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Sample records for 7-day food diaries

  1. 7-day weighed food diaries suggest patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may spontaneously modify their diet to avoid nosebleed precipitants.

    PubMed

    Finnamore, Helen; Silva, B Maneesha; Hickson, B Mary; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L

    2017-03-28

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) poses substantial burdens due to nosebleeds and iron deficiency resulting from recurrent hemorrhagic iron losses. Recent studies by our group found surprising links between HHT nosebleeds and certain food groups. In this letter, we report 7-day weighed food diary assessments of an unselected group of 25 UK patients with HHT whose nosebleeds ranged from mild to severe (median epistaxis severity score 4.66, range 0.89- 9.11). The diaries provide evidence that food items most commonly reported to provoke nosebleeds were ingested by fewer HHT patients, compared to food items less commonly reported to provoke nosebleeds (chi-squared p <0.001).

  2. Effect of variability in the 7-day baseline pain diary on the assay sensitivity of neuropathic pain randomized clinical trials: an ACTTION study.

    PubMed

    Farrar, John T; Troxel, Andrea B; Haynes, Kevin; Gilron, Ian; Kerns, Robert D; Katz, Nathaniel P; Rappaport, Bob A; Rowbotham, Michael C; Tierney, Ann M; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    The degree of variability in the patient baseline 7-day diary of pain ratings has been hypothesized to have a potential effect on the assay sensitivity of randomized clinical trials of pain therapies. To address this issue, we obtained clinical trial data from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership, and harmonized patient level data from 12 clinical trials (4 gabapentin and 8 pregabalin) in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Models were developed using exploratory logistic regression to examine the interaction between available baseline factors and treatment (placebo vs active medication) in predicting patient response to therapy (ie, >30% improvement). Our analysis demonstrated an increased likelihood of response in the placebo-treated group for patients with a higher standard deviation in the baseline 7-day diary without affecting the likelihood of a response in the active medication-treated group, confirming our hypothesis. In addition, there was a small but significant age-by-treatment interaction in the PHN model, and small weight-by-treatment interaction in the DPN model. The patient's sex, baseline pain level, and the study protocol had an effect only on the likelihood of response overall. Our results suggest the possibility that, at least in some disease processes, excluding patients with a highly variable baseline 7-day diary has the potential to improve the assay sensitivity of these analgesic clinical trials, although reductions of external validity must be considered when increasing the homogeneity of the investigated sample.

  3. The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): reliability and validity against doubly labeled water and 7-day activity diaries.

    PubMed

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Neilson, Heather K; Kopciuk, Karen A; Khandwala, Farah; Liu, Andrew; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Bryant, Heather E; Lau, David C W; Robson, Paula J

    2014-08-15

    We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009-2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ρs of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE.

  4. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 08 (PERIODS 1-5 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is divided into two parts: Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collects information on the child's activities at home over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into five time periods over the 48-hr monitoring inter...

  5. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 09 (PERIODS 1-4 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is divided into two parts: Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collects information on the child's activities at home over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into four time periods over the 48-hr monitoring inter...

  6. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 09 (PERIODS 1-4 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collected information on the child’s activities at home over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into four time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The F...

  7. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 08 (PERIODS 1-5 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collected information on the child’s activities at home over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into five time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The F...

  8. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 09 (PERIODS 1-4 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the Child Activity Diary and Food Survey for CTEPP-OH. The Child Activity Diary collected information on the child’s activities at home over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into four time periods over the 48-h monitoring in...

  9. Development of food photographs for use with children aged 18 months to 16 years: Comparison against weighed food diaries – The Young Person’s Food Atlas (UK)

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Adrian; Barton, Karen L.; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N. S.; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional dietary assessment methods, used in the UK, such as weighed food diaries impose a large participant burden, often resulting in difficulty recruiting representative samples and underreporting of energy intakes. One approach to reducing the burden placed on the participant is to use portion size assessment tools to obtain an estimate of the amount of food consumed, removing the need to weigh all foods. An age range specific food atlas was developed for use in assessing children’s dietary intakes. The foods selected and portion sizes depicted were derived from intakes recorded during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of children aged 1.5 to 16 years. Estimates of food portion sizes using the food atlas were compared against 4-day weighed intakes along with in-school / nursery observations, by the research team. Interviews were conducted with parents the day after completion of the diary, and for children aged 4 to 16 years, also with the child. Mean estimates of portion size consumed were within 7% of the weight of food recorded in the weighed food diary. The limits of agreement were wide indicating high variability of estimates at the individual level but the precision increased with increasing age. For children 11 years and over, agreement with weighed food diaries, was as good as that of their parents in terms of total weight of food consumed and of intake of energy and key nutrients. The age appropriate food photographs offer an alternative to weighed intakes for dietary assessment with children. PMID:28199319

  10. Dietary patterns derived with multiple methods from food diaries and breast cancer risk in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pot, Gerda K; Stephen, Alison M; Dahm, Christina C; Key, Timothy J; Cairns, Benjamin J; Burley, Victoria J; Cade, Janet E; Greenwood, Darren C; Keogh, Ruth H; Bhaniani, Amit; McTaggart, Alison; Lentjes, Marleen AH; Mishra, Gita; Brunner, Eric J; Khaw, Kay Tee

    2015-01-01

    Background/ Objectives In spite of several studies relating dietary patterns to breast cancer risk, evidence so far remains inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate associations of dietary patterns derived with three different methods with breast cancer risk. Subjects/ Methods The Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), principal components analyses (PCA) and reduced rank regression (RRR) were used to derive dietary patterns in a case-control study of 610 breast cancer cases and 1891 matched controls within 4 UK cohort studies. Dietary intakes were collected prospectively using 4-to 7-day food diaries and resulting food consumption data were grouped into 42 food groups. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations between pattern scores and breast cancer risk adjusting for relevant covariates. A separate model was fitted for post-menopausal women only. Results The MDS was not associated with breast cancer risk (OR comparing 1st tertile with 3rd 1.20 (95% CI 0.92; 1.56)), nor the first PCA-derived dietary pattern, explaining 2.7% of variation of diet and characterized by cheese, crisps and savoury snacks, legumes, nuts and seeds (OR 1.18 (95% CI 0.91; 1.53)). The first RRR-derived pattern, a ‘high-alcohol’ pattern, was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.00; 1.62), which was most pronounced in post-menopausal women (OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.08; 1.98). Conclusions A ‘high-alcohol’ dietary pattern derived with RRR was associated with an increased breast cancer risk; no evidence of associations of other dietary patterns with breast cancer risk was observed in this study. PMID:25052230

  11. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of fruits, veget...

