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Sample records for 7-day food diaries

  1. Identification of problem foods using food and symptom diaries.

    PubMed

    Kueper, T; Martinelli, D; Konetzki, W; Stamerjohn, R W; Magill, J B

    1995-03-01

    Food and symptom diaries were used to identify problem foods for each of 164 patients with chronic medical problems such as headache, fatigue, congestion, abdominal pain, and sinus problems. A statistical analysis related the total load of 90 biologic families, as well as caffeine, alcohol, and lactose, to changes in symptom intensity during a 2-week diary. The results helped 75% of the patients when used as a guide for elimination diets. Open challenges confirmed 47% of the identified food components. This study required a database and software to estimate recipe components for an average of 243 foods per patient. The analysis of each patient's diary produces a main report that lists suspect food components for each symptom. The report lists components in decreasing order of statistical confidence and gives lag times between food ingestion and symptom change. This report also shows that initial direction of the symptom change as a direct or masking effect. Foods that appear "safe" or unrelated to the symptoms are also listed. A second report lists the patient's food sources for each of the suspected food components. The report shows the percentage contribution of source foods and is useful for patient education and the design of elimination diets.

  2. The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): reliability and validity against doubly labeled water and 7-day activity diaries.

    PubMed

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Neilson, Heather K; Kopciuk, Karen A; Khandwala, Farah; Liu, Andrew; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Bryant, Heather E; Lau, David C W; Robson, Paula J

    2014-08-15

    We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009-2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ρs of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE.

  3. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 09 (PERIODS 1-4 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is divided into two parts: Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collects information on the child's activities at home over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into four time periods over the 48-hr monitoring inter...

  4. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 08 (PERIODS 1-5 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is divided into two parts: Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collects information on the child's activities at home over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into five time periods over the 48-hr monitoring inter...

  5. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 09 (PERIODS 1-4 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collected information on the child’s activities at home over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into four time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The F...

  6. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 08 (PERIODS 1-5 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collected information on the child’s activities at home over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into five time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The F...

  7. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 09 (PERIODS 1-4 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the Child Activity Diary and Food Survey for CTEPP-OH. The Child Activity Diary collected information on the child’s activities at home over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into four time periods over the 48-h monitoring in...

  8. Effects of 7-day continuous d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys*

    PubMed Central

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L.; Banks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice.In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined. Methods Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32 mg/kg/h). Results During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1 mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys. Conclusions The present subchronic treatment resultssupport the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice. PMID:26361713

  9. Dietary patterns derived with multiple methods from food diaries and breast cancer risk in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pot, Gerda K; Stephen, Alison M; Dahm, Christina C; Key, Timothy J; Cairns, Benjamin J; Burley, Victoria J; Cade, Janet E; Greenwood, Darren C; Keogh, Ruth H; Bhaniani, Amit; McTaggart, Alison; Lentjes, Marleen AH; Mishra, Gita; Brunner, Eric J; Khaw, Kay Tee

    2015-01-01

    Background/ Objectives In spite of several studies relating dietary patterns to breast cancer risk, evidence so far remains inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate associations of dietary patterns derived with three different methods with breast cancer risk. Subjects/ Methods The Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), principal components analyses (PCA) and reduced rank regression (RRR) were used to derive dietary patterns in a case-control study of 610 breast cancer cases and 1891 matched controls within 4 UK cohort studies. Dietary intakes were collected prospectively using 4-to 7-day food diaries and resulting food consumption data were grouped into 42 food groups. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations between pattern scores and breast cancer risk adjusting for relevant covariates. A separate model was fitted for post-menopausal women only. Results The MDS was not associated with breast cancer risk (OR comparing 1st tertile with 3rd 1.20 (95% CI 0.92; 1.56)), nor the first PCA-derived dietary pattern, explaining 2.7% of variation of diet and characterized by cheese, crisps and savoury snacks, legumes, nuts and seeds (OR 1.18 (95% CI 0.91; 1.53)). The first RRR-derived pattern, a ‘high-alcohol’ pattern, was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.00; 1.62), which was most pronounced in post-menopausal women (OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.08; 1.98). Conclusions A ‘high-alcohol’ dietary pattern derived with RRR was associated with an increased breast cancer risk; no evidence of associations of other dietary patterns with breast cancer risk was observed in this study. PMID:25052230

  10. Eating patterns in French subjects studied by the "weekly food diary" method.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F; Dalix, A; de Castro, J M

    1999-02-01

    The "weekly food diary" was translated and adapted for use by French subjects. This validated method requires subjects to record every food and drink intake over 1 week, with several descriptors of the physical, psychological and social circumstances. Ten male [age 23. 6+/-2.3 years, body mass index (BMI) 20.7+/-0.6] and 16 female (age 23.3+/-0.6 years, BMI 20+/-0.6) students completed four weekly diaries over 1 year, one per season. Data were processed using a specially designed software. Breakfast was important, (about 400 kcalories). Lunch and dinner were almost equal in energy content but alcohol was consumed mainly with dinner. Meal size correlated positively with premeal hunger, number of people present, duration of premeal interval and time of day. Postmeal satiety correlated positively with meal size, aftermeal stomach content, and negatively with time of day, postmeal hunger and duration of sleep the preceding night. These observations allow hypotheses to be developed about mechanisms of intake in a French population and cross-cultural comparisons to be made.

  11. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form collects information on the child's activities at the day care center over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into three time periods over the 48-monitoring interval. The Food Survey collects information on the frequency and types of frui...

  12. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of fruits, veget...

  13. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of ...

  14. Pepy's diary: The astronomy in Pepys' Diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David

    2000-08-01

    Samuel Pepys' Diary of the 1660s is a rich record of the science of the time. Pepys was a Fellow of the Royal Society and met or corresponded with many leading scientists and astronomers as David Wright explains.

  15. Optimal bladder diary duration for patients with suprapontine neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidis, Charalampos; Kratiras, Zisis; Samarinas, Michael; Skriapas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the minimum bladder diary's length required to furnish reliable documentation of LUTS in a specific cohort of patients suffering from neurogenic urinary dysfunction secondary to suprapontine pathology. Materials and Methods: From January 2008 to January 2014, patients suffering from suprapontine pathology and LUTS were requested to prospectively complete a bladder diary form for 7 consecutive days. Micturitions per day, excreta per micturition, urgency and incontinence episodes and voided volume per day were evaluated from the completed diaries. We compared the averaged records of consecutive days (2-6 days) to the total 7 days records for each patient's diary, seeking the minimum diary's length that could provide records comparable to the 7 days average, the reference point in terms of reliability. Results: From 285 subjects, 94 male and 69 female patients enrolled in the study. The records of day 1 were significantly different from the average of the 7 days records in every parameter, showing relatively small correlation and providing insufficient documentation. Correlations gradually increased along the increase in diary's duration. According to our results a 3-day duration bladder diary is efficient and can provide results comparable to a 7 day length for four of our evaluated parameters. Regarding incontinence episodes, 3 days seems inadequate to furnish comparable results, showing a borderline difference. Conclusions: A 3-day diary can be used, as its reliability is efficient regarding number of micturition per day, excreta per micturition, episodes of urgency and voided volume per day. PMID:27564288

  16. The Reagan Diaries Reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Fins, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Using critical methods drawn from clinical ethics and the humanities, the author considers the posthumously published The Reagan Diaries and suggests that they show evidence of an incipient dementia. In the wake of Berisha et al.'s analysis of presidential press conferences during the Reagan presidency, published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, that were suggestive of cognitive impairment, this reading of the president's diaries merit additional scrutiny. Diary entries from Reagan's second term differ from the first years of his presidency. They demonstrate less text, more laconic analysis, word finding difficulties, evidence of spatial confusion and suggestions of disinhibition, all possibly early signs of cognitive impoverishment during the same period when the transcripts of his second term press conferences showed evidence suggestive of incipient Alzheimer's Disease. While a definitive analysis of the president's diaries can not be performed on the abridged published text, edited by the historian Douglas Brinkley, these findings are suggestive and warrant additional scrutiny. By melding quantitative approaches analyzing language use from Reagan's presidential press conferences with methods from clinical ethics and literary criticism, future scholars can gain a fuller understanding of the president's health while he was in office. PMID:26401928

  17. Web life: Cosmic Diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    What is it? Cosmic Diary brings together a smorgasbord of blogging astronomers from around the world, with more than 50 contributors commenting on new discoveries and long-standing questions in astronomy - as well as offering insights into their ordinary working lives and outside interests. The site is sponsored by the International Astronomical Union and UNESCO, and it is one of 11 "cornerstone projects" of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009).

  18. Contribution of snacks and meals in the diet of French adults: a diet-diary study.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F; Dalix, A M; Mennen, L; Galan, P; Hercberg, S; de Castro, J M; Gausseres, N

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the relative contributions of meals and snacks in the daily intake of free-living humans, 54 French adults maintained food intake diaries for four 7-day periods. They recorded all food and fluid intakes mentioning whether, in their opinion, each intake event was a snack or a meal. The weekly food diaries also contained information on the circumstances of each event such as time and place, number of persons present, and affective states (hunger, satiety, etc.) before and after intake. On average, 2.7 meals and 1.3 snacks were consumed each day. Very few days included no snacking. Total daily energy and nutrient intake were not different between days with and days without snacks. Snacks differed from meals in several dimensions. Meals were about twice as large as snacks in energy and weight. Nutrient intake, in absolute values, was higher in meals. In proportions, however, snacks contained more CHO and less fat and proteins. Most foods were consumed in larger amounts in the context of meals but a few (sweets, cereal bars, biscuits, and sodas) were mostly consumed as snacks. Hunger was more intense before but less intense after meals than snacks. The satiety ratio was higher for snacks than meals. Time of day affected many intake parameters. For example, afternoon snacks exhibited a high satiety ratio for a modest intake. The present study describes the status of several potential determining factors at the time of snacks in humans, demonstrating a specific role for snacks, as opposed to meals, in the daily eating pattern of healthy adults. PMID:12834789

  19. Dietary Digital Diaries: Documenting Adolescents’ Obesogenic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Baker, Christina M.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesogenic built environments may contribute to excessive eating and obesity. Twenty-three 12- to 17-year-old low-income African American adolescents created digital diaries by photographing their lunchtime food environment in a summer academic program. Digitally depicted foods were classified as appearing on the platescape (student’s or others’ plate) or the tablescape (food buffet). Height, weight, BMI percentile, and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated at baseline and week 4. Adolescents digitally depicted high caloric, high fat foods on the platescape and tablescape, particularly adolescents with a higher waist-to-hip ratio. Weight gain during the 4-week program was significantly predicted by the number of calories and the amount of fat content depicted on the student’s plates. Digital diaries, then, can document adolescents’ perspectives of their food environments that promote their overconsumption of high caloric and high fat foods that contribute to weight gain and put them at risk for obesity. PMID:23180882

  20. Absolutism in diaries of suicides.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2006-08-01

    Two diaries, one from a completed suicide and one from an attempted suicide, were examined for the use of three words indicating absolutist thinking (perfect, always, and never). The diary of the attempted suicide had a significantly higher frequency use of "never" (2.75 per 1,000 words versus 1.73) but not the other words.

  1. Absolutism in diaries of suicides.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2006-08-01

    Two diaries, one from a completed suicide and one from an attempted suicide, were examined for the use of three words indicating absolutist thinking (perfect, always, and never). The diary of the attempted suicide had a significantly higher frequency use of "never" (2.75 per 1,000 words versus 1.73) but not the other words. PMID:17037484

  2. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  3. Toward Mapping Daily Challenges of Living with ADHD: Maternal and Child Perspectives Using Electronic Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; Henker, Barbara; Jamner, Larry D.; Ishikawa, Sharon S.; Floro, Joshua N.; Swindle, Ralph; Perwien, Amy R.; Johnston, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has an impact on the family as well as the affected child. This study developed and tested an electronic diary for mapping the challenges of everyday family life in a sample of children with ADHD being treated with pharmacotherapy. Across 7 days, mothers and children (27 ADHD; 25 non-ADHD)…

  4. An Electronic Diary Study of Contextual Triggers and ADHD: Get Ready, Get Set, Get Mad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; Henker, Barbara; Ishikawa, Sharon S.; Jamner, Larry D.; Floro, Joshua N.; Johnston, Joseph A.; Swindle, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine context effects or provocation ecologies in the daily lives of children with ADHD. Method: Across 7 days, mothers and children (27 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] taking stimulant medication; 25 children without ADHD; ages 7-12 years) provided electronic diary reports…

  5. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Reynolds CF, 3. d.; Kupfer, D. J.; Buysse, D. J.; Coble, P. A.; Hayes, A. J.; Machen, M. A.; Petrie, S. R.; Ritenour, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, there is a need in both research and clinical practice to document and quantify sleep and waking behaviors in a comprehensive manner. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD) is an instrument with separate components to be completed at bedtime and waketime. Bedtime components relate to the events of the day preceding the sleep, waketime components to the sleep period just completed. Two-week PghSD data is presented from 234 different subjects, comprising 96 healthy young middle-aged controls, 37 older men, 44 older women, 29 young adult controls and 28 sleep disorders patients in order to demonstrate the usefulness, validity and reliability of various measures from the instrument. Comparisons are made with polysomnographic and actigraphic sleep measures, as well as personality and circadian type questionnaires. The instrument was shown to have sensitivity in detecting differences due to weekends, age, gender, personality and circadian type, and validity in agreeing with actigraphic estimates of sleep timing and quality. Over a 12-31 month delay, PghSD measures of both sleep timing and sleep quality showed correlations between 0.56 and 0.81 (n = 39, P < 0.001).

  6. The Child Diary as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamsa, Tiina; Ronka, Anna; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Malinen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce the use of the child diary as a method in daily diary research. By describing the research process and detailing its structure, a child diary, a structured booklet in which children's parents and day-care personnel (N = 54 children) reported their observations, was evaluated. The participants reported the…

  7. Self-Censorship in Course Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Timothy; Brooks, Peggy

    2004-01-01

    Ample evidence supports the notion that keeping a course-related diary improves students' writing, knowledge of material, and awareness of psychological processes. Scant evidence supports the authenticity and completeness of diary entries. A questionnaire was developed to assess students' perceptions of self-censorship and pedagogical value of…

  8. Effect of Administration of Moxifloxacin plus Rifampin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis for 7 of 7 Days versus 5 of 7 Days in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic System

    PubMed Central

    Drusano, G. L.; Sgambati, N.; Eichas, A.; Brown, D.; Kulawy, R.; Louie, A.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some trials administered antituberculosis agents for 5 of 7 days (5/7-day regimen) to optimize adherence. Since moxifloxacin has a longer half-life than rifampin, rifampin concentrations are <1% of the maximum concentration in serum (Cmax) on day 6 and nondetectable on day 7, while concentrations of moxifloxacin remain and are able to induce error-prone replication. We determined if functional moxifloxacin monotherapy for 24 h/week caused resistance. In in vitro pharmacodynamic experiments, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was treated with mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) exposures for moxifloxacin and rifampin of 400 and 600 mg/kg/day and exposures equal to 1 standard deviation (SD) above and below the mean values. The drugs were administered on schedules of 7/7 days and 5/7 days. Over the 28-day experiments, bacteria were plated onto antibiotic-free agar to determine the effects of exposure and schedule on the total population. MICs were checked for emergence of resistance. At days 7 and 14, there was a 0.56- to 1.22-log10-CFU/ml greater cell kill with the 7/7-day regimen versus the 5/7-day regimen (low exposure). This difference was not seen for the larger exposures at day 21. At day 23, the low-exposure 5/7-day arm had breakthrough resistance, with the total count increasing to >2 log10 CFU/ml above the low-exposure 7/7-day arm. Pharmacokinetic mismatching of drugs in the therapy of tuberculosis may result in emergence of resistance when a drug holiday is imposed during which there is functional monotherapy and where the remaining agent induces error-prone replication. This is particularly true for the portion of the population where the clearance is higher (1 SD above the mean). PMID:21750119

  9. ClickDiary: Online Tracking of Health Behaviors and Mood

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Yen, Tso-Jung; Fu, Yang-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional studies of health behaviors are typically conducted using one-shot, cross-sectional surveys. Thus, participants’ recall bias may undermine the reliability and validity of the data. To capture mood changes and health behaviors in everyday life, we designed an online survey platform, ClickDiary, which helped collect more complete information for comprehensive data analyses. Objective We aim to understand whether daily mood changes are related to one’s personal characteristics, demographic factors, and daily health behaviors. Methods The ClickDiary program uses a Web-based platform to collect data on participants’ health behaviors and their social-contact networks. The name ClickDiary comes from the platform’s interface, which is designed to allow the users to respond to most of the survey questions simply by clicking on the options provided. Participants were recruited from the general population and came from various backgrounds. To keep the participants motivated and interested, the ClickDiary program included a random drawing for rewards. We used descriptive statistics and the multilevel proportional-odds mixed model for our analysis. Results We selected 130 participants who had completed at least 30 days of ClickDiary entries from May 1 to October 31, 2014 as our sample for the study. According to the results of the multilevel proportional-odds mixed model, a person tended to be in a better mood on a given day if he or she ate more fruits and vegetables, took in more sugary drinks, ate more fried foods, showed no cold symptoms, slept better, exercised longer, and traveled farther away from home. In addition, participants were generally in a better mood during the weekend than on weekdays. Conclusions Sleeping well, eating more fruits and vegetables, and exercising longer each day all appear to put one in a better mood. With the online ClickDiary survey, which reduces the recall biases that are common in traditional one-shot surveys

  10. Astronauts and cosmonauts sign Gagarin's diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In keeping with Russian tradition, astronaut Norman E. Thagard (left), guest researcher, signs the diary of the late Yuriy A. Gagarin, the first Russian cosmonaut, as his Mir 18 crew mates members look on. Cosmonauts Vladimir Dezhurov (center), misson com

  11. Diary of a parliamentary intern.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Hannah

    2014-12-01

    Hannah Jordan, parliamentary intern to Lord Trees, learns that, if it turned out the UK were no longer able to import food, she wouldn't starve in the short term, so long as she could cope without avocados.

  12. The Two Authors of Columbus' Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that computer analysis makes it possible to assess the intervention of a second "author" in Christopher Columbus's famous "Diary." Concludes that computer analysis makes it possible to examine Columbus's verbatim testimony and identify ways that Bartoleme de Las Casas intervened. (CFR)

  13. Diary of a Railroad Construction Engineer, 1868

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article features original text passages from the primary source, "Diary of Judge A. N. Ferguson engaged as Civil Engineer with a U.P.R.R. [Union Pacific Rail Road] Surveying Party April 25, 1868 to May 10, 1869." Creative ideas for discussion are provided about topics such as weather, and the dangers the survey team endured as they completed…

  14. Astronauts and cosmonauts sign Gagarin's diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In keeping with Russian tradition, astronaut Norman E. Thagard (seated, left), guest researcher, watches as Vladimir N. Dezhurov (seated, center), signs the diary of the late Yuriy A. Gagarin, the first Russian cosmonaut, as his Mir 18 crew mates and the

  15. Astronauts and cosmonauts sign Gagarin's diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In keeping with Russian tradition, astronaut Bonnie J. Dunbar (left), STS-71 mission specialist, signs the diary of the late Yuriy A. Gagarin, the first Russian cosmonaut, as her STS-71 crew mates members look on. Cosmonauts Anatoliy Y. Solovyov (center),

  16. College Student Self-Care Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerrold S.; Dintiman, George B.

    The purpose of this docoment is to help college students maintain health by keeping a weekly diary of health related behaviors including diet, exercise, and stress levels. In addition each weekly entry presents a self-care tip for health improvement. Discussions of the college student and health, health and lifestyle, instructions on use of the…

  17. "Dear Diary" Revisited: Reflecting on Collaborative Journaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Catrina A.; Ricker, Britta; Christensen, Julia; Heller, Elizabeth; Kagan, Emily; Osano, Philip M.; Long, Lindsay; Turner, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The genesis of this article was a request from the "Journal of Geography in Higher Education" to provide a reflection piece about our article 'Dear Diary: Early Career Geographers Collectively Reflect on their Qualitative Field Research Experiences' (2011) that won the journal's biennial award for 2009-2011. This request…

  18. Adolescent Girls’ Most Common Source of Junk Food Away from Home: Someone Else’s House

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Dastidar, Bonnie Ghosh; Beckman, Robin; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John; Pereira, Mark A.; Mortenson, Sara Veblen; Pickrel, Julie; Conway, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Contextual factors associated with adolescent girls’ dietary behaviors could inform future interventions to improve diet. High school girls completed a 7-day diary, recording all trips made. In places other than home or school they recorded the food eaten. Girls made an average of 11.4 trips per week other than home or school. Snacks high in solid oils, fats and added sugars (SOFAS) were frequently consumed. Girls reported eating an average of 3.5 servings per week of snacks high in SOFAS at someone else’s house compared to 3.0 servings per week at retail food outlets. Findings demonstrate that low nutrient foods are ubiquitous and efforts should be made to reduce their availability in multiple settings. PMID:22818589

  19. Freedom and authority in the Clinical Diary.

    PubMed

    Erős, Ferenc

    2014-12-01

    The paper discusses some philosophical, ethical and political-philosophical implications of Ferenczi's Clinical Diary, with special regard to the concepts of freedom and authority. These topics are already present in Ferenczi's early writings that explicitly deal with social and political issues, the central concept of which is "individual socialism". The paper also discusses (and publishes in Appendix) two short manuscripts by Ferenczi, written probably in 1920, which attempts to parallel psychoanalysis with Marxism, and with liberal socialism, respectively. It is shown that in 1932, the last year of his life, Ferenczi avoids using political and ideological concepts directly in his Diary, but, in the spirit of his earlier writings, he proposes a balance between "ruthless capitalism and fanciful egalitarianism". Finally, the significance of Utopia in Ferenczi's thinking is discussed. PMID:25434890

  20. Decoding Ferenczi's clinical diary: biographical notes.

    PubMed

    Brennan, B William

    2015-03-01

    In the Clinical Diary of Sándor Ferenczi, certain codes and abbreviations are used to refer to the eight patients Ferenczi was treating in 1932. The identities of two patients are known to us. Notably, Dm. (Clara Thompson), and R.N. (Elizabeth Severn), but the others have remained a mystery. This paper uncovers the identities of the other patients in the Diary, and, for the first time, reveals their identities and life stories. Biographical notes on these patients are provided to expand and contextualize our understanding of their lives-Who were they? What kind of families did they come from? And what happened to them after their analyses? The process of uncovering their identities and the ethics of writing about historical patients will also be addressed. PMID:25720778

  1. Freedom and authority in the Clinical Diary.

    PubMed

    Erős, Ferenc

    2014-12-01

    The paper discusses some philosophical, ethical and political-philosophical implications of Ferenczi's Clinical Diary, with special regard to the concepts of freedom and authority. These topics are already present in Ferenczi's early writings that explicitly deal with social and political issues, the central concept of which is "individual socialism". The paper also discusses (and publishes in Appendix) two short manuscripts by Ferenczi, written probably in 1920, which attempts to parallel psychoanalysis with Marxism, and with liberal socialism, respectively. It is shown that in 1932, the last year of his life, Ferenczi avoids using political and ideological concepts directly in his Diary, but, in the spirit of his earlier writings, he proposes a balance between "ruthless capitalism and fanciful egalitarianism". Finally, the significance of Utopia in Ferenczi's thinking is discussed.

  2. A diary after dinner: How the time of event recording influences later accessibility of diary events.

    PubMed

    Szőllősi, Ágnes; Keresztes, Attila; Conway, Martin A; Racsmány, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    Recording the events of a day in a diary may help improve their later accessibility. An interesting question is whether improvements in long-term accessibility will be greater if the diary is completed at the end of the day, or after a period of sleep, the following morning. We investigated this question using an internet-based diary method. On each of five days, participants (n = 109) recorded autobiographical memories for that day or for the previous day. Recording took place either in the morning or in the evening. Following a 30-day retention interval, the diary events were free recalled. We found that participants who recorded their memories in the evening before sleep had best memory performance. These results suggest that the time of reactivation and recording of recent autobiographical events has a significant effect on the later accessibility of those diary events. We discuss our results in the light of related findings that show a beneficial effect of reduced interference during sleep on memory consolidation and reconsolidation. PMID:26088958

  3. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  4. [Validity of graphic headache diary for children having primary headaches].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Mitsue; Fujiwara, Junko

    2011-11-01

    We investigated whether the graphic headache diary is useful for diagnosing headache types in children, especially suffering from chronic daily headaches. Our study involved 109 children who completed the diaries for more than 3 weeks. The headache diary was a modified version of that used in the study by Sakai et al. Of 109, 84 had migraine, 15 had tension-type headache and 10 had both tension-type headache and migraine from the questionnaire and the first interview. The diary disclosed that 20 children, initially diagnosed as having migraine, had co-existing chronic tension-type headache with a variety of psychosocial problems. The graphic headache diary seems to be helpful for headache diagnosis and awareness of stress in children who suffered from strong and persistent headaches. Our study suggested that the graphic headache diary is useful not only for diagnosing headache types in children but also for finding out problems in school and/or family.

  5. Delayed profound thrombocytopenia presenting 7 days after use of abciximab (ReoPro).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjiv; Bhambi, Brijesh; Nyitray, William; Sharma, Geetanjali; Shambaugh, Shawn; Antonescu, Adrian; Shukla, Pankaj; Denny, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    A case of a 65-year-old woman presenting with delayed profound thrombocytopenia 7 days after the use of abciximab (ReoPro) in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention is described. The patient had normal platelet counts for the first 24 hours after the use of abciximab (ReoPro). She presented with petechiae and profound thrombocytopenia 1 week later. The patient was treated successfully with a platelet transfusion and recovered uneventfully. Profound thrombocytopenia occurs acutely within the first few hours after abciximab (ReoPro) use, so this case was unique in that the profound thrombocytopenia presented 1 week after use of abciximab (ReoPro).

  6. Eccentric and concentric muscle performance following 7 days of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.; Roper, Mary L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Mcbrine, John J.; Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle strength occur in response to chronic disuse or insufficient functional loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle performance of the lower extremity and torso prior to and immediately after 7 days of simulated weightlessness (horizontal bed rest). A Biodex was used to determine concentric and eccentric peak torque and angle at peak torque for the back, abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring, soleus, and tibialis anterior. A reference angle of 0 degrees was set at full extension. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

  7. Piloting the time diary method among Honduran immigrants: gendered time use.

    PubMed

    Anastario, Michael; Schmalzbauer, Leah

    2008-10-01

    By studying time allocation, a factor implicitly linked to health by structuring individuals' physical exercise, leisure, sleep, and access to care, we can better understand behavioral mechanisms to improve health in minority populations. We piloted the time diary method in a Honduran immigrant community to assess time spent in personal and interpersonal responsibilities, and we examined how these patterns varied by gender. In the context of participatory ethnography, 34 urban Honduran immigrants were recruited and followed over 7 days. Respondents reported activities by 30-min periods for seven 24-h days. Observed respondent-level reliability exceeded 0.7 for time spent in commuting, care work, family responsibility, and individual leisure, showing better results than 3- or 10-day tracking schemes. Gender differences in time allocation patterns were also observed. We argue that understanding time use patterns will elucidate gendered disparities in health outcomes associated with physical mobility, and in access to health care.

  8. Adaptation and readaptation to different shift work schedules measured with sleep diary and actigraphy.

    PubMed

    Saksvik, Ingvild Berg; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Harvey, Allison G; Waage, Siri; Harris, Anette; Pallesen, Ståle

    2011-07-01

    In this study we examine sleep during adaptation and readaptation to different shift work schedules in the offshore oil industry. The sleep of 19 offshore workers was assessed daily for 1 week before, during the work period, and for 1 week after 3 different work schedules: (1) day (14 consecutive days of work), (2) night (14 consecutive nights of work), and (3) swing shift work (first 7 nights with night work then 7 days of day work). The workers' sleep was assessed for 84 days. Actigraphy and sleep diary estimates of sleep was applied assessing: (1) adaptation to offshore shift work, (2) sleep across the 2 offshore work weeks, and (3) readaptation after the work period. Regarding adaptation, sleep efficiency was higher when working day than night and swing shift the first week of work. Sleep quality was better during swing than regular day/night shifts the first week of work. Total sleep time was longer during day and night shift than swing shift across the 2 work weeks. Sleep efficiency, based on sleep diaries, was higher during day than night and swing shift during the 2 work weeks. There were no significant differences between the shifts in readaptation in terms of sleep. To conclude, adaptation to swing shift was more difficult than adaptation to regular day and night shifts in terms of sleep. Readaptation to day work after 1 week of night work affected sleep negatively. There were no differences between the shift schedules the week after the work period. PMID:21728439

  9. Using Diaries to Assess Nonprescription Drug Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acocella, Cecilia M.

    2005-01-01

    Nonprescription drug use among university students was investigated using survey and behavioral diary methodologies to assess usage of nonprescription drug use and to compare survey and diary methodologies. Surveys were completed by 183 students (136 females and 47 males) that asked how often they used nonprescription drugs and what those drugs…

  10. A Phenomenographic Analysis of Student Reflections in Online Learning Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsloo, Paul; Slade, Sharon; Galpin, Fenella

    2011-01-01

    There are many studies regarding the benefit of incorporating learning diaries into learning experiences in higher education, though very little research documenting what students record when those diaries are unstructured. There are also several arguments and counter-arguments for providing students with structure in their completion of learning…

  11. The use of diaries in psychological recovery from intensive care.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Leanne M; Rattray, Janice; Hull, Alastair; Kenardy, Justin A; Le Brocque, Robyne; Ullman, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    Intensive care patients frequently experience memory loss, nightmares, and delusional memories and some may develop symptoms of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress. The use of diaries is emerging as a putative tool to 'fill the memory gaps' and promote psychological recovery. In this review, we critically analyze the available literature regarding the use and impact of diaries for intensive care patients specifically to examine the impact of diaries on intensive care patients' recovery. Diversity of practice in regard to the structure, content, and process elements of diaries for intensive care patients exists and emphasizes the lack of an underpinning psychological conceptualization. The use of diaries as an intervention to aid psychological recovery in intensive care patients has been examined in 11 studies, including two randomized controlled trials. Inconsistencies exist in sample characteristics, study outcomes, study methods, and the diary intervention itself, limiting the amount of comparison that is possible between studies. Measurement of the impact of the diary intervention on patient outcomes has been limited in both scope and time frame. Furthermore, an underpinning conceptualization or rationale for diaries as an intervention has not been articulated or tested. Given these significant limitations, although findings tend to be positive, implementation as routine clinical practice should not occur until a body of evidence is developed to inform methodological considerations and confirm proposed benefits. PMID:24351578

  12. Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances

    MedlinePlus

    ... eat some amount of fructose without problems. By keeping a food diary, you can determine how much fructose is too much for you. Limit intake of: Fruit, fruit juices and dried fruit. Honey. Sodas and ...

  13. A protocol for conducting 7-day daily renewal tests with Lemna gibba.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Solomon, Keith R

    2007-01-01

    Lemna gibba (a duckweed) is a freshwater macrophyte commonly used in toxicity testing, and Lemna spp are currently the only aquatic higher plants required for evaluation of pesticides under the pesticide registration guidelines of the EPA. The methods currently available for toxicity testing by various organizations and agencies, including ASTM, OECD, EPA and Environment Canada, are largely static or semistatic tests with unspecified renewal intervals (OECD) and may not provide a consistent means of exposure owing to short toxicant half-life in aquatic media, uptake of chemical by plants and evaporation of nutrient media. The procedure outlined here details a simple and efficient 7-day daily static renewal procedure for conducting toxicity tests with L. gibba, the appropriate end points to assess, the statistical criteria necessary for analyzing the toxicity data, as well as the steps required to culture and maintain L. gibba. This protocol is based on a modified version of a widely accepted static method. PMID:17446897

  14. Monocular blindness developing 7 days after repair of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture. A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Buckley, S B; McAnear, J T; Dolwick, M F; Aragon, S B

    1985-07-01

    Blindness following zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fracture and surgical repair is an unfortunate and uncommon complication. A review of the literature reveals fewer than 25 cases of monocular blindness resulting from zygomaticomaxillary fracture or repair. The case presented here is that of a man who was assaulted with a baseball bat and suffered a mildly displaced ZMC fracture. On admission, the patient had light perception only in his left eye. During his convalescence, vision in his left eye gradually improved to the point of allowing him to read a newspaper without difficulty. Then, 9 days after the injury (7 days after surgical repair), the patient awoke with complete blindness of the left eye. The possible mechanisms for such loss of vision are discussed.

  15. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Lei, Meiying; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Chuang; Duan, Jiaobo; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT), during a bed rest period (HDT0), and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1-HDT7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment. PMID:26029071

  16. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yang; Lei, Meiying; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Chuang; Duan, Jiaobo; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT), during a bed rest period (HDT0), and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment. PMID:26029071

  17. Effects of a 7-day military training exercise on inflammatory biomarkers, serum hepcidin, and iron status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepcidin, a peptide that is released into the blood in response to inflammation, prevents cellular iron export and results in declines in iron status. Elevated serum and urinary levels of hepcidin have been observed in athletes following exercise, and declines in iron status have been reported following prolonged periods of training. The objective of this observational study was to characterize the effects of an occupational task, military training, on iron status, inflammation, and serum hepcidin. Findings Volunteers (n = 21 males) included Norwegian Soldiers participating in a 7-day winter training exercise that culminated in a 3-day, 54 km ski march. Fasted blood samples were collected at baseline, on day 4 (PRE, prior to the ski march), and again on day 7 (POST, following the ski march). Samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and serum hepcidin. Military training affected inflammation and serum hepcidin levels, as IL-6 and hepcidin concentrations increased (P < 0.05) from the baseline to POST (mean ± SD, 9.1 ± 4.9 vs. 14.5 ± 8.4 pg/mL and 6.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.2 ± 6.9 ng/mL, respectively). Iron status was not affected by the training exercise, as sTfR levels did not change over the course of the 7-day study. Conclusions Military training resulted in significant elevations in IL-6 and serum hepcidin. Future studies should strive to identify the role of hepcidin in the adaptive response to exercise, as well as countermeasures for the prevention of chronic or repeated elevations in serum hepcidin due to exercise or sustained occupational tasks which may result in longer term decrements in iron status. PMID:24188143

  18. Klein, Ferenczi and the clinical diary.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Halton, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is to revisit Ferenczi's Clinical Diary (1932) to investigate the influence he had on Melanie Klein's work. It starts from the position that insufficient recognition has been given to Ferenczi's contribution to Klein's body of work and her professional development. Her analysis with Ferenczi lasted 5 years, a relatively long analysis for the period. It explores his influence in three specific areas: the importance of raw and early emotion in the maternal bond, the importance of freedom and authenticity in the analytic relationship, and finally the use of transference and countertransference feelings. Ferenczi's ill-fated experiment with mutual analysis will be discussed as it opened up a route to explore the analytic relationship, with important consequences for the future development of psychoanalysis.

  19. Klein, Ferenczi and the clinical diary.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Halton, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is to revisit Ferenczi's Clinical Diary (1932) to investigate the influence he had on Melanie Klein's work. It starts from the position that insufficient recognition has been given to Ferenczi's contribution to Klein's body of work and her professional development. Her analysis with Ferenczi lasted 5 years, a relatively long analysis for the period. It explores his influence in three specific areas: the importance of raw and early emotion in the maternal bond, the importance of freedom and authenticity in the analytic relationship, and finally the use of transference and countertransference feelings. Ferenczi's ill-fated experiment with mutual analysis will be discussed as it opened up a route to explore the analytic relationship, with important consequences for the future development of psychoanalysis. PMID:25720785

  20. Experiential avoidance and well-being: a daily diary analysis.

    PubMed

    Machell, Kyla A; Goodman, Fallon R; Kashdan, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is a regulatory strategy characterised by efforts to control or avoid unpleasant thoughts, feelings and bodily sensations. Most studies of EA have used trait measures without considering the effects of EA on psychological functioning in naturalistic settings. To address this gap, we used daily diary methodology to examine the influence of EA of anxiety on everyday well-being. For two weeks, 89 participants provided daily reports of EA, positive and negative affect, enjoyment of daily events and meaning in life (MIL). Daily EA predicted higher negative affect, lower positive affect, less enjoyment of daily events (exercising, eating food and listening to music) and less MIL. The effect of EA on positive affect was not accounted for by the amount of negative affect experienced. Our daily measure of EA was a stronger predictor of daily well-being than a traditional trait measure (The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire). Taken together, results offer insights into the adverse effects of EA on daily well-being and suggest that EA is a context-specific regulatory strategy that might be best captured using a state-dependent measure. PMID:24800802

  1. The development of a 7-day community specialist palliative care service.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    The author worked as a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in community palliative care in the Central Lancashire area of England when the CNS service was extended to a 9am-to-5pm 7-day service. A project group was set up to canvas some of the key stakeholders for their views on the extension of the service. The group undertook a literature search, a telephone survey of services in other areas that were providing this level of service, and interviews to ascertain the views of district nurses in the locality of the proposed service extension. The extension of service has long been advocated and was one of the key recommendations in the UK Department of Health's peer-review process. Such an extension was implemented following the research phase and was then evaluated by the project lead and the community services manager. The extension was found to be effective in the ongoing monitoring and support of patients. Anecdotally, the CNS team also felt it had been proactive in preventing unnecessary hospital admissions, although this specific aspect is difficult to quantify. This article looks at how the service was developed, how it has evolved over time, and how it works today. Consideration is also given to benefits and limitations. PMID:24356506

  2. Applications of a 7-day Caco-2 cell model in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Yadava, Preeti; Heikkinen, Aki T; Parrott, Neil; Railkar, Aruna

    2014-06-01

    Oral delivery is the preferred route of administration and therefore good absorption after oral dosing is a prerequisite for a compound to be successful in the clinic. The prediction of oral bioavailability from in vitro permeability assays is thus a valuable tool during drug discovery and development. Caco-2 cell monolayers mimic the human intestinal epithelium in many aspects. These monolayers form tight junctions between cells and have been widely used as a model of human intestinal absorption. Caco-2 cells also express a variety of transporter proteins although the transformed nature of the cells results in unpredictable differentiation markers, transport properties and enzyme expression. Thus various modifications of the Caco-2 assay are used in laboratories across the globe. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of a time and resource saving 7-day Caco-2 assay protocol. We also discuss the impact of various experimental conditions on permeability measurements and its applications during lead optimization in early discovery and for clinical candidate characterization, specifically for prediction of absorption in human, at a later stage in drug development.

  3. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL.

  4. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL. PMID:25943335

  5. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  6. Psychometric properties of the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andy; Taylor, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy; Rowlands, Ann

    2007-12-01

    Few self-report measures of physical activity have been validated in individuals with severe mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 7-day recall measure (7DR: [Blair, S. N. (1984). How to assess exercise habits and physical fitness. In J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weiss, (Eds.), Behavioural health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 424-447). New York: Wiley.]) through comparison with RT3 triaxial accelerometry data. Fourteen individuals took part in the study. Validity was considered by Kendall's tau correlation and (Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical-methods for assessing agreement between 2 methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1(8476), 307-310) limits of agreement and test-retest reliability was measured by ICC. The only significant correlation between measures was total energy expenditure (tau = 0.43). The 7-DR over reported moderate physical activity by 16.9 +/- 52.3 min/day, but under reported vigorous physical activity by -10.4 +/- 24.3 min/day. Test retest ICC was significant for all outcome measures. Overall, the 7-DR was reliable but exhibited questionable validity. The use of self-report questionnaires such as the 7-DR may inaccurately estimate the levels of physical activity in this population, and may not be sensitive to monitoring intervention-related changes in physical activity.

  7. Somatosensory and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials Assessed between 4 and 7 Days after Severe Stroke Onset Predict Unfavorable Outcome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Su, Ying Ying; Xiao, Shu Ying; Liu, Yi Fei

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the best predictive timing of short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SLSEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) for unfavorable outcomes in patients with early stage severe stroke. One hundred fifty-six patients with acute severe supratentorial stroke were monitored according to SLSEP, BAEP, and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at 1-3 days and 4-7 days after the onset of stroke. All patients were followed up for outcomes at 6 months after onset using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), with a score of 5-6 considered unfavorable. The predictive values of SLSEP, BAEP, and the GCS at 1-3 days were compared with 4-7 days after onset. Our results show that, according to the analysis of prognostic authenticity, the predictive values of SLSEP and BAEP at 4-7 days after stroke onset improved when compared with the values at 1-3 days for unfavorable outcomes. Most of the patients with change of worsening evoked potentials from 1-3 days to 4-7 days after onset had unfavorable outcomes. In conclusion, SLSEP and BAEP assessed at 4-7 days after onset predicted unfavorable outcomes for acute severe stroke patients. The worsening values of SLSEP and BAEP between 1-3 days and 4-7 days also present a prognostic value.

  8. Be Here Now: Young Women's War Diaries and the Practice of Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Ralph L.

    2012-01-01

    Here, the author looks at four diaries, more specifically three conventional diaries and a blog: "The Diary of a Young Girl," by Anne Frank; "Zlata's Diary," by Zlata Filipovic; and "Last Night I Dreamed of Peace" by Dang Thuy Tram. "Baghdad Burning" is the transcript of a web log, a blog, by a young Iraqi woman who went by the pseudonym…

  9. A NEW METHOD OF LONGITUDINAL DIARY ASSEMBLY FOR EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many stochastic human exposure models require the construction of longitudinal time-activity diaries to evaluate the time sequence of concentrations encountered, and hence, the pollutant exposure for the simulated individuals. However, most of the available data on human activiti...

  10. Clinical effects of thigh cuffs during a 7-day 6° head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavy-Le Traon, Anne; Maillet, Alain; Vasseur Clausen, Pascale; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Alferova, Irina; Gharib, Claude; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier

    2001-08-01

    Thigh cuffs are used by Russian cosmonauts to limit the fluid shift induced by space flight. A ground simulation using the head-down bed rest (HDBR) model was performed to assess the effects of thigh cuffs on clinical tolerance and orthostatic adaptation. 8 male healthy volunteers (32.4±1.9 years) participated twice in a 7-day HDBR — one time with thigh cuffs (worm daily from 9 am to 7 pm) (TC) and one time without (WTC). Orthostatic tolerance was assessed by a 10 minute stand test and by a LBNP test (5 min at -15, -30, -45 mmHg) before (BDC-1) and at the end of the HDBR period (R+1). Plasma volume was measured before and at the end of HDBR by the Evans blue dye dilution technique. Thigh cuffs limits headache due to fluid shift, as well as the loss in plasma volume (TC: -5.85±0.95%; WTC: -9.09±0.82%, p<0.05). The mean duration of the stand test (R+1) did not differ in the two group (TC 7.1±1.3 min; WTC 7.0±1.0 min). The increase in HR and decrease in diastolic blood pressure were slightly but significantly larger without thigh cuffs. Duration of the LBNP tests did not differ with thigh cuffs. Thigh cuffs limit the symptoms due to fluid shift and the loss in plasma volume. They partly reduced the increase in HR during orthostatic stress but had no effect on duration of orthostatic stress tests.

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  12. Estimating Monthly, Annual, and Low 7-Day, 10-Year Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Regression equations to estimate monthly, annual, and low 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) streamflows were derived for rivers in Maine. The derived regression equations for estimating mean monthly, mean annual, median monthly, median annual, and low 7Q10 streamflows for ungaged rivers in Maine presented in this report supersede those derived in previous studies. Twenty-six U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on unregulated, rural rivers in Maine with 10 years or more of recorded streamflow were used to develop the regression equations. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to select the explanatory variables (basin and climatic characteristics) that would appear in the final regression equations. OLS regression of all possible subsets was done with 62 explanatory variables for each of 27 response variables. Five explanatory variables were chosen for the final regression equations: drainage basin area, areal fraction of the drainage basin underlain by sand and gravel aquifers, distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid, mean drainage basin annual precipitation, and mean drainage basin winter precipitation (the sum of mean monthly precipitation for December, January, and February). Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to derive the final coefficients and measures of uncertainty for the regression equations. The forms of many of the derived regression equations indicate some physical, mechanistic processes. Drainage basin area is the most statistically important explanatory variable and appears in all derived regression equations. Monthly streamflows are related inversely to the distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid during December, January, February, and March; that is, the closer a river basin is to the coast, the higher monthly streamflows are per unit drainage basin area during the winter. The relation reverses in May when higher streamflows are attributed to basins farther from the coast

  13. Dietary Digital Diaries: Documenting Adolescents' Obesogenic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Baker, Christina M.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesogenic environments promote excessive caloric and fat intake. A total of 23 low-income, African American adolescents digitally photographed their lunchtime food environment at a school buffet during summer camp. Depicted food was coded for nutritional content on the platescape (own plate or others' plates) and the tablescape (open buffet).…

  14. Reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Research Settings: Last 7-Day Self-Administered Long Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan S.; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of the last 7-day long form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Craig et al., 2003) and to examine the construct validity for the measure in a research setting. Participants were 151 male (n = 52) and female (n = 99) university students (M age = 24.15 years, SD = 5.01)…

  15. A diary study of action slips in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Jónsdóttir, María K; Adólfsdóttir, Steinunn; Cortez, Rúna Dögg; Gunnarsdóttir, María; Gústafsdóttir, Agústa Hlín

    2007-12-01

    Memory complaints following minor head injury or whiplash are common and often bear similarity to absent mindedness or action slips (Reason, 1979). We replicated Reason's study by asking 189 healthy volunteers to keep diaries of their action slips for a week. The mean number of slips was 6.4 (SD = 4.9). Perceived stress did not correlate with number of slips but there was a weak positive correlation between action slips and scores on a memory failures questionnaire. Memory diaries may be clinically useful when assessing individuals who worry about cognitive sequelae of minor injuries. Diaries clarify the nature of the complaints and may have therapeutic value by demonstrating that the memory slips are less frequent than estimated by the patients. PMID:17853144

  16. How to Estimate Epidemic Risk from Incomplete Contact Diaries Data?

    PubMed Central

    Mastrandrea, Rossana; Barrat, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions shape the patterns of spreading processes in a population. Techniques such as diaries or proximity sensors allow to collect data about encounters and to build networks of contacts between individuals. The contact networks obtained from these different techniques are however quantitatively different. Here, we first show how these discrepancies affect the prediction of the epidemic risk when these data are fed to numerical models of epidemic spread: low participation rate, under-reporting of contacts and overestimation of contact durations in contact diaries with respect to sensor data determine indeed important differences in the outcomes of the corresponding simulations with for instance an enhanced sensitivity to initial conditions. Most importantly, we investigate if and how information gathered from contact diaries can be used in such simulations in order to yield an accurate description of the epidemic risk, assuming that data from sensors represent the ground truth. The contact networks built from contact sensors and diaries present indeed several structural similarities: this suggests the possibility to construct, using only the contact diary network information, a surrogate contact network such that simulations using this surrogate network give the same estimation of the epidemic risk as simulations using the contact sensor network. We present and compare several methods to build such surrogate data, and show that it is indeed possible to obtain a good agreement between the outcomes of simulations using surrogate and sensor data, as long as the contact diary information is complemented by publicly available data describing the heterogeneity of the durations of human contacts. PMID:27341027

  17. Art Supply Inventors. Children's Art Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2001-01-01

    Discusses types of art materials that children enjoy using in their artworks. Explores the art materials such as tasty art supplies, such as candy; peeled supplies, such as pencil shavings; sticky art supplies, such as Band-Aids; and fast-food supplies, such as forks and spoons. (CMK)

  18. Prediction of glycated hemoglobin levels at 3 months after metabolic surgery based on the 7-day plasma metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Nam; Lee, Yeon Ji; Kang, Ju-Hee; Choi, Ji-Ho; An, Yong Jin; Kang, Sunmi; Lee, Dae Hyun; Suh, Young Ju; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Sunghyouk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients), and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary.

  19. Prediction of Glycated Hemoglobin Levels at 3 Months after Metabolic Surgery Based on the 7-Day Plasma Metabolic Profile

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji-ho; An, Yong Jin; Kang, Sunmi; Lee, Dae Hyun; Suh, Young Ju; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Sunghyouk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients), and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary. PMID:25384027

  20. The Working Situation of Elementary School Teachers Explored through Diaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Friis, Tove

    1979-01-01

    Daily work flows of Danish elementary school teachers were examined through self-report diaries. Data are presented on percentage of time per week spent on different tasks, types and numbers of personal contacts, and location of work activities. The relative isolation of each teacher and other findings are discussed. (SJL)

  1. Thai EFL Online Diaries: Literacy Practice and Self-Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meechai, Jiraporn

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation aims to expand the definition of literacy beyond its usual text and school-based practice. It studies the online diary as a sociocultural and literacy practice that allows people from various languages and cultures to share their personal experiences and values. The participants are five Thai English as foreign language (EFL)…

  2. Course Design and Teacher Development in Vietnam: A Diary Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a diary project that arose from a situation that was both an opportunity and a challenge. While teaching in Vietnam in the spring of 2004, the author received an invitation from the national university in Hanoi. The letter asked him to teach there and specifically to develop a postgraduate course called…

  3. Intrusive Music: The Perception of Everyday Music Explored by Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes research investigating the perception of intrusive music, that is, music heard when choice, volume, and occurrence are not under the control of the participant. Participants were directed to record diary accounts of episodes in which music was played in instances when they were not in control of the decision to play the music…

  4. Diary of a First-Year Teacher of the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Carol

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts are presented from a teacher's diary of her first year of teaching gifted primary grade students. Principles learned over the first year include: (1) lesson planning must be flexible; (2) gifted students prefer subject matter content to brain exercises; and (3) work in the affective domain is as essential as study in the cognitive realm.…

  5. Dear Diary: Confessions of a Nice White Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    "Music and the Racial Imagination" triggered the reminiscences from the author's teens described in the "diary presented in this article." These memories undoubtedly played a role in her decision to enter an undergraduate music education program at the age of 40. These and other memories have been called up in a variety of contexts more recently…

  6. Following the Curve of a Sentence: Notes from a Reader's Diary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Rishma

    2006-01-01

    "Following the Curve of the Sentence: Notes From a Reader's Diary" is comprised of excerpts from the author's Reader's Diary, using experimental writing practices that can be modeled and used by English teachers in classrooms. The Reader's Diary is a subgenre of autobiography, memoir and poetic prose essay, a flexible, hybrid form of inquiry. The…

  7. Variations in 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate of type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Verma, Narsingh; Anjum, Baby; Bhardwaj, Kshitij

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Diabetes has profound consequences on the cardiovascular system leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Blood pressure (BP) has a characteristic and reproducible circadian pattern, with high values during the day and low values at night. A 7-day timed analysis of BP through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been used not only to diagnose day and night dipping patterns of blood pressure, but also to measure day-to-day variability and the circadian hyper-amplitude-tension, a condition in which excessive circadian BP amplitude precedes the chronic established hypertension. Our objective was to assess the 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of BP and heart rate in diabetic patients, as it could be helpful in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 50 diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 non-diabetic participants were recruited for the study. General health records were individually maintained, and 7-day/24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor was carried out. Results The rhythmic parameters of systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, double amplitude, acrophase and 3-h fractionated hyperbaric index were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients. A total of 12 participants were diagnosed with circadian hyper-amplitude-tension. These data suggest that diabetic patients have certain variations in the circadian pattern of blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in disturbed vascular events, and thus are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion Seven-day/24-h monitoring might be useful as an early predictive tool in assessing future cardiovascular risk, guiding treatment and management of these patients. PMID:25422775

  8. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi; Murayama, Chieko; Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  9. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment.

  10. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment. PMID:26067703

  11. The quality and fertility of sperm collected from European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses refrigerated for up to 7 days.

    PubMed

    Shishova, Natalia V; Uteshev, Viktor K; Sirota, Nikolai P; Kuznetsova, Elena A; Kaurova, Svetlana A; Browne, Robert K; Gakhova, Edith N

    2013-01-01

    There is a catastrophic decrease in the biodiversity of amphibians coupled with the loss of genetic variation. The perpetuation of amphibian biodiversity demands a multifaceted approach, including the use of reproduction technologies (RTs), to enable efficient reproduction in captivity and to prevent the loss of genetic variation. Reproduction technologies for the storage of amphibian sperm for days to weeks, when refrigerated at 4°C, or for millennia when cryopreserved have recently undergone rapid development. Sperm from amphibians may be obtained through excision and maceration of testes; however, this is sometimes not possible with rare or endangered species. Alternate methods of obtaining sperm are through hormonal induction, or as spermatozoa from the carcasses of recently dead amphibians. The use of sperm from carcasses of recently dead amphibians is particularly valuable when sampled from genetically important founders in conservation breeding programs, or where catastrophic mortality is occurring in natural population. Sperm harvested over a period of 7 days from the testes of European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses stored in a refrigerator were assessed for percentage and progressive motility, cell membrane integrity, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and fertilizing ability. In addition, the survival of resulting embryos to hatch was recorded. Results indicated that some sperm of R. temporaria remain motile and fertile when harvested from frog carcasses refrigerated up to 7 days post-mortem, and resulting embryos can develop to hatch. PMID:23609917

  12. The birth of NASA: The diary of T. Keith Glennan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glennan, Thomas Keith; Hunley, J. D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this book, part diary and recollection, T. Keith Glennan--the first administrator of NASA--relates the story of how he and others both inside and outside of the agency worked within the circumstances created by the Sputnik crisis to plan and organize a viable space program that ultimately put 12 Americans on the Moon. In the process, Glennan also reveals a great deal about Eisenhower as a human.

  13. Measuring the value of older people's production: a diary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The productive capacity of retired people is usually not valued. However, some retirees produce much more than we might expect. This diary-based study identifies the activities of older people, and suggests some value mechanisms. One question raised is whether it is possible to scale up this diary study into a larger representative study. Methods Diaries kept for one week were collected among 23 older people in the north of Sweden. The texts were analysed with a grounded theory approach; an interplay between ideas and empirical data. Results Some productive activities of older people must be valued as the opportunity cost of time or according to the market value, and others must be valued with the replacement cost. In order to make the choice between these methods, it is important to consider the societal entitlement. When there is no societal entitlement, the first or second method must be used; and when it exists, the third must be used. Conclusions An explicit investigation of the content of the entitlement is needed to justify the choice of valuation method for each activity. In a questionnaire addressing older people's production, each question must be adjusted to the type of production. In order to fully understand this production, it is important to consider the degree of free choice to conduct an activity, as well as health-related quality of life. PMID:22230745

  14. A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day course of doripenem to a 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Gram-negative bacteria. Methods This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing a fixed 7-day course of doripenem one gram as a four-hour infusion every eight hours with a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin one gram as a one-hour infusion every eight hours (April 2008 through June 2011). Results The study was stopped prematurely at the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee that was blinded to treatment arm assignment and performed a scheduled review of data which showed signals that were close to the pre-specified stopping limits. The final analyses included 274 randomized patients. The clinical cure rate at the end of therapy (EOT) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population was numerically lower for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (45.6% versus 56.8%; 95% CI, -26.3% to 3.8%). Similarly, the clinical cure rate at EOT was numerically lower for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP, the most common Gram-negative pathogen, in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (41.2% versus 60.0%; 95% CI, -57.2 to 19.5). All cause 28-day mortality in the MITT group was numerically greater for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (21.5% versus 14.8%; 95% CI, -5.0 to 18.5) and for patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (35.3% versus 0.0%; 95% CI, 12.6 to 58.0). Conclusions Among patients with microbiologically confirmed late-onset VAP, a fixed 7-day course of doripenem was found to have non-significant higher rates of clinical failure and mortality compared to a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin. Consideration should be given to treating patients with VAP for more than seven days to optimize clinical outcome. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00589693

  15. A 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids was ineffective to prevent muscle damage during a marathon.

    PubMed

    Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan Jose; Abian-Vicen, Javier; González-Millán, Cristina; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to prevent muscle damage during a marathon. Forty-six experienced runners were randomly divided into two groups, one with BCAA supplementation (n = 25, supplemented with 5 g day(-1) of powdered 1:0.5:0.5 leucine:isoleucine:valine, during the 7 days prior to the competition) and the other as a control group (n = 21, supplemented with an isocaloric placebo). Before the marathon race and within 3 min of finishing, leg muscle power was measured with a maximal countermovement jump and a urine sample was obtained. During the race, running pace was measured by means of a time-chip. Myoglobin concentration was determined in the urine samples as an indirect marker of muscle damage. A visual analog scale (0-10 points) was used to assess leg muscle pain during the race. In the BCAA group, the mean running pace during the marathon was similar to the control group (3.3 ± 0.4 vs. 3.3 ± 0.5 m s(-1), respectively, 0.98). The pre- to post-race reduction in muscle power was similar in both BCAA and control groups (-23.0 ± 16.1 vs. -17.3 ± 13.8 %, P = 0.13). Post-race urine myoglobin concentration was similar in both BCAA and control groups (5.4 ± 7.5 vs. 4.5 ± 8.6 μg mL(-1), P = 0.70). Finally, there were no differences between groups in the perceived muscle pain during the race (6 ± 1 vs. 5 ± 1 points, P = 0.80). A 7-day supplementation of BCAA (5 g day(-1)) did not increase the running performance during a marathon. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation was ineffective to prevent muscle power loss, muscle damage or perceived muscle pain during a marathon race. PMID:24477835

  16. A 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids was ineffective to prevent muscle damage during a marathon.

    PubMed

    Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan Jose; Abian-Vicen, Javier; González-Millán, Cristina; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to prevent muscle damage during a marathon. Forty-six experienced runners were randomly divided into two groups, one with BCAA supplementation (n = 25, supplemented with 5 g day(-1) of powdered 1:0.5:0.5 leucine:isoleucine:valine, during the 7 days prior to the competition) and the other as a control group (n = 21, supplemented with an isocaloric placebo). Before the marathon race and within 3 min of finishing, leg muscle power was measured with a maximal countermovement jump and a urine sample was obtained. During the race, running pace was measured by means of a time-chip. Myoglobin concentration was determined in the urine samples as an indirect marker of muscle damage. A visual analog scale (0-10 points) was used to assess leg muscle pain during the race. In the BCAA group, the mean running pace during the marathon was similar to the control group (3.3 ± 0.4 vs. 3.3 ± 0.5 m s(-1), respectively, 0.98). The pre- to post-race reduction in muscle power was similar in both BCAA and control groups (-23.0 ± 16.1 vs. -17.3 ± 13.8 %, P = 0.13). Post-race urine myoglobin concentration was similar in both BCAA and control groups (5.4 ± 7.5 vs. 4.5 ± 8.6 μg mL(-1), P = 0.70). Finally, there were no differences between groups in the perceived muscle pain during the race (6 ± 1 vs. 5 ± 1 points, P = 0.80). A 7-day supplementation of BCAA (5 g day(-1)) did not increase the running performance during a marathon. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation was ineffective to prevent muscle power loss, muscle damage or perceived muscle pain during a marathon race.

  17. A nutritional comparison of foods and beverages marketed to children in two advertising policy environments.

    PubMed

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Dubois, Lise; Wanless, Alissa

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with children's exposure to food/beverage marketing. Policy options in this area are being sought in order to reduce childhood obesity rates on a population-level. We examined the nutritional quality of foods advertised to children during their preferred television viewing in Ontario (Canada), where advertising is self-regulated by industry, and in Quebec (Canada), where a child-directed advertising ban exists. A total of 428 children aged 10-12 years completed television viewing diaries for 7 days. Thirty-two television stations were recorded simultaneously between 6 AM and midnight. A content analysis of 90 h of English Ontario, French Quebec, and English Quebec children's preferred viewing was then undertaken. A total of 429 food and beverage advertisements were analyzed and their nutritional quality was assessed. Food advertisements in the Quebec French sample were statistically significantly higher in total fat, saturated fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrates and sugar per 100 g, and as a percentage of energy than food ads in the two English samples. A statistically significantly lower percentage of the Quebec French food advertisements were classified as either high fat, sugar or sodium and a smaller proportion of food ads were classified as "less healthy" compared to the Ontario and Quebec English samples. These results suggest that the Quebec advertising ban is influencing the macronutrient profile of advertised foods viewed by French Quebec children during their preferred viewing and that their promotions are marginally healthier than that viewed by the English samples. PMID:21720425

  18. Adherence to 7-Day Primaquine Treatment for the Radical Cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-01-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  19. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  20. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest.

    PubMed

    Vernikos, J; Dallman, M F; Keil, L C; O'Hara, D; Convertino, V A

    1993-07-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8338147

  1. Effect of burden and origin sites of premature ventricular contractions on left ventricular function by 7-day Holter monitor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Mingfang; Chen, Minglong; Yang, Bing; Wang, Daowu; Kong, Xiangqing; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Gu, Kai; Cao, Kejiang; Liu, Hailei; Jiang, Qi; Shi, Jiaojiao; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) could enlarge the heart, but its risk factors are incompletely understood as a single 24-hour recording cannot reflect the true PVC burden due to day-to-day variability. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of burden and origin sites on left ventricular (LV) function in patients with PVCs by 7-day Holter electrocardiography (ECG). From May 2012 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients with PVCs were recruited from the authors' affiliated hospital. All patients received 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead routing ECG and 7-days Holter ECG. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. A total of 102 participants with PVCs were included in the final analysis. Origin of PVCs from the tricuspid annulus had the highest burden and NT-proBNP level. LV papillary muscle had a higher LV ejection fraction (EF) level and a lower LV end-systolic dimension (ESD) than other PVC foci (P<0.05). The high burden group had a higher LV end-diastolic dimension (EDD) and LVESD but lower LVEF than the other two groups (P<0.05). Female, older age, physical work, and history of PVCs had a significantly positive correlation with symptoms. Male, older age, physical work, and high burden were positive predictors of enlarged LVEDD, LVESD and higher serum NT-proBNP level, but lower LVEF. Seven-day dynamic ECG Holter monitor showed the true PVC burden on patients with PVCs. PVCs with a lower burden or origin from the LV papillary muscle and the fascicle were relatively benign, while PVCs with a higher burden or origin from the tricuspid annulus may lead to cardiac dysfunction.

  2. Vaginal practices diary: development of a pictorial data collection tool for sensitive behavioural data

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Suzanna C.; Lees, Shelley S.; Andrew, Bahati; Zalwango, Flavia; Vandepitte, Judith; Ao, Trong; Baisley, Kathy; Kapiga, Saidi; Grosskurth, Heiner; Hayes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravaginal practices (IVP) are highly prevalent behaviours among women at increased risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. IVP data collected by face-to-face interviews (FTFI) may be subject to recall or social desirability bias. Daily self-administered diaries may help to decrease bias associated with FTFI. IVP data from a diary and FTFI were compared during a multi-site microbicide feasibility study in Tanzania and Uganda. Methods Two hundred women were recruited and given diaries to complete daily for six weeks. Data obtained in the diary were compared to data from the FTFI during clinical visits to assess the consistency of reporting of IVP between the data collection methods. Results In Tanzania, proportions of overall vaginal cleansing and insertion were similar for the FTFI and the diary, but the diary indicated higher frequency of cleansing and use of a cloth or other applicator. In Uganda, proportions of overall vaginal cleansing were similar for FTFI and the diary, but the diary indicated higher frequency of cleansing, use of soaps and cloths for cleansing, and insertion. Most of the inconsistencies between the two data collection methods were from reported frequency of IVP or IVP related to sexual intercourse. Conclusions The comparison of FTFI and the vaginal practice diary suggests that recall of IVP may be improved by a daily self-administered diary, especially for frequency of cleansing and cleansing in proximity to sexual intercourse. The vaginal practices diary can provide a more detailed understanding of IVP and aid in the interpretation of findings from FTFI. Vaginal practices diary: development of a pictorial data collection tool for sensitive behavioural data. PMID:22801344

  3. The sleep of healthy people--a diary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Rose, L. R.; Hall, J. A.; Kupfer, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    To provide baseline data for various research studies at the University of Pittsburgh over a 10-year period, 266 healthy subjects (144 male, 122 female, aged 20-50 years) meeting certain criteria each completed a 14-night sleep diary. For each night, the diary allowed the subjective measurement of bedtime, wake time, time in bed (TIB), sleep efficiency, number of minutes of wake after sleep onset (WASO), alertness on awakening, and percentage of morning needing an alarm (or a person functioning as one). Weeknight versus weekend night differences in TIB (TIBdiff), weekday altertness, and reliance on alarms were examined as possible indicators of sleep debt. In addition, general descriptive data were tabulated. On average, bedtimes were at 23:48 and wake times at 07:23, yielding a mean TIB of 7 hours 35 minutes. As expected, bedtimes and wake times were later on weekend nights than on weeknights. Bedtimes were 26 minutes later, wake times 53 minutes later, yielding a mean weekend TIB increase of 27 minutes. Overall, subjects perceived their sleep latency to be 10.5 minutes, reported an average of one awakening during the night (with an average of 6.4 minutes of WASO), had a diary sleep efficiency of 96.3%, and awoke with an alterness rating of 69.5%. These variables differed little between weeknight and weekend nights. Subjects used an alarm (or a person functioning as an alarm) on 60.9% nights overall, 68.3% on weeknights, 42.5% on weekends. When TIBdiff was used as an estimate of sleep debt (comparing subjects with TIBdiff > 75 minutes with those with a TIBdiff < 30 minutes), the group with more "catch-up sleep" on weekends had shorter weeknight TIB durations (by about 24 minutes) and relied more on an alarm for weekday waking (by about 22%), indicating the possible utility of these variables as sleep debt indices.

  4. Studying learning in the healthcare setting: the potential of quantitative diary methods.

    PubMed

    Ciere, Yvette; Jaarsma, Debbie; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Snippe, Evelien; Fleer, Joke

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative diary methods are longitudinal approaches that involve the repeated measurement of aspects of peoples' experience of daily life. In this article, we outline the main characteristics and applications of quantitative diary methods and discuss how their use may further research in the field of medical education. Quantitative diary methods offer several methodological advantages, such as measuring aspects of learning with great detail, accuracy and authenticity. Moreover, they enable researchers to study how and under which conditions learning in the health care setting occurs and in which way learning can be promoted. Hence, quantitative diary methods may contribute to theory development and the optimization of teaching methods in medical education.

  5. Insomnia Complaint Versus Sleep Diary Parameters: Predictions of Suicidal Ideation.

    PubMed

    Woosley, Julie A; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Taylor, Daniel J; Riedel, Brant W; Bush, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which aspects of insomnia best predict suicidal ideation (SI). Participants were grouped according to whether they complained of insomnia and whether their sleep would be characterized as poor or good by applying quantitative criteria for insomnia to their sleep diary data. Analyses revealed that insomnia complaint was more strongly associated with SI than was poor sleep. These findings suggest that patients who complain of insomnia, regardless of the presence or absence of poor sleep, may be at greater risk for suicide than those who are content with their sleep.

  6. A daily diary assessment of female weight stigmatization.

    PubMed

    Seacat, Jason D; Dougal, Sarah C; Roy, Dooti

    2016-02-01

    Research focused on assessing weight stigmatization has typically been conducted using cross-sectional, retrospective designs. Such designs may impair the scientific understanding of this stigma by limiting participants' recall of frequencies and/or details about stigmatizing events. To address this, 50 overweight/obese women were recruited from public weight forums to complete week-long daily diaries. A total of 1077 weight-stigmatizing events were reported on the Stigmatizing Situations Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to investigate potential relationships between participant-level factors and reported stigmatization. Results indicate that body mass index, education, age, daily activities, and interpersonal interactions all may impact individuals' levels of stigmatization.

  7. Static torsional otolith-cervical-ocular reflex after prolonged exposure to weightlessness and a 7-day immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Makarova, S. M.

    2011-05-01

    To determine the role of the support-proprioceptive factor in the functioning of the vestibular system, in particular the static torsional otolith-cervical-ocular reflex (OCOR), comparative OCOR studies with videooculography recording were performed after a 7-day "dry" horizontal immersion (16 subjects) and after a prolonged (126-195 days) exposure to weightlessness (13 cosmonauts). For the first time, it was demonstrated that minimization of the support and proprioceptive afferentation may result in an inversion or absence of the static torsional OCOR and the development of a positional nystagmus with an inverted reflex. A comparative OCOR data analysis of cosmonauts and immersion subjects has revealed similarity of responses. However, changes in OCOR after immersion were noted in only 60% of the subjects, while after space flight, 90% of cosmonauts showed them. Post-flight changes were more frequent, marked and long-lasting. Statistical analysis has shown that there were significant differences between pre- and post-flight data according to both parametric and non-parametric methods of multiple comparisons, whereas only parametric methods have found significant differences within immersion data.

  8. Growth, reproduction and population growth of Ceriodaphnia cornuta sars and comparison of 7-day fecundity with Ceriodaphnia dubia richard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Dehui

    1989-06-01

    Biology of parthenogenetic females of Ceriodaphnia cornuta Sars was studied under laboratory conditions. The mean length of neonates (first-young instars) of Ceriodaphnia cornuta was found to be 0.27 mm at 25±1°C and that of the first adult instars 0.50 mm. A maximum length of 0.69 mm was attained at the 8th adult instar. The mean longevity was found to be 19.0 days for 3 preadult and 8 adult instars. Sex maturity was reached in 4.26 days. The mean number of young per brood was 6.21. The total production for each adult reached 49.7. The maximum reproduction period occurred during the 4th adult instar. At this age, the animals were 10.25 days old, and had a body length of 0.65 mm. The innate capacity for increase ( r m) was 0.40 per female per day, the net reproduction rate ( R 0) was 33.601 per generation, the mean length of a generation ( T) was 8.786 days, and the finite rate for increase (λ) was 1.492 per female per day. Comparisons using the t-test indicated that the number of eggs produced and number of broods of C. cornuta and C. dubia were not significantly different ( p>0.05) after 7 days.

  9. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  10. Contribution of the Activities Diary to the pediatric teaching

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Vitor de Almeida; Scucuglia, Ana Cláudia B.; T.Gonsaga, Ricardo Alessandro; Biscegli, Terezinha Soares

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the fifth-year medical students' self-evaluation based on the reflexive discourse of the Activities Diaries (portfolio) from the Pediatric Internship I and Child Care Rotations. METHODS Cross sectional, qualitative and descriptive study using the collective subject discourse of the diaries used during the internship of the Medical School, in Catanduva, São Paulo, from January to November, 2011. The registered students' testimonials in the portfolio sections called self-assessment and students' impression were assessed according to their central ideas (discipline organization, breastfeeding outpatient clinic, number of admissions in the pediatric hospital ward and satisfaction with the Child Health training ), related to the teaching of Pediatrics and Child Care. The portfolios with incomplete registers were excluded. RESULTS The testimonials of 47 interns (75% of the students) were analyzed, and 21.3% of them expressed satisfaction with the discipline organization and 27.7% praised the inclusion of the breastfeeding outpatient clinics in the course. For 25.5% of the academics, the number of admissions in the pediatric wards was insufficient for an ideal learning; however, 70.2% were satisfied with the Child Health training. CONCLUSIONS This critical analysis allowed a summary of the reflections, suggestions and critics registered by the interns and can be used as a tool for improvement of the professional cycle. PMID:24142320

  11. Gustav Theodor Fechner: life and work in the mirror of his diary.

    PubMed

    Meischner-Metge, Anneros

    2010-11-01

    The diaries of Gustav Fechner reveal much about his motivations to develop the field of psychophysics, as well as some of the steps toward its formulation. Together with his publications on various subjects, the diaries show how psychophysics fits into Fechner's broader scientific program, illuminate his worldview, and reveal his hopes for acceptance of his work by his colleagues.

  12. Pandemic Influenza Outbreak on a Troop Ship—Diary of a Soldier in 1918

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A newly identified diary from a soldier in 1918 describes aspects of a troop ship outbreak of pandemic influenza. This diary is the only known document that describes this outbreak and provides information not officially documented concerning possible risk factors such as overcrowding and the suboptimal outbreak response by military leaders. It also presents an independent personal perspective of this overwhelming experience. PMID:23092739

  13. The Effects of Polya's Heuristic and Diary Writing on Children's Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensberry, Karina K. R.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that aimed at increasing students' problem-solving skills. Polya's (1985) heuristic for problem solving was used and students were required to articulate their thought processes through the use of a structured diary. The diary prompted students to answer questions designed to engage them in the phases of…

  14. The Use of the Reflective Diaries in Science Lessons from the Perspectives of Eighth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaca, Melek; Armagan, Fulya Öner; Bektas, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The science teaching program in Turkey is restated with the effect of constructivist approach and science textbooks are prepared in accordance with this new program. Furthermore, reflective diaries using many techniques have started to be used in the teaching process. Reflective diaries have also started to be used in science education. The basic…

  15. Measurement Reactivity and Fatigue Effects in Daily Diary Research with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Bridget M.; Robles, Theodore F.; Repetti, Rena L.

    2016-01-01

    Methodological challenges associated with measurement reactivity and fatigue were addressed using diary data collected from mothers (n = 47), fathers (n = 39), and children (n = 47; 8-13 years) across 56 consecutive days. Demonstrating the feasibility of extended diary studies with families, on-time compliance rates were upward of 90% for all…

  16. Assessing Physical Activity in Children with Asthma: Convergent Validity between Accelerometer and Electronic Diary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floro, Josh N.; Dunton, Genevieve F.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    Convergent validity of accelerometer and electronic diary physical activity data was assessed in children with asthma. Sixty-two participants, ages 9-18 years, wore an accelerometer and reported their physical activity level in quarter-hour segments every 2 hr using the Ambulatory Diary Assessment (ADA). Moderate validity was found between…

  17. Promoting and Assessing "Deep Learning" in Geography Fieldwork: An Evaluation of Reflective Field Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, Trevor J. B.; Cook, Ian G.; Parker, Sara L.; Barrett, Giles A.; Hull, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    Fieldwork is central to teaching and learning in geography. The assessment of student learning from fieldwork can, however, be problematic. This paper evaluates the use of reflective diaries for assessing level three undergraduate geography fieldwork. It is concluded that reflective fieldwork diaries offer an innovative and flexible approach to…

  18. Unveiling a Reflective Diary Methodology for Exploring the Lived Experiences of Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This article unveils a diary methodology exploring accounts of ongoing experiences during the final furlong of university life and examines the role of diary keeping for gaining insights into stress and coping with performance-related and general life stressors. The focus is on thirty young people who, following a year working in industry, were in…

  19. Diaries as a Reflective Tool in Pre-Service Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kömür, Sevki; Çepik, Hazal

    2015-01-01

    This study presents and analyzes the positive and negative reflections of ten pre-service English teachers who kept diaries on their own learning and teaching processes and daily lives. The participants were students in an English Language Teacher Education Program who took an on-campus methodology course and voluntarily agreed to keep diaries.…

  20. Gustav Theodor Fechner: life and work in the mirror of his diary.

    PubMed

    Meischner-Metge, Anneros

    2010-11-01

    The diaries of Gustav Fechner reveal much about his motivations to develop the field of psychophysics, as well as some of the steps toward its formulation. Together with his publications on various subjects, the diaries show how psychophysics fits into Fechner's broader scientific program, illuminate his worldview, and reveal his hopes for acceptance of his work by his colleagues. PMID:21688734

  1. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  2. Favorable neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses to 7 days of exercise with an eccentric overload in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; DeVita, P

    2000-08-01

    The metabolic, cardiovascular, and neural cost of eccentric muscle contraction is less than that of concentric contraction, but the strength and neural adaptations in eccentric contractions are significantly greater following resistive exercise. We thus compared the short-term effects of exercise with an eccentric overload (n = 10) with those of exercise with a standard load distribution (n = 10) in ostensibly healthy sedentary elderly women (mean age 71.4). Subjects were tested for concentric and eccentric three-repetition maximum, maximal isokinetic eccentric and concentric and isometric force, and associated electromyographic activity of selected thigh muscles before and after 7 consecutive days of exercise training of the left knee extensors. The exercise program was designed so that the total weight lifted was similar between eccentric overload and standard groups, but the eccentric overload group exercised with an approximately 50% greater eccentric load. Control subjects did not exercise (n = 10). There was a 46% increase in the total weight lifted over 7 days. When all strength measures were combined, the eccentric overload group's strength gains were 1.8-fold greater than those of the standard group, and the cardiovascular stress in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, rate pressure product, and perceived exertion was significantly lower. The increases in muscle strength were achieved by increased muscle activation, but the strength gains were independent of the changes in antagonistic muscle coactivity. Because the strength gains occurred after a short period of exercise at a relatively low intensity and cardiovascular demand, the prescription of exercise with an eccentric overload appears suitable for elders, individuals deconditioned as a result of an injury, and the chronically diseased.

  3. Absence of diuresis during a 7-day saturation dive at 2.5 ATA N2-O2.

    PubMed

    Niu, A K; Hong, S K; Claybaugh, J R; Goldinger, J M; Kwon, O; Li, M; Randall, E; Lundgren, C E

    1990-05-01

    Three male divers were studied for 2 days during each of the predive and postdive 1 ATA air control periods and for 7 days at 2.5 ATA (2.3 ATA N2 and 0.2 ATA O2). The chamber temperature was always maintained at a comfort level. Average urine flow remained at 1500 ml.day-1 during both predive and 2.5 ATA periods; urine osmolality also remained constant at around 700 mOSM/kg. On the other hand, daily excretion of Na increased significantly from 139 mEq during the predive period to 178 mEq at 2.5 ATA (P less than 0.05) but returned to the predive level during the postdive period. In contrast, daily K excretion decreased progressively with a significant decrease during the postdive period (P less than 0.05). Plasma osmolality, Na, and K remained unchanged, whereas a 6% reduction of total protein concentration at 2.5 ATA (P less than 0.05) was observed. A quantitatively similar decrease (8%) was observed for hematocrit during the 2.5 ATA period, which did not recover at postdive. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in urinary excretion of antidiuretic hormone (P less than 0.05) and by decreases in both plasma renin and aldosterone (P less than 0.05) level and urinary excretion of aldosterone (P less than 0.05). Plasma atrial natriuretic factor remained unchanged throughout the entire dive period.

  4. Feasibility and Acceptability of Cell Phone Diaries to Measure HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Garfein, Richard S.; Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group. PMID:24643312

  5. Writing about risk: use of daily diaries in understanding drug-user risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Stopka, Thomas J; Springer, Kristen W; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Shaw, Susan; Singer, Merrill

    2004-03-01

    As part of a larger syringe access and HIV risk study, a subsample of 23 current injection drug users completed daily diaries, highlighting activities related to syringe acquisition, use, and discard. Diaries have been previously utilized in a variety of psychological, public health, and nutrition studies to assess risk as well as correlated behaviors. We piloted the diary methodology in three northeastern U.S. cities (Hartford and New Haven, CT, and Springfield, MA) to learn about correlates of HIV risk. We discovered that the method provided advantages over several other qualitative and ethnographic methods. Results indicate that daily diaries elucidated (1) patterns of injection drug use, (2) sporadic and high-risk events, (3) HIV and hepatitis risk related to the syringe life cycle, and (4) emotional correlates of drug use. Furthermore, we witnessed an unexpected intervention effect that the diary may have in the lives of drug users.

  6. Video diaries on social media: Creating online communities for geoscience research and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, V.

    2013-12-01

    Making video clips is an engaging way to learn and teach geoscience. As smartphones become increasingly common, it is relatively straightforward for students to produce ';video diaries' by recording their research and learning experience over the course of a science module. Instead of keeping the video diaries for themselves, students may use the social media such as Facebook for sharing their experience and thoughts. There are some potential benefits to link video diaries and social media in pedagogical contexts. For example, online comments on video clips offer useful feedback and learning materials to the students. Students also have the opportunity to engage in geoscience outreach by producing authentic scientific contents at the same time. A video diary project was conducted to test the pedagogical potential of using video diaries on social media in the context of geoscience outreach, undergraduate research and teaching. This project formed part of a problem-based learning module in field geophysics at an archaeological site in the UK. The project involved i) the students posting video clips about their research and problem-based learning in the field on a daily basis; and ii) the lecturer building an online outreach community with partner institutions. In this contribution, I will discuss the implementation of the project and critically evaluate the pedagogical potential of video diaries on social media. My discussion will focus on the following: 1) Effectiveness of video diaries on social media; 2) Student-centered approach of producing geoscience video diaries as part of their research and problem-based learning; 3) Learning, teaching and assessment based on video clips and related commentaries posted on Facebook; and 4) Challenges in creating and promoting online communities for geoscience outreach through the use of video diaries. I will compare the outcomes from this study with those from other pedagogical projects with video clips on geoscience, and

  7. Point process modelling of the Afghan War Diary.

    PubMed

    Zammit-Mangion, Andrew; Dewar, Michael; Kadirkamanathan, Visakan; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2012-07-31

    Modern conflicts are characterized by an ever increasing use of information and sensing technology, resulting in vast amounts of high resolution data. Modelling and prediction of conflict, however, remain challenging tasks due to the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of the data typically available. Here we propose the use of dynamic spatiotemporal modelling tools for the identification of complex underlying processes in conflict, such as diffusion, relocation, heterogeneous escalation, and volatility. Using ideas from statistics, signal processing, and ecology, we provide a predictive framework able to assimilate data and give confidence estimates on the predictions. We demonstrate our methods on the WikiLeaks Afghan War Diary. Our results show that the approach allows deeper insights into conflict dynamics and allows a strikingly statistically accurate forward prediction of armed opposition group activity in 2010, based solely on data from previous years. PMID:22802667

  8. Point process modelling of the Afghan War Diary

    PubMed Central

    Zammit-Mangion, Andrew; Dewar, Michael; Kadirkamanathan, Visakan; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Modern conflicts are characterized by an ever increasing use of information and sensing technology, resulting in vast amounts of high resolution data. Modelling and prediction of conflict, however, remain challenging tasks due to the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of the data typically available. Here we propose the use of dynamic spatiotemporal modelling tools for the identification of complex underlying processes in conflict, such as diffusion, relocation, heterogeneous escalation, and volatility. Using ideas from statistics, signal processing, and ecology, we provide a predictive framework able to assimilate data and give confidence estimates on the predictions. We demonstrate our methods on the WikiLeaks Afghan War Diary. Our results show that the approach allows deeper insights into conflict dynamics and allows a strikingly statistically accurate forward prediction of armed opposition group activity in 2010, based solely on data from previous years. PMID:22802667

  9. A sleep diary and questionnaire study of naturally short sleepers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Welsh, D. K.; Kennedy, K. S.; Rose, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas most people require more than 6 h of sleep to feel well rested, there appears to be a group of people who can function well on between 3 and 6 h of sleep. The aims of the present study were to compare 12 naturally short (3-6 h) sleepers (9 males 3 females, mean age 39.6 years, SD age 10.1 years) recruited by a media publicity campaign with age, gender and chronotype matched medium length (7-8.5 h) sleepers on various measures. Measurement instruments included diaries and questionnaires to assess sleep duration and timing, as well as questionnaire assessments of sleep pathology, morningness-eveningness, extroversion, neuroticism, pathological daytime sleepiness, subclinical hypomania, optimism, depressive symptoms, exercise, and work habits. Few measures showed reliable differences between naturally short sleepers and controls except the obvious ones related to sleep duration. There was, however, some evidence for subclinical hypomanic symptoms in naturally short sleepers.

  10. A daily diary assessment of female weight stigmatization.

    PubMed

    Seacat, Jason D; Dougal, Sarah C; Roy, Dooti

    2016-02-01

    Research focused on assessing weight stigmatization has typically been conducted using cross-sectional, retrospective designs. Such designs may impair the scientific understanding of this stigma by limiting participants' recall of frequencies and/or details about stigmatizing events. To address this, 50 overweight/obese women were recruited from public weight forums to complete week-long daily diaries. A total of 1077 weight-stigmatizing events were reported on the Stigmatizing Situations Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to investigate potential relationships between participant-level factors and reported stigmatization. Results indicate that body mass index, education, age, daily activities, and interpersonal interactions all may impact individuals' levels of stigmatization. PMID:24648323

  11. Insights Into Normal and Disordered Bowel Habits From Bowel Diaries

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Seide, Barbara M.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Melton, L. Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Background While symptom questionnaires provide a snapshot of bowel habits, they may not reflect day-to-day variations or the relationship between bowel symptoms and stool form. Aim To assess bowel habits by daily diaries in women with and without functional bowel disorders. Method From a community-based survey among Olmsted County, MN, women, 278 randomly selected subjects were interviewed by a gastroenterologist, who completed a bowel symptom questionnaire. Subjects also maintained bowel diaries for 2 wk. Results Among 278 subjects, questionnaires revealed diarrhea (26%), constipation (21%), or neither (53%). Asymptomatic subjects reported bowel symptoms (e.g., urgency) infrequently (i.e., <25% of the time) and generally for hard or loose stools. Urgency for soft, formed stools (i.e., Bristol form = 4) was more prevalent in subjects with diarrhea (31%) and constipation (27%) than in normals (16%). Stool form, straining to begin (odds ratio [OR] 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–10.2) and end (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.6–15.2) defecation increased the odds for constipation. Straining to end defecation (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.2–12.0), increased stool frequency (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.02–3.7), incomplete evacuation (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.04–4.6), and rectal urgency (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4–6.6) increased the odds for diarrhea. In contrast, variations in stool frequency and form were not useful for discriminating between health and disease. Conclusions Bowel symptoms occur in association with, but are only partly explained by, stool form disturbances. These observations support a role for other pathophysiological mechanisms in functional bowel disorders. PMID:18021288

  12. Food Service and Nutritional Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, J.

    1985-01-01

    The difficulty is that as we go into the Space Station world, the cost, effort, hardware, food trash, and food waste that the food service system will generate (which is quite tolerable on a 7 day mission), probably will be intolerable on a 90 day Space Station mission. The challenge in the food service supply is not so much packaging but systems engineering. The big constraints are in the supply pipeline. Those constraints and the possible tradeoffs are discussed.

  13. Adaptation and validation of the Urticaria Patient Daily Diary for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Susan D; Tschosik, Elizabeth A; Zazzali, James L

    2012-01-01

    The Urticaria Patient Daily Diary, including the Urticaria Activity Score, has recently been validated in adults with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), but its validity in adolescents is unknown. This study was designed to (1) assess the content validity of the Adolescent Urticaria Patient Daily Diary and, (2) collect exploratory data on symptom experiences, sleep interference, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of adolescents with CIU. The Urticaria Patient Daily Diary was modified to increase its relevance with an adolescent population. A qualitative, cross-sectional, multicenter study was then conducted in the United States so that adolescent subjects could provide information on the impact of urticaria on their lives and comment on the diary. Data were collected via in-person semistructured interviews with subjects 12-17 years of age with moderate-to-severe CIU. The most bothersome symptom was itching (44%). The impact of CIU on HRQOL varied. The majority of subjects (78%) reported waking up at least once a night. Overall, subjects found the diary to be clear, easy to comprehend, and easy to complete. Revisions were made to the diary based on feedback from subjects. After nine interviews, no new information was received. The symptoms of CIU are bothersome to adolescents, particularly itch, and urticaria has a negative impact on the sleep of adolescent patients. The final Adolescent Urticaria Patient Daily Diary has evidence of content validity in patients with CIU ranging from 12 to 17 years of age.

  14. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  15. The Snacking Habits of Adolescents: Is Snack Food Necessary to Meet Dietary Recommendations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Susan; Reeves, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of snack foods in the diets of adolescents in relation to recommendations. Design: A quantitative study whereby the food intakes of 28 adolescents aged 11-14 years were recorded for three consecutive days. Setting: A secondary school in South West London. Methods: Food intake was recorded using food diaries and…

  16. Diaries for Observation or Intervention of Health Behaviors: Factors that Predict Reactivity in a Sexual Diary Study of Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.; Mustanski, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background Behavioral diaries for observation of health-related behaviors assume absence of reactivity (i.e., change in behavior resulting from observation), while self-monitoring diaries maximize reactivity for behavior change. Little is known about when and for whom behavioral diary studies become self-monitoring interventions. Purpose This study evaluated the moderating effects of social cognitive variables on reactivity in sexual risk behavior and risk appraisals in a diary study of men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods 143 MSM completed weekly online sexual diaries for three months. Analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Results There was no evidence of reactivity for the sample as a whole. Social cognitive variables (e.g., risk reduction motivation, condom use intentions, and social norms) moderated reactivity in study outcomes. For example, more highly motivated MSM experienced declines in serodiscordant unprotected anal intercourse over time. Conclusions Effectiveness of behavioral self-monitoring strategies may vary depending on social cognitive domains. PMID:24081918

  17. The effects of Polya's heuristic and diary writing on children's problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensberry, Karina K. R.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that aimed at increasing students' problem-solving skills. Polya's (1985) heuristic for problem solving was used and students were required to articulate their thought processes through the use of a structured diary. The diary prompted students to answer questions designed to engage them in the phases of Polya's (1985) heuristic. While it appeared as though most students did not internalise the diary questions, further analysis of students' responses indicated that most students showed improvement in their solution strategies. These results indicate that having students write about their thinking may be beneficial for developing their problem-solving skills.

  18. The Mishin Diaries, a new significant primary source of space history information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payson, Dmitry; Alifanov, Oleg; Moiseev, Ivan; Vick, Charles; Woods, David

    2016-06-01

    Vasily Mishin (1917-2001) was a prominent Russian engineer and scientist: one of the pioneers who made spaceflight a reality. In 2014 diaries that were maintained by Mishin from 1960 to 1974 (the Mishin Diaries) had been transcribed and published and can now serve as an extensive resource for first-hand historical information about that fascinating period of time. The original Diaries are now owned by the Perot Foundation and copies were generously provided by them to the Moscow Aviation Institute for this transcription project. The actual publication was made possible by Mishin's students, co-workers, family members as well as numerous spaceflight historians and enthusiasts.

  19. Randomized, Cross-Over Evaluation of Mobile Phone vs Paper Diary in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Eli O; Kelley, Norma; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2008-01-01

    Diaries are frequently used to evaluate therapy. Forgetfulness, however, can lead to missed entries. With paper diaries, these missing entries can be backfilled, compromising the reasons for using a diary. Electronic diaries are a potential means of mitigating this limitation. The pilot study was conducted to evaluate use of a mobile phone diary. Twelve subjects with mild persistent asthma were randomly assigned to mobile or paper diary for 2 weeks and then crossed over to use the other diary type for next 2 weeks. Of the 12 subjects, 7 preferred the mobile diary. However, the mean prevalence of missing data was greater when using the mobile (18% ± 9%) compared to paper diary (9% ± 4%; P = 0.05). In conclusion, the mobile diary was preferred by slightly more subjects. The greater prevalence of missing data when using this diary most likely results from the inability to backfill missing entries. Trial Registration: Clintrials.gov NCT00367263 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00367263). PMID:19412327

  20. What can be learned from adolescent time diary research.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Eithne; McKay, Elizabeth Anne

    2015-03-01

    Time use is increasingly being recognized as a determinant and indicator of adolescent well-being internationally. Three existing literature reviews of time-use research with children and adolescents have identified time-use diaries as the preferred data collection method. Furthermore, they have encouraged researchers to examine multidimensional patterns of overall time use in large-sample whole child populations to better understand the health, well-being, and quality of life of children and young people. However, these three existing reviews differ in the time frames covered; the age ranges targeted; the categories of time use examined; and the time-use data collection and analysis methods used. This study aimed to map the extent and nature of time diary studies with well adolescents (aged 10-19 years) and the use of person-centered data analysis of overall time use as a multidimensional unit. Finally, it explores whether and how the included studies analyzed the relationship between time use and health, well-being, and quality of life. A scoping review method was employed using Arksey and O'Malley's five-step framework. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were secondary analyses of cross-sectional population-level time-use or lifestyle survey data. One-third of studies (n = 11) captured data representing 24 hours of the day. Two studies (6%) used person-centered analyses, while six studies (18%) empirically examined time use in relation to health and well-being. No studies examined adolescent 24-hour time use and quality of life. Adolescent time-use researchers are encouraged to be explicit in identifying the stage of adolescence to which their studies relate; capture 24-hour time-use data; analyze overall activity patterns as multidimensional units using person-centered methods; and use robust, reliable, valid, sensitive, and age-appropriate instruments to empirically examine time use and health, well-being, and quality of life

  1. Modifying the diary interview method to research the lives of people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Ruth

    2012-12-01

    Debates about involving people with dementia in qualitative research are extensive, yet the range of methods used is limited. Researchers tend to rely on interview and/or observation methods to collect data, even though these tools might preclude participation. I modified the conventional diary interview method to include photo and audio diaries in an effort to investigate the lives of people with dementia in a participatory way. Sixteen people with dementia kept a diary-written, photo, or audio, whichever suited them best-for 1 month. The purposes of this article are to share the methodological insights gained from this process in the context of emerging literature on sensory ethnography, and to argue for the broader application of the diary interview method in dementia-related research, on the grounds that it mediates an equal relationship and makes visible the "whole person," including the environment in which that person lives. PMID:23034779

  2. Developing a Diary Program to Minimize Patient and Family Post-Intensive Care Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Locke, Meaghan; Eccleston, Sarah; Ryan, Claire N; Byrnes, Tiffany J; Mount, Cristin; McCarthy, Mary S

    2016-01-01

    A series of evidence-based interventions beginning with an intensive care unit diary and a patient/family educational pamphlet were implemented to address the long-term consequences of critical illness after discharge from the intensive care unit, bundled as post-intensive care syndrome and post-intensive care syndrome-family. An extensive literature review and nursing observations of the phenomenon highlighted the potential for this project to have a favorable impact on patients, their families, and the health care team. The goal of this article is to explain the education of all stakeholders; the introduction of the diary, video, and educational pamphlet; and the evaluation of the acceptance of these interventions. This process began with an informal evaluation of the educational products and overall perception of the usefulness of the diary by patients, family members, and staff. The efforts described contribute to the evidence base supporting diaries as an adjunct to intensive care. PMID:27153310

  3. Visiting the International Space Station--my mission diary.

    PubMed

    Guidoni, G

    2001-08-01

    Having been fortunate enough to be the first European Astronaut to visit and live aboard the International Space Station, I would like to share with you my personal diary of this very special trip. Space Shuttle 'Endeavour', with an international crew of seven, lifted off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on 19 April for an 11-day mission, which included the delivery of the European-developed 'Raffaello' logistics module to the Station and the attachment of the Station's new 17-metre Canadian Robotic Arm. We returned to Earth, with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California, on 1 May. Raffaello had been packed for its outward journey with 10 tons of new Station equipment, including six experiment racks and two storage racks for the US 'Destiny' module, as well as supplies for the astronauts and other equipment for future construction and maintenance work. One of my main tasks during the mission was to oversee the safe unloading of all of the experiments and equipment into the Space Station. I was relieved that the whole exercise went so smoothly and very proud to have been the first astronaut to represent Europe on the International Space Station.

  4. The acoustical diary as an innovative tool in soundscape evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Genuit, Klaus

    2001-05-01

    A new field study evaluating soundscapes investigates closely the reactions of traffic noise with a particular regard to the street surface. The combination of methods with different sensibilities for the subject's process of perceiving and evaluating noise in such ambiences is necessary for a reliable and valid analysis and interpretation of data. Acoustic measurements are carried out in critical segments of the street as well as in the respective apartments of the inhabitants, which are questioned in narrative interviews. The acoustic measurements are taken simultaneously in the apartment and on the street. Apartments were selected which issue into the street; outside measurements are performed in front of the buildings on the sidewalk. During the interviews in the apartments the occurring noises are registered by noisebook. As a rule the measurement spot within the apartment is the area in which the interviewed person mostly resides, when he/she takes repose. Further analysis points out the importance of an extended evaluation with an acoustical diary which combines technical and sociological measurement procedures. Performance of the entire data collection process and first results will be discussed.

  5. Initial Evaluation of an Electronic Symptom Diary for Adolescents with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Faith; Coll, Beatriz; Kletter, Richard; Zeltzer, Paul; Miaskowski, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background The delivery of optimal care depends on accurate communication between patients and clinicians regarding untoward symptoms. Documentation of patients’ symptoms necessitates reliance on memory, which is often imprecise. We developed an electronic diary (eDiary) for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer to record symptoms. Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe the utility of an eDiary designed for AYAs with cancer, including dependability of the mobile application, the reasons for any missing recorded data, patients’ adherence rates to daily symptom queries, and patients’ perceptions of the usefulness and acceptability of symptom data collection via mobile phones. Methods Our team developed an electronic symptom diary based on interviews conducted with AYAs with cancer and their clinicians. This diary included daily severity ratings of pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and sleep. The occurrence of other selected physical sequelae was assessed daily. Additionally, patients selected descriptors of their mood. A 3-week trial of the eDiary was conducted with 10 AYA cancer patients. Mobile phones with service plans were loaned to patients who were instructed to report their symptoms daily. Patients completed a brief questionnaire and were interviewed to elicit their perceptions of the eDiary and any technical difficulties encountered. Results Overall adherence to daily symptom reports exceeded 90%. Young people experienced few technical difficulties and reported benefit from daily symptom reports. Symptom occurrence rates were high and considerable inter- and intra-patient variability was noted in symptom and mood reports. Conclusions We demonstrated the utility of an eDiary that may contribute insight into patients’ symptom patterns to promote effective symptom management. PMID:23612521

  6. Short-term Recovery after Orthognathic Surgery: A Medical Daily Diary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Blakey, George

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the utility of a quality-of-life diary for the assessment of postoperative recovery following orthognathic surgery. A 20-item daily recovery diary was designed to assess the patients’ perception of recovery in 4 domains (postoperative sequelae; pain/discomfort; oral function; daily activities) during each of the first 90 days after surgery. Fifteen of 185 patients who had agreed to participate did not return any portion of the diary. Of the remaining patients, 87% returned the full 90 days requested. Younger patients were more likely to complete the entire protocol (P = 0.01). At 30 days, a lower percentage, in general, of patients who completed all 90 days reported recovery in oral function and general activity compared with those who did not complete all diary days. This study confirms that patients will cooperate with the completion of structured medical / health-related quality-of-life diaries during the first few months after orthognathic surgery. Information from such diaries would be valuable to patients deciding on treatment options and to the clinicians counseling them. PMID:18768296

  7. Fertility in Angus cross beef cows following 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Whittier, William D; Currin, John F; Schramm, Holly; Holland, Sarah; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K

    2013-12-01

    The present study determined whether a 5-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol with two doses of PGF2α would improve timed artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rate compared with 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in beef cows. Angus cross beef cows (N = 1817) at 12 locations were randomly assigned to 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR groups. All cows received 100 μg of GnRH and a CIDR insert on Day 0. Cows (n = 911) in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received two doses of 25 mg PGF, the first dose given on Day 5 at CIDR removal and the second dose 6 hours later, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 8 and were inseminated concurrently, 72 hours after CIDR removal. Cows (n = 906) in 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 7, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 10 and were inseminated concurrently, 66 to 72 hours after CIDR removal. All cows were fitted with a heat detector aid at CIDR removal and were observed twice daily until insemination for estrus and heat detector aid status. Accounting for estrus expression at or before AI (P < 0.0001) and body condition score (P < 0.01), cows in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group had greater AI pregnancy rate compared with cows in the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group (58.1% vs. 55.1%; P = 0.04). More cows that exhibited estrus at or before AI became pregnant compared with cows that did not [65.7% (681/1037) vs. 44.5% (347/780); P < 0.0001]. The AI pregnancy rate was lesser for cows with body condition ≤4 [≤4 - 49.3% (101/219), 5-6 - 57.9%; >6 - 55.8%]. The mean AI pregnancy rate difference between treatment groups and projected economic outcome varied among locations. In conclusion, cows synchronized with the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had greater AI pregnancy rate than those that received the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol.

  8. Beijing diary: ten days at the women's conference.

    PubMed

    Craft, N

    1995-10-14

    A British Medical Journal editor recorded her impressions and experiences at the Fourth World Conference on Women in the form of a 10-day diary. She described a logistical nightmare extending from her attempt to check into the hotel where she had a reservation to workshops and meetings held in unfinished buildings, overcrowded classrooms, and public areas of a hotel (even after hotel management extinguished the lights). The journalist's movements were dutifully recorded by a uniformed attendant, and taxi drivers refused to take her to the conference center. Early lobbying and strategy meetings revolved around the issues to be discussed at the conference. The opening of the Conference was marked with pomp and ceremony while workshops held at the nongovernmental (NGO) forum 50 miles away provided an opportunity for women to describe their attempts to improve their status. Rain forced Hilary Clinton to speak inside and disappointed thousands of women who had waited in line for hours to hear her comments. Betty Friedan described the conference as a metaphor for women's experience in the world and called for a "new vision of equality." Debates at the NGO forum centered around the rights of parents to have access to their children's medical records and punitive measures for women who have had abortions. At the Conference, the UN was unable to explain the paucity of women in positions of under secretary general or higher. By the end of the first week, the governments of Australia, India, Tanzania, China, the US, Ghana, the UK, Turkey, and Cambodia had all made commitments to improve the status of women. During the second week of the Conference the wording for the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action was passed through various committees. The resulting document represents a significant contribution to the gradual progress towards equity for women, instead of a major shift in world view, but grassroots organizations will find in it the ammunition to hold governments

  9. Food and macronutrient intake of elite Ethiopian distance runners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Explanations for the phenomenal success of East African distance runners include unique dietary practices. The aim of the present study was to assess the food and macronutrient intake of elite Ethiopian distance runners during a period of high intensity exercise training at altitude and prior to major competition. Methods The dietary intake of 10 highly-trained Ethiopian long distance runners, living and training at high altitude (approximately 2400 m above sea level) was assessed during a 7 day period of intense training prior to competition using the standard weighed intake method. Training was also assessed using an activity/training diary. Results Body mass was stable (i.e., was well maintained) over the assessment period (pre: 56.7 ± 4.3 kg vs. post: 56.6 ± 4.2 kg, P = 0.54; mean ± SD). The diet comprised of 13375 ± 1378 kJ and was high in carbohydrate (64.3 ± 2.6%, 545 ± 49 g, 9.7 ± 0.9 g/kg). Fat and protein intake was 23.3 ± 2.1% (83 ± 14 g) and 12.4 ± 0.6% (99 ± 13 g, 1.8 ± 0.2 g/kg), respectively. Fluid intake comprised mainly of water (1751 ± 583 mL), while no fluids were consumed before or during training with only modest amounts being consumed following training. Conclusions Similar to previous studies in elite Kenyan distance runners, the diet of these elite Ethiopian distance runners met most recommendations of endurance athletes for macronutrient intake but not for fluid intake. PMID:21595961

  10. Continuous accelerated 7-days-a-week radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Long-term results of Phase III clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof . E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Golen, Maria; Tarnawski, Rafal; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Suwinski, Rafal; Sygula, Mariusz; Wygoda, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To update 5-year results of a previously published study on special 7-days-a-week fractionation continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in Stage T{sub 2-4}N{sub 0-1}M were randomized between two definitive radiation treatments: accelerated fractionation 7 days a week including weekends (CAIR) and conventional 5 days a week (control). Hence the overall treatment time was 2 weeks shorter in CAIR. Results: Five-year local tumor control was 75% in the CAIR group and 33% in the control arm (p < 0.00004). Tumor-cure benefit corresponded with significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with the incidence significantly higher in CAIR patients than in control (respectively, 94% vs. 53%). When 2.0-Gy fractions were used, radiation necrosis developed in 5 patients (22%) in the CAIR group as a consequential late effect (CLE), but when fraction size was reduced to 1.8 Gy no more CLE occurred. Actuarial 5-year morbidity-free survival rate was similar for both treatments. Conclusions: Selected head-and-neck cancer patients could be treated very effectively with 7-days-a-week radiation schedule with no compromise of total dose and with slight 10% reduction of fraction dose (2 Gy-1.8 Gy), which article gives 1 week reduction of overall treatment time compared with standard 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 47-49 days. Although this report is based on the relatively small group of patients, its results have encouraged us to use CAIR fractionation in a standard radiation treatment for moderately advanced head-and-neck cancer patients.

  11. A Mobile and Intelligent Patient Diary for Chronic Disease Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Van Woensel, William; Roy, Patrice C; Abidi, Samina R; Abidi, Syed S R

    2015-01-01

    By involving patients in their own long-term care, patient self-management approaches aim to increase self-sufficiency and reduce healthcare costs. For example, electronic patient diaries enable patients to collect health data autonomously, increasing self-reliance and reducing strain on health professionals. By deploying patient diaries on mobile platforms, health data collection can occur at any time and place, increasing the mobility of chronic patients who typically need to enter health data frequently. Importantly, an opportunity also arises for mobile clinical decision support, where health feedback is directly issued to patients without relying on connectivity or remote servers. Regardless of the specific self-management strategy, patient and healthcare provider adoption are crucial. Tailoring the system towards the particular patient and toward institution-specific clinical pathways is essential to increasing acceptance. In this paper we discuss a mobile patient diary realizing both the opportunities and challenges of mobile deployment. PMID:26262022

  12. A Mobile and Intelligent Patient Diary for Chronic Disease Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Van Woensel, William; Roy, Patrice C; Abidi, Samina R; Abidi, Syed S R

    2015-01-01

    By involving patients in their own long-term care, patient self-management approaches aim to increase self-sufficiency and reduce healthcare costs. For example, electronic patient diaries enable patients to collect health data autonomously, increasing self-reliance and reducing strain on health professionals. By deploying patient diaries on mobile platforms, health data collection can occur at any time and place, increasing the mobility of chronic patients who typically need to enter health data frequently. Importantly, an opportunity also arises for mobile clinical decision support, where health feedback is directly issued to patients without relying on connectivity or remote servers. Regardless of the specific self-management strategy, patient and healthcare provider adoption are crucial. Tailoring the system towards the particular patient and toward institution-specific clinical pathways is essential to increasing acceptance. In this paper we discuss a mobile patient diary realizing both the opportunities and challenges of mobile deployment.

  13. Bringing everyday mind reading into everyday life: assessing empathic accuracy with daily diary data.

    PubMed

    Howland, Maryhope; Rafaeli, Eshkol

    2010-10-01

    Individual differences in empathic accuracy (EA) can be assessed using daily diary methods as a complement to more commonly used lab-based behavioral observations. Using electronic dyadic diaries, we distinguished among elements of EA (i.e., accuracy in levels, scatter, and pattern, regarding both positive and negative moods) and examined them as phenomena at both the day and the person level. In a 3-week diary study of cohabiting partners, we found support for differentiating these elements. The proposed indices reflect differing aspects of accuracy, with considerable similarity among same-valenced accuracy indices. Overall there was greater accuracy regarding negative target moods than positive target moods. These methods and findings take the phenomenon of "everyday mindreading" (Ickes, 2003) into everyday life. We conclude by discussing empathic accuracies as a family of capacities for, or tendencies toward, accurate interpersonal sensitivity. Members of this family may have distinct associations with the perceiver's, target's, and relationship's well-being.

  14. Food waste volume and origin: Case studies in the Finnish food service sector.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Heikkilä, Lotta; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Reinikainen, Anu

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a project to map the volume and composition of food waste in the Finnish food service sector. The amount, type and origin of avoidable food waste were investigated in 51 food service outlets, including schools, day-care centres, workplace canteens, petrol stations, restaurants and diners. Food service outlet personnel kept diaries and weighed the food produced and wasted during a one-week or one-day period. For weighing and sorting, the food waste was divided into two categories: originally edible (OE) food waste was separated from originally inedible (OIE) waste, such as vegetable peelings, bones and coffee grounds. In addition, food waste (OE) was divided into three categories in accordance with its origins: kitchen waste, service waste and customer leftovers. According to the results, about 20% of all food handled and prepared in the sector was wasted. The findings also suggest that the main drivers of wasted food are buffet services and overproduction. PMID:26419775

  15. Food waste volume and origin: Case studies in the Finnish food service sector.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Heikkilä, Lotta; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Reinikainen, Anu

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a project to map the volume and composition of food waste in the Finnish food service sector. The amount, type and origin of avoidable food waste were investigated in 51 food service outlets, including schools, day-care centres, workplace canteens, petrol stations, restaurants and diners. Food service outlet personnel kept diaries and weighed the food produced and wasted during a one-week or one-day period. For weighing and sorting, the food waste was divided into two categories: originally edible (OE) food waste was separated from originally inedible (OIE) waste, such as vegetable peelings, bones and coffee grounds. In addition, food waste (OE) was divided into three categories in accordance with its origins: kitchen waste, service waste and customer leftovers. According to the results, about 20% of all food handled and prepared in the sector was wasted. The findings also suggest that the main drivers of wasted food are buffet services and overproduction.

  16. The perfectionism model of binge eating: testing unique contributions, mediating mechanisms, and cross-cultural similarities using a daily diary methodology.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Simon B; Sabourin, Brigitte C; Hall, Peter A; Hewitt, Paul L; Flett, Gordon L; Gralnick, Tara M

    2014-12-01

    The perfectionism model of binge eating (PMOBE) is an integrative model explaining the link between perfectionism and binge eating. This model proposes socially prescribed perfectionism confers risk for binge eating by generating exposure to 4 putative binge triggers: interpersonal discrepancies, low interpersonal esteem, depressive affect, and dietary restraint. The present study addresses important gaps in knowledge by testing if these 4 binge triggers uniquely predict changes in binge eating on a daily basis and if daily variations in each binge trigger mediate the link between socially prescribed perfectionism and daily binge eating. Analyses also tested if proposed mediational models generalized across Asian and European Canadians. The PMOBE was tested in 566 undergraduate women using a 7-day daily diary methodology. Depressive affect predicted binge eating, whereas anxious affect did not. Each binge trigger uniquely contributed to binge eating on a daily basis. All binge triggers except for dietary restraint mediated the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and change in daily binge eating. Results suggested cross-cultural similarities, with the PMOBE applying to both Asian and European Canadian women. The present study advances understanding of the personality traits and the contextual conditions accompanying binge eating and provides an important step toward improving treatments for people suffering from eating binges and associated negative consequences. PMID:25243835

  17. The Construction of Identity on the Internet: Oops! I've Left My Diary Open to the Whole World!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moinian, Farzaneh

    2006-01-01

    This article is based on an ethnographic study carried out by the author on children and young people's diaries in a Swedish web community called "Youngsters." Its goal is to provide an insight into what some children write in their diaries in this web community and what the favourite topics are as depicted in these narratives. The focus is on the…

  18. Reflecting on Method: The Use of a Time-Log Diary To Examine the Labour Process of Further Education Lecturers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, James; Parsons, John; Bathmaker, Ann-Marie

    2001-01-01

    Explores ways in which researchers gathered and analyzed data from time-log diaries kept by further education instructors in order to illuminate the social conditions of teaching. Describes the process of refinement of diaries and the combination of qualitative and quantitative data. (Contains 40 references.) (SK)

  19. How Accurate Are German Work-Time Data? A Comparison of Time-Diary Reports and Stylized Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otterbach, Steffen; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    This study compares work time data collected by the German Time Use Survey (GTUS) using the diary method with stylized work time estimates from the GTUS, the German Socio-Economic Panel, and the German Microcensus. Although on average the differences between the time-diary data and the interview data is not large, our results show that significant…

  20. Using diaries to explore the work experiences of primary health care nursing managers in two South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    Munyewende, Pascalia O.; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background South Africa is on the brink of another wave of major health system reforms that underscore the centrality of primary health care (PHC). Nursing managers will play a critical role in these reforms. Objective The aim of the study was to explore the work experiences of PHC clinic nursing managers through the use of reflective diaries, a method hitherto under-utilised in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries. Design During 2012, a sub-set of 22 PHC nursing managers was selected randomly from a larger nurses’ survey in two South African provinces. After informed consent, participants were requested to keep individual diaries for a period of 6 weeks, using a clear set of diary entry guidelines. Reminders consisted of weekly short message service reminders and telephone calls. Diary entries were analysed using thematic content analysis. A diary feedback meeting was held with all the participants to validate the findings. Results Fifteen diaries were received, representing a 68% response rate. The majority of respondents (14/15) were female, each with between 5 and 15 years of nursing experience. Most participants made their diary entries at home. Diaries proved to be cathartic for individual nursing managers. Although inter-related and not mutually exclusive, the main themes that emerged from the diary analysis were health system deficiencies; human resource challenges; unsupportive management environment; leadership and governance; and the emotional impact of clinic management. Conclusions Diaries are an innovative method of capturing the work experiences of managers at the PHC level, as they allow for confidentiality and anonymity, often not possible with other qualitative research methods. The expressed concerns of nursing managers must be addressed to ensure the success of South Africa's health sector reforms, particularly at the PHC level. PMID:25537937

  1. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  2. Functions, Targets, and Outcomes of Specific Forms of Social Aggression: A Daily Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyches, Karmon D.; Mayeux, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 8 specific forms of social aggression (SA) in terms of the functions they serve, the characteristics of the peers targeted by them, and the outcomes associated with using the behaviors. Two hundred and seventeen fifth- and seventh-grade boys and girls completed a structured daily diary for 5 consecutive days in their…

  3. Psychological Strain and Emotional Labor among Police-Officers: A Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Benjamin; Heuven, Ellen; van Veldhoven, Marc; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Croon, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between psychological strain, emotional dissonance and emotional job demands during a working day of 65 Dutch (military) police officers, using a 5-day diary design. We hypothesized that emotional dissonance partly mediated the relationship between psychological strain at the start and at the end of a work…

  4. Time Diary and Questionnaire Assessment of Factors Associated with Academic and Personal Success among University Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Darren; Dixon, Sinikka; Stansal, Emory; Gelb, Shannon Lund; Pheri, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: A sample of 231 students attending a private liberal arts university in central Alberta, Canada, completed a 5-day time diary and a 71-item questionnaire assessing the influence of personal, cognitive, and attitudinal factors on success. Methods: The authors used 3 success measures: cumulative grade point average (GPA),…

  5. Problem Solving in Everyday Office Work--A Diary Study on Differences between Experts and Novices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Andreas; Schley, Thomas; Warwas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary office work is becoming increasingly challenging as many routine tasks are automated or outsourced. The remaining problem solving activities may also offer potential for lifelong learning in the workplace. In this study, we analyzed problem solving in an office work setting using an Internet-based, semi-standardized diary to collect…

  6. The Nation behind the Diary: Anne Frank and the Holocaust of the Dutch Jews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foray, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Since its first appearance in 1947, "The Diary of Anne Frank" has been translated into sixty-five different languages, including Welsh, Esperanto, and Faroese. Millions and perhaps even billions of readers, scattered throughout the globe and now spanning multiple generations, are familiar with the life and work of this young Jewish writer. Over…

  7. Paper and Plastic in Daily Diary Research: Comment on Green, Rafaeli, Bolger, Shrout, and Reis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennen, Howard; Affleck, Glenn; Coyne, James C.; Larsen, Randy J.; DeLongis, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The authors applaud A. S. Green, E. Rafaeli, N. Bolger, P. E. Shrout, and H. T. Reis's (2006) response to one-sided comparisons of paper versus electronic (plastic) diary methods and hope that it will stimulate more balanced considerations of the issues involved. The authors begin by highlighting areas of agreement and disagreement with Green et…

  8. A Diary Study on the Causes of English Language Classroom Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gkonou, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on learners' diaries, the study reported in this article focused on the English language classroom anxiety (ELCA) of eight Greek EFL learners in private language school settings. The study investigated the extent to which anxiety is amenable to change and the factors contributing to the creation and increase in students' anxiety…

  9. Where Does the Time Go? A Diary Approach to Business and Marketing Students' Time Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Sarath A.; Philhours, Melodie J.; Hudson, Gail I.

    2006-01-01

    What are students doing with their time? Existing research mostly has focused on time used for study and/or work in relation to academic outcomes. This study uses a diary approach to explore business and marketing students' time use encompassing all student activities, not just study or work. A clustering procedure resulted in two meaningful…

  10. Creating Deep Time Diaries: An English/Earth Science Unit for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Vicky; Barnes, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Students love a good story. That is why incorporating literary fiction that parallels teaching goals and standards can be effective. In the interdisciplinary, thematic six-week unit described in this article, the authors use the fictional book "The Deep Time Diaries," by Gary Raham, to explore topics in paleontology, Earth science, and creative…

  11. Dumb Dorky Girls and Wimpy Boys: Gendered Themes in Diary Cartoon Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy; Woloshyn, Vera

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on gendered themes promulgated in three books written in diary cartoon form. Although written for different audiences, each of these books constructs gender norms in similar ways. They promote heteronormative gender roles for boys and girls by endorsing traditional femininities and hegemonic masculinities through the…

  12. Everyday Sexism: Evidence for Its Incidence, Nature, and Psychological Impact from Three Daily Diary Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swim, Janet K.; Hyers, Lauri L.; Cohen, Laurie L.; Ferguson, Melissa J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the incidence, nature, and impact of everyday sexism among college students. Data from daily diaries indicated that women experienced one to two significant sexist incidents per week that affected their psychological well-being (e.g., gender role stereotypes, prejudice, demeaning comments and behaviors, and sexual objectification).…

  13. A Comparison of Diary Method Variations for Enlightening Form Generation in the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babapour, Maral; Rehammar, Bjorn; Rahe, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two studies in which an empirical approach was taken to understand and explain form generation and decisions taken in the design process. In particular, the activities addressing aesthetic aspects when exteriorising form ideas in the design process have been the focus of the present study. Diary methods were the starting point…

  14. What if There Is Nobody Around to Speak English? Then Keep Your Voice Diary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore English Language Teaching (ELT) prep-class students' perceptions of keeping personal voice diaries via a voice recorder as a way to extend speaking practice beyond the classroom walls. Following a ten-week treatment under which 12 voluntary students attending ELT prep-class at Ondokuz Mayis University kept voice diaries…

  15. Maternal Daily Diary Report in the Assessment of Childhood Separation Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of separation anxiety, the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD). Mother and child participants consisted of three groups: 96 children (aged 4-15 years) with separation anxiety disorder, 49 children with "other" anxiety disorders, and 43 healthy controls. The SADD…

  16. The Separation Anxiety Daily Diary: Child Version--Feasibility and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the feasibility and psychometric properties of the child version of the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD-C) in 125 children (ages 7-14 years) from German-speaking areas of Switzerland. Children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 58), "other" anxiety disorders (n = 36), and healthy controls (n = 31) recorded the…

  17. Qualitative Researchers in the Blogosphere: Using Blogs as Diaries and Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Weblogs or blogs for short can be personal diaries shared by individuals giving readers a sometimes voyeuristic view into the lives and minds of these virtual authors. The ability for readers to find and promote weblogs makes the practice of blogging appealing for parties wanting to market their products and services. The popularity and the…

  18. A NEW METHOD OF LONGITUDINAL DIARY ASSEMBLY FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure time-series modeling requires longitudinal time-activity diaries to evaluate the sequence of concentrations encountered, and hence, pollutant exposure for the simulated individuals. However, most of the available data on human activities are from cross-sectional su...

  19. Bioscience Students' First Year Perspectives through Video Diaries: Home, Family and Student Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jon; Green, Paul; Cashmore, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The first year experiences of students are viewed as important in contributing to retention, overall academic success and student satisfaction. As such there is an increased focus on students' experiences of their first weeks at university. In this paper we describe some findings from a video-diary project through which bioscience students…

  20. Parents' Role in Adolescents' Decision on a College Major: A Weekly Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Julia; Kracke, Barbel; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This study examined 39 adolescents during their transition to university. In standardized weekly diaries over several weeks (M=8.13) adolescents reported on engagement in career exploration (in-breadth and in-depth self and environmental exploration), their parents' transition-related involvement (frequency of conversations, support, and…

  1. Diary-Based Strategy Assessment and Its Relationship to Performance in a Group of Trainee Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilar, Raquel; de los Angeles Martinez Ruiz, Maria; Costa, Juan Luiz Castejon

    2007-01-01

    Our work is based on the study of learning strategies used by a group of trainee teachers in a real learning situation, and how this use of strategies influences the results of the learning process. We use a diary as a tool to assess the learning strategies and compare the results obtained with those using an inventory. Our findings indicate that…

  2. Video Diaries: A Tool to Investigate Sustainability-Related Learning in Threshold Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes as a case study an undergraduate field class from a UK university to rural Uganda. It describes and evaluates the use of video diaries as a tool for investigating the process of transformative learning in the context of education for sustainability. The applicability of threshold concept theory to this learning is investigated.…

  3. The Inside, Out: Diaries as Entry Points to Historical Perspective-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemisko, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Diaries can serve as meaningful entry points for advancing historical consciousness and develop historical thinking (Seixas, 2002) because they can connect readers/learners with the diverse emotions, thoughts and motivations of the people who wrote them in particular times and particular places. According to philosopher and historian, R.G.…

  4. Aspects of Teaching and Learning Science: What Students' Diaries Reveal about Inquiry and Traditional Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawalkar, Aisha; Vijapurkar, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of students' reflective writing (diaries) of two cohorts of Grade 8 students, one undergoing inquiry and the other traditional science teaching. Students' writing included a summary of what students had learned in class on that day and their opinions and feelings about the class. The entries were analysed qualitatively and…

  5. Self-Monitoring of Self-Regulation during Math Homework Behaviour Using Standardized Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Bernhard; Perels, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at enhancing math learning and general self-regulation by supporting daily self-regulated learning during math homework. The authors use standardized diaries as a self-monitoring tool to support self-regulatory behaviour. Following the theory of self-monitoring, frequent self-monitoring of self-regulation will lead to an…

  6. Validity of a Sun Safety Diary Using UV Monitors in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaroch, Amy L.; Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; Maloy, Julie A.; Geno, Cristy R.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a validity study conducted among middle school students comparing self-reported sun safety behaviors from a diary with readings from ultraviolet (UV) monitors worn on different body sites. The UV monitors are stickers with panels that turn increasingly darker shades of blue in the presence of increasing amounts of UV light.…

  7. Joining the Dots: Piloting the Work Diary as a Data Collection Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the pilot of one data collection tool, the work diary, for an educational research project. Before inclusion in the wider research project, the researcher developed, piloted and qualitatively assessed the feasibility of the data collection tool. As the wider research project will be conducted in and investigate…

  8. Syntactic and Semantic Coordination in Finite Complement-Clause Constructions: A Diary-Based Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köymen, Bahar; Lieven, Elena; Brandt, Silke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of matrix and subordinate clauses within finite complement-clause constructions. The data come from diary and audio recordings which include the utterances produced by an American English-speaking child, L, between the ages 1;08 and 3;05. We extracted all the finite complement-clause constructions that L…

  9. Diary Insights of an EFL Reading Teacher (Apreciaciones de un profesor de lectura en lengua inglesa escritas en un diario de clase)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopera Medina, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    It is often argued that classroom diaries are subjective. This article explores the diary insights of a foreign language reading teacher. The inquiry was based on the following research question: What do the diary insights really evidence about the teaching practices of a foreign language reading teacher? As a research method, a case study was…

  10. Estimation of minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge for selected stream sites, and associated low-flow water-quality data, southeast Texas, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Texas that provides discharge data used for water-management decisions and various other purposes. Operating stations at all locations where discharge data are needed is not feasible, but the statistical characteristics of the network station data can be used to estimate discharge characteristics at ungaged sites. Regionalization techniques such as regression analyses relate discharge-frequency characteristics to selected physical and climatic characteristics of drainage basins. A particular discharge-frequency characteristic that can be regionalized is the minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge1 (7Q2). In Texas, the 7Q2 is used at stream sites to analyze permit applications for water allocation, water-supply planning, aquatic maintenance (instream flow) requirements, and waste-load allocation for point and nonpoint source discharges.

  11. Walking Objectively Measured: Classifying Accelerometer Data with GPS and Travel Diaries

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bumjoon; Moudon, Anne V.; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Reichley, Lucas; Saelens, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study developed and tested an algorithm to classify accelerometer data as walking or non-walking using either GPS or travel diary data within a large sample of adults under free-living conditions. Methods Participants wore an accelerometer and a GPS unit, and concurrently completed a travel diary for 7 consecutive days. Physical activity (PA) bouts were identified using accelerometry count sequences. PA bouts were then classified as walking or non-walking based on a decision-tree algorithm consisting of 7 classification scenarios. Algorithm reliability was examined relative to two independent analysts’ classification of a 100-bout verification sample. The algorithm was then applied to the entire set of PA bouts. Results The 706 participants’ (mean age 51 years, 62% female, 80% non-Hispanic white, 70% college graduate or higher) yielded 4,702 person-days of data and had a total of 13,971 PA bouts. The algorithm showed a mean agreement of 95% with the independent analysts. It classified physical activity into 8,170 (58.5 %) walking bouts and 5,337 (38.2%) non-walking bouts; 464 (3.3%) bouts were not classified for lack of GPS and diary data. Nearly 70% of the walking bouts and 68% of the non-walking bouts were classified using only the objective accelerometer and GPS data. Travel diary data helped classify 30% of all bouts with no GPS data. The mean duration of PA bouts classified as walking was 15.2 min (SD=12.9). On average, participants had 1.7 walking bouts and 25.4 total walking minutes per day. Conclusions GPS and travel diary information can be helpful in classifying most accelerometer-derived PA bouts into walking or non-walking behavior. PMID:23439414

  12. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkies, Krystyna; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  13. Measuring sleep habits without using a diary: the sleep timing questionnaire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Kennedy, Kathy S.; Pods, Jaime M.; DeGrazia, Jean M.; Miewald, Jean M.

    2003-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To develop a single-administration instrument yielding equivalent measures of sleep to those obtained from a formal (2-week) sleep diary. DESIGN & SETTING: A single-administration Sleep riming Questionnaire (STQ) is described (and reproduced in the Appendix). Test-retest reliability was examined in 40 subjects who were given the STQ on two occasions separated by less than 1 year. Convergent validity was measured both by comparing STO-derived measures with objective measures derived from wrist actigraphy (n=23) and by comparing STQ-derived measures with other subjective measures derived from a detailed 2-week sleep diary in two nonoverlapping samples (n=101, 93). Correlations of STQ measures with age and momingness-eveningness (chronotype) were also examined. SUBJECTS: The analyses used sample sizes of 40, 23, 101, and 93 (both genders, overall age range 20y-89y). Most subjects were healthy volunteers; some Study 4 subjects were patients (enrolled in research protocols). RESULTS: Test-retest reliability for the STQ was demonstrated for estimates of bedtime (r = 0.705, p < 0.001) and waketime (r = 0.826, p < 0.001). Convergent validity using wrist actigraphy was demonstrated by correlations of 0.592 (p < 0.005) for bedtime, and of 0.769 (p < 0.001) for waketime. Diary studies indicated STQ bedtime and waketime data to be highly correlated (at about 0.8) with those obtained from a formal 2-week sleep diary. The STQ also provided data on estimated sleep latency and wake after sleep onset (WASO), which correlated reliably (at about 0.7) with average nightly ratings of these variables from a 2-week sleep diary. Mean estimated values of sleep latency and WASO from the two instruments were within 1 minute of each other. ST-derived bedtimes and waketimes correlated with both age and chronotype in the expected direction (older subjects earlier, morning types earlier). CONCLUSION: The STQ may be a reliable valid measure of sleep timing that could provide a

  14. Analysis of Trigger Factors in Episodic Migraineurs Using a Smartphone Headache Diary Applications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Wook; Chu, Min Kyung; Kim, Jae-Moon; Park, Sang-Gue; Cho, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Various stimuli can trigger migraines in susceptible individuals. We examined migraine trigger factors by using a smartphone headache diary application. Method Episodic migraineurs who agreed to participate in our study downloaded smartphone headache diary application, which was designed to capture the details regarding headache trigger factors and characteristics for 3 months. The participants were asked to access the smartphone headache diary application daily and to confirm the presence of a headache and input the types of trigger factors. Results Sixty-two participants kept diary entries until the end of the study. The diary data for 4,579 days were analyzed. In this data set, 1,099 headache days (336 migraines, 763 non-migraine headaches) were recorded; of these, 772 headache events had with trigger factors, and 327 events did not have trigger factors. The common trigger factors that were present on headache days included stress, fatigue, sleep deprivation, hormonal changes, and weather changes. The likelihood of a headache trigger was 57.7% for stress, 55.1% for sleep deprivation, 48.5% for fatigue, and 46.5% for any trigger. The headaches with trigger factors were associated with greater pain intensity (p<0.001), headache-related disability (p<0.001), abortive medication use (p = 0.02), and the proportion of migraine (p < 0.001), relative to those without trigger factors. Traveling (odd ratios [OR]: 6.4), hormonal changes (OR: 3.5), noise (OR: 2.8), alcohol (OR: 2.5), overeating (OR: 2.4), and stress (OR:1.8) were significantly associated with migraines compared to non-migraine headaches. The headaches that were associated with hormonal changes or noise were more often migraines, regardless of the preventive medication. The headaches due to stress, overeating, alcohol, and traveling were more often migraines without preventive medication, but it was not evident with preventive medication. Conclusion Smartphone headache diary application is an

  15. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Nittby, Henrietta; Brun, Arne; Eberhardt, Jacob; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after

  16. Embodied accounts of HIV and hope: using audio diaries with interviews.

    PubMed

    Bernays, Sarah; Rhodes, Tim; Jankovic Terzic, Katarina

    2014-05-01

    Capturing the complexity of the experience of chronic illness over time presents significant methodological and ethical challenges. In this article, we present methodological and substantive insights from a longitudinal qualitative study with 20 people living with HIV in Serbia. We used both repeated in-depth interviews and audio diaries to explore the role of hope in coping with and managing HIV. Using thematic longitudinal analysis, we found that the audio diaries produced distinctive, embodied accounts that straddled the public/private divide and engaged with alternative social scripts of illness experience. We suggest that this enabled less socially anticipated accounts of coping, hoping, and distress to be spoken and shared. We argue that examining the influence of different methods on accounting not only illustrates the value of qualitative mixed-method study designs but also provides crucial insights to better understand the lived experience of chronic illness. PMID:24667100

  17. Transculturation of Madness: The Double Origin of Lu Xun's "Diary of a Madman".

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaolu

    2015-01-01

    Over the years scholars have examined the allegorical features of the depiction of madness in Lu Xun's "Diary of a Madman," yet to date little research has taken into consideration the intercultural angle embedded in the narrative's intersection of three cultures, namely Russian, Japanese and Chinese. This paper traces the European-Japanese-Sino route of modern neologisms of madness to explore the introduction of such neologisms into the modern Chinese language and how it corresponds with changing patterns of knowledge and power. I use my study of transculturation on the macro scale to frame a reexamination of the lexicon in "Diary of a Madman." I focus especially on kuangren and pohaikuang, the two key words employed by Lu Xun, to see how they contribute to the ambiguity in his attitude towards the power struggle between the East and the West, the old and the new. PMID:26949210

  18. Gendered testimonies: autobiographies, diaries, and letters by women as sources for Caribbean history.

    PubMed

    Brereton, B

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of memoirs, diaries, and letters written by English-speaking women living in the Caribbean region since the early 1800s pays particular attention to testimony on their gendered life experiences. The analysis draws examples from five autobiographical writings, three memoirs, three diaries, and the letters of three women in its consideration of various aspects of the women's lives. The essay opens with an acknowledgement of the recent efforts of historians to incorporate women's experiences into the concept of "history" and a discussion of the ways that women's voices can be recaptured that notes the paucity of primary sources. The topics covered in the examined documents reveal information about motherhood and marriage, health and sexuality, domestic life and household management, the conditions and suffering of female slaves, the rearing and education of girls, the influence of Christian missionaries, and the general status of women.

  19. Discussion of Alfred Alder's preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1981-07-01

    In his preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky, Alfred Adler (1) found his theory of the dynamics of schizophrenia supported in the Diary, (2) alluded to Nijinsky's prepsychotic personality, and (3) briefly touched on the possibility and conditions of recovery. To add to the understanding of Adler's "Preface," this discussion (1) expands his theory of schizophrenia, (2) gives some concrete data of Nijinsky's prepsychotic personality, (3) describes two episodes of recovery subsequent to the "Preface," and (4) introduces an important aspect of Adler's theory, which he had to omit out of consideration for Nijinsky's wife, Romola-namely, her role in her husband's disorder. With the larger theoretical and historical context established. Adler's "Preface" can be appreciated for its predictive validity.

  20. Changes in messenger RNA of pancreatic enzymes and intestinal cholecystokinin after a 7-day bile-pancreatic juice diversion from the proximal small intestine in rats.

    PubMed

    Hara, H; Ochi, Y; Kasai, T

    1997-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated the bile-pancreatic juice (BPJ)-independent stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion in chronic BPJ-diverted rats. Pancreatic and intestinal adaptation to 7-day BPJ diversion was next examined. Pancreatic enzyme mRNA and cholecystokinin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa were measured in rats with BPJ diverted into the ileum (PBD rats) in comparison with the figures for rats with BPJ returned to the duodenum (normal rats) or laparotomized (Intact) rats under well-nourished conditions. Amylase mRNA in the pancreas was lower and trypsinogen plus chymotrypsinogen mRNA was higher in the PBD rats than in the intact rats. The change in pancreatic mRNA was similar to that in the specific activities of the enzymes after a chronic BPJ diversion. This finding suggests that these pancreatic enzymes were regulated by the mRNA level. The portal concentration of cholecystokinin in the postabsorptive period (exogenously non-stimulated status) was 4-fold higher in the PBD group than in the normal and intact groups. Cholecystokinin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of PBD rats was somewhat higher than that of intact rats. These results suggest that intestinal cholecystokinin was predominantly increased at the translational or later stage by chronic BPJ diversion.

  1. Incidence and Predictors of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Septic Shock Patients in a Medical ICU: Data from 7-Day Holter ECG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Guenancia, Charles; Binquet, Christine; Laurent, Gabriel; Vinault, Sandrine; Bruyère, Rémi; Prin, Sébastien; Pavon, Arnaud; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Quenot, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated incidence, risk factors for new-onset atrial fibrillation (NAF), and prognostic impact during septic shock in medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Methods Prospective, observational study in a university hospital. Consecutive patients from 03/2011 to 05/2013 with septic shock were eligible. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, history of AF, transfer with prior septic shock. Included patients were equipped with long-duration (7 days) Holter ECG monitoring. NAF was defined as an AF episode lasting >30 seconds. Patient characteristics, infection criteria, cardiovascular parameters, severity of illness, support therapies were recorded. Results Among 66 patients, 29(44%) developed NAF; 10 (34%) would not have been diagnosed without Holter ECG monitoring. NAF patients were older, with more markers of heart failure (troponin and NT-pro-BNP), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), longer QRS duration and more nonsustained supra ventricular arrhythmias (<30s) on day 1 than patients who maintained sinus rhythm. By multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.06; p = 0.01) and LVEF<45% (OR: 13.01, p = 0.03) were associated with NAF. NAF did not predict 28 or 90 day mortality. Conclusions NAF is common, especially in older patients, and is associated with low ejection fraction. We did not find NAF to be independently associated with higher mortality. PMID:25965915

  2. Feasibility of utilizing pedometer diaries in a rural African American community-based walking intervention for health promotion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Limited research is available on the feasibility or effectiveness of utilizing pedometer diaries in community-based interventions targeting rural, low socioeconomic, African American populations. The objectives of this walking intervention study were to assess participant adherence to maint...

  3. The Diary of Frances Jacobs: Astronomical Observations by a 19th-century Oregon Woman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGown, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    This abstract summarizes my research, transcription and editing of Francis Jacob's 170-page handwritten astronomical diary. This diary is a unique example of a time in early Portland history, illustrating the mind of a young woman who was interested in science and astronomy. Reflected in her diary are the discoveries and mention of leading astronomers of the day like Emerson Bernard and Edward Pickering. Francis Jacobs lived in an era of the great refractors For example, ``The Leviathan," built by Lord Rosse in Ireland was completed in 1847. In this 72-inch telescope, stars of 18th magnitude could be seen. The first spiral nebulae to be revealed was M51 - known today as the Whirlpool Galaxy. The Earl was the first to suggest that these spirals could actually be rotating masses of stars. At the turn of the century, study of observational astronomy was rooted in naked eye observing, study of binary stars and nebula. This was a time when women were becoming interested in the sciences and had begun to play an important role in science and astronomy. It was an incredible inspiration for other women across the country to hear what was happening on the astronomical frontiers at Harvard. Some constellation asterisms used in Francis Jacob's diary were different than they are today. One asterism in particular, the Egyptian Cross, is relatively unknown now. The summer triangle and winter circle asterisms were used in her notes and obviously popular in her era, as today. Her written comments included some Messier catalogue numbers and in some case written on her sketches and diagrams nicknames, such as the 'Dumbbell' nebula. She also referred to M99 as `St. Katherine's Wheel', a nickname that is not in common use today.

  4. Preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky by Alfred Adler, MD.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1981-07-01

    This is a previously unpublished work by Alfred Adler that was written in 1936 as a preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky. A theory of schizophrenia is described in which characteristic prepsychotic features, especially lack of social interest and oversensitivity to real and imagined slights, lead to increasing irrationalism and preoccupation with grandiose ideas. The establishment of a cooperative therapeutic relationship and the instilling of hope are presented as central factors for successful treatment.

  5. Exploring multiple sources of climatic information within personal and medical diaries, Bombay 1799-1828

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, George

    2016-04-01

    Private diaries are being recognised as an important source of information on past climatic conditions, providing place-specific, often daily records of meteorological information. As many were not intended for publication, or indeed to be read by anyone other than the author, issues of observer bias are lower than some other types of documentary sources. This paper comprises an exploration of the variety of types of climatic information can be mined from a single document or set of documents. The focus of the analysis is three private and one medical diary kept by British colonists in Bombay, western India, during the first decades of the nineteenth century. The paper discusses the potential of the diaries for reconstruction of precipitation, temperature and extreme events. Ad-hoc temperature observations collected by the four observers prove to be particularly fruitful for reconstructing monthly extreme temperatures, with values comparable to more systematic observations collected during the period. This leads to a tentative conclusion that extreme temperatures in Bombay were around 5°C lower during the period than today, a difference likely predominantly attributable to the urban heat island effect.

  6. Self-reported exertion levels on time/activity diaries: application to exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, M.; Terblanche, A.P.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent developments in air pollution analysis have focused on methods for collecting data on contaminant levels in the locations actually frequented by people, especially personal monitoring. While there is still much to understand about human exposures, the next advancements will be in the area of dose assessment. This paper discusses the results of a study designed to provide data for linking exposure to dose. Specifically, we used time/activity diaries to collect information on the exertion levels associated with the reported activities. As part of a community health study, 91 children between the ages of 9 and 11 kept diaries over a two-week summer-time period (July 1989) and during a two-week school-time period (September 1989). The diary was also administered for two days to 42 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17. This paper describes our concerns about interpreting self-reported exertion levels, particularly with respect to the disparity between participant and researcher perception and coding. We then present the distribution of exertion levels associated with children's activities, highlighting seasonal, day-of-week, and age-group differences.

  7. Development and validation of a food-frequency questionnaire to assess short-term antioxidant intake in athletes.

    PubMed

    Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G; Lowe, Timothy E; Rush, Elaine C

    2011-04-01

    A quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to determine antioxidant intake in athletes. The questionnaire will be valuable for researchers wishing to standardize antioxidant intake or simply document habitual intake during an intervention trial. One hundred thirteen athletes participated in the validity study, of whom 96 completed the questionnaire and blood test, 81 completed the 7-d food diary and questionnaire, and 63 completed the 7-d food diary and blood test. Validity was investigated by comparing total and food-group antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire with those from a subsequent 7-d food diary. Measures of construct validity were determined by comparing a biomarker of antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) in a blood sample with antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire and diary. The correlation between the diary and questionnaire energy-adjusted estimates of total antioxidant intake was modest (.38; 90% confidence limits, ± .14); the correlation was highest for antioxidants from cereals (.55; ± .11), which contributed the greatest proportion (31%) of the total antioxidant intake. Correlations were also high for coffee and tea (.51; ± .15) and moderate for vegetables (.34; ± .16) and fruit (.31; ± .16). The correlation of the plasma biomarker with the questionnaire estimate was small (.28; ± .15), but the correlation with the diary estimate was inconsequential (-.03; ± .15). One-week test-retest reliability of the questionnaire's estimates of antioxidant intake in 20 participants was high (.83; ± .16). In conclusion, the FFQ is less labor intensive for participants and researchers than a 7-d diary and appears to be at least as trustworthy for estimating antioxidant intake.

  8. Development and validation of a food-frequency questionnaire to assess short-term antioxidant intake in athletes.

    PubMed

    Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G; Lowe, Timothy E; Rush, Elaine C

    2011-04-01

    A quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to determine antioxidant intake in athletes. The questionnaire will be valuable for researchers wishing to standardize antioxidant intake or simply document habitual intake during an intervention trial. One hundred thirteen athletes participated in the validity study, of whom 96 completed the questionnaire and blood test, 81 completed the 7-d food diary and questionnaire, and 63 completed the 7-d food diary and blood test. Validity was investigated by comparing total and food-group antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire with those from a subsequent 7-d food diary. Measures of construct validity were determined by comparing a biomarker of antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) in a blood sample with antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire and diary. The correlation between the diary and questionnaire energy-adjusted estimates of total antioxidant intake was modest (.38; 90% confidence limits, ± .14); the correlation was highest for antioxidants from cereals (.55; ± .11), which contributed the greatest proportion (31%) of the total antioxidant intake. Correlations were also high for coffee and tea (.51; ± .15) and moderate for vegetables (.34; ± .16) and fruit (.31; ± .16). The correlation of the plasma biomarker with the questionnaire estimate was small (.28; ± .15), but the correlation with the diary estimate was inconsequential (-.03; ± .15). One-week test-retest reliability of the questionnaire's estimates of antioxidant intake in 20 participants was high (.83; ± .16). In conclusion, the FFQ is less labor intensive for participants and researchers than a 7-d diary and appears to be at least as trustworthy for estimating antioxidant intake. PMID:21558572

  9. Digital Photography as an Educational Food Logging Tool in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Lessons Learned from A Randomized, Crossover Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ehrmann, Brett J.; Anderson, Robert M.; Piatt, Gretchen A.; Funnell, Martha M.; Rashid, Hira; Shedden, Kerby; Douyon, Liselle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the utility of, and areas of refinement for, digital photography as an educational tool for food logging in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods Thirty-three patients aged 18-70 with T2DM, BMI at least 30 kg/m2, and A1C 7.5-9% were recruited from an endocrinology clinic and randomized to a week of food logging using a digital camera (DC) or paper diary (PD), crossing over for week two. Patients then viewed a presentation about dietary effects on blood glucose, using patient DC and blood glucose entries. Outcomes of adherence (based on number of weekly entries), changes in mean blood glucose and frequency of blood glucose checks, and patient satisfaction were compared between methods. Patient feedback on the DC intervention and presentation was also analyzed. Results Thirty patients completed the study. Adherence was identical across methods. The mean difference in number of entries was not significant between methods. This difference increased and neared statistical significance (favoring DC) among patients who were adherent for at least one week (21 entries, with 2 entries per day for 5 of 7 days, n=25). Mean blood glucose did not significantly decrease in either method. Patient satisfaction was similar between interventions. Feedback indicated concerns over photograph accuracy, forgetting to use the cameras, and embarrassment using them in public. Conclusion Though comparable to PD in adherence, blood glucose changes, and patient satisfaction in this pilot trial, patient feedback suggested specific areas of refinement to maximize utility of DC-based food logging as an educational tool in T2DM. PMID:24168836

  10. Testing the Feasibility and Psychometric Properties of a Mobile Diary (myWHI) in Adolescents and Young Adults With Headaches

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Headaches are prevalent among teens and young adults. Self-monitoring is essential for managing headaches and can be accomplished with the help of electronic headache diaries. An increasing number of electronic headache diaries exist, yet the absence of quality standards compromises their use for research and clinical purposes. Objective Our goal was to develop and test the usability, feasibility, and psychometric properties of an electronic diary iPhone application for self-monitoring by adolescents and young adults with headaches. Methods We used an iterative participatory design to develop and test our electronic headache diary. Participants aged 14-28 years old with recurrent headaches were recruited internationally. Screening and consent were conducted online. Following completion of an online pre-questionnaire, participants downloaded the diary to use in their natural environment for 14 days. An online post-questionnaire was completed following testing. The diary’s usability and feasibility were tested first and determined to be complete when improvements to the diary did not result in a statistically significant impact on indicators of feasibility and adherence. Interviews were conducted with participants of usability and feasibility testing. The psychometric properties of the diary were then tested, and a case study analysis of one participant was completed. Results Three cycles to test the usability and feasibility were conducted. Each cycle included 11-19 unique participants ranging in age from 16 to 28 years. Following the testing period for each cycle, 15% to 25% of participants took part in the post-cycle interview. Participants perceived the final version of the diary as useful, easy to learn, and efficient to use. Psychometric properties were then tested with a sample of 65 participants (6 aged 14-17 years old; 59 aged 18-28 years old). All items in the diary had substantial between- and within-subjects variability (percent of variance

  11. Trichilia monadelpha bark extracts inhibit carrageenan-induced foot-oedema in the 7-day old chick and the oedema associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ainooson, G K; Owusu, G; Woode, E; Ansah, C; Annan, K

    2012-01-01

    Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Meliaceae) bark extract is used in African traditional medicine for the management of various disease conditions including inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. monadelpha using the 7-day old chick-carrageenan footpad oedema (acute inflammation) and the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (chronic inflammation). TWE and TPEE significantly inhibited the chick-carrageenan footpad oedema with maximal inhibitions of 57.79±3.92 and 63.83±12 respectively, but TAE did not. The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of 64.92±2.03 and 71.85±15.34 respectively. Furthermore, all the extracts and the reference anti-inflammatory agents (diclofenac, dexamethasone, methotrexate) inhibited the inflammatory oedema associated with adjuvant arthritis with maximal inhibitions of 64.41±5.56, 57.04±8.57, 62.18±2.56%, for TWE, TAE and TPEE respectively and 80.28±5.79, 85.75±2.96, 74.68±3.03% for diclofenac, dexamethasone and methotrexate respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant bark confirmed the presence of a large array of plant constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids, all of which may be potential sources of phyto-antiinflammatory agents. In conclusion, our work suggests that T. monadelpha is a potential source of antiinflammatory agents.

  12. Neurogenic vascular headaches, food and chemical triggers.

    PubMed

    Trotsky, M B

    1994-04-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that neurogenic vascular headaches are a combination of neurological primary events and secondary vasomotor changes. The neurological events involve the hypothalamus and sensory cortex with sympathetic hypofunction and noradrenergic abnormalities. A platelet theory has been proposed but has not really been confirmed as a legitimate cause of the neurogenic vascular headaches. Food and chemicals in foods can act as a precipitating factor in the food-sensitive neurogenic vascular headache patient. In these patients evidence is now being demonstrated to confirm this, but larger patient studies are needed. The food-sensitive migraine patient and cluster headache patient must give a good history and food diary to go along with active challenges and provocative testing in order to determine the causative foods. Any concomitant allergies of inhalants or environmentals must also be treated. The treatment modalities of elimination and rotation diets or provocation neutralization may successfully control the headaches without the need for continuous medications.

  13. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Azevedo, Bruna Fernades; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  14. Effects of smartphone diaries and personal dosimeters on behavior in a randomized study of methods to document sunlight exposure.

    PubMed

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Allen, Martin; Bjerregaard, Mette; Olsen, Anja; Bentzen, Joan

    2016-06-01

    Dosimeters and diaries have previously been used to evaluate sun-related behavior and UV exposure in local samples. However, wearing a dosimeter or filling in a diary may cause a behavioral change. The aim of this study was to examine possible confounding factors for a questionnaire validation study. We examined the effects of wearing dosimeters and filling out diaries, measurement period and recall effect on the sun-related behavior in Denmark in 2012. Our sample included 240 participants eligible by smartphone status and who took a vacation during weeks 26-32 in 2012, randomized by gender, age, education and skin type to six groups: 1) Control + diary, 2) Control, 3) 1-week dosimetry measurement, 4) 1-week dosimetry measurement + diary, 5) 3-week dosimetry measurement and 6) 1-week dosimetry measurement with 4 week delayed questionnaire. Correlation coefficients between reported outdoor time and registered outdoor time for groups 3-6 were 0.39, 0.45, 0.43 and 0.09, respectively. Group 6 was the only group not significantly correlated. Questionnaire reported outdoor exposure time was shorter in the dosimeter measurement groups (3-6) than in their respective controls. We showed that using a dosimeter or keeping a diary seems to increase attention towards the behavior examined and therefore may influence this behavior. Receiving the questionnaire with 4 week delay had a significant negative influence on correlation and recall of sunburn. When planning future UV behavior questionnaire validations, we suggest to use a 1-week interval for dosimetry measurements, no diary, and to minimize the time from end of measurement to filling out questionnaires. PMID:27419038

  15. Investigating the Convergence between Actigraphy, Maternal Sleep Diaries, and the Child Behavior Checklist as Measures of Sleep in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Simard, Valérie; Bernier, Annie; Carrier, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined associations among actigraphy, maternal sleep diaries, and the parent-completed child behavior checklist (CBCL) sleep items. These items are often used as a sleep measure despite their unclear validity with young children. Eighty middle class families (39 girls) drawn from a community sample participated. Children (M = 25.34 months, SD = 1.04) wore an actigraph monitor (Mini-Mitter(®) Actiwatch Actigraph, Respironics) for a 72-h period, and mothers completed a sleep diary during the same period. Eighty-nine percent of the mothers and 75% of the fathers also filled out the CBCL (1.5-5). Mother and father CBCL scores were highly correlated. Overall, good correspondence was found between the CBCL filled out by mothers and sleep efficiency and duration derived from maternal sleep diaries (r between -0.39 and -0.25, p ≤ 0.05). Good correspondence was also found between the CBCL filled out by fathers and sleep efficiency as derived from maternal sleep diaries (r between -0.39 and -0.24, p ≤ 0.05), but not with sleep duration (all results were non-significant). Very few correlations between actigraphy and the CLBL scores reached statistical significance. The Bland and Altman method revealed that sleep diaries and actigraphy showed poor agreement with one another when assessing sleep duration and sleep efficiency. However, diary- and actigraphy-derived sleep durations were significantly correlated. Consistent with findings among older groups of children, this study suggests that the CBCL sleep items, sleep diaries, and actigraphy tap into quite different aspects of sleep among toddlers. The choice of which measures to use should be based on the exact aspects of sleep that one aims to assess. Overall, despite its frequent use, the composite sleep score of the CBCL shows poor links to objective measures of sleep duration and sleep efficiency. PMID:25426082

  16. Comparison of global positioning system (GPS) tracking and parent-report diaries to characterize children's time-location patterns.

    PubMed

    Elgethun, Kai; Yost, Michael G; Fitzpatrick, Cole T E; Nyerges, Timothy L; Fenske, Richard A

    2007-03-01

    Respondent error, low resolution, and study participant burden are known limitations of diary timelines used in exposure studies such as the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS). Recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology have produced tracking devices sufficiently portable, functional and affordable to utilize in exposure assessment science. In this study, a differentially corrected GPS (dGPS) tracking device was compared to the NHEXAS diary timeline. The study also explored how GPS can be used to evaluate and improve such diary timelines by determining which location categories and which respondents are least likely to record "correct" time-location responses. A total of 31 children ages 3-5 years old wore a dGPS device for all waking hours on a weekend day while their parents completed the NHEXAS diary timeline to document the child's time-location pattern. Parents misclassified child time-location approximately 48% of the time using the NHEXAS timeline in comparison to dGPS. Overall concordance between methods was marginal (kappa=0.33-0.35). The dGPS device found that on average, children spent 76% of the 24-h study period in the home. The diary underestimated time the child spent in the home by 17%, while overestimating time spent inside other locations, outside at home, outside in other locations, and time spent in transit. Diary data for time spent outside at home and time in transit had the lowest response concordance with dGPS. The diaries of stay-at-home mothers and mothers working unskilled labor jobs had lower concordance with dGPS than did those of the other participants. The ability of dGPS tracking to collect continuous rather than categorical (ordinal) data was also demonstrated. It is concluded that automated GPS tracking measurements can improve the quality and collection efficiency of time-location data in exposure assessment studies, albeit for small cohorts.

  17. Developing a Method to Test the Validity of 24 Hour Time Use Diaries Using Wearable Cameras: A Feasibility Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Paul; Thomas, Emma; Doherty, Aiden; Harms, Teresa; Burke, Órlaith; Gershuny, Jonathan; Foster, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Self-report time use diaries collect a continuous sequenced record of daily activities but the validity of the data they produce is uncertain. This study tests the feasibility of using wearable cameras to generate, through image prompted interview, reconstructed 'near-objective' data to assess their validity. 16 volunteers completed the Harmonised European Time Use Survey (HETUS) diary and used an Autographer wearable camera (recording images at approximately 15 second intervals) for the waking hours of the same 24-hour period. Participants then completed an interview in which visual images were used as prompts to reconstruct a record of activities for comparison with the diary record. 14 participants complied with the full collection protocol. We compared time use and number of discrete activities from the diary and camera records (using 10 classifications of activity). In terms of aggregate totals of daily time use we found no significant difference between the diary and camera data. In terms of number of discrete activities, participants reported a mean of 19.2 activities per day in the diaries, while image prompted interviews revealed 41.1 activities per day. The visualisations of the individual activity sequences reveal some potentially important differences between the two record types, which will be explored at the next project stage. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using wearable cameras to reconstruct time use through image prompted interview in order to test the concurrent validity of 24-hour activity time-use budgets. In future we need a suitably powered study to assess the validity and reliability of 24-hour time use diaries. PMID:26633807

  18. Overt hepatic encephalopathy: development of a novel clinician reported outcome tool and electronic caregiver diary.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, J S; Frederick, R T; Bass, N M; Ghabril, M; Coyne, K; Margolis, M K; Santoro, M; Coakley, D F; Mokhtarani, M; Jurek, M; Scharschmidt, B F

    2016-10-01

    Clinical management and clinical trials of patients with overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) are compromised by lack of standardized and reproducible tools for its clinical diagnosis or for caregiver (CG) identification of OHE manifestations which merit medical evaluation. Using an iterative Delphi method, Steering Committee and international hepatologist panel, the West Haven (WH) scale was modified to develop and operationalize a clinician tool for OHE identification and grading (HE Grading Instrument, HEGI™). Major diagnostic criteria included disorientation to time, place, and person, asterixis, lethargy, and coma. Minimum HEGI requirements for OHE diagnosis included: (1) disorientation, or (2) presence of both lethargy and asterixis, or (3) coma. Inter- and intra-rater HEGI reproducibility were 97 % and 98 %, respectively. When applied to a phase II clinical trial population of 178 patients with 388 OHE episodes, HEGI demonstrated excellent concordance with investigator judgement. Additionally, a multi-stage study was conducted to develop a daily CG e-diary, based on OHE manifestations recognizable by CG including speech difficulties, unusual behavior, forgetfulness, confusion, disorientation and level of consciousness. The e-diary was designed for use on smart phone, laptop or desktop, utilized branching logic and skip patterns, incorporated automatic daily completion reminders and real time alerts to clinical sites to facilitate daily standardized CG input and was found to be user friendly and understandable. The HEGI and e-diary, which were developed using methodology accepted by regulatory authorities, are designed to facilitate the design and interpretation of clinical trials for OHE and improve outcomes for OHE patients in clinical practice.

  19. Julia Rush's diary: coping with loss in the early nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Thielman, S B; Melges, F T

    1986-09-01

    Julia Rush (1759-1848), wife of Benjamin Rush (1745-1813), recorded her thoughts over a 33-year period in an unpublished devotional journal. Many of the entries relate to her experience of the loss of Benjamin Rush. Although the diary is inadequate as a source of understanding psychodynamic processes at work, it provides considerable information about Julia Rush's coping behavior. An analysis of this journal reveals that she used three major coping strategies to deal with the loss of her husband: ritualized language, time marking, and cognitive reframing. These devotional meditations also illuminate the way early nineteenth-century religious views shaped Julia Rush's response to loss.

  20. Clinical guideline-driven personalized self-management diary for paediatric cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Samuel Alan; Abidi, Samina; Parker, Louise; Bernstein, Mark; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2014-01-01

    Shared Decision Making (SDM) is the process of patients and clinicians working together to manage medical treatment using the existing knowledge base. This paper presents the YouCan framework, a system for summarizing and presenting the necessary knowledge for SDM related to pediatric cancer follow-up management. Knowledge modelling of a Clinical Practice Guideline produced a customized ontology, which was then passed through a pellet reasoned to produce a customized patient diary that summarizes a patient's oncological history as well as the potential issues they may face in follow-up. PMID:25160137

  1. Asthma Diary

    MedlinePlus

    ... provided by iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com KidsHealth.org The most-visited site devoted to children's health and development

  2. Events diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    From 18 January until 28 March the 2000 IEE Faraday Lecture will be touring venues in the UK, aiming to inspire and encourage students to choose a career in science and engineering. The lecture tour is being supported by communications and IT company, Marconi, and it is being presented by University College London. Interactive experiments for the audience of 14 - 16 year-olds will combine with a multimedia presentation on the theme `Time and Place in the Communications Age', exploring our ability to make precise measurements of time, place and space and how these impact on our personal and business lives. Among the curious facts from the lecture is the discovery that Cornwall rises and falls by 20 cm every time the tide moves in and out. The whole of the UK rises and falls by 50 cm every time the Moon goes by and the UK is actually 20 m shorter than was thought ten years ago, before the Global Positioning Satellite system was in operation. Attendance at the lectures is free and schools interested in booking tickets should visit the Faraday website at www.faraday.org.uk . Further details of the tour are available from the Faraday Lecture Office, Institution of Electrical Engineers, Michael Faraday House, Six Hills Way, Stevenage, Herts SG1 2AY (tel: 01438 313311, fax: 01438 742856, e-mail: faraday@iee.org.uk ). Among the `Strands' on the programme at the 2000 Edinburgh international science festival on 2 - 18 April are: visions of the future; time; the natural world; new materials; science book festival; science film festival. Festival programmes should be available soon from the festival office at 8 Lochend Road, Edinburgh EH6 8BR (tel: 0131 530 2001, fax: 0131 530 2002, e-mail: esf@scifest.demon.co.uk ). BA2000 will be one of the key features of the `creating SPARKS' festival where the sciences meet the arts in London during 6 - 30 September. Centred on South Kensington, and led by the British Association, creating SPARKS will be staged at such famous institutions as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  3. Motorcycle Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Hope J.

    2005-01-01

    This article relates the experiences of Jeff Fischer, an instructor in the Computer Integrated Machining department at South Central College (SCC) in North Mankato, Minnesota. Facing dwindling student enrollment and possible departmental budget costs, Fischer was able to turn his passion for custom-built cycles and the intricate machining that…

  4. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  5. Children's health risk and benefits of fish consumption: risk indices based on a diet diary follow-up of two weeks.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Elisabete; Cavaco, Afonso; Carvalho, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies indicate that fish intake is associated with neurocognitive development and visual outcomes in children attributed to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). However, methylmercury (MeHg) represents the most toxic and abundant form of environmental mercury (Hg) exposure to humans and exposure occurs primarily through fish consumption. The objective of the study was to describe fish consumption during childhood in Portugal, estimating the intake of Hg from fish and calculating the indices of risk. The group consisted of 233 infants and students aged 7-11 yr and attending 5 primary schools in Lisbon, Amadora, and Sesimbra. Information regarding food consumption habits was collected through a food diary during 2 weeks, completed under the supervision of teachers and parents, where participants registered what was ingested for lunch and dinner during that period. The exposure assessment and indices of risk were calculated for each participant. Individuals were classified according to weekly intake and indices of risk determined per group. In addition, the methods used to collect information on fish intake habits, a food frequency questionnaire and diet diary, are described in relation to quality of information provided. The mean value of fish meals per week was approximately 5. The calculated indices of risk reached values above 1 in more than 50% of the studied population, demonstrating the presence of risk in subsets of the population. While Portuguese children represent an important group of fish consumers, this does not manifest as appreciable benefit with respect to omega-3 ingestion, as children ingest half or less of the recommended value (200 mg/d of omega-3), which is equivalent to being exposed to risk for Hg intoxication. The choice of fish species shows lack of knowledge of fish characteristics. Therefore, risk communication and population education need to be established to prevent consumption of predatory fish

  6. Sleep diaries of Vietnam War veterans with chronic PTSD: the relationships among insomnia symptoms, psychosocial stress, and nightmares.

    PubMed

    Gehrman, Philip R; Harb, Gerlinde C; Cook, Joan M; Barilla, Holly; Ross, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired sleep and nightmares are known symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the veteran population. In order to assess prospectively the sleep disturbances in this population, sleep diaries are an effective way to obtain information over an extended period of time. In this investigation, a sample of veterans (N = 105) completed daily sleep diaries for a 6-week period. Greater PTSD severity and nightmare-related distress were correlated with more awakenings, shorter duration of sleep, longer sleep latency, and greater frequency of nightmares. Perceived frequency of daytime stressors was associated with an increased number of nightmares, nightmare-related distress, and longer sleep latency. The use of sleep diaries in future investigations may allow targeted treatments for veteran populations with PTSD and sleep disturbances.

  7. Sleep diaries of Vietnam War veterans with chronic PTSD: the relationships among insomnia symptoms, psychosocial stress, and nightmares.

    PubMed

    Gehrman, Philip R; Harb, Gerlinde C; Cook, Joan M; Barilla, Holly; Ross, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired sleep and nightmares are known symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the veteran population. In order to assess prospectively the sleep disturbances in this population, sleep diaries are an effective way to obtain information over an extended period of time. In this investigation, a sample of veterans (N = 105) completed daily sleep diaries for a 6-week period. Greater PTSD severity and nightmare-related distress were correlated with more awakenings, shorter duration of sleep, longer sleep latency, and greater frequency of nightmares. Perceived frequency of daytime stressors was associated with an increased number of nightmares, nightmare-related distress, and longer sleep latency. The use of sleep diaries in future investigations may allow targeted treatments for veteran populations with PTSD and sleep disturbances. PMID:24617942

  8. Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex.

    PubMed

    Becht, Andrik I; Branje, Susan J T; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Maciejewski, Dominique F; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Denissen, Jaap J A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with regard to future implications to study identity processes, both on smaller and larger time intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Contrasting Regulatory Focus and Reinforcement Sensitivity: A Daily Diary Study of Goal Pursuit and Emotion.

    PubMed

    Eddington, Kari M; Majestic, Catherine; Silvia, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of motivational orientation on daily affect and goal pursuit. Based on recent revisions to Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, measures of BIS (BIS-r and Fight-Flight-Freeze System or FFFS), BAS, and regulatory focus (Promotion and Prevention) were administered to 84 college students who participated in a 14-day diary study. Diary items assessed goal-directed activities and positive and negative affect (PA and NA). Results showed that higher FFFS and Promotion were consistently associated with higher NA and PA, respectively, and FFFS was also associated with avoidance of responsibilities. Higher Promotion predicted greater daily goal progress and tendencies to rate goals as more promotion- and prevention-focused. Relationships between daily goal-directed activities and both sadness and satisfaction were moderated by BIS-r. Inconsistent with our hypothesis, low BAS Reward Responsiveness predicted increased enthusiasm with greater goal progress. A trend in the data showed evidence of regulatory fit in daily activities predicted by both Promotion and Prevention. Implications for the theoretical and practical distinctions between measures of motivational orientation are discussed.

  10. Treatment of chronic insomnia with yoga: a preliminary study with sleep-wake diaries.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2004-12-01

    There is good evidence for cognitive and physiological arousal in chronic insomnia. Accordingly, clinical trial studies of insomnia treatments aimed at reducing arousal, including relaxation and meditation, have reported positive results. Yoga is a multicomponent practice that is also known to be effective in reducing arousal, although it has not been well evaluated as a treatment for insomnia. In this preliminary study, a simple daily yoga treatment was evaluated in a chronic insomnia population consisting of sleep-onset and/or sleep-maintenance insomnia and primary or secondary insomnia. Participants maintained sleep-wake diaries during a pretreatment 2-week baseline and a subsequent 8-week intervention, in which they practiced the treatment on their own following a single in-person training session with subsequent brief in-person and telephone follow-ups. Sleep efficiency (SE), total sleep time (TST), total wake time (TWT), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), number of awakenings, and sleep quality measures were derived from sleep-wake diary entries and were averaged in 2-week intervals. For 20 participants completing the protocol, statistically significant improvements were observed in SE, TST, TWT, SOL, and WASO at end-treatment as compared with pretreatment values.

  11. An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an "app" created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33 %) or having a high school diploma (33 %). The mean age was 39 years (SD = 11.78). Anal intercourse occurred on days when women also reported using illicit drugs, specifically methamphetamine and cocaine. Anal intercourse was not an isolated sexual activity, but took place on days when vaginal intercourse and giving and receiving oral sex also occurred along with illicit drug use. Anal intercourse also occurred on days when women reported they wanted sex. HIV prevention interventions must address the risks of anal intercourse for women, taking into account concurrent drug use and sexual pleasure that may reduce individual harm-reduction behaviors. PMID:25835461

  12. Contrasting Regulatory Focus and Reinforcement Sensitivity: A Daily Diary Study of Goal Pursuit and Emotion.

    PubMed

    Eddington, Kari M; Majestic, Catherine; Silvia, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of motivational orientation on daily affect and goal pursuit. Based on recent revisions to Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, measures of BIS (BIS-r and Fight-Flight-Freeze System or FFFS), BAS, and regulatory focus (Promotion and Prevention) were administered to 84 college students who participated in a 14-day diary study. Diary items assessed goal-directed activities and positive and negative affect (PA and NA). Results showed that higher FFFS and Promotion were consistently associated with higher NA and PA, respectively, and FFFS was also associated with avoidance of responsibilities. Higher Promotion predicted greater daily goal progress and tendencies to rate goals as more promotion- and prevention-focused. Relationships between daily goal-directed activities and both sadness and satisfaction were moderated by BIS-r. Inconsistent with our hypothesis, low BAS Reward Responsiveness predicted increased enthusiasm with greater goal progress. A trend in the data showed evidence of regulatory fit in daily activities predicted by both Promotion and Prevention. Implications for the theoretical and practical distinctions between measures of motivational orientation are discussed. PMID:22736878

  13. An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an “app” created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33 %) or having a high school diploma (33 %). The mean age was 39 years (SD = 11.78). Anal intercourse occurred on days when women also reported using illicit drugs, specifically methamphetamine and cocaine. Anal intercourse was not an isolated sexual activity, but took place on days when vaginal intercourse and giving and receiving oral sex also occurred along with illicit drug use. Anal intercourse also occurred on days when women reported they wanted sex. HIV prevention interventions must address the risks of anal intercourse for women, taking into account concurrent drug use and sexual pleasure that may reduce individual harm-reduction behaviors. PMID:25835461

  14. Threatened belonging and preference for comfort food among the securely attached.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Jordan D; Gabriel, Shira; Derrick, Jaye L; Geisler, Alyssa

    2015-07-01

    Research has shown that comfort food triggers relationship-related cognitions and can fulfill belongingness needs for those secure in attachment (i.e., for those with positive relationship cognitions) (Troisi & Gabriel, 2011). Building on these ideas, we examined if securely attached individuals prefer comfort food because of its "social utility" (i.e., its capacity to fulfill belongingness needs) in one experiment and one daily diary study using two samples of university students from the United States. Study 1 (n = 77) utilized a belongingness threat essay among half of the participants, and the results showed that securely attached participants preferred the taste of a comfort food (i.e., potato chips) more after the belongingness threat. Study 2 (n = 86) utilized a 14-day daily diary design and found that securely attached individuals consumed more comfort food in response to naturally occurring feelings of isolation. Implications for the social nature of food preferences are discussed.

  15. Threatened belonging and preference for comfort food among the securely attached.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Jordan D; Gabriel, Shira; Derrick, Jaye L; Geisler, Alyssa

    2015-07-01

    Research has shown that comfort food triggers relationship-related cognitions and can fulfill belongingness needs for those secure in attachment (i.e., for those with positive relationship cognitions) (Troisi & Gabriel, 2011). Building on these ideas, we examined if securely attached individuals prefer comfort food because of its "social utility" (i.e., its capacity to fulfill belongingness needs) in one experiment and one daily diary study using two samples of university students from the United States. Study 1 (n = 77) utilized a belongingness threat essay among half of the participants, and the results showed that securely attached participants preferred the taste of a comfort food (i.e., potato chips) more after the belongingness threat. Study 2 (n = 86) utilized a 14-day daily diary design and found that securely attached individuals consumed more comfort food in response to naturally occurring feelings of isolation. Implications for the social nature of food preferences are discussed. PMID:25728881

  16. The Effectiveness of Parental Communication in Modifying the Relation between Food Advertising and Children's Consumption Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer…

  17. Contact Patterns in a High School: A Comparison between Data Collected Using Wearable Sensors, Contact Diaries and Friendship Surveys.

    PubMed

    Mastrandrea, Rossana; Fournet, Julie; Barrat, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Given their importance in shaping social networks and determining how information or transmissible diseases propagate in a population, interactions between individuals are the subject of many data collection efforts. To this aim, different methods are commonly used, ranging from diaries and surveys to decentralised infrastructures based on wearable sensors. These methods have each advantages and limitations but are rarely compared in a given setting. Moreover, as surveys targeting friendship relations might suffer less from memory biases than contact diaries, it is interesting to explore how actual contact patterns occurring in day-to-day life compare with friendship relations and with online social links. Here we make progresses in these directions by leveraging data collected in a French high school and concerning (i) face-to-face contacts measured by two concurrent methods, namely wearable sensors and contact diaries, (ii) self-reported friendship surveys, and (iii) online social links. We compare the resulting data sets and find that most short contacts are not reported in diaries while long contacts have a large reporting probability, and that the durations of contacts tend to be overestimated in the diaries. Moreover, measured contacts corresponding to reported friendship can have durations of any length but all long contacts do correspond to a reported friendship. On the contrary, online links that are not also reported in the friendship survey correspond to short face-to-face contacts, highlighting the difference of nature between reported friendships and online links. Diaries and surveys suffer moreover from a low sampling rate, as many students did not fill them, showing that the sensor-based platform had a higher acceptability. We also show that, despite the biases of diaries and surveys, the overall structure of the contact network, as quantified by the mixing patterns between classes, is correctly captured by both networks of self-reported contacts and

  18. Contact Patterns in a High School: A Comparison between Data Collected Using Wearable Sensors, Contact Diaries and Friendship Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Mastrandrea, Rossana; Fournet, Julie; Barrat, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Given their importance in shaping social networks and determining how information or transmissible diseases propagate in a population, interactions between individuals are the subject of many data collection efforts. To this aim, different methods are commonly used, ranging from diaries and surveys to decentralised infrastructures based on wearable sensors. These methods have each advantages and limitations but are rarely compared in a given setting. Moreover, as surveys targeting friendship relations might suffer less from memory biases than contact diaries, it is interesting to explore how actual contact patterns occurring in day-to-day life compare with friendship relations and with online social links. Here we make progresses in these directions by leveraging data collected in a French high school and concerning (i) face-to-face contacts measured by two concurrent methods, namely wearable sensors and contact diaries, (ii) self-reported friendship surveys, and (iii) online social links. We compare the resulting data sets and find that most short contacts are not reported in diaries while long contacts have a large reporting probability, and that the durations of contacts tend to be overestimated in the diaries. Moreover, measured contacts corresponding to reported friendship can have durations of any length but all long contacts do correspond to a reported friendship. On the contrary, online links that are not also reported in the friendship survey correspond to short face-to-face contacts, highlighting the difference of nature between reported friendships and online links. Diaries and surveys suffer moreover from a low sampling rate, as many students did not fill them, showing that the sensor-based platform had a higher acceptability. We also show that, despite the biases of diaries and surveys, the overall structure of the contact network, as quantified by the mixing patterns between classes, is correctly captured by both networks of self-reported contacts and

  19. Notepad Is NOT Bad: Employing Yahoo! Notepad as an Online Research Diary in Educational Enquiry Based on a PhD Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2011-01-01

    Reflective tools have been gaining ground in educational research. Diaries, especially electronic ones, can be effective in enabling researchers to organise and reflect upon their research. Online diaries are flexible Web-based facilities since the recording process can be conducted quickly and smoothly. Here, I report on using Yahoo! Notepad as…

  20. Using Digital and Paper Diaries for Assessment and Learning Purposes in Higher Education: A Case of Critical Reflection or Constrained Compliance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleaves, Alan; Walker, Caroline; Grey, John

    2008-01-01

    This is the second of two papers based on a study of how digital and paper diaries contribute to students' understanding of the processes of their learning within their academic disciplines. The purpose of the study was to use diary writing as a vehicle by which we would try and comprehend how students both make sense of assessment feedback and…

  1. New Perspectives for the Evaluation of Training Sessions in Self-Regulated Learning: Time-Series Analyses of Diary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Bernhard; Wiese, Bettina S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study combines a standardized diary approach with time-series analysis methods to investigate the process of self-regulated learning. Based on a process-focused adaptation of Zimmerman's (2000) learning model, an intervention (consisting of four weekly training sessions) to increase self-regulated learning was developed. The diaries…

  2. World Cinema: Diary of a Day. A Celebration of the Centenary of Cinema: In Conjunction with bfi [British Film Institute].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Peter, Ed.

    This publication resulted from a project of the British Film Institute (bfi). The aim was to emphasize that cinema takes a number of different forms, fulfills a variety of roles within different societies, and has different models of its social function. Toward this end, film-makers from all over the world were invited to write a diary about the…

  3. Compliance and acceptability of maintaining a 6-month pedometer diary in a rural, African American community-based walking intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited research has been done on the compliance and acceptability of maintaining the pedometer diaries for an extensive time frame in community-based interventions targeting minority populations. Community "coaches" led participants in a 6-month community-based walking intervention that included we...

  4. Frequency of intrusions and flashbacks in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse: an electronic diary study.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Kathlen; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Zimmer, Josepha; Koudela, Susanne; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Bohus, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Intrusions and flashbacks are core features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The frequency of these symptoms is usually assessed through retrospective questionnaires, which may be subject to recall bias of unknown magnitude. Electronic diaries that enable real-time assessment have been used to address recall biases in several psychiatric disorders. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study to apply this method to assess intrusions and flashbacks in PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Female patients with PTSD related to CSA (n = 28) were provided with electronic diaries for repeated real-time assessment of intrusions and flashbacks over the period of 1 week. At the end of this period, they were asked to retrospectively report how many such symptoms they recalled having experienced over the past week. The total number of symptoms reported in the electronic diaries (74.5 ± 62.0 intrusions and 24.4 ± 36.0 flashbacks for the week) was substantially higher than those reported in previous studies. Furthermore, electronic diaries revealed the occurrence of about 50% more intrusions and flashbacks than did the retrospective assessment (74.5 vs. 49.5 for intrusions, and 24.4 vs. 13.4 for flashbacks). Such high frequencies are not captured with existing assessment instruments and suggest a possible ceiling effect. Future research needs to clarify whether these high numbers are specific to highly symptomatic PTSD patients or might generalize to other populations of PTSD patients. PMID:23876157

  5. Using Digital and Paper Diaries for Learning and Assessment Purposes in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Feasibility and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleaves, Alan; Walker, Caroline; Grey, John

    2007-01-01

    The incorporation of diaries and journals as learning and assessment vehicles into programmes of study within higher education has enabled the further growth of reflection, creative writing, critical thinking and meta-cognitive processes of students' learning. However, there is currently little research that aims to compare how different types of…

  6. The Use of Diaries as a Qualitative Research Method to Investigate Teachers' Perception and Use of Rating Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Jyi-yeon

    2008-01-01

    Whilst diary study is used for pedagogical purposes, course evaluation and basic research on language learners, this study aims to explore the possibility of using it to investigate how teachers perceive and use rating schemes. Three English teachers who worked at various high schools in Korea rated 224 scripts written by 112 Korean high school…

  7. The Diary of Schiaparelli in Berlin (26 October 1857-10 May 1859): a guide for his future scientific activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, P.

    In February 1857, three years after his degree in Turin, Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli moved to Berlin with a scholarship from the Sardinian government. There he lived for over two years and from October he attended the University. Berlin was an important astronomical center at the time and the young Schiaparelli had the opportunity to study with some of the most distinguished astronomers of his epoch and to be in one of the best equipped observatory in the world. During his staying in Berlin Schiaparelli regularly wrote a diary which runs from Monday, October 26, 1857 to Tuesday, May 10, 1859. The Diary is very important for the reconstruction of Schiaparelli's training as an astronomer. In this communication I'll give some information about the sections of the Diary which deal more strictly with astronomy. In the Diary all astronomical trainings of the mature Schiaparelli are outlined. But there is an exception: Mars and the inhabitability of other worlds. This rises an intere-sting historiographical problem which pushes historians to find elsewhere the origins of a research which is inextricably linked to Schiaparelli and that allowed him to found the planetology as a new astronomical discipline.

  8. The diary of assistant surgeon Henry Piers, HMS Investigator, 1850-54.

    PubMed

    Savours, A

    1990-01-01

    From the 16th to the mid 19th century, many voyages were made from England to discover a North West Passage between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. The Investigator was one of some 40 vessels that searched for the lost North West Passage expedition of 1845-48 under the command of Sir John Franklin in HM Ships Erebus and Terror, which became beset among what are now known as the Canadian Arctic Islands. The "Investigators" found no trace of Franklin, but were the first to traverse the North West Passage, although their ship had to be abandoned in Mercy Bay on Banks Island after two winters there. The diary of Assistant Surgeon Henry Piers, from the manuscript collection of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, is here examined. Reference is also made to the narrative and report published by the senior surgeon of the Investigator, Dr Alexander Armstrong. PMID:2197406

  9. A Diary Study of Implicit Self-esteem, Interpersonal Interactions and Alcohol Consumption in College Students

    PubMed Central

    DeHart, Tracy; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen; Todd, Michael; Mohr, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    A 30-day daily diary study examined the relations among implicit self-esteem, interpersonal interactions, and alcohol consumption in college students. Multilevel analyses revealed that students with low implicit self-esteem drank more on days when they experienced more negative interpersonal interactions. In contrast, students with high implicit self-esteem drank more on days when they experienced more positive interpersonal interactions. Spending time with people who were drinking mediated both the low implicit self-esteem by negative interpersonal events interaction and the high implicit self-esteem by positive interpersonal events interaction. These findings suggest that people with low implicit self-esteem may unintentionally drink as a way to regulate unfulfilled needs for acceptance. On the other hand, people with high implicit self-esteem may drink as a way to enhance positive interpersonal experiences. PMID:20161219

  10. An astronomer calls: extracts from the diaries of Charles Piazzi Smyth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brück, Mary T.

    2003-06-01

    Charles Piazzi Smyth, who for forty-two years in the nineteenth century was Astronomer Royal for Scotland, was an indefatigable traveller who visited many observatories, amateur and professional, at home and abroad, during his years of office. An imaginative, artistic if somewhat eccentric character, he kept informal diaries in which he recorded his day to day experiences and impressions, personal as well as scientific. His reactions to people and places could be prejudiced, but were always interesting. The purpose of assembling these extracts is not so much to throw light on their author, whose story has already been told, as to provide glimpses of what life was like for working astronomers at that time, and of the extent of their collaboration and mutual support.

  11. An approach to the study of dynamics of work motivation using the diary method.

    PubMed

    Navarro, José; Arrieta, Carlos; Ballén, Cristina

    2007-10-01

    This study is concerned with work motivation as a dynamic process. Twenty workers kept a motivation diary over a period of several weeks. Using a PDA they recorded their level of motivation, self-efficacy beliefs and perceived instrumentality with respect to the task being carried out. The time series obtained were analyzed using common procedures in the study of dynamic systems in order to determine whether motivation followed linear or nonlinear patterns. The results revealed highly nonlinear dynamics for the different variables studied. The implications of these findings are discussed and questions are raised regarding the basic assumptions underlying current theories and models of motivation, for example, the assumptions of linearity and stability.

  12. Aspects of Teaching and Learning Science: What students' diaries reveal about inquiry and traditional modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawalkar, Aisha; Vijapurkar, Jyotsna

    2015-09-01

    We present an analysis of students' reflective writing (diaries) of two cohorts of Grade 8 students, one undergoing inquiry and the other traditional science teaching. Students' writing included a summary of what students had learned in class on that day and their opinions and feelings about the class. The entries were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. This analysis of students' first-person accounts of their learning experience and their notes taken during class was useful in two ways. First, it brought out a spectrum of differences in outcomes of these two teaching modes-conceptual, affective and epistemic. Second, this analysis brought out the significance and meaning of the learning experience for students in their own words, thus adding another dimension to researchers' characterisation of the two teaching methods.

  13. [Extraordinary news of a curious apothecary. Monsters and wonders in the Florentine diary of Luca Landucci].

    PubMed

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    This article offers a new reading of the well-known diary kept by the Florentine apothecary Luca Landucci between 1450 and 1516, examining its accounts of prodigies and other "monstrous" occurrences from a modern scientific point of view. Particular consideration is given to descriptions of a variety of birth defects observed in various Italian cities at the time, providing explanations for each case based on the latest medical theories. A detailed analysis is provided for a case of cranioschisis recorded in Volterra in 1474, a case of Opitz syndrome occurring in Venice in 1489, the birth of conjoined twins in Padua in the same year, conjoined triplets born to a 60-year-old woman in Venice, the well-publicized account of the 1512 Ravenna monster and, finally, the thoraco-acephalus tetramelus adolescent that Landucci personally observed in Florence in 1513. PMID:25029826

  14. Amount, content and context of infant media exposure: A parental questionnaire and diary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Rachel; Danziger, Catherine; Hilliard, Marisa; Andolina, Carolyn; Ruskis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that there are long-term consequences of early media exposure. The present study examined the amount, content, and context of television exposure across the infancy period in the United States. Parents of 308 infants aged 6 to 18 months completed questionnaires detailing parental attitudes regarding their children’s television use and 24-hour television diaries to provide an accurate measurement of household television usage. Television exposure during infancy varied as a function of infant age, sibling status, socioeconomic status and parental attitudes toward television. Regression analyses indicated that parental attitudes were not associated with the amount of television exposure, but were associated with the content of television exposure. These findings indicate that television exposure changes rapidly across infancy and is associated with parental attitudes. PMID:20890405

  15. Oskar Kokoschka and Alma Mahler: art as diary and as therapy.

    PubMed

    Blum, Harold P

    2011-01-01

    The Austrian artist, Oskar Kokoschka, had an affair with Alma Mahler, widow of the composer Gustav Mahler, 1912-1914. This affair profoundly influenced his life and art. His palette at first brightened, with thick brush strokes and flashes of light and dark, indicating his psychological and emotional lability. Painting what he did not or could not express in words, his art of this period can be understood as an intimate visual diary of the vicissitudes of his relationship with Alma Mahler. For Kokoschka his work became a form of art therapy, following the crushing loss of Alma Mahler and near fatal physical injuries sustained in World War I. His gradual recovery was associated with his extraordinary attachment to and destruction of a lifelike effigy of Alma Mahler, thereby working through childhood trauma.

  16. [Extraordinary news of a curious apothecary. Monsters and wonders in the Florentine diary of Luca Landucci].

    PubMed

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    This article offers a new reading of the well-known diary kept by the Florentine apothecary Luca Landucci between 1450 and 1516, examining its accounts of prodigies and other "monstrous" occurrences from a modern scientific point of view. Particular consideration is given to descriptions of a variety of birth defects observed in various Italian cities at the time, providing explanations for each case based on the latest medical theories. A detailed analysis is provided for a case of cranioschisis recorded in Volterra in 1474, a case of Opitz syndrome occurring in Venice in 1489, the birth of conjoined twins in Padua in the same year, conjoined triplets born to a 60-year-old woman in Venice, the well-publicized account of the 1512 Ravenna monster and, finally, the thoraco-acephalus tetramelus adolescent that Landucci personally observed in Florence in 1513.

  17. Performance of the First Combined Smartwatch and Smartphone Diabetes Diary Application Study

    PubMed Central

    Årsand, Eirik; Muzny, Miroslav; Bradway, Meghan; Muzik, Jan; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wearable computing has long been described as the solution to many health challenges. However, the use of this technology as a diabetes patient self-management tool has not been fully explored. A promising platform for this use is the smartwatch—a wrist-worn device that not only tells time but also provides internet connection and ability to communicate information to and from a mobile phone. Method: Over 9 months, the design of a diabetes diary application for a smartwatch was completed using agile development methods. The system, including a two-way communication between the applications on the smartwatch and mobile phone, was tested with 6 people with type 1 diabetes. A small number of participants was deliberately chosen due to ensure an efficient use of resources on a novel system. Results: The designed smartwatch system displays the time, day, date, and remaining battery time. It also allows for the entry of carbohydrates, insulin, and blood glucose (BG), with the option to view previously recorded data. Users were able to record specific physical activities, program reminders, and automatically record and transfer data, including step counts, to the mobile phone version of the diabetes diary. The smartwatch system can also be used as a stand-alone tool. Users reported usefulness, responded positively toward its functionalities, and also provided specific suggestions for further development. Suggestions were implemented after the feasibility study. Conclusions: The presented system and study demonstrate that smartwatches have opened up new possibilities within the diabetes self-management field by providing easier ways of monitoring BG, insulin injections, physical activity and dietary information directly from the wrist. PMID:25591859

  18. Pragmatic Method Using Blood Pressure Diaries to Assess Blood Pressure Control

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, James E.; Blizzard, Leigh; Kosmala, Wojciech; Nelson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Twenty-four–hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is the reference standard of blood pressure control. Home blood pressure (HBP) is superior to clinic blood pressure for assessing control, but a barrier to its use is the need for physicians to calculate average blood pressure from patient diaries. We sought to develop a quick and pragmatic method to assess blood pressure control from patients’ HBP diaries. METHODS Seven-day HBP and 24-hour ABP were measured in 286 patients with uncomplicated treated hypertension (aged 64 ± 8 years; 53% female). We determined the optimal ratio of home systolic blood pressure readings above threshold (≥135 mm Hg) for the last 10 recorded that would best predict elevated 24-hour ABP. Uncontrolled blood pressure was defined as 24-hour ABP systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or 24-hour ABP daytime systolic blood pressure ≥135 mm Hg. Validation by corroborative evidence was tested by association with markers of end-organ disease. RESULTS The best predictor of 24-hour ABP systolic blood pressure above treatment/target threshold was having 3 or more (≥30%) of the last 10 home systolic blood pressure readings ≥135 mm Hg (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.71). Importantly, patients meeting this criterion had evidence of target organ disease, with significantly higher aortic stiffness, left ventricular relative wall thickness, and left atrial area, and lower left ventricular ejection fraction, compared with those who did not meet this criterion. CONCLUSIONS To facilitate uptake of HBP monitoring, we propose that physicians can determine the percentage of the last 10 home systolic blood pressure values ≥135 mm Hg for a patient and tailor management accordingly. PMID:26755785

  19. Developing an observing attitude: an analysis of meditation diaries in an MBSR clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Catherine E; Josyula, Krishnapriya; Littenberg, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an 8-week training that is designed to teach participants mindful awareness of the present moment. In randomized clinical trials (RCTs), MBSR has demonstrated efficacy in various conditions including reducing chronic pain-related distress and improving quality of life in healthy individuals. There have, however, been no qualitative studies investigating participants' descriptions of changes experienced over multiple time points during the course of the programme. This qualitative study of an MBSR cohort (N = 8 healthy individuals) in a larger RCT examined participants' daily diary descriptions of their home-practice experiences. The study used a two-part method, combining grounded theory with a close-ended coding approach. The grounded theory analysis revealed that during the trial, all participants, to varying degrees, described moments of distress related to practice; at the end of the course, all participants who completed the training demonstrated greater detail and clarity in their descriptions, improved affect, and the emergence of an observing self. The closed-ended coding schema, carried out to shed light on the development of an observing self, revealed that the emergence of an observing self was not related to the valence of participants' experiential descriptions: even participants whose diaries contained predominantly negative characterizations of their experience throughout the trial were able, by the end of the trial, to demonstrate an observing, witnessing attitude towards their own distress. Progress in MBSR may rely less on the valence of participants' experiences and more on the way participants describe and relate to their own inner experience.

  20. Passive smoking, air pollution, and acute respiratory symptoms in a diary study of student nurses

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Zeger, S. )

    1990-01-01

    A cohort of approximately 100 student nurses in Los Angeles was recruited for a diary study of the acute effects of air pollution. Smoking histories and presence of asthma and other allergies were determined by questionnaire. Diaries were completed daily and collected weekly for as long as 3 yr. Air pollution was measured at a monitoring location within 2.5 miles of the school. Incidence and duration of a symptom were modeled separately. Pack-years of cigarettes were predictive of the number of episodes of coughing (p less than 0.0001) and of bringing up phlegm (p less than 0.0001). Current smoking, rather than cumulative smoking, was a better predictor of the duration of a phlegm episode (p less than 0.0001). Controlling for personal smoking, a smoking roommate increased the risk of an episode of phlegm (odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, p less than 0.001), but not of cough. Excluding asthmatics (who may be medicated), increased the odds ratio for passive smoking to 1.76 (p less than 0.0001). In logistic regression models controlling for temperature and serial correlation between days, an increase of 1 SD in carbon monoxide exposure (6.5 ppm) was associated with increased risk of headache (OR = 1.09, p less than 0.001), photochemical oxidants (7.4 pphm) were associated with increased risk of chest discomfort (OR = 1.17, p less than 0.001) and eye irritation (OR = 1.20 p less than 0.001), and nitrogen dioxide (9.1 pphm) was associated with increased risk of phlegm (OR = 1.08 p less than 0.01), sore throats (OR = 1.26, p less than 0.001), and eye irritation (OR = 1.16, p less than 0.001).

  1. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, ...

  2. The Role of Pre-Exposure to Novel Food Tastes in Activity-Based Conditioned Taste Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heth, C. Donald; Pierce, W. David

    2007-01-01

    Rats were given differential exposure to three distinct and novel foods. One of these foods was exposed for 7 days; another for 2 days, and the last was not exposed. Next, half of the rats received six daily sessions in which a compound of the three flavors was followed by opportunities to run in wheels. The other rats received the food compound…

  3. The novel use of a SenseCam and accelerometer to validate training load and training information in a self-recall training diary.

    PubMed

    O Connor, Siobhan; McCaffrey, Noel; Whyte, Enda; Moran, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Self-recall training diaries are a frequently used tool to quantify training load and training information. While accelerometers are predominantly used to validate training diaries, they are unable to validate contextual training information. Thus this study aimed to examine the novel use of data fusion from a wearable camera device (SenseCam) and accelerometer to validate a self-recall training diary. Thirty participants filled in a training diary for 1 day while simultaneously wearing a SenseCam and accelerometer. The training diary was validated using Bland-Altman plots, Spearman's rank-order correlation, percentage agreement and κ measure of agreement between the diary and the SenseCam and accelerometer. The results demonstrated overall agreement, and no bias, between the training diary and the accelerometer for training intensity, and the SenseCam for duration of activity and travel time. A positive correlation was found for duration (r = 0.82, P < 0.001) and intensity (r = 0.67, P < 0.001). Hundred per cent agreement was found between the SenseCam and training diary for activity, training surface and footwear (κ = 1, P < 0.0001), with a lower agreement noted for sports played (97.3%, κ = 0.91, P < 0.0001). The self-recall training diary was found to be a valid measure of capturing training load and training information using the combined wearable camera device and accelerometer.

  4. Wellness Partners: Design and Evaluation of a Web-Based Physical Activity Diary with Social Gaming Features for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    Background The United States is currently in an age of obesity and inactivity despite increasing public awareness and scientific knowledge of detrimental long-term health effects of this lifestyle. Behavior-tracking diaries offer an effective strategy for physical activity adherence and weight management. Furthermore, Web-based physical activity diaries can engage meaningful partners in people’s social networks through fun online gaming interactions and generate motivational mechanisms for effective behavioral change and positive health outcomes. Objective Wellness Partners (WP) is a Web-based intervention in the form of a physical activity diary with social networking and game features. Two versions were designed and developed for the purpose of this study—“Diary” only and “Diary+Game”. The objectives of this study included pilot testing the research process of this intervention design, implementation, evaluation, and exploring the effectiveness of social gaming features on adult participants’ physical activity and anthropometric measures. Methods We conducted a field experiment with randomized crossover design. Assessments occurred at baseline, first follow-up (FU, 5-8 weeks after using one version of WP), and second FU (5-8 weeks of using the other version of WP). In the control condition, participants started with the “Diary” version of WP while in the experimental condition, participants started with the “Diary+Game” version of WP. A total of 54 adults (egos) ages 44-88, and their family and friends (alters) ages 17-69 participated in the study in ego-network groups. Both egos and their alters completed online surveys about their exercise habits. In addition, egos completed anthropometric measurements of BMI, fat percentage, and fat mass by bioimpedance. Results From October 2009 to May 2010, flyers, emails, and Web advertisements yielded 335 volunteers who were screened. Rolling recruitment resulted in enrollment of 142 qualified

  5. Correlation of Quantitative Motor State Assessment Using a Kinetograph and Patient Diaries in Advanced PD: Data from an Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ossig, Christiana; Gandor, Florin; Fauser, Mareike; Bosredon, Cecile; Churilov, Leonid; Reichmann, Heinz; Horne, Malcolm K.; Ebersbach, Georg; Storch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Effective management and development of new treatment strategies for response fluctuations in advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) largely depends on clinical rating instruments such as the PD home diary. The Parkinson’s kinetigraph (PKG) measures movement accelerations and analyzes the spectral power of the low frequencies of the accelerometer data. New algorithms convert each hour of continuous PKG data into one of the three motor categories used in the PD home diary, namely motor Off state and On state with and without dyskinesia. Objective To compare quantitative motor state assessment in fluctuating PD patients using the PKG with motor state ratings from PD home diaries. Methods Observational cohort study on 24 in-patients with documented motor fluctuations who completed diaries by rating motor Off, On without dyskinesia, On with dyskinesia, and asleep for every hour for 5 consecutive days. Simultaneously collected PKG data (recorded between 6 am and 10 pm) were analyzed and calibrated to the patient’s individual thresholds for Off and dyskinetic state by novel algorithms classifying the continuous accelerometer data into these motor states for every hour between 6 am and 10 pm. Results From a total of 2,040 hours, 1,752 hours (87.4%) were available for analyses from calibrated PKG data (7.5% sleeping time and 5.1% unclassified motor state time were excluded from analyses). Distributions of total motor state hours per day measured by PKG showed moderate-to-strong correlation to those assessed by diaries for the different motor states (Pearson’s correlations coefficients: 0.404–0.658), but inter-rating method agreements on the single-hour-level were only low-to-moderate (Cohen’s κ: 0.215–0.324). Conclusion The PKG has been shown to capture motor fluctuations in patients with advanced PD. The limited correlation of hour-to-hour diary and PKG recordings should be addressed in further studies. PMID:27556806

  6. Cow's milk protein allergy and other food hypersensitivities in infants.

    PubMed

    Venter, Carina

    2009-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FHS) is the umbrella term used to describe both food allergy, which involves the immune system, and food intolerances, which do not. It is therefore important that the diagnosis is made by a specialist health care professional such as a paediatrician or allergist. Some experienced dietitians and health visitors may be able to assist in making a diagnosis. The diagnostic work-up includes a medical history and blood tests/skin tests (where applicable). A food and symptom diary followed by a special test diet to identify the foods causing the infant's symptoms may also be needed. Once a diagnosis is made, dietary advice should be given to eliminate or reduce the intake of the offending foods. For cow's milk hypersensitivity in infants, this will include choosing the most appropriate specialised infant formula. PMID:19953752

  7. Pattern of active and inactive sequences of diabetes self-monitoring in mobile phone and paper diary users.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Nikhil S; Jing Wang

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot randomized controlled trial involving overweight or obese participants with type 2 diabetes, we find that smartphone users have sharply higher adherence to self-monitoring of diet, physical activity, blood glucose, and body weight, as compared to paper diary users. By characterizing the pattern of adherence with the probability of continuation of active and inactive sequences of self-monitoring, we find that smartphone users have longer active sequences of self-monitoring of all four behaviors that were being monitored. Smartphone users are also quicker to resume self-monitoring of diet and physical activity after a lapse in self-monitoring, whereas paper diary users have shorter inactive sequences for monitoring blood glucose and body weight. The findings are informative for data collection methodology in this burgeoning area of research.

  8. Water Intake in a Sample of Greek Adults Evaluated with the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) and a Seven-Day Diary.

    PubMed

    Athanasatou, Adelais; Malisova, Olga; Kandyliari, Aikaterini; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ), a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years). In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years). Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43) mL/day and 2551 (SE 39) mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59) mL/day and 1832 (SE 56) mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake) and milk (5% of total water intake). These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use.

  9. Water Intake in a Sample of Greek Adults Evaluated with the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) and a Seven-Day Diary.

    PubMed

    Athanasatou, Adelais; Malisova, Olga; Kandyliari, Aikaterini; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ), a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years). In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years). Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43) mL/day and 2551 (SE 39) mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59) mL/day and 1832 (SE 56) mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake) and milk (5% of total water intake). These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use. PMID:27626443

  10. Water Intake in a Sample of Greek Adults Evaluated with the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) and a Seven-Day Diary

    PubMed Central

    Athanasatou, Adelais; Malisova, Olga; Kandyliari, Aikaterini; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ), a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years). In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years). Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43) mL/day and 2551 (SE 39) mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59) mL/day and 1832 (SE 56) mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake) and milk (5% of total water intake). These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use. PMID:27626443

  11. Beyond Neighborhood Food Environments: Distance Traveled to Food Establishments in 5 US Cities, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accurate conceptualizations of neighborhood environments are important in the design of policies and programs aiming to improve access to healthy food. Neighborhood environments are often defined by administrative units or buffers around points of interest. An individual may eat and shop for food within or outside these areas, which may not reflect accessibility of food establishments. This article examines the relevance of different definitions of food environments. Methods We collected data on trips to food establishments using a 1-week food and travel diary and global positioning system devices. Spatial-temporal clustering methods were applied to identify homes and food establishments visited by study participants. Results We identified 513 visits to food establishments (sit-down restaurants, fast-food/convenience stores, malls or stores, groceries/supermarkets) by 135 participants in 5 US cities. The average distance between the food establishments and homes was 2.6 miles (standard deviation, 3.7 miles). Only 34% of the visited food establishments were within participants’ neighborhood census tract. Buffers of 1 or 2 miles around the home covered 55% to 65% of visited food establishments. There was a significant difference in the mean distances to food establishments types (P = .008). On average, participants traveled the longest distances to restaurants and the shortest distances to groceries/supermarkets. Conclusion Many definitions of the neighborhood food environment are misaligned with individual travel patterns, which may help explain the mixed findings in studies of neighborhood food environments. Neighborhood environments defined by actual travel activity may provide more insight on how the food environment influences dietary and food shopping choices. PMID:26247426

  12. GluN2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and excitatory amino acid transporter 3 are upregulated in primary sensory neurons after 7 days of morphine administration in rats: implication for opiate-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Gong, Kerui; Bhargava, Aditi; Jasmin, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of the peripheral nervous system to opiate-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is not well understood. In this study, we determined the changes in excitability of primary sensory neurons after sustained morphine administration for 7 days. Changes in the expression of glutamate receptors and glutamate transporters after morphine administration were ascertained in dorsal root ganglions. Patch clamp recordings from intact dorsal root ganglions (ex vivo preparation) of morphine-treated rats showed increased excitability of small diameter (≤30 μm) neurons with respect to rheobase and membrane threshold, whereas the excitability of large diameter (>30 μm) neurons remained unchanged. Small diameter neurons also displayed increased responses to glutamate, which were mediated mainly by GluN2B containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and to a lesser degree by the neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3/excitatory amino acid carrier 1. Coadministration in vivo of the GluN2B selective antagonist Ro 25-6981 with morphine for 7 days prevented the appearance of OIH and increased morphine-induced analgesia. Administration of morphine for 7 days led to an increased expression of GluN2B and excitatory amino acid transporter 3/excitatory amino acid carrier 1, but not of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate, kainate, or group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, or of the vesicular glutamate transporter 2. These results suggest that peripheral glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to OIH and that GluN2B subunit of NMDA receptors in the periphery may be a target for therapy.

  13. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    PubMed

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  14. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    PubMed

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  15. Towards Better Human Robot Interaction: Understand Human Computer Interaction in Social Gaming Using a Video-Enhanced Diary Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Swee Lan; Tan, Mitchell; Looi, Qin En

    This paper presents findings from a descriptive research on social gaming. A video-enhanced diary method was used to understand the user experience in social gaming. From this experiment, we found that natural human behavior and gamer’s decision making process can be elicited and speculated during human computer interaction. These are new information that we should consider as they can help us build better human computer interfaces and human robotic interfaces in future.

  16. Recovery of handwritten text from the diaries and papers of David Livingstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Keith T.; Easton, Roger L., Jr.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Boydston, Kenneth

    2011-03-01

    During his explorations of Africa, David Livingstone kept a diary and wrote letters about his experiences. Near the end of his travels, he ran out of paper and ink and began recording his thoughts on leftover newspaper with ink made from local seeds. These writings suffer from fading, from interference with the printed text and from bleed through of the handwriting on the other side of the paper, making them hard to read. New image processing techniques have been developed to deal with these papers to make Livingstone's handwriting available to the scholars to read. A scan of the David Livingstone's papers was made using a twelve-wavelength, multispectral imaging system. The wavelengths ranged from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. In these wavelengths, the three different types of writing behave differently, making them distinguishable from each other. So far, three methods have been used to recover Livingstone's handwriting. These include pseudocolor (to make the different writings distinguishable), spectral band ratios (to remove text that does not change), and principal components analysis (to separate the different writings). In initial trials, these techniques have been able to lift handwriting off printed text and have suppressed handwriting that has bled through from the other side of the paper.

  17. Effects of a mass media intervention on HIV-related stigma: 'Radio Diaries' program in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Creel, A H; Rimal, R N; Mkandawire, G; Böse, K; Brown, J W

    2011-06-01

    HIV-related stigma has been recognized as a significant public health issue, yet gaps remain in development and evaluation of mass media interventions to reduce stigma. The Malawi 'Radio Diaries' (RD) program features people with HIV telling stories about their everyday lives. This study evaluates the program's effects on stigma and the additional effects of group discussion. Thirty villages with 10 participants each were randomized to listen to RD only, to the program followed by group discussion or to a control program. Post-intervention surveys assessed four stigma outcomes: fear of casual contact, shame, blame and judgment and willingness to disclose HIV status. Regression analyses indicated that fear of casual contact was reduced by the intervention. Shame was reduced by the radio program, but only for those reporting prior exposure to the radio program and for those who did not have a close friend or relative with HIV. Shame was not reduced when the radio program was followed by discussion. The intervention reduced blame for men and not women and for younger participants but not older participants. Including people with HIV/AIDS in mass media interventions has potential to reduce stigma.

  18. A daily diary study of perceived social isolation, dietary restraint, and negative affect in binge eating.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E; Braitman, Abby L; Lewis, Robin J

    2016-02-01

    Negative affect and dietary restraint are key predictors of binge eating, yet less is known about the impact of social factors on binge eating. The study sought to replicate and extend research on the relationships between negative affect, dietary restraint, perceived social isolation and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. College women (N = 54) completed measures of dietary restraint, negative affect, perceived social isolation, and binge eating daily for 14 days. Participants completed the measures nightly each day. A series of generalized estimating equations showed that dietary restraint was associated with less binge eating while controlling for negative affect and for perceived social isolation separately. Negative affect and perceived social isolation were associated with greater binge eating while controlling for restraint in separate analyses, but only perceived social isolation was significant when modeled simultaneously. All two-way interactions between negative affect, dietary restraint, and perceived social isolation predicting binge eating were nonsignificant. This study furthers our understanding of predictors of binge eating in a nonclinical sample. Specifically, these data suggest perceived social isolation, negative affect, and dietary restraint are important variables associated with binge eating in daily life and warrant further research.

  19. Exploring the relation of depression and overt behavior with daily diaries.

    PubMed

    Hopko, Derek R; Mullane, C M

    2008-09-01

    Behavioral models of depression highlight decreased response-contingent positive reinforcement as critical toward conceptualizing depressive affect, decreased reinforcement being caused by changes in the quantitative (i.e., number or intensity) or qualitative (i.e., type or function) aspects of reinforcing events, availability of reinforcement, inadequate instrumental behaviors, and/or an increased frequency of punishment [Lewinsohn, P. M. (1974). A behavioral approach to depression. In R. M. Friedman, & M. M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research. New York: Wiley]. Building on previous research and addressing methodological limitations, this study utilized a daily diary method and behavioral coding system to directly assess whether qualitative aspects (or types) of human behavior differed as a function of depression level. Relative to non-depressed individuals, mildly depressed participants engaged less frequently in social, physical, and educational behaviors and more frequently in employment-related activities. These data support behavioral models of depression and have clinical relevance as highlighted with reference to behavioral activation interventions for depression.

  20. Spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into nonwork: A daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Corts, Inés; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Boz, Marina

    2015-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 20(3) of Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (see record 2015-15847-001). There was a misspelling in the figures. The legends for Figure 1 and Figure 2 should read "High Daily Resilience".] This study among a heterogeneous sample of employees expands the Job-Demands (JD-R) theory by examining how interpersonal conflicts at work-task and relationship conflict-spillover into the nonwork domain on a daily basis. We hypothesized that daily personal resources can buffer the daily negative spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into the nonwork domain. A total of 113 employees (n = 565 occasions) filled in a daily diary questionnaire in the evening before bedtime over 5 consecutive working days. Results of multilevel analysis showed that the presence of daily personal resources is essential to buffer the spillover of interpersonal conflict at work to the nonwork domain. Specifically, on days that employees were not very optimistic or resilient, interpersonal conflicts resulted in higher strain-based work-life conflict experiences. These findings contribute to the JD-R theory and show how the unfavorable effects of daily interpersonal conflicts in the work domain may be avoided in the nonwork domain through enhancing personal resources. We discuss the implications for theory and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Empowering citizens for well-being and chronic disease management with wellness diary.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Elina; Korhonen, Ilkka; Salminen, Jukka H; Ahtinen, Aino; Koskinen, Esa; Särelä, Antti; Pärkkä, Juha; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2010-03-01

    Chronic conditions closely related to lifestyles are the major cause of disability and death in the developed world. Behavior change is the key to managing well-being and preventing and managing chronic diseases. Wellness diary (WD) is a mobile application designed to support citizens in learning about their behavior, and both making and maintaining behavior changes. WD has been found acceptable, useful, and suitable for long-term use as a part of an intervention. When used independently, however, it does not seem to have enough engaging and motivating features to support adoption and long-term commitment. The main improvement needs identified based on a review of WD-related studies were: personalization of the application to individual needs, increasing motivation during early use, maintaining motivation, and aiding in relapse recovery in long-term use. We present concepts to improve the personalization of WD as well as improvements to the feedback and interpretation of the self-observation data. We also present usage models on how this type of mobile application could be utilized.

  2. Need satisfaction and employees' recovery state at work: A daily diary study.

    PubMed

    van Hooff, Madelon L M; Geurts, Sabine A E

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to advance insight in the associations between employees' daily effort expenditure at work and their recovery state during the workday, and specifically focused on the role of daily work-related need satisfaction in this process. We examined (a) if high intrinsic work motivation and low self-control effort act as mediating mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of need satisfaction, and (b) to what extent need satisfaction mitigates the adverse effects of high job demands (work pressure and cognitive demands) on employee recovery. Data were collected by means of a 5-day daily diary study (2 measurements daily: in the morning before work, and at the end of the workday) among 68 participants. Multilevel analyses showed that need satisfaction at work was related to a beneficial recovery state at the end of the workday, and that this association was mediated by high intrinsic work motivation and low self-control effort. Furthermore, need satisfaction attenuated the adverse effects of high work pressure on employee recovery. All in all, this study increased our understanding of employees' daily effort and recovery processes at work, and highlighted the beneficial role of need satisfaction at work.

  3. Illness, everyday life and narrative montage: the visual aesthetics of cancer in Sara Bro's Diary.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Nina; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2011-05-01

    This article presents a study of Sara Bro's Diary (2004), a book montage of images and texts recording the experiences of a Danish breast cancer survivor, Sara Bro. It examines two montages of photography and text, drawing on Roland Barthes' concept of 'the third meaning' to explain and discuss the effect of the layered meanings in the montage alongside their multi-medium and self-referential expression. The discussion is centred on the aesthetic practices that are invited by Bro's book montage. The article considers how the juxtaposition of images and texts are experienced and co-created by the reader. It points to the effect of the aesthetics of disguise and carnival implicit in the visual-verbal montage and argues that these generate a third meaning. This meaning is associated with the breast cancer experience but is not directly discernible in the montage. The article concludes by discussing how Bro's montage acts as an ideological statement, subverting or 'poaching on' the health care system.

  4. Deriving rules from activity diary data: A learning algorithm and results of computer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arentze, Theo A.; Hofman, Frank; Timmermans, Harry J. P.

    Activity-based models consider travel as a derived demand from the activities households need to conduct in space and time. Over the last 15 years, computational or rule-based models of activity scheduling have gained increasing interest in time-geography and transportation research. This paper argues that a lack of techniques for deriving rules from empirical data hinders the further development of rule-based systems in this area. To overcome this problem, this paper develops and tests an algorithm for inductively deriving rules from activity-diary data. The decision table formalism is used to exhaustively represent the theoretically possible decision rules that individuals may use in sequencing a given set of activities. Actual activity patterns of individuals are supplied to the system as examples. In an incremental learning process, the system progressively improves on the selection of rules used for reproducing the examples. Computer experiments based on simulated data are performed to fine-tune rule selection and rule value update functions. The results suggest that the system is effective and fairly robust for parameter settings. It is concluded, therefore, that the proposed approach opens up possibilities to derive empirically tested rule-based models of activity scheduling. Follow-up research will be concerned with testing the system on empirical data.

  5. Life orientation in Finnish family caregivers' of persons with Alzheimer's disease: a diary study.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, Tarja; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Koivisto, Anne

    2012-12-01

    Family caregivers provide the majority of home care of people with Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we discuss family caregivers' life orientation and changes in life orientation during the first year after the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Family caregivers' unstructured diaries (n = 83), of the first six months after diagnosis (years 2002-2004), were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Two core themes emerged from the data analysis: the meaning of the onset of Alzheimer's disease for the lives of family caregivers, and restructuring life in its entirety. Family caregivers face challenges in their life orientation after the onset of their family members' Alzheimer's disease. Their personal milieu, familial cohesion, and conception of the future consequentially change. They face multiple challenges in the process of becoming caregivers. In this study, it was revealed that the process starts before the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and has an impact on their future. We conclude that family caregivers' well-being should be assessed at the time of the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23186523

  6. Need satisfaction and employees' recovery state at work: A daily diary study.

    PubMed

    van Hooff, Madelon L M; Geurts, Sabine A E

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to advance insight in the associations between employees' daily effort expenditure at work and their recovery state during the workday, and specifically focused on the role of daily work-related need satisfaction in this process. We examined (a) if high intrinsic work motivation and low self-control effort act as mediating mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of need satisfaction, and (b) to what extent need satisfaction mitigates the adverse effects of high job demands (work pressure and cognitive demands) on employee recovery. Data were collected by means of a 5-day daily diary study (2 measurements daily: in the morning before work, and at the end of the workday) among 68 participants. Multilevel analyses showed that need satisfaction at work was related to a beneficial recovery state at the end of the workday, and that this association was mediated by high intrinsic work motivation and low self-control effort. Furthermore, need satisfaction attenuated the adverse effects of high work pressure on employee recovery. All in all, this study increased our understanding of employees' daily effort and recovery processes at work, and highlighted the beneficial role of need satisfaction at work. PMID:25705912

  7. Spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into nonwork: A daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Corts, Inés; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Boz, Marina

    2015-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 20(3) of Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (see record 2015-15847-001). There was a misspelling in the figures. The legends for Figure 1 and Figure 2 should read "High Daily Resilience".] This study among a heterogeneous sample of employees expands the Job-Demands (JD-R) theory by examining how interpersonal conflicts at work-task and relationship conflict-spillover into the nonwork domain on a daily basis. We hypothesized that daily personal resources can buffer the daily negative spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into the nonwork domain. A total of 113 employees (n = 565 occasions) filled in a daily diary questionnaire in the evening before bedtime over 5 consecutive working days. Results of multilevel analysis showed that the presence of daily personal resources is essential to buffer the spillover of interpersonal conflict at work to the nonwork domain. Specifically, on days that employees were not very optimistic or resilient, interpersonal conflicts resulted in higher strain-based work-life conflict experiences. These findings contribute to the JD-R theory and show how the unfavorable effects of daily interpersonal conflicts in the work domain may be avoided in the nonwork domain through enhancing personal resources. We discuss the implications for theory and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25602278

  8. Working in the sky: a diary study on work engagement among flight attendants.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Bakker, Arnold B; Heuven, Ellen; Demerouti, Evangelia; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2008-10-01

    This study aims to gain insight in the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model by examining whether daily fluctuations in colleague support (i.e., a typical job resource) predict day-levels of job performance through self-efficacy and work engagement. Forty-four flight attendants filled in a questionnaire and a diary booklet before and after consecutive flights to three intercontinental destinations. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that colleague support had unique positive effects on self-efficacy and work engagement. Self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between support and engagement, but work engagement mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and (in-role and extra-role) performance. In addition, colleague support had an indirect effect on in-role performance through work engagement. These findings shed light on the motivational process as outlined in the JD-R model, and suggest that colleague support is an important job resource for flight attendants helping them reach their work-related goals.

  9. Understanding the Different Types of Social Support Offered by Audience to A-List Diary-Like and Informative Bloggers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Ling; Xu, Yi-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Blogs offer audiences a forum through which they can exchange ideas and provide feedback about the everyday lives and experiences of the bloggers. Such interactions and communication between audiences and bloggers could be regarded as a kind of social support. The present study aims to identify and compare the types of social support offered by audiences to continuous popular diary-like and informative bloggers, and to explore the possible benefits that bloggers may obtain from such social support. Content analysis was used to analyze the 485 and 390 comments provided by the audiences to the A-list diary-like and informative blog posts, respectively. Results reveal that validation, compliment, and encouragement are the most common types of social support given by audiences to A-list bloggers. Chi-square test results show that the audiences offer more encouragement-type of social support to diary-like bloggers and more complimentary and informational social support to informative bloggers. Such types of social support may enhance A-list bloggers' self-esteem, boost their confidence, promote their self-understanding, and help them obtain the benefits of social validation, which in turn encourage bloggers to commit continuous self-disclosure. PMID:23363225

  10. Understanding the different types of social support offered by audience to A-list diary-like and informative bloggers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hsiu-Chia; Wang, Li-Ling; Xu, Yi-Ting

    2013-03-01

    Blogs offer audiences a forum through which they can exchange ideas and provide feedback about the everyday lives and experiences of the bloggers. Such interactions and communication between audiences and bloggers could be regarded as a kind of social support. The present study aims to identify and compare the types of social support offered by audiences to continuous popular diary-like and informative bloggers, and to explore the possible benefits that bloggers may obtain from such social support. Content analysis was used to analyze the 485 and 390 comments provided by the audiences to the A-list diary-like and informative blog posts, respectively. Results reveal that validation, compliment, and encouragement are the most common types of social support given by audiences to A-list bloggers. Chi-square test results show that the audiences offer more encouragement-type of social support to diary-like bloggers and more complimentary and informational social support to informative bloggers. Such types of social support may enhance A-list bloggers' self-esteem, boost their confidence, promote their self-understanding, and help them obtain the benefits of social validation, which in turn encourage bloggers to commit continuous self-disclosure.

  11. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  12. Clinical holistic medicine: the case story of Anna. II. Patient diary as a tool in treatment.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    In spite of extreme childhood sexual and violent abuse, a 22-year-old young woman, Anna, healed during holistic existential therapy. New and highly confrontational therapeutic tools were developed and used to help this patient (like acceptance through touch and acupressure through the vagina). Her vulva and introitus were scarred from repeated brutal rape, as was the interior of her mouth. During therapy, these scars were gently contacted and the negative emotional contents released. The healing was in accordance with the advanced holistic medical toolbox that uses (1) love, (2) trust, (3) holding, and (4) helping the patient to process and integrate old traumas. The case story clearly revealed the philosophical adjustments that Anna made during treatment in response to the severe childhood abuse. These adjustments are demonstrated by her diary, where sentences contain both the feelings and thoughts of the painful present (the gestalt) at the time of the abuse, thus containing the essence of the traumas, making the repression of the painful emotions possible through the change in the patient's philosophical perspective. Anna's case gives a unique insight into the process of traumatization (pathogenesis) and the process of healing (salutogenesis). At the end of the healing, Anna reconnected her existence to the outer world in a deep existential, suicidal crisis and faced her choice of life or death. She decided to live and, in this process, assumed existential responsibility, which made her able to step out of her mental disease. The advanced holistic toolbox seems to help patients heal even from the worst childhood abuse. In spite of the depth of the existential crisis, holistic existential therapy seems to support existential responsibility well and thus safe for the patients. PMID:17370000

  13. Analysis of Ozone And CO2 Profiles Measured At A Diary Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Hasson, A. S.; Ashkan, S.; Steele, J.; Shelton, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone and carbon dioxide are both greenhouse gasses in the planetary boundary layer. Ozone is a harmful secondary pollutant in the troposphere produced mostly during the day when there is a photochemical reaction in which primary pollutant precursors such as nitrous oxide (NOx) or volatile organic compounds (VOC's) mix with sunlight. As with most pollutants in the lower troposphere, both ozone and carbon dioxide vary in spatial and temporal scale depending on sources of pollution, environmental conditions and the boundary layer dynamics. Among the several factors that influence ozone variation, the seasonal changes in meteorological parameters and availability of ozone precursors are crucial because they control ozone formation and decay. Understanding how the difference in emission sources affect vertical transport of ozone and carbon dioxide is considered crucial to the improvement of their regional inventory sources. The purpose of this study is to characterize vertical transport of ozone and carbon at a diary facility. The study was conducted in the summer of 2011 and 2012 at a commercial dairy facility in Central California and involved profile measurements of ozone and CO2 using electrochemical ozonesondes, meteorological sondes and CO2 probe tethered to a 9 cubic meters helium balloon. On each day of the data collection, multiple balloon launches were made over a period representing different stages of the boundary layer development. The results show ozone and CO2 profiles display different characteristics. Regardless of the time of the day, the CO2 concentration decreases with height with a sharp gradient near the surface that is strengthened by a stable atmospheric condition, a feature suggesting the surface as the source. On the other hand, ozone profiles show greater link to the evolution of the lower boundary layer. Ozone profiles display unique features indicating ozone destruction near the surface. This unusual near the surface, observed even in the

  14. Assessment of sleep in patients with fibromyalgia: qualitative development of the fibromyalgia sleep diary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep disturbance is a common experience in fibromyalgia (FM). The field lacks a sleep specific patient reported outcome (PRO) measure developed and validated in a FM population. The study objective is to gain an in-depth understanding of sleep in FM and to develop a PRO measure of it. Methods Research involved the following stages: 1) A literature review conducted to identify key concepts associated with FM patient experience of sleep and PRO measures that have been used to assess this; 2) Qualitative interviews with therapeutic area experts; 3) Focus groups with FM patients who experienced sleep disturbance; 4) Development of a conceptual framework and the Fibromyalgia Sleep Diary (FMSD); and 5) Cognitive interviews with patients to explore content validity of the FMSD. Results The literature review and expert interviews supported sleep disturbance being an important aspect of the FM patient experience, and underscored the need for a new FM specific sleep PRO measure. Results from the focus groups demonstrated that FM patients experience sleep disturbances that they attribute to their FM symptoms, such as pain and stiffness, confirming the importance of understanding more about sleep changes. Aspects of sleep raised by FM patients included poor sleep quality and insufficient quantity including difficulty with falling asleep, getting comfortable, and staying asleep; restlessness; light sleep; not feeling rested upon awakening; and difficulty starting the day. Cognitive interview results showed that the 8-item FMSD, developed to reflect the concepts identified above, was relevant to FM patients with content that was interpreted as intended. Conclusions The FMSD was developed in line with the recommendations of the FDA PRO guidance and ISPOR PRO Task Force. The qualitative evidence generated thus far strongly supports the content validity of the FMSD as a PRO measure of sleep disturbance in FM populations. Psychometric evaluation of the FMSD to

  15. Training Diaries during Altitude Training Camp in Two Olympic Champions: An Observational Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Serpiello, Fabio R.; Millet, Grégoire P.; Torre, Antonio La

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, Live High-Train High (LHTH) interventions were adopted when athletes trained and lived at altitude to try maximising the benefits offered by hypoxic exposure and improving sea level performance. Nevertheless, scientific research has proposed that the possible benefits of hypoxia would be offset by the inability to maintain high training intensity at altitude. However, elite athletes have been rarely recruited as an experimental sample, and training intensity has almost never been monitored during altitude research. This case study is an attempt to provide a practical example of successful LHTH interventions in two Olympic gold medal athletes. Training diaries were collected and total training volumes, volumes at different intensities, and sea level performance recorded before, during and after a 3-week LHTH camp. Both athletes successfully completed the LHTH camp (2090 m) maintaining similar absolute training intensity and training volume at high-intensity (> 91% of race pace) compared to sea level. After the LHTH intervention both athletes obtained enhancements in performance and they won an Olympic gold medal. In our opinion, LHTH interventions can be used as a simple, yet effective, method to maintain absolute, and improve relative training intensity in elite endurance athletes. Key Points Elite endurance athletes, with extensive altitude training experience, can maintain similar absolute intensity during LHTH compared to sea level. LHTH may be considered as an effective method to increase relative training intensity while maintaining the same running/walking pace, with possible beneficial effects on sea level performance. Training intensity could be the key factor for successful high-level LHTH camp. PMID:25177197

  16. Training Diaries during Altitude Training Camp in Two Olympic Champions: An Observational Case Study.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Serpiello, Fabio R; Millet, Grégoire P; La Torre, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Traditionally, Live High-Train High (LHTH) interventions were adopted when athletes trained and lived at altitude to try maximising the benefits offered by hypoxic exposure and improving sea level performance. Nevertheless, scientific research has proposed that the possible benefits of hypoxia would be offset by the inability to maintain high training intensity at altitude. However, elite athletes have been rarely recruited as an experimental sample, and training intensity has almost never been monitored during altitude research. This case study is an attempt to provide a practical example of successful LHTH interventions in two Olympic gold medal athletes. Training diaries were collected and total training volumes, volumes at different intensities, and sea level performance recorded before, during and after a 3-week LHTH camp. Both athletes successfully completed the LHTH camp (2090 m) maintaining similar absolute training intensity and training volume at high-intensity (> 91% of race pace) compared to sea level. After the LHTH intervention both athletes obtained enhancements in performance and they won an Olympic gold medal. In our opinion, LHTH interventions can be used as a simple, yet effective, method to maintain absolute, and improve relative training intensity in elite endurance athletes. Key PointsElite endurance athletes, with extensive altitude training experience, can maintain similar absolute intensity during LHTH compared to sea level.LHTH may be considered as an effective method to increase relative training intensity while maintaining the same running/walking pace, with possible beneficial effects on sea level performance.Training intensity could be the key factor for successful high-level LHTH camp.

  17. Training Diaries during Altitude Training Camp in Two Olympic Champions: An Observational Case Study.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Serpiello, Fabio R; Millet, Grégoire P; La Torre, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Traditionally, Live High-Train High (LHTH) interventions were adopted when athletes trained and lived at altitude to try maximising the benefits offered by hypoxic exposure and improving sea level performance. Nevertheless, scientific research has proposed that the possible benefits of hypoxia would be offset by the inability to maintain high training intensity at altitude. However, elite athletes have been rarely recruited as an experimental sample, and training intensity has almost never been monitored during altitude research. This case study is an attempt to provide a practical example of successful LHTH interventions in two Olympic gold medal athletes. Training diaries were collected and total training volumes, volumes at different intensities, and sea level performance recorded before, during and after a 3-week LHTH camp. Both athletes successfully completed the LHTH camp (2090 m) maintaining similar absolute training intensity and training volume at high-intensity (> 91% of race pace) compared to sea level. After the LHTH intervention both athletes obtained enhancements in performance and they won an Olympic gold medal. In our opinion, LHTH interventions can be used as a simple, yet effective, method to maintain absolute, and improve relative training intensity in elite endurance athletes. Key PointsElite endurance athletes, with extensive altitude training experience, can maintain similar absolute intensity during LHTH compared to sea level.LHTH may be considered as an effective method to increase relative training intensity while maintaining the same running/walking pace, with possible beneficial effects on sea level performance.Training intensity could be the key factor for successful high-level LHTH camp. PMID:25177197

  18. Clinical holistic medicine: the case story of Anna. II. Patient diary as a tool in treatment.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-02-10

    In spite of extreme childhood sexual and violent abuse, a 22-year-old young woman, Anna, healed during holistic existential therapy. New and highly confrontational therapeutic tools were developed and used to help this patient (like acceptance through touch and acupressure through the vagina). Her vulva and introitus were scarred from repeated brutal rape, as was the interior of her mouth. During therapy, these scars were gently contacted and the negative emotional contents released. The healing was in accordance with the advanced holistic medical toolbox that uses (1) love, (2) trust, (3) holding, and (4) helping the patient to process and integrate old traumas. The case story clearly revealed the philosophical adjustments that Anna made during treatment in response to the severe childhood abuse. These adjustments are demonstrated by her diary, where sentences contain both the feelings and thoughts of the painful present (the gestalt) at the time of the abuse, thus containing the essence of the traumas, making the repression of the painful emotions possible through the change in the patient's philosophical perspective. Anna's case gives a unique insight into the process of traumatization (pathogenesis) and the process of healing (salutogenesis). At the end of the healing, Anna reconnected her existence to the outer world in a deep existential, suicidal crisis and faced her choice of life or death. She decided to live and, in this process, assumed existential responsibility, which made her able to step out of her mental disease. The advanced holistic toolbox seems to help patients heal even from the worst childhood abuse. In spite of the depth of the existential crisis, holistic existential therapy seems to support existential responsibility well and thus safe for the patients.

  19. Flexibility in early verb use: evidence from a multiple-N diary study.

    PubMed

    Naigles, Letitia R; Hoff, Erika; Vear, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Flexibility and productivity are hallmarks of human language use. Competent speakers have the capacity to use the words they know to serve a variety of communicative functions, to refer to new and varied exemplars of the categories to which words refer, and in new and varied combinations with other words. When and how children achieve this flexibility and when they are truly productive language users--are central issues among accounts of language acquisition. The current study tests competing hypotheses of the achievement of flexibility and some kinds of productivity against data on children's first uses of their first-acquired verbs. Eight mothers recorded their children's first 10 uses of 34 early acquired verbs, if those verbs were produced within the window of the study. The children were between 16 and 20 months when the study began (depending on when the children started to produce verbs), were followed for between 3 and 12 months, and produced between 13 and 31 of the target verbs. These diary records provided the basis for a description of the pragmatic, semantic, and syntactic properties of early verb use. The data revealed that within this early, initial period of verb use, children use their verbs both to command and describe, they use their verbs in reference to a variety of appropriate actions enacted by variety of actors and with a variety of affected objects, and they use their verbs in a variety of syntactic structures. All 8 children displayed semantic and grammatical flexibility before 24 months of age. These findings are more consistent with a model of the language-learning child as an avid generalizer than as a conservative language user. Children's early verb use suggests abilities and inclinations to abstract from experience that may indeed begin in infancy. PMID:19660058

  20. Dietary aspects of adverse reactions to foods in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, S L; Sussman, G L; Krondl, M

    1988-01-01

    Dietary considerations play an important role in the diagnosis, treatment and management of immunologic and nonimmunologic reactions to foods. Food diaries and trial elimination diets may prove helpful in identifying the responsible foods. Elimination diets must be monitored carefully for nutritional adequacy and should be used no longer than absolutely necessary; in some instances appropriate vitamin and mineral supplementation may be necessary. Ideally the identification of foods that provoke symptoms should be confirmed by means of double-blind challenge testing. Avoidance of some problem foods is unlikely to cause nutritional problems, but the practical and nutritional implications of allergies to staple foods such as cow's milk, eggs and wheat are far greater. Nonimmunologic adverse reactions that may mimic food allergic reactions include gastrointestinal disorders, sensitivity to food additives and psychologically based adverse reactions. There may be some degree of tolerance in metabolic disorders, which makes dietary management easier. Sensitivity to food additives necessitates careful scrutiny of food labels. In psychologic adverse reactions to foods, several foods are often involved, which increases the risk of nutritional problems. PMID:3048623

  1. Handheld computers and paper diaries for documenting the use of factor concentrates used in haemophilia home therapy: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, E; Heddle, N; Lane, S; Sek, J; Almonte, T; Walker, I

    2005-05-01

    A recently published randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed that adherence to infusion diary record keeping was improved by the use of handheld computers. In this study, attitudes to record keeping were explored and patient preferences regarding the method of recording determined for the patients who participated in the trial. Qualitative study consisting of individual semi-structured interviews with 20 severely affected patients with haemophilia who participated in an RCT. Individuals were purposefully sampled based on their recent method of record keeping and whether child or adult. Analysis employed a constant comparative method to identify key themes from the data. Most individuals (19 of 20, 95%) considered record keeping to be important. They readily identified reasons to keep records: to benefit themselves, their families, clinical staff, product distributors and manufacturers. Keeping records helps them: feel a part of the health care team; have confidence they would be notified of product recalls; review their past history; improve their ability to advocate for themselves and improve communication among all parties. Record keeping, particularly when using paper diaries, can be burdensome and a challenge to maintain consistently. All 10 individuals (100%) who had used both paper diaries and handheld computers preferred the latter. Most patients understand that record keeping can be of benefit to them. Clinics can use this knowledge to inspire other patients by developing educational programmes that de-emphasize authority. In addition, given the evidence of both patients' preference for handheld computers, and the effectiveness of this approach documented in an RCT, switching to handheld computers is likely to improve record keeping.

  2. The micropolitics of elder care in Memento Mori, Diary of a Good Neighbor, and A Taste for Death.

    PubMed

    England, S E; Ganzer, C

    1994-01-01

    Using three novels--Muriel Spark's Memento Mori, Doris Lessing's Diary of a Good Neighbor, and P. D. James' A Taste for Death--we examine themes relating to the social construction of caregiving. In our reading of the stories we found numerous instances of the political in the personal, and of how care can be shaped by inequalities of class and gender, by organizational practices and attitudes rooted in cultural assumptions, and by the social idealization of care provided by relatives and friends.

  3. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    PubMed

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  4. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  5. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... soap after preparing each food item. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. To ...

  6. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

  7. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Check the date. Lots of packaged foods have expiration dates or "sell by" (which means that the food ... a food if today's date is after the expiration date. Use it before it expires. Ask an adult ...

  8. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed. PMID:26934173

  9. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed.

  10. Prospective Measurement of Daily Health Behaviors: Modeling Temporal Patterns in Missing Data, Sexual Behavior, and Substance Use in an Online Daily Diary Study of Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Mustanski, Brian; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-08-01

    Daily diary and other intensive longitudinal methods are increasingly being used to investigate fluctuations in psychological and behavioral processes. To inform the development of this methodology, we sought to explore predictors of and patterns in diary compliance and behavioral reports. We used multilevel modeling to analyze data from an online daily diary study of 371 gay and bisexual men focused on sexual behavior and substance use. We found that greater education and older age as well as lower frequency of substance use were associated with higher compliance. Using polynomial and trigonometric functions, we found evidence for circaseptan patterns in compliance, sexual behavior, and substance use, as well as linear declines in compliance and behavior over time. The results suggest potential sources of non-random patterns of missing data and suggest that trigonometric terms provide a similar but more parsimonious investigation of circaseptan rhythms than do third-order polynomial terms.

  11. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability.

  12. Five indices of emotion regulation in participants with a history of nonsuicidal self-injury: a daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Theory has proposed that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a response to intense frequent negative affect (NA) that is difficult to control. Therefore, individual differences that are related to emotion dysregulation should be higher in individuals who engage in NSSI compared to healthy controls. Though current research supports this prediction, this research could be strengthened by corroborating evidence from daily diary studies. The current study used a daily diary protocol to thoroughly examine the emotional correlates of NSSI. Individuals with and without a history of NSSI rated their affect daily for 14 days. This information was used to score multiple indices of emotionality (e.g., mean level, within-person variation, reactivity). The results showed that compared to controls, individuals who engaged in NSSI had higher mean levels, within-person variation, and lower emotional differentiation of NA, but groups did not differ on inertia of NA or reactivity of NA. Moreover, individuals with a history of NSSI reported lower levels of positive affect and lower inertia of positive affect. These results are discussed in terms of affect regulation models of NSSI and treatment implications.

  13. Development and Validation of a Standardized Questionnaire and Standardized Diary for Use in Integrative Medicine Consultations in Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Hack, C. C.; Hüttner, N. B. M.; Fasching, P. A.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in diagnoses is not standardized and is very heterogeneous. There are few published standards on integrative medicine consultations or CAM-specific validated follow-up questionnaires. The aim of this study was to develop a standard for integrative medicine consultations, a patient questionnaire which could be used as a basis for medical decisions, and a diary to evaluate the course of the integrative therapy. Patients and Methods: Between June 2013 and September 2014 a standardized integrative medicine consultation in gynecologic oncology was developed and implemented at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Erlangen University Hospital. A standard operating procedure for consultations was developed; the necessary instruments were developed and validated. Results: Overall patient assessment of the integrative medicine questionnaire and the integrative medicine diary with regard to the time required for completion, comprehensibility, complexity and functionality was positive. Patients evaluated the standardized overall concept of the integrative medicine consultation and its instruments as suitable. Conclusion: Our team is one of the first study groups to develop, validate and publish a standard procedure for integrative medicine consultations. In future, the standard operating procedure for integrative medicine procedures of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Erlangen University Hospital could be introduced in other hospitals and certified breast cancer centers and gynecologic cancer centers. This would offer patients maximum security and a standardized quality of care in integrative medicine. PMID:26028695

  14. Symptoms and impact of COPD assessed by an electronic diary in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD: psychometric results from the SHINE study

    PubMed Central

    Kulich, Károly; Keininger, Dorothy L; Tiplady, Brian; Banerji, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptoms, particularly dyspnea, and activity limitation, have an impact on the health status and the ability to function normally in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods To develop an electronic patient diary (eDiary), qualitative patient interviews were conducted from 2009 to 2010 to identify relevant symptoms and degree of bother due to symptoms. The eDiary was completed by a subset of 209 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD in the 26-week QVA149 SHINE study. Two morning assessments (since awakening and since the last assessment) and one evening assessment were made each day. Assessments covered five symptoms (“shortness of breath,” “phlegm/mucus,” “chest tightness,” “wheezing,” and “coughing”) and two impact items (“bothered by COPD” and “difficulty with activities”) and were scored on a 10-point numeric scale. Results Patient compliance with the eDiary was 90.4% at baseline and 81.3% at week 26. Correlations between shortness of breath and impact items were >0.95. Regression analysis showed that shortness of breath was a highly significant (P<0.0001) predictor of impact items. Exploratory factor analysis gave a single factor comprising all eDiary items, including both symptoms and impact items. Shortness of breath, the total score (including five symptoms and two impact items), and the five-item symptom score from the eDiary performed well, with good consistency and reliability. The eDiary showed good sensitivity to change, with a 0.6 points reduction in the symptoms scores (on a 0–10 point scale) representing a meaningful change. Conclusion The eDiary was found to be valid, reliable, and responsive. The high correlations obtained between “shortness of breath” and the ratings of “bother” and “difficulty with activities” confirmed the relevance of this symptom in patients with COPD. Future studies will be required to explore further psychometric properties and their ability to

  15. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M⊙, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R⊙, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  16. The effect of a combination of chlorhexidine diacetate, sodium fluoride and xylitol on plaque wet weight and periodontal index scores in military academy cadets refraining from mechanical tooth cleaning for 7-day experimental periods.

    PubMed

    Nuuja, T; Meurman, J H; Murtomaa, H; Kortelainen, S; Metteri, J

    1992-02-01

    45 subjects participated in a double-blind cross-over mouthwash study where a new tablet-form combination of chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol (XYLIHEX) was studied together with solutions of chlorhexidine (CHX) and sodium fluoride (NaF). The preparation XYLIHEX was developed as a dental chemotherapeutic that could easily be added to the soldiers' kit to be used under circumstances where practising normal oral hygiene habits is restricted. For comparative purposes, XYLIHEX was prediluted in this study to make a solution. Before starting, professional prophylaxis was given to the subjects to bring their gingivitis index scores as close to 0 as possible. The subjects refrained from mechanical tooth cleaning for three 7-day test periods. Plaque wet weight and periodontal index scores were recorded before and after the test periods. The results showed that the preparations XYLIHEX and CHX did not statistically differ from each other in reducing plaque wet weight values and the recorded periodontal index scores. Both these preparations were statistically highly significantly more effective antiplaque agents than NaF, as expected.

  17. Food and drink consumption at school lunchtime: the impact of lunch type and contribution to overall intake in British 9–10-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Flo; Jennings, Amy; Jones, Andy; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther; Griffin, Simon; Cassidy, Aedín

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the differences in dietary intakes of children consuming school meals and packed lunches, the contribution of lunchtime intake to overall dietary intake and how lunchtime intake relates to current food-based recommendations for school meals. Design Cross-sectional analysis of overall intake of macronutrients and food choice from 4-day food diaries and school lunchtime intake from the two diary days completed while at school. Setting Norfolk, UK Subjects One thousand six hundred and twenty six children (aged 9-10 years) attending 90 Norfolk primary schools Results At school lunchtime school meal eaters consumed more vegetables, sweet snacks, chips, starchy foods, and milk, and less squash/cordial, fruit, bread, confectionery and savoury snacks than packed lunch eaters. These differences were also reflected in the overall diet. On average school meal eaters met School Food Trust (SFT) food-based standards, while food choices among packed lunch eaters were less healthy. The contribution of food consumed at school lunchtime to overall diet varied by food and lunch type, ranging from 0.8% (milk intake in packed lunches) to 74.4% (savoury snack intake in packed lunches). Conclusions There were significant differences in the foods consumed by school meal and packed lunch eaters, with food choices among school meal eaters generally in line with SFT standards. The food choices made at school lunchtime make a significant contribution to overall diet. PMID:21936970

  18. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics), neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination) were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other than home, so future studies

  19. Vitamins A and C, calcium, fruit, and dairy products are limited in food pantries.

    PubMed

    Akobundu, Ucheoma O; Cohen, Nancy L; Laus, Mary J; Schulte, Marsha J; Soussloff, Margaret N

    2004-05-01

    Food pantries serve over 19 million Americans, yet little is known about the nutritional quality of foods distributed in pantry bags. Foods in bags from 133 clients from 19 pantry sites were itemized, and a mean site value for nutrient and food group content was calculated. If an individual consumed the pantry foods according to the Food Guide Pyramid, the bag would contain sufficient bread group foods to last approximately 7 days; vegetable and meat/protein group foods would last about 5 days, and fruit and milk group foods would last only approximately 3 days. Foods distributed were of adequate or high nutrient density for protein, fiber, iron, and folate, but were of low nutrient density for calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Creative efforts are needed for pantries to procure, store, and distribute additional fruit, dairy products, and other sources of vitamins A and C and calcium. PMID:15127070

  20. Vitamins A and C, calcium, fruit, and dairy products are limited in food pantries.

    PubMed

    Akobundu, Ucheoma O; Cohen, Nancy L; Laus, Mary J; Schulte, Marsha J; Soussloff, Margaret N

    2004-05-01

    Food pantries serve over 19 million Americans, yet little is known about the nutritional quality of foods distributed in pantry bags. Foods in bags from 133 clients from 19 pantry sites were itemized, and a mean site value for nutrient and food group content was calculated. If an individual consumed the pantry foods according to the Food Guide Pyramid, the bag would contain sufficient bread group foods to last approximately 7 days; vegetable and meat/protein group foods would last about 5 days, and fruit and milk group foods would last only approximately 3 days. Foods distributed were of adequate or high nutrient density for protein, fiber, iron, and folate, but were of low nutrient density for calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Creative efforts are needed for pantries to procure, store, and distribute additional fruit, dairy products, and other sources of vitamins A and C and calcium.

  1. Food insecurity and food deserts.

    PubMed

    Camp, Nadine L

    2015-08-15

    Food insecurity has been steadily increasing in the United States with prevalence at nearly 15% of all households. Nurse practitioners can assess for food insecurity and provide local resources for families living in neighborhoods without easy access to healthy foods, otherwise known as food deserts.

  2. [Applying the Methodology and Practice of Microhistory: The Diary of a Confucian Doctor, Yi Mun-gǒn (1495-1567)].

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongwon

    2015-08-01

    Since microhistory's approach to the past is based on an understanding of and a sympathy for the concrete details of human lives, its area of interests overlaps with the history of medicine and medical humanities, which examine illness and health. If we put a specific region and society in a specific period under a microscope and increase the magnifying power, we can understand the numerous network connections among the body, illness management, and medicine and how multilayered were the knowledge and power applied to them. And this approach of using microhistory to illuminate medical history can be more effective than any other historical approach. This article focuses on Yi Mun-gǒn's extensive volumes of Mukchaeilgi (Mukchae's diary) in approaching medical history from the perspective of microhistory. Simply defined, this work is a Confucian scholar-doctor's diary. Its author, Yi Mun-gǒn, played the role of a Confucian doctor, although not professionally, during his 23-year exile, after serving in a high governmental office on the senior grade of the third court rank. Thanks to this extensive and detailed diary, we can now get adetailed andthorough picture of his medical practice in the Sǒngju region, 270 kilometers southeast of Seoul, where he was exiled. This article aims to understand the state of medical practice in the Sǒngju region in the 16thcentury through the"zoom-in" method adopted by microhistory. In particular, I will focus on the following three aspects:1) Yi Mun-gǒn's motivation for and method of medical study, 2)the character of Yi Mun-gǒn'spatient treatment as hwarin (the act of life-saving), and 3) the plural existence of various illness management methods, including pyǒngjǒm (divination of illness), sutra-chanting, exorcism, and ch'oje (ritual toward Heaven). All three aspects are closely related to Confucianism. First, Yi Mun-gǒn decided to acquire professional-level medical knowledge in order to practice the Confucian virtue of filial

  3. [Applying the Methodology and Practice of Microhistory: The Diary of a Confucian Doctor, Yi Mun-gǒn (1495-1567)].

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongwon

    2015-08-01

    Since microhistory's approach to the past is based on an understanding of and a sympathy for the concrete details of human lives, its area of interests overlaps with the history of medicine and medical humanities, which examine illness and health. If we put a specific region and society in a specific period under a microscope and increase the magnifying power, we can understand the numerous network connections among the body, illness management, and medicine and how multilayered were the knowledge and power applied to them. And this approach of using microhistory to illuminate medical history can be more effective than any other historical approach. This article focuses on Yi Mun-gǒn's extensive volumes of Mukchaeilgi (Mukchae's diary) in approaching medical history from the perspective of microhistory. Simply defined, this work is a Confucian scholar-doctor's diary. Its author, Yi Mun-gǒn, played the role of a Confucian doctor, although not professionally, during his 23-year exile, after serving in a high governmental office on the senior grade of the third court rank. Thanks to this extensive and detailed diary, we can now get adetailed andthorough picture of his medical practice in the Sǒngju region, 270 kilometers southeast of Seoul, where he was exiled. This article aims to understand the state of medical practice in the Sǒngju region in the 16thcentury through the"zoom-in" method adopted by microhistory. In particular, I will focus on the following three aspects:1) Yi Mun-gǒn's motivation for and method of medical study, 2)the character of Yi Mun-gǒn'spatient treatment as hwarin (the act of life-saving), and 3) the plural existence of various illness management methods, including pyǒngjǒm (divination of illness), sutra-chanting, exorcism, and ch'oje (ritual toward Heaven). All three aspects are closely related to Confucianism. First, Yi Mun-gǒn decided to acquire professional-level medical knowledge in order to practice the Confucian virtue of filial

  4. Food masquerade.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself.

  5. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention. PMID:26728766

  6. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention.

  7. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks.

  8. Applying social marketing principles to understand the effects of the radio diaries program in reducing HIV/AIDS stigma in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Rimal, Rajiv N; Creel, Alisha H

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the extent to which health campaigns can play a constructive role in reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. The Malawi Radio Diaries is a program in which HIV-positive men and women openly discuss day-to-day events in their lives with the goal of reducing stigma in the population. Adopting a social marketing perspective, we analyze the various components of the Radio Diaries program in terms of three of the "Four P's": product (stigma reduction), place (radio), and promotion (the program itself). We first investigated the important dimensions of stigma and then developed a model to test the demographic and psychosocial correlates of these dimensions. A midterm household survey was then used to determine the relationship between exposure to the Radio Diaries program and stigma. In multivariate analyses, lower education and knowledge were associated with stronger beliefs that persons living with HIV should be isolated from others. Exposure to the Radio Diaries program did not have a main-effect on stigma, but there was a significant interaction between exposure and efficacy to reduce number of partners such that there was little difference in stigma by exposure level for those with low efficacy, but a significant difference by exposure level for those with high efficacy. Findings are discussed in terms of social marketing principles.

  9. Young People's Everyday Romance and Sexual Experiences in Relation to Sex-Related Conversations with Parents: A Diary Study in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalenberg, Wieke G.; Timmerman, Margaretha C.; Kunnen, E. Saskia; Van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    This study builds on existing research into how young people's emergent sexual development is connected to parent-child sex-related communication through avoidance vs. disclosure. Over the course of one year, a total of 21 young people (age range 12-17.5) reported in longitudinal qualitative diaries their (1) everyday sexual experiences and (2)…

  10. A Pilot Study Using an Accelerometer to Evaluate a Caregiver's Interpretation of an Infant or Toddler's Activity Level as Recorded in a Time Activity Diary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulve, Nicolle S.; Jones, Paul A.; McCurdy, Thomas; Croghan, Carry W.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (a) determine if very young children will wear an accelerometer for relatively long periods of time and comply with the protocol for its use; (b) evaluate how well a caregiver can estimate the activity level of his/her infant or toddler when completing an exposure-oriented time activity diary; and (c) compare…

  11. THE EFFECT OF SELF-SET GRADE GOALS AND CORE SELF-EVALUATIONS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A DIARY STUDY.

    PubMed

    Bipp, Tanja; Kleingeld, Ad; Van Den Tooren, Marieke; Schinkel, Sonja

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this diary study was to examine the effect of self-set grade goals and core self-evaluations on academic performance. Data were collected among 59 university students (M age = 18.4 yr., SD = 0.8) in a 2-wk. exam period on up to five exam days. Multilevel analyses revealed that the individual grade goals students set for their exams were positively related to the grades they obtained for these exams. However, the goal-performance relationship only applied to students scoring high on core self-evaluations. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the effect of self-set grade goals and core self-evaluations on academic performance and imply important practical applications to enhance academic performance.

  12. Using "clinical trial diaries" to track patterns of participation for serial healthy volunteers in U.S. phase I studies.

    PubMed

    Edelblute, Heather B; Fisher, Jill A

    2015-02-01

    Phase I testing of investigational drugs relies on healthy volunteers as research participants. Many U.S. healthy volunteers enroll repeatedly in clinical trials for the financial compensation. Serial participants are incentivized to ignore restrictions on their participation, and no centralized clinical trial registry prevents dual enrollment. Little is currently known about how healthy volunteers participate in studies over time, hampering the development of policies to protect this group. We detail a methodology developed as part of a longitudinal study to track in real-time healthy volunteers' Phase I participation. Illustrating these data through three case studies, we document how healthy volunteers use strategies, such as qualifying for studies at more than one clinic and traveling significant distances, to maximize their participation. Our findings suggest that "clinical trial diaries" can generate critical information about serial research participation and point to ethical issues unique to healthy volunteers' involvement in Phase I clinical trials. PMID:25742668

  13. Using "clinical trial diaries" to track patterns of participation for serial healthy volunteers in U.S. phase I studies.

    PubMed

    Edelblute, Heather B; Fisher, Jill A

    2015-02-01

    Phase I testing of investigational drugs relies on healthy volunteers as research participants. Many U.S. healthy volunteers enroll repeatedly in clinical trials for the financial compensation. Serial participants are incentivized to ignore restrictions on their participation, and no centralized clinical trial registry prevents dual enrollment. Little is currently known about how healthy volunteers participate in studies over time, hampering the development of policies to protect this group. We detail a methodology developed as part of a longitudinal study to track in real-time healthy volunteers' Phase I participation. Illustrating these data through three case studies, we document how healthy volunteers use strategies, such as qualifying for studies at more than one clinic and traveling significant distances, to maximize their participation. Our findings suggest that "clinical trial diaries" can generate critical information about serial research participation and point to ethical issues unique to healthy volunteers' involvement in Phase I clinical trials.

  14. Is leisure time availability associated with more or less severe daily stressors? An examination using eight-day diary data

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The stress suppressing model proposes that sufficient resources reduce stress. The stress exposure model suggests that certain factors expose individuals to more stress. The current study tested these two models by assessing the within-person lagging effect of leisure time on perceived severity of daily stressors. Analyzing eight-day diary data (N=2,022), we found that having more leisure time than usual on a day reduced perceived severity of daily stressors the next day and that the decrease in severity became larger with further increase in leisure time. Additionally, the effect is much stronger among busy individuals who usually had little leisure time. The findings demonstrated an accelerated suppressing effect that differed between-person, and the lagging effect affords stronger implication for causality than correlational analysis. PMID:24563564

  15. [Insanity and suicide, as described in the "Okuni-nikki (Diaries of our clan)" of the Hirosaki Clan Government].

    PubMed

    Okada, Yasuo

    2011-09-01

    The "Okuni-nikki (Diaries of our Clan)" of the Hirosaki Clan Government covers the years 1661-1867. Akitomo Matsuki and Yōichi Hanada picked up medical topics from these diaries, and edited them in two volumes of "Tsugaru-ijibunka-shiryōshūsei: Okuni-nikki" (1993, 1994). I selected cases of insanity and suicide from these volumes. Selected were (1) 12 cases of insanity (in its wider sense) (5 cases of insanity, 2 cases of depression, a case of mania, a case of hypochondriasis, a case of epilepsy, a case of pavor nocturnus, and a case of insomnia), (2) 16 cases of suicide and self injury, cased by insanity (in its wider sense) (11 cases of suicide, a case of suicide and injuring another person, a case of attempted suicide, 2 cases of lovers' attempted suicide, and a case of self injury; 8 cases of them were caused by insanity), (3) 3 cases of killing and injuring others, caused by insanity (a case of killing another person, and 2 cases of injuring others), (4) a drunk case of injuring another person, and (5) 13 cases of suicide and self injury, without description of insanity (9 cases of suicide, 2 cases of attempted suicide, a case of lovers' suicide, and a case of penis cutting off). There were no described cases of possession or alcoholism. In the Edo Era, in several provinces and clans had legal procedure to confine insane patients. As for the Hirosaki Clan, I could not find clues to suggest the existence of such legal or customary procedures.

  16. The doctor and the rebels--the diary of Charles Molteno Murray, recorded during the 1914 Boer rebellion.

    PubMed

    Murray, R

    2000-12-01

    Just 12 years after the conclusion of the Anglo-Boer war, South Africa was led by ex-Boer Generals Botha and Smuts into what was to become the Great War, on the side of the British. This was utterly unacceptable to thousands of Boers who had engaged in a bitter struggle, against overwhelming odds, to prevent their country from becoming part of the mighty British Empire. Led by Generals de Wet, Beyers, and de la Rey, Lieutenant-Colonel Maritz and Major Kemp, they took up arms in a doomed rebellion, without proper weapons, equipment or organisation--by the time they were defeated the casualty figures for both sides exceeded those that would later result from the German South West campaign. Charles Molteno Murray, 37 years old, was a GP in Kenilworth, Cape Town, at the time. His father was an Irish immigrant doctor, his mother the daughter of the first Prime Minister of the Cape, Sir John Charles Molteno. In spite of having a busy and successful practice, with a surgical appointment at Victoria Hospital, Charles Murray volunteered for duty and soon found himself in the Orange Free State and northern Cape, caring for the wounded and dying of both sides in the rebellion. He kept a meticulous record of his experiences, written on loose-leaf pages sent as letters to his wife, which were later bound into leather-backed diaries. These diaries were passed on to his grandson, Dr Robert Murray, who had them transcribed into modern format. They contain details of daily life in the midst of military action, and also insights into important and little-publicised events of the Boer Rebellion of 1914.

  17. Probing for affective side effects of drugs used in geriatric practice: use of daily diaries to test for effects of metoclopramide and naproxen.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ira R; Morales, Knashawn; Datto, Catherine; Streim, Joel; Oslin, David; DiFilippo, Suzanne; Have, Thomas Ten

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the use of daily diaries of affects and events as measures of pharmacological effects on affective processes and to apply them to evaluate the possible affective toxicity of metoclopramide and naproxen, two medications commonly used in geriatric practice. In all, 105 adults aged 65 years or older were randomized to receive metoclopramide (up to 40 mg/day), naproxen (up to 1000 mg/day), or placebo under double-blind conditions for a period of 5 weeks. Patients were seen weekly for evaluations of affective and cognitive outcomes as well as safety. In addition, patients kept diaries with daily records of positive and negative affect and reports of significant daily events. Findings included mixed model analyses of drug assignment, time, events, and interactions for both positive affect and days with significant negative affect. Subjects exhibited high levels of adherence in completing daily diaries. Neither the pattern of dropouts nor the weekly assessments demonstrated significant drug effects on mood or affect. However, diary data demonstrated that metoclopramide increased the apparent impact of negative events on both positive and negative affect relative to placebo, and that naproxen increased the apparent impact of positive events on positive affect and, possibly, of negative events on negative affect relative to placebo. The findings confirm the utility of diary methods for studying drug effects on affective processes in normal elderly subjects. They suggest that both metoclopramide and naproxen can affect the associations between daily events and affects. If replicated, they would demonstrate that drug effects can extend beyond the intensity of affect and/or the emergence of full-fledged psychiatric disorders to include moderation of the interactions between daily events and affect.

  18. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods that claim to be nondairy (such as coffee whiteners) FDA-approved color additives Sources of protein ... contain no significant amounts of any nutrients Plain coffee and tea Ready-to-eat food prepared mostly ...

  19. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling foods Salt, to preserve meats "Indirect" ... this list are: guar gum, sugar, salt, and vinegar. The list is reviewed regularly. Some substances that ...

  20. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... at picnics, school cafeterias, large social functions, or restaurants. When germs get into the food, it is ... an unsafe way during preparation in grocery stores, restaurants, or homes. Food poisoning can occur after eating ...

  1. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  2. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  3. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  4. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  5. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and is estimated to affect >2% and possibly up to 10% of the population. Food allergies are defined by an immune response triggered by food proteins. Emerging data suggest that carbohydrate moieties on food proteins, specifically mammalian meats, may also elicit allergic responses. Food is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in the community, which can be fatal. The underlying mechanisms of food allergy usually involve food-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies, but cell-mediated disorders account for a variety of chronic or subacute skin and gastrointestinal reactions. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an emerging food-related chronic disorder. The diagnosis of food allergy is complicated by the observation that detection of food-specific immunoglobulin E (sensitization) does not necessarily indicate clinical allergy. Diagnosis requires a careful medical history, laboratory studies, and, in many cases, oral food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Novel diagnostic methods, many of which rely upon evaluating immune responses to specific food proteins or epitopes, may improve diagnosis and prognosis in the future. Current management relies upon allergen avoidance and preparation to promptly treat severe reactions with epinephrine. Studies suggest that some children with milk or egg allergy might tolerate extensively heated forms, for example milk or egg baked into muffins, without symptoms and possibly with some immunotherapeutic benefits. Novel therapeutic strategies are under study, including oral and sublingual immunotherapy, Chinese herbal medicine, anti-immunoglobulin E antibodies, and modified vaccines.

  6. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Walker, E C

    1988-07-01

    Although common, food allergy is vastly overestimated by patients. The main food allergens include cow's milk, eggs, nuts, shellfish and whitefish. Other types of adverse food reactions are numerous; their cause represent a spectrum of toxins, infectious organisms and pharmacologic agents. A definitive diagnosis may be difficult. Recommended measures include prevention through breast feeding, avoidance of known offenders and symptomatic therapy when reactions occur.

  7. [Food addiction].

    PubMed

    Locatelli, L; Correia, J C; Golay, A

    2015-03-25

    Food addiction is a common term used in everyday language by obese patients. Although the neurobiological evidence points to some similarities between addictive mechanisms and the consumption of certain foods, this diagnosis is not yet officially recognized. After a brief history of food addiction compared to other eating disorders, we review the neurobiological processes underlying this concept. A food addiction assessment tool is presented and discussed with the current literature and new classifications of the DSM-5. The concept of food addiction needs to be rethought and requires further research.

  8. The Feasibility and Acceptability of Using Technology-Based Daily Diaries with HIV-Infected Young Men Who have Sex with Men: A Comparison of Internet and Voice Modalities.

    PubMed

    Cherenack, Emily M; Wilson, Patrick A; Kreuzman, Andrew M; Price, Georgine N

    2016-08-01

    This study delivered a daily diary to 67 HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) between 16 and 24 years old for 66 days to measure HIV-risk behaviors and other psychosocial variables via two diary modalities: internet (accessible via any web-enabled device) and voice (accessible via telephone). Participants were randomized to complete one diary modality for 33 days before switching to the second modality for 33 days. The study was implemented in three urban HIV health care centers in the United States where participants were receiving services. Through diary data and qualitative interview data, we examined the feasibility and acceptability of the dairies and identified barriers and facilitators of dairy compliance. Results show high participant retention in the daily diary (93.4 %) and high compliance for the number of dairies completed (72.4 %). Internet diaries were preferred by 92 % of participants and completed at a significantly higher rate (77.5 %) than voice diaries (67.7 %). Facilitators included opportunities for self-reflection and cathartic sharing, monetary compensation, relationships with study staff, and daily reminders. Barriers included being busy or not having privacy at the time of reminders, forgetting, and falling asleep. Participants also described barriers and facilitators unique to each modality. Overall, both modalities were feasible and acceptable for use with our sample of HIV-infected MSM. PMID:26837629

  9. Food allergies and food intolerances.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, Claudio; Pastorello, Elide A

    2006-01-01

    Adverse reactions to foods, aside from those considered toxic, are caused by a particular individual intolerance towards commonly tolerated foods. Intolerance derived from an immunological mechanism is referred to as Food Allergy, the non-immunological form is called Food Intolerance. IgE-mediated food allergy is the most common and dangerous type of adverse food reaction. It is initiated by an impairment of normal Oral Tolerance to food in predisposed individuals (atopic). Food allergy produces respiratory, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms but often generalized, life-threatening symptoms manifest at a rapid rate-anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is made using medical history and cutaneous and serological tests but to obtain final confirmation a Double Blind Controlled Food Challenge must be performed. Food intolerances are principally caused by enzymatic defects in the digestive system, as is the case with lactose intolerance, but may also result from pharmacological effects of vasoactive amines present in foods (e.g. Histamine). Prevention and treatment are based on the avoidance of the culprit food. PMID:16782524

  10. The "dirty weather" diaries of Reverend Richard Davis: insights about early colonial-era meteorology and climate variability for northern New Zealand, 1839-1851

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrey, Andrew M.; Chappell, Petra R.

    2016-03-01

    Reverend Richard Davis (1790-1863) was a colonial-era missionary stationed in the Far North of New Zealand who was a key figure in the early efforts of the Church Mission Society. He kept meticulous meteorological records for the early settlements of Waimate North and Kaikohe, and his observations are preserved in a two-volume set in the Sir George Grey Special Collections in the Auckland Central Library. The Davis diary volumes are significant because they constitute some of the earliest land-based meteorological measurements that were continually chronicled for New Zealand. The diary measurements cover nine years within the 1839-1851 time span that are broken into two parts: 1839-1844 and 1848-1851. Davis' meteorological recordings include daily 9 a.m. and noon temperatures and midday pressure measurements. Qualitative comments in the diary note prevailing wind flow, wind strength, cloud cover, climate variability impacts, bio-indicators suggestive of drought, and notes on extreme weather events. "Dirty weather" comments scattered throughout the diary describe disturbed conditions with strong winds and driving rainfall. The Davis diary entries coincide with the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) and they indicate southerly and westerly circulation influences and cooler winter temperatures were more frequent than today. A comparison of climate field reconstructions derived from the Davis diary data and tree-ring-based winter temperature reconstructions are supported by tropical coral palaeotemperature evidence. Davis' pressure measurements were corroborated using ship log data from vessels associated with iconic Antarctic exploration voyages that were anchored in the Bay of Islands, and suggest the pressure series he recorded are robust and can be used as "station data". The Reverend Davis meteorological data are expected to make a significant contribution to the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions across the Earth (ACRE) project, which feeds the major data

  11. The "Dirty Weather" diaries of Reverend Richard Davis: insights about early Colonial-era meteorology and climate variability for Northern New Zealand, 1839-1851

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrey, A. M.; Chappell, P. R.

    2015-08-01

    Reverend Richard Davis (1790-1863) was a Colonial-era missionary stationed in the Far North of New Zealand who was a key figure in the early efforts of the Church Mission Society. He kept meticulous meteorological records for the early settlements of Waimate North and Kaikohe, and his observations are preserved in a two-volume set in the rare manuscripts archive at the Auckland City Library. The Davis diary volumes are significant because they constitute some of the earliest land-based meteorological measurements that were continually chronicled for New Zealand. The diary measurements cover nine years within the 1839-1851 timespan that are broken into two parts: 1839-1844 and 1848-1851. Davis' meteorological recordings include daily 9 AM and noon temperatures and mid-day pressure measurements. Qualitative comments in the diary note prevailing wind flow, wind strength, cloud cover, climate variability impacts, bio-indicators suggestive of drought, and notes on extreme weather events. "Dirty weather" comments scattered throughout the diary describe disturbed conditions with strong winds and driving rainfall. The Davis diary entries coincide with the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) and they indicate southerly and westerly circulation influences and cooler winter temperatures were more frequent than today. A comparison of climate field reconstructions derived from the Davis diary data and tree ring-based winter temperature reconstructions are supported by tropical coral palaeotemperature evidence. Davis' pressure measurements were corroborated using ship log data from vessels associated with iconic Antarctic exploration voyages that were anchored in the Bay of Islands, and suggest the pressure series he recorded are robust and can be used as `station data'. The Reverend Davis meteorological data are expected to make a significant contribution to the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions across the Earth (ACRE) project, which feeds the major data requirements for the

  12. Anaerobic digestion of food waste using yeast.

    PubMed

    Suwannarat, Jutarat; Ritchie, Raymond J

    2015-08-01

    Fermentative breakdown of food waste seems a plausible alternative to feeding food waste to pigs, incineration or garbage disposal in tourist areas. We determined the optimal conditions for the fermentative breakdown of food waste using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in incubations up to 30days. Yeast efficiently broke down food waste with food waste loadings as high as 700g FW/l. The optimum inoculation was ≈46×10(6)cells/l of culture with a 40°C optimum (25-40°C). COD and BOD were reduced by ≈30-50%. Yeast used practically all the available sugars and reduced proteins and lipids by ≈50%. Yeast was able to metabolize lipids much better than expected. Starch was mobilized after very long term incubations (>20days). Yeast was effective in breaking down the organic components of food waste but CO2 gas and ethanol production (≈1.5%) were only significant during the first 7days of incubations.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of food waste using yeast.

    PubMed

    Suwannarat, Jutarat; Ritchie, Raymond J

    2015-08-01

    Fermentative breakdown of food waste seems a plausible alternative to feeding food waste to pigs, incineration or garbage disposal in tourist areas. We determined the optimal conditions for the fermentative breakdown of food waste using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in incubations up to 30days. Yeast efficiently broke down food waste with food waste loadings as high as 700g FW/l. The optimum inoculation was ≈46×10(6)cells/l of culture with a 40°C optimum (25-40°C). COD and BOD were reduced by ≈30-50%. Yeast used practically all the available sugars and reduced proteins and lipids by ≈50%. Yeast was able to metabolize lipids much better than expected. Starch was mobilized after very long term incubations (>20days). Yeast was effective in breaking down the organic components of food waste but CO2 gas and ethanol production (≈1.5%) were only significant during the first 7days of incubations. PMID:25987287

  14. Measuring exposure to Schistosoma japonicum in China. III. Activity diaries, snail and human infection, transmission ecology and options for control.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Sleigh, A C; Williams, G M; Ross, A G; Forsyth, S J; Tanner, M; McManus, D P

    2000-05-31

    We used activity diaries and snail detection to relate water contact and Schistosoma japonicum infection among a cohort of 178 residents on two islands in the Dongting Lake, China. Water exposure to each of 12 mapped water zones around the islands was calculated (m(2) min/day) for each subject. Infected Oncomelania hupensis hupensis snails in this area are focal and were found in only five of the 12 zones, with the highest rate being 5.7%. Thirty-one subjects (17%) were re-infected with a mean intensity of 63.2 epg. Mean water contact was 7.9 m(2) min/day; 98% of water exposure was due to economic activity and only 2% due to swimming or bathing, washing and other necessities of daily life. Males had more exposure and infection than females (P<0.05). Infected subjects had more exposure (10.2 m(2) min/day) than those not infected (7.44 m(2) min/day) (P<0.05). Compared with uninfected subjects, those infected had 2.9 times more exposure in infected-snail zones (P<0.01). Also, human infection intensity (epg) correlated well with exposure to infected snail zones (r=0.552, P<0.01). People <20 years old had the highest re-infection (21.4%) and intensity (3.77 epg). Median exposure for 20-49-year-olds (9.00 m(2) min/day) was nearly double that of those aged <20 or >50 years old (5.5 m(2) min/day). We conclude that map-referenced water contact and snail evaluation boosts accuracy of activity-diary measurements in large transmission foci for the Asian schistosome. Protecting against faecal contamination of snail inhabited sites, and against occupational exposure for island residents, should be a priority of future research. Potential strategies for migrating buffaloes and families living on visiting fishing boats are explored.

  15. Food anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sampson, H A

    2000-01-01

    Food anaphylaxis is now the leading single cause of anaphylactic reactions treated in emergency departments in Westernized countries. In the US, it is estimated that there are 29,000 anaphylactic reactions to foods treated in emergency departments and 125-150 deaths each year. Peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish account for the vast majority of severe food anaphylactic reactions. Immunopathogenic mechanisms responsible for food anaphylaxis may differ somewhat from other forms of anaphylaxis, since elevation of serum tryptase is rarely seen following food anaphylactic reactions. Education regarding the strict avoidance of food allergens, the early recognition of anaphylactic symptoms, and the early use of self-injectable epinephrine remain the mainstays of therapy. However, clinical trials are now underway for the treatment of patients with peanut anaphylaxis utilizing anti-IgE antibody therapy and novel immunomodulatory therapies utilizing 'engineered' recombinant proteins, overlapping peptides, and immunostimulatory deoxyoligonucleotide sequences are being tested in animal models of anaphylaxis.

  16. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies. PMID:27545729

  17. Dietary Assessment in Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Reedy, Jill; Butler, Eboneé N.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Subar, Amy F.; Thompson, Frances E.; McKinnon, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Context The existing evidence on food environments and diet is inconsistent, potentially due in part to heterogeneity in measures used to assess diet. The objective of this review, conducted in 2012–2013, was to examine measures of dietary intake utilized in food environment research. Evidence acquisition Included studies were published from January 2007 through June 2012 and assessed relationships between at least one food environment exposure and at least one dietary outcome. Fifty-one articles were identified using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO; references listed in the papers reviewed and relevant review articles; and the National Cancer Institute's Measures of the Food Environment website. The frequency of the use of dietary intake measures and assessment of specific dietary outcomes was examined, as were patterns of results among studies using different dietary measures. Evidence synthesis The majority of studies used brief instruments, such as screeners or one or two questions, to assess intake. Food frequency questionnaires were used in about a third of studies, one in ten used 24-hour recalls, and fewer than one in twenty used diaries. Little consideration of dietary measurement error was evident. Associations between the food environment and diet were more consistently in the expected direction in studies using less error-prone measures. Conclusions There is a tendency toward the use of brief dietary assessment instruments with low cost and burden rather than more detailed instruments that capture intake with less bias. Use of error-prone dietary measures may lead to spurious findings and reduced power to detect associations. PMID:24355678

  18. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  19. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys.

  20. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys. PMID:25064645

  1. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  2. Using students' weekly diaries to evaluate positive youth development programs: the case of Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2009-01-01

    Six schools participating in the Full Implementation Phase of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Secondary 1 Level) were randomly selected and invited to join this research study. After completion of the Tier 1 Program, 216 Secondary 1 (Grade 7) students in the participating schools were randomly invited to write a reflective journal in the form of a weekly diary to reveal their perceptions and feelings regarding the Tier 1 Program and the related benefits. Results of the qualitative data analyses showed that most of the respondents: (a) had positive views of the program, (b) had positive views of the instructors, and (c) stated that they had acquired competencies at societal, familial, interpersonal, and personal levels after joining the program. The present qualitative findings based on students' weekly diaries provide additional support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

  3. Translation, Validation, and Adaptation of the Time Use Diary from English into the Malay Language for Use in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Asmuri, Siti Noraini; Brown, Ted; Broom, Lisa J

    2016-07-01

    Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes. PMID:27219119

  4. Daily stress magnifies the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems: an integration of longitudinal and diary methods.

    PubMed

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Almeida, David M; Seeman, Teresa E; Lachman, Margie E

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether long-term fluid cognitive decline was associated with memory problems in everyday life, and whether stress plays a moderating role. We expected that the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems would be magnified in the context of self-reported and physiological stress. Data are from the Boston Longitudinal Study, a subsample of the Midlife in the United States study. Participants in the current study (n = 112) completed a battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning at Time 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) over 10 years. At T2, participants completed weekly diaries of self-reported daily stressors and everyday memory problems for 12 consecutive weeks. Also at T2, participants provided 4 saliva samples over the course of 1 day to assess physiological stress using diurnal cortisol profiles [cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS)]. Self-reported daily stressors and a less healthy DCS were associated with more everyday memory problems, and participants with greater cognitive decline reported more memory problems compared to those with less or no decline. Self-reported daily stressors and CAR moderated the relationship of cognitive decline and memory problems. As expected, more cognitive decline was associated with greater increases in memory problems on weeks when individuals reported more daily stressors and for individuals with a less healthy CAR. The current findings can inform interventions aimed to identify factors, such as daily stress, that contribute to daily functioning in the context of cognitive decline.

  5. Perceived Partner Responsiveness Mediates the Association Between Sexual and Marital Satisfaction: A Daily Diary Study in Newlywed Couples.

    PubMed

    Gadassi, Reuma; Bar-Nahum, Lior Eadan; Newhouse, Sarah; Anderson, Ragnar; Heiman, Julia R; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Janssen, Erick

    2016-01-01

    Sexuality is an integral part of intimate relationships, yet surprisingly little is known about how and for whom sexuality matters. The present research investigated the interplay of sexual and non-sexual factors that contribute to relationship satisfaction. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the association between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction is mediated by a non-sexual factor-namely, perceived partner responsiveness (PPR). Additionally, we tested the role of gender as a possible moderator of this mediated association. Thirty-four newlywed couples completed diaries with each spouse reporting their sexual satisfaction, marital satisfaction, and PPR every day for 30 days. We tested our predictions at both the person level (i.e., the mean level across 30 days) and the daily level. At the person level, we found that sexual satisfaction and PPR separately predicted marital satisfaction. Moreover, the effect of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction was partially mediated by PPR. No gender differences emerged at this level. At the daily level, we found similar support for partial mediation. However, at this level, gender did serve as a moderator. The stronger mediation found for women was driven by a stronger association between sexual satisfaction and PPR for women than for men. This study joins a growing literature highlighting the role of PPR in dyadic relationships. PMID:25680818

  6. The advantages and disadvantages of ITC, ITE and BTE hearing aids: diary and interview reports from elderly users.

    PubMed

    May, A E; Upfold, L J; Battaglia, J A

    1990-10-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of in-the-canal (ITC), in-the-ear (ITE) and behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids for elderly aid users were examined. Two hundred and forty four clients were randomly assigned to one of the three aid types from seven hearing aid manufacturers. The clients' perceived help from their fitting, and the degree of difficulty they encountered over a range of listening situations and environments were rated using a daily diary and a structured interview. Findings indicated that for elderly clients there were no large practical advantages for one aid type over another. While ITC and ITE aids were rated more highly than BTE's in background noise, all three aid types were rated as relatively poor in background noise as well as in groups, in the wind, when using the telephone and in the localisation of sound. All three aid types were rated equally and well for performance in one-to-one conversation in quiet, and for listening to television and radio. Hours of use and reasons for non-use are presented, as are clients' reports on cosmetic issues, manipulative ease and overall satisfaction level with their aids.

  7. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  8. Food allergens.

    PubMed

    Burks, W; Helm, R; Stanley, S; Bannon, G A

    2001-06-01

    A number of advances in the scientific knowledge concerning adverse food reactions have been made in the past few years. Understanding about the nature of the food allergen itself, the molecular characterization of the epitopes on these allergens, the pathophysiology of the clinical reaction, and the diagnostic methods have all been significantly enhanced.

  9. Food Allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

  10. Food Labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dietary fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, carbohydrates, dietary proteins, vitamins, and minerals in each serving Definitions for terms such as low-fat and high-fiber Information to help you see how a food fits into an overall daily diet Food and Drug Administration

  11. Networks of knowledge or just old wives' tales?: A diary-based analysis of women's self-care practices and everyday lay expertise.

    PubMed

    Broom, Alex; Meurk, Carla; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David

    2014-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is increasingly popular in Australia and particularly among women. While existing research provides some understanding of women's engagement with complementary and alternative medicine and biomedicine, there has been comparatively little examination of the day-to-day character of their experiences. In this study, we utilise solicited diaries with women aged 60-65 years drawn from the 1946-1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health to capture the temporal dimension of their therapeutic engagement. Focusing on 30 active complementary and alternative medicine users, we explore women's experiences of managing their health, illness and well-being over a 1-month period. The themes that emerge from their diaries illustrate the day-to-day enactment of lay expertise through informal knowledge networks, practices of self-trialling and experimentation and the moralities underpinning self-care. The diaries provide unprecedented temporal insight into the (often problematic) enactment of lay expertise at the nexus of complementary and alternative medicine and biomedicine. They also point to the value of longitudinal techniques of data collection for augmenting more traditional sociological ways of exploring therapeutic pluralism.

  12. Food porn.

    PubMed

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  13. [Food allergy].

    PubMed

    Kanny, Gisile

    2007-06-30

    The prevalence of food allergies increases in industrialized countries: 3% in general population, up to 6% of children. Food allergy has a genetic basis. The recent increase is thought to be due to a change in environmental factors, including changes in diet and reduced exposure to early childhood infection. Food allergies present with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including anaphylaxis, urticaria, angioedema, atopic dermatitis, oral syndrome, asthma, rhinitis, gastrointestinal disorders. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on history, detailed dietary analysis, skin testing, measuring specific IgE, avoidance diet and challenge tests. The mainstay of diagnosis and management of food allergies is correct identification and avoidance of the offending antigen. Children often develop tolerance to cow's milk, egg, wheat by school age, whereas allergies to nuts, fish and seafood are generally not outgrown no matter at what age they develop.

  14. Food porn.

    PubMed

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  15. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  16. When, how much and what foods are eaten are related to total daily food intake.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2009-10-01

    Intake in the morning is associated with a reduction in the total intake for the day, while intake at night is associated with greater overall daily intake. These associations are macronutrient specific, with morning carbohydrate intake associated with reduced daily carbohydrate intake, morning fat intake associated with reduced daily fat intake and morning protein intake associated with reduced daily protein intake. Since different types of foods contain differing proportions of macronutrients, the present study investigated the associations of different types of foods ingested at various times of day with total daily and macronutrient intakes. The intakes of 388 male and 621 female free-living individuals reported in 7 d diet diaries were reanalysed. The intakes of twenty-four different types of foods and seven different drinks occurring during the morning (04.00-10.29 hours), afternoon (10.30-16.59 hours) and evening (17.00-02.00 hours) were identified and related to overall daily intakes. Dairy foods, ice cream, beef, other meats, potatoes, pastry, nuts, chips and snacks, condiments, alcohol and soda were significantly associated with higher total intake over the day, while fruit, soup, breakfast cereal, pasta, pizza, water, coffee/tea and diet soda were either not associated or were associated with lower overall intake. Dietary energy density appeared to mediate the associations between particular foods and beverages and overall energy intake. This suggests that eating low-density foods in the morning and avoiding high-density foods at night might aid in reducing overall intake and may be useful in dietary interventions for overweight and obesity.

  17. Eaten up by boredom: consuming food to escape awareness of the bored self

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Andrew B.; van Tilburg, Wijnand A. P.; Igou, Eric R.; Wisman, Arnaud; Donnelly, Alan E.; Mulcaire, Jessie B.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that being bored affectively marks an appraised lack of meaning in the present situation and in life. We propose that state boredom increases eating in an attempt to distract from this experience, especially among people high in objective self-awareness. Three studies were conducted to investigate boredom’s effects on eating, both naturally occurring in a diary study and manipulated in two experiments. In Study 1, a week-long diary study showed that state boredom positively predicted calorie, fat, carbohydrate, and protein consumption. In Study 2, a high (vs. low) boredom task increased the desire to snack as opposed to eating something healthy, especially amongst those participants high in objective self-awareness. In addition, Study 3 demonstrated that among people high in objective self-awareness, high (vs. low) boredom increased the consumption of less healthy foods and the consumption of more exciting, healthy foods. However, this did not extend to unexciting, healthy food. Collectively, these novel findings signify the role of boredom in predicting maladaptive and adaptive eating behaviors as a function of the need to distant from the experience of boredom. Further, our results suggest that more exciting, healthy food serves as alternative to maladaptive consumption following boredom. PMID:25883579

  18. Food safety and older people: the Kitchen Life study.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Angela; Wills, Wendy; Meah, Angela; Short, Frances

    2014-05-01

    Foodborne illness (FBI) is a major public health problem in the UK. Recent increases in cases of listeriosis in older people have focused attention on consumer food-related practices. Previous studies highlight poor relationships between what people know, what they say they do and what they actually do in the kitchen. The aim of the Kitchen Life study was to examine what actually happens in the domestic kitchen to assess whether and how this has the potential to influence food safety in the home. Drawing on a qualitative ethnographic approach, methods included a kitchen tour, photography, observation, video observation, informal interviews and diary methods. Ten households with older people (aged 60+) were recruited across the UK. It was found that trust in the food supply, use of food-labelling (including use-by dates), sensory logics (such as the feel or smell of food) and food waste were factors with the potential to influence risk of foodborne illness. Practices shifted with changing circumstances, including increased frailty, bereavement, living alone, receiving help with care and acquiring new knowledge, meaning that the risk of and vulnerability to foodborne illness is not straightforward.

  19. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and children's consumption behaviour.

    PubMed

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer communication (concept-oriented vs. socio-oriented) moderated the relation between children's advertising exposure and their consumption of advertised energy-dense food products. Interaction analysis in regression showed that active advertising mediation (i.e. explaining the purpose and nature of advertising), and socio-oriented consumer communication (i.e. emphasizing control and restrictions) significantly reduced the impact of advertising on children's food consumption. Parental restrictions of advertising exposure were only effective among younger children (<8). These results suggest that critical discussion about advertising and rule making about consumption are most effective in countering the impact of food advertising.

  20. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Waserman, Susan; Watson, Wade

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children "outgrow" allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.

  1. Physical Activity in German Adolescents Measured by Accelerometry and Activity Diary: Introducing a Comprehensive Approach for Data Management and Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Pfitzner, Rebecca; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Heinrich, Joachim; von Berg, Andrea; Klümper, Claudia; Bauer, Carl P.; Koletzko, Sibylle; Berdel, Dietrich; Horsch, Alexander; Schulz, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Surveillance of physical activity (PA) is increasingly based on accelerometry. However, data management guidelines are lacking. We propose an approach for combining accelerometry and diary based PA information for assessment of PA in adolescents and provide an example of this approach using data from German adolescents. Methods The 15-year-old participants comprised a subsample the GINIplus birth cohort (n = 328, 42.4% male). Data on PA was obtained from hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X) for seven consecutive days, combined with a prospective activity diary. Major aspects of data management were validity of wear time, handling of non-wear time and diary comments. After data cleaning, PA and percentage of adolescents meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) per day were determined. Results From the 2224 recorded days 493 days (25%) were invalid, mainly due to uncertainties relating to non-wear time (322 days). Ultimately, 269 of 328 subjects (82%) with valid data for at least three weekdays and one weekend day were included in the analysis. Mean MVPA per day was 39.1 minutes (SD ±25.0), with boys being more active than girls (41.8±21.5 minutes vs. 37.1±27.8 minutes, p<0.001). Accordingly, 24.7% of boys and 17.2% of girls (p<0.01) met the WHO recommendations for PA. School sport accounted for only 6% of weekly MVPA. In fact, most MVPA was performed during leisure time, with the majority of adolescents engaging in ball sports (25.4%) and endurance sports (19.7%). Girls also frequently reported dancing and gymnastics (23%). Conclusion For assessment of PA in adolescents, collecting both accelerometry and diary-based information is recommended. The diary is vital for the identification of invalid data and non-compliant participants. Preliminary results suggest that four out of five German adolescents do not meet WHO recommendations for PA and that school sport contributes only little to MVPA. PMID:23750243

  2. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  3. Affect and Sexual Behavior in Adolescents: A Review of the Literature and Comparison of Momentary Sampling With Diary and Retrospective Self-Report Methods of Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Shrier, Lydia A.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Beardslee, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Assessment of mental health is important in understanding sexual risk behavior in adolescents, yet few studies have examined how affect is directly related to sexual behavior. Momentary sampling (MS) methods permit real-time assessment of affect in relation to specific events and embed the collected data in the context of the respondent’s moment-to-moment life. The objectives of this study were to review the literature on affect and sexual behavior and to compare the feasibility and acceptability of MS with diaries and retrospective self-report as a means of collecting temporally relevant data on affect and sexual behavior in adolescents. Methods Sexually active, nondepressed adolescent outpatients who were aged 15 to 18 years were randomly assigned to a schedule of the 3 methods of data collection for 2 weeks each. All participants completed a retrospective self-report by interview at the end of each 2-week period. In the diary arm, participants completed twice-daily paper-and-pencil diary cards, which were returned by mail. In the MS arm, participants used 2-way pagers to respond to several random pages per day. Primary outcomes included rates of completion (diaries vs MS reports) and the participants’ tolerance of and preferences for the methods. A secondary outcome was the agreement in means for positive and negative affect and in report of days on which substance use and sexual activity occurred. Associations of affect with contextual factors and with sexual activity were also explored in the MS arm. Results Ten youths completed 30 of 30 retrospective self-reports (100%, 3 per participant, by design), 254 of 280 diaries (91%; mean: 25.4 per participant), and 442 of 600 MS reports (74%; mean: 44.2 per participant). Most participants preferred the MS method to the diaries or retrospective self-report. Affect scores and reports of sexual activity and substance use were correlated among the methods. Measured with MS, affect was found to differ by

  4. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  5. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the refrigerator or microwave, never at room temperature. For best results, use a food thermometer when ... cooking when chicken is cooked to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C). So washing doesn' ...

  6. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... containing raw eggs. Raw or undercooked meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Cook foods to safe minimum internal ... seafood* may contain unhealthy chemicals, like mercury. Choose fish lower in mercury to make sure what your ...

  7. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... products Cow's milk and dairy products ( lactose intolerance ) Wheat and other grains that contain gluten ( celiac disease ) ... in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (people of all ages) In rare cases, food ...

  8. "Convenience Food."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  9. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. The allergic reaction may ...

  10. Emotional Intolerance and Core Features of Anorexia Nervosa: A Dynamic Interaction during Inpatient Treatment? Results from a Longitudinal Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Stroe-Kunold, Esther; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Stadnitski, Tatjana; Wesche, Daniela; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schwab, Michael; Wild, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of emotion dysregulation with regard to the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is increasingly discussed. It is both assumed that AN symptoms have an impact on difficulties in tolerating aversive emotions and that—conversely—emotion dysregulation influences AN. To date, such conclusions are drawn on the basis of cross-sectional data not allowing for inferences on the temporal dynamics. The current study investigates the longitudinal interaction between emotional intolerance and core AN symptoms over the course of inpatient treatment by comparing patients with high (BMI<15 kg/m2) vs. low symptom severity (HSS vs. LSS). Method The study adopted a longitudinal, process-oriented design with N = 16 analysed electronic diaries. Throughout the course of their inpatient treatment, the patients answered questions daily about emotional intolerance and their AN-specific cognitions and behaviours. The temporal dynamics between emotional intolerance and these variables were analysed using a multivariate time series approach. Results The time series of the processes under investigation adequately reflected the individual treatment courses. The majority of significant linear time trends was found for HSS patients. Most importantly, analysis revealed significant temporal interactions between emotional intolerance and AN symptoms in almost 70% of HSS patients. Thereby, up to 37% of variance in eating restraint and up to 23% in weight concern could be attributed to changes in emotional intolerance. Conclusions The findings support the notion that intolerable unpleasant emotions in severely affected AN patients influence their psychopathology. Additionally, time series analysis outlined the inter-individual heterogeneity of psychosomatic treatment courses of AN patients. PMID:27191959

  11. Food extrusion.

    PubMed

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility.

  12. Food extrusion.

    PubMed

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility. PMID:378548

  13. Differential effects of chronic naltrexone treatment on food intake patterns and body weight in rats depend on their food deprivation status.

    PubMed

    De Tomasi, Eliana Barrios; Juárez, Jorge

    2011-01-10

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of chronic naltrexone treatment on daily patterns of food intake in food-deprived and free-feeding rats. In experiment 1, Wistar male rats had continuous access to food and water, while in experiment 2 they were deprived of food for 12h/day. Animals in both experiments were studied as follows: a baseline period (7days), followed by a treatment period (14days) with either saline or naltrexone at 10mg/kg/day. Finally, a post-treatment period (7days) was assessed. Food and water consumption were measured every 2h after the naltrexone or saline injection for 12h and once more 12h later. Experiment 1: Food intake was higher in the naltrexone group 10h after injection. Total food intake and body weight gain were higher in the naltrexone group than in the saline group in the second week of treatment and in the post-treatment period. Experiment 2: The overeating observed in the saline group in the hours following the 12h of the food deprivation period was suppressed by naltrexone, though total daily food intake was not affected. Body weight gain was initially reduced by naltrexone, but a rebound effect was observed during the post-treatment period in the naltrexone group. Naltrexone produced a differential effect on food intake and body weight that depended on the rats' food deprivation status. These results could be explained in terms of opioid receptor up-regulation that enhances the rewarding effects of food or by naltrexone-produced changes in palatability.

  14. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-cooking and heterocyclic amine module.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Marie; Mittl, Beth; Curtin, Jane; Carroll, Ray; Potischman, Nancy; Caporaso, Neil; Sinha, Rashmi

    2004-02-01

    The nutrient and heterocyclic amine (HCA) intake of 165 healthy participants was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which included a meat-cooking practices module. A database containing the HCA [2-amino-3,8-dimethylimadazo [4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimadazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP)] composition of various types of meat, cooked by different methods and to varying degrees, was developed and validated in conjunction with this module. The relative validity of dietary and HCA intake estimated by the FFQ was investigated using multiple food diaries (3 sets of 4 nonconsecutive day diaries completed over a 3-month period) as the reference method. Crude correlation coefficients of HCA intake assessed by the FFQ and food diaries were 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.55] for MeIQx and 0.22 (95% CI 0.07-0.36) for PhIP intake. Deattenuated correlations were 0.60 (95% CI 0.49-0.69) and 0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.49), respectively. Absolute MeIQx and PhIP intake was, however, underestimated by the FFQ (21.9 and 78.1 ng/day) compared with the food diaries (34.9 and 263.8 ng/day). The FFQ underestimated total red meat intake, the percentage of consumers, and the median intake of roast/baked and microwaved red meat. PhIP intake was severely underestimated by the FFQ and was most likely because of an underestimation of the percentage of people who cooked chicken using PhIP-producing cooking methods such as broiling and pan-frying. Additionally, the FFQ overestimated the percentage of consumers of baked chicken, a cooking method that produces less PhIP. In conclusion, although the FFQ and meat module underestimated absolute MeIQx and PhIP intake, its ability to rank individuals according to intake was acceptable.

  15. Estimation of daily human intake of food flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Mullie, Patrick; Clarys, Peter; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    The daily intake of food flavonoids was determined using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 4-day food record (4DFR) in a group of 45 female Flemish dietitians. The subjects were asked to report their food intake three times: day 1 using the FFQ (FFQ1); between days 2 and 13 using a 4-day non-consecutive food diary (4DFR); and again using the FFQ on day 14 (FFQ2). The total flavonoid intakes (mean and standard deviation) as estimated with the different methods were: for FFQ1, 166.0 +/- 146.6 mg/day; for 4DFR, 203.0 +/- 243.2 mg/day; and for FFQ2, 158.3 +/- 151.8 mg/day. There was a significant different estimate for the amount of flavan-3-ols, flavanones and flavones when comparing the two FFQs with the 4DFR. The two research methods classified 88% of the 45 dietitians in the same or in an adjacent quartile for total flavonoid intake. The findings of this study indicate that the developed FFQ seems to be a simple and reliable method to assign subjects in quartiles of flavonoid intake.

  16. A participatory assessment of dietary patterns and food behavior in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Allison; Englberger, Lois; Flores, Rafael; Lorens, Adelino; Fitzgerald, Maureen H

    2008-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are escalating rapidly within the Pacific region, including Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. A shift in dietary patterns from indigenous, high fiber, healthy local food to energy-dense, imported food with low nutritional value, and increased sedentary lifestyles are expediting this process. Essential to counteract this trend is an understanding of how people make food decisions. This participatory assessment utilized a quantitative and qualitative approach to capture diet patterns and knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of food consumption. A structured 7-day food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to quantify the diets of 293 adult Pohnpeian women attending an island-wide education/disability screening program. An ethnographic approach, including in-depth interviews, informal focus groups and observations documented food behavior practices and contributed to the design of the FFQ. Of those responding to the FFQ, 96% reported eating rice frequently (3-7 days/week) whereas 75% reported eating locally grown carbohydrate foods frequently. Factors associated with culture change, including availability, affordability, convenience, and status of food items were found to determine food decisions. Food-based, culturally sensitive and innovative strategies that utilize existing resources are required to promote local food production and consumption. Prevention programs with an information, education and communication (IEC) approach are needed to provide accurate and available health and nutrition knowledge and to increase the demand for local foods. Behavior modification requires the continued collaboration of the national, state, and community organizations that partnered on this research to strategize programs in order to target individual food choices and to transform the environment to support these decisions.

  17. [Food allergens].

    PubMed

    Bonneau, J C

    1997-07-01

    Perhaps more than any other kind of allergen, search for a food allergen seems to be difficult. There should be no bias about the usual allergens found in our food, that are a source of pathology that is less spectacular than shocks or giant urticaria that are provoked by easily recognised causes. Crossed allergies must be recognised in their overall features. This may give decisive aid in the etiological approach by facilitating understanding of the symptoms and the discovery of potential triggering allergens which are systematically sought.

  18. Targeting binge eating through components of dialectical behavior therapy: preliminary outcomes for individually supported diary card self-monitoring versus group-based DBT.

    PubMed

    Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined two condensed adaptations of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for binge eating. Women with full- or sub-threshold variants of either binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to individually supported self-monitoring using adapted DBT diary cards (DC) or group-based DBT, each 15 sessions over 16 weeks. DC sessions focused on problem-solving diary card completion issues, praising diary card completion, and supporting nonjudgmental awareness of eating-related habits and urges, but not formally teaching DBT skills. Group-based DBT included eating mindfulness, progressing through graded exposure; mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills; and coaching calls between sessions. Both treatments evidenced large and significant improvements in binge eating, bulimic symptoms, and interoceptive awareness. For group-based DBT, ineffectiveness, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and perfectionism also decreased significantly, with medium to large effect sizes. For DC, results were not significant but large in effect size for body dissatisfaction and medium in effect size for ineffectiveness and drive for thinness. Retention for both treatments was higher than recent trends for eating disorder treatment in fee-for-service practice and for similar clinic settings, but favored DC, with the greater attrition of group-based DBT primarily attributed to its more intensive and time-consuming nature, and dropout overall associated with less pretreatment impairment and greater interoceptive awareness. This preliminary investigation suggests that with both abbreviated DBT-based treatments, substantial improvement in core binge eating symptoms is possible, enhancing potential avenues for implementation beyond more time-intensive DBT.

  19. Usability testing of a Smartphone for accessing a web-based e-diary for self-monitoring of pain and symptoms in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Eufemia; Stinson, Jennifer; Duran, Joana; Gupta, Ankur; Gerla, Mario; Ann Lewis, Mary; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2012-07-01

    We examined the usability of smartphones for accessing a web-based e-Diary for self-monitoring symptoms in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). One group of participants (n = 10; mean age, 13.1 ± 2.4 y; 5 M; 5 F) responded to questions using precompleted paper-based measures. A second group (n = 21; mean age, 13.4 ± 2.4 y; 10 M; 11 F) responded based on pain and symptoms they experienced over the previous 12 hours. The e-Diary was completed with at least 80% accuracy when compared to paper-based measures. Symptoms experienced over the previous 12 hours included feeling tired (33.3%), headache (28.6%), coughing (23.8%), lack of energy/fatigue (19.0%), yellowing of the eyes (19.0%), pallor (19.0%), irritability (19.0%), stiffness in joints (19.0%), general weakness (14.3%), and pain (14.3%), rating on average as 2.0 ± 1.7 (on 0 to 10 scale). Overall, sleep was good (8.1 ± 1.4 on the 0 to 10 scale). In conclusion, children with SCD were able to use smartphones to access a web-based e-Diary for reporting pain and symptoms. Smartphones may improve self-reporting of symptoms and communication between patients and their health care providers, who may consequently be able to improve pain and symptom management in children and adolescents with SCD in a timely manner. PMID:22627570

  20. Subjective but Not Actigraphy-Defined Sleep Predicts Next-Day Fatigue in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Prospective Daily Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Charlotte; Wearden, Alison J.; Fairclough, Gillian; Emsley, Richard A.; Kyle, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between subjective and actigraphy-defined sleep, and next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and (2) investigate the potential mediating role of negative mood on this relationship. We also sought to examine the effect of presleep arousal on perceptions of sleep. Methods: Twenty-seven adults meeting the Oxford criteria for CFS and self-identifying as experiencing sleep difficulties were recruited to take part in a prospective daily diary study, enabling symptom capture in real time over a 6-day period. A paper diary was used to record nightly subjective sleep and presleep arousal. Mood and fatigue symptoms were rated four times each day. Actigraphy was employed to provide objective estimations of sleep duration and continuity. Results: Multilevel modelling revealed that subjective sleep variables, namely sleep quality, efficiency, and perceiving sleep to be unrefreshing, predicted following-day fatigue levels, with poorer subjective sleep related to increased fatigue. Lower subjective sleep efficiency and perceiving sleep as unrefreshing predicted reduced variance in fatigue across the following day. Negative mood on waking partially mediated these relationships. Increased presleep cognitive and somatic arousal predicted self-reported poor sleep. Actigraphy-defined sleep, however, was not found to predict following-day fatigue. Conclusions: For the first time we show that nightly subjective sleep predicts next-day fatigue in CFS and identify important factors driving this relationship. Our data suggest that sleep specific interventions, targeting presleep arousal, perceptions of sleep and negative mood on waking, may improve fatigue in CFS. Citation: Russell C, Wearden AJ, Fairclough G, Emsley RA, Kyle SD. Subjective but not actigraphy-defined sleep predicts next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome: a prospective daily diary study. SLEEP 2016;39(4):937–944. PMID:26715232

  1. Effect of prior diet on consumption and digestion of prey and non-prey food by adults of the generalist predator Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coleomegilla maculata adults fed on prey (Colorado potato beetle eggs) or non-prey (corn pollen) food following 7 days of feeding on a mixed diet, showed differences in ingestion, with females consuming greater quantities of pollen, and males consuming greater quantities of eggs, under no-choice con...

  2. Public Report on Health: Development of a Nutritive Value Calculator for Indian Foods and Analysis of Food Logs and Nutrient Intake in six States

    PubMed Central

    Sathyamala, C; Kurian, NJ; DE, Anuradha; Saxena, KB; Priya, Ritu; Baru, Rama; Srivastava, Ravi; Mittal, Onkar; Noronha, Claire; Samson, Meera; Khalsa, Sneh; Puliyel, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The Public Report on Health (PRoH) was initiated in 2005 to understand public health issues for people from diverse backgrounds living in different region specific contexts. States were selected purposively to capture a diversity of situations from better-performing states and not-so-well performing states. Based on these considerations, six states – the better-performing states of Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Himachal Pradesh (HP) and the not-so-well performing states of Madhya Pradesh (MP), Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Orissa (OR) – were selected. This is a report of a study using food diaries to assess food intakes in sample households from six states of India. Method: Food diaries were maintained and all the raw food items that went into making the food in the household was measured using a measuring cup that converted volumes into dry weights for each item. The proportion consumed by individual adults was recorded. A nutrient calculator that computed the total nutrient in the food items consumed, using the ‘Nutritive Value of Indian Foods by Gopalan et al., was developed to analyze the data and this is now been made available as freeware (http://bit.ly/ncalculator). The total nutrients consumed by the adults, men and women was calculated. Results: Identifying details having been removed, the raw data is available, open access on the internet http://bit.ly/foodlogxls.The energy consumption in our study was 2379 kcal per capita per day. According to the Summary Report World Agriculture the per capita food consumption in 1997-99 was 2803 which is higher than that in the best state in India. The consumption for developing countries a decade ago was 2681 and in Sub-Saharan Africa it was 2195. Our data is compatible in 2005 with the South Asia consumption of 2403 Kcal per capita per day in 1997-99. For comparison, in industrialized countries it was 3380. In Tamil Nadu it was a mere 1817 kcal. Discussion: The nutrient consumption in this study suggests that

  3. Diabetes Interactive Diary: A New Telemedicine System Enabling Flexible Diet and Insulin Therapy While Improving Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Maria C.E.; Nicolucci, Antonio; Di Bartolo, Paolo; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Girelli, Angela; Ampudia, Francisco J.; Kerr, David; Ceriello, Antonio; Mayor, Carmen De La Questa; Pellegrini, Fabio; Horwitz, David; Vespasiani, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Widespread use of carbohydrate counting is limited by its complex education. In this study we compared a Diabetes Interactive Diary (DID) with standard carbohydrate counting in terms of metabolic and weight control, time required for education, quality of life, and treatment satisfaction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adults with type 1 diabetes were randomly assigned to DID (group A, n = 67) or standard education (group B, n = 63) and followed for 6 months. A subgroup also completed the SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36) and World Health Organization-Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (WHO-DTSQ) at each visit. RESULTS Of 130 patients (aged 35.7 ± 9.4 years; diabetes duration 16.5 ± 10.5 years), 11 dropped out. Time for education was 6 h (range 2–15 h) in group A and 12 h (2.5–25 h) in group B (P = 0.07). A1C reduction was similar in both groups (group A from 8.2 ± 0.8 to 7.8 ± 0.8% and group B from 8.4 ± 0.7 to 7.9 ± 1.1%; P = 0.68). Nonsignificant differences in favor of group A were documented for fasting blood glucose and body weight. No severe hypoglycemic episode occurred. WHO-DTSQ scores increased significantly more in group A (from 26.7 ± 4.4 to 30.3 ± 4.5) than in group B (from 27.5 ± 4.8 to 28.6 ± 5.1) (P = 0.04). Role Physical, General Health, Vitality, and Role Emotional SF-36 scores improved significantly more in group A than in group B. CONCLUSIONS DID is at least as effective as traditional carbohydrate counting education, allowing dietary freedom for a larger proportion of type 1 diabetic patients. DID is safe, requires less time for education, and is associated with lower weight gain. DID significantly improved treatment satisfaction and several quality-of-life dimensions. PMID:19808926

  4. Daily Pain Diary

    MedlinePlus

    ... øXÎ +0tØʆ”,üè~›õ ƒ ÃDö†ÆÒ. G5 ÄÅ ¦³5¸ x Á4ˆÜ ` U Ä endstream endobj ... QBáÄ^8  ¬ !ºR± —#ðvä ºËě†ê¢–÷ ꈼÁ-ÃAŒD \\ A 3¦©©¬ˆ SYá l JÍ ò‡¨ú6Tn ... èè Q„ÆÓ •¾×ðŒó»% ~мø‹ æ¶Ààžd¸= ÈÂT hØ4 `Hò\\C 0 «k 8T¦( ...

  5. Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'.

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, J I; Hetherington, M M

    1995-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that some foods are eaten to alter mood, the relationship between mood and intake of chocolate was investigated in 40 women. Twenty self-identified chocolate 'addicts' and 20 controls rated hunger, mood, intensity of craving and amount of chocolate eaten in a diary for seven consecutive days. The 'addicts' reported a significantly greater number of eating episodes and consumed a larger amount of chocolate than controls. 'Addicts' also rated depression, guilt and craving higher and feeling content and relaxed as lower before eating than controls. However, eating chocolate resulted in increased feelings of guilt in the 'addicts' and no significant changes in feeling depressed or relaxed. On indices of disordered eating and depression, 'addicts' scored significantly higher than controls; however, eating chocolate did not improve mood. Although chocolate is a food which provides pleasure, for those who consider intake of this food to be excessive, any pleasure experienced is short lived and accompanied by feelings of guilt.

  6. Weaning Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

  7. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  8. Anger as a predictor of psychological distress and self-harm ideation in inmates: a structured self-assessment diary study.

    PubMed

    Humber, Naomi; Emsley, Richard; Pratt, Daniel; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2013-11-30

    Suicidal ideation and behaviour are common among inmates. Anger is found at exaggerated levels and has been associated with suicidal ideation and behaviour in inmate samples suggesting its possible salience in the prediction of suicide. The study investigated relationships between anger, psychological distress, and self-harm/suicidal ideation among inmates. The principles of Ecological Momentary Assessment were considered and a structured self-assessment diary was utilised to examine relationships between the variables of interest. Participants completed a structured self-assessment diary for six consecutive days which included momentary ratings of items describing psychological states of concurrent affects, thoughts, and appraisals related to anger, psychological distress, and self-harm/suicidal ideation. Psychometric assessment measures were also conducted. Temporal associations between predictors and outcomes were investigated. Multilevel modelling analyses were performed. Increased anger was significantly associated with concurrent high levels of self-harm ideation in inmates, when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Temporal analyses also revealed that anger at one time point did not predict suicidal ideation at the next time point. Elucidating the temporal nature of the relationship between anger, psychological distress, and self-harm/suicidal ideation has advanced understanding of the mechanisms of suicidal behaviour, by demonstrating an increased risk of suicide when a male inmate is angry.

  9. Anger as a predictor of psychological distress and self-harm ideation in inmates: a structured self-assessment diary study.

    PubMed

    Humber, Naomi; Emsley, Richard; Pratt, Daniel; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2013-11-30

    Suicidal ideation and behaviour are common among inmates. Anger is found at exaggerated levels and has been associated with suicidal ideation and behaviour in inmate samples suggesting its possible salience in the prediction of suicide. The study investigated relationships between anger, psychological distress, and self-harm/suicidal ideation among inmates. The principles of Ecological Momentary Assessment were considered and a structured self-assessment diary was utilised to examine relationships between the variables of interest. Participants completed a structured self-assessment diary for six consecutive days which included momentary ratings of items describing psychological states of concurrent affects, thoughts, and appraisals related to anger, psychological distress, and self-harm/suicidal ideation. Psychometric assessment measures were also conducted. Temporal associations between predictors and outcomes were investigated. Multilevel modelling analyses were performed. Increased anger was significantly associated with concurrent high levels of self-harm ideation in inmates, when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Temporal analyses also revealed that anger at one time point did not predict suicidal ideation at the next time point. Elucidating the temporal nature of the relationship between anger, psychological distress, and self-harm/suicidal ideation has advanced understanding of the mechanisms of suicidal behaviour, by demonstrating an increased risk of suicide when a male inmate is angry. PMID:23643187

  10. Food safety knowledge and practice among elderly people living at home

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. E.; Donkin, A. J.; Morgan, K.; Lilley, J. M.; Neale, R. J.; Page, R. M.; Silburn, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the food storage knowledge and practice of elderly people living at home. METHODS: Three phase survey data collection: face to face interviews; dietary diaries with a food frequency questionnaire; and follow up interviews. SETTING: Urban Nottingham. PARTICIPANTS: 809 elderly people (aged 65+) randomly selected from general practitioner lists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respondent's refrigerator temperature; knowledge of freezer star rating; understanding of "use by" and "sell by" dates; reported ability to read food product safety labels. RESULTS: From a weighted total of 645 refrigerators measured, 451 (70%) were too warm for the safe storage of food (> or = 6 degrees Celsius). Only 41% of respondents (n = 279) knew the star rating of their freezer. Within a smaller sub-sample knowledge of the "use by" and "sell by" dates was good, but 45% of these respondents reported difficulty reading food labels. The storage of foods at inappropriate temperatures was not independent of socioeconomic or demographic status, and tended to be more likely among the poorer and those not living alone. CONCLUSIONS: Food storage practices among the majority of elderly people interviewed in this study do not meet recommended safety standards to minimise the risk of food poisoning.   PMID:10396508

  11. A toy story: Association between young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums and their fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2016-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys.

  12. A toy story: Association between young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums and their fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2016-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. PMID:26471803

  13. Using multiple household food inventories to measure food availability in the home over 30 days: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The consumption of foods, especially by children, may be determined by the types of foods that are available in the home. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods in the home, which can miss the change in availability when resources are not available, the primary objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the weekly availability of household food items changed over one month by 1) developing the methodology for the direct observation of the presence and amount of food items in the home; 2) conducting five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; and 3) determining the frequency that food items were present in the participating households. Methods After the development and pre-testing of the 251-item home observation guide that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere), two trained researchers recruited a convenience sample of 9 households (44.4% minority); administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, food resources, and food security); and conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval) over a 30-day period. Each in-home assessment included food-related activities since the last assessment, and an observational survey of types and amounts of foods present. Results Complete data were collected from all 9 women (32.8 y ± 6.0; 3 married; 4 ± 1.6 adults/children in household; 4 received food assistance; and 6 had very low food security) and their households. Weekly grocery purchases (place, amount, and purpose) varied from once (n = 1) to every week (n = 5); 4 used fast food 2-3 times/wk for 4 weeks. The weekly presence and amounts of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables and dairy varied. Conclusions The feasibility of conducting multiple in-home assessments was confirmed with 100% retention of participants through 5 in

  14. "Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex": Correction to Becht et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Assessment of Identity During Adolescence Using Daily Diary Methods: Measurement Invariance Across Time and Sex" by Andrik I. Becht, Susan J. T. Branje, Wilma A. M. Vollebergh, Dominique F. Maciejewski, Pol A. C. van Lier, Hans M. Koot, Jaap J. A. Denissen and Wim H. J. Meeus (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 10, 2015, np). In the article the participants should have been reported as N = 494. No differences were found in the results upon reanalyzing the data with the correct number of participants. Additionally, the last sentence of the first full paragraph in the Invariance Across Boys and Girls subsection of the Method section should read "In the fourth model, strict invariance was examined, in which the residual variances were constrained to be equal for boys and girls." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-36246-001.) The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with

  15. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  16. Evaluation of a short food frequency questionnaire used among Norwegian children

    PubMed Central

    Lillegaard, Inger Therese L.; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against a four-day precoded food diary (PFD) with regard to frequency of food intake among Norwegian 9- and 13-year-olds. Subjects and design A total of 733 9-year-olds and 904 13-year-olds completed first a short FFQ and one to two weeks later a four-day PFD. The short FFQ included questions about 23 food items, including different drinks, fruits, vegetables, bread, fish, pizza, sweets, chocolate and savoury snacks. The PFD covered the whole diet. Results When comparing mean intake from the PFD with comparable food items in the FFQ, all food items showed that increasing intake measured with the PFD corresponded with increasing intake with the short FFQ. However, participants reported a significantly higher frequency of intake for most foods with the short FFQ compared with PFD, except for soft drinks with sugar and sweets. The median Spearman correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.36 among the 9-year-olds and 0.32 among the 13-year-olds. Often eaten foods such as fruits and vegetables had higher correlations than seldom eaten foods such as pizza and potato chips. The median correlation coefficients for drinks alone were higher (r=0.47) for both age groups. Conclusions Results indicate that the short FFQ was able to identify high and low consumers of food intake and had a moderate capability to rank individuals according to food intake. Drinks, fruits and vegetables had better correlations with the PFD than infrequently eaten food items. PMID:22259597

  17. "I Hate Maths: Why Do We Need to Do Maths?" Using iPad Video Diaries to Investigate Attitudes and Emotions towards Mathematics in Year 3 and Year 6 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Kevin; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Accessing children's feelings and attitudes towards mathematics is a challenging proposition since methods for data collection may be fraught in terms of bias and power relations. This article explores a method of collecting information from young students about their attitudes towards mathematics using iPads, and a video diary technique not…

  18. Does leisure time moderate or mediate the effect of daily stress on positive affect? An examination using eight-day diary data.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M; Almeida, David M

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the applicability of moderation and mediation models to leisure time as a stress coping resource. Analyzing eight-day diary data (N=2,022), we examined the within-person process of using leisure time to cope with daily stressors. We found that relatively high daily stress frequency, while reducing positive affect, prompted an individual to allocate more time to leisure than usual, which then increased positive affect, thus partially remedying the damage by high daily stress frequency. This within-person process, however, is significantly stronger among those with less leisure time on average than leisure-rich individuals. The findings support a partial counteractive mediation model, demonstrate between-person difference in the within-person coping process, and reveal the importance of positive affect as a coping outcome.

  19. Does leisure time moderate or mediate the effect of daily stress on positive affect? An examination using eight-day diary data.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M; Almeida, David M

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the applicability of moderation and mediation models to leisure time as a stress coping resource. Analyzing eight-day diary data (N=2,022), we examined the within-person process of using leisure time to cope with daily stressors. We found that relatively high daily stress frequency, while reducing positive affect, prompted an individual to allocate more time to leisure than usual, which then increased positive affect, thus partially remedying the damage by high daily stress frequency. This within-person process, however, is significantly stronger among those with less leisure time on average than leisure-rich individuals. The findings support a partial counteractive mediation model, demonstrate between-person difference in the within-person coping process, and reveal the importance of positive affect as a coping outcome. PMID:25221350

  20. Responsiveness to the Negative Affect System as a Function of Emotion Perception: Relations between Affect and Sociability in Three Daily Diary Studies

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Sara K.; Nicpon, Catherine G.; Robinson, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving emotions clearly and accurately is an important component of emotional intelligence. This skill is thought to predict emotional and social outcomes, but evidence for this point appears somewhat underwhelming in cross-sectional designs. The present work adopted a more contextual approach to understanding the correlates of emotion perception instead. Because emotion perception involves awareness of affect as it occurs, people higher in this skill might reasonably be expected to be more attuned to variations in their affective states and be responsive to them for this reason. This novel hypothesis was pursued in three daily diary studies (total N = 247), which found systematic evidence for the idea that higher levels of daily negative affect predicted lesser sociability particularly, and somewhat exclusively, among people whose emotion perception skills were high rather than low. The results support a contextual understanding of individual differences in emotion perception and how they operate. PMID:24789808

  1. It’s Called “Going Out to Play”: A Video Diary Study of Hmong Girls’ Perspectives on Running Away

    PubMed Central

    Edinburgh, Laurel D.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    How do Hmong immigrant adolescent girls’ decide to run away, return home, leave again, or stay home? Video diaries by 11 sexually-exploited runaway Hmong girls, age 13–16, revealed four themes: “Fighting restrictions,” resisting family cultural expectations and desires to be like other American teens; “Not Running Away, Going Out to Play,” which captured impulsive decision-making; “Unrestrained Partying” described runaway experiences but minimized dangers they faced; and “Trying to Change,” returning home because of family bonds and wanting to “be someone good.” Given their limited ability to anticipate risks, interventions should focus on runaway prevention initiatives for Hmong families and teens. PMID:23311908

  2. [Food allergy].

    PubMed

    Del Río-Navarro, B E; Sienra-Monge, J J

    1993-06-01

    We are exposed to a large amount of potentially antigenic substances when we take aliments. Normally the mechanic, enzymatic and immunitary functions avoid the development of deleterious phenomena. Thus, when these mechanisms fail intolerance, idiosyncrasy or allergic reaction could be presented to the diet components. The adverse reactions to the aliments are present in one to three percent of the general population, while this occurs in the eight percent of the children under three years old. The clinical manifestations may comprise from abdominal pain pictures to anaphylactic shock. The symptomatology depends on age of the patient and the amount and kind of ingested food. The diagnosis must be establish on bases of careful anamnesis and physical examination. To confirm the diagnosis cutaneous test for immediate hypersensibility and the determination of specific IgE antibodies (RAST, ELISA) are used. The basic treatment consists in the withdrawal of the causative aliment and not on non-proper diets for the patient. PMID:8517939

  3. Diary of an astronaut: examination of the remains of the late Israeli astronaut Colonel Ilan Ramon's Crew Notebook recovered after the loss of NASA's space shuttle Columbia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon; Sin-David, Laser

    2007-05-01

    Two months after the fatal re-entering into the Earth's atmosphere of Columbia flight STS-107, the remains of Israeli astronaut Colonel Ilan Ramon's Crew Notebook were found strewn in a field in San Augustine County, TX. The random pile of papers was found to have survived the calamity of the Shuttle's disintegration remarkably well. Most of the papers recovered were torn and/or washed out to varying degrees but only mildly charred around the edges. The sheets of paper could be categorized into four groups: Group I: eight sides of paper written while in space in black ink and in pencil--Ramon's personal diary; the writing on these eight sides of paper survived well and is only missing where the pages were torn. Small fragments found in the field were physically matched to holes in the pages thus locating their original positions in the text. Group II: six sides of technical preparation notes written by Ramon before the mission. The writing on these pages was washed out entirely, but much of it was visualized using infrared luminescence. Group III: eight sides of personal notes prepared by Ramon before the mission written in blue ink. The writing on these pages was barely visible to the naked eye and not visualized by infrared luminescence, but was made largely legible by digital enhancement imaging. Group IV: a few sides of printed technical information. These pages were mostly intact and were not examined at length as they contained standard printed material. After completion of examinations at the Questioned Document Laboratory of the Israel Police, the diary was transferred to the Paper Conservation Department of the Israel Museum for preservation and strengthening treatments.

  4. Consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Qi, Lu; Yu, Canqing; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Chen, Yiping; Bian, Zheng; Sun, Dianjianyi; Du, Jianwei; Ge, Pengfei; Tang, Zhenzhu; Hou, Wei; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between the regular consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting China Kadoorie Biobank in which participants from 10 geographically diverse areas across China were enrolled between 2004 and 2008. Participants 199 293 men and 288 082 women aged 30 to 79 years at baseline after excluding participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline. Main exposure measures Consumption frequency of spicy foods, self reported once at baseline. Main outcome measures Total and cause specific mortality. Results During 3 500 004 person years of follow-up between 2004 and 2013 (median 7.2 years), a total of 11 820 men and 8404 women died. Absolute mortality rates according to spicy food consumption categories were 6.1, 4.4, 4.3, and 5.8 deaths per 1000 person years for participants who ate spicy foods less than once a week, 1 or 2, 3 to 5, and 6 or 7 days a week, respectively. Spicy food consumption showed highly consistent inverse associations with total mortality among both men and women after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. In the whole cohort, compared with those who ate spicy foods less than once a week, the adjusted hazard ratios for death were 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.96), 0.86 (0.80 to 0.92), and 0.86 (0.82 to 0.90) for those who ate spicy food 1 or 2, 3 to 5, and 6 or 7 days a week, respectively. Compared with those who ate spicy foods less than once a week, those who consumed spicy foods 6 or 7 days a week showed a 14% relative risk reduction in total mortality. The inverse association between spicy food consumption and total mortality was stronger in those who did not consume alcohol than those who did (P=0.033 for interaction). Inverse associations were also observed for deaths due to cancer, ischemic heart diseases, and respiratory diseases. Conclusion In this large prospective study, the habitual

  5. [Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    2009-04-01

    The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy. PMID:19340768

  6. Dental erosions in subjects living on a raw food diet.

    PubMed

    Ganss, C; Schlechtriemen, M; Klimek, J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency and severity of dental erosions and its association with nutritional and oral hygiene factors in subjects living on a raw food diet. As part of a larger dietary study 130 subjects whose ingestion of raw food was more than 95% of the total food intake were examined. The median duration of the diet was 39 (minimum 17, maximum 418) months. Before the clinical examination, the participants answered questionnaires and recorded their food intake during a 7-day period. Dental erosions were registered using study models. As a control 76 sex- and age-matched patients from our clinic were randomly selected. The raw food diet records showed the median daily frequency of ingesting citrus fruit to be 4.8 (minimum 0.5, maximum 16.1). The median intake of fruit was 62% (minimum 25%, maximum 96%) of the total, corresponding to an average consumption of 9.5 kg of fruit (minimum 1.5, maximum 23.7) per week. Compared to the control group subjects living on a raw food diet had significantly (pfood group (13.2% of the controls) had no erosive defects, whereas 37.2% had at least one tooth with a moderate erosion (55.2% of the controls) and 60.5% had at least one tooth with a severe erosion (31.6% of the controls). Within the raw food group no significant correlation was found between nutrition or oral health data and the prevalence of erosions. Nevertheless, the results showed that a raw food diet bears an increased risk of dental erosion compared to conventional nutrition.

  7. Inclusion of pork meat in the diets of young women reduces their intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Jennifer O; Gough, Natalie M; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-06-19

    Adherence of young women to dietary recommendations has been examined predominantly by surveys. This study aimed to determine the quality of women's diets relative to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE); and to evaluate dietary changes during an intervention trial with pork meat or an iron supplement. A 12-week randomized trial was conducted in young women who were assigned to one of three groups. They maintained three, seven-day food diaries while continuing their routine diet (CG); taking an iron supplement (SG); or incorporating into their diets 500 g/week of pork (PG). Participants (n = 58) provided dietary information on 1218 diary-days. The serves consumed from the vegetable, fruit and dairy groups were lower (p < 0.001), and from the meat and alternatives group greater (p < 0.001) than the recommended serves. PG consumed significantly fewer (p < 0.001) serves of "extra" foods, and ate fruit more frequently (p < 0.001) than CG and SG. The participants' dietary self-assessment showed poor agreement with the AGHE description of "serve". The inclusion of pork in the diets of young women is associated with the reduced consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor "extra" foods and increased frequency of fruit intake. The effect may be explained by diverse factors such as increased food knowledge, cooking skills and the effect of pork on satiety.

  8. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  9. Analysis of the impact of fortified food consumption on overall dietary quality in Irish adults.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Triona; Hannon, Evelyn M; Kiely, Mairead; Flynn, Albert

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of fortified food (FF) consumption on overall dietary quality in Irish adults. Data for this analysis was based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey w7/15/2008hich used a 7 d food diary to collect food and beverage intake data in a representative sample of 1379 Irish adults (662 men and 717 women) aged 18-64 years. Foods contained in the database that are fortified were identified from the presence of vitamins and/or minerals in the ingredient list on the label. The results showed that an increased level of FF consumption was associated with lower intakes (percentage food energy) of total fat and saturated fat (women only) and higher intakes of total carbohydrate, total sugars (but not added sugars) and starch. Increased consumption was associated with a more micronutrient-dense diet and a reduced prevalence of dietary inadequacies of Ca, Fe, riboflavin and folate, particularly in women. Higher FF consumption was associated with higher intakes of fruit, lower intakes of alcohol and a lower likelihood of smoking in men and women. Thus it appears that FF consumption is a marker of both better dietary quality and healthy lifestyle behaviours.

  10. Mood Food

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. Methods A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, ≥16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, ≥22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Results Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score ≥16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (≥22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, <.01). These associations extended to both men and women. These findings did not appear to be explained by a general increase in fat, carbohydrate, or energy intake. Conclusion Higher CES-D depression scores were associated with greater chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study. PMID:20421555

  11. Lasers in food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorov, Boris F.

    1996-09-01

    Food industry had begun to use lasers for improvement of effectiveness of production. We can clearly see three main directions: in the food technology, in the food engineering, and in the agriculture. The results of the work is given.

  12. Space Food and Nutrition

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an introduction to the Space Food System and Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory. Topics cover food systems of programs past, present and future, and issues surrounding food systems and foo...

  13. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food Service has a ... norovirus Overview Symptoms Transmission Prevention Treatment Resources CDC Vital Signs — Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food Service has a ...

  14. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Bacteria in Refrigerated Foods Safe Refrigerator Temperature Safe Handling of Foods for Refrigerating Placement of ... or packed in snow. He realized the cold temperatures would keep game for times when food was ...

  15. The World Food Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1975-01-01

    Cites evidence to support the theory that the world food shortage will become a chronic condition. Describes the depletion of surplus food supplies and the increasing dependence on North America for food supplies. (MLH)

  16. The Reliability and Validity of Short Online Questionnaires to Measure Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adults: The Fruit Test and Vegetable Test

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Steenhuyzen, Saidja; Dejaegere, Liesbet; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Verloigne, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the stability of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test over time and whether the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test are capable of measuring fruit and vegetable intake with consistency. Second, the study aimed to examine criterion (concurrent) validity of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test by testing their agreement with 7-day food diary-derived measures of fruit and vegetable intake. In total 58 adults (31% male, mean age = 30.0±12.09y) completed the Flemish Fruit and Vegetable test by indicating the frequency of days that they ate fruit and vegetables and the number of portions during the past week. Validity was tested by using a 7-day food diary as a golden standard. Adults were asked to register their fruit and vegetable intake daily in a diary during one week. Spearman correlations were measured to compare total intake reported in the Fruit and Vegetable Test and in the 7-day diary. Agreement plots were used to illustrate absolute agreement. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by having participants completing the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test twice. The Fruit Test (ICC = 0.81) and Vegetable Test (ICC = 0.78) showed excellent and substantial reliability. The Fruit Test (ρ = 0.73) and Vegetable Test showed good validity. Agreement plots showed modest variability in differences between vegetable and fruit intake as measured by the Vegetable and Fruit Test and the 7-day food diary. Also a small underestimation of fruit intake in the Fruit test and vegetable intake in the Vegetable test against the 7-day food diary was shown. Based on the results, it is suggested to include portion size pictures and consumption of mixed vegetables to prevent underestimation. To prevent overestimation, it is concluded to add a moderate number of representative fruit and vegetable items, questions on portion size, household sizes with sufficient detail and food items highly tailored to the dietary behaviors and local food items of the

  17. Development of Lymantria dispar affected by manganese in food.

    PubMed

    Kula, Emanuel; Martinek, Petr; Chromcová, Lucie; Hedbávný, Josef

    2014-10-01

    We studied the response of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)) to the content of manganese in food in the laboratory breeding of caterpillars. The food of the caterpillars {Betula pendula Roth (Fagales: Betulaceae) leaves} was contaminated by dipping in the solution of MnCl2 · 4H2O with manganese concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5 and 10 mg ml(-1), by which differentiated manganese contents (307; 632; 4,087 and 8,124 mg kg(-1)) were reached. Parameters recorded during the rearing were as follows: effect of manganese on food consumption, mortality and length of the development of caterpillars, pupation and hatching of imagoes. At the same time, manganese concentrations were determined in the offered and unconsumed food, excrements, and exuviae of the caterpillars, pupal cases and imagoes by using the AAS method. As compared with the control, high manganese contents in the food of gypsy moth caterpillars affected the process of development particularly by increased mortality of the first instar caterpillars (8 % mortality for caterpillars with no Mn contamination (T0) and 62 % mortality for subjects with the highest contamination by manganese (T3)), by prolonged development of the first-third instar (18.7 days (T0) and 27.8 days (T3)) and by increased food consumption of the first-third instar {0.185 g of leaf dry matter (T0) and 0.483 g of leaf dry matter (T3)}. The main defence strategy of the caterpillars to prevent contamination by the increased manganese content in food is the translocation of manganese into frass and exuviae castoff in the process of ecdysis. In the process of development, the content of manganese was reduced by excretion in imagoes to 0.5 % of the intake level even at its maximum inputs in food.

  18. Development of Lymantria dispar affected by manganese in food.

    PubMed

    Kula, Emanuel; Martinek, Petr; Chromcová, Lucie; Hedbávný, Josef

    2014-10-01

    We studied the response of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)) to the content of manganese in food in the laboratory breeding of caterpillars. The food of the caterpillars {Betula pendula Roth (Fagales: Betulaceae) leaves} was contaminated by dipping in the solution of MnCl2 · 4H2O with manganese concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5 and 10 mg ml(-1), by which differentiated manganese contents (307; 632; 4,087 and 8,124 mg kg(-1)) were reached. Parameters recorded during the rearing were as follows: effect of manganese on food consumption, mortality and length of the development of caterpillars, pupation and hatching of imagoes. At the same time, manganese concentrations were determined in the offered and unconsumed food, excrements, and exuviae of the caterpillars, pupal cases and imagoes by using the AAS method. As compared with the control, high manganese contents in the food of gypsy moth caterpillars affected the process of development particularly by increased mortality of the first instar caterpillars (8 % mortality for caterpillars with no Mn contamination (T0) and 62 % mortality for subjects with the highest contamination by manganese (T3)), by prolonged development of the first-third instar (18.7 days (T0) and 27.8 days (T3)) and by increased food consumption of the first-third instar {0.185 g of leaf dry matter (T0) and 0.483 g of leaf dry matter (T3)}. The main defence strategy of the caterpillars to prevent contamination by the increased manganese content in food is the translocation of manganese into frass and exuviae castoff in the process of ecdysis. In the process of development, the content of manganese was reduced by excretion in imagoes to 0.5 % of the intake level even at its maximum inputs in food. PMID:25028315

  19. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  20. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  1. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives in standardized foods. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  3. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  4. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  5. Common food allergies.

    PubMed

    McKevith, Brigid; Theobald, Hannah

    The incidence of allergic disease, including food allergy, appears to be increasing in the UK (Gupta et al 2003). Although any food has the potential to cause an allergic reaction, certain foods are more common causes of allergy than others. If diagnosed, food allergy is manageable. Correct diagnosis is important to ensure optimal management and a nutritionally balanced diet.

  6. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  7. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  8. Food security and child nutritional status among Orang Asli (Temuan) households in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Tham, B L

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of household food insecurity and its potential risk factors and outcomes among the Orang Asli (Temuan) households. Socioeconomic, demographic and food security information of the households and anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 64) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food security was assessed using the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument. Diet quality was based on 24 hour recall and analyzed according to the Malaysian RDA and Food Guide Pyramid. Majority of the households (82%) reported some kind of household food insecurity. The prevalence of significant underweight, stunting and wasting were 45.3%, 51.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Dietary intakes were less than 2/3 RDA levels for calories, calcium and iron. However, the intakes of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and niacin exceeded the RDA and the sources for these nutrients were mainly rice, fish and green leafy vegetables. Among the five food groups, only the number of servings from cereals/cereal products/tubers group was achieved while that of the milk/diary products was the worst. Majority of the children (68.7%) had poor, 31.3% had fair and none with excellent diet quality. In general, diet quality and nutritional status of the children decreased as household food insecurity worsened. It is recommended that the nutritional problems of Orang Asli children be addressed through health, nutrition and economic programs and further studies should be carried out on determinants and consequences of household food insecurity. PMID:14569716

  9. Food security and child nutritional status among Orang Asli (Temuan) households in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Tham, B L

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of household food insecurity and its potential risk factors and outcomes among the Orang Asli (Temuan) households. Socioeconomic, demographic and food security information of the households and anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 64) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food security was assessed using the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument. Diet quality was based on 24 hour recall and analyzed according to the Malaysian RDA and Food Guide Pyramid. Majority of the households (82%) reported some kind of household food insecurity. The prevalence of significant underweight, stunting and wasting were 45.3%, 51.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Dietary intakes were less than 2/3 RDA levels for calories, calcium and iron. However, the intakes of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and niacin exceeded the RDA and the sources for these nutrients were mainly rice, fish and green leafy vegetables. Among the five food groups, only the number of servings from cereals/cereal products/tubers group was achieved while that of the milk/diary products was the worst. Majority of the children (68.7%) had poor, 31.3% had fair and none with excellent diet quality. In general, diet quality and nutritional status of the children decreased as household food insecurity worsened. It is recommended that the nutritional problems of Orang Asli children be addressed through health, nutrition and economic programs and further studies should be carried out on determinants and consequences of household food insecurity.

  10. [Food allergy in children].

    PubMed

    Bidat, E

    2006-10-01

    Food allergy is an adverse reaction to food protein by an immunological mechanism (IgE or non IgE-mediated). Signs can involve all organs, but atopic dermatitis remains the main manifestation. In children, only few allergens are involved. In France, it is cow milk, hen eggs, kiwi, peanut, fish, nuts, shrimp. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, skin tests, specific IgE and, sometimes, food challenge. Treatment is based on specific eviction. Regime can be total or sometimes limited to large among of the specific food, or only raw food. Food allergy disappears sometimes. Tolerance or food desensitization is in progress.

  11. Apollo 14 food system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1971-01-01

    The program for improving foods for use during space flights consists of introducing new foods and food-handling techniques on each successive manned space flight. Because of this continuing improvement program, the Apollo 14 food system was the most advanced and sophisticated food system to be used in the U.S. space program. The food system used during the Apollo 14 mission and recent space-food-system advances are described and discussed in regard to their usefulness for future manned space flights.

  12. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in 9-10 Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Pouya; Skeaff, Sheila A; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9-10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman's correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9-10 year-old children in New Zealand. PMID:27164137

  13. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in 9-10 Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Pouya; Skeaff, Sheila A; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9-10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman's correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9-10 year-old children in New Zealand.

  14. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in 9–10 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Pouya; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9–10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman’s correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9–10 year-old children in New Zealand. PMID:27164137

  15. Clones in the classroom: a daily diary study of the nonshared environmental relationship between monozygotic twin differences in school experience and achievement.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Kathryn; Almeida, David; Hibel, Jacob; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Do genetically identical children experience the same classroom differently? Are nonshared classroom experiences associated with differences in achievement? We designed a telephone diary measure which we administered every school day for 2 weeks to 122 10-year-olds in 61 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. Each pair shared genes, a classroom, peers and a teacher. We found that MZ twins did experience their classrooms differently (rMZ < 0.65 for all measures of classroom experience). Furthermore, MZ differences in peer problems were significantly associated with MZ differences in Mathematics achievement (ES = 8%); differences in positivity about school were significantly associated with differences in Mathematics (ES = 15%) and Science (ES = 8%) achievement; and differences in 'flow' in Science lessons were associated with differences in Science achievement (ES = 12%). In a multiple regression analysis, MZ differences in positivity about school significantly predicted MZ differences in Mathematics achievement (R2 = 0.16, p < .01) and MZ differences in 'flow' in Science significantly predicted MZ differences in Science achievement (R2 = 0.10, p < .05). These results indicate that MZ twins experience the classroom differently and that differences in their experience are associated with differences in their achievement. PMID:19016614

  16. The buffering effect of selection, optimization, and compensation strategy use on the relationship between problem solving demands and occupational well-being: a daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Antje; Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated within-person relationships between daily problem solving demands, selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategy use, job satisfaction, and fatigue at work. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that high SOC strategy use boosts the positive relationship between problem solving demands and job satisfaction, and buffers the positive relationship between problem solving demands and fatigue. Using a daily diary study design, data were collected from 64 administrative employees who completed a general questionnaire and two daily online questionnaires over four work days. Multilevel analyses showed that problem solving demands were positively related to fatigue, but unrelated to job satisfaction. SOC strategy use was positively related to job satisfaction, but unrelated to fatigue. A buffering effect of high SOC strategy use on the demands-fatigue relationship was found, but no booster effect on the demands-satisfaction relationship. The results suggest that high SOC strategy use is a resource that protects employees from the negative effects of high problem solving demands.

  17. Investigating the Impact of a Metals Foundry on Neighborhood Air Quality through PM2.5 PMF Analysis and Mobile Environmental Odor Diaries App

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, D.; Clayton, I.; George, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Chapman Elementary School in Portland, OR was identified by USA Today as being in the 2nd percentile of schools in the nation for poor air quality. This ranking was based on the EPA Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model using the EPA's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program. The metals foundry identified in the report as the leading contributor to the poor air quality at Chapman currently meets its Title V permit and reports these permitted emissions to the TRI program. However, the poor air quality ranking is based on models that rely on emissions from permits and are not necessarily reflective of actual emissions. Several observational approaches were employed to assess the potential source contributors to air quality at Chapman. Two MiniVol Tactical Air Samplers (TAS) were co-located 1km from the facility at Chapman Elementary to sample according to the EPA six-day monitoring schedule for one year, filters were analyzed for mass and metals via XRF. Ogawa NO2 samplers were placed at various points around the Chapman neighborhood to develop an NO2 high-density measurement campaign to assess pollutant transport. In addition, a novel mobile environmental odor diaries app was developed and deployed to collect and geo-locate resident observation of odors. All observations were analyzed through mapping, dispersion modeling (AERMOD) and positive-matrix-factorization (PMF) analysis. This multi-dimensional analysis is designed to provide a framework for future studies to address increasing citizen concern about neighborhood level pollution.

  18. When regulating emotions at work pays off: a diary and an intervention study on emotion regulation and customer tips in service jobs.

    PubMed

    Hülsheger, Ute R; Lang, Jonas W B; Schewe, Anna F; Zijlstra, Fred R H

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between deep acting, automatic regulation and customer tips with 2 different study designs. The first study was a daily diary study using a sample of Dutch waiters and taxi-drivers and assessed the link of employees' daily self-reported levels of deep acting and automatic regulation with the amount of tips provided by customers (N = 166 measurement occasions nested in 34 persons). Whereas deep acting refers to deliberate attempts to modify felt emotions and involves conscious effort, automatic regulation refers to automated emotion regulatory processes that result in the natural experience of desired emotions and do not involve deliberate control and effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that both types of emotion regulation were positively associated with customer tips. The second study was an experimental field study using a sample of German hairdressers (N = 41). Emotion regulation in terms of both deep acting and automatic regulation was manipulated using a brief self-training intervention and daily instructions to use cognitive change and attentional deployment. Results revealed that participants in the intervention group received significantly more tips than participants in the control group. PMID:25384203

  19. When regulating emotions at work pays off: a diary and an intervention study on emotion regulation and customer tips in service jobs.

    PubMed

    Hülsheger, Ute R; Lang, Jonas W B; Schewe, Anna F; Zijlstra, Fred R H

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between deep acting, automatic regulation and customer tips with 2 different study designs. The first study was a daily diary study using a sample of Dutch waiters and taxi-drivers and assessed the link of employees' daily self-reported levels of deep acting and automatic regulation with the amount of tips provided by customers (N = 166 measurement occasions nested in 34 persons). Whereas deep acting refers to deliberate attempts to modify felt emotions and involves conscious effort, automatic regulation refers to automated emotion regulatory processes that result in the natural experience of desired emotions and do not involve deliberate control and effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that both types of emotion regulation were positively associated with customer tips. The second study was an experimental field study using a sample of German hairdressers (N = 41). Emotion regulation in terms of both deep acting and automatic regulation was manipulated using a brief self-training intervention and daily instructions to use cognitive change and attentional deployment. Results revealed that participants in the intervention group received significantly more tips than participants in the control group.

  20. Genetically engineered foods: implications for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Hefle, Susan L

    2002-06-01

    The products of agricultural biotechnology, including such common foods as corn and soybeans, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Consumer exposure to such foods is already fairly significant, particularly in the USA. Thus far, no reports exist regarding allergic reactions to the crops that have been approved for introduction into the food supply. These crops have been modified to only a minor extent by comparison with their traditional counterparts, and the level of expression of new and novel proteins is quite low. Thus, consumer exposure to these novel proteins is very low and unlikely to result in allergic sensitization. Nevertheless, foods produced through agricultural biotechnology must be assessed for safety, including their potential allergenicity, before they may be approved by worldwide regulatory agencies for entry into the food supply. However, the adequacy of the current approach to the assessment of the potential allergenicity of foods produced through agricultural biotechnology has been the subject of considerable scientific and regulatory debate. PMID:12045422

  1. Genetically engineered foods: implications for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Hefle, Susan L

    2002-06-01

    The products of agricultural biotechnology, including such common foods as corn and soybeans, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Consumer exposure to such foods is already fairly significant, particularly in the USA. Thus far, no reports exist regarding allergic reactions to the crops that have been approved for introduction into the food supply. These crops have been modified to only a minor extent by comparison with their traditional counterparts, and the level of expression of new and novel proteins is quite low. Thus, consumer exposure to these novel proteins is very low and unlikely to result in allergic sensitization. Nevertheless, foods produced through agricultural biotechnology must be assessed for safety, including their potential allergenicity, before they may be approved by worldwide regulatory agencies for entry into the food supply. However, the adequacy of the current approach to the assessment of the potential allergenicity of foods produced through agricultural biotechnology has been the subject of considerable scientific and regulatory debate.

  2. Analytical versus food table values for vitamin C in foods: the effect on calculated vitamin C intake of elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Black, A E; Ashby, D R; Day, K C; Bates, C J; Paul, A A

    1983-02-01

    During a longitudinal study of vitamin C nutrition in 23 healthy elderly people, samples of cooked vegetables and liver, canned meats, canned vegetables and fruit drinks were analysed for vitamin C content. The analytical data are presented here and the effect on calculated daily intake of vitamin C of using the analytical values in place of food table values is assessed. For cooked foods the analysed values were close to food table values; exceptions were spring cabbage, cauliflower and canned potatoes. Fortified fruit drinks contained 20-60 mg vitamin C per 100 ml and made an important contribution to intake. Canned meats contained 0.3-61.4 mg per 100 g (mean 14.9 mg), but their contribution to intake was considered small. The difference between daily intakes calculated using analytical and food table values was greater than 5 mg in 37 per cent of 1-day periods and in 17 per cent of 7-day periods. These differences were not sufficient to significantly alter the correlations between intake and biochemical indices found in the original study. Nevertheless, given the discrepancies between calculated and analysed vitamin C intakes reported in the literature, analytical work is probably essential in studies of vitamin C nutrition.

  3. Food-borne protozoa.

    PubMed

    Nichols, G L

    2000-01-01

    Pathogenic protozoa are commonly transmitted to food in developing countries, but food-borne outbreaks of infection are relatively rare in developed countries. The main protozoa of concern in developed countries are Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and these can be a problem in immunocompromised people. Other protozoa such as Entamoeba histolytica, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Sarcocystis can be a food-borne problem in non-industrialised countries. C. cayetanensis has emerged as a food-borne pathogen in foods imported into North America from South America. Microsporidia may be food-borne, although evidence for this is not yet available. The measures needed to prevent food-borne protozoa causing disease require clear assessments of the risks of contamination and the effectiveness of processes to inactivate them. The globalisation of food production can allow new routes of transmission, and advances in diagnostic detection methods and surveillance systems have extended the range of protozoa that may be linked to food. PMID:10885117

  4. Food-borne protozoa.

    PubMed

    Nichols, G L

    2000-01-01

    Pathogenic protozoa are commonly transmitted to food in developing countries, but food-borne outbreaks of infection are relatively rare in developed countries. The main protozoa of concern in developed countries are Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and these can be a problem in immunocompromised people. Other protozoa such as Entamoeba histolytica, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Sarcocystis can be a food-borne problem in non-industrialised countries. C. cayetanensis has emerged as a food-borne pathogen in foods imported into North America from South America. Microsporidia may be food-borne, although evidence for this is not yet available. The measures needed to prevent food-borne protozoa causing disease require clear assessments of the risks of contamination and the effectiveness of processes to inactivate them. The globalisation of food production can allow new routes of transmission, and advances in diagnostic detection methods and surveillance systems have extended the range of protozoa that may be linked to food.

  5. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  6. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  7. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

  8. Food group preferences and energy balance in moderately obese postmenopausal women subjected to brisk walking program.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Sophie; Vallée, Karine; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Joffroy, Sandra; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Auneau, Gérard; Mauriège, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of a 16-week walking program on food group preferences and energy balance of sedentary, moderately obese (body mass index, 29-35 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal Caucasian women, aged 60 ± 5 years old. One hundred and fifty-six volunteers were subjected to 3 sessions/week of 45 min of walking at 60% of heart rate reserve. Total energy intake (TEI) and food group preferences (3-day dietary record), total energy expenditure (TEE, 3-day physical activity diary), cardiorespiratory fitness (2-km walking test), anthropometry, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) were measured before and after walking. Data were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA with repeated measures on 1 factor (time). The modest increase in TEE of 151 ± 24 kcal/day (p < 0.0001) leads to body weight, fat mass losses, and waist girth reduction (p < 0.0001). TEI remained unchanged despite a slight decrease in carbohydrate intake and a minor increase in protein intake (p < 0.05). Analysis of food records revealed a decreased consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and sweet and fatty foods (p < 0.01), but an increase in oil consumption (p < 0.0001) after walking. Women with the highest body weight loss showed the greatest reduction in the consumption of fruits, sugar, sweet foods, and fatty foods (p < 0.05). Women with the greatest fat mass loss showed the highest decrease in fatty food intake (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although our walking program changed some food group consumption patterns, body weight loss was primarily because of the increased TEE.

  9. Food Antimicrobials Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Padilla, Adriana; Soto, Karen M.; Hernández Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Natural food antimicrobials are bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of microorganisms involved in food spoilage or food-borne illness. However, stability issues result in degradation and loss of antimicrobial activity. Nanoencapsulation allows protection of antimicrobial food agents from unfavorable environmental conditions and incompatibilities. Encapsulation of food antimicrobials control delivery increasing the concentration of the antimicrobials in specific areas and the improvement of passive cellular absorption mechanisms resulted in higher antimicrobial activity. This paper reviews the present state of the art of the nanostructures used as food antimicrobial carriers including nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, nanoparticles, and nanofibers. PMID:24995363

  10. Food Service System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The 3M Food Service System 2 employs a "cook/chill" concept for serving food in hospitals. The system allows staff to prepare food well in advance, maintain heat, visual appeal and nutritional value as well as reducing operating costs. The integral heating method, which keeps hot foods hot and cold foods cold, was developed by 3M for the Apollo Program. In the 1970s, the company commercialized the original system and in 1991, introduced Food Service System 2. Dishes are designed to resemble those used at home, and patient satisfaction has been high.

  11. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance. PMID:25649459

  12. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  13. The association between food patterns and adiposity among Canadian children at risk of overweight.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lei; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    Identifying food patterns related to obesity can provide information for health promotion in nutrition. Food patterns and their relation with obesity among Canadian children have not been reported to date. Our aim was to identify and describe food patterns associated with obesity in children at risk of overweight. Caucasian children (n = 630) with at least 1 obese biological parent recruited into the Quebec Adiposity and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort were studied in cross-sectional analyses. Measures of adiposity (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat mass percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), screen time, physical activity (accelerometer over 7 days), and dietary intake (three 24-h food recalls) were collected. Factor analysis was used to identify food patterns. The relationships between food patterns and overweight were investigated in logistic and multiple linear regression models. Three food patterns were retained for analysis: traditional food (red meats, main dishes-soups, high-fat dairy products, tomato products, dressings, etc.); healthy food (low-fat dairy products, whole grains, legumes-nuts-seeds, fruits, vegetables); and fast food (sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes, fried chicken, hamburgers-hot dogs-pizza, salty snacks). Higher scores on the fast food pattern were associated with overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile), and other measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, body fat mass percentage) after adjustment for age, sex, physical activity, screen time, sleep time, family income, and mother's obesity (p < 0.05). Controlling for energy intake did not change these relationships. Our results provide further evidence of a link between fast food intake and obesity in children. PMID:24476475

  14. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  15. Development of a new modelling tool (FACET) to assess exposure to chemical migrants from food packaging.

    PubMed

    Oldring, P K T; O'Mahony, C; Dixon, J; Vints, M; Mehegan, J; Dequatre, C; Castle, L

    2014-01-01

    The approach used to obtain European Union-wide data on the usage and concentration of substances in different food packaging materials is described. Statistics were collected on pack sizes and market shares for the different materials used to package different food groups. The packaging materials covered were plastics (both flexible and rigid), metal containers, light metal packaging, paper and board, as well as the adhesives and inks used on them. An explanation as to how these data are linked in various ways in the FACET exposure modelling tool is given as well as an overview of the software along with examples of the intermediate tables of data. The example of bisphenol A (BPA), used in resins that may be incorporated into some coatings for canned foodstuffs, is used to illustrate how the data in FACET are combined to produce concentration distributions. Such concentration distributions are then linked probabilistically to the amounts of each food item consumed, as recorded in national food consumption survey diaries, in order to estimate exposure to packaging migrants. Estimates of exposure are at the level of the individual consumer and thus can be expressed for various percentiles of different populations and subpopulations covered by the national dietary surveys. PMID:24215584

  16. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  17. Food and Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvey, Lindsay

    1997-01-01

    Argues that intensive agriculture restricted to suitable lands will be required in the future due to global population growth, declining food prices, and extreme poverty. Discusses the challenge of balancing environmental care with food production. (DDR)

  18. Food Safety for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    ... come in contact with raw meat, poultry, seafood, eggs and unwashed fresh produce. Place cooked food on ... Check the temperature with a food thermometer. Cook eggs until the yolk and white are firm. Don' ...

  19. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  20. Food poisoning (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... food contaminated with organisms is ingested. The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus can commonly be found on people, but when allowed to grow in food this bacteria can produce a toxin that causes illness such as vomiting and diarrhea. ...

  1. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosed Real Families Faces of Food Allergies Rising Stars Gracie's Silver Linings Daniel's Confidence Ciara Builds a ... all recall alerts See all recent news Rising Stars Life As a Tween with Food Allergies MEET ...

  2. Fun With Food Webs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl D.

    1977-01-01

    Explains an upper elementary game of tag that illustrates energy flow in food webs using candy bars as food sources. A follow-up field trip to a river and five language arts projects are also suggested. (CS)

  3. Fast food tips (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  4. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  5. Food Applications and Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  6. Food For Thought

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space food research meets the challenge of providing food that tastes good and travels well in space. This lesson emphasizes inquiry and cooperative involvement of students as they explore the uniq...

  7. Apollo food technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.; Huber, C. S.; Bourland, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Large improvements and advances in space food systems achieved during the Apollo food program are discussed. Modifications of the Apollo food system were directed primarily toward improving delivery of adequate nutrition to the astronaut. Individual food items and flight menus were modified as nutritional countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness. Unique food items were developed, including some that provided nutritional completeness, high acceptability, and ready-to-eat, shelf-stable convenience. Specialized food packages were also developed. The Apollo program experience clearly showed that future space food systems will require well-directed efforts to achieve the optimum potential of food systems in support of the physiological and psychological well-being of astronauts and crews.

  8. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  9. New foods for thought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent findings show that genetic material in plant foods may survive digestion, circulate through our bodies, and modulate our gene expression. These findings could alter our understanding of nutrition and genetic regulation, and open up new vistas for engineering foods....

  10. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-02-01

    Food allergies affect as many as 6% of young children, most of whom "outgrow" the sensitivity, and about 2% of the general population. Although any food may provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of food allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Many of these food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of many responses and may soon lead to novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Food allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and may be due to IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. A systematic approach including history, laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges will lead to the correct diagnosis. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion.

  11. Temporal associations between spouse criticism/hostility and pain among patients with chronic pain: a within-couple daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Burns, John W; Peterson, Kristina M; Smith, David A; Keefe, Francis J; Porter, Laura S; Schuster, Erik; Kinner, Ellen

    2013-12-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain can strain marriages, perhaps even to the point of engendering spouse criticism and hostility directed toward patients. Such negative spouse responses may have detrimental effects on patient well-being. While results of cross-sectional studies support this notion, we extended these efforts by introducing expressed emotion (EE) and interpersonal theoretical perspectives, and by using electronic diary methods to capture both patient and spouse reports in a prospective design. Patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and their spouses (N = 105 couples) reported on perceived spouse behavior and patient pain 5 times/day for 14 days using Personal Data Assistants (PDAs). Concurrent and lagged within-couple associations between patient's perceptions of spouse criticism/hostility and patient self-reported pain and spouses' observations of patient pain behaviors revealed that (1) patient perceived spouse criticism and hostility were correlated significantly with pain intensity, and spouse observed patient pain behavior was related significantly with patient perceived hostility at the same time point; (2) patient perceived spouse hostility significantly predicted patient pain intensity 3 hours later, and spouse observed pain behaviors significantly predicted patient perceived spouse hostility 3 hours later. Results support both EE and interpersonal models, and imply that a comprehensive model would combine these conceptualizations to fully illustrate how spouse criticism/hostility and patient pain interact to produce a negative spiral. Given that marital interactions are amenable to clinical intervention, improved insight into how spouse behavior and patient pain are tightly linked will encourage productive translational efforts to target this neglected area.

  12. The association of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate with anxiety sensitivity and electronic diary negative affect among smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Michelle F; McClernon, F Joseph; Calhoun, Patrick S; Buse, Natalie A; Beckham, Jean C

    2013-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased smoking initiation, maintenance, and relapse. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) are neurosteroids that have been associated with mood measures as well as smoking status, and nicotine is associated with increased DHEA and DHEAS levels. Given the difficulties with mood experienced by smokers with PTSD, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the association between negative affect and anxiety sensitivity with DHEA and DHEAS levels. Ninety-six smokers with and without PTSD provided blood samples for neurosteroid analyses and completed self-report measures of anxiety sensitivity and electronic diary ratings of negative affect. As expected, PTSD smokers reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity (F(1,94) = 20.67, partial η2 = 0.18, P < 0.0001) and negative affect (F(1,91) = 7.98, partial η2 = 0.08, P = 0.006). After accounting for age and sex, DHEAS was significantly inversely associated with both anxiety sensitivity (F(3,92) = 6.97, partial η2 = 0.07, P = 0.01) and negative affect (F(3,87) = 10.52, partial η2 = 0.11, P = 0.002) across groups. Effect sizes indicated that these effects are moderate to high. No significant interactions of diagnosis and DHEA(S) levels with mood measures were detected. Given that nicotine is known to elevate DHEA(S) levels, these results suggest that DHEAS may serve as a biomarker of the association between mood and nicotine among smokers. Implications for the results include (1) the use of DHEAS measurement across time and across quit attempts and (2) the potential for careful use of DHEA supplementation to facilitate abstinence during smoking cessation.

  13. Plant phenological records in northern Finland since the 18th century as retrieved from databases, archives and diaries for biometeorological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Lappalainen, Hanna; Gregow, Hilppa

    2013-05-01

    Plant phenological data from northern Finland, compiled from several sources, were examined as potential biometeorological indicators of climate change since the 18th century. A common feature of individual series was their sporadic nature. In addition to waning enthusiasm, wartime hardships and crop failures had caused gaps in recording observations during the 18th and 19th centuries. The present study's challenge was to combine separate records, as retrieved from several historical archives and personal diaries, into a single continuous series. To avoid possible biases due to the variability of data availability each year, each phenomenon-specific mean series was transformed into normalized site-specific index series. These series were compared to each other and to a regional instrumental temperature series (years 1802-2011). The inter-phenomena correlations were high. Moreover, a strong biometeorological response of the phenological series, most especially to monthly mean temperature in May, and seasonally to the April through June temperatures, was identified. This response focused on slightly later spring months compared to the responses in an earlier study conducted for southern Finland. The findings encouraged us to compute a total phenological index series as an average of all available phenomenon-specific index series for northern Finland. The earliest phenological springs were found as a cluster in the recent end of the record, whereas the anomalously-late phenological spring could be found through the centuries. This finding could indicate that potential future warming could result in an earlier onset of phenological springs (i.e. as experienced by the plants), with a remaining possibility of late phenological springs. To conclude, it was shown that the indices are reliable biometeorological indicators of the April through June temperature variations and thus of the climate variability in the region.

  14. Sleep quality and self-control capacity as protective resources in the daily emotional labor process: results from two diary studies.

    PubMed

    Diestel, Stefan; Rivkin, Wladislaw; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2015-05-01

    Daily emotional labor can impair psychological well-being, especially when emotions have to be displayed that are not truly felt. To explain these deleterious effects of emotional labor, scholars have theorized that emotional labor can put high demands on self-control and diminishes limited regulatory resources. On the basis of this notion, we examined 2 moderators of the daily emotional labor process, namely day-specific sleep quality and individual self-control capacity. In particular, in 2 diary studies (NTOTAL = 171), we tested whether sleep quality moderates the influence of emotional dissonance (the perceived discrepancy between felt and required emotions) on daily psychological well-being (ego depletion, need for recovery, and work engagement). In addition, we examined 3-way interactions of self-control capacity, sleep quality, and emotional dissonance on indicators of day-specific psychological well-being (Study 2). Our results indicate that the negative relations of day-specific emotional dissonance to all day-specific indicators of well-being are attenuated as a function of increasing day-specific sleep quality and that self-control capacity moderates this interaction. Specifically, compared with low self-control capacity, the day-specific interaction of emotional dissonance and sleep quality was more pronounced when trait self-control was high. For those with low trait self-control, day-specific sleep quality did not attenuate the negative relations of emotional dissonance to day-specific well-being. Implications for research on emotional labor and for intervention programs are discussed. PMID:25486259

  15. Water source and diarrhoeal disease risk in children under 5 years old in Cambodia: a prospective diary based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite claims that the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targets on access to safe drinking water have been met, many 100 s of millions of people still have no access. The challenge remains how to provide these people and especially young children with safe drinking water. Method We report a longitudinal study designed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention based on provided treated drinking water in containers on self-reported diarrhoea in children. The intervention was “1001 fontaines pour demain” (1001 F) is a non-governmental not for profit organization (created in 2004 and based in Caluire, France) that helps local entrepreneurs treat package, and sell safe drinking water. Cases and controls were chosen at village and household level by propensity score matching Participants were visited twice a month over six months and asked to complete a diarrhoea health diary. Results In total 4275 follow-up visits were completed on 376 participants from 309 homes. Diarrhoea was reported in 20.4% of children on each visit, equating to an incidence rate estimate of 5.32 episodes per child per year (95% confidence interval = 4.97 to 5.69). Compared to those drinking 1001 F water, children drinking surface water were 33% (95% CI -1 to 17%), those drinking protected ground water were 62% (95% CI 19 to 120%) and those drinking other bottled water 57% (95% CI 15 to 114%) more likely to report diarrhoea. Children drinking harvested rainwater had similar rates of diarrhoea to Children drinking 1001 F water. Conclusion Our study suggests that 1001 F water provides a safer alternative to groundwater or surface water. Furthermore, our study raises serious concerns about the validity of assuming protected groundwater to be safe water for the purposes of assessing the MDG targets. By contrast our study provides addition evidence of the relative safety of rainwater harvesting. PMID:24321624

  16. Irradiation and food processing.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  17. Spectroscopic study of food and food toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gavin; Walsh, James E.; Martin, Suzanne

    2003-03-01

    Fungal infection of food causes billions of dollars of lost revenue per annum as well as health problems, to animals and humans, if consumed in sufficient quantities. Modern food sorting techniques rely on colour or other physical characteristics to filter diseased or otherwise unsuitable foodstuffs from healthy foodstuffs. Their speeds are such that up to 40,000 objects per second can be moved at 4 metres per second, through 1 m wide chutes that offer a wide view for colour and shape sorting. Grain type foods such as coffee or peanuts are often vulnerable to toxic infection from invading fungi. If this happens, then their texture, taste and colour can change. Up to now, only visible wavelengths and colour identification have been used to bulk-sort food, but there has been little research in the ultra violet regions of the spectrum to help identify fungus or toxin infection. This research specifically concentrated on the ultra violet (UV) spectral characteristics of food in an attempt to identify possible spectral changes that occur when healthy food items like peanuts become infected with toxin-producing fungi. Ultimately, the goal is to design, build and construct an optical detection system that can use these 'spectral fingerprints' to more quickly and efficiently detect toxically infected food items.

  18. Differentiating food allergies from food intolerances.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions.

  19. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods, especially liquid foods, conduct electricity. Unlike in metals, the charge carriers in foods are ions, instead of electrons. Under normal applications, ions carry the charges as the mass of ions moves along the electrical field. The concentration and mobility of ions determine the electrical ...

  20. Lasers in food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorov, Boris F.

    1996-12-01

    The food industry has begun using lasers for improving the effectiveness of production. We clearly see three main directions: in food technology, in food engineering, and in agriculture. The resulting work of the seminar with concrete results, gotten by some research centers, is given. The programs of the seminar for 1988-1996 also are given.