quality of spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv Ability) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv Italic cv Monaco) was assessed during a three year Open - Top Chamber (OTC) experiment. Current ambient O 3 levels were compared to an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day over the entire growing season. The qualitative responses were expressed as a function of the accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic O 3 dose above a threshold of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area (POD 6). Our results provide clear evidence that O 3 has an influence on the qualitative attributes of the harvested products of these Brassica species. The responses were comparable whether they were expressed as a function of the accumulated O 3 concentrations or of the modelled O 3 uptake. The protein concentration of oilseed rape seeds and broccoli heads was significantly increased in response to O 3. There was also a shift in the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil derived from seeds of oilseed rape. Oleic acid (18:1) declined significantly ( p < 0.05) in favour of linoleic acid (18:2) ( p < 0.01). There was no change in the relative proportion of linolenic acid (18:3). The suppression of monounsaturated fatty acids ( p < 0.05) coincided with a positive response of the % saturated fatty acids ( p < 0.05). In rapeseed oil the observed decrease in vitamin E content was due to a reduction of γ-tocopherol (TOC, p < 0.001). α-TOC, the most active form of vitamin E in humans, was not influenced by O 3. There was no change in the glucosinolate (GSL) content of oilseed rape seeds. In broccoli an important shift occurred from indolic to aliphatic GSLs although the total GSL concentration was not changed. The increase in the aliphatic/indolic GSL ratio ( p < 0.001) may be important in relation to the anticarcinogenic properties of these vegetables. The vitamin C (ascorbate - ASC) and

  18. An outbreak of Salmonella Newport associated with mung bean sprouts in Germany and the Netherlands, October to November 2011.

    PubMed

    Bayer, C; Bernard, H; Prager, R; Rabsch, W; Hiller, P; Malorny, B; Pfefferkorn, B; Frank, C; de Jong, A; Friesema, I; Stark, K; Rosner, Bm

    2014-01-09

    The largest Salmonella enterica serovar Newport outbreak (n=106) ever reported in Germany occurred in October and November 2011. Twenty associated cases were reported in the Netherlands. The outbreak investigation included an analytical epidemiological study, molecular typing of human and food isolates and food traceback investigations. Unspecified Salmonella had been detected in samples of mung bean sprouts at a sprout producer (producer A) in the Netherlands and mung bean sprouts contaminated with S. Newport had been found during routine sampling at a sprout distributor in Germany. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis of sprouts being the infection vehicle. In a case-control study, we compared 50 notified adult S. Newport cases with 45 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis cases regarding their food consumption in the three days before illness. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, only sprout consumption was significantly associated with S. Newport infection (odds ratio: 18.4; 95% confidence interval: 2.2-150.2). Molecular typing patterns of human isolates were indistinguishable from a mung bean sprouts isolate. Traceback of sprouts led to distributors and producer A in the Netherlands. Since sprouts are frequently contaminated with microorganisms, consumers need to be aware that consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked sprouts may pose a health risk.

  19. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Prodduk, Vara; Annous, Bassam A; Liu, Linshu; Yam, Kit L

    2014-11-01

    Although freshly sprouted beans and grains are considered to be a source of nutrients, they have been associated with foodborne outbreaks. Sprouts provide good matrices for microbial localization and growth due to optimal conditions of temperature and humidity while sprouting. Also, the lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to reduce Salmonella on artificially inoculated mungbean sprouts. The effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (0.5 mg/liter of air) with or without tumbling (mechanical mixing) was compared with an aqueous chlorine (200 ppm) wash treatment. Tumbling the inoculated sprouts during the chlorine dioxide gas application for 15, 30, and 60 min reduced Salmonella populations by 3.0, 4.0, and 5.5 log CFU/g, respectively, as compared with 3.0, 3.0, and 4.0 log CFU/g reductions obtained without tumbling, respectively. A 2.0 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella was achieved with an aqueous chlorine wash. The difference in microbial reduction between chlorine dioxide gas versus aqueous chlorine wash points to the important role of surface topography, pore structure, bacterial attachment, and/or biofilm formation on sprouts. These data suggested that chlorine dioxide gas was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells that are attached to inaccessible sites and/or are within biofilms on the sprout surface as compared with an aqueous chlorine wash. Consequently, scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that chlorine dioxide gas treatment was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells attached to inaccessible sites and within biofilms on the sprout surfaces.

  20. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  1. Macronutrients, Phytochemicals, and Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Sprout Germinated with or without Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yeming; Chang, Sam K C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the macronutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activities of yellow soybean sprout (YSS) and green soybean sprout (GSS) with different germination days. YSS and GSS were obtained by sprouting soybean in darkness or with light exposure at 21 °C. Lipid, protein, carbohydrate, and ash contents were analyzed before and after soybean germination. Phytochemicals (total phenolic compounds, saponin, and isoflavone) were also determined. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were determined to examine the antioxidant activities of soybean sprout. Results showed YSS had a higher yield than GSS. Based on dry mass composition, 7-d germination of GSS decreased 14% protein, 37% lipid, 22% carbohydrate, and 16% ash, whereas 7-d germination of YSS decreased 6% protein and 47% lipid. Carbohydrate did not change and ash significantly increased for the 7-d germinated YSS. Lipid was greatly metabolized in germination, which explained why the protein relative percentage in dried soybean sprout was higher than that in the corresponding soybean. Total phenolic compounds and saponin (mg/g soybean sprout, dry basis) had the same accumulation trend in soybean sprout with the increases in germination days. Aglycone isoflavones (genistein, glycitein, and daidzein) and daidzin showed an increased trend, whereas malonylgenistin and malonylglycitin showed a decreased trend with germination days for both GSS and YSS. The change in other isoflavones did not show definite trends. GSS had 20% more antioxidant activities than YSS (7-d germinated soybean sprout). The increases in ORAC antioxidant activity suggest eating GSS may be more beneficial than GSS for promoting human health.

  2. Development of Lipophilic Antioxidants and Chloroplasts during the Sprouting of Diverse Triticum spp.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Jochen U; Flockerzie, Miriam; Longin, C Friedrich H; Würschum, Tobias; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of sprouting times and illumination conditions on lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids, tocochromanols, alkylresorcinols, and steryl ferulates), chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was investigated using four varieties each of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum), spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta), durum (T. durum), emmer (T. dicoccum), and einkorn (T. monococcum). Carotenoid levels significantly increased during sprouting, particularly, under light exposure. In contrast, concentrations of other lipophilic antioxidants were affected to a lesser extent. Moreover, the quantitative development of lipophilic antioxidants was evidently determined by genotype. On the basis of the levels of carotenoids newly synthesized during sprouting, a chloroplast development index indicated that chloroplast ontogenesis during sprouting occurred at different species-dependent rates. Thermal degradation of carotenoids, tocochromanols, chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was observed during the drying of sprouts at 40 and 90 °C, while alkylresorcinol and steryl ferulate levels remained unaffected. Wheat sprouts were shown to be potential functional ingredients to increase the nutritional value of cereal products.

  3. Variation of unsaturated fatty acids in soybean sprout of high oleic acid accessions.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna Hari; Jung, Ki-Hwal; Chae, Jong-Hyun; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Oleic acid and oleic acid rich foods may have beneficial health effects in humans. Soybeans with high oleic acid (around 80% in seed oil) have been developed. Soybean sprouts are an important vegetable in Korea, Japan and China. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, in sprouts from soybeans with normal and high oleic acid concentration. Twelve soybean accessions with six high oleic acid lines, three parents of high oleic acid lines, and three checks with normal and high oleic acid concentration were used in this study. The unsaturated fatty acid concentration in sprouts from each genotype was similar to the concentration in the ungerminated seed. The oleic acid concentration in the sprouts of high oleic acid lines (up to 80%) was still high (>70%) compared to the ungerminated seed. Thus, high oleic soybean varieties developed for sprout production could add valuable health benefits to sprouts and the individuals who consume this vegetable.

  4. Genotypic effects on glucosinolates and sensory properties of broccoli and cauliflower.

    PubMed

    Schonhof, Ilona; Krumbein, Angelika; Brückner, Bernhard

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence that the species, form or cultivar exerts on the glucosinolate spectrum for glucosinolates and free sugars in selected vegetable species of the Brassica genus (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck, Brassica rapa var. alboglabra and Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.). The results showed significant differences amongst the cultivar groups for the glucosinolate proportions as well as the contents of health-promoting and flavour-influencing alkyl, alkenyl and indole glucosinolates. The clear differences in the proportions of glucosinolates amongst the groups were not significantly influenced by the weather, although the absolute glucosinolate contents were. Interestingly, the species, forms and cultivars diverged in their external and internal sensory attributes, for example, colour, taste properties such as bitter and sweet, flavour such as green/ grassy, spicy, broccoli-like, cabbage-like, cauliflower-like, kohlrabi-like, leek-like and mouth-feel pungent. Differences in the sensory attributes led to different consumer acceptability based on first impressions judged on colour, flavour and overall liking. Consumers were seen to prefer cultivars with a bright colour, a lower level of bitter tasting glucosinolates (alkenyl and indole glucosinolates) and a higher sucrose content. Significant correlations were determined between the compound concentrations, the descriptively determined sensory properties and the consumer scores. Here, we identified properties of broccoli and cauliflower which, when optimised to the tastes of the consumer, could boost their acceptability.

  5. Structural characterization of a broccoli polysaccharide and evaluation of anti-cancer cell proliferation effects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lishan; Cao, Jingjing; Chen, Wenrong

    2015-08-01

    Broccoli is a widely consumed vegetable with abundant amount of nutrients, which bring numerous beneficial effects on human health. The structural information of water-soluble polysaccharides in broccoli was eludicated for the first time in this work. A purified polysaccharide fraction (BPCa) was obtained by column chromatography. It comprised of arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), rhamnose (Rha) with a molar ratio of 5.3:0.8:1.0. Nuclear magnetic resonnance spectra data revealed that α-L-1,5-Araf and α-L-1,3,5-Araf are present in the backbone, while α-L-Araf terminal was attended in side chain. α-L-1,2-Rhap was found to be linked to α-L-1,5-Araf in heteronuclear multiple bond correlation spectra. The presences of β-D-1,4-Galp and α-D-1,4-GalpA were also detected. Furthermore, BPCa showed significant anti-cancer cell proliferation activities against HepG2, Siha and MDA-MB-231 carcinoma cell lines. The results indicated that BPCa had a good potential to be applied as functional food additives.

  6. Optimization of a blanching step to maximize sulforaphane synthesis in broccoli florets.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Carmen; Barrientos, Herna; Román, Juan; Mahn, Andrea

    2014-02-15

    A blanching step was designed to favor sulforaphane synthesis in broccoli. Blanching was optimised through a central composite design, and the effects of temperature (50-70 °C) and immersion time in water (5-15 min) on the content of total glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, sulforaphane, and myrosinase activity were determined. Results were analysed by ANOVA and the optimal condition was determined through response surface methodology. Temperature between 50 and 60 °C significantly increased sulforaphane content (p<0.05), whilst blanching at 70 and 74 °C diminished significantly this content, compared to fresh broccoli. The optimal blanching conditions given by the statistical model were immersion in water at 57 °C for 13 min; coinciding with the minimum glucosinolates and glucoraphanin content, and with the maximum myrosinase activity. In the optimal conditions, the predicted response of 4.0 μmol sulforaphane/g dry matter was confirmed experimentally. This value represents a 237% increase with respect to the fresh vegetable.

  7. Differential expression of two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes in broccoli after harvest.

    PubMed Central

    Pogson, B J; Downs, C G; Davies, K M

    1995-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) floral tissues rapidly differentiate and grow before harvest and then senesce rapidly after harvest. Associated with this postharvest deterioration is an increase in ethylene production by florets. Two cDNA clones having high nucleotide identity to sequences encoding 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase were isolated from senescing florets. The cDNAs, ACC Ox1 and ACC Ox2, apparently encode mRNAs from different genes. ACC Ox1 transcripts were found at low levels in whole florets at the time of harvest and increased markedly in abundance after harvest. ACC Ox1 transcript abundance also increased in sepals after harvest and in excised yellowing leaves. Transcripts corresponding to ACC Ox2 were found exclusively within the reproductive structures. These ACC Ox2 transcripts were absent at harvest but started to increase in abundance within 2 h of harvest and then accumulated to high levels. Hormone treatment did not alter the abundance of ACC Ox1 transcripts, whereas ACC Ox2 transcripts increased in abundance after treatment with abscisic acid and propylene. Wounding did not affect the levels of ACC Ox1 or Ox2 transcripts after harvest. At harvest, individual broccoli florets were closed and remained unpollinated. We propose a model whereby the rapid increase in ACC Ox1 and Ox2 transcript abundance after harvest contributes to increased ethylene production by florets. This ethylene may regulate aspects of postharvest senescence, in particular chlorophyll loss. PMID:7610162

  8. Persistence of Indicator and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Broccoli following Manure Spreading and Irrigation with Fecally Contaminated Water: Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Généreux, Mylène; Breton, Marie Jo; Fairbrother, John Morris; Fravalo, Philippe; Côté, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    In 2011 and 2012, trials consisting of experimental plots were carried out to evaluate the presence of pathogenic (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella) and prevalence of indicator (Escherichia coli) microorganisms in broccoli fertilized with liquid hog manure or mineral fertilizers and irrigated zero, one, or two times with E. coli-contaminated water. In 2011, results showed that E. coli contamination in broccoli heads was affected by the interval between irrigation and sampling (P = 0.0236), with a significant decrease between the first and third day following irrigation (P = 0.0064). In 2012, irrigation frequency significantly increased E. coli prevalence in broccoli samples (P = 0.0499). In 2012, E. coli counts in the soil were significantly influenced by the type of fertilizer applied, as plots receiving liquid hog manure showed higher bacterial counts (P = 0.0006). L. monocytogenes was recovered in one broccoli sample, but geno-serogrouping differentiated the isolate from those recovered in manure and irrigation water. The L. monocytogenes serogroup IIA, pulsotype 188 strain was found in six soil samples and in irrigation water applied 5 days before soil sampling. This study highlights the link between E. coli levels in irrigation water, irrigation frequency, and interval between irrigation and harvest on produce contamination. It also demonstrates that L. monocytogenes introduced into the soil following irrigation can persist for up to 5 days.

  9. Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amending soils with Se-hyperaccumulator plant derived sources of selenium (Se) may be useful for increasing Se content in food crops in Se-deficient regions of the world. In this study, we evaluated total Se and the different chemical species of Se in broccoli and carrots grown in soils amended with...

  10. Bifidobacterium longum-fermented broccoli supernatant inhibited the growth of Candida albicans and some pathogenic bacteria in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suido, Hirohisa; Miyao, Manabu

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a growth inhibitory material against some pathogenic microorganisms, using beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium species and certain types of vegetables which can be good substrates for the growth of the beneficial bacteria. At first, various vegetable juices were screened for the growth promotion of Bifidobacterium longum etc. Among the vegetables tested, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) showed excellent growth promoting activities for B. longum. Secondly, the B. longum-fermented broccoli (BFB) and Lactobacillus pentosus-fermented broccoli (LFB) supernatants were prepared and the growth inhibitory activities against Candida albicans were determined. Both of them showed dose-dependent, growth inhibitory effects, and the effect of BFB was superior to LFB. It was thought that the superior effect of BFB could be mainly attributed to the acids, especially acetic acid, produced by B. longum. BFB also inhibited some pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans and Porphylomonas gingivalis. In conclusion, broccoli was found to be a good growth-promoting substance for B. longum. The fermented product, BFB, appears to be a usable material that inhibits the growth of C. albicans and some pathogenic bacteria. PMID:18661679

  11. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants.

  12. An overview of health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and the effect of processing.

    PubMed

    Mahn, Andrea; Reyes, Alejandro

    2012-12-01

    Broccoli offers many heath-promoting properties owing to its content of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic compounds. The concentration and bioavailability of polyphenols, glucosinolates, sulforaphane and selenium depend on plant biochemistry, cultivation strategy and type of processing. In this article, the main biochemical properties of broccoli are reviewed regarding their health-promoting effects. Additionally, the way these properties are affected by processing is discussed. Steaming and drying result in an apparent increment of sulforaphane content as well as antioxidant activity, most likely due to an increase of the extractability of antioxidants and sulforaphane. Freezing and boiling diminish polyphenols concentration, mainly due to volatilization and leaching into the cooking water. In view of these results, the optimization of broccoli processing in order to maximize the content of bioactive compounds should be possible. The effect of processing on selenium compounds has been poorly studied so far, and therefore this topic should be investigated in the future. Finally, the effect of operating conditions in different drying processes on the content of bioactive compounds in broccoli should be investigated in a greater depth.

  13. Effect of water content and temperature on inactivation kinetics of myrosinase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Oliviero, T; Verkerk, R; Van Boekel, M A J S; Dekker, M

    2014-11-15

    Broccoli belongs to the Brassicaceae plant family consisting of widely eaten vegetables containing high concentrations of glucosinolates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates by endogenous myrosinase (MYR) can form isothiocyanates with health-promoting activities. The effect of water content (WC) and temperature on MYR inactivation in broccoli was investigated. Broccoli was freeze dried obtaining batches with WC between 10% and 90% (aw from 0.10 to 0.96). These samples were incubated for various times at different temperatures (40-70°C) and MYR activity was measured. The initial MYR inactivation rates were estimated by the first-order reaction kinetic model. MYR inactivation rate constants were lower in the driest samples (10% WC) at all studied temperatures. Samples with 67% and 90% WC showed initial inactivation rate constants all in the same order of magnitude. Samples with 31% WC showed intermediate initial inactivation rate constants. These results are useful to optimise the conditions of drying processes to produce dried broccoli with optimal MYR retention for human health.

  14. Pure phosphine fumigation treatment at low temperature for postharvest control of western flower thrips on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Pure phosphine fumigation at a low temperature of 2°C was studied as an alternative fumigant to meth...

  15. Salinity’s influence on boron toxicity in broccoli: II. Impacts on boron uptake, uptake mechanisms and tissue ion relations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited research has been conducted on the interactive effects of salinity and boron stresses on plants despite their common occurrence in natural systems. The purpose of this research was to determine and quantify the interactive effects of salinity, salt composition and boron on broccoli (Brassica...

  16. Effect of water content and temperature on inactivation kinetics of myrosinase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Oliviero, T; Verkerk, R; Van Boekel, M A J S; Dekker, M

    2014-11-15

    Broccoli belongs to the Brassicaceae plant family consisting of widely eaten vegetables containing high concentrations of glucosinolates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates by endogenous myrosinase (MYR) can form isothiocyanates with health-promoting activities. The effect of water content (WC) and temperature on MYR inactivation in broccoli was investigated. Broccoli was freeze dried obtaining batches with WC between 10% and 90% (aw from 0.10 to 0.96). These samples were incubated for various times at different temperatures (40-70°C) and MYR activity was measured. The initial MYR inactivation rates were estimated by the first-order reaction kinetic model. MYR inactivation rate constants were lower in the driest samples (10% WC) at all studied temperatures. Samples with 67% and 90% WC showed initial inactivation rate constants all in the same order of magnitude. Samples with 31% WC showed intermediate initial inactivation rate constants. These results are useful to optimise the conditions of drying processes to produce dried broccoli with optimal MYR retention for human health. PMID:24912716

  17. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants. PMID:26721234

  18. Discriminating between cultivars and treatments of broccoli using mass spectral fingerprinting and analysis of variance-principal component analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolite fingerprints, obtained with direct injection mass spectrometry (MS) with both positive and negative ionization, were used with analysis of variance-principal components analysis (ANOVA-PCA) to discriminate between cultivars and growing treatments of broccoli. The sample set consisted of ...

  19. Wheat grain preharvest sprouting and late maturity alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Mares, Daryl J; Mrva, Kolumbina

    2014-12-01

    Preharvest sprouting (PHS) and late maturity α-amylase (LMA) are the two major causes of unacceptably high levels of α-amylase in ripe wheat grain. High α-amylase activity in harvested grain results in substantially lower prices for wheat growers and at least in the case of PHS, is associated with adverse effects on the quality of a range of end-products and loss of viability during storage. The high levels of α-amylase are reflected in low falling number, the internationally accepted measure for grain receival and trade. Given the significant losses that can occur, elimination of these defects remains a major focus for wheat breeding programs in many parts of the world. In addition, the genetic, biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of PHS and LMA as well as the interactions with environmental factors have attracted a sustained research interest. PHS and LMA are independent, genetically controlled traits that are strongly influenced by the environment, where the effects of particular environmental factors vary substantially depending on the stage of grain development and ripening. This review is a summary and an assessment of results of recent research on these important grain quality defects.

  20. Wheat grain preharvest sprouting and late maturity alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Mares, Daryl J; Mrva, Kolumbina

    2014-12-01

    Preharvest sprouting (PHS) and late maturity α-amylase (LMA) are the two major causes of unacceptably high levels of α-amylase in ripe wheat grain. High α-amylase activity in harvested grain results in substantially lower prices for wheat growers and at least in the case of PHS, is associated with adverse effects on the quality of a range of end-products and loss of viability during storage. The high levels of α-amylase are reflected in low falling number, the internationally accepted measure for grain receival and trade. Given the significant losses that can occur, elimination of these defects remains a major focus for wheat breeding programs in many parts of the world. In addition, the genetic, biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of PHS and LMA as well as the interactions with environmental factors have attracted a sustained research interest. PHS and LMA are independent, genetically controlled traits that are strongly influenced by the environment, where the effects of particular environmental factors vary substantially depending on the stage of grain development and ripening. This review is a summary and an assessment of results of recent research on these important grain quality defects. PMID:25257145

  1. Reduction of Salmonella spp. and strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by gamma radiation of inoculated sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rajkowski, K T; Thayer, D W

    2000-07-01

    There have been several recent outbreaks of salmonellosis and infections with Escherichia coli O157:H7 linked to the consumption of raw sprouts. Use of ionizing radiation was investigated as a means to reduce or to totally inactivate these pathogens, if present, on the sprouts. The radiation D value, which is the amount of irradiation in kilograys for a 1-log reduction in cell numbers, for these pathogens was established using a minimum of five doses at 19 +/- 1 degrees C. Before inoculation, the sprouts were irradiated to 6 kGy to remove the background microflora. The sprouts were inoculated either with Salmonella spp. cocktails made with either meat or vegetable isolates or with E. coli O157:H7 cocktails made with either meat or vegetable isolates. The radiation D values for the Salmonella spp. cocktails on sprouts were 0.54 and 0.46 kGy, respectively, for the meat and vegetable isolates. The radiation D values for the E. coli O157:H7 cocktails on sprouts were 0.34 and 0.30 kGy, respectively, for the meat and vegetable isolates. Salmonella was not detected by enrichment culture on sprouts grown from alfalfa seeds naturally contaminated with Salmonella after the sprouts were irradiated to a dose of 0.5 kGy or greater. Ionizing radiation is a process that can be used to reduce the population of pathogens on sprouts.

  2. The response of broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. italica) varieties on foliar application of selenium: uptake, translocation, and speciation.

    PubMed

    Šindelářová, Kristýna; Száková, Jiřina; Tremlová, Jana; Mestek, Oto; Praus, Lukáš; Kaňa, Antonín; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A model small-scale field experiment was set up to investigate selenium (Se) uptake by four different varieties of broccoli plants, as well as the effect of Se foliar application on the uptake of essential elements for plants calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). Foliar application of sodium selenate (Na2SeO4) was carried out at two rates (25 and 50 g Se/ha), and an untreated control variant was included. Analyses of individual parts of broccoli were performed, whereby it was found that Se in the plant accumulates mainly in the flower heads and slightly less in the leaves, stems, and roots, regardless of the Se rate and broccoli variety. In most cases, there was a statistically significant increase of Se content in all parts of the plant, while there was no confirmed systematic influence of the addition of Se on the changing intake of other monitored elements. Selenization of broccoli leads to an effective increase in the Se content at a rate of 25 g/ha, whereas the higher rate did not result in a substantial increase of Se content compared to the lower rate in all varieties. Therefore, the rate of 25 g/ha can be recommended as effective to produce broccoli with an increased Se content suitable for consumption. Moreover, Se application resulted in an adequate increase of the main organic compounds of Se, such as selenocystine (SeCys2), selenomethionine (SeMet), and Se-methylselenocysteine (Se-MeSeCys).

  3. The response of broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. italica) varieties on foliar application of selenium: uptake, translocation, and speciation.

    PubMed

    Šindelářová, Kristýna; Száková, Jiřina; Tremlová, Jana; Mestek, Oto; Praus, Lukáš; Kaňa, Antonín; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A model small-scale field experiment was set up to investigate selenium (Se) uptake by four different varieties of broccoli plants, as well as the effect of Se foliar application on the uptake of essential elements for plants calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). Foliar application of sodium selenate (Na2SeO4) was carried out at two rates (25 and 50 g Se/ha), and an untreated control variant was included. Analyses of individual parts of broccoli were performed, whereby it was found that Se in the plant accumulates mainly in the flower heads and slightly less in the leaves, stems, and roots, regardless of the Se rate and broccoli variety. In most cases, there was a statistically significant increase of Se content in all parts of the plant, while there was no confirmed systematic influence of the addition of Se on the changing intake of other monitored elements. Selenization of broccoli leads to an effective increase in the Se content at a rate of 25 g/ha, whereas the higher rate did not result in a substantial increase of Se content compared to the lower rate in all varieties. Therefore, the rate of 25 g/ha can be recommended as effective to produce broccoli with an increased Se content suitable for consumption. Moreover, Se application resulted in an adequate increase of the main organic compounds of Se, such as selenocystine (SeCys2), selenomethionine (SeMet), and Se-methylselenocysteine (Se-MeSeCys). PMID:26414440

  4. Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Tissue, Incorporated at Different Depths in a Soil Column, on Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Roubtsova, Tatiana; López-Péŕez, Jose-Antonio; Edwards, Scott; Ploeg, Antoon

    2007-01-01

    Brassicas have been used frequently for biofumigation, a pest-management strategy based on the release of biocidal volatiles during decomposition of soil-incorporated tissue. However, the role of such volatiles in control of plant-parasitic nematodes is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the direct localized and indirect volatile effects of amending soil with broccoli tissue on root-knot nematode populations. Meloidogyne incognita-infested soil in 50-cm-long tubes was amended with broccoli tissue, which was mixed throughout the tube or concentrated in a 10-cm layer. After three weeks at 28°C, M. incognita populations in the amended tubes were 57 to 80% smaller than in non-amended tubes. Mixing broccoli throughout the tubes reduced M. incognita more than concentrating broccoli in a 10-cm layer. Amending a 10-cm layer reduced M. incognita in the non-amended layers of those tubes by 31 to 71%, probably due to a nematicidal effect of released volatiles. However, the localized direct effect was much stronger than the indirect effect of volatiles. The strong direct effect may have resulted from the release of non-volatile nematicidal compounds. Therefore, when using biofumigation with broccoli to control M. incognita, the tissue should be thoroughly and evenly mixed through the soil layer(s) where the target nematodes occur. Effects on saprophytic nematodes were the reverse. Amended soil layers had much greater numbers of saprophytic nematodes than non-amended layers, and there was no indirect effect of amendments on saprophytic nematodes in adjacent non-amended layers. PMID:19259479

  5. Endothelial cell division in angiogenic sprouts of differing cellular architecture.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Vahap; Lenard, Anna; Denes, Alexandru Stefan; Sauteur, Loic; Belting, Heinz-Georg; Affolter, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The vasculature of the zebrafish trunk is composed of tubes with different cellular architectures. Unicellular tubes form their lumen through membrane invagination and transcellular cell hollowing, whereas multicellular vessels become lumenized through a chord hollowing process. Endothelial cell proliferation is essential for the subsequent growth and maturation of the blood vessels. However, how cell division, lumen formation and cell rearrangement are coordinated during angiogenic sprouting has so far not been investigated at detailed cellular level. Reasoning that different tubular architectures may impose discrete mechanistic constraints on endothelial cell division, we analyzed and compared the sequential steps of cell division, namely mitotic rounding, cytokinesis, actin re-distribution and adherence junction formation, in different blood vessels. In particular, we characterized the interplay between cell rearrangement, mitosis and lumen dynamics within unicellular and multicellular tubes. The lumen of unicellular tubes becomes constricted and is ultimately displaced from the plane of cell division, where a de novo junction forms through the recruitment of junctional proteins at the site of abscission. By contrast, the new junctions separating the daughter cells within multicellular tubes form through the alteration of pre-existing junctions, and the lumen is retained throughout mitosis. We also describe variations in the progression of cytokinesis: while membrane furrowing between daughter cells is symmetric in unicellular tubes, we found that it is asymmetric in those multicellular tubes that contained a taut intercellular junction close to the plane of division. Our findings illustrate that during the course of normal development, the cell division machinery can accommodate multiple tube architectures, thereby avoiding disruptions to the vascular network. PMID:26369932

  6. Endothelial cell division in angiogenic sprouts of differing cellular architecture.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Vahap; Lenard, Anna; Denes, Alexandru Stefan; Sauteur, Loic; Belting, Heinz-Georg; Affolter, Markus

    2015-09-14

    The vasculature of the zebrafish trunk is composed of tubes with different cellular architectures. Unicellular tubes form their lumen through membrane invagination and transcellular cell hollowing, whereas multicellular vessels become lumenized through a chord hollowing process. Endothelial cell proliferation is essential for the subsequent growth and maturation of the blood vessels. However, how cell division, lumen formation and cell rearrangement are coordinated during angiogenic sprouting has so far not been investigated at detailed cellular level. Reasoning that different tubular architectures may impose discrete mechanistic constraints on endothelial cell division, we analyzed and compared the sequential steps of cell division, namely mitotic rounding, cytokinesis, actin re-distribution and adherence junction formation, in different blood vessels. In particular, we characterized the interplay between cell rearrangement, mitosis and lumen dynamics within unicellular and multicellular tubes. The lumen of unicellular tubes becomes constricted and is ultimately displaced from the plane of cell division, where a de novo junction forms through the recruitment of junctional proteins at the site of abscission. By contrast, the new junctions separating the daughter cells within multicellular tubes form through the alteration of pre-existing junctions, and the lumen is retained throughout mitosis. We also describe variations in the progression of cytokinesis: while membrane furrowing between daughter cells is symmetric in unicellular tubes, we found that it is asymmetric in those multicellular tubes that contained a taut intercellular junction close to the plane of division. Our findings illustrate that during the course of normal development, the cell division machinery can accommodate multiple tube architectures, thereby avoiding disruptions to the vascular network.

  7. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts.

  8. Uptake of iron by a vegetable; kaiware daikon (Japanese radish sprout).

    PubMed

    Saiki, Chika; Hirasawa, Rie; Sadayasu, Chie; Yamashiro, Sachiko; Tominaga, Mihoko; Sato, Kazuyoshi

    2004-08-01

    Uptake of iron and several other minerals into kaiware daikon (Japanese radish sprout) was investigated by changing their supplementary conditions. The supplementation of calcium sulfate (0.1% (w/v), 230 ppm as calcium ion) and iron (III) chloride (0.1% (w/v), 200 ppm as iron ion) in hydroponics promoted the growth of kaiware daikon ca. 1.0-1.5 cm longer than the control group of no additions, while magnesium sulfate (0.1% (w/ v), 100 ppm as magnesium ion) did not affect the length of sprouts so much, but caused their leaves to grow a little wider. Mineral contents in the sprout were maximal when it was added, at ca. 0.1% (w/v), to the hydroponic solution. In tests regarding iron (II) ion supplementation, the color of the kaiware daikon seeds changed from brownish to black and the sprout did not grow well. In contrast, the iron (III) ion did not affect their color and promoted growth of the sprout. When the seeds were soaked in an iron (II) sulfate (75 ppm) or an ammonium iron (III) citrate (180 ppm) solution for 24 h prior to germination, the resulting kaiware daikon contained a few times higher the amount of iron than commercially available ones.

  9. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed.

  10. Potential regulatory role of gibberellic and humic acids in sprouting of Chlorophytum borivilianum tubers.

    PubMed

    Nakasha, Jaafar Juju; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Puteh, Adam; Hassan, Siti Aishah

    2014-01-01

    Tubers of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) were immersed in three different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) or humic acid (HA) prior to planting. The highest concentration of GA3 (20 mg L(-1)) and all concentrations of HA (5, 10, and 15%) appeared to hasten tuber sprouting and promote uniform sprouting pattern. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA successfully improved sprouting and mean sprouting time. Safed musli growth and development was improved through the increase in the number of leaves, total leaf area, leaf area index, and total fibrous root length. This directly influenced the number of new tubers formed. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA gave similar response with nonsignificant difference among them. However, due to the cost of production, the result from this study suggests that 15% HA should be used to obtain improved sprouting percentage, homogeneous stand establishment, efficient plant growth and development, and increased yield of safed musli.

  11. Change in carbohydrate and enzymes from harvest to sprouting in garlic.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Kambiz; Mohammadi Chiane, Siamak; Mianabadi, Manizheh; Ghaderifar, Farshid; Mousavizadeh, Seyyed Javad

    2016-05-01

    Changes in carbohydrates, enzymes, and pigments were investigated in the Red Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Azarshahr bulbs in storage from harvest to sprouting. For storage period, garlic cloves of the same diameter with 3-4 g weight were arranged in dark condition and exposed to 4 and 21°C, separately. Soluble sugar, total sugar, glucose, sucrose, fructose, starch, chlorophyll a, b, ab, carotenoid, anthocyanin, lipase, α-amylase, and protease were measured every 2 weeks up to sprouting time. Result revealed that starch, lipase, and protease levels declined at the end of storage when clove sprouting started at both 4 and 21°C storage temperature. Starch, glucose, chlorophyll a, b, ab, and carotenoid content during the first 14 days and sucrose at 42 days showed a decreasing trend. Anthocyanin showed an increasing trend 14 and 42 days after harvesting and then decreased at the end of storage (when sprouting began) at both 4 and 21°C storage periods. Finally, starch, glucose, and sucrose measurement can be used as a criterion to predict sprouting time of garlic, due to the decrease in the levels of starch, lipase, and protease, and increase in the levels of α-amylase, glucose, and sucrose in garlic cloves under storage. PMID:27247767

  12. Metabolomic analysis of phenolic compounds in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprouts treated with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Lim, Jeong-Ho

    2011-05-25

    The effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on phytochemical production in buckwheat sprouts cultivated under dark conditions (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d) were investigated by metabolomic analysis, using ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectroscopy (MS) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). MeJA-treated and control groups showed no differences in growth but were clearly discriminated from each other on PLS-DA score plots. The metabolites contributing to the discrimination were assigned as chlorogenic acid, catechin, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, vitexin, and quercitrin, which have various health effects. Moreover, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin were assigned as the main phytochemicals of sprouts cultivated under dark conditions. The accumulation of these metabolites caused the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of the sprouts to increase. Further, this study revealed that their accumulation resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by MeJA treatment. Therefore, these metabolites may be useful for better understanding the effects of MeJA on buckwheat sprout phytochemicals and contribute to improving the functional quality of the sprouts.

  13. GDF10 Is a Signal for Axonal Sprouting and Functional Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Nie, EH; Yin, Y; Benowitz, LI; Tung, S; Vinters, HV; Bahjat, FR; Stenzel-Poore, MP; Kawaguchi, R; Coppola, G; Carmichael, ST

    2016-01-01

    Stroke produces a limited process of neural repair. Axonal sprouting in cortex adjacent to the infarct is part of this recovery process, but the signal that initiates axonal sprouting is not known. Growth and Differentiation Factor 10 (GDF10) is induced in peri-infarct neurons in mouse, non-human primate and human. GDF10 promotes axonal outgrowth in vitro in mouse, rat and human neurons through TGFβRI/II signaling. Using pharmacogenetic gain and loss of function studies, GDF10 produces axonal sprouting and enhanced functional recovery after stroke; knocking down GDF10 blocks axonal sprouting and reduces recovery. RNA-seq from peri-infarct cortical neurons indicates that GDF10 downregulates PTEN and upregulates PI3 kinase signaling and induces specific axonal guidance molecules. Unsupervised genome-wide association analysis of the GDF10 transcriptome shows that it is not related to neurodevelopment but may partially overlap with other CNS injury patterns. GDF10 is a stroke-induced signal for axonal sprouting and functional recovery. PMID:26502261

  14. Potential regulatory role of gibberellic and humic acids in sprouting of Chlorophytum borivilianum tubers.

    PubMed

    Nakasha, Jaafar Juju; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Puteh, Adam; Hassan, Siti Aishah

    2014-01-01

    Tubers of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) were immersed in three different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) or humic acid (HA) prior to planting. The highest concentration of GA3 (20 mg L(-1)) and all concentrations of HA (5, 10, and 15%) appeared to hasten tuber sprouting and promote uniform sprouting pattern. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA successfully improved sprouting and mean sprouting time. Safed musli growth and development was improved through the increase in the number of leaves, total leaf area, leaf area index, and total fibrous root length. This directly influenced the number of new tubers formed. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA gave similar response with nonsignificant difference among them. However, due to the cost of production, the result from this study suggests that 15% HA should be used to obtain improved sprouting percentage, homogeneous stand establishment, efficient plant growth and development, and increased yield of safed musli. PMID:24688363

  15. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed. PMID:26101533

  16. Polo-like kinase 2 regulates angiogenic sprouting and blood vessel development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongbo; Fang, Longhou; Zhan, Rui; Hegarty, Jeffrey M.; Ren, Jie; Hsiai, Tzung K.; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Miller, Yury I.; Trejo, JoAnn; Chi, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis relies on specialized endothelial tip cells to extend toward guidance cues in order to direct growing blood vessels. Although many of the signaling pathways that control this directional endothelial sprouting are well known, the specific cellular mechanisms that mediate this process remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we show that Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) regulates Rap1 activity to guide endothelial tip cell lamellipodia formation and subsequent angiogenic sprouting. Using a combination of high-resolution in vivo imaging of zebrafish vascular development and a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in vitro cell culture system, we observed that loss of PLK2 function resulted in a reduction in endothelial cell sprouting and migration, whereas overexpression of PLK2 promoted angiogenesis. Furthermore, we discovered that PLK2 may control angiogenic sprouting by binding to PDZ-GEF to regulate RAP1 activity during endothelial cell lamellipodia formation and extracellular matrix attachment. Consistent with these findings, constitutively active RAP1 could rescue the endothelial cell sprouting defects observed in zebrafish and HUVEC PLK2 knockdowns. Overall, these findings reveal a conserved PLK2-RAP1 pathway that is crucial to regulate endothelial tip cell behavior in order to ensure proper vascular development and patterning in vertebrates. PMID:26004360

  17. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts. PMID:26433888

  18. Enhanced antimicrobial effect of organic acid washing against foodborne pathogens on broccoli by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-18

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of vacuum impregnation applied to the washing process for removal of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes from broccoli surfaces. Broccoli was inoculated with the two foodborne pathogens and treated with simple dipping washing or with vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 5, 10, 20, or 30 min. There were two methods of vacuum impregnation: continuous and intermittent. After 30 min of 101.3 kPa (=14.7 psi, simple dipping), 61.3 kPa (=8.9 psi), and 21.3 kPa (=3.1 psi) of continuous vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.5, 1.7, and 2.3 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. After 30 min of 101.3, 61.3, and 21.3 kPa of intermittent vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.5, 2.3, and 3.7 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.6, 2.1, and 3.2 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. Scanning electron photomicrographs showed that bacteria tend to attach to or become entrapped in protective sites after simple wash processing (dipping). However, most bacteria were washed out of protective sites after intermittent treatment. Direct treatment of cell suspensions with vacuum impregnation showed that it had no inactivation capacity in itself since there were no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) between the reduction rates of non- and vacuum impregnation treatment. These results demonstrate that the increased antimicrobial effect of vacuum impregnation can be attributed to increased accessibility of sanitizer and an enhanced washing effect in protected sites on produce. Color, texture and titratable acidity values of broccoli treated with intermittent vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 30 min were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from those of untreated samples even though a storage interval was needed for titratable acidity values to be reduced to levels comparable to those of

  19. Enhanced antimicrobial effect of organic acid washing against foodborne pathogens on broccoli by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-18

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of vacuum impregnation applied to the washing process for removal of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes from broccoli surfaces. Broccoli was inoculated with the two foodborne pathogens and treated with simple dipping washing or with vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 5, 10, 20, or 30 min. There were two methods of vacuum impregnation: continuous and intermittent. After 30 min of 101.3 kPa (=14.7 psi, simple dipping), 61.3 kPa (=8.9 psi), and 21.3 kPa (=3.1 psi) of continuous vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.5, 1.7, and 2.3 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. After 30 min of 101.3, 61.3, and 21.3 kPa of intermittent vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.5, 2.3, and 3.7 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.6, 2.1, and 3.2 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. Scanning electron photomicrographs showed that bacteria tend to attach to or become entrapped in protective sites after simple wash processing (dipping). However, most bacteria were washed out of protective sites after intermittent treatment. Direct treatment of cell suspensions with vacuum impregnation showed that it had no inactivation capacity in itself since there were no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) between the reduction rates of non- and vacuum impregnation treatment. These results demonstrate that the increased antimicrobial effect of vacuum impregnation can be attributed to increased accessibility of sanitizer and an enhanced washing effect in protected sites on produce. Color, texture and titratable acidity values of broccoli treated with intermittent vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 30 min were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from those of untreated samples even though a storage interval was needed for titratable acidity values to be reduced to levels comparable to those of

  20. Feasibility for improving phytonutrient content in vegetable crops using conventional breeding strategies: case study with carotenoids and tocopherols in sweet corn and broccoli.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Khalid E; Juvik, John A

    2009-06-10

    Among vegetables, sweet corn ( Zea mays L.) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica) are important sources of dietary carotenoids and tocopherols. Because medical evidence suggests that carotenoid and tocopherol health-promoting activity acts in a dose-dependent manner, conventional breeding to develop elite sweet corn and broccoli germplasm with enhanced levels of these phytochemicals will potentially promote health among the consuming public. This investigation includes the quantitative analysis of carotenoid and tocopherol contents of 41 corn and 24 broccoli genotypes grown in multiple environments (years and seasons in one location) to partition the variation into genetic, environment, and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) components and measure the phenotypic stability of genotypes for these phytochemicals. The primary carotenoids and tocopherols in corn were lutein and gamma-tocopherol (65 and 73% of total carotenoid and tocopherol, respectively), whereas beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol were dominant in broccoli (65 and 79% of total carotenoid and tocopherol, respectively). Partitioning of the variance indicated that genetic differences among the genotypes averaged for the primary compounds in corn (lutein, zeaxanthin, and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and broccoli (beta-carotene, lutein, and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) accounted for the largest proportion of the variation (67 and 55% of total phenotypic variation averaged across the phytochemicals in sweet corn and broccoli, respectively). Stability analysis identified several corn (IL451b sh2 and IL2027-8 sh2) and broccoli ('Pirate' and 'Baccus') genotypes with relatively high mean concentrations for the various carotenoids and tocopherols that were comparatively stable across seasons and years. The results of this investigation suggest that sweet corn and broccoli germplasm with enhanced concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols can be developed using conventional breeding protocols

  1. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli.

  2. Influence of thermal processing on hydrolysis and stability of folate poly-gamma-glutamates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Verlinde, Philippe; Mukisa, Ivan Muzira; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-04-14

    The folate poly-gamma-glutamate profile, their concentrations, and hydrolysis by endogenous gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) were evaluated in broccoli, carrot and tomato. Further studies on the effect of time and temperature on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis and stability were carried out in broccoli since this vegetable showed the highest long-chain and total folate poly-gamma-glutamate concentration. The evolution of l-ascorbic acid, total phenols and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values was evaluated in parallel. Upon thermal inactivation of GGH prior to crushing, it was observed that broccoli, carrot and tomato contained poly-gamma-glutamates with one to seven glutamate residues but differed in the predominant poly-gamma-glutamates. Crushing of raw broccoli, carrot and tomato resulted in significant poly-gamma-glutamate profile changes in broccoli and carrot (indicating GGH-catalyzed hydrolysis) but not in tomato. In this study, the actual crushing of raw broccoli matrix had a greater effect on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis than incubation conditions (0-30 min at 25-55 degrees C). During treatments at 25-140 degrees C, folate retention was higher at 80 and 100 degrees C than at the other temperatures. A similar trend in thermal stability was observed for folates, vitamin C, total phenols and TEAC value, an indication that conditions that result in endogenous antioxidants degradation might also result in folate degradation.

  3. Changes in SeMSC, glucosinolates and sulforaphane levels, and in proteome profile in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) fertilized with sodium selenate.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Barrientos, Herna; Mahn, Andrea; Moenne, Alejandra

    2013-05-07

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC), total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica). Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 μmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot) and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  4. Effect of blanching temperature and dipping time on drying time of broccoli.

    PubMed

    Doymaz, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Drying characteristics of broccoli was experimentally studied in cabinet-type convective dryer. Experiments were conducted using constant air velocity of 2 m/s and air temperature of 60 . Drying rate increased with increasing blanching temperature and thus reduced the drying time. The experimental drying data were used to fit twelve drying models and drying rate constants and coefficients of the models were determined by non-linear regression analysis. Estimations by the Midilli et al. model were in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. Fick's second law was used to calculate the effective moisture diffusivity, which varied from 1.987 to 3.577 × 10(-8) m(2)/s for the given blanching temperature range. The rehydration ratio was observed to increase with increasing blanching temperature. PMID:23744113

  5. Effects of microwave cooking conditions on bioactive compounds present in broccoli inflorescences.

    PubMed

    López-Berenguer, Carmen; Carvajal, Micaela; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2007-11-28

    Cooking as a domestic processing method has a great impact on food nutrients. Most Brassica (Brassicaceae, Cruciferae) vegetables are mainly consumed after being cooked, and cooking considerably affects their health-promoting compounds (specifically, glucosinolates, phenolic compunds, minerals, and vitamin C studied here). The microwave cooking process presents controversial results in the literature due to the different conditions that are employed (time, power, and added water). Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the influence of these conditions during microwave cooking on the human bioactive compounds of broccoli. The results show a general decrease in the levels of all the studied compounds except for mineral nutrients which were stable under all cooking conditions. Vitamin C showed the greatest losses mainly because of degradation and leaching, whereas losses for phenolic compounds and glucosinolates were mainly due to leaching into water. In general, the longest microwave cooking time and the higher volume of cooking water should be avoided to minimize losses of nutrients.

  6. Effect of blanching temperature and dipping time on drying time of broccoli.

    PubMed

    Doymaz, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Drying characteristics of broccoli was experimentally studied in cabinet-type convective dryer. Experiments were conducted using constant air velocity of 2 m/s and air temperature of 60 . Drying rate increased with increasing blanching temperature and thus reduced the drying time. The experimental drying data were used to fit twelve drying models and drying rate constants and coefficients of the models were determined by non-linear regression analysis. Estimations by the Midilli et al. model were in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. Fick's second law was used to calculate the effective moisture diffusivity, which varied from 1.987 to 3.577 × 10(-8) m(2)/s for the given blanching temperature range. The rehydration ratio was observed to increase with increasing blanching temperature.

  7. A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidation of structure.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Talalay, P; Cho, C G; Posner, G H

    1992-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables, especially crucifers, reduces the risk of developing cancer. Although the mechanisms of this protection are unclear, feeding of vegetables induces enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism and thereby accelerates the metabolic disposal of xenobiotics. Induction of phase II detoxication enzymes, such as quinone reductase [NAD(P)H:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.2] and glutathione S-transferases (EC 2.5.1.18) in rodent tissues affords protection against carcinogens and other toxic electrophiles. To determine whether enzyme induction is responsible for the protective properties of vegetables in humans requires isolation of enzyme inducers from these sources. By monitoring quinone reductase induction in cultured murine hepatoma cells as the biological assay, we have isolated and identified (-)-1-isothiocyanato-(4R)-(methylsulfinyl)butane [CH3-SO-(CH2)4-NCS, sulforaphane] as a major and very potent phase II enzyme inducer in SAGA broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica). Sulforaphane is a monofunctional inducer, like other anticarcinogenic isothiocyanates, and induces phase II enzymes selectively without the induction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent cytochromes P-450 (phase I enzymes). To elucidate the structural features responsible for the high inducer potency of sulforaphane, we synthesized racemic sulforaphane and analogues differing in the oxidation state of sulfur and the number of methylene groups: CH3-SOm-(CH2)n-NCS, where m = 0, 1, or 2 and n = 3, 4, or 5, and measured their inducer potencies in murine hepatoma cells. Sulforaphane is the most potent inducer, and the presence of oxygen on sulfur enhances potency. Sulforaphane and its sulfide and sulfone analogues induced both quinone reductase and glutathione transferase activities in several mouse tissues. The induction of detoxication enzymes by sulforaphane may be a significant component of the anticarcinogenic action of broccoli. Images PMID:1549603

  8. Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW) ABSTRACT Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can negatively impact end-use quality and seed viability at planting. Due to preferences for white ...

  9. Visible and near-infrared instruments for detection and quantification of sprouted wheat kernels and falling number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-harvest sprouting of wheat kernels within the grain head presents serious problems as it can greatly affect end use quality. Functional properties of wheat flour made from sprouted wheat result in poor dough and bread-making quality. This research examined the ability of two instruments to estim...

  10. Gene expression regulation of sprout inhibition and water retention genes in potatoes by 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is the fifth largest agricultural crop in the world and a dietary staple in many cultures. When sprouting, the potato produces the toxin solanine and begins to sweeten, a process that makes the potato undesirable for consumer use. Sprout inhibitors such as 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN) ar...

  11. A comparison of the retention of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157 by sprouts, leaves and fruits

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Smith, Rachel B; Matthysse, Ann G

    2014-01-01

    The retention (binding to or association with the plant) of Escherichia coli by cut leaves and fruits after vigorous water washing was compared with that by sprouts. Retention by fruits and leaves was similar but differed from retention by sprouts in rate, effect of wounding and requirement for poly-β,1-6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Escherichia coli was retained by cut ends of lettuce leaves within 5 min while more than 1 h was required for retention by the intact epidermis of leaves and fruits, and more than 1 day for sprouts. Retention after 5 min at the cut leaf edge was specific for E. coli and was not shown by the plant-associated bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Escherichia coli was retained by lettuce, spinach, alfalfa, bean, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucumber, and pepper leaves and fruits faster than by sprouts. Wounding of leaves and fruits but not sprouts increased bacterial retention. Mutations in the exopolysaccharide synthesis genes yhjN and wcaD reduced the numbers of bacteria retained. PgaC mutants were retained by cut leaves and fruits but not by sprouts. There was no significant difference in the retention of an O157 and a K12 strain by fruits or leaves. However, retention by sprouts of O157 strains was significantly greater than K12 strains. These findings suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of E coli retention among sprouts, and leaves and fruits. PMID:25351040

  12. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

  13. Preservation of Brussels Sprouts by Pullulan Coating Containing Oregano Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Kraśniewska, Karolina; Gniewosz, Małgorzata; Kosakowska, Olga; Cis, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of pullulan (a fungal polysaccharide) film containing oregano essential oil (OEO) at 1.0 to 10.0% was evaluated against bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The quality of the sprouts, as determined by weight loss, color, and appearance, was monitored during storage at 2 and 16°C. An organoleptic evaluation of odor preference and odor acceptability of OEO on the Brussels sprouts was also conducted. The antimicrobial activity of pullulan films with OEO increased significantly with the increase in OEO concentration (1 to 10%). Pullulan films with OEO were more effective for inhibiting the growth of yeasts and molds than for inhibiting gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Pullulan with 1.0% OEO was an effective combination and was used subsequently as the base coating for maintaining the safety and quality of fresh Brussels sprouts stored at 16°C for 14 days. The pullulan coating containing 1.0% OEO reduced Aspergillus niger populations by 2 log CFU/g. This coating also reduced weight loss in the sprouts. Compared with uncoated Brussels sprouts, the percent weight loss after 14 days was reduced in samples coated with pullulan and with pullulan plus 1% OEO by 3.81 and 6.06%, respectively, after storage at 2°C and by 8.04 and 9.30%, respectively, after storage 16°C. The coating also significantly reduced changes in general appearance and color during storage. Evaluation of the organoleptic properties indicated that pullulan containing OEO had only a slight detrimental effect on odor properties. Incorporating OEO into a delivery system for antimicrobial compounds in pullulan coatings extended the microbiological shelf life of Brussels sprouts. PMID:26939662

  14. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting. PMID:26363719

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses Reveal a Special Glucosinolate Metabolism Mechanism in Brassica alboglabra Sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rongfang; Huang, Zhongkai; Deng, Yanping; Chen, Xiaodong; XuHan, Xu; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2016-01-01

    Brassica sprouts contain abundant phytochemicals, especially glucosinolates (GSs). Various methods have been used to enhance GS content in sprouts. However, the molecular basis of GS metabolism in sprouts remains an open question. Here we employed RNA-seq analysis to compare the transcriptomes of high-GS (JL-08) and low-GS (JL-09) Brassica alboglabra sprouts. Paired-end Illumina RNA-seq reads were generated and mapped to the Brassica oleracea reference genome. The differentially expressed genes were analyzed between JL-08 and JL-09. Among these, 1477 genes were up-regulated and 1239 down-regulated in JL-09 compared with JL-08. Enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed genes showed that the GS biosynthesis had the smallest enrichment factor and the highest Q-value of all metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, indicating the main metabolic difference between JL-08 and JL-09 is the GS biosynthetic pathway. Thirty-seven genes of the sequenced data were annotated as putatively involved in GS biosynthesis, degradation, and regulation, of which 11 were differentially expressed in JL-08 and JL-09. The expression level of GS degradation enzyme myrosinase in high-GS JL-08 was lower compared with low-GS JL-09. Surprisingly, in high-GS JL-08, the expression levels of GS biosynthesis genes were also lower than those in low-GS JL-09. As the GS contents in sprouts are determined by dynamic equilibrium of seed stored GS mobilization, de novo synthesis, degradation, and extra transport, the result of this study leads us to suggest that efforts to increase GS content should focus on either raising GS content in seeds or decreasing myrosinase activity, rather than improving the expression level of GS biosynthesis genes in sprouts. PMID:27757119

  16. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  17. Effects of PTEN and Nogo Codeletion on Corticospinal Axon Sprouting and Regeneration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Cédric G.; Lorenzana, Ariana O.; Kwan, Jeffrey P.; Lin, Kyle; Ghassemi, Omeed; Ma, Andrew; Xu, Nuo; Creger, Daniel; Liu, Kai; He, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Axons in the adult CNS have poor ability to grow after injury, impeding functional recovery in patients of spinal cord injury. This has been attributed to both a developmental decline in neuron-intrinsic growth ability and the presence of extrinsic growth inhibitors. We previously showed that genetic deletion of Nogo, an extrinsic inhibitor, promoted axonal sprouting from uninjured corticospinal tract (CST) neurons but not regeneration from injured CST neurons, whereas genetic deletion of PTEN, an intrinsic inhibitor, promoted both CST sprouting and regeneration. Here we test the hypothesis that combining an elevation of neuron-intrinsic growth ability and a reduction of extrinsic growth inhibition by genetic codeletion of PTEN and Nogo may further improve injury-induced axonal growth. In an apparent paradox, additionally deleting Nogo further enhanced CST regeneration but not sprouting in PTEN-deleted mice. Enhanced CST regeneration and sprouting in PTEN and PTEN/Nogo-deleted mice were associated with no or only temporary improvement in functional recovery. Our data illustrate that neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors regulate axon regeneration and sprouting in complex ways and provide proof-of-principle evidence that targeting both can further improve regeneration. Neuron-intrinsic growth ability is an important determinant of neuronal responsiveness to changes in extrinsic growth inhibition, such that an elevated intrinsic growth state is a prerequisite for reducing extrinsic inhibition to take effect on CST regeneration. Meanwhile, additional strategies are required to unleash the full potential for functional recovery with enhanced axon regeneration and/or sprouting. PMID:25904793

  18. Conditioning nerve crush accelerates cytoskeletal protein transport in sprouts that form after a subsequent crush.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, I G; Jacob, J M

    1991-03-01

    To examine the relationship between axonal outgrowth and the delivery of cytoskeletal proteins to the growing axon tip, outgrowth was accelerated by using a conditioning nerve crush. Because slow component b (SCb) of axonal transport is the most rapid vehicle for carrying cytoskeletal proteins to the axon tip, the rate of SCb was measured in conditioned vs. sham-conditioned sprouts. In young Sprague-Dawley rats, the conditioning crush was made to sciatic nerve branches at the knee; 14 days later, the test crush was made where the L4 and L5 spinal nerves join to form the sciatic nerve in the flank. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled in motor neurons by injecting 35S-methionine into the lumbar spinal cord 7 days before the test crush. The wave of pulse-labeled SCb proteins reached the crush by the time it was made and subsequently entered sprouts. The nerve was removed and sectioned for SDS-PAGE and fluorography 4-12 days after the crush. Tubulins, neurofilament proteins, and representative "cytomatrix" proteins (actin, calmodulin, and putative microtubule-associated proteins) were removed from gels for liquid scintillation counting. Labeled SCb proteins entered sprouts without first accumulating in parent axon stumps, presumably because sprouts begin to grow within hours after axotomy. The peak of SCb moved 11% faster in conditioned than in sham-conditioned sprouts: 3.0 vs. 2.7 mm/d (p less than 0.05). To confirm that sprouts elongate more rapidly when a test crush is preceded by a conditioning crush, outgrowth distances were measured in a separate group of rats by labeling fast axonal transport with 3H-proline 24 hours before nerve retrieval.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effects of γ-irradiation on the lipid composition of inner sprout of garlic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M. B.; Curzio, O. A.; Aveldaño, M. I.; Croci, C. A.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60Co γ-rays on the concentration and composition of lipids from the inner sprout of garlic cloves. 210 days after treatment, the levels of phospholipids, triacylglycerols and glycolipids were significantly reduced as a result of radiation. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids from these lipid fractions such as linoleic acids showed a similar trend of decrease. Irradiation also brought about an increase in diacylglycerols. Results are correlated with sprouting inhibition induced by γ-irradiation in garlic.

  20. Morphological changes induced by different doses of gamma irradiation in garlic sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, C. N.; Croci, C. A.; Orioli, G. A.

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma rays applied in dormancy and post-dormancy on garlic bulbs in relation with some morphophysiological parameters. High (commercial) doses cause the complete inhibition of sprouting and mitosis (due to nuclear aberrations). Relatively low doses show no effects on bulbs but doses of 10 Gy applied in post-dormancy reduce sprouting and stop mitosis. This inhibition becomes noticeable from 150 days post-harvest onwards. Exogenous growth regulators can reverse these effects. Results may reinforce the good practice of radioinhibition processes in garlic.

  1. Sprout suppression on potato: need to look beyond CIPC for more effective and safer alternatives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Vijay; Ezekiel, R; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    World over, potatoes are being stored at 8-12 °C (85-90 % RH). This is the most common way of long-term (up to 6 to 9 months) storage of potatoes. The benefit of storing the potatoes within the temperature range of 8-12 °C is minimum accumulation of sugars in stored potato tubers. In sub-temperate, sub-tropical and tropical countries of the world, short-term (3 to 4 months) storage of potatoes is being done by non-refrigerated traditional/on-farm methods. These short- and long-term storage methods keep the stored potatoes suitable not only for table purpose but also for processing. However, once the natural dormancy period of potato is over, the prevailing temperatures in these storage methods favour sprouting and sprout growth. Therefore, use of some sprout suppressant to check the sprout growth becomes essential under these methods of potato storage. CIPC [Isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate] is the most wide spread and commonly used sprout suppressant on potatoes. CIPC has been in use for more than 50 years and research carried out over such a long period use of CIPC has not only enhanced our understanding of its properties and chemistry but also about the production and toxicological status of its metabolites/degradation products. Today, various safety issues and concerns have surfaced primarily due to continuous and long-term use of CIPC. This review presents an appraisal on CIPC and explains the reasons for the long-time dependence on this chemical as a potato sprout suppressant. Issues like maximum residue limit and acceptable daily intake limit are being discussed for CIPC. This article brings an update on practical aspects of potato storage, residue levels of CIPC, efficacy of CIPC as sprout suppressant and health and environmental safety issues linked with CIPC and its metabolites. The aim of this article is to find possible solutions, way outs and future plans that can make the sprout suppression of potatoes safer and more risk free. PMID

  2. Spatiotemporal dynamics of lesion-induced axonal sprouting and its relation to functional architecture of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Matasha; Brenner, Joshua M; Sakimura, Kenji; Kano, Masanobu; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative lesions induce sprouting of new collaterals from surviving axons, but the extent to which this form of axonal remodelling alters brain functional structure remains unclear. To understand how collateral sprouting proceeds in the adult brain, we imaged post-lesion sprouting of cerebellar climbing fibres (CFs) in mice using in vivo time-lapse microscopy. Here we show that newly sprouted CF collaterals innervate multiple Purkinje cells (PCs) over several months, with most innervations emerging at 3-4 weeks post lesion. Simultaneous imaging of cerebellar functional structure reveals that surviving CFs similarly innervate functionally relevant and non-relevant PCs, but have more synaptic area on PCs near the collateral origin than on distant PCs. These results suggest that newly sprouted axon collaterals do not preferentially innervate functionally relevant postsynaptic targets. Nonetheless, the spatial gradient of collateral innervation might help to loosely maintain functional synaptic circuits if functionally relevant neurons are clustered in the lesioned area. PMID:27651000

  3. Three Dimensional 10% Cyclic Strain Reduces Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cell Angiogenic Sprout Length and Augments Tubulogenesis in Tubular Fibrin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Gassman, Andrew A.; Kuprys, Tomas; Ucuzian, Areck A.; Brey, Eric; Matsumura, Akie; Pang, Yonggang; Larson, Jef; Greisler, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a functional microvasculature is critical to the long-term survival of implanted tissue-engineered constructs. Dynamic culture conditions have shown to significantly modulate phenotypic characteristics and stimulate proliferation of cells within hydrogel-based tissue engineered blood vessels. Although prior work has described the effects uniaxial or equibiaxial mechanical stimulation has on endothelial cells, no work has outlined effects of three-dimensional mechanical stimulation on endothelial cells within tubular vessel analogs. We demonstrate here that 7 days of 10% cyclic volumetric distension has a deleterious effect on the average length and density of angiogenic sprouts derived from pellets of bovine aortic endothelial cells. Although both groups demonstrated lumen formation, the sprouts grown under dynamic culture conditions typically had wider, less-branching sprout patterns. These results suggest that prolonged mechanical stimulation could represent a cue for angiogenic sprouts to preferentially develop larger lumens over cellular migration and subsequent sprout length. PMID:20718050

  4. Spatiotemporal dynamics of lesion-induced axonal sprouting and its relation to functional architecture of the cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Matasha; Brenner, Joshua M.; Sakimura, Kenji; Kano, Masanobu; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative lesions induce sprouting of new collaterals from surviving axons, but the extent to which this form of axonal remodelling alters brain functional structure remains unclear. To understand how collateral sprouting proceeds in the adult brain, we imaged post-lesion sprouting of cerebellar climbing fibres (CFs) in mice using in vivo time-lapse microscopy. Here we show that newly sprouted CF collaterals innervate multiple Purkinje cells (PCs) over several months, with most innervations emerging at 3–4 weeks post lesion. Simultaneous imaging of cerebellar functional structure reveals that surviving CFs similarly innervate functionally relevant and non-relevant PCs, but have more synaptic area on PCs near the collateral origin than on distant PCs. These results suggest that newly sprouted axon collaterals do not preferentially innervate functionally relevant postsynaptic targets. Nonetheless, the spatial gradient of collateral innervation might help to loosely maintain functional synaptic circuits if functionally relevant neurons are clustered in the lesioned area. PMID:27651000

  5. Continuous basal sprouting from a lignotuber:Arbutus unedo L. andErica arborea L., as woody Mediterranean examples.

    PubMed

    Mesléard, F; Lepart, J

    1989-03-01

    The two dominant species of the Corsican mattoral,Arbutus unedo L. andErica arborea L., can produce abundant sprouts from the lignotuber not only immediately after fire but also more or less continuously in the absence of major disturbance. The lignotuber appears to be more important during the early stages of development; the result is an increase in the number of sprouts during the 25 years following the establishment of the individuals. Later the lignotuber seems to lose the ability to ensure the development of new basal sprouts. A hypothesis is that the presence of a lignotuber is related to the growth form.Arbutus unedo andErica arborea show behaviour intermediate between acrotony and basitony, as the shoots show acrotony, and continuous sprouting is characteristic of basitonic species. The fact that sprouting from the lignotuber is not necessarily a result of fire suggests that the relation between fire and vegetation in the Mediterranean region should be reconsidered. PMID:23494355

  6. Chlorpropham and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene Control Sprout Growth in Potato Tubers Through Different Mechanisms and not Through Prolongation of Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of Chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) to potato tubers prevents sprouting. CIPC prevents growth and suppresses sprouting by disruption of microtubules. DMN is a natural product originally isolated from potato skins suppresses sprout growth via an unknown mechanism. Bec...

  7. Influence of sous vide processing, steaming and boiling on vitamin retention and sensory quality in broccoli florets.

    PubMed

    Petersen, M A

    1993-10-01

    In this study the effect of sous vide processing, steaming and traditional boiling of broccoli florets on retention of ascorbic acid, vitamin B6 and folacin was investigated. Freshly prepared samples were also sensorily evaluated. In all heat treatments ascorbic acid was found to have the highest retention, and was therefore judged not to be suitable as an indicator for vitamin retention in general. When the three types of heat treatment were compared, boiling showed lowest retention of all the vitamins examined (45-64% in 5 min), whereas sous-vide processing gave the highest retentions (97-100% in 5 min). Retentions during steaming were a little lower (83-100% in 5 min). Sensory evaluation showed that sous-vide cooked and steamed broccoli florets generally had higher acceptability than boiled. PMID:8249480

  8. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on sensory quality and contents of glucosinolates, flavonols and vitamin C in broccoli florets.

    PubMed

    Mølmann, Jørgen A B; Steindal, Anne L H; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi; Lea, Per; Skaret, Josefine; Johansen, Tor J

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli is grown around the world at a wide range of photoperiods and temperatures, which may influence both sensory quality and phytochemical contents. Florets produced in phytotron and at two semi-field sites (70 °N and 58 °N) were examined for effects of contrasting temperatures and photoperiods on sensory quality and contents of glucosinolates, flavonols and vitamin C. Growth conditions associated with high northern latitudes of low temperature and long photoperiods, produced bigger floral buds, and florets with sweeter taste and less colour hue than more southern conditions. The contents of vitamin C did not vary, while the response of individual glucosinolates varied with temperature and day length, and contents of quercetin and kaempferol were lower in phytotron than under semi-field conditions. Thus, our results show that contrasting temperatures and photoperiods influence the sensory quality of broccoli florets, while contents of different bioactive phytochemicals are not influenced in a unidirectional pattern.

  9. Rapid estimation of glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants in leaves of Chinese kale and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) in two seasons.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Kristin; Verkerk, Ruud; Bonnema, Guusje; Dekker, Matthijs

    2012-08-15

    Kinetic modeling was used as a tool to quantitatively estimate glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants. Literature shows that thermal degradation rates differ in different vegetables. Well-characterized plant material, leaves of broccoli and Chinese kale plants grown in two seasons, was used in the study. It was shown that a first-order reaction is appropriate to model glucosinolate degradation independent from the season. No difference in degradation rate constants of structurally identical glucosinolates was found between broccoli and Chinese kale leaves when grown in the same season. However, glucosinolate degradation rate constants were highly affected by the season (20-80% increase in spring compared to autumn). These results suggest that differences in glucosinolate degradation rate constants can be due to variation in environmental as well as genetic factors. Furthermore, a methodology to estimate rate constants rapidly is provided to enable the analysis of high sample numbers for future studies.

  10. Continued Selenium Biofortification of Carrots and Broccoli Grown in Soils Once Amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata

    PubMed Central

    Bañuelos, Gary S.; Arroyo, Irvin S.; Dangi, Sadikshya R.; Zambrano, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton) three and 4 years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0–30 cm) were 1.65 mg kg-1 and 88 μg L-1, and 0.92 mg kg-1 and 48.6 μg L-1 at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg-1 and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg-1 in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine) was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0–5 and 0–30 cm, respectively, 3 years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots 3 and 4 years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions.

  11. Continued Selenium Biofortification of Carrots and Broccoli Grown in Soils Once Amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata

    PubMed Central

    Bañuelos, Gary S.; Arroyo, Irvin S.; Dangi, Sadikshya R.; Zambrano, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton) three and 4 years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0–30 cm) were 1.65 mg kg-1 and 88 μg L-1, and 0.92 mg kg-1 and 48.6 μg L-1 at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg-1 and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg-1 in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine) was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0–5 and 0–30 cm, respectively, 3 years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots 3 and 4 years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions. PMID:27602038

  12. Continued Selenium Biofortification of Carrots and Broccoli Grown in Soils Once Amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Arroyo, Irvin S; Dangi, Sadikshya R; Zambrano, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton) three and 4 years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0-30 cm) were 1.65 mg kg(-1) and 88 μg L(-1), and 0.92 mg kg(-1) and 48.6 μg L(-1) at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg(-1) and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg(-1) in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine) was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0-5 and 0-30 cm, respectively, 3 years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots 3 and 4 years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions. PMID:27602038

  13. Broccoli and turnip plants display contrasting responses to belowground induction by Delia radicum infestation and phytohormone applications.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Prisca S; Dugravot, Sébastien; Cortesero, Anne-Marie; Poinsot, Denis; Raaijmakers, Ciska E; Hassan, Hany M; van Dam, Nicole M

    2012-01-01

    Induced responses to insect herbivory are a common phenomenon in the plant kingdom. So far, induced responses have mostly investigated in aerial plant parts. Recently it was found that root herbivore may also elicit both local and systemic responses affecting aboveground herbivores and their natural enemies. Using broccoli (Brassica oleracea subsp. italica L.) and turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa L.), two cultivated brassicaceaous plants differing in their chemistry and morphology, we analysed the local and systemic induced responses triggered by Delia radicum L. damage, JA and SA application. We also assessed whether the root induction treatments affected D. radicum larval performance. Both D. radicum damage and JA induced changes in glucosinolate and sugar content as well as affected D. radicum performance, while SA application did not. Despite the uniform chemical responses, the effect on larval performance on broccoli and turnip plants was very different. On broccoli, JA root treatment reduced herbivore performance, whereas in turnips the same treatment enhanced it. JA- and D. radicum-induced responses followed similar patterns, which suggests that the JA signalling pathway is involved in root-induced responses to larval feeding. Glucosinolate induction cannot fully explain the differences found in the performance of D. radicum on the different species. Changes in other resistance factors might significantly contribute to the induced resistance in these brassicaceaeous species as well.

  14. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants.

  15. Broccoli and watercress suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and invasiveness of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rose, Peter; Huang, Qing; Ong, Choon Nam; Whiteman, Matt

    2005-12-01

    A high dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduction in numerous human pathologies particularly cancer. In the current study, we examined the inhibitory effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and watercress (Rorripa nasturtium aquaticum) extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cancer cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Aberrant overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases, including metalloproteinase-9, is associated with increased invasive potential in cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate that extracts of broccoli and Rorripa suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 activity and invasiveness in a concentration dependent manner as determined by zymographic analysis. Furthermore, fractionation of individual extracts followed by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis (LC-MS) revealed that the inhibitory effects of each vegetable were associated with the presence of 4-methysulfinylbutyl (sulforaphane) and 7-methylsulphinylheptyl isothiocyanates. Taken together, our data indicate that isothiocyanates derived form broccoli and Rorripa inhibit metalloproteinase 9 activities and also suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables.

  16. Broccoli and watercress suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and invasiveness of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Peter . E-mail: bchpcr@nus.edu.sg; Huang, Qing; Ong, Choon Nam; Whiteman, Matt

    2005-12-01

    A high dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduction in numerous human pathologies particularly cancer. In the current study, we examined the inhibitory effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and watercress (Rorripa nasturtium aquaticum) extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cancer cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Aberrant overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases, including metalloproteinase-9, is associated with increased invasive potential in cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate that extracts of broccoli and Rorripa suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 activity and invasiveness in a concentration dependant manner as determined by zymographic analysis. Furthermore, fractionation of individual extracts followed by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis (LC-MS) revealed that the inhibitory effects of each vegetable were associated with the presence of 4-methysulfinylbutyl (sulforaphane) and 7-methylsulphinylheptyl isothiocyanates. Taken together, our data indicate that isothiocyanates derived form broccoli and Rorripa inhibit metalloproteinase 9 activities and also suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables.

  17. Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Arroyo, Irvin; Pickering, Ingrid J; Yang, Soo In; Freeman, John L

    2015-01-01

    Amending soils with Se-hyperaccumulator plant derived sources of selenium (Se) may be useful for increasing the Se content in food crops in Se-deficient regions of the world. In this study we evaluated total Se and the different chemical species of Se in broccoli and carrots grown in soils amended with ground shoots of the Se-hyperaccumulator Stanleyapinnata. With increasing application rates of S. pinnata, total plant Se concentrations increased to nutritionally ideal levels inside edible parts. Selenium compounds in aqueous extracts were analyzed by SAX-HPLC-ICPMS and identified as a variety of mainly organic-Se forms. Together with bulk Se K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis performed on broccoli florets, carrot roots and shoots, dried ground S. pinnata, and the amended soil at post-plant, we demonstrate that Se-enriched S. pinnata is valuable as a soil amendment for enriching broccoli and carrots with healthful forms of organic-Se.

  18. Comparative study of the cell wall composition of broccoli, carrot, and tomato: structural characterization of the extractable pectins and hemicelluloses.

    PubMed

    Houben, Ken; Jolie, Ruben P; Fraeye, Ilse; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2011-07-01

    This study delivers a comparison of the pectic and hemicellulosic cell wall polysaccharides between the commonly used vegetables broccoli (stem and florets separately), carrot, and tomato. Alcohol-insoluble residues were prepared from the plant sources and sequentially extracted with water, cyclohexane-trans-1,2-diamine tetra-acetic acid, sodium carbonate, and potassium hydroxide solutions, to obtain individual fractions, each containing polysaccharides bound to the cell wall in a specific manner. Structural characterization of the polysaccharide fractions was conducted using colorimetric and chromatographic approaches. Sugar ratios were defined to ameliorate data interpretation. These ratios allowed gaining information concerning polysaccharide structure from sugar composition data. Structural analysis of broccoli revealed organ-specific characteristics: the pectin degree of methoxylation (DM) of stem and florets differed, the sugar composition data inferred differences in polymeric composition. On the other hand, the molar mass (MM) distribution profiles of the polysaccharide fractions were virtually identical for both organs. Carrot root displayed a different MM distribution for the polysaccharides solubilized by potassium hydroxide compared to broccoli and tomato, possibly due to the high contribution of branched pectins to this otherwise hemicellulose-enriched fraction. Tomato fruit showed the pectins with the broadest range in DM, the highest MM, the greatest overall linearity and the lowest extent of branching of rhamnogalacturonan I, pointing to particularly long, linear pectins in tomato compared with the other vegetable organs studied, suggesting possible implications toward functional behavior.

  19. A diet rich in high-glucoraphanin broccoli interacts with genotype to reduce discordance in plasma metabolite profiles by modulating mitochondrial function123

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Charlotte N; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Defernez, Marianne; Janssens, Astrid; Leung, Wing; Doleman, Joanne F; Potter, John F

    2013-01-01

    Background: Observational and experimental studies suggest that diets rich in cruciferous vegetables and glucosinolates may reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a 12-wk dietary intervention with high-glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli would modify biomarkers of CVD risk and plasma metabolite profiles to a greater extent than interventions with standard broccoli or peas. Design: Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 400 g standard broccoli, 400 g HG broccoli, or 400 g peas each week for 12 wk, with no other dietary restrictions. Biomarkers of CVD risk and 347 plasma metabolites were quantified before and after the intervention. Results: No significant differences in the effects of the diets on biomarkers of CVD risk were found. Multivariate analyses of plasma metabolites identified 2 discrete phenotypic responses to diet in individuals within the HG broccoli arm, differentiated by single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the PAPOLG gene. Univariate analysis showed effects of sex (P < 0.001), PAPOLG genotype (P < 0.001), and PAPOLG genotype × diet (P < 0.001) on the plasma metabolic profile. In the HG broccoli arm, the consequence of the intervention was to reduce variation in lipid and amino acid metabolites, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, and acylcarnitines between the 2 PAPOLG genotypes. Conclusions: The metabolic changes observed with the HG broccoli diet are consistent with a rebalancing of anaplerotic and cataplerotic reactions and enhanced integration of fatty acid β-oxidation with TCA cycle activity. These modifications may contribute to the reduction in cancer risk associated with diets that are rich in cruciferous vegetables. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01114399. PMID:23964055

  20. The retention and distribution by healthy young men of stable isotopes of selenium consumed as selenite, selenate or hydroponically-grown broccoli are dependent on the isotopic form.

    PubMed

    Finley, J W

    1999-04-01

    Twenty-seven healthy young men were randomly assigned to diets that supplied low (32.6 microg/d) or high (226.5 microg/d) levels of selenium for a 105-d study. After consuming the diets for 85 d, subjects were fed a test meal that contained 74Se in the form of selenite or selenate and 82Se incorporated into hydroponically-raised broccoli. Urine, fecal and blood samples were collected daily. Isotope absorption was not different (P > 0.05) for selenate and Se in broccoli; Se absorption from selenite was highly variable and was not included in statistical analyses. Significantly more isotope was absorbed by subjects fed the high Se diet (P = 0. 015). Urinary isotope excretion was greater when selenate was fed than when broccoli was fed (P = 0.0001), and consequently more Se from broccoli (as compared to selenate) was retained (59.2 +/- 2.4 and 36.4 +/- 4.6% for Se in broccoli and selenate, respectively; P = 0.0001). Despite the higher retention, less isotope from broccoli than from selenate was present in the plasma. Plasma proteins separated by gel permeation chromatography showed that most of the isotopes were distributed between two medium molecular weight peaks. Less isotope was found in plasma proteins of subjects fed the high Se diet, but the form of Se had no effect on isotope distribution. These results show that dietary Se intake alters the retention of stable isotopes of Se and that humans retain and distribute Se from broccoli in a different manner than Se from inorganic salts.

  1. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed.

  2. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. PMID:26742616

  3. Increased purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber sprouting with diurnally fluctuating temperatures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple nutsedge is among the most troublesome weeds of vegetables in the Southeast US and a substantial impediment in the search for methyl bromide alternatives. Greater understanding of the environmental cues that regulate tuber sprouting may assist in improved nutsedge management. Experiments we...

  4. Microbial evaluation of fresh, minimally-processed vegetables and bagged sprouts from chain supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Khaniki, Gholam Reza Jahed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran.

  5. Polyphenol oxidase expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers inhibited to sprouting by treatment with iodine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eolini, Francesco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Credi, Andrea; Rodríguez, Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y; Poggi, Valeria

    2004-08-01

    Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1 and EC 1.14.18.1) was undetectable in tuber peel, whereas in bud tissues featured an increase, followed by a decrease occurring simultaneously with the suppression of sprouting. The treatment of tubers with iodine strongly affected the expression of polyphenol oxidases at the transcriptional level. Polyphenol oxidase activity in buds poorly reflected the corresponding level of transcription; similarly, little differences were found among the enzyme isoforms expressed in buds as a function of length of exposure to iodine. These findings suggest that the induction of polyphenol oxidases mRNAs transcription could probe the inhibition of sprouting by iodine. PMID:15587701

  6. Relations between the physiological state of onions and an effective sprout inhibition by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Matejko, C.

    The mitotic activity in shoot meristem was examined during the entire storage period of onions ( Allium cepa L.) and was compared with the growth of the inner bud of the bulbs unirradiated and after irradiation. The meaning of cell division at the shoot apex for the sprouting of onions and the effect of γ-irradiation are discussed.

  7. Human iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cell Sprouting Assay in Synthetic Hydrogel Arrays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by growth factors initiates a cascade of events in vivo consisting of EC tip cell selection, sprout formation, EC stalk cell proliferation, and ultimately vascular stabilization by support cells. Although EC functional assays can rec...

  8. Effect of pre-harvest sprouting on physicochemical properties of starch in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike, often because harvest coincides with untimely rain. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on the physicochemical changes of starch due t...

  9. Dissection of Genetic Componenets of Preharvest Sprouting Resistance in White Wheat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preharvest sprouting (PHS) in rain-affected wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major constraint to the production of high-quality wheat, especially in regions where white grain wheat cultivars are preferred. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PHS resistance and seed dormancy (SD), we eva...

  10. Gestational weight gain: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reporte...

  11. The effect of sprout and disease control products on disease development and weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato industry utilizes various sprout and disease control products prior to storage and/or packing. Some of these products have not been tested for interference of wound healing and whether effects observed equate to greater disease development or weight loss. The objectives of this study we...

  12. Potato Tubers Treated with Sprout Inhibitors Exhibit Transcript Profiles That Have Similarities to the Dormant State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compounds chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) are used to suppress sprout growth and prolong the storage of potato tubers. However, the mechanism of action for these chemicals is poorly defined. Microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR were utilized to compare the tra...

  13. Microbial Evaluation of Fresh, Minimally-processed Vegetables and Bagged Sprouts from Chain Supermarkets

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran. PMID:25395902

  14. MG SPROUTS: A Project-in-a-Box Approach to Educational Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn,Sheri; Slagle, Krissy

    2016-01-01

    MG SPROUTS was developed as a "project-in-a-box" program, a self-contained educational programming tool for Extension agents working with master gardener Extension volunteers (MGEVs). The program design incorporates programmatic materials and project management materials and follows best management practices for volunteer management. MG…

  15. Effects of different media on the enrichment of low numbers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts and on the development of the sprout microbiome.

    PubMed

    Margot, H; Tasara, T; Zwietering, M H; Joosten, H; Stephan, R

    2016-09-01

    Sprouted seeds have been implicated in a number of serious outbreaks caused by Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Sprouts pose a very complex challenge to bacterial pathogen enrichment and detection since they naturally contain high levels of background microflora including members of the Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the currently used method cannot ensure reliable detection of STEC in sprouts. In this study, we compared different media for the enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae in their ability to promote the growth of stressed STEC at 37°C and 42°C. Mung bean sprouts were spiked with low levels of STEC and their growth was recorded over time. In addition, the microbiome of mung bean sprouts was analysed before and after enrichment. Our results indicate that the growth of dry-stressed STEC is comparable in all of the tested enrichment media except for mTSB+Novobiocin and not influenced by the incubation temperature. Low levels of STEC spiked into the sprouts resuspended in media only grew to levels of around 4logcfu/ml during enrichment, which could reduce the probability of detection. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected within the microbiome of non-enriched mung bean sprouts. During enrichment in EE-broth, Proteobacteria remained the most abundant phylum. In contrast, during enrichment in BPW the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased whereas Firmicutes increased when compared to the non-enriched mung bean sprout microbiome. The microbiome composition was not significantly influenced by the incubation temperature during enrichment in both BPW and EE-broth. This is the first study to examine the microbiome on sprouted mung bean seeds during BPW and EE enrichment and relates the bacterial community composition changes to the enrichment of pathogens.

  16. The influence of selenium addition during germination of Brassica seeds on health-promoting potential of sprouts.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, Anna; Kołodziejski, Dominik; Pilipczuk, Tadeusz; Bodnar, Małgorzata; Konieczka, Piotr; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika; Cyprys, Joanna; Groszewska, Milena; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2014-09-01

    The correlation among selenium uptake, the content of bioactive compounds in sprouts, and biological activities triggered in cultured human cells by sprout extracts was investigated. Seeds of Brassica crops and rye were treated with SeO2 water solution. The selenium levels in sprouts increased from 1.0-4.1 to 53.3-382 μg/g dw with no influence on plant physiology according to the indices used. Neither the composition of glucosinolates (GL) in Brassica sprouts nor the myrosinase activity nor the composition of GL breakdown lipophilic products were significantly affected. In all Brassica sprouts, conversion to health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITC) and indoles corresponded to only 1% of total GLs. Low ITC concentration may explain observed lack of induction of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) detoxifying enzymes in HT29 cells exposed to sprout extracts. The insignificant impact on cell growth and genome function suggests that Brassica sprouts may be safe vehicle of selenium to combat its dietary deficiency.

  17. Effects of light-emitting diodes on expression of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and accumulation of phenylpropanoids in Fagopyrum tataricum sprouts.

    PubMed

    Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Sun-Ju; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Chung, Sun-Ok; Park, Sang Un

    2014-05-28

    Buckwheat sprouts are a popular food item in many countries. The effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on sprout growth and development, changes in mRNA transcription, and accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds were studied in tartary buckwheat 'Hokkai T8' sprouts. The highest transcript levels were observed after 2 days of LED exposure for all genes, especially FtPAL and FtF3'H, which showed higher expression in sprouts grown under blue and white light than in those grown under red light. Catechin content in sprouts grown under red light increased dramatically throughout the 10 day time course. Maximum rutin content (43.37 mg/g dry weight (DW)) was observed in sprouts at 4 days after exposure (DAE) to blue light. Similarly, the highest cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside content (0.85 mg/g DW) was detected at 10 DAE to blue light. On the basis of these results, blue LED light is recommended as a light source for enhancing the content of phenolic compounds in tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  18. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Sprouts Germinated under Red Light Irradiation Induce Disease Resistance against Bacterial Rotting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650–660), far red (720–730) and blue (440–450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes. PMID:25679808

  19. Effects of cutting time, stump height, parent tree characteristics, and harvest variables on development of bigleaf maple sprout clumps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, J. C.; Zasada, J.; Maxwell, B.

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of stump height, year of cutting, parent-tree size, logging damage, and deer browsing on bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) sprout clump development, maple trees were cut to two stump heights at three different times. Stump height had the greatest impact on sprout clump size. Two years after clearcutting, the sprout clump volume for short stumps was significantly less than that for tall stumps. The sprout clump volume, area, and number of sprouts were significantly less for trees cut 1 and 2 yr before harvest than for trees cut at harvest. Sprout clump size was positively correlated with parent tree stem diameter and stump volume, and negatively correlated with the percentage of bark removed during logging. Browsing had no significant impact on average clump size. Uncut trees produced sprout clumps at their base and epicormic branches along the length of their stems; thus their crown volume averaged four to five times that of cut trees. Cutting maple in clearcuts to low stumps may reduce maple competition with Douglas-fir regeneration and still maintain maple in the next stand.

  20. Netrin-1 Contributes to Myelinated Afferent Fiber Sprouting and Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cai-Hua; Yuan, Xiao-Cui; Gao, Fang; Li, Hong-Ping; Cao, Jie; Liu, Yan-Shen; Yu, Wei; Tian, Bo; Meng, Xian-Fang; Shi, Jing; Pan, Hui-Lin; Li, Man

    2016-10-01

    Netrin-1 is a neuronal guidance molecule implicated in the development of spinal cord neurons and cortical neurons. In the adult spinal cord, UNC5H (repulsive receptor of netrin-1), but not deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) (attractive receptor of netrin-1), constitutes a major mode of netrin-1 signal transduction, which may be involved in axon repulsion and inhibits neurite outgrowth. Abnormal sprouting of myelinated afferent fibers in the spinal dorsal horn can cause mechanical allodynia associated with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN, Shingles) and other neuropathic pains. However, whether netrin-1 participates in sprouting of myelinated afferent fibers and mechanical allodynia remains unknown. In an ultropotent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX)-induced PHN-like model, RTX treatment for 6 weeks increased netrin-1 expression in dorsal horn neurons, including NK-1-positive projection neurons. In human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we found that TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine antagonized RTX-induced upregulation of netrin-1. After RTX treatment, UNC5H2 expression was gradually decreased, whereas DCC expression was significantly increased. Silencing netrin-1 in the spinal dorsal horn significantly attenuated RTX-induced mechanical allodynia and sprouting of myelinated fibers into the spinal lamina II. Our results suggest that RTX treatment upregulates netrin-1 expression through activation of TRPV1 receptors and change UNC5H2-rich spinal dorsal horn into a growth-permissive environment by increasing DCC expression, thus enhancing the sprouting of myelinated afferent nerves. Netrin-1 may be targeted for reducing primary afferent sprouting and mechanical allodynia in PHN and other neuropathic pain conditions. PMID:26482371

  1. Chondroitinase enhances cortical map plasticity and increases functionally active sprouting axons after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Harris, Neil G; Nogueira, Marcia S M; Verley, Derek R; Sutton, Richard L

    2013-07-15

    The beneficial effect of interventions with chondroitinase ABC enzyme to reduce axon growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulphate side chains after central nervous system injuries has been mainly attributed to enhanced axonal sprouting. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is unknown whether newly sprouting axons that occur as a result of interventional strategies are able to functionally contribute to existing circuitry, and it is uncertain whether maladaptive sprouting occurs to increase the well-known risk for seizure activity after TBI. Here, we show that after a controlled cortical impact injury in rats, chondroitinase infusion into injured cortex at 30 min and 3 days reduced c-Fos⁺ cell staining resulting from the injury alone at 1 week postinjury, indicating that at baseline, abnormal spontaneous activity is likely to be reduced, not increased, with this type of intervention. c-Fos⁺ cell staining elicited by neural activity from stimulation of the affected forelimb 1 week after injury was significantly enhanced by chondroitinase, indicating a widespread effect on cortical map plasticity. Underlying this map plasticity was a larger contribution of neuronal, rather than glial cells and an absence of c-Fos⁺ cells surrounded by perineuronal nets that were normally present in stimulated naïve rats. After injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan digestion produced the expected increase in growth-associated protein 43-positive axons and perikarya, of which a significantly greater number were double labeled for c-Fos after intervention with chondroitinase, compared to vehicle. These data indicate that chondroitinase produces significant gains in cortical map plasticity after TBI, and that either axonal sprouting and/or changes in perineuronal nets may underlie this effect. Chondroitinase dampens, rather than increases nonspecific c-Fos activity after brain injury, and induction of axonal sprouting is not maladaptive because greater numbers are functionally

  2. Pathological sprouting of adult nociceptors in chronic prostate cancer-induced bone pain.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M; Bloom, Aaron P; Stake, James I; Mantyh, William G; Taylor, Reid N; Freeman, Katie T; Ghilardi, Joseph R; Kuskowski, Michael A; Mantyh, Patrick W

    2010-11-01

    Pain frequently accompanies cancer. What remains unclear is why this pain frequently becomes more severe and difficult to control with disease progression. Here we test the hypothesis that with disease progression, sensory nerve fibers that innervate the tumor-bearing tissue undergo a pathological sprouting and reorganization, which in other nonmalignant pathologies has been shown to generate and maintain chronic pain. Injection of canine prostate cancer cells into mouse bone induces a remarkable sprouting of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP(+)) and neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200(+)) sensory nerve fibers. Nearly all sensory nerve fibers that undergo sprouting also coexpress tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA(+)). This ectopic sprouting occurs in sensory nerve fibers that are in close proximity to colonies of prostate cancer cells, tumor-associated stromal cells and newly formed woven bone, which together form sclerotic lesions that closely mirror the osteoblastic bone lesions induced by metastatic prostate tumors in humans. Preventive treatment with an antibody that sequesters nerve growth factor (NGF), administered when the pain and bone remodeling were first observed, blocks this ectopic sprouting and attenuates cancer pain. Interestingly, reverse transcription PCR analysis indicated that the prostate cancer cells themselves do not express detectable levels of mRNA coding for NGF. This suggests that the tumor-associated stromal cells express and release NGF, which drives the pathological reorganization of nearby TrkA(+) sensory nerve fibers. Therapies that prevent this reorganization of sensory nerve fibers may provide insight into the evolving mechanisms that drive cancer pain and lead to more effective control of this chronic pain state.

  3. Development of quick cooking multi-grain dalia utilizing sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    Mridula, D; Sharma, Monika; Gupta, R K

    2015-09-01

    Multi-grain dalia (MGD) formulations were prepared utilizing sprouted wheat and mixer of other three grains (barley, sorghum and pearl millet) in the ratio of 100:0 (MGD-A), 75:25 (MGD-B), 50:50 (MGD-C), 25:75 (MGD-D) and 0:100 (MGD-E), respectively. The mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet was prepared using 50, 25, 25 parts of these grains, respectively. The recovery of grits/ dalia (particle size 1.41 to 2 mm) from sprouted wheat and barley was 74.56 and 69.77 %, respectively while sorghum and pearl millet yield 47.94 and 49.39 % (particle size 0.954 to 1.41 mm), respectively. Sprouting brought a reduction of cooking time by about 50 % as compared to un-sprouted studied grains. Cooking time for different MGD formulations ranged from 3.91 to 4.42 min, which was slightly increased with increasing proportion of mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet (p > 0.05). Rehydration ratio of MGD samples varied from 3.12 to 3.45 with minimum in MGD-E sample. Though protein content was decreased with increasing proportion of mixer of three grains in MGD samples but in vitro protein digestibility (58.68 to 62.75 %) was similar (p > 0.05). The mean overall sensory acceptability scores for MGD samples ranged from 7.50 to 8.49 with ≥8.0 in samples having up to 75 % grits of mixer of three grains. In view of very good overall sensory acceptability, rich in crude fibre, calcium and iron content and low cooking time, 25:75 parts of sprouted wheat and mixer of studied three grains, respectively may be considered for preparation of acceptable quality quick cooking multi-grain dalia.

  4. Ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene differentially regulate gene expression during onion sprout suppression.

    PubMed

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A; Hammond, John P; Thompson, Andrew J; Terry, Leon A

    2011-07-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is regarded as a nonclimacteric vegetable. In onions, however, ethylene can suppress sprouting while the ethylene-binding inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can also suppress sprout growth; yet, it is unknown how ethylene and 1-MCP elicit the same response. In this study, onions were treated with 10 μL L(-1) ethylene or 1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP individually or in combination for 24 h at 20°C before or after curing (6 weeks) at 20°C or 28°C and then stored at 1°C. Following curing, a subset of these same onions was stored separately under continuous air or ethylene (10 μL L(-1)) at 1°C. Onions treated with ethylene and 1-MCP in combination after curing for 24 h had reduced sprout growth as compared with the control 25 weeks after harvest. Sprout growth following storage beyond 25 weeks was only reduced through continuous ethylene treatment. This observation was supported by a higher proportion of down-regulated genes characterized as being involved in photosynthesis, measured using a newly developed onion microarray. Physiological and biochemical data suggested that ethylene was being perceived in the presence of 1-MCP, since sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and ethylene applied in combination but not when applied individually. A cluster of probes representing transcripts up-regulated by 1-MCP alone but down-regulated by ethylene alone or in the presence of 1-MCP support this suggestion. Ethylene and 1-MCP both down-regulated a probe tentatively annotated as an ethylene receptor as well as ethylene-insensitive 3, suggesting that both treatments down-regulate the perception and signaling events of ethylene.

  5. NMDA receptor currents suppress synapse formation on sprouting axons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Colonnese, Matthew T; Zhao, Jian-Ping; Constantine-Paton, Martha

    2005-02-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play an important role in the structural maintenance and functional strength of synapses. The causal relationship between these anatomical and functional roles is poorly defined. Using quantitative confocal microscopy, synaptic vesicle immunoreactivity, and differential label of retinal projections, we measured axon volume and synapse density along ipsilateral retinal axons (ipsi axons) sprouting into the superficial visual layers of the superior colliculus (sSC) deafferented by a contralateral retinal lesion (a scotoma) 8 d earlier. When retinal lesions were made at postnatal day 6 (P6), glutamatergic synaptic currents on neurons within the scotoma were significantly reduced. Both ipsi axon sprouting and synapse density were increased by chronic d-AP-5 antagonism of NMDARs. Conversely, ipsi axon sprouting and synapse density were reduced by chronic exposure to the agonist, NMDA, known to functionally depress glutamate transmission in this system. After P11 lesions, however, NMDAR blockade had no effect on sprouting or synapse density. Developmental changes in NMDAR current kinetics could not account for this difference in the structural effects of NMDAR function. Also, synaptic current frequencies within the scotoma were not affected after the P11 lesions. The corticocollicular projection matures during the P11 survival interval and, as indicated by previous work, it is a source of competition for synaptic space and probably of maintained activity in the older sSC. Thus, our results suggest that during early development, NMDAR currents predominantly destabilize nascent synapses. As the neuropil matures, however, competition for synaptic space suppresses axon sprouting and synapse formation regardless of NMDAR function.

  6. Netrin-1 Contributes to Myelinated Afferent Fiber Sprouting and Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cai-Hua; Yuan, Xiao-Cui; Gao, Fang; Li, Hong-Ping; Cao, Jie; Liu, Yan-Shen; Yu, Wei; Tian, Bo; Meng, Xian-Fang; Shi, Jing; Pan, Hui-Lin; Li, Man

    2016-10-01

    Netrin-1 is a neuronal guidance molecule implicated in the development of spinal cord neurons and cortical neurons. In the adult spinal cord, UNC5H (repulsive receptor of netrin-1), but not deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) (attractive receptor of netrin-1), constitutes a major mode of netrin-1 signal transduction, which may be involved in axon repulsion and inhibits neurite outgrowth. Abnormal sprouting of myelinated afferent fibers in the spinal dorsal horn can cause mechanical allodynia associated with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN, Shingles) and other neuropathic pains. However, whether netrin-1 participates in sprouting of myelinated afferent fibers and mechanical allodynia remains unknown. In an ultropotent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX)-induced PHN-like model, RTX treatment for 6 weeks increased netrin-1 expression in dorsal horn neurons, including NK-1-positive projection neurons. In human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we found that TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine antagonized RTX-induced upregulation of netrin-1. After RTX treatment, UNC5H2 expression was gradually decreased, whereas DCC expression was significantly increased. Silencing netrin-1 in the spinal dorsal horn significantly attenuated RTX-induced mechanical allodynia and sprouting of myelinated fibers into the spinal lamina II. Our results suggest that RTX treatment upregulates netrin-1 expression through activation of TRPV1 receptors and change UNC5H2-rich spinal dorsal horn into a growth-permissive environment by increasing DCC expression, thus enhancing the sprouting of myelinated afferent nerves. Netrin-1 may be targeted for reducing primary afferent sprouting and mechanical allodynia in PHN and other neuropathic pain conditions.

  7. Relationship between sympathetic nerve sprouting and repolarization dispersion at peri-infarct zone after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Lu, Zhibing; Yu, Ying; Zhao, Dongdong; Yang, Bo; Huang, Congxin

    2007-07-31

    Sympathetic nerve sprouting is thought to contribute to sudden cardiac death (SCD) in chronic myocardial infarction (MI). However, the mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the relationship between sympathetic nerve sprouting and repolarization dispersion at peri-infarct zones after MI. Thirty adult New Zealand White rabbits underwent coronary artery ligation (MI group: n=20) or sham operation (SO group: n=10). Eight weeks after surgery, transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) was examined at the peri-infarct zones in MI group and corresponding zones in the SO group at baseline and during sympathetic nerve stimulation. Sympathetic nerve sprouting was detected by immunocytochemical staining using anti-growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antibodies. The results demonstrated that TDR was significantly larger at peri-infarct zones in MI group than the corresponding zone in SO group at baseline or during sympathetic nerve stimulation. The densities of both GAP43- and TH-positive nerves were significantly higher at peri-infarct zones in infracted hearts than the corresponding zones in control hearts (both p<0.01). In the MI group, the density of GAP43- or TH-positive nerves at peri-infarct zones had a significantly positive correlation with the TDR or DeltaTDR (change in TDR) at baseline as well as with sympathetic nerve stimulation (p<0.05 for all). These results suggested that sympathetic nerve sprouting is more pronounced and heterogeneous at peri-infarct zones at 8 weeks after MI. The excessive sprouting of sympathetic nerves increases local ventricular TDR, which may be a potential mechanism for SCD in chronic MI.

  8. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P < 0.05). Preintervention methods lowered the level of internalized Salmonella by 1.84 log CFU/g (P < 0.05), whereas postintervention methods were ineffective in eliminating internalized pathogens. Preintervention did not completely inactivate bacteria in sprouts and demonstrated that the remaining Salmonella Typhimurium in water became more resistant to UV. Because postharvest intervention methods are ineffective, proper procedures for maintaining clean irrigation water must be followed

  9. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p < 0.001) for the accumulated hourly O 3 exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 6 nmol m -2 s -1 (POD 6) respectively. Estimated critical levels, above which 5% yield reduction is expected, were 3.7 ppm h and 4.4 mmol m -2 respectively. Our results also confirm that a threshold value of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area, as recommended for agricultural crops (UNECE, Mills, 2004), can indeed be applied for spring oilseed rape. The reduction of oilseed rape yield showed the highest correlation with the ozone uptake during the vegetative growth stage: when only the first 47 days after emergence were used to calculate POD 6, R2 values increased up to 0.476 or even 0.545 when the first 23 days were excluded. The highest ozone treatments, corresponding to the future ambient level by 2100 (IPCC, Meehl et al., 2007), led to a reduction of approximately 30% in oilseed rape seed yield in comparison to the current ozone concentrations. Oil percentage was also significantly reduced in response to ozone ( p < 0.001). As a consequence oil yield was even more severely affected by elevated ozone exposure compared to seed yield: critical levels for oil yield dropped to 3.2 ppm h and 3.9 mmol m -2. For broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  10. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  11. The bioavailability to humans of ascorbic acid from oranges, orange juice and cooked broccoli is similar to that of synthetic ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Mangels, A R; Block, G; Frey, C M; Patterson, B H; Taylor, P R; Norkus, E P; Levander, O A

    1993-06-01

    The relative bioavailability of ascorbic acid from several sources was compared in 68 male non-smokers. Subjects underwent two 8-wk ascorbic acid depletion-repletion cycles. In repletion, subjects were randomized to receive 108 mg/d ascorbic acid as tablets with or without iron, as orange segments or juice, or as raw or cooked broccoli with a crossover within each major treatment group (e.g., cooked to raw broccoli) for the second repletion. Relative ascorbic acid bioavailability was estimated based on the slope obtained from linear regression of plasma ascorbic acid on time during each repletion. In the first repletion, slopes for all groups were similar except for the group consuming raw broccoli (20% lower response, P < 0.01). Second repletion responses were attenuated, but were similar to the first repletion. Ascorbic acid ingested as cooked broccoli, orange juice or fruit, or in synthetic form seems to be equally bioavailable. The lower relative bioavailability of ascorbic acid from raw broccoli is unlikely to be of practical importance in mixed diets.

  12. Antimutagenic potential of glucosinolate-rich seed extracts of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L var italica Plenck).

    PubMed

    Rampal, Geetanjali; Thind, Tarunpreet Singh; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Arora, Saroj

    2010-12-01

    In the current study, isolation of glucosinolate degradation products was done in 4 different incubation solutions with different pHs based on the fact that distinct hydrolytic products are formed at different pHs. All the extracts were tested against direct-acting mutagens (4 nitro-o-phenylenediamine [NPD]), sodium azide, and indirect-acting mutagen (2-aminofluorene [2AF]). It was observed that extracts inhibited mutagenesis induced by the S9-dependent mutagen (2AF) more significantly than direct-acting mutagens. Two different modes of experimentation (pre-incubation and co-incubation) were used, and it was observed that the extracts showed better results in the pre-incubation mode of experimentation. Out of the 4 extracts tested, 0.1 mol/L of HCl extract was found to be the most effective in inhibiting mutagenesis with both TA 98 and TA 100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium. All other extracts also showed pronounced antimutagenic potential. The results of this study indicate the presence of potent antigenotoxic factors in broccoli, which are being explored further for their mechanism of action.

  13. Two novel bioactive glucosinolates from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets.

    PubMed

    Survay, Nazneen Shaik; Kumar, Brajesh; Jang, Mi; Yoon, Do-Young; Jung, Yi-Sook; Yang, Deok-Chun; Park, Se Won

    2012-09-01

    Two novel glucosinolates along with one known glucosinolate were isolated from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets. Their structures were established mainly by 1D ((1)H and (13)C NMR), 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, DEPT 135°, HSQC and HMBC), and Tandem MS-MS spectrometric data as 2-mercaptomethyl sulfinyl glucosinolate [(Z)-4-(methylsulfinyl)-N-(sulfooxy)-2-((2'S,3'R,4'S,5'S,6'R)-3',4',5'-trihydroxy-6'(hydroxylmethyl)-2'-mercapto tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl) butane amide] 1, (Z)-1-((2S,5S)-5-hydroxytetra-hydro-2H-pyran-2-ylthio)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl) ethylidene amino sulfate 2 and a known cinnamoyl [6'-O-trans-(4″-hydroxy cinnamoyl)4-(methylsulphinyl)butyl glucosinolate] 3. Compound 1 exhibited scavenging activity against DPPH with an inhibitory concentration IC(50) of 20 mM, whereas compound 3 was a weak antioxidant when compared to the standard quercetin (5 mM) as a positive control. Both the compounds showed a significant and similar antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an IC(50) of <625 μg/mL when compared to antibiotic duricef. Against Salmonella typhimurium the IC(50) of 1 and 3 was determined as <625 μg/mL and <1250 μg/mL, respectively, when compared to ampicillin (IC(50) ≤ 39 μg/mL) as a positive control.

  14. Effects of sodium metavanadate and germination on the sprouting of chickpeas and its content of vanadium, formononetin and biochanin A in the sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Mao, Xueqin; Xia, Zuoli

    2012-03-01

    Chickpea sprouts (CS) may become one of the natural products of high demand due to their nutritional values. The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of vanadium (V) during the germination of chickpea seeds in order to combine the high nutritive value of sprouts with a readily bioavailable source of essential trace element-V. Chickpea seeds were germinated in sodium metavanadate solutions (NaVO(3)) with different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 1,200, 1,400, and 1,600 mg/L as NaVO(3)) for 6 days at 28 °C. It was found that the addition of sodium metavanadate produced slight stress effect, and the growth of CS was inhibited. The addition of sodium metavanadate significantly increased V content in CS in a dose-dependent manner. The highest V content (1.52 mg/g) in CS was observed when germination was carried out in the NaVO(3) solution with 1,200 mg/L NaVO(3) concentration. Chickpea seeds germinated in 50 ∼200 mg/L NaVO(3) solutions for 6 days at 28 °C showed a higher germination rate (>99%%) and a higher content of isoflavones including formononetin and biochanin A than those obtained in NaVO(3) solutions with other concentration in the same germination conditions. Therefore, a concentration of 50∼200 mg/L sodium metavanadate solutions should be used for the production of V-enriched chickpea sprouts (VCS).

  15. Effects of light quality on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hongmei; Liu, Tianyu; Deng, Mingdan; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Shen, Wangshu; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of different light qualities, including white, red and blue lights, on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source. Our results showed that blue light treatment significantly decreased the content of gluconapin, the primary compound for bitter flavor in shoots, while increased the glucoraphanin content in roots. Moreover, the maximum content of vitamin C was detected in the white-light grown sprouts and the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanins, as well as the strongest antioxidant capacity were observed in blue-light grown sprouts. Taken together, the application of a colorful light source is a good practice for improvement of the consumers' acceptance and the nutritional phtyochemicals of Chinese kale sprouts.

  16. Improved health-relevant functionality in dark germinated Mucuna pruriens sprouts by elicitation with peptide and phytochemical elicitors.

    PubMed

    Randhir, Reena; Kwon, Young-In; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-10-01

    The health-relevant functionality of Mucuna pruriens was improved by priming the seeds with elicitors of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) such as fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs), lactoferrin (LF) and oregano extract (OE) followed by dark germination. FPH elicited the highest phenolic content of 19 mg/g FW on day 1, which was 38% higher than control sprouts. OE enhanced Parkinson's disease-relevant L-DOPA content by 33% on day 1 compared to control sprouts. Anti-diabetes-relevant alpha-amylase inhibition percent (AIP) and alpha-glucosidase inhibition percent (GIP) were high in the cotyledons and decreased following elicitation and sprouting. For potential anti-diabetic applications, low AIP and high GIP with moderate L-DOPA content on day 4 of dark germination could be optimal. Improved L-DOPA concentrations in a soluble phenolic and antioxidant-rich M. pruriens background on day 1 sprouts have potential for Parkinson's disease management.

  17. Effects of light quality on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hongmei; Liu, Tianyu; Deng, Mingdan; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Shen, Wangshu; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of different light qualities, including white, red and blue lights, on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source. Our results showed that blue light treatment significantly decreased the content of gluconapin, the primary compound for bitter flavor in shoots, while increased the glucoraphanin content in roots. Moreover, the maximum content of vitamin C was detected in the white-light grown sprouts and the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanins, as well as the strongest antioxidant capacity were observed in blue-light grown sprouts. Taken together, the application of a colorful light source is a good practice for improvement of the consumers' acceptance and the nutritional phtyochemicals of Chinese kale sprouts. PMID:26593611

  18. Influence of selenium supplementation on fatty acids profile and biological activity of four edible amaranth sprouts as new kind of functional food.

    PubMed

    Pasko, Pawel; Gdula-Argasinska, Joanna; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Quilty, Brid; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Zagrodzki, Pawel

    2015-08-01

    Suitability assessment of amaranth sprouts as a new functional food was carried out. The optimisation of sprouting process and the influence of selenium supplementation, in doses 10, 15, and 30 mg/l of selenium as sodium selenite, on amaranth growth and fatty acid profile were examined. Methods such as FRAP, DPPH, polyphenols content and GPX activity were applied to characterize antioxidant potential of seeds and sprouts of four different edible amaranth genera. E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans were used to evaluate amaranth sprouts antimicrobial properties. Interaction between amaranth sprouts and biological systems was assessed by analysing antibacterial and antifungal properties with a disc diffusion test. The studies proved amaranth sprouts to be potentially attractive as functional food. As confirmed by all the data amaranth sprouts are suitable as a moderate selenium accumulator and are rich in essential fatty acids, especially linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, which are precursors of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, it opens dietary opportunities for amaranth sprouts. They can also serve as a moderate source of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the experiments revealed neither antibacterial, nor antifungal properties of sprouts. In general, amaranth sprouts biological activity under evaluation has failed to prove to be significantly impacted by selenium fertilization.

  19. A comparison of the retention of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157 by sprouts, leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Smith, Rachel B; Matthysse, Ann G

    2014-11-01

    The retention (binding to or association with the plant) of Escherichia coli by cut leaves and fruits after vigorous water washing was compared with that by sprouts. Retention by fruits and leaves was similar but differed from retention by sprouts in rate, effect of wounding and requirement for poly-β,1-6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Escherichia coli was retained by cut ends of lettuce leaves within 5 min while more than 1 h was required for retention by the intact epidermis of leaves and fruits, and more than 1 day for sprouts. Retention after 5 min at the cut leaf edge was specific for E. coli and was not shown by the plant-associated bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Escherichia coli was retained by lettuce, spinach, alfalfa, bean, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucumber, and pepper leaves and fruits faster than by sprouts. Wounding of leaves and fruits but not sprouts increased bacterial retention. Mutations in the exopolysaccharide synthesis genes yhjN and wcaD reduced the numbers of bacteria retained. PgaC mutants were retained by cut leaves and fruits but not by sprouts. There was no significant difference in the retention of an O157 and a K12 strain by fruits or leaves. However, retention by sprouts of O157 strains was significantly greater than K12 strains. These findings suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of E  coli retention among sprouts, and leaves and fruits.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of the Sustainability of Dwarf Bamboo ( Pseudosasa usawai) Sprout-Harvesting Practices in Yangminshan National Park, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Ru; Hsu, Meng-Ting; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Sustainable harvest of natural products that meets the needs of local people has been viewed by many as an important means for sustaining conservation projects. Although plants often respond to tissue damage through compensatory growth, it may not secure long-term sustainability of the populations because many plants enhance individual well-being at the expense of propagation. Sustainability may further be threatened by infrequent, large-scale events, especially ill-documented ones. We studied the impacts of sprout harvesting on sprout growth in a dwarf bamboo ( Pseudosasa usawai) population that has seemingly recovered from an infrequent, large-scale masting event. Experimental results suggest that although a single sprout harvest did not significantly alter the subsequent abundance and structure of sprouts, culm damage that accompanied sprout harvesting resulted in shorter, thinner, and fewer sprouts. Weaker recovery was found in windward, continually harvested, and more severely damaged sites. These findings suggest that sprout growth of damaged dwarf bamboos is likely non-compensatory, but is instead supported through physiological integration whose strength is determined by the well-being of the supplying ramets. Healthy culms closer to the damage also provided more resources than those farther away. Sustainable harvesting of sprouts could benefit from organized community efforts to limit the magnitude of culm damage, provide adequate spacing between harvested sites, and ensure sufficient time interval between harvests. Vegetation boundaries relatively resilient to infrequent, large-scale events are likely maintained by climatic factors and may be sensitive to climate change. Continual monitoring is, therefore, integral to the sustainability of harvesting projects.

  1. Experimental evaluation of the sustainability of dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) sprout-harvesting practices in Yangminshan National Park, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Ru; Hsu, Meng-Ting; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Sustainable harvest of natural products that meets the needs of local people has been viewed by many as an important means for sustaining conservation projects. Although plants often respond to tissue damage through compensatory growth, it may not secure long-term sustainability of the populations because many plants enhance individual well-being at the expense of propagation. Sustainability may further be threatened by infrequent, large-scale events, especially ill-documented ones. We studied the impacts of sprout harvesting on sprout growth in a dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) population that has seemingly recovered from an infrequent, large-scale masting event. Experimental results suggest that although a single sprout harvest did not significantly alter the subsequent abundance and structure of sprouts, culm damage that accompanied sprout harvesting resulted in shorter, thinner, and fewer sprouts. Weaker recovery was found in windward, continually harvested, and more severely damaged sites. These findings suggest that sprout growth of damaged dwarf bamboos is likely non-compensatory, but is instead supported through physiological integration whose strength is determined by the well-being of the supplying ramets. Healthy culms closer to the damage also provided more resources than those farther away. Sustainable harvesting of sprouts could benefit from organized community efforts to limit the magnitude of culm damage, provide adequate spacing between harvested sites, and ensure sufficient time interval between harvests. Vegetation boundaries relatively resilient to infrequent, large-scale events are likely maintained by climatic factors and may be sensitive to climate change. Continual monitoring is, therefore, integral to the sustainability of harvesting projects.

  2. Experimental evaluation of the sustainability of dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) sprout-harvesting practices in Yangminshan National Park, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Ru; Hsu, Meng-Ting; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Sustainable harvest of natural products that meets the needs of local people has been viewed by many as an important means for sustaining conservation projects. Although plants often respond to tissue damage through compensatory growth, it may not secure long-term sustainability of the populations because many plants enhance individual well-being at the expense of propagation. Sustainability may further be threatened by infrequent, large-scale events, especially ill-documented ones. We studied the impacts of sprout harvesting on sprout growth in a dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) population that has seemingly recovered from an infrequent, large-scale masting event. Experimental results suggest that although a single sprout harvest did not significantly alter the subsequent abundance and structure of sprouts, culm damage that accompanied sprout harvesting resulted in shorter, thinner, and fewer sprouts. Weaker recovery was found in windward, continually harvested, and more severely damaged sites. These findings suggest that sprout growth of damaged dwarf bamboos is likely non-compensatory, but is instead supported through physiological integration whose strength is determined by the well-being of the supplying ramets. Healthy culms closer to the damage also provided more resources than those farther away. Sustainable harvesting of sprouts could benefit from organized community efforts to limit the magnitude of culm damage, provide adequate spacing between harvested sites, and ensure sufficient time interval between harvests. Vegetation boundaries relatively resilient to infrequent, large-scale events are likely maintained by climatic factors and may be sensitive to climate change. Continual monitoring is, therefore, integral to the sustainability of harvesting projects. PMID:24950959

  3. I don't like it because it eats sprouts: conditioning preferences in children.

    PubMed

    Field, Andy P

    2006-03-01

    Although little is known about how preferences develop in childhood, work in adults suggests that evaluative responses to stimuli can be acquired through classical conditioning. In two experiments children were exposed to novel cartoon characters, that were either consistently paired with a picture of a disliked food (Brussels sprouts) or a liked food (ice cream). Relative preferences for these stimuli (and others) were measured before and after these paired presentations (Experiment 1): preferences for the cartoon character paired with Brussels sprouts decreased, whereas preferences for the character paired with ice cream increased. These preferences persisted after 10 un-reinforced trials. Experiment 2 replicated this finding using affective priming as an index of preference for the cartoon characters. These findings demonstrate that preferences to novel stimuli can be conditioned in children and result from associations formed between the stimulus and a stimulus possessing positive or negative valence.

  4. Promotion of neural sprouting using low-level green light-emitting diode phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alon, Noa; Duadi, Hamootal; Cohen, Ortal; Samet, Tamar; Zilony, Neta; Schori, Hadas; Shefi, Orit; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-02-01

    We irradiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line with low-level light-emitting diode (LED) illumination at a visible wavelength of 520 nm (green) and intensity of 100 mW/cm2. We captured and analyzed the cell morphology before LED treatment, immediately after, and 12 and 24 h after treatment. Our study demonstrated that LED illumination increases the amount of sprouting dendrites in comparison to the control untreated cells. This treatment also resulted in more elongated cells after treatment in comparison to the control cells and higher levels of expression of a differentiation related gene. This result is a good indication that the proposed method could serve in phototherapy treatment for increasing sprouting and enhancing neural network formation.

  5. Dendritic sprouting and compensatory synaptogenesis in an identified interneuron follow auditory deprivation in a cricket.

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, R R; Nolen, T G; Casaday, G C

    1985-01-01

    We examined the effect of chronic afferent deprivation on an identified interneuron (Int-1) in the auditory system of the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. In normal intact crickets, the auditory afferents from each ear terminate ipsilaterally onto a single Int-1. Each bilaterally paired Int-1 is excited by ultrasound stimulation of its ipsilateral ear but not by the contralateral ear. Unilateral removal of an ear early in postembryonic development deprives the developing Int-1 of ipsilateral auditory innervation. Consequently, the ipsilateral dendrites of the deprived interneuron sprout, grow aberrantly across the ganglionic midline, and terminate specifically in the intact auditory neuropile of the contralateral (unlesioned) side, where they form functional synapses with the contralateral afferents. This unusual compensatory dendritic sprouting restores auditory function to the neuron. Thus, it is demonstrated that the dendritic shape of an identified Int, as well as its synaptic connectivity, is altered as a consequence of chronic sensory deprivation. Images PMID:3865195

  6. Dendritic sprouting and compensatory synaptogenesis in an identified interneuron follow auditory deprivation in a cricket.

    PubMed

    Hoy, R R; Nolen, T G; Casaday, G C

    1985-11-01

    We examined the effect of chronic afferent deprivation on an identified interneuron (Int-1) in the auditory system of the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. In normal intact crickets, the auditory afferents from each ear terminate ipsilaterally onto a single Int-1. Each bilaterally paired Int-1 is excited by ultrasound stimulation of its ipsilateral ear but not by the contralateral ear. Unilateral removal of an ear early in postembryonic development deprives the developing Int-1 of ipsilateral auditory innervation. Consequently, the ipsilateral dendrites of the deprived interneuron sprout, grow aberrantly across the ganglionic midline, and terminate specifically in the intact auditory neuropile of the contralateral (unlesioned) side, where they form functional synapses with the contralateral afferents. This unusual compensatory dendritic sprouting restores auditory function to the neuron. Thus, it is demonstrated that the dendritic shape of an identified Int, as well as its synaptic connectivity, is altered as a consequence of chronic sensory deprivation.

  7. Static mechanical strain induces capillary endothelial cell cycle re-entry and sprouting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiger, A. S.; Liu, F. D.; Durham, J. T.; Jagielska, A.; Mahmoodian, R.; Van Vliet, K. J.; Herman, I. M.

    2016-08-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are known to respond to a range of biochemical and time-varying mechanical cues that can promote blood vessel sprouting termed angiogenesis. It is less understood how these cells respond to sustained (i.e., static) mechanical cues such as the deformation generated by other contractile vascular cells, cues which can change with age and disease state. Here we demonstrate that static tensile strain of 10%, consistent with that exerted by contractile microvascular pericytes, can directly and rapidly induce cell cycle re-entry in growth-arrested microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. S-phase entry in response to this strain correlates with absence of nuclear p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, this modest strain promotes sprouting of endothelial cells, suggesting a novel mechanical ‘angiogenic switch’. These findings suggest that static tensile strain can directly stimulate pathological angiogenesis, implying that pericyte absence or death is not necessarily required of endothelial cell re-activation.

  8. Dual Effects of Ethylene on Potato Dormancy and Sprout Growth 1

    PubMed Central

    Rylski, Irena; Rappaport, Lawrence; Pratt, Harlan K.

    1974-01-01

    Dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) of two cultivars were treated with various concentrations of ethylene gas for various exposure periods. As has been shown by others, ethylene caused a rapid but transient increase in respiration rate, which appeared to be independent of any effects on dormancy. All concentrations tested caused accelerated sprouting, 2 microliters per liter being the most effective. Ethylene exerts a dual effect on potato tubers: it markedly shortens the duration of rest, but it inhibits elongation of the sprouts during extended treatment. Comparing these results with published work on seeds, bulbs, and corms suggests that ethylene must have a significant but as yet unexplained role in rest and dormancy. However, since the most effective ethylene treatment did not equal the response elicited by treatment with ethylene chlorhydrin, other factors must also contribute to termination of rest. PMID:16658762

  9. Simulation of tumor induced angiogenesis using an analytical adaptive modeling including dynamic sprouting and blood flow modeling.

    PubMed

    Naghavi, Nadia; Hosseini, Farideh S; Sardarabadi, Mohammad; Kalani, Hadi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive model for tumor induced angiogenesis is developed that integrates generation and diffusion of a growth factor originated from hypoxic cells, adaptive sprouting from a parent vessel, blood flow and structural adaptation. The proposed adaptive sprout spacing model (ASS) determines position, time and number of sprouts which are activated from a parent vessel and also the developed vascular network is modified by a novel sprout branching prediction algorithm. This algorithm couples local vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations, stresses due to the blood flow and stochastic branching to the structural reactions of each vessel segment in response to mechanical and biochemical stimuli. The results provide predictions for the time-dependent development of the network structure, including the position and diameters of each segment and the resulting distributions of blood flow and VEGF. Considering time delays between sprout progressions and number of sprouts activated at different time durations provides information about micro-vessel density in the network. Resulting insights could be useful for motivating experimental investigations of vascular pattern in tumor induced angiogenesis and development of therapies targeting angiogenesis. PMID:27179697

  10. Effect of sprouting and roasting processes on some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of soybean seed and oils.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Free fatty acid contents of sprouted soybean oil were found between 1.26% (Adasoy) and 4.20% (Nazlıcan and Türksoy). Peroxide values (PV) of sprouted soybean oils were found between 1.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 3.85meq/kg (A3935), while peroxide values of roasted seed oils were determined between 2.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 4.03meq/kg (Nova). Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were found as major fatty acids of soybean genotypes. Oleic acid contents of samples were found between 19.07% (roasted Adasoy) and 35.31% (roasted A3935), linoleic contents of oils ranged between 42.17% (roasted Nazlican) and 54.76% (sprouted A3127). Macro and micro element contents of sprouted, oven roasted and raw (untreated) soybean seeds were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The potassium contents of soybean seeds ranged between 16,375mg/kg (raw Adasoy) and 20,357mg/kg (sprouted A3127, while phosphorus contents of seeds varied from 5427mg/kg (oven roasted Türksoy) to 7759mg/kg (sprouted Nova). The micro element contents of samples were found to be different depending on the processing procedures and soybean genotypes.

  11. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli. PMID:25442619

  12. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants. PMID:26407159

  13. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants. PMID:26407159

  14. The Effects of Light and Temperature on Biotin Synthesis in Pea Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Shin; Ohnuki, Risa; Moriki, Aoi; Abe, Megumi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Sone, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is an essential micronutrient, and is a cofactor for several carboxylases that are involved in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Because plant cells can synthesize their own biotin, a wide variety of plant-based foods contains significant amounts of biotin; however, the influence of environmental conditions on the biotin content in plants remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different cultivation conditions on the biotin content and biotin synthesis in pea sprouts (Pisum sativum). In the experiment, the pea sprouts were removed from their cotyledons and cultivated by hydroponics under five different lighting and temperature conditions (control [25ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], low light [25ºC, 4-h light/20-h dark cycle], dark [25ºC, 24 h dark], low temperature [12ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], and cold [6ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle]) for 10 d. Compared to the biotin content of pea sprouts under the control conditions, the biotin contents of pea sprouts under the low-light, dark, and cold conditions had significantly decreased. The dark group showed the lowest biotin content among the groups. Expression of the biotin synthase gene (bio2) was also significantly decreased under the dark and cold conditions compared to the control condition, in a manner similar to that observed for the biotin content. No significant differences in the adenosine triphosphate content were observed among the groups. These results indicate that environmental conditions such as light and temperature modulate the biotin content of pea plant tissues by regulating the expression of biotin synthase. PMID:27117847

  15. Critically reduced frost resistance of Picea abies during sprouting could be linked to cytological changes.

    PubMed

    Neuner, G; Beikircher, B

    2010-07-01

    Frost resistance of sprouting Picea abies shoots is insufficient for survival of naturally occurring late frosts. The cellular changes during sprouting appeared to be responsible for frost damage as frost events that damaged sprouting shoots did not damage older needles and stems. Whilst resting buds showed initial frost damage at -15.0 degrees C, 20 days later, current year's growth was damaged at -5.6 degrees C. The decrease in frost resistance in sprouting shoots of P. abies was accompanied by a significant reduction of the cellular solute concentration, indicated by much less negative Psi(oSAT) values (increase from -2.8 to -1.2 MPa). psi(oSAT) decreased again after the final cell volume was reached and cell wall thickening began. After bud break, ice nucleation temperature increased from -4.7 degrees C to -1.5 degrees C. This increase was probably caused by the loss of bud scales, the onset of expansion growth of the central cylinder and the development of vascular tissue permitting the spread of ice from the stem into the growing needles. The onset of mesophyll cell wall thickening coincided with the lowest frost resistances. Cell wall thickening caused an increase in the modulus of elasticity, epsilon, indicating a decrease in tissue elasticity and after that frost resistance increased again. Metabolic and cytological changes that evidently leave little leeway for frost hardening are responsible for the low frost resistance in current year's growth of P. abies. This low frost resistance will be significant in the future as the risk of frost damage due to earlier bud break is anticipated to even further increase.

  16. Isolation and partial characterization of thermostable isoperoxidases from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber sprouts.

    PubMed

    Boucoiran, C F; Kijne, J W; Recourt, K

    2000-03-01

    Peroxidases (POD; EC 1.11.1.7) can cross-link cell wall polymers and may have an impact on the final textural quality of potato tubers. Because heat treatments are important during processing, the thermal properties of isoPODs from soluble and ionically and covalently bound fractions were studied from both potato tubers and sprouts. For both tissues, the ionically bound fraction was the most thermostable; approximately 20% of POD activity remained after a heat treatment of 10 min at 90 degrees C (for sprouts). The temperature profile of the ionically bound sprout fraction appeared to be nonlinear and suggested the presence of a very thermostable POD, which still showed activity after a heat treatment at 100 degrees C. Visualization by using isoelectric focusing confirmed the occurrence of a thermostable isoPOD with an IEP of 9.5, which displayed regeneration of activity after heat inactivation. This cationic POD was further purified by chromatography techniques, and by SDS-PAGE its molecular mass was estimated at 38 kDa. PMID:10725137

  17. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Benjamin J.; Venkat, Gayathri; Hutson, Thomas; Rau, Kristofer K.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Mendell, Lorne M.; Gage, Fred H.; Johnson, Richard D.; Hill, Caitlin; Rouchka, Eric C.; Moon, Lawrence; Petruska, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]). In the model used here (the “spared dermatome” model), the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days) and maintenance (14 days) phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact (“naïve”) sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551). PMID:26697387

  18. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Benjamin J; Venkat, Gayathri; Hutson, Thomas; Rau, Kristofer K; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Mendell, Lorne M; Gage, Fred H; Johnson, Richard D; Hill, Caitlin; Rouchka, Eric C; Moon, Lawrence; Petruska, Jeffrey C

    2015-12-01

    Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]). In the model used here (the "spared dermatome" model), the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days) and maintenance (14 days) phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact ("naïve") sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551). PMID:26697387

  19. The estrogenic activity of isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L sprouts in vitro.

    PubMed

    HaiRong, Ma; HuaBo, Wei; Zhen, Chen; Yi, Yang; ZhengHua, Wang; Madina, Habasi; Xu, Cao; Akber, Aisa Haji

    2013-08-01

    Isoflavones have drawn attention due to their potential therapeutic use. Isoflavones are the important chemical components of the seeds and sprouts of chickpea and higher isoflavones in sprouts than in seeds. However, there have been no previous reports of the estrogenic activity of isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L sprouts (ICS) in vitro. In this study, which incorporated several in vitro bioassays methods, we systematically evaluated the estrogenic properties of ICS. MTT assay showed that ICS at the low concentration ranges (10(-3)-1 mg/L) promoted MCF-7 cell growth, while at high concentrations, (>1 mg/L) inhibited cell proliferation, indicating ICS worked at a diphasic mechanism. Flow cytometric analysis further calculated the proliferation rate of ICS at low concentration (1 mg/L). ERα/Luc trans-activation assay and then semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that ICS at low concentrations induced ERα-mediated luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells and promoted the ER downstream target gene pS2 and PR trans-activation. These effects were inhibited by ICI 182,780, a special antagonist of ER, indicating that an ER-mediating pathway was involved. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression in Ishikawa cells showed that ICS at low concentrations stimulated AP expression. Our current study is the first to demonstrate that ICS has significant estrogenic activity in vitro. ICS may be useful as a supplement to hormone replacement therapy and in dietary supplements.

  20. Preparation of resveratrol-enriched and poor allergic protein peanut sprout from ultrasound treated peanut seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Liu, Hongzhi; Shi, Aimin; Liu, Li; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Peanut sprout is a kind of high quality natural food which has important effect on health-care. It contains abundant bioactive substances such as resveratrol and lower fat. Naturally, resveratrol occurs in stilbene phytoalexin phenolic compound produced in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the influence of ultrasonic stimulation on the resveratrol accumulate in germinant peanut prepared from three varieties (FH12, FH18, and BS1016) in the dry state before steeping were investigated. All experiments were performed using an ultrasonic cleaner bath operating at three frequencies (28, 45 and 100 kHz) for 20 min at constant temperature 30°C. The resulted amounts of resveratrol in peanut sprout were increasing by 2.25, 3.34, and 1.71 times compared with the control group of peanut germinated from FH12, FH18, and BS1016, respectively, after 3d with decreasing the amounts of allergic protein. After ultrasound, the germination rate and total sugar content increased slightly while the crude fat decreased and protein remained unchanged. Overall, the study results indicated that ultrasound treatment combined with germination can be an effective method for producing enriched-resveratrol and poor allergic protein peanut sprout as a functional vegetable. PMID:26384916

  1. Chemical diversity in Mentha spicata: antioxidant and potato sprout inhibition activity of its essential oils.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shailendra S; Prakash, Om; Padalia, Rajendra C; Vivekanand; Pant, Anil K; Mathela, Chandra S

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils from fresh aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. collected from ten different natural habitats of Uttarakhand, India were analyzed by a combination of GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The analysis revealed that monoterpenoids (46.1%-91.6%), mainly carvone (15.3%-68.5%), piperetenone oxide (24.0%-79.2%) and alpha-humulene (0.1%-29.9%), were the major constituents of the essential oils, but with significant qualitative and quantitative differences among the other constituents. Cluster analysis of the oil composition was carried out in order to discern the differences and similarities within different accessions collected from different natural habitats. The essential oils were also screened for their antioxidant activities by chelating properties of Fe2+, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and their reducing power. The essential oils of two chemo variants (viz. carvone and piperetenone oxide types) were also tested for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) sprout suppressant activity. The results showed that these oils exhibit good sprout inhibition activity in comparison to CIPC and iodine, the standard sprout suppressant.

  2. Hardwood re-sprout control in hydrologically restored Carolina Bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, Justin

    2009-06-01

    Carolina bays are isolated depression wetlands located in the upper coastal plain region of the eastern Unites States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches as a result of agricultural conversion. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna species. Previous bay restoration projects have identified woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. Three bays were hydrologically restored on the Savannah River Site, SC, by plugging drainage ditches. Residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays were harvested and the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change was monitored. A foliar herbicide approved for use in wetlands (Habitat® (Isopropylamine salt of Imazapyr)) was applied on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acer rubrum L.), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and water oak (Quercus nigra L.) sprouting. The effectiveness of the foliar herbicide was tested across a hydrologic gradient in an effort to better understand the relationship between depth and duration of flooding, the intensity of hardwood re-sprout pressure, and the need for hardwood management practices such as herbicide application.

  3. Preparation of resveratrol-enriched and poor allergic protein peanut sprout from ultrasound treated peanut seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Liu, Hongzhi; Shi, Aimin; Liu, Li; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Peanut sprout is a kind of high quality natural food which has important effect on health-care. It contains abundant bioactive substances such as resveratrol and lower fat. Naturally, resveratrol occurs in stilbene phytoalexin phenolic compound produced in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the influence of ultrasonic stimulation on the resveratrol accumulate in germinant peanut prepared from three varieties (FH12, FH18, and BS1016) in the dry state before steeping were investigated. All experiments were performed using an ultrasonic cleaner bath operating at three frequencies (28, 45 and 100 kHz) for 20 min at constant temperature 30°C. The resulted amounts of resveratrol in peanut sprout were increasing by 2.25, 3.34, and 1.71 times compared with the control group of peanut germinated from FH12, FH18, and BS1016, respectively, after 3d with decreasing the amounts of allergic protein. After ultrasound, the germination rate and total sugar content increased slightly while the crude fat decreased and protein remained unchanged. Overall, the study results indicated that ultrasound treatment combined with germination can be an effective method for producing enriched-resveratrol and poor allergic protein peanut sprout as a functional vegetable.

  4. Associational susceptibility in broccoli: mediated by plant volatiles, impeded by ozone.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D

    2015-05-01

    Plant-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mediate interactions within a plant community. Typically, receiving a signal from a damaged neighbour enhances the defensive attributes of a receiver plant. The mechanisms underlying plant-plant interactions may be divided into active and passive processes, both of which involve transit of VOCs between plants and are vulnerable to environmental perturbation. Numerous studies have documented between-plant interactions, but the specific effects on a receiver plant's interactions with herbivores have received little attention. Moreover, the relative contributions of active and passive processes to plant defence and the effects of environmental pollutants on the processes have been largely unexplored. We used a system comprising Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli) and the specialist herbivore Plutella xylostella to test whether plants previously exposed to herbivore-damaged neighbours differed from nonexposed plants in their susceptibility to oviposition. We then investigated the roles of active and passive mechanisms in our observations and whether differences in susceptibility remained under elevated ozone concentrations. Plants exposed to herbivore-damaged neighbours were more susceptible to oviposition than plants exposed to undamaged neighbours, which indicates associational susceptibility. Mechanistically, active and passive volatile-mediated processes occurred in tandem with the passive process - involving adsorption of sesquiterpenes to receiver plants - appearing to structure the oviposition response. Exposure to ozone rapidly degraded the sesquiterpenes and eliminated the associational susceptibility. Plant volatiles have typically been thought to play roles in between-plant interactions and to promote receiver plant defence. Here, we show that receiver plants may also become more susceptible to oviposition and thus more likely to be damaged. Extensive disruption of volatile-mediated interactions by an

  5. Belowground induction by Delia radicum or phytohormones affect aboveground herbivore communities on field-grown broccoli

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, S. P.; Dugravot, S.; Hervé, M. R.; Hassan, H. M.; van Dam, N. M.; Cortesero, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Induced plant defence in response to phytophagous insects is a well described phenomenon. However, so far little is known about the effect of induced plant responses on subsequently colonizing herbivores in the field. Broccoli plants were induced in the belowground compartment using (i) infestation by the root-herbivore Delia radicum, (ii) root application of jasmonic acid (JA) or (iii) root application of salicylic acid (SA). The abundance of D. radicum and six aboveground herbivores displaying contrasting levels of host specialization were surveyed for 5 weeks. Our study showed that the response of herbivores was found to differ from one another, depending on the herbivore species, its degree of specialization and the root treatment. The abundance of the root herbivore D. radicum and particularly the number of emerging adults was decreased by both phytohormone treatments, while the number of D. radicum eggs was increased on conspecific infested plants. The root infestation exhibited moderate effects on the aboveground community. The abundance of the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae was strongly increased on D. radicum infested plants, but the other species were not impacted. Root hormone applications exhibited a strong effect on the abundance of specialist foliar herbivores. A higher number of B. brassicae and Pieris brassicae and a lower number of Plutella xylostella were found on JA treated plants. On SA treated plants we observed a decrease of the abundance of B. brassicae, Pi. rapae, and P. xylostella. Surprisingly, generalist species, Mamestra brassicae and Myzus persicae were not affected by root induction treatments. Finally, root treatments had no significant effect on either glucosinolate (GLS) profiles of the heads or on plant quality parameters. These results are discussed from the perspective of below- aboveground interactions and adaptations of phytophagous insects to induced plant responses according to their trophic specialization level. PMID:23970888

  6. Antimicrobial potential of cauliflower, broccoli, and okara byproducts against foodborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Puig, Maria; Pina-Pérez, Maria C; Criado, Maria Nieves; Rodrigo, Dolores; Martínez-López, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial potential of cauliflower, broccoli, and okara byproducts was assessed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b growth behavior was assessed under exposure to 5% vegetable byproducts added to the reference medium, buffered peptone water (0.1% [wt/vol]), at 37°C. Although the byproducts were not effective against L. monocytogenes, they were bactericidal against Salmonella Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, and B. cereus. The most promising results were achieved with the cauliflower-Salmonella Typhimurium combination, because the bacterial population was reduced by 3.11 log10 cycles after 10 h of incubation at 37°C as a result of 5% cauliflower addition. Further studies were carried out for this combination, at different cauliflower concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 15%) and at temperatures in the range of 5-37°C. The greatest inactivation level (6.11 log10 cycles) was achieved at refrigeration temperature (5°C) using 15% cauliflower addition. Both temperature and cauliflower concentration significantly (p≤0.05) influenced the Salmonella Typhimurium inactivation level. The kinetic parameters were adjusted to mathematical models. The modified Gompertz mathematical model provided an accurate fit (root-mean-square error (RMSE) [0.00009-0.21] and adjusted-R(2) [0.81-0.99]) to experimental Salmonella Typhimurium survival curves describing inactivation kinetics of the pathogen to the antimicrobial effect of cauliflower byproduct.

  7. Effects of Replacement of Concentrate Mixture by Broccoli Byproducts on Lactating Performance in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yi, X. W.; Yang, F.; Liu, J. X.; Wang, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of feeding pelletized broccoli byproducts (PBB) on milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. In Trial 1, an in vitro gas test determined the optimal replacement level of PBB in a concentrate mixture in a mixed substrate with Chinese wild ryegrass hay (50:50, w/w) at levels of 0, 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% (dry matter basis). When the concentrate was replaced by PBB at a level of 20%, no adverse effects were found on the gas volume or its rate constant during ruminal fermentation. In trial 2, 24 lactating cows (days in milk = 170.4±35; milk yield = 30±3 kg/d; body weight = 580 ±13 kg) were divided into 12 blocks based on day in milk and milk yield and randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a basic diet with or without PBB replacing 20% of the concentrate mixture. The feeding trial lasted for 56 days; the first week allowed for adaptation to the diet. The milk composition was analyzed once a week. No significant difference in milk yield was observed between the two groups (23.5 vs 24.2 kg). A significant increase was found in milk fat content in the PBB group (p<0.05). Inclusion of PBB did not affect milk protein, lactose, total solids or solids-not-fat (p>0.05). These results indicated that PBB could be included in dairy cattle diets at a suitable level to replace concentrate mixture without any adverse effects on dairy performance. PMID:26323401

  8. Improving Sprouting Ability of White Yam Minisetts (Dioscorea alata Poir) Var Pona and Dente Using Different Disinfectants and Protectants in Sterilized Saw Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asare-Bediako, E.; Showemimo, F. A.; Opoku-Asiama, Y.; Amewowor, D. H. A. K.

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different disinfectants and protectants in improving sprouting and controlling rotting of yam minisetts. Results revealed that disinfection of both the sprouting medium and yam minisetts increase significantly the percentage sprouting of the Pona minisetts. Benlate was more effective in reducing the incidence of minisett rot and enhanced sprouting of the minisetts in roasted sawdust than the other protectants or disinfectants. Benlate-treated Pona minisetts gave high percentage sprouting and low percentage rotting in the roasted sawdust compare to that of Dente minisetts. Quicklime and neem wood ash were also effective in reducing incidence of minisett rot and increased sprouting of yam minisetts significantly compared with sodium hypochlorite, aqueous neem leaf extract and untreated minisetts (control).

  9. Effects of white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes on carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression levels and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sanghyun; Chung, Sun-Ok; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-18

    In this study, the optimum wavelengths of light required for carotenoid biosynthesis were determined by investigating the expression levels of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) exposed to white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Most carotenoid biosynthetic genes showed higher expression in sprouts irradiated with white light at 8 days after sowing than in those irradiated with blue and red lights. The dominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts were lutein and β-carotene. The richest accumulation of total carotenoids was observed in sprouts grown under white light (1282.63 μg g(-1) dry weight), which was relatively higher than that in sprouts grown under blue and red lights (940.86 and 985.54 μg g(-1), respectively). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing the production of carotenoids and other important secondary metabolites in tartary buckwheat sprouts by using LED technology.

  10. Development of quick cooking multi-grain dalia utilizing sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    Mridula, D; Sharma, Monika; Gupta, R K

    2015-09-01

    Multi-grain dalia (MGD) formulations were prepared utilizing sprouted wheat and mixer of other three grains (barley, sorghum and pearl millet) in the ratio of 100:0 (MGD-A), 75:25 (MGD-B), 50:50 (MGD-C), 25:75 (MGD-D) and 0:100 (MGD-E), respectively. The mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet was prepared using 50, 25, 25 parts of these grains, respectively. The recovery of grits/ dalia (particle size 1.41 to 2 mm) from sprouted wheat and barley was 74.56 and 69.77 %, respectively while sorghum and pearl millet yield 47.94 and 49.39 % (particle size 0.954 to 1.41 mm), respectively. Sprouting brought a reduction of cooking time by about 50 % as compared to un-sprouted studied grains. Cooking time for different MGD formulations ranged from 3.91 to 4.42 min, which was slightly increased with increasing proportion of mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet (p > 0.05). Rehydration ratio of MGD samples varied from 3.12 to 3.45 with minimum in MGD-E sample. Though protein content was decreased with increasing proportion of mixer of three grains in MGD samples but in vitro protein digestibility (58.68 to 62.75 %) was similar (p > 0.05). The mean overall sensory acceptability scores for MGD samples ranged from 7.50 to 8.49 with ≥8.0 in samples having up to 75 % grits of mixer of three grains. In view of very good overall sensory acceptability, rich in crude fibre, calcium and iron content and low cooking time, 25:75 parts of sprouted wheat and mixer of studied three grains, respectively may be considered for preparation of acceptable quality quick cooking multi-grain dalia. PMID:26344997

  11. Peripheral facial nerve axotomy in mice causes sprouting of motor axons into perineuronal central white matter: time course and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Makwana, Milan; Werner, Alexander; Acosta-Saltos, Alejandro; Gonitel, Roman; Pararajasingam, Abirami; Pararajasingham, Abirami; Ruff, Crystal; Rumajogee, Prakasham; Cuthill, Dan; Galiano, Mathias; Bohatschek, Marion; Wallace, Adam S; Anderson, Patrick N; Mayer, Ulrike; Behrens, Axel; Raivich, Gennadij

    2010-03-01

    Generation of new axonal sprouts plays an important role in neural repair. In the current study, we examined the appearance, composition and effects of gene deletions on intrabrainstem sprouts following peripheral facial nerve axotomy. Axotomy was followed by the appearance of galanin(+) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)(+) sprouts peaking at day 14, matching both large, neuropeptide(+) subpopulations of axotomized facial motoneurons, but with CGRP(+) sprouts considerably rarer. Strong immunoreactivity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and retrogradely transported MiniRuby following its application on freshly cut proximal facial nerve stump confirmed their axotomized motoneuron origin; the sprouts expressed CD44 and alpha7beta1 integrin adhesion molecules and grew apparently unhindered along neighboring central white matter tracts. Quantification of the galanin(+) sprouts revealed a stronger response following cut compared with crush (day 7-14) as well as enhanced sprouting after recut (day 8 + 6 vs. 14; 14 + 8 vs. 22), arguing against delayed appearance of sprouting being the result of the initial phase of reinnervation. Sprouting was strongly diminished in brain Jun-deficient mice but enhanced in alpha7 null animals that showed apparently compensatory up-regulation in beta1, suggesting important regulatory roles for transcription factors and the sprout-associated adhesion molecules. Analysis of inflammatory stimuli revealed a 50% reduction 12-48 hours following systemic endotoxin associated with neural inflammation and a tendency toward more sprouts in TNFR1/2 null mutants (P = 10%) with a reduced inflammatory response, indicating detrimental effects of excessive inflammation. Moreover, the study points to the usefulness of the facial axotomy model in exploring physiological and molecular stimuli regulating central sprouting. PMID:20034058

  12. Irradiation to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Kawasaki, T; Nakauma, M; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S; Isshikii, K

    2004-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of ionizing radiation in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on commercial ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts and to assess the chemical and physical quality of these sprouts. The use of ionizing radiation was investigated as a means of reducing or totally inactivating these pathogens, if present, on the sprouts. Treatment of mung bean and radish sprouts with a dose of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, respectively, significantly reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to nondetectable limits. The total vitamin C content was gradually reduced with the increase in irradiation dose (P < 0.0001). However, the effect of storage interval on the loss of vitamin C was nonsignificant for radish sprouts and significant for mung bean sprouts (P < 0.04). The color, firmness, and overall visual quality of the tested sprouts were acceptable when effective doses were applied to both radish and mung bean sprouts. Therefore, ionizing radiation could be useful in reducing the population of pathogens on sprouts and yet retain acceptable quality parameters.

  13. The mode of origin of root buds and root sprouts in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Bosela, M; Ewers, F

    1997-11-01

    The developmental anatomy of root buds and root sprouts was examined in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum. Root samples from 13 clones that varied widely in age and vigor were sectioned and two types of buds were found, "additional" buds and "reparative" buds. Additional buds form during the early growth of uninjured roots and they perennate by growing outwards in concert with the vascular cambium such that bud traces are produced in the secondary xylem. Reparative buds form de novo in response to senescence, injuries, or other types of disturbance. Reparative buds were found on the roots of seven of the clones, whereas additional buds were found on the roots of all 13 clones. The reparative buds had originated in the proliferated pericycle, where they were subtended by sphaeroblasts, or spherical nodules of wood. Few of the reparative buds were vascularized and none were connected with the vasculature of their parent roots. In contrast, most of the additional buds were vascularized, and the leaf traces of several of the additional buds appeared to be contiguous with the conducting xylem of their parent roots. To determine whether both bud types were functional, 82 field-collected root sprouts and 44 incubation-induced sprouts were sectioned at the root-sprout junction and examined for evidence relating to their mode of origin. None of the sprouts were subtended by sphaeroblasts, but 98% were subtended by bud traces, which indicated that they had originated from additional buds. Although reparative buds were more common than additional buds on some of the root samples, they appear to be dysfunctional at sprouting. Additional buds, on the other hand, are able to sprout both as a normal part of clonal spread and from root cuttings.

  14. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water and ethanol vapours treatment on functional properties of mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem; Upadhyay, Neelam; Soni, Jyoti

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was conducted with the objective to study the effects of various treatments and storage conditions on ascorbic acid, total phenols, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase activity of mung bean sprouts. The sprouts subjected to various treatments viz., pulsed electric field (PEF) (10,000 V for 10 s), hot water dip (HWD) (50 °C for 2 min), ethanol vapours (1 h) and UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h); and then stored at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval till end of shelf life. Different treatments given to sprouts resulted in differential effect on various parameters. The ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity were highest in ethanol vapours treated sprouts. There was a general decrease in polyphenol oxidase activity by various treatments. During storage ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of sprouts first increased and then decreased significantly, however, for polyphenol oxidase activity a progressive increase with increase in storage period was observed. The trends were similar at room and low temperature storage conditions. Thus, it can be concluded that the ethanol vapours significantly improved the ascorbic acid content, total phenols and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts, both at room as well as low temperature conditions of storage. PMID:24741164

  15. HIF-2α Expression Regulates Sprout Formation into 3D Fibrin Matrices in Prolonged Hypoxia in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nauta, Tessa D.; Duyndam, Monique C. A.; Weijers, Ester M.; van Hinsbergh, Victor M. W.; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Background During short-term hypoxia, Hypoxia Inducible Factors (particular their subunits HIF-1α and HIF-2α) regulate the expression of many genes including the potent angiogenesis stimulator VEGF. However, in some pathological conditions chronic hypoxia occurs and is accompanied by reduced angiogenesis. Objectives We investigated the effect of prolonged hypoxia on the proliferation and sprouting ability of human microvascular endothelial cells and the involvement of the HIFs and Dll4/Notch signaling. Methods and Results Human microvascular endothelial cells (hMVECs), cultured at 20% oxygen for 14 days and seeded on top of 3D fibrin matrices, formed sprouts when stimulated with VEGF-A/TNFα. In contrast, hMVECs precultured at 1% oxygen for 14 days were viable and proliferative, but did not form sprouts into fibrin upon VEGF-A/TNFα stimulation at 1% oxygen. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting, whereas HIF-1α or HIF-3α by si-RNA had no effect. No involvement of Dll4/Notch pathway in the inhibitory effect on endothelial sprouting by prolonged hypoxia was found. In addition, hypoxia decreased the production of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), needed for migration and invasion, without a significant effect on its inhibitor PAI-1. This was independent of HIF-2α, as si-HIF-2α did not counteract uPA reduction. Conclusion Prolonged culturing of hMVECs at 1% oxygen inhibited endothelial sprouting into fibrin. Two independent mechanisms contribute. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting pointing to a HIF-2α-dependent mechanism. In addition, reduction of uPA contributed to reduced endothelial tube formation in a fibrin matrix during prolonged hypoxia. PMID:27490118

  16. Highly localized interactions between sensory neurons and sprouting sympathetic fibers observed in a transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mouse

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sprouting of sympathetic fibers into sensory ganglia occurs in many preclinical pain models, providing a possible anatomical substrate for sympathetically enhanced pain. However, the functional consequences of this sprouting have been controversial. We used a transgenic mouse in which sympathetic fibers expressed green fluorescent protein, observable in live tissue. Medium and large diameter lumbar sensory neurons with and without nearby sympathetic fibers were recorded in whole ganglion preparations using microelectrodes. Results After spinal nerve ligation, sympathetic sprouting was extensive by 3 days. Abnormal spontaneous activity increased to 15% and rheobase was reduced. Spontaneously active cells had Aαβ conduction velocities but were clustered near the medium/large cell boundary. Neurons with sympathetic basket formations had a dramatically higher incidence of spontaneous activity (71%) and had lower rheobase than cells with no sympathetic fibers nearby. Cells with lower density nearby fibers had intermediate phenotypes. Immunohistochemistry of sectioned ganglia showed that cells surrounded by sympathetic fibers were enriched in nociceptive markers TrkA, substance P, or CGRP. Spontaneous activity began before sympathetic sprouting was observed, but blocking sympathetic sprouting on day 3 by cutting the dorsal ramus in addition to the ventral ramus of the spinal nerve greatly reduced abnormal spontaneous activity. Conclusions The data suggest that early sympathetic sprouting into the sensory ganglia may have highly localized, excitatory effects. Quantitatively, neurons with sympathetic basket formations may account for more than half of the observed spontaneous activity, despite being relatively rare. Spontaneous activity in sensory neurons and sympathetic sprouting may be mutually re-enforcing. PMID:21794129

  17. Differential Responses of Two Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica) Cultivars to Salinity and Nutritional Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Alcaraz-López, Carlos; Mota-Cadenas, César; Martínez-Ballesta, María del Carmen; Moreno, Diego A.; Ferchichi, Ali; Carvajal, Micaela

    2012-01-01

    The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos) to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots—that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration—and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψπ), root hydraulic conductance (L0), and stomatal conductance (Gs). The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs) content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires. PMID:22956893

  18. Atmospheric carbon dioxide changes photochemical activity, soluble sugars and volatile levels in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Krumbein, Angelika; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Schonhof, Ilona; Schreiner, Monika

    2010-03-24

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration is an environmental factor currently undergoing dramatic changes. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of doubling the ambient CO(2) concentration on plant photochemistry as measured by photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), soluble sugars and volatiles in broccoli. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased qP values in leaves by up to 100% and 89% in heads, while glucose and sucrose in leaves increased by about 60%. Furthermore, in broccoli heads elevated CO(2) concentration induced approximately a 2-fold increase in concentrations of three fatty acid-derived C(7) aldehydes ((E)-2-heptenal, (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal), two fatty acid-derived C(5) alcohols (1-penten-3-ol, (Z)-2-pentenol), and two amino acid-derived nitriles (phenyl propanenitrile, 3-methyl butanenitrile). In contrast, concentrations of the sulfur-containing compound 2-ethylthiophene and C(6) alcohol (E)-2-hexenol decreased. Finally, elevated CO(2) concentration increased soluble sugar concentrations due to enhanced photochemical activity in leaves and heads, which may account for the increased synthesis of volatiles.

  19. Differential responses of two broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica) cultivars to salinity and nutritional quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Alcaraz-López, Carlos; Mota-Cadenas, César; Martínez-Ballesta, María del Carmen; Moreno, Diego A; Ferchichi, Ali; Carvajal, Micaela

    2012-01-01

    The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos) to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots-that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration-and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψ(π)), root hydraulic conductance (L(0)), and stomatal conductance (G(s)). The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs) content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  20. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  1. Effects of combined treatments of irradiation and antimicrobial coatings on reduction of food pathogens in broccoli florets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takala, P. N.; Salmieri, S.; Vu, K. D.; Lacroix, M.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of combined treatment of antimicrobial coatings and γ-radiation on reduction of food pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated in broccoli florets. Broccoli florets were inoculated with pathogenic bacteria at 10 6 CFU/g. Inoculated florets were then coated with methylcellulose-based coating containing various mixtures of antimicrobial agents: organic acids (OAs) plus lactic acid bacteria metabolites (LABs), OA plus citrus extract (CE), OA plus CE plus spice mixture (SM), and OA plus rosemary extract (RE). Coated florets were irradiated with various doses (0-3.3 kGy), and microbial analyses were used to calculate the D10 value and radiosensitive relative. The coating containing OA plus CE was the most effective formulation for increasing the sensitization of Escherichia coli by 2.4 times as compared to the control without the antimicrobial coating. For Salmonella Typhimurium, coating containing OA plus LAB was the most effective formulation, increasing radiosensitivity by 2.4 times as well. All antimicrobial coatings had almost the same effect of increasing the sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes (from 1.31 to 1.45 times) to γ-irradiation.

  2. Discriminating between cultivars and treatments of broccoli using mass spectral fingerprinting and analysis of variance-principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Luthria, Devanand L; Lin, Long-Ze; Robbins, Rebecca J; Finley, John W; Banuelos, Gary S; Harnly, James M

    2008-11-12

    Metabolite fingerprints, obtained with direct injection mass spectrometry (MS) with both positive and negative ionization, were used with analysis of variance-principal components analysis (ANOVA-PCA) to discriminate between cultivars and growing treatments of broccoli. The sample set consisted of two cultivars of broccoli, Majestic and Legacy, the first grown with four different levels of Se and the second grown organically and conventionally with two rates of irrigation. Chemical composition differences in the two cultivars and seven treatments produced patterns that were visually and statistically distinguishable using ANOVA-PCA. PCA loadings allowed identification of the molecular and fragment ions that provided the most significant chemical differences. A standardized profiling method for phenolic compounds showed that important discriminating ions were not phenolic compounds. The elution times of the discriminating ions and previous results suggest that they were common sugars and organic acids. ANOVA calculations of the positive and negative ionization MS fingerprints showed that 33% of the variance came from the cultivar, 59% from the growing treatment, and 8% from analytical uncertainty. Although the positive and negative ionization fingerprints differed significantly, there was no difference in the distribution of variance. High variance of individual masses with cultivars or growing treatment was correlated with high PCA loadings. The ANOVA data suggest that only variables with high variance for analytical uncertainty should be deleted. All other variables represent discriminating masses that allow separation of the samples with respect to cultivar and treatment.

  3. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Broccoli Florets in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joon-Ho; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2014-06-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italia) florets were extracted with 80% methanol and the extract was sequentially fractionated with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. The extract and the fractions were evaluated for total phenolic content, sulforaphane content, antioxidant activity, and anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The total phenolic content and sulforaphane content of the ethyl acetate fraction (EF) were 35.5 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 620.2 μg/g, respectively. These values were higher than those of the 80% methanol extract and organic solvent fractions. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of the EF [1,588.7 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg] was 11-fold higher than that of the distilled water fraction (143.7 μM TE/mg). The EF inhibited nitric oxide release from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited IκB-α degradation and nuclear factor-κB activation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, the EF of broccoli florets exerted potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25054107

  4. Selenium transformation studies during broccoli (Brassica oleracea) growing process by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Pedrero, Zoyne; Elvira, Daniel; Cámara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2007-07-23

    Selenium uptake and transformation was studied in Se-enriched Broccoli (Brassica olearacea). Plants were grown in hydroponic culture and exposed during 40 days to Na2SeO3 (1 mg L(-1)). After growing, the plants were harvested and their different parts (roots, stems and fruit) were analyzed by ICP-MS or LC-ICP-MS. Se-species were identified and quantified after enzymatic extraction by using both an anion exchange (PRP-X100), and a size exclusion/ion exchange (Shodex Asahipak) chromatographic columns. Selenium translocation and transformation Se species in plants was studied through the Se-speciation in root, stem and fruit. After 40 days of exposure, selenomethionine was the major species found in roots, however, Se-methylselenocysteine was the main species found in the fruit, suggesting Broccoli as a source of this important selenoamino acid in human diet. However, the degree of meal processing influences the stability of Se-aminoacids. Speciation studies in boiled Broccoli and in the extraction water were also carried out. This experiment revealed a noticeable degradation of Se-methylselenocysteine in the boiled Broccoli fruit. Proteins soluble in Tris-HCl were analyzed by two-dimensional chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. The results obtained contribute not only to a deeper understanding of Se accumulation mechanisms by plants but also to further functional food complements preparation and the effect of food processing on species stability.

  5. Evaluation of consumer acceptance of west coast versus east coast-produced broccoli through sensory analysis of quality rating factors and nutritionally important metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production trials and germplasm evaluation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) developed for eastern U.S. production conditions have identified lines and cultivars that are better adapted to more stressful, variable East Coast environments. As a part of this work sponsored by the USDA SCIR...

  6. Effect of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) and its phytochemical sulforaphane in balanced diets on the detoxification enzymes levels of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a carcinogenic and mutagenic pollutant.

    PubMed

    Villa-Cruz, V; Davila, J; Viana, M T; Vazquez-Duhalt, R

    2009-03-01

    Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed with enriched diets containing broccoli and its phytochemical sulforaphane over 30 d. The levels of cytochrome P450, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activities were measured. Basal value of cytochrome P450 activity was significantly increased as consequence of the broccoli and sulforaphane enriched diets, while no statistically significant changes were found on catalase and lipid peroxidation activities. After benzo(a)pyrene exposure, the cytochrome P450 activity increased to higher levels in the fish feed with broccoli and sulforaphane when compared with the control fish. Activities of antioxidant enzymes also varied but without significant difference with the control fish. Supported by the lower concentrations of BaP metabolites in bile from fish fed with broccoli or with sulforaphane enriched diets (indicating a better xenobiotic elimination) the cytochrome P450 induction could be considered beneficial for the detoxification because this transformation is the first step for PAH elimination by the phase II system. The protection of aquaculture organism against pollution effects by designing special diets able to modulate the enzymes involved in the phase-I and phase-II detoxification mechanism are discussed.

  7. Plants as Biofactories: Postharvest Stress-Induced Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Glucosinolates in Broccoli Subjected to Wounding Stress and Exogenous Phytohormones

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-García, Daniel; Nair, Vimal; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli contains high levels of bioactive molecules and is considered a functional food. In this study, postharvest treatments to enhance the concentration of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds were evaluated. Broccoli whole heads were wounded to obtain florets and wounded florets (florets cut into four even pieces) and stored for 24 h at 20 °C with or without exogenous ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 ppm). Whole heads were used as a control for wounding treatments. Regarding glucosinolate accumulation, ET selectively induced the 4-hydroxylation of glucobrassicin in whole heads, resulting in ∼223% higher 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin than time 0 h samples. Additionally, glucoraphanin was increased by ∼53% in whole heads treated with ET, while neoglucobrassicin was greatly accumulated in wounded florets treated with ET or MeJA, showing increases of ∼193 and ∼286%, respectively. On the other hand, although only whole heads stored without phytohormones showed higher concentrations of phenolic compounds, which was reflected in ∼33, ∼30, and ∼46% higher levels of 1,2,2-trisinapoylgentiobose, 1,2-diferulolylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose, respectively; broccoli florets stored under air control conditions showed enhanced concentrations of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,2-disinapoylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose (∼22, ∼185, and ∼65% more, respectively). Furthermore, exogenous ET and MeJA impeded individual phenolics accumulation. Results allowed the elucidation of simple and effective postharvest treatment to enhance the content of individual glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in broccoli. The stressed-broccoli tissue could be subjected to downstream processing in order to extract and purify bioactive molecules with applications in the dietary supplements, agrochemical and cosmetics markets. PMID:26904036

  8. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  9. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  10. Effect of Cooking on Isoflavones, Phenolic Acids, and Antioxidant Activity in Sprouts of Prosoy Soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Shweta; Chang, Sam K C

    2016-07-01

    Soy sprouts possess health benefits and is required to be cooked before consumption. The effects of cooking on the phenolic components and antioxidant properties of soy sprouts with different germination days were investigated. A food-grade cultivar Prosoy with a high protein content was germinated for 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 d and cooked till palatable for 20, 20, 5, 5, and 7 min, respectively. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), condensed tannins content (CTC), individual phenolic acids, isoflavones, DPPH, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of raw and cooked sprouts were measured. Cooking caused significant losses in phenolic content and antioxidant activities, and maximum loss was on day 3 > 5 > 7, including TPC (32%, 23%, and 15%), TFC (50%, 44%, and 20%), CTC (73%, 47%, and 12%), DPPH (31%, 15%, and 5%), FRAP (34%, 25%, and 1%), and ORAC (34%, 22%, 32%), respectively. Cooking caused significant losses in most individual phenolic acid, benzoic group, cinnamic group, total phenolic composition, individual isoflavones, and total isoflavones. The losses of phenolic acids such as gallic, protocatechuic, hydroxybenzoic, syringic, chlorogenic, or sinapic acids during cooking were not compensated by the increases in trihydroxybenzoic, vanillic or coumaric acids on certain days of germination. Cooking caused minimal changes in phenolic acid composition of day 1 and 2 sprouts compared to 3, 5, and 7 d sprouts. PMID:27258930

  11. Rapamycin suppresses mossy fiber sprouting but not seizure frequency in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Buckmaster, Paul S; Lew, Felicia H

    2011-02-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is prevalent and can be difficult to treat effectively. Granule cell axon (mossy fiber) sprouting is a common neuropathological finding in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, but its role in epileptogenesis is unclear and controversial. Focally infused or systemic rapamycin inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and suppresses mossy fiber sprouting in rats. We tested whether long-term systemic treatment with rapamycin, beginning 1 d after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice, would suppress mossy fiber sprouting and affect the development of spontaneous seizures. Mice that had experienced status epilepticus and were treated for 2 months with rapamycin displayed significantly less mossy fiber sprouting (42% of vehicle-treated animals), and the effect was dose dependent. However, behavioral and video/EEG monitoring revealed that rapamycin- and vehicle-treated mice displayed spontaneous seizures at similar frequencies. These findings suggest mossy fiber sprouting is neither pro- nor anti-convulsant; however, there are caveats. Rapamycin treatment also reduced epilepsy-related hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus but did not significantly affect granule cell proliferation, hilar neuron loss, or generation of ectopic granule cells. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that hilar neuron loss and ectopic granule cells might contribute to temporal lobe epileptogenesis. PMID:21307269

  12. The potential of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), an Israeli native, as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Vaknin, Yiftach; Hadas, Rivka; Schafferman, Dan; Murkhovsky, Leonid; Bashan, Neta

    2008-06-01

    The potential of wild plants in Israel as sources of edible sprouts has not been investigated until now. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world; its young fleshy stems are traditionally eaten by the local Arab sector in Israel, and its sprouts are rich in antioxidants and have been used as a traditional medicine for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The active extract of milk thistle, silymarin, is a mixture of flavonolignans and is a strong antioxidant that has been proved to promote liver cell regeneration, to reduce blood cholesterol and to help prevent cancer. The present objective was to investigate the potential of milk thistle as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants. We found that seed germination within 3-4 days was high (96%, except for striated seeds). Exposure to light significantly reduced sprout growth and significantly increased the polyphenol content and antioxidative capacity. The polyphenol content was 30% higher in seeds originating from purple inflorescences than in those from white ones. We thus found milk thistle to be a good candidate source of healthy edible sprouts.

  13. Transcript profiling reveals that cysteine protease inhibitors are up-regulated in tuber sprouts after extended darkness.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Veronica; Fantino, Elisa; Cerrudo, Ignacio; Bachmann, Sandra; Santin, Franco; Ulloa, Rita M

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are an excellent staple food due to its high nutritional value. When the tuber reaches physiological competence, sprouting proceeds accompanied by changes at mRNA and protein levels. Potato tubers become a source of carbon and energy until sprouts are capable of independent growth. Transcript profiling of sprouts grown under continuous light or dark conditions was performed using the TIGR 10K EST Solanaceae microarray. The profiles analyzed show a core of highly expressed transcripts that are associated to the reactivation of growth. Under light conditions, the photosynthetic machinery was fully activated; the highest up-regulation was observed for the Rubisco activase (RCA), the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and the Photosystem II 22 kDa protein (CP22) genes, among others. On the other hand, sprouts exposed to continuous darkness elongate longer, and after extended darkness, synthesis of chloroplast components was repressed, the expression of proteases was reduced while genes encoding cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) and metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitors (MPIs) were strongly induced. Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis confirmed that MPI levels correlated with the length of the dark period; however, CPI expression was strong only after longer periods of darkness, suggesting a feedback loop (regulation mechanism) in response to dark-induced senescence. Prevention of cysteine protease activity in etiolated sprouts exposed to extended darkness could delay senescence until they emerge to light.

  14. Phytochemical composition and biological activity of 8 varieties of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) sprouts and mature taproots.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Paul R; Barnes, David M

    2011-01-01

    Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) are members of the cruciferous vegetable family that contain many classes of biologically active phytochemicals. This study determined the phytochemical composition of the sprouts and mature taproots of 8 radish varieties. Radish sprouts contained significantly greater concentrations of glucosinolates (3.8-fold) and isothiocyanates (8.2-fold) than the mature radish taproot and also contained significantly greater concentrations of phenolics (on average 6.9-fold). The anthocyanin concentrations of the mature radish taproot were significantly greater than in the sprouts of red, pink, and purple varieties. The primary anthocyanidins present in the red and pink radish varieties were pelargonidin and delphinidin, while the primary anthocyanidin in the purple radish variety was cyanidin. Radish sprouts were between 9- and 59-fold more potent than the corresponding mature taproot at activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) in a stably transfected hepatoma cell line. The ARE activity of the radish sprouts and mature taproots was significantly correlated with the total isothiocyanate concentration of the radishes. Practical Application: Understanding the influence variety and developmental stage has on the biological activity of cruciferous vegetables provides important information for further studies examining the in vivo effects of radish treatment and foundation for providing recommendations to reduce the risk of chronic disease through dietary intervention.

  15. Metabolic alterations of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination of two soybean sprout varieties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Chang, Woo-Suk; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2013-12-01

    The metabolic changes of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) sprout varieties, 'Pungsannamulkong' and 'Bosug', have been studied. Seeds were germinated at 20 °C with 80% humidity in the darkness and sampled at 2 day intervals for 10 days. Partial least squares (PLS) scores plot showed that the responses of three metabolites during germination were linearly linked with each other except for day 2 in both varieties. PLS loading plots indicated that lutein content in whole sprout and cotyledon was closely associated with germination in 'Pungsannamulkong' while the chlorophyll a content in whole sprouts was highly linked with germination in 'Bosug'. Heatmap analyses revealed that lutein and β-carotene levels, but not those of chlorophyll a, accumulated in whole soybean sprouts and cotyledon. While hypocotyls did not accumulate lipophilic pigments during germination, the accumulation of lutein and β-carotene in the cotyledons was greater in 'Pungsannamulkong' than in 'Bosug' sprouts. In addition, the contents of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a increased from those in the seeds. Overall, the metabolic changes of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination are affected not only by variety but also by organ type.

  16. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters the post-lesion reorganization (sprouting) of acetylcholinesterase staining in the dentate gyrus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    West, J R; Dewey, S L; Cassell, M D

    1984-01-01

    qrenatal exposure of rats to ethanol by feeding pregnant dams a liquid diet containing 35% ethanol-derived calories during days 1-21 of gestation produced an altered lesion-induced sprouting response in the offspring when they were lesioned as adults. The localization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was determined by histochemical methods and used to monitor sprouting following the unilateral ablation of the entorhinal cortex. Quantitative morphometric techniques, including computer-assisted image analysis, were used to measure the width of bands and the total area of AChE-positive staining. Both measures indicated an expanded commissural/associational (C/A) zone (indicating a more robust sprouting response) in the rats exposed to ethanol prenatally compared to normal and pair-fed control rats that received similar lesions. A comparison of the post-lesion changes in the supra- and infrapyramidal blades revealed a trend towards more C/A sprouting in the infrapyramidal blade, but only in the ethanol-exposed rats. These findings indicate that prenatal ethanol exposure has long-lasting effects on morphological responsiveness such as sprouting in the central nervous system.

  17. Increased expression of fructan 1-exohydrolase in rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea during sprouting and exposure to low temperature.

    PubMed

    Asega, Amanda Francine; do Nascimento, João Roberto O; Carvalho, Maria Angela M

    2011-04-15

    Rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea, an Asteraceae found in the Brazilian Cerrado, store high amounts of fructans that vary in composition over the phenological cycle. Fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH) activity is detectable during the sprouting phase, mainly in the proximal regions of rhizophores, of plants induced to sprout by defoliation and/or cold storage. We found an increase in 1-FEH gene expression during natural and induced sprouting and further enhancement through low-temperature treatment. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of 1-FEH gene expression in different regions of the rhizophores during the transition from dormancy to sprouting is presented. Transcripts were detected mainly in the proximal region, coinciding with high 1-FEH activity and a high concentration of free fructose. Low temperature promoted the accumulation of fructans of a low degree of polymerization (DP) and enhanced 1-FEH activity and gene expression. It is hypothesized that a set of 1-FEH proteins acts in two different ways during fructan mobilization: (1) by hydrolyzing fructo-oligosaccharides and -polysaccharides in sprouting plants (naturally or induced) for carbon supply and (2) by hydrolyzing preferably fructo-polysaccharides under low temperature to maintain the oligosaccharide pool for plant cold acclimation.

  18. Responses of growing Japanese quails that received selenium from selenium enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    PubMed

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Chinrasri, Orawan; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Thosaikham, Withpol; Aengwanich, Worapol

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selenium (Se) from Se-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) on the performance and Se concentrations in tissues of growing Japanese quails. Two hundred quails were divided into five treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained ten quails in a completely randomize design. The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. The treatments were T1, control diet; T2, control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3, T4, and T5, control diet plus 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results revealed that Se supplementation had no impact on feed intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of quails (p > 0.05). However, Se supplementation from both sodium selenite and Se-enriched kale sprout increased (p < 0.05) Se concentrations in the heart and breast meat of quails. Se concentrations in the liver and breast meat of quails increased (p < 0.05) with increasing Se concentration from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results indicate that Se from Se-enriched kale sprout offers no advantage over Se from sodium selenite on tissue Se concentration.

  19. FT-ICR/MS and GC-EI/MS Metabolomics Networking Unravels Global Potato Sprout's Responses to Rhizoctonia solani Infection

    PubMed Central

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Jabaji, Suha

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their dissection a challenging task for metabolomics studies. Here we are reporting on an integrated metabolomics networking approach combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) and bioinformatics analyses for the study of interactions in the potato sprout-Rhizoctonia solani pathosystem and the fluctuations in the global metabolome of sprouts. The developed bioanalytical and bioinformatics protocols provided a snapshot of the sprout's global metabolic network and its perturbations as a result of pathogen invasion. Mevalonic acid and deoxy-xylulose pathways were substantially up-regulated leading to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene alkaloids such as the phytoalexins phytuberin, rishitin, and solavetivone, and steroidal alkaloids having solasodine and solanidine as their common aglycons. Additionally, the perturbation of the sprout's metabolism was depicted in fluctuations of the content of their amino acids pool and that of carboxylic and fatty acids. Components of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypersensitive reaction (HR) such as azelaic and oxalic acids were detected in increased levels in infected sprouts and strategies of the pathogen to overcome plant defense were proposed. Our metabolic approach has not only greatly expanded the multitude of metabolites previously reported in potato in response to pathogen invasion, but also enabled the identification of bioactive plant-derived metabolites providing valuable information that could be exploited in biotechnology, biomarker-assisted plant breeding, and crop protection for the development of new crop protection agents. PMID:22880040

  20. Restoration of skilled locomotion by sprouting corticospinal axons induced by co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Duo; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Fang; Wang, Xuhua; Liu, Xuefeng; He, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The limited rewiring of the corticospinal tract (CST) only partially compensates the lost functions after stroke, brain trauma and spinal cord injury. Therefore it is important to develop new therapies to enhance the compensatory circuitry mediated by spared CST axons. Here by using a unilateral pyramidotomy model, we find that deletion of cortical suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of cytokine-activated pathway, promotes sprouting of uninjured CST axons to the denervated spinal cord. A likely trigger of such sprouting is ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expressed in local spinal neurons. Such sprouting can be further enhanced by deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) negative regulator, resulting in significant recovery of skilled locomotion. Ablation of the corticospinal neurons with sprouting axons abolishes the improved behavioural performance. Furthermore, by optogenetics-based specific CST stimulation, we show a direct limb motor control by sprouting CST axons, providing direct evidence for the reformation of a functional circuit. PMID:26598325

  1. The effect of dietary alfalfa and flax sprouts on rabbit meat antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dal Bosco, A; Castellini, C; Martino, M; Mattioli, S; Marconi, O; Sileoni, V; Ruggeri, S; Tei, F; Benincasa, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with flax and alfalfa sprouts on fatty acid, tocopherol and phytochemical contents of rabbit meat. Ninety weaned New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to three dietary groups: standard diet (S); standard diet+20g/d of alfalfa sprouts (A); and standard diet+20g/d of flax sprouts (F). In the F rabbits the Longissimus dorsi muscle showed a higher thio-barbituric acid-reactive value and at the same time significantly higher values of alpha-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids. Additionally n-3/n-6 ratio and thrombogenic indices were improved. The meat of A rabbits showed intermediate values of the previously reported examined parameters. Dietary supplementation with sprouts produced meat with a higher total phytoestrogen content. The addition of fresh alfalfa and flax sprouts to commercial feed modified the fat content, fatty acid and phytochemical profile of the meat, but the flax ones worsened the oxidative status of meat.

  2. Conditional Sox9 ablation improves locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury by increasing reactive sprouting.

    PubMed

    McKillop, William M; York, Elisa M; Rubinger, Luc; Liu, Tony; Ossowski, Natalie M; Xu, Kathy; Hryciw, Todd; Brown, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    The absence of axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been attributed to the up-regulation of axon-repelling molecules, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) present in the glial scar that forms post-SCI. We previously identified the transcription factor SOX9 as a key up-regulator of CSPG production and also demonstrated that conditional Sox9 ablation leads to decreased CSPG levels and improved recovery of hind limb function after SCI. We herein demonstrate increased neural input onto spinal neurons caudal to the lesion in spinal cord injured Sox9 conditional knock out mice as indicated by increased levels of the presynaptic markers synaptophysin and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) compared to controls. Axonal sparing, long-range axonal regeneration and reactive sprouting were investigated as possible explanations for the increase in neural inputs caudal to the lesion and for the improved locomotor outcomes in spinal cord-injured Sox9 conditional knock out mice. Whereas retrograde tract-tracing studies failed to reveal any evidence for increased axonal sparing or for long-range regeneration in the Sox9 conditional knock out mice, anterograde tract-tracing experiments demonstrated increased reactive sprouting caudal to the lesion after SCI. Finally we demonstrate that application of a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor to reduce CSPG degradation in Sox9 conditional knock out mice prevents the improvements in locomotor recovery observed in untreated Sox9 conditional knock out mice. These results suggest that improved recovery of locomotor function in Sox9 conditional knock out mice after SCI is due to increased reactive sprouting secondary to reduced CSPG levels distal to the lesion.

  3. Hyaluronic acid hydrogel stiffness and oxygen tension affect cancer cell fate and endothelial sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yu-I; Abaci, Hasan E.; Krupsi, Yoni; Weng, Lien-Chun; Burdick, Jason A.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture models may recapitulate aspects of the tumorigenic microenvironment in vivo, enabling the study of cancer progression in vitro. Both hypoxia and matrix stiffness are known to regulate tumor growth. Using a modular culture system employing an acrylated hyaluronic acid (AHA) hydrogel, three hydrogel matrices with distinctive degrees of viscoelasticity — soft (78±16 Pa), medium (309± 57 Pa), and stiff (596± 73 Pa) — were generated using the same concentration of adhesion ligands. Oxygen levels within the hydrogel in atmospheric (21 %), hypoxic (5 %), and severely hypoxic (1 %) conditions were assessed with a mathematical model. HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, encapsulated within the AHA hydrogels in high densities, generated nonuniform oxygen distributions, while lower cell densities resulted in more uniform oxygen distributions in the atmospheric and hypoxic environments. When we examined how varying viscoelasticity in atmospheric and hypoxic environments affects cell cycles and the expression of BNIP3 and BNIP3L (autophagy and apoptosis genes), and GLUT-1 (a glucose transport gene), we observed that HT1080 cells in 3D hydrogel adapted better to hypoxic conditions than those in a Petri dish, with no obvious correlation to matrix viscoelasticity, by recovering rapidly from possible autophagy/apoptotic events and alternating metabolism mechanisms. Further, we examined how HT1080 cells cultured in varying viscoelasticity and oxygen tension conditions affected endothelial sprouting and invasion. We observed that increased matrix stiffness reduced endothelial sprouting and invasion in atmospheric conditions; however, we observed increased endothelial sprouting and invasion under hypoxia at all levels of matrix stiffness with the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoeitin-1 (ANG-1). Overall, HT1080 cells encapsulated in the AHA hydrogels under hypoxic stress recovered better from apoptosis and

  4. Extension of synaptic extracellular matrix during nerve terminal sprouting in living frog neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Ko, C P

    1994-02-01

    Remodeling of the synaptic extracellular matrix (ECM) and its dynamic relationship with nerve terminal plasticity have been demonstrated in normal frog neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in vivo (Chen et al., 1991). Our previous work has led to a hypothesis that extension of synaptic ECM precedes nerve terminal growth during synaptic remodeling. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined the changes of synaptic ECM in frog NMJs that were primarily undergoing nerve terminal growth and sprouting. Frog sartorius muscles were double stained with a fluorescent nerve terminal dye (4-Di-2-Asp) and rhodamine-tagged peanut agglutinin (PNA), which recognizes synaptic ECM. The double-labeled NMJs were visualized in vivo with video-enhanced fluorescence microscopy. Nerve sprouting was then induced in the muscle by grafting segments of the contralateral sciatic nerve. The identified NMJs were restrained and reexamined 2-3 months later. Extensive sprouting was observed in 46% of 167 identified NMJs. At junctional regions that showed extension or formation of new branches, synaptic ECM was commonly seen to have the same shape and distribution as the nerve terminal. However, extension of synaptic ECM beyond the corresponding nerve terminals, often by tens of microns, was observed in 29% of these newly formed junctional regions. This lack of correlation might be transient, as growth of nerve terminals following extended, PNA-stained ECM was seen. Examination with histological staining not only confirmed a lack of nerve terminal at the extended synaptic ECM region but also indicated an absence of AChE and postsynaptic junctional folds. The absence of these postsynaptic specializations at the extended, PNA-stained ECM region makes it unlikely that this region was previously occupied by nerve terminals that had retracted. Thus, the present study provides further findings consistent with the hypothesis that synaptic ECM precedes nerve terminal outgrowth and that the extension of

  5. Evolution and Distribution of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities during Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Field.

    PubMed

    Olaerts, Heleen; Roye, Chiara; Derde, Liesbeth J; Sinnaeve, Georges; Meza, Walter R; Bodson, Bernard; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-07-20

    To date, research on preharvest sprouted (PHS) wheat has mostly been conducted on kernels germinated under laboratory conditions, which differ widely from conditions in the field. To obtain detailed knowledge of the evolution of hydrolytic enzyme activities in PHS wheat (Triticum aestivum), a broad collection of samples from three varieties was obtained by harvesting before, at, and after maturity. Delaying harvest time coupled with periods of heavy rainfall caused sprouting in the kernels, observed as a drop in Falling Number and an increase in α-amylase activity. The appearance of α- and β-amylase, peptidase, and endoxylanase activity during field sprouting was independent from each other. Consequently, Falling Number could not be used to predict activity of other hydrolytic enzymes. When differentiating endogenous from kernel-associated microbial enzymes, results showed that α- and β-amylase and peptidase activity of PHS kernels were predominantly of endogenous origin, whereas endoxylanase activity was largely from microbial origin. PMID:27341479

  6. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    PubMed

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants.

  7. anteiso-Fatty Acids in Brussels Sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera L.): Quantities, Enantioselectivities, and Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios.

    PubMed

    Eibler, Dorothee; Seyfried, Carolin; Kaffarnik, Stefanie; Vetter, Walter

    2015-10-14

    anteiso-Fatty acids (aFAs) are a class of branched-chain fatty acids that are characterized by one methyl branch on the antepenultimate carbon of the straight acyl chain. aFAs are mainly produced by bacteria, and sources in vegetables are scarce. This study reports the concentrations of odd-numbered aFAs (a15:0-a21:0) in Brussels sprout buds. Selective enrichment followed by enantioselective gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode revealed that both a15:0 and a17:0 were (S)-enantiopure in Brussels sprout samples. δ(13)C values (‰) of a17:0 in Brussels sprouts were comparable with those of palmitic acid, indicating no different source for both fatty acids. PMID:26390192

  8. Evolution and Distribution of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities during Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Field.

    PubMed

    Olaerts, Heleen; Roye, Chiara; Derde, Liesbeth J; Sinnaeve, Georges; Meza, Walter R; Bodson, Bernard; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-07-20

    To date, research on preharvest sprouted (PHS) wheat has mostly been conducted on kernels germinated under laboratory conditions, which differ widely from conditions in the field. To obtain detailed knowledge of the evolution of hydrolytic enzyme activities in PHS wheat (Triticum aestivum), a broad collection of samples from three varieties was obtained by harvesting before, at, and after maturity. Delaying harvest time coupled with periods of heavy rainfall caused sprouting in the kernels, observed as a drop in Falling Number and an increase in α-amylase activity. The appearance of α- and β-amylase, peptidase, and endoxylanase activity during field sprouting was independent from each other. Consequently, Falling Number could not be used to predict activity of other hydrolytic enzymes. When differentiating endogenous from kernel-associated microbial enzymes, results showed that α- and β-amylase and peptidase activity of PHS kernels were predominantly of endogenous origin, whereas endoxylanase activity was largely from microbial origin.

  9. Comparison of the growth of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and O104: H4 during sprouting and microgreen production from contaminated radish seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both sprouts and microgreens are popular tender produce items, typically grown and harvested in indoor facilities which allow a higher degree of control compared to open field production. While sprouts, which have frequently been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks, are the subject of numerous...

  10. The sprout inhibitor 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene induces the expression of the cell cycle inhibitors KRP1 and KRP2 in potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suppression of sprout growth is critical for the long-term storage of potato tubers. 1,4-dimethylenapthlene (DMN) is a new class of sprout control agent but the metabolic mode of action for this compound has yet to be elucidated. Changes in transcriptional profiles of potato tubers treated with ...

  11. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections linked to alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, T.; Benkel, D. H.; Shapiro, R. L.; Hall, W. N.; Winnett, M. M.; Linn, M. J.; Neimann, J.; Barrett, T. J.; Dietrich, S.; Downes, F. P.; Toney, D. M.; Pearson, J. L.; Rolka, H.; Slutsker, L.; Griffin, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections occurred in the United States in June and July 1997. Two concurrent outbreaks were investigated through independent case-control studies in Michigan and Virginia and by subtyping isolates with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates from 85 persons were indistinguishable by PFGE. Alfalfa sprouts were the only exposure associated with E. coli O157:H7 infection in both Michigan and Virginia. Seeds used for sprouting were traced back to one common lot harvested in Idaho. New subtyping tools such as PFGE used in this investigation are essential to link isolated infections to a single outbreak. PMID:11747724

  12. A Nerve Growth Factor Peptide Retards Seizure Development and Inhibits Neuronal Sprouting in a Rat Model of Epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Kashif; van der Zee, Catharina E. E. M.; Ross, Gregory M.; Chapman, C. Andrew; Stanisz, Jolanta; Riopelle, Richard J.; Racine, Ronald J.; Fahnestock, Margaret

    1995-10-01

    Kindling, an animal model of epilepsy wherein seizures are induced by subcortical electrical stimulation, results in the upregulation of neurotrophin mRNA and protein in the adult rat forebrain and causes mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus. Intraventricular infusion of a synthetic peptide mimic of a nerve growth factor domain that interferes with the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors resulted in significant retardation of kindling and inhibition of mossy fiber sprouting. These findings suggest a critical role for neurotrophins in both kindling and kindling-induced synaptic reorganization.

  13. Separation and purification of sulforaphane from broccoli seeds by solid phase extraction and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Li, Chunfang; Yuan, Qipeng; Vriesekoop, Frank

    2007-10-01

    A novel, rapid, and economical method to isolate and purify natural sulforaphane from broccoli seeds is described. The procedure involves solvent extraction of autolyzed seed meal, followed by separation by solid phase extraction (SPE) and purification by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The SPE method provides higher yield of sulforaphane from crude extracts compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction. High purity and recovery of sulforaphane product can be obtained by preparative HPLC with a C 18 column and 30% methanol in water as the mobile phase. The purified compound was characterized by MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR. The techniques described here are useful tools in the preparative-scale isolation of sulforaphane in a fast, cost-effective, and waste-conscious manner.

  14. Influence of cooking conditions on organoleptic and health-related properties of artichokes, green beans, broccoli and carrots.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Sofía; Mir-Bel, Jorge; Oria, Rosa; Salvador, María L

    2017-02-15

    Colour, pigments, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were investigated in artichokes, green beans, broccoli and carrots cooked under different conditions. Domestic induction hobs with temperature control were used to evaluate the effect of boiling, sous-vide cooking and water immersion cooking at temperatures below 100°C on the properties of each vegetable. Sous-vide cooking preserved chlorophyll, carotenoids, phenolic content and antioxidant activity to a greater extent than boiling for all of the vegetables tested and retained colour better, as determined by a(∗). A reduction of only 10-15°C in the cooking temperature was enough to improve the properties of the samples cooked by water immersion, except for green beans. Artichokes and carrots suffered pronounced losses of antioxidant activity during boiling (17.0 and 9.2% retention, respectively), but the stability of this parameter significantly increased with sous-vide cooking (84.9 and 55.3% retention, respectively).

  15. Stretch-induced intussuceptive and sprouting angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Belle, Janeil; Ysasi, Alexandra; Bennett, Robert D; Filipovic, Nenad; Nejad, Mohammad Imani; Trumper, David L; Ackermann, Maximilian; Wagner, Willi; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A; Mentzer, Steven J

    2014-09-01

    Vascular systems grow and remodel in response to not only metabolic needs, but also mechanical influences as well. Here, we investigated the influence of tissue-level mechanical forces on the patterning and structure of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microcirculation. A dipole stretch field was applied to the CAM using custom computer-controlled servomotors. The topography of the stretch field was mapped using finite element models. After 3days of stretch, Sholl analysis of the CAM demonstrated a 7-fold increase in conducting vessel intersections within the stretch field (p<0.01). The morphometric analysis of intravital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrated that the increase vessel density was a result of an increase in interbranch distance (p<0.01) and a decrease in bifurcation angles (p<0.01); there was no significant increase in conducting vessel number (p>0.05). In contrast, corrosion casting and SEM of the stretch field capillary meshwork demonstrated intense sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. Both planar surface area (p<0.05) and pillar density (p<0.01) were significantly increased relative to control regions of the CAM. We conclude that a uniaxial stretch field stimulates the axial growth and realignment of conducting vessels as well as intussusceptive and sprouting angiogenesis within the gas exchange capillaries of the ex ovo CAM.

  16. Stretch-induced Intussuceptive and Sprouting Angiogenesis in the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Janeil; Ysasi, Alexandra; Bennett, Robert; Filipovic, Nenad; Nejad, Mohammad Imani; Trumper, David L.; Ackermann, Max; Wagner, Willi; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A.; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular systems grow and remodel in response to not only metabolic needs, but mechanical influences as well. Here, we investigated the influence of tissue-level mechanical forces on the patterning and structure of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microcirculation. A dipole stretch field was applied to the CAM using custom computer-controlled servomotors. The topography of the stretch field was mapped using finite element models. After 3 days of stretch, Sholl analysis of the CAM demonstrated a 7-fold increase in conducting vessel intersections within the stretch field (p<0.01). Morphometric analysis of intravital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrated that the increase vessel density was a result of an increase in interbranch distance (p<0.01) and a decrease in bifurcation angles (p<0.01); there was no significant increase in conducting vessel number (p>0.05). In contrast, corrosion casting and SEM of the stretch field capillary meshwork demonstrated intense sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. Both planar surface area (p<0.05) and pillar density (p<0.01) were significantly increased relative to control regions of the CAM. We conclude that a uniaxial stretch field stimulates the axial growth and realignment of conducting vessels as well as intussusceptive and sprouting angiogenesis within the gas exchange capillaries of the ex ovo CAM. PMID:24984292

  17. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging detects mossy fiber sprouting in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Malheiros, Jackeline M.; Polli, Roberson S.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Longo, Beatriz M.; Mello, Luiz E.; Silva, Afonso C.; Tannús, Alberto; Covolan, Luciene

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) is a frequent finding following status epilepticus (SE). The present study aimed to test the feasibility of using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to detect MFS in the chronic phase of the well-established pilocarpine (Pilo) rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods To modulate MFS, cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, was co-administered with Pilo in a sub-group of animals. In vivo MEMRI was performed 3 months after induction of SE and compared to the neo-Timm histological labeling of zinc mossy fiber terminals in the dentate gyrus (DG). Key findings Chronically epileptic rats displaying MFS as detected by neo-Timm histology had a hyperintense MEMRI signal in the DG, while chronically epileptic animals that did not display MFS had minimal MEMRI signal enhancement compared to non-epileptic control animals. A strong correlation (r = 0.81, P<0.001) was found between MEMRI signal enhancement and MFS. Significance This study shows that MEMRI is an attractive non-invasive method to detect mossy fiber sprouting in vivo and can be used as an evaluation tool in testing therapeutic approaches to manage chronic epilepsy. PMID:22642664

  18. Prevalence and growth of pathogens on salad vegetables, fruits and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, P; Kaur, R

    2001-03-01

    A total of 120 samples, comprising different types of raw vegetables (seven), fruits (three) and sprouts (three) obtained from street vendors, were tested for aerobic plate count, coliform count and various food-borne pathogens. Average aerobic plate counts for salad vegetables, fruits and sprouts were greater than 10(10) cfu/g and 10(9) cfu/g respectively. Pathogens isolated were S. aureus, E. coli, Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., S. typhi, Serratia sp., Providencia sp. and P. aeruginosa. The antibiotic resistant patterns of the isolates revealed P. aeruginosa to be the most antibiotic resistant, E. coli, Salmonella, Enterobacter and P. aeruginosa also showed the presence of plasmids. The model development phase of this study involved 27 growth curves conducted under 9 combinations of temperature and pH in the Brain Heart Infusion Broth. Models for specific growth rate and lag period were developed by response surface modelling using multiple linear regression analysis. The model provides an estimate of bacterial growth in response to any combination of the variables studied within specified ranges. Growth patterns of organisms on vegetable and fruits were also studied at room temperature (32 degrees C) to assess the growth in the actual food environment. Cucumber and watermelon supports the growth of S. aureus and S. typhi, carrot retarded their growth while pineapple did not support the growth.

  19. Growth enhancement effects of radish sprouts: atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation vs. heat shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarinont, T.; Amano, T.; Kitazaki, S.; Koga, K.; Uchida, G.; Shiratani, M.; Hayashi, N.

    2014-06-01

    We compare growth enhancement effects due to atmospheric air dielectric barrier discharge plasma irradiation and heat shock to seeds of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.). Interactions between radicals and seeds in a short duration of 3 min. lead to the growth enhancement of radish sprouts in a long term of 7 days and the maximum average length is 3.7 times as long as that of control. The growth enhancement effects become gradually weak with time, and hence the ratio of the average length for plasma irradiation to that for control decreases from 3.7 for the first day to 1.3 for 7 day. The average length for heat shock of 60°C for 10 min. and 100°C for 3 min. is longer than that for control, and the maximum average length is 1.3 times as long as that of control. Heat shock has little contribution to the growth enhancement due to plasma irradiation, because the maximum temperature due to plasma irradiation is less than 60°C.

  20. Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance.

  1. Phenylalanine and LED lights enhance phenolic compound production in Tartary buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Min; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Yeon-Bok; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2015-06-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) concentrations and various light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the accumulation of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, vitexin, rutin, quercetin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside) in Tartary buckwheat sprouts. We found that 5mM was the optimum l-Phe concentration for the synthesis of total and individual phenolic compounds. The highest rutin (53.09 mg/g DW) and chlorogenic acid (5.62 mg/g DW) content was observed with Red+Blue and white lights. Comprehensive differences in total and individual anthocyanin content were observed between different lights; however, the total anthocyanin content (9.12 mg/g DW) was 1.5-fold higher in blue light. The expression levels of regulatory genes, such as FtDFR and FtANS, were 7.1-fold higher with l-Phe treatment. Gene expression results showed that the phenolic compounds in Tartary buckwheat sprouts increased with the use of l-Phe and LED lights.

  2. Reprogramming of Seed Metabolism Facilitates Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance of Wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caixiang; Ding, Feng; Hao, Fuhua; Yu, Men; Lei, Hehua; Wu, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhengxi; Guo, Hongxiang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a worldwide problem for wheat production and transgene antisense-thioredoxin-s (anti-trx-s) facilitates outstanding resistance. To understand the molecular details of PHS resistance, we analyzed the metabonomes of the transgenic and wild-type (control) wheat seeds at various stages using NMR and GC-FID/MS. 60 metabolites were dominant in these seeds including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, choline metabolites and fatty acids. At day-20 post-anthesis, only malate level in transgenic wheat differed significantly from that in controls whereas at day-30 post-anthesis, levels of amino acids and sucrose were significantly different between these two groups. For mature seeds, most metabolites in glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline metabolism, biosynthesis of proteins, nucleotides and fatty acids had significantly lower levels in transgenic seeds than in controls. After 30-days post-harvest ripening, most metabolites in transgenic seeds had higher levels than in controls including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, choline metabolites and NAD(+). These indicated that anti-trx-s lowered overall metabolic activities of mature seeds eliminating pre-harvest sprouting potential. Post-harvest ripening reactivated the metabolic activities of transgenic seeds to restore their germination vigor. These findings provided essential molecular phenomic information for PHS resistance of anti-trx-s and a credible strategy for future developing PHS resistant crops. PMID:26860057

  3. Erythropoietin has an antiapoptotic effect after myocardial infarction and stimulates in vitro aortic ring sprouting

    SciTech Connect

    Mansson Broberg, Agneta; Grinnemo, Karl-Henrik; Genead, Rami; Danielsson, Christian; Andersson, Agneta B.; Waerdell, Eva; Sylven, Christer

    2008-06-20

    Aims were to explore if darbepoietin-{alpha} in mouse can induce angiogenesis and if moderate doses after myocardial infarction stimulates periinfarct capillary and arteriolar densities, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Myocardial infarction was induced by ligation of LAD. Mouse aortic rings (0.8 mm) were cultured in matrigel and the angiogenic sprouting was studied after addition of darbepoietin-{alpha} with and without VEGF-165. After 12 days the hemoglobin concentration was 25% higher in the darbepoietin-{alpha} treated mice than in the control group. No difference in capillary densities in the periinfarct or noninfarcted areas was seen with darbepoietin-{alpha}. Cell proliferation was about 10 times higher in the periinfarct area than in the noninfarcted wall. Darbepoietin-{alpha} treatment led to a decrease of cell proliferation (BrdU, (p < 0.02)) and apoptosis (TUNEL, p < 0.005) with about 30% in the periinfarct area. Darbepoietin-{alpha} and VEGF-165 both independently induced sprouting from aortic rings. The results suggest that darbepoietin-{alpha} can induce angiogenesis but that moderate doses after myocardial infarction are not angiogenic but antiapoptotic.

  4. Vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout ameliorated hyperglycemia and impaired memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xueqin; Zhang, Ling; Xia, Qing; Sun, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cai, Hongxin; Yang, Xiaoda; Xia, Zuoli; Tang, Yujing

    2008-10-01

    Vanadium compounds have been recognized for their hypoglycemic effects; however, potential short and long-term vanadium toxicity has slowed the acceptance for therapeutic use. In the present work, three batches of vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout (VCS) were prepared by incubating chickpea seeds in presence of 200, 100, and 50 microg/ml of sodium orthovanadate (SOV). The effects of oral administration of chickpea sprout (CS) and VCS food for 8 weeks on streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats were investigated. Both CS and VCS food was found to ameliorate some hyperglycemic symptoms of the diabetic rats, i.e. improve lipid metabolism, decrease blood glucose level, prevent body weight loss, and reduce impairment of diabetic related spatial learning and memory. Serum insulin was substantially elevated in treated diabetic rats, which is probably one important reason for the hypoglycemic effect. Compared with CS alone, VCS100 food exhibited remarkably enhanced effectiveness in alleviating diabetes induced hyperglycemia and memory loss. Moreover, vanadium-enriched chickpeas appeared to abolish the vanadium induced toxicity associated with administration of this metal for diabetes during the 8-week study period. This study suggested further work of the vanadium speciation in CS and novel hypoglycemic mechanism for the antidiabetic activity of vanadium agents. Vanadium containing (VCS) food could be a dietary supplement for the diabetic status.

  5. Reprogramming of Seed Metabolism Facilitates Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Caixiang; Ding, Feng; Hao, Fuhua; Yu, Men; Lei, Hehua; Wu, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhengxi; Guo, Hongxiang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a worldwide problem for wheat production and transgene antisense-thioredoxin-s (anti-trx-s) facilitates outstanding resistance. To understand the molecular details of PHS resistance, we analyzed the metabonomes of the transgenic and wild-type (control) wheat seeds at various stages using NMR and GC-FID/MS. 60 metabolites were dominant in these seeds including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, choline metabolites and fatty acids. At day-20 post-anthesis, only malate level in transgenic wheat differed significantly from that in controls whereas at day-30 post-anthesis, levels of amino acids and sucrose were significantly different between these two groups. For mature seeds, most metabolites in glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline metabolism, biosynthesis of proteins, nucleotides and fatty acids had significantly lower levels in transgenic seeds than in controls. After 30-days post-harvest ripening, most metabolites in transgenic seeds had higher levels than in controls including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, choline metabolites and NAD+. These indicated that anti-trx-s lowered overall metabolic activities of mature seeds eliminating pre-harvest sprouting potential. Post-harvest ripening reactivated the metabolic activities of transgenic seeds to restore their germination vigor. These findings provided essential molecular phenomic information for PHS resistance of anti-trx-s and a credible strategy for future developing PHS resistant crops. PMID:26860057

  6. VAMP-2 promotes neurite elongation and SNAP-25A increases neurite sprouting in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Shirasu, M; Kimura, K; Kataoka, M; Takahashi, M; Okajima, S; Kawaguchi, S; Hirasawa, Y; Ide, C; Mizoguchi, A

    2000-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attached protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE)-mediated membrane fusion system is involved in vesicle fusion in the plasma membrane that allows expansion for neurite elongation. There have been several reports analyzing the effects of neurite outgrowth by inhibition of SNAREs. In this study, we took the opposite approach by overexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion SNAREs, including VAMP-2, SNAP-25A, and syntaxin1A, in PC12 cells to investigate the role of SNAREs in the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. Neurite outgrowth analysis demonstrated that: (1) GFP-VAMP-2 increased the length of individual neurites, without changing the number of neurites per cell; (2) GFP-SNAP-25A increased the number of neurites per cell, with no change in the length of the individual neurites. In both cases, the total length of neurites per cell was increased; (3) GFP-syntaxin1A resulted in no significant change, either in neurite length, or in the number of neurites per cell. These findings suggest that when overexpressed in PC12 cells, VAMP-2 can promote neurite elongation, while SNAP-25A can stimulate neurite sprouting. On the other hand, overexpression of syntaxin1A neither promotes nor inhibits neurite outgrowth. Thus VAMP-2 and SNAP-25A play different roles in neurite elongation and sprouting.

  7. Genetics of pre-harvest sprouting resistance in a cross of Canadian adapted durum wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Knox, R E; Clarke, J M; Clarke, F R; Singh, A; Depauw, R M; Cuthbert, R D

    2014-01-01

    Severe losses attributable to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) have been reported in Canada in recent years. The genetics of PHS resistance have been more extensively studied in hexaploid wheat and generally not using combinations of elite agronomic parents. The objective of our research was to understand the genetic nature of PHS resistance in an elite durum cross. A doubled haploid (DH) population and checks were phenotyped in replicated trials for grain yield and PHS traits over 3 years in western Canada. The response of intact spikes to sprouting conditions, sampled over two development time points, was measured in a rain simulation chamber. The DH population was genotyped with simple sequence repeat and Diversity Arrays Technology markers. Genotypes were a significant source of variation for grain yield and PHS resistance traits in each tested environment. Transgressive segregant DH genotypes were identified for grain yield and PHS resistance measurements. Low or no correlation was detected between grain yield and PHS, while correlation between PHS resistance measurements was moderate. The heritability of PHS resistance was moderate and higher than grain yield. Significant quantitative trait loci with small effect were detected on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 5B, 7A and 7B. Both parents contributed to the PHS resistance. Promising DH genotypes with high and stable grain yield as well as PHS resistance were identified, suggesting that grain yield and PHS can be improved simultaneously in elite genetic materials, and that these DH genotypes will be useful parental material for durum breeding programs. PMID:24659906

  8. High incidence of extra-intestinal infections in a Salmonella Havana outbreak associated with alfalfa sprouts.

    PubMed Central

    Backer, H D; Mohle-Boetani, J C; Werner, S B; Abbott, S L; Farrar, J; Vugia, D J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine a vehicle and point source for an outbreak of Salmonella Havana. METHODS: The authors conducted a case-control study and traceback investigation of 14 residents of California and four from Arizona with onsets of illness from Apr 15, 1998, to June 15, 1998, and Salmonella Havana infections with identical PFGE patterns. RESULTS: Seventeen of 18 patients were women. Seventeen were adults 20-89 years of age. Nine (50%) had diarrheal illness, 6 (33%) had urinary tract infections, 2 (11%) had sepsis, and one had an infected surgical wound after appendectomy. Four patients were hospitalized, and one died. Eating alfalfa sprouts was associated with S. Havana infection (OR = 10.0; 95% confidence interval 1.2, 83.1; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This outbreak resulted in a high incidence of extra-intestinal infections, especially urinary tract infections, and high morbidity. Raw alfalfa sprouts, often considered a safe "heath food," can be a source of serious foodborne disease outbreaks. PMID:11059427

  9. Chemopreventive effect of selenium-enriched Japanese radish sprout against breast cancer induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamanoshita, Osamu; Ichihara, Shu; Hama, Hidetoshi; Ichihara, Gaku; Chiba, Momoko; Kamijima, Michihiro; Takeda, Iwao; Nakajima, Tamie

    2007-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the major cancers in women, and dietary intake must be controlled to prevent it. Selenium (Se), especially Se compound in vegetables, is thought to be a promising chemopreventive dietary ingredient for preventing breast cancer. In this study, we developed Se-enriched Japanese radish sprout using a special Se-additional fertilizer, and identified the Se chemical forms. The newly developed Se-enriched sprout is produced within a week by the tank forming method, and the major chemical form was identified as Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) (80%). Then, the chemopreventive effects of the Se-enriched sprout were investigated using Sprague-Dawley female rats with mammary cancer, induced by a single oral dose of 10 mg or 14 mg of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Mammary tumors were found in 11, 16 and 2 rats treated with DMBA and thereafter fed the basal (n = 34), sprout-added basal (n = 30) and Se-enriched sprout-added test diets (n = 30), respectively. The incidence of mammary tumors was significantly lower in the Se-enriched sprout-added test diet group (7%) than in the basal diet group (32%) or sprout-added basal diet group (53%). In contrast, no significant difference was detected in the numbers and incidence of the tumor between the basal diet group and Se-enriched sprout-added test diet group before DMBA-dosing. These results suggest that the diet supplement of Se-enriched sprout after DMBA-dosing provides a significant chemoprevention against chemical-induced mammary cancer. Thus, Se-enriched sprout may be a useful dietary ingredient for preventing breast cancer.

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radishes (without tops) from Australia. (vi) Arrowroot, asparagus, bean sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, carrots... Zealand. (ix) Asparagus, carrots (without tops), celery, lettuce, and radishes (without tops)...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radishes (without tops) from Australia. (vi) Arrowroot, asparagus, bean sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, carrots... Zealand. (ix) Asparagus, carrots (without tops), celery, lettuce, and radishes (without tops)...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., potatoes, and radishes (without tops) from Australia. (vi) Arrowroot, asparagus, bean sprouts, broccoli... from New Zealand. (ix) Asparagus, carrots (without tops), celery, lettuce, and radishes (without...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radishes (without tops) from Australia. (vi) Arrowroot, asparagus, bean sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, carrots... Zealand. (ix) Asparagus, carrots (without tops), celery, lettuce, and radishes (without tops)...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radishes (without tops) from Australia. (vi) Arrowroot, asparagus, bean sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, carrots... Zealand. (ix) Asparagus, carrots (without tops), celery, lettuce, and radishes (without tops)...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), beets, carrots, celery, cole crops (cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower), collards (kale..., parsley, parsnip, peas, peas with pods, peppers, potatoes, sugar beets, tomatoes; the following tree...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), beets, carrots, celery, cole crops (cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower), collards (kale..., parsley, parsnip, peas, peas with pods, peppers, potatoes, sugar beets, tomatoes; the following tree...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), beets, carrots, celery, cole crops (cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower), collards (kale..., parsley, parsnip, peas, peas with pods, peppers, potatoes, sugar beets, tomatoes; the following tree...

  18. How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... how well they work. Other fruits rich in vitamin C include kiwi fruit, strawberries, and cantaloupes. Vegetables rich in vitamin C include broccoli, peppers, Brussels sprouts, tomatoes, cabbage, ...

  19. LA Sprouts Randomized Controlled Nutrition, Cooking and Gardening Program Reduces Obesity and Metabolic Risk in Latino Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Nicole M.; Martinez, Lauren C.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention (“LA Sprouts”) on dietary intake, obesity parameters and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles. Methods Randomized control trial involving four elementary schools [2 schools randomized to intervention (172, 3rd–5th grade students); 2 schools randomized to control (147, 3rd–5th grade students)]. Classes were taught in 90-minute sessions once a week to each grade level for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre- and post-intervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), anthropometric measures [BMI, waist circumference (WC)], body fat, and fasting blood samples. Results LA Sprouts participants had significantly greater reductions in BMI z-scores (0.1 versus 0.04 point decrease, respectively; p=0.01) and WC (−1.2 cm vs. no change; p<0.001). Fewer LA Sprouts participants had the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) after the intervention than before, while the number of controls with MetSyn increased. LA Sprouts participants had improvements in dietary fiber intake (+3.5% vs. −15.5%; p=0.04) and less decreases in vegetable intake (−3.6% vs. −26.4%; p=0.04). Change in fruit intake before and after the intervention did not significantly differ between LAS and control subjects. Conclusions LA Sprouts was effective in reducing obesity and metabolic risk. PMID:25960146

  20. Comparative Study on Separation and Purification of Isoflavones from the Seeds and Sprouts of Chickpea by HSCCC.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qiaoying; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Yongxin; Gu, Dongyu; He, Dajun; Yili, Abulimiti; Ma, Qingling; Cheng, Zhen; Gao, Yanhua; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is known as a plant that is rich in protein, carbohydrates, and nutrition, and its seeds and sprouts have been processed into various health foods. In the present study, four isoflavones were purified from the seeds and sprouts of chickpea by high speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) using two biphasic solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:5:5, v/v) and ethyl acetate-water (1:1 v/v). The results indicated that 14.2 mg of formononetin, 15.7 mg of biochanin A, 9.1 mg of ononin, 11.3 mg of biochanin A-7-O-β-D-glucoside were obtained from 150 mg of sprout extracts with the purity of 92.26%, 95.86%, 95.32%, and 96.56%, respectively. Compared with the sprouts, separation of seed extracts yielded less amounts of biochanin A-7-O-β-D-glucoside and biochanin A with lower purity. The results indicate that four main isoflavones in chickpea, i.e., isoflavones, formononetin, biochanin A, ononin, and biochanin A-7-O-β-D-glucoside, are substantially increased by biosynthesis during the seed germination.

  1. Pericontusion axon sprouting is spatially and temporally consistent with a growth-permissive environment after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Harris, Neil G; Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Hovda, David A; Sutton, Richard L

    2010-02-01

    We previously reported that pericontusional extracellular chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are profoundly reduced for 3 weeks after experimental traumatic brain injury, indicating a potential growth-permissive window for plasticity. Here, we investigate the extracellular environment of sprouting neurons after controlled cortical impact injury in adult rats to determine the spatial and temporal arrangement of inhibitory and growth-promoting molecules in relation to growth-associated protein 43-positive (GAP43+) neurons. Spontaneous cortical sprouting was maximal in pericontused regions at 7 and 14 days after injury but absent by 28 days. Perineuronal nets containing CSPGs were reduced at 7 days after injury in the pericontused region (p < 0.05), which was commensurate with a reduction in extracellular CSPGs. Sprouting was restricted to the perineuronal nets and CSPG-deficient regions at 7 days, indicating that the pericontused region is temporarily and spatially permissive to new growth. At this time point,GAP43+ neurons were associated with brain regions containing cells positive for polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule but not with fibronectin-positive cells. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was reduced in the immediate pericontused region at 7 days. Along with prior Western blot evidence, these data suggest that a lowered intrinsic growth stimulus, together with a later return of growth-inhibitory CSPGs, may contribute to the ultimate disappearance of sprouting neurons after traumatic brain injury.

  2. The wheat ABA hypersensitive ERA8 mutant is associated with increased preharvest sprouting tolerance and altered hormone accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat preharvest sprouting (PHS) is the germination of mature grain on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Higher abscisic acid (ABA) hormone levels and sensitivity are associated with higher seed dormancy and PHS tolerance. Consistent with this, the ABA hypersensitive ERA8 (Enhanced...

  3. Effect of iron-chelate treatments during imbibition on the concentration of minerals and phenolic compounds in three edible sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fe is an essential micronutrient involved in fundamental biological processes in humans, as well as in plants. In particular, Fe is known as a very important mineral due to its frequent deficiency in humans. The objectives of this study were to increase Fe concentration in three species of sprouts (...

  4. The efficacy of six elite isolates of the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum against the sprouting of European aspen.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, Leena; Hantula, Jarkko

    2016-04-15

    The sprouting of broad-leaved trees after cutting is problematic in forest regeneration areas, along roads and railways, under electric power and above gas pipe lines. In Finland, one of the most difficult species to control in these areas is the European aspen (Populus tremula), which produces both stump sprouts and root suckers after saplings have been cut. In this study, we investigated whether a decay fungus of broad-leaved trees, Chondrostereum purpureum, could be used as a biological control agent against aspen sprouting. The efficacy of six elite strains of C. purpureum (improved earlier in a breeding process) was investigated on aspen for three years. The most efficient C. purpureum strain, R53, tested earlier on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), was efficient in causing mortality of aspen stumps and preventing the development of root suckers. With this strain, stump mortality was 78%, while significantly lower in control stumps which were cut only (47%). Aspen trees in the vicinity of the treatments (within a 10 m radius around each sapling) decreased the efficacy of C. purpureum. This study shows that the decay fungus C. purpureum can successfully be used in the sprout control of aspen saplings.

  5. Diet quality of a pregnant, primarily African American cohort residing in the Mississippi Delta: Delta Healthy Sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At no point during a woman’s life is good nutrition more important than during her reproductive years as her dietary choices affect not only her health but also that of her child. Delta Healthy Sprouts is a randomized, controlled, comparative trial testing the impact of two Maternal, Infant, and Ea...

  6. Baseline characteristics of a pregnant, primarily African American cohort residing in the Mississippi Delta: delta healthy sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes and increased risk for childhood obesity. Interventions designed to optimize maternal GWG may be effective at improving the health of women and their infants. Delta Healthy Sprouts (DHS) is a random...

  7. Survival of Salmonella enterica on soybean sprouts following treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide and biocontrol Pseudomonas bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of Salmonella enterica on sprouts and minimally processed, ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables is important for food and consumer safety. The aim of this research was to assess the effects of gaseous chlorine dioxide(ClO2)and biocontrol microorganisms (Pseudomonas chlororaphis and P. fluoresc...

  8. The Sprout Inhibitors Chlorpropham and 1, 4-dimethynaphthalene Alter Transcript Levels for KIP1 and KIP2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1, 4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) are two inhibitors used to prevent sprouting in potatoes. CIPC is a synthetic compound which disrupts potato microtubules, preventing spindle formation. DMN is a natural compound isolated from potatoes whose pathway of action is currently unknow...

  9. Genome-wide Association Analysis on Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance and Grain Color in U.S. Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat can cause substantial reduction in grain yield and end-use quality. Grain color (GC) together with other components affect PHS resistance. Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been reported for PHS resistance, among which one gene responsible for PHS resis...

  10. Evaluation of Safety of Iron-Fortified Soybean Sprouts, a Potential Component of Functional Food, in Rat.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Adamska, Teresa; Szaefer, Hanna; Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena; Piasecka-Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Ferritin-iron is currently considered as one of the most promising iron forms to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. We found that the cultivation of soybean seeds in a solution of ferrous sulfate results in material with extremely high iron content - 560.6 mg Fe/100 g of dry matter, while ferritin iron content was 420.5 mg/100 g dry matter. To assess the potential adverse effects of a preparation containing such a high concentration of iron, male and female Wistar rats were exposed via diet to 10, 30, 60 g soybean sprouts powder/kg feed for 90 days. There were no differences in final body weight and mean food consumption between controls and rats administered sprouts. No statistically significant differences in haematology and clinical chemistry parameters were found between controls and treated rats. Microscopic examination of 22 tissues did not reveal any pathology due to soybean sprouts intake. Long term administration of the test material did not cause oxidative damage to DNA and protein in the liver as evidenced by the unchanged basal levels of DNA damage as well as carbonyl groups content. Lipid peroxidation was slightly increased only in females. The activity of several antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was increased, which substantially enhanced the antioxidant status in the liver from the rats treated with soybean sprouts. Hence, the material tested can be recommended as a component of food supplements for individuals with iron deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26880214

  11. Is there a cost to resprouting? Seedling growth rate and drought tolerance in sprouting and nonsprouting Ceanothus (Rhamnaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwilk, D.W.; Ackerly, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Many woody plant species that depend upon fire-cued seed germination lack the ability to resprout. As the ability to resprout is widely assumed to be the ancestral condition in most plant groups, the failure to sprout is an evolutionary derived trait. Models for the evolutionary loss of sprouting assume a trade-off between seedling success and vegetative resprouting ability of adults. Such models require higher seedling success rates in nonsprouters than in sprouters. On the other hand, there seem to be few a priori reasons why a strong sprouter might not also have highly competitive post-fire seedlings. To test the hypothesis that nonsprouting plants have higher growth rates and/or drought survival, we grew seedlings of Ceanothus tomentosus from sprouting and nonsprouting populations in a common garden experiment. Each of these C. tomentosus populations was paired with a sympatric Ceanothus species that differed in resprouting ability. Sprouters exhibited greater allocation to root carbohydrate storage than did nonsprouters, but overall relative growth rates did not differ. Nonsprouters had earlier onset of flowering. These results provide mixed support for models of a sprouting/nonsprouting allocation trade-off.

  12. 2-D zymographic analysis of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) florets proteases: follow up of cysteine protease isotypes in the course of post-harvest senescence.

    PubMed

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Riccio, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    Zymographic analysis of Broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) revealed the presence of acidic metallo-proteases, serine proteases and cysteine proteases. Under conditions which were denaturing for the other proteases, the study was restricted to cysteine proteases. 2-D zymography, a technique that combines IEF and zymography was used to show the presence of 11 different cysteine protease spots with molecular mass of 44 and 47-48kDa and pIs ranging between 4.1 and 4.7. pI differences could be ascribed to different degrees of phosphorylation that partly disappeared in the presence of alkaline phosphatase. Post-harvest senescence of Broccoli florets was characterized by decrease in protein and chlorophyll contents and increase of protease activity. In particular, as determined by 2-D zymography, the presence of cysteine protease clearly increased during senescence, a finding that may represent a useful tool for the control of the aging process.

  13. Influence of day length and temperature on the content of health-related compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    PubMed

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Mølmann, Jørgen; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Johansen, Tor J

    2013-11-13

    Vegetables grown at different latitudes are exposed to various temperatures and day lengths, which can affect the content of health- and sensory-related compounds in broccoli florets. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted under controlled growth conditions, with contrasting temperatures (15/9 and 21/15 °C) and day lengths (12 and 24 h), to investigate the effect on glucosinolates, vitamin C, flavonols, and soluble sugars. Aliphatic glucosinolates, quercetin, and kaempferol were at their highest levels at high temperatures combined with a 12 h day. Levels of total glucosinolates, d-glucose, and d-fructose were elevated by high temperatures. Conversely, the content of vitamin C was highest with a 12 h day length combined with 15/9 °C. Our results indicate that temperature and day length influence the contents of health-related compounds in broccoli florets in a complex way, suggesting no general superiority of any of the contrasting growth conditions.

  14. A Comparative Study of Collagen Matrix Density Effect on Endothelial Sprout Formation Using Experimental and Computational Approaches.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Amir; Mohammadaliha, Negar; Heilshorn, Sarah C; Bauer, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    A thorough understanding of determining factors in angiogenesis is a necessary step to control the development of new blood vessels. Extracellular matrix density is known to have a significant influence on cellular behaviors and consequently can regulate vessel formation. The utilization of experimental platforms in combination with numerical models can be a powerful method to explore the mechanisms of new capillary sprout formation. In this study, using an integrative method, the interplay between the matrix density and angiogenesis was investigated. Owing the fact that the extracellular matrix density is a global parameter that can affect other parameters such as pore size, stiffness, cell-matrix adhesion and cross-linking, deeper understanding of the most important biomechanical or biochemical properties of the ECM causing changes in sprout morphogenesis is crucial. Here, we implemented both computational and experimental methods to analyze the mechanisms responsible for the influence of ECM density on the sprout formation that is difficult to be investigated comprehensively using each of these single methods. For this purpose, we first utilized an innovative approach to quantify the correspondence of the simulated collagen fibril density to the collagen density in the experimental part. Comparing the results of the experimental study and computational model led to some considerable achievements. First, we verified the results of the computational model using the experimental results. Then, we reported parameters such as the ratio of proliferating cells to migrating cells that was difficult to obtain from experimental study. Finally, this integrative system led to gain an understanding of the possible mechanisms responsible for the effect of ECM density on angiogenesis. The results showed that stable and long sprouts were observed at an intermediate collagen matrix density of 1.2 and 1.9 mg/ml due to a balance between the number of migrating and proliferating

  15. Optimization of germination time and heat treatments for enhanced availability of minerals from leguminous sprouts.

    PubMed

    Bains, Kiran; Uppal, Veny; Kaur, Harpreet

    2014-05-01

    Germinated legumes are highly nutritious food especially for their enhanced iron bioavailability primarily because of reduction of phytates and increase in ascorbic acid with an advancement of germination period. Length of germination time followed by different heat treatments affect the nutritive value of leguminous sprouts. To optimize germination time and heat treatments for enhanced availability of iron from leguminous sprouts, three legumes namely, mungbean, chickpea and cowpea were germinated for three time periods followed by cooking of sprouts by two cooking methods ie. pressure cooking and microwaving. Optimized germination time for mungbean was 12, 16 and 20 h; 36, 48 and 60 h for chickpea and 16, 20 and 24 h for cowpea. Germination process increased ascorbic acid significantly in all the three legumes, the values being 8.24 to 8.87 mg/100 g in mungbean, 9.34 to 9.85 mg/100 g in chickpea and 9.12 to 9.68 mg/100 g in cowpea. Soaking and germination significantly reduced the phytin phosphorus in all the three legumes, the percent reduction being 5.3 to 16.1% during soaking and 25.7 to 46.4% during germination. The reduction in phytin phosphorus after pressure cooking was 9.6% in mungbean, 18.4% in chickpea and 6.1% in cowpea. The corresponding values during microwaving were 8.4, 19.7 and 4.5%. Mineral bioavailability as predicted by phytate:iron enhanced significantly with an increase in germination time. Further reduction i.e. 0.9 to 16.3% was observed in three legumes after the two heat treatments. The study concluded that the longer germination periods ie. 20 h for mungbean, 60 h for chickpea and 24 h for cowpea followed by pressure cooking for optimized time were suitable in terms of better iron availability.

  16. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important, nutritionally rich vegetable crop, but severely affected by environmental stresses, pests and diseases which cause massive yield and quality losses. Genetic manipulation is becoming an important method for broccoli improvement. In the present study, a reproducible and highly efficient protocol for obtaining organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12 days old aseptically grown seedlings whereas leaf and petiole explants were excised from 18 to 20 days old green house grown seedlings and surface sterilized. These explants were cultured on shoot induction medium containing different concentration and combination of BAP and NAA. High efficiency shoot regeneration has been achieved in hypocotyl (83.33 %), cotyledon (90.11 %), leaf (62.96 %) and petiole (91.10 %) explants on MS medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA 2.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA, 4.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA and 4.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA respectively. Petiole explants showed maximum shoot regeneration response as compared to other explants. MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l NAA was found best for root regeneration (100 %) from in vitro developed shoots. The regenerated complete plantlets were transferred to the pots containing cocopeat and successfully acclimatized. This optimized regeneration protocol can be efficiently used for genetic transformation in broccoli. This is the first comparative report on multiple shoot induction using four different types of explants viz. hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole.

  17. Combined effect of aqueous chlorine dioxide and modified atmosphere packaging on inhibiting Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in mungbean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Jin, H-H; Lee, S-Y

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) combined with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on inhibiting total mesophilic microorganisms, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in mungbean sprouts during refrigerated storage. Mungbean sprouts were packaged using 4 different methods (air, vacuum, CO2 gas, and N2 gas) following treatment with water or 100 ppm ClO2 for 5 min and stored at 5 +/- 2 degrees C. The population of total mesophilic microorganisms in mungbean sprouts was about 8.4-log(10) CFU/g and this level was not significantly reduced by treatment with water or ClO2 (P > 0.05). However, when samples were packaged under vacuum, N2 gas, or CO2 gas following treatment with ClO2, the populations of total mesophilic microorganisms were significantly reduced during storage (P < 0.05). Levels of S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes in mungbean sprouts following inoculation were 4.6- and 5.6-log(10) CFU/g and treatment with water followed by different packaging conditions (air, vacuum, N2 gas, and CO2 gas) had no significant effect on population reduction (P > 0.05). However, treatment with ClO2 significantly reduced populations of S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.0- and 1.5-log CFU/g, respectively (P < 0.05), and these reduced cell levels were maintained or decreased in samples packaged under vacuum or in N2 or CO2 gas during storage. These results suggest that the combination of ClO2 treatment and MAP such as CO2 gas packaging may be useful for inhibiting microbial contamination and maintaining quality in mungbean sprouts during storage.

  18. The Preventive Effects of Nanopowdered Peanut Sprout-added Caciocavallo Cheese on Collagen-induced Arthritic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (NPCC) on the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in DBA/IJ mice immunized with type II collagen. After the induction of arthritis, the mice were being divided into five groups: (1) normal, no immunization; (2) CIA, collagen-induced arthritis; (3) MTX, collagen-induced arthritis treated with methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg body weight); (4) CC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d); (5) NPCC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d). Nanopowdered peanut sprout was ranged from 300 to 350 nm, while regular powdered peanut sprouts were ranged from 50 to 150 μm. The NPCC group had considerable reductions of clinical scores and paw thicknesses at the end of experiment as compared to the CIA group. In the serum analysis, the TNF-α, IL-1β, IL- 6 and IgG1 levels in the NPCC group have decreased by 69.4, 75.9, 66.6, and 61.9%, respectively, when compared to the CIA group. The histological score and spleen index of the NPCC group were significantly lower than the CIA group. In conclusion, the feeding NPCC method could delay and/or prevent the rheumatoid arthritis in the collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. Based on this study, nanopowdered peanut sprouts could be applied to various functional cheeses. PMID:26760745

  19. Degradation kinetics of peroxidase enzyme, phenolic content, and physical and sensorial characteristics in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) during blanching.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Elsa M; Pinheiro, Joaquina; Alegria, Carla; Abreu, Marta; Brandão, Teresa R S; Silva, Cristina L M

    2009-06-24

    The effects of water blanching treatment on peroxidase inactivation, total phenolic content, color parameters [-a*/b* and hue (h degrees*)], texture (maximum shear force), and sensory attributes (color and texture, evaluated by a trained panel) of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) were studied at five temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C). Experimental results showed that all studied broccoli quality parameters suffered significative changes due to blanching treatments. The vegetal total phenolic content showed a marked decline. Degradation on objective color and texture measurements and alterations in sensorial attributes were detected. Correlations between sensory and instrumental measurements have been found. Under the conditions 70 degrees C and 6.5 min or 90 degrees C and 0.4 min, 90% of the initial peroxidase activity was reduced. At these conditions, no significant alterations were detected by panelists, and a small amount of phenolic content was lost (ca. 16 and 10%, respectively). The peroxidase inactivation and phenolic content degradation were found to follow first-order reaction models. The zero-order reaction model showed a good fit to the broccoli color (-a*/b* and h degrees*), texture, and sensory parameters changes. The temperature effect was well-described by the Arrhenius law.

  20. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water dip and ethanol vapours treatment on keeping and sensory quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research work was to evaluate the effects of UV- irradiation, pulsed electric field (PEF), hot water dip (HWD) and ethanol vapours on the quality and storage life of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The sprouts were subjected to various treatments viz., UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h), PEF (10,000 V for 10s), HWD (50 °C for 2 min) and ethanol vapours (1 h); and then stored in thermocol cups wrapped with perforated cling films at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval for sprout length, sprout weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, non-enzymatic browning, total plate count and overall acceptability. Sprout length and weight increased during storage. There was no significant effect of various treatments on sprout length and weight, except in ethanol treatment, where suppression was observed. HWD showed higher TSS and acidity than that of control. The least browning was observed in ethanol treatment. The total plate count was not significantly affected by various treatments. Overall acceptability under various treatments decreased during storage period both at room and low temperature. Hot water and ethanol vapour treated sprouts showed higher acceptability than other treatments. However, the acceptability scores for sprouts remained within the acceptable range (≥6) up to 72 h at room temperature and 120 h at low temperature conditions. PMID:25328209