  12. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form collects information on the child's activities at the day care center over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into three time periods over the 48-monitoring interval. The Food Survey collects information on the frequency and types of frui...

  13. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study.

    PubMed

    Buijzen, Moniek; Schuurman, Joris; Bomhof, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations were examined using multiple hierarchical regression analysis, while controlling for various child (i.e., age, sex, television viewing time) and family variables (i.e., family income and consumption-related communication styles). Results showed that children's exposure to food advertising was significantly related to their consumption of advertised brands (beta=.21) and energy-dense product categories (beta=.19). The relation between advertising exposure and overall food consumption only held in lower-income families (beta=.19). In addition, consumption-related family communication was an important moderator of the relations between advertising and the food consumption variables. Socio-oriented family communication (i.e., striving for harmony and conformity) was particularly successful in reducing these relations. In conclusion, consistent with communication theories predicting spill-over effects of advertising, the impact of television food advertising exceeded the advertised brand and generalized to more generic unhealthy consumption patterns. Theoretical and societal consequences, as well as the important role of the family are discussed.

  14. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  15. Can Malaysian Young Adults Report Dietary Intake Using a Food Diary Mobile Application? A Pilot Study on Acceptability and Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yoke San; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ayob, Ainaa Fatehah; Othman, Nor Effendy; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-01-01

    Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. This pilot study aimed to (i) evaluate users’ acceptability and compliance in reporting dietary intake using a newly developed food diary mobile application (food app); and (ii) identify issues and recommendations for improving dietary assessment using this food app via quantitative and qualitative protocols. Twenty-eight university students each used a food app for seven consecutive days and attended one of five focus group interviews. A 42% decrement in reporting compliance was observed throughout the seven-day recording period. An average of 5.9 recording days were reported and 4.8 occasions of meal data were uploaded each day. Based on questionnaires, high levels of agreement were reported in terms of perceived usefulness (69.3%), perceived ease of use (77.1%), attitude (73.6%), perceived enjoyment (62.6%), and smartphone experience (91.1%), but such agreement was not reported for intention to use (38.1%) and social influence (33.4%). Four major themes emerged from the focus group interviews, namely, (i) features; (ii) potential use; (iii) utility issues of the food app; and (iv) suggestions for improvements. While the food app was well-accepted by most of the young adults, the current prototype would benefit from incorporation of a barcode scanning function, customizable reminders, in-app tutorial, an entertainment component, and enhancement in overall appearance. PMID:28098770

  16. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of ...

  17. Repeated 7-Day Treatment with the 5-HT2C Agonist Lorcaserin or the 5-HT2A Antagonist Pimavanserin Alone or in Combination Fails to Reduce Cocaine vs Food Choice in Male Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Negus, S Stevens

    2017-04-01

    Cocaine use disorder is a global public health problem for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies. Emerging preclinical evidence has implicated both serotonin (5-HT) 2C and 2A receptors as potential mechanisms for mediating serotonergic attenuation of cocaine abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects. Therefore, the present study aim was to determine whether repeated 7-day treatment with the 5-HT2C agonist lorcaserin (0.1-1.0 mg/kg per day, intramuscular; 0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h, intravenous) or the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin (0.32-10 mg/kg per day, intramuscular) attenuated cocaine reinforcement under a concurrent 'choice' schedule of cocaine and food availability in rhesus monkeys. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine vs food choice. Repeated pimavanserin (3.2 mg/kg per day) treatments significantly increased small unit cocaine dose choice. Larger lorcaserin (1.0 mg/kg per day and 0.1 mg/kg/h) and pimavanserin (10 mg/kg per day) doses primarily decreased rates of operant behavior. Coadministration of ineffective lorcaserin (0.1 mg/kg per day) and pimavanserin (0.32 mg/kg per day) doses also failed to significantly alter cocaine choice. These results suggest that neither 5-HT2C receptor activation nor 5-HT2A receptor blockade are sufficient to produce a therapeutic-like decrease in cocaine choice and a complementary increase in food choice. Overall, these results do not support the clinical utility of 5-HT2C agonists and 5-HT2A inverse agonists/antagonists alone or in combination as candidate anti-cocaine use disorder pharmacotherapies.

  18. Daily Food and Activity Diary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Alerts E-Newsletters Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us Home » Health Information for the Public » Educational Campaigns & Programs » Aim for a Healthy Weight » Eat ...

  19. Headache diaries and calendars.

    PubMed

    Torelli, Paola; Jensen, Rigmor

    2010-01-01

    Headache is one of the most common types of pain and, in the absence of biological markers, headache diagnosis depends only on information obtained from clinical interviews and physical and neurological examinations. Headache diaries make it possible to record prospectively the characteristics of every attack and the use of headache calendars is indicated for evaluating the time pattern of headache, identifying aggravating factors, and evaluating the efficacy of preventive treatment. This may reduce the recall bias and increase accuracy in the description. The use of diagnostic headache diaries does have some limitations because the patient's general acceptance is still limited and some subjects are not able to fill in a diary. In this chapter, we consider diaries and calendars specially designed for migraine and, in particular, aim to: (1) determine what instruments are available in clinical practice for diagnosis and follow-up of treatments; and (2) describe the tools that have been developed for research and their main applications in the headache field. In addition, we include information on diaries available online and proposals for future areas of research.

  20. Patient diaries: charting the course.

    PubMed

    Zanni, Guido R

    2007-06-01

    Clinical diaries are a way for patients to assess their own health status without clinician bias or interpretation. Diaries are especially useful in understanding symptoms' temporal dynamics, including triggers that exacerbate symptoms; they also help individuals to evaluate the impact of their treatment. Diary format should be patient-specific, with thoughtful consideration given to rating scales, symptom descriptors, number of daily entries required, and the duration of diary recording. While compliance, recall biases, and diary fatigue affect data quality, a diary's potential for individualizing treatment strategies is tremendous.

  1. Diary of a Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srulowitz, Frances

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity to develop students' skills of observation and recordkeeping by studying the growth of a tree's leaves during the spring. Children monitor the growth of 11 tress over a 2-month period, draw pictures of the tree at different stages of growth, and write diaries of the tree's growth. (MDH)

  2. Web life: Cosmic Diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    What is it? Cosmic Diary brings together a smorgasbord of blogging astronomers from around the world, with more than 50 contributors commenting on new discoveries and long-standing questions in astronomy - as well as offering insights into their ordinary working lives and outside interests. The site is sponsored by the International Astronomical Union and UNESCO, and it is one of 11 "cornerstone projects" of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009).

  3. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  4. Toward Mapping Daily Challenges of Living with ADHD: Maternal and Child Perspectives Using Electronic Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; Henker, Barbara; Jamner, Larry D.; Ishikawa, Sharon S.; Floro, Joshua N.; Swindle, Ralph; Perwien, Amy R.; Johnston, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has an impact on the family as well as the affected child. This study developed and tested an electronic diary for mapping the challenges of everyday family life in a sample of children with ADHD being treated with pharmacotherapy. Across 7 days, mothers and children (27 ADHD; 25 non-ADHD)…

  5. An Electronic Diary Study of Contextual Triggers and ADHD: Get Ready, Get Set, Get Mad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; Henker, Barbara; Ishikawa, Sharon S.; Jamner, Larry D.; Floro, Joshua N.; Johnston, Joseph A.; Swindle, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine context effects or provocation ecologies in the daily lives of children with ADHD. Method: Across 7 days, mothers and children (27 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] taking stimulant medication; 25 children without ADHD; ages 7-12 years) provided electronic diary reports…

  6. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Reynolds CF, 3. d.; Kupfer, D. J.; Buysse, D. J.; Coble, P. A.; Hayes, A. J.; Machen, M. A.; Petrie, S. R.; Ritenour, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, there is a need in both research and clinical practice to document and quantify sleep and waking behaviors in a comprehensive manner. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD) is an instrument with separate components to be completed at bedtime and waketime. Bedtime components relate to the events of the day preceding the sleep, waketime components to the sleep period just completed. Two-week PghSD data is presented from 234 different subjects, comprising 96 healthy young middle-aged controls, 37 older men, 44 older women, 29 young adult controls and 28 sleep disorders patients in order to demonstrate the usefulness, validity and reliability of various measures from the instrument. Comparisons are made with polysomnographic and actigraphic sleep measures, as well as personality and circadian type questionnaires. The instrument was shown to have sensitivity in detecting differences due to weekends, age, gender, personality and circadian type, and validity in agreeing with actigraphic estimates of sleep timing and quality. Over a 12-31 month delay, PghSD measures of both sleep timing and sleep quality showed correlations between 0.56 and 0.81 (n = 39, P < 0.001).

  7. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, Michael Andrew

    2016-02-22

    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  8. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  9. 7000 miles and 7 days from the battlefield.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Margaret M

    2010-01-01

    Critically injured combat casualties are rapidly evacuated from the battlefield, and within hours of their injuries they begin a 7000-mile journey home, often arriving in the United States within 7 days. National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, is a major facility for wounded warrior care in the Military Health System. Throughout the facility, the staff from a variety of disciplines and all military services provides care for military personnel with injuries and illnesses, with the goal of optimizing recovery and quality of life. The foundational evidence for select aspects of this care is discussed. Innovations in training and care delivery include the Air Force Nurse Corps' Critical Care Fellowship, the new inpatient Traumatic Brain Injury Unit, and the National Intrepid Center for Excellence for Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health. The future of the Medical Center includes a new name, expanded staff, and newly constructed space by Department of Defense Base Realignment and Closure activities.

  10. The Child Diary as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamsa, Tiina; Ronka, Anna; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Malinen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce the use of the child diary as a method in daily diary research. By describing the research process and detailing its structure, a child diary, a structured booklet in which children's parents and day-care personnel (N = 54 children) reported their observations, was evaluated. The participants reported the…

  11. N-Nitroso compounds: Assessing agreement between food frequency questionnaires and 7-day food records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate the intake of these compounds in a US population. To ad...

  12. Self-Censorship in Course Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Timothy; Brooks, Peggy

    2004-01-01

    Ample evidence supports the notion that keeping a course-related diary improves students' writing, knowledge of material, and awareness of psychological processes. Scant evidence supports the authenticity and completeness of diary entries. A questionnaire was developed to assess students' perceptions of self-censorship and pedagogical value of…

  13. ClickDiary: Online Tracking of Health Behaviors and Mood

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Yen, Tso-Jung; Fu, Yang-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional studies of health behaviors are typically conducted using one-shot, cross-sectional surveys. Thus, participants’ recall bias may undermine the reliability and validity of the data. To capture mood changes and health behaviors in everyday life, we designed an online survey platform, ClickDiary, which helped collect more complete information for comprehensive data analyses. Objective We aim to understand whether daily mood changes are related to one’s personal characteristics, demographic factors, and daily health behaviors. Methods The ClickDiary program uses a Web-based platform to collect data on participants’ health behaviors and their social-contact networks. The name ClickDiary comes from the platform’s interface, which is designed to allow the users to respond to most of the survey questions simply by clicking on the options provided. Participants were recruited from the general population and came from various backgrounds. To keep the participants motivated and interested, the ClickDiary program included a random drawing for rewards. We used descriptive statistics and the multilevel proportional-odds mixed model for our analysis. Results We selected 130 participants who had completed at least 30 days of ClickDiary entries from May 1 to October 31, 2014 as our sample for the study. According to the results of the multilevel proportional-odds mixed model, a person tended to be in a better mood on a given day if he or she ate more fruits and vegetables, took in more sugary drinks, ate more fried foods, showed no cold symptoms, slept better, exercised longer, and traveled farther away from home. In addition, participants were generally in a better mood during the weekend than on weekdays. Conclusions Sleeping well, eating more fruits and vegetables, and exercising longer each day all appear to put one in a better mood. With the online ClickDiary survey, which reduces the recall biases that are common in traditional one-shot surveys

  14. Food intolerance, diet composition, and eating patterns in functional dyspepsia patients.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Roberta Villas Boas; Lorena, Sônia Letícia Silva; Almeida, Jazon Romilson de Souza; Mesquita, Maria Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate dietary factors, food intolerance, and the body mass index data, as an indicator of nutritional status, in functional dyspepsia patients. Forty-one functional dyspepsia patients and 30 healthy volunteers answered a standardized questionnaire to identify eating habits and food intolerance, and then completed a 7-day alimentary diary. There was no significant difference in daily total caloric intake between patients and controls. Patients associated their symptoms with the ingestion of several foods, but in general maintained their regular intake, with the exception of a small reduction in the proportion of fat in comparison with controls (median 28 vs. 34%; P = 0.001). No patient was underweight. In conclusion, our results suggest that food intolerance has no remarkable influence on food pattern and nutritional status in most functional dyspepsia patients. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of fat in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms.

  15. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study.

    PubMed

    Massey, Anna; Hill, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence linking food restriction and food craving is equivocal. This study investigated whether dieting was associated with a greater frequency of food craving. Dieting to lose weight was distinguished from watching so as not to gain weight. Participants were 129 women (mean age=41 yrs): 52 were currently dieting to lose weight, 40 were watching their weight, and 37 were non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a food diary, and a daily mood assessment over 7-days. Of the 393 craving incidents recorded, dieters experienced significantly more food cravings than non-dieters, with watchers intermediate. Chocolate was the most craved food (37% of cravings) but neither the types of food, the proportion of cravings leading to eating (∼70%), the situations in which cravings occurred, nor the time since the last eating episode differed between groups. Compared with non-dieters, dieters experienced stronger cravings that were more difficult to resist, and for foods they were restricting eating. Watchers showed similarities in experience both to dieters (low hunger) and non-dieters (lower craving intensity). These results support an association between dieting and food craving, the usefulness of distinguishing dieting to lose weight and watching, and suggest a need for further experimental investigation of actual food restriction on food craving experiences.

  16. Diaries and calendars for migraine. A review.

    PubMed

    Nappi, G; Jensen, R; Nappi, R E; Sances, G; Torelli, P; Olesen, J

    2006-08-01

    Headache is one of the most common types of pain and, in the absence of biological markers, headache diagnosis depends only on information obtained from clinical interviews and physical and neurological examinations. Headache diaries make it possible to record prospectively the characteristics of every attack and the use of headache calendars is indicated for evaluating the time pattern of headache, identifying aggravating factors and evaluating the efficacy of preventive treatment. This may reduce the recall bias and increase accuracy in the description. The use of diagnostic headache diaries does have some limitations because the patient's general acceptance is still limited and some subjects are not able to fill in a diary. In this review, we considered diaries and calendars especially designed for migraine and, in particular, we aimed at: (i) determining what instruments are available in clinical practice for diagnosis and follow-up of treatments; and (ii) describing the tools that have been developed for research and their main applications in the headache field. In addition to the literature review, we added two paragraphs concerning the authors' experience of the use of diaries and calendars in headache centres and their proposals for future areas of research.

  17. CUE: the continuous unified electronic diary method.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Davies, Kate; Sakkalou, Elena; Fowler, Nia C; Hilbrink, Elma E; Gattis, Merideth

    2012-12-01

    In the present article, we introduce the continuous unified electronic (CUE) diary method, a longitudinal, event-based, electronic parent report method that allows real-time recording of infant and child behavior in natural contexts. Thirty-nine expectant mothers were trained to identify and record target behaviors into programmed handheld computers. From birth to 18 months, maternal reporters recorded the initial, second, and third occurrences of seven target motor behaviors: palmar grasp, rolls from side to back, reaching when sitting, pincer grip, crawling, walking, and climbing stairs. Compliance was assessed as two valid entries per behavior: 97 % of maternal reporters met compliance criteria. Reliability was assessed by comparing diary entries with researcher assessments for three of the motor behaviors: palmar grasp, pincer grip and walking. A total of 81 % of maternal reporters met reliability criteria. For those three target behaviors, age of emergence was compared across data from the CUE diary method and researcher assessments. The CUE diary method was found to detect behaviors earlier and with greater sensitivity to individual differences. The CUE diary method is shown to be a reliable methodological tool for studying processes of change in human development.

  18. A micro-computer software for the analysis of menstrual diaries: the menstrual diary system.

    PubMed

    Pinol, A; Machin, D

    1988-08-01

    A microcomputer software was developed to analyse menstrual diaries following the reference period method as described in the article "The analysis of vaginal bleeding patterns induced by fertility regulating methods" published in this journal (Contraception, 34:253-260, 1986). The programme allows the analysis of groups of diaries selected according to subjects' characteristics recorded at commencement of the diary. It also offers flexibility in selecting options of analysis within the reference period method. The output can be presented graphically as Box-whisker plots. A tutorial is included in the package.

  19. Diary of a Railroad Construction Engineer, 1868

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article features original text passages from the primary source, "Diary of Judge A. N. Ferguson engaged as Civil Engineer with a U.P.R.R. [Union Pacific Rail Road] Surveying Party April 25, 1868 to May 10, 1869." Creative ideas for discussion are provided about topics such as weather, and the dangers the survey team endured as they completed…

  20. "Dear Diary" Revisited: Reflecting on Collaborative Journaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Catrina A.; Ricker, Britta; Christensen, Julia; Heller, Elizabeth; Kagan, Emily; Osano, Philip M.; Long, Lindsay; Turner, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The genesis of this article was a request from the "Journal of Geography in Higher Education" to provide a reflection piece about our article 'Dear Diary: Early Career Geographers Collectively Reflect on their Qualitative Field Research Experiences' (2011) that won the journal's biennial award for 2009-2011. This request has afforded us…

  1. College Student Self-Care Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerrold S.; Dintiman, George B.

    The purpose of this docoment is to help college students maintain health by keeping a weekly diary of health related behaviors including diet, exercise, and stress levels. In addition each weekly entry presents a self-care tip for health improvement. Discussions of the college student and health, health and lifestyle, instructions on use of the…

  2. Comparing the 7-Day PAR with a Triaxial Accelerometer for Measuring Time in Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Lobach, David; Kraus, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary study aim was to evaluate associations of estimated weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise from self-reports of the telephone-administered 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) with data captured by the RT3 triaxial accelerometer. Methods This investigation was undertaken as part of the FRESH START study, a randomized clinical trial that tested an iteratively-tailored diet and exercise mailed print intervention among newly diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors. A convenience sample of 139 medically-eligible subjects living within a 60-mile radius of the study center provided both 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data at enrollment. Ultimately n=115 substudy subjects were found eligible for the FRESH START study and randomized to one of two study treatment arms. Follow-up assessments at Year 1 (n=103) and Year 2 (n=99) provided both the 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data. Results There was moderate agreement between the 7-Day PAR and the accelerometer with longitudinal serial correlation coefficients of .54 (baseline), .24 (Year 1) and .53 (Year 2), all P-values < .01, though the accelerometer estimates for weekly time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were much higher than those of the 7-Day PAR at all time points. The two methods were poorly correlated in assessing sensitivity to change from baseline to Year 1 (rho=.11, P=.30). Using mixed models repeated measures analysis, both methods exhibited similar non-significant treatment arm X time interaction P-values (7-Day PAR=.22, accelerometer=.23). Conclusions The correlations for three serial time points were in agreement with findings of other studies that compared self-reported time in exercise with physical activity captured by accelerometry. However, these methods capture somewhat different dimensions of physical activity and provide differing estimates of change over time. PMID:19461530

  3. Adolescent girls' most common source of junk food away from home.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Beckman, Robin; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John; Pereira, Mark A; Veblen Mortenson, Sara; Pickrel, Julie; Conway, Terry L

    2012-09-01

    Contextual factors associated with adolescent girls' dietary behaviors could inform future interventions to improve diet. High school girls completed a 7-day diary, recording all trips made. In places other than home or school they recorded the food eaten. Girls made an average of 11.4 trips per week other than to home or school. Snacks high in solid oils, fats and added sugars (SOFAS) were frequently consumed. Girls reported eating an average of 3.5 servings per week of snacks high in SOFAS at someone else's house compared to 3.0 servings per week at retail food outlets. Findings demonstrate that low nutrient foods are ubiquitous and efforts should be made to reduce their availability in multiple settings.

  4. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200b-7 Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  5. Case study of psychophysiological diary: infradian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Slover, G P; Morris, R W; Stroebel, C F; Patel, M K

    1987-01-01

    A 4-year case study was made of a 42-year-old white woman as seen through the psychophysiological diary. There was an awakening diary and a bedtime diary composed of 125 variables. The data are divided into two series: series I containing a manic episode, and series II as a control. Spectral analysis shows infradian rhythms in hypoglycemia and fear (11 days) and time to fall asleep (5 days). Depressed feelings showed a circatrigintan (28-day) rhythm, which was not correlated with menses. Mania had an annual rhythm (spring) but no circatrigintan or less rhythm. The following correlations have a P value less than or equal to 0.01: mania was directly correlated with number of sleeping pills, time to really wake up, need for rest, moodiness, and helplessness, and indirectly with expectations, pressure at work, sense of time, and emotional state. Interestingly, awakening pulse is directly correlated with awakening temperature, number of sleeping pills, bedtime pulse, tiredness at bedtime, hypoglycemia, and fear. Bedtime pulse is directly correlated with awakening pulse and awakening temperature. Both pulse and temperature at bedtime are directly correlated with negative variables such as tiredness, moodiness, helplessness, and depression, and inversely correlated with positive variables such as happiness, loving, performance at work, and thinking efficiency. This study demonstrates a significant correlation between physiological variables.

  6. Measuring asthma control. Clinic questionnaire or daily diary?

    PubMed

    Juniper, E F; O'Byrne, P M; Ferrie, P J; King, D R; Roberts, J N

    2000-10-01

    Daily symptom, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and medication diaries are often used in clinical trials of treatments for asthma on the assumption that they provide a better estimate of clinical status than does a questionnaire completed in the clinic. We conducted a study with the aim of comparing the measurement properties of the clinic-completed Asthma Control Questionnaire with those of the Asthma Control Diary. The diary is composed of questions and response options almost identical to those of the questionnaire, but uses PEFR instead of FEV(1) as the measure of airway caliber. In an observational study, 50 adults with symptomatic asthma attended a McMaster University asthma clinic at 0, 1, 5, and 9 wk to complete the Asthma Control Questionnaire and other measures of asthma status. For 1 wk before each follow-up visit, patients completed the Asthma Control Diary every morning and evening. Concordance between the questionnaire and diary was high (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.87). Both reliability (ICC: questionnaire = 0.90; diary = 0.86) and responsiveness (responsiveness index: questionnaire = 1.06; diary = 0.90; p = 0.005) were better with the questionnaire than with the diary. Correlations between the two instruments and other measures of clinical asthma status were similar and close to a priori predictions. Both the Asthma Control Questionnaire and the Asthma Control Diary are valid instruments for measuring asthma control, but the questionnaire has slightly better discriminative and evaluative measurement properties than does the diary.

  7. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  8. Analyzing Drought From Paleo-Reconstructions Of 7-Day Low Flow In The Hudson River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, M. R.; Cook, E.; Gelman, A.; Lall, U.

    2002-12-01

    The annual 7-day low flow in a stream is a measure of the dry season conditions in a stream. Consequently, it is a useful indicator for multi-year droughts. Here, we first present the application of a Generalized Linear Model in a Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling Framework for reconstructing the annual 7-day low flow series at 5 locations in the Hudson River Basin using 11 regional tree ring chronologies. This technique directly provides estimates of the posterior probability distribution of each reconstructed streamflow value, considering model parameter uncertainty. Given these reconstructions, we examine the frequency and recurrence attributes of extreme droughts in the region and their potential connections to known low frequency climate modes.

  9. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) 7-day survival and growth test method.

    PubMed

    Lazorchak, James M; Smith, Mark E

    2007-10-01

    A short-term method was developed in this study for conducting subchronic survival and growth renewal toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Previously published early life-stage methods for various salmonid species involve test durations of 30 to 90 days. This trout method, however, follows a previously published 7-day fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) growth method. The tests performed in this study measured subchronic growth and survival effects using standard reference toxicants (ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, phenol, and zinc sulfate), receiving water, and effluent samples. The test results were compared with performance criteria and results for 7-day survival and growth tests with P. promelas to determine the level of comparability between the two species. The results from tests with both salmonid species indicated that this 7-day survival and growth test method using O. mykiss and S. fontinalis provides reproducible results with various reference toxicant materials and can be used successfully to detect potential toxicity in environmental samples.

  10. Eccentric and concentric muscle performance following 7 days of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.; Roper, Mary L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Mcbrine, John J.; Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle strength occur in response to chronic disuse or insufficient functional loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle performance of the lower extremity and torso prior to and immediately after 7 days of simulated weightlessness (horizontal bed rest). A Biodex was used to determine concentric and eccentric peak torque and angle at peak torque for the back, abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring, soleus, and tibialis anterior. A reference angle of 0 degrees was set at full extension. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

  11. Adherence to immunosuppression: a prospective diary study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, E J; Prohaska, T R; Gallant, M P; Siminoff, L A

    2007-12-01

    Immunosuppression adherence among kidney transplant recipients is essential for graft survival. However, nonadherence is common, jeopardizing graft survival. Besides skipping dosages, little is known about other forms of medication nonadherence and their underlying reasons. This study sought to examine patients' extent of medication adherence over time and reasons for nonadherence. Thirty-nine new kidney transplant recipients were asked to complete a month-long medication-taking diary that included reporting medication nonadherence such as skipped medications, medications taken early or late, taking dosages greater or less than prescribed, and the reason for each occurrence of nonadherence. Of the 20 (51%) patients who completed the diary, 11 (55%) reported at least 1 form of nonadherence. Eleven patients reported taking their immunosuppression at least 1 hour later than the prescribed time, 1 patient reported skipping medication, but no patients reported changing the dosage on their own. Immunosuppression was taken on average 1.5 hours after the prescribed time. Of those patients who took their medications late, there were on average 3.1 occasions of taking it late. The most common reasons for this behavior included health care-related issues, followed by oversleeping, being away from home, work-related barriers, and forgetting. The majority of kidney transplant recipients took medications later than prescribed during 1 month. Future research should determine the clinical impact on graft function of late administration of immunosuppression. Interventions should be designed to better assist kidney recipients with taking medications on time, especially when they are away from home.

  12. Adaptation and readaptation to different shift work schedules measured with sleep diary and actigraphy.

    PubMed

    Saksvik, Ingvild Berg; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Harvey, Allison G; Waage, Siri; Harris, Anette; Pallesen, Ståle

    2011-07-01

    In this study we examine sleep during adaptation and readaptation to different shift work schedules in the offshore oil industry. The sleep of 19 offshore workers was assessed daily for 1 week before, during the work period, and for 1 week after 3 different work schedules: (1) day (14 consecutive days of work), (2) night (14 consecutive nights of work), and (3) swing shift work (first 7 nights with night work then 7 days of day work). The workers' sleep was assessed for 84 days. Actigraphy and sleep diary estimates of sleep was applied assessing: (1) adaptation to offshore shift work, (2) sleep across the 2 offshore work weeks, and (3) readaptation after the work period. Regarding adaptation, sleep efficiency was higher when working day than night and swing shift the first week of work. Sleep quality was better during swing than regular day/night shifts the first week of work. Total sleep time was longer during day and night shift than swing shift across the 2 work weeks. Sleep efficiency, based on sleep diaries, was higher during day than night and swing shift during the 2 work weeks. There were no significant differences between the shifts in readaptation in terms of sleep. To conclude, adaptation to swing shift was more difficult than adaptation to regular day and night shifts in terms of sleep. Readaptation to day work after 1 week of night work affected sleep negatively. There were no differences between the shift schedules the week after the work period.

  13. Exploring Student Engagement through the Use of Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Derek; Harrison, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Forty-seven psychology undergraduates volunteered to complete diaries outlining their daily academic and non-academic routine, covering semester one of their first year at a post-1992 university. The aim of the research was to investigate whether diaries were an appropriate method for exploring student engagement; also we wanted to measure whether…

  14. Measuring Family Problem Solving: The Family Problem Solving Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieren, Dianne K.

    The development and use of the family problem-solving diary are described. The diary is one of several indicators and measures of family problem-solving behavior. It provides a record of each person's perception of day-to-day family problems (what the problem concerns, what happened, who got involved, what those involved did, how the problem…

  15. The effects of the spontaneous ingestion of particular foods or beverages on the meal pattern and overall nutrient intake of humans.

    PubMed

    De Castro, J M

    1993-06-01

    The influence of the ingestion of particular beverages and foods on the overall nutrient intakes and meal patterns of humans was investigated by paying 323 adults to maintain 7-day diaries of everything they ingested, time of ingestion, and subjective and social conditions. Ingestion of noncaloric beverages, diet sodas, and coffee or tea, were associated with low overall intakes but were not found to influence the amount eaten over the course of the day or in individual meals. Fifteen different caloric containing drink or food types were found, in general, to add to the total calories ingested in meals or over the day without displacing calories ingested in other forms. The results indicate that individual foods or beverages are ingested independent of other constituents and that intake within meals or over the entire day is elastic and readily influenced by nonregulatory factors.

  16. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis. PMID:28133553

  17. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Christopher; Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis.

  18. Klein, Ferenczi and the clinical diary.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Halton, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is to revisit Ferenczi's Clinical Diary (1932) to investigate the influence he had on Melanie Klein's work. It starts from the position that insufficient recognition has been given to Ferenczi's contribution to Klein's body of work and her professional development. Her analysis with Ferenczi lasted 5 years, a relatively long analysis for the period. It explores his influence in three specific areas: the importance of raw and early emotion in the maternal bond, the importance of freedom and authenticity in the analytic relationship, and finally the use of transference and countertransference feelings. Ferenczi's ill-fated experiment with mutual analysis will be discussed as it opened up a route to explore the analytic relationship, with important consequences for the future development of psychoanalysis.

  19. Randomized masked controlled clinical trial to compare 7-day and 14-day course length of doxycycline in the treatment of Mycoplasma felis infection in shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Kompare, B; Litster, A L; Leutenegger, C M; Weng, H-Y

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and microbial efficacy of a 7-day or a 14-day course of doxycycline for the treatment of Mycoplasma felis-infected cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) assessed using clinical scoring criteria. Cats were randomly allocated to either the Doxy-7 group (N=20; 7-day course of oral doxycyline liquid followed by 7-days placebo); or the Doxy-14 group (N=20; 14-day course of oral doxycycline). There were no significant differences in Mycoplasma load between groups at Day 1 or Day 7 (P>0.05), but at Day 14 mean Mycoplasma load was lower in the Doxy-14 group (P=0.01). Mycoplasma load reduced over Days 1-7 in each group (P<0.01), but only the Doxy-14 group had a significantly reduced Mycoplasma load at Day 14 compared to Day 1 (P<0.01). On Day 14, 11 (55%) cats in the Doxy-7 group and 5 (25%) cats in the Doxy-14 group had positive PCR results for M. felis. There was a statistically significant reduction within each group across the Day 1-7 period for ocular discharge, nasal discharge, demeanor, and food intake scores (P<0.01 for each score category). Nasal discharge scores and sneezing scores were statistically lower in the Doxy-14 group than in the Doxy-7 group on individual days during the Day 8-14 period (P<0.05). We conclude that in M. felis-infected cats with clinical signs of URTD, a 14-day course of oral doxycycline produced superior microbial but not clinical results compared to a 7-day course of treatment.

  20. Commercially Available Mobile Phone Headache Diary Apps: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Huguet, Anna; McGrath, Patrick J; Stinson, Jennifer N; Wheaton, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background Headache diaries are often used by headache sufferers to self-monitor headaches. With advances in mobile technology, mobile electronic diary apps are becoming increasingly common. Objective This review aims to identify and evaluate all commercially available mobile headache diary apps for the two most popular mobile phone platforms, iOS and Android. Methods The authors developed a priori a set of 7 criteria that define an ideal headache diary app intended to help headache sufferers better understand and manage their headaches, while providing relevant data to health professionals. The app criteria were intended as minimum requirements for an acceptable headache diary app that could be prescribed by health care professionals. Each app was evaluated and scored against each criterion. Results Of the 38 apps identified, none of the apps met all 7 app criteria. The 3 highest scoring apps, meeting 5 of the app criteria, were iHeadache (developed by Better QOL), ecoHeadache (developed by ecoTouchMedia), and Headache Diary Pro (developed by Froggyware). Only 18% of the apps were created with scientific or clinical headache expertise and none of the apps reported on psychometric properties. Conclusions Despite the growing market and demand, there is a concerning lack of scientific expertise and evidence base associated with headache diary apps. PMID:25138438

  1. A nutritional comparison of foods and beverages marketed to children in two advertising policy environments.

    PubMed

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Dubois, Lise; Wanless, Alissa

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with children's exposure to food/beverage marketing. Policy options in this area are being sought in order to reduce childhood obesity rates on a population-level. We examined the nutritional quality of foods advertised to children during their preferred television viewing in Ontario (Canada), where advertising is self-regulated by industry, and in Quebec (Canada), where a child-directed advertising ban exists. A total of 428 children aged 10-12 years completed television viewing diaries for 7 days. Thirty-two television stations were recorded simultaneously between 6 AM and midnight. A content analysis of 90 h of English Ontario, French Quebec, and English Quebec children's preferred viewing was then undertaken. A total of 429 food and beverage advertisements were analyzed and their nutritional quality was assessed. Food advertisements in the Quebec French sample were statistically significantly higher in total fat, saturated fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrates and sugar per 100 g, and as a percentage of energy than food ads in the two English samples. A statistically significantly lower percentage of the Quebec French food advertisements were classified as either high fat, sugar or sodium and a smaller proportion of food ads were classified as "less healthy" compared to the Ontario and Quebec English samples. These results suggest that the Quebec advertising ban is influencing the macronutrient profile of advertised foods viewed by French Quebec children during their preferred viewing and that their promotions are marginally healthier than that viewed by the English samples.

  2. Psychometric properties of the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andy; Taylor, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy; Rowlands, Ann

    2007-12-01

    Few self-report measures of physical activity have been validated in individuals with severe mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 7-day recall measure (7DR: [Blair, S. N. (1984). How to assess exercise habits and physical fitness. In J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weiss, (Eds.), Behavioural health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 424-447). New York: Wiley.]) through comparison with RT3 triaxial accelerometry data. Fourteen individuals took part in the study. Validity was considered by Kendall's tau correlation and (Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical-methods for assessing agreement between 2 methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1(8476), 307-310) limits of agreement and test-retest reliability was measured by ICC. The only significant correlation between measures was total energy expenditure (tau = 0.43). The 7-DR over reported moderate physical activity by 16.9 +/- 52.3 min/day, but under reported vigorous physical activity by -10.4 +/- 24.3 min/day. Test retest ICC was significant for all outcome measures. Overall, the 7-DR was reliable but exhibited questionable validity. The use of self-report questionnaires such as the 7-DR may inaccurately estimate the levels of physical activity in this population, and may not be sensitive to monitoring intervention-related changes in physical activity.

  3. The development of a 7-day community specialist palliative care service.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    The author worked as a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in community palliative care in the Central Lancashire area of England when the CNS service was extended to a 9am-to-5pm 7-day service. A project group was set up to canvas some of the key stakeholders for their views on the extension of the service. The group undertook a literature search, a telephone survey of services in other areas that were providing this level of service, and interviews to ascertain the views of district nurses in the locality of the proposed service extension. The extension of service has long been advocated and was one of the key recommendations in the UK Department of Health's peer-review process. Such an extension was implemented following the research phase and was then evaluated by the project lead and the community services manager. The extension was found to be effective in the ongoing monitoring and support of patients. Anecdotally, the CNS team also felt it had been proactive in preventing unnecessary hospital admissions, although this specific aspect is difficult to quantify. This article looks at how the service was developed, how it has evolved over time, and how it works today. Consideration is also given to benefits and limitations.

  4. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  5. Predictive Factors for Delivery within 7 Days after Successful 48-Hour Treatment of Threatened Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Carolien; Schuit, Ewoud; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.; Duvekot, Hans J. J.; van Eyck, Jim; Kok, Joke H.; Kwee, Anneke; Merién, Ashley E. R.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van Pampus, Mariëlle G.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Porath, Martina M.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Spaanderman, Marc E. A.; Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Willekes, Christine; Lotgering, Fred K.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess which characteristics and results of vaginal examination are predictive for delivery within 7 days, in women with threatened preterm labor after initial treatment. Study Design A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial on maintenance nifedipine includes women who remained undelivered after threatened preterm labor for 48 hours. We developed one model for women with premature prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and one without PPROM. The predictors were identified by backward selection. We assessed calibration and discrimination and used bootstrapping techniques to correct for potential overfitting. Results For women with PPROM (model 1), nulliparity, history of preterm birth, and vaginal bleeding were included in the multivariable analysis. For women without PPROM (model 2), maternal age, vaginal bleeding, cervical length, and fetal fibronectin (fFN) status were in the multivariable analysis. Discriminative capability was moderate to good (c-statistic 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60–0.77 for model 1 and 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84–0.93 for model 2). Conclusion PPROM and vaginal bleeding in the current pregnancy are relevant predictive factors in all women, as are maternal age, cervical length, and fFN in women without PPROM and nulliparity, history of preterm birth in women with PPROM. PMID:26495173

  6. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL.

  7. A NEW METHOD OF LONGITUDINAL DIARY ASSEMBLY FOR EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many stochastic human exposure models require the construction of longitudinal time-activity diaries to evaluate the time sequence of concentrations encountered, and hence, the pollutant exposure for the simulated individuals. However, most of the available data on human activiti...

  8. Be Here Now: Young Women's War Diaries and the Practice of Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Ralph L.

    2012-01-01

    Here, the author looks at four diaries, more specifically three conventional diaries and a blog: "The Diary of a Young Girl," by Anne Frank; "Zlata's Diary," by Zlata Filipovic; and "Last Night I Dreamed of Peace" by Dang Thuy Tram. "Baghdad Burning" is the transcript of a web log, a blog, by a young Iraqi woman who went by the pseudonym…

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  10. Dietary Digital Diaries: Documenting Adolescents' Obesogenic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Baker, Christina M.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesogenic environments promote excessive caloric and fat intake. A total of 23 low-income, African American adolescents digitally photographed their lunchtime food environment at a school buffet during summer camp. Depicted food was coded for nutritional content on the platescape (own plate or others' plates) and the tablescape (open buffet).…

  11. The body in adolescent diaries. The case of Karen Horney.

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Kirsch, Hiltrud Susanna

    2002-01-01

    The role of the body and its functions in the psychic life of the individual has occupied a central place in psychoanalytic thinking and writing. Developmentally, the body and the ego as a psychic organization have an integral, mutual relationship which becomes particularly important during adolescence, when the body matures physically while at the same time cognition, self-reflection, and social relations develop. This contribution presents results of the content analyses, focusing on the body, of 40 diaries written by twenty women during their adolescent years, compared with Karen Horney's adolescent diaries. In contrary to these diaries of the other young women, Karen Horney's adolescent diaries lack a focus on the body. Instead, idealized relationships with teachers are frequently mentioned. Only in the last diary, written at the transition to young adulthood, is the body, with a focus on sexual relations, more prominent. This discrepancy between Horney and female age-mates in normative samples is noteworthy. It is discussed here with emphasis on theoretical approaches about the body in adolescence in psychoanalysis, the importance of body and sexuality in Karen Horney's later life, Horney's contributions to female psychoanalysis, and her relationship with her father.

  12. Suppurative meningitis in a 7-day-old Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) caused by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chiou, Shiow-Her; Chan, Jacky Peng-Wen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the clinical and pathological features of an orphan 7-day-old, male Formosan sambar fawn that was hospitalized for treatment of weakness. The fawn had been deprived of colostrum and developed suppurative meningitis that was attributed to Escherichia coli. PMID:20514257

  13. Art Supply Inventors. Children's Art Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2001-01-01

    Discusses types of art materials that children enjoy using in their artworks. Explores the art materials such as tasty art supplies, such as candy; peeled supplies, such as pencil shavings; sticky art supplies, such as Band-Aids; and fast-food supplies, such as forks and spoons. (CMK)

  14. Course Design and Teacher Development in Vietnam: A Diary Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a diary project that arose from a situation that was both an opportunity and a challenge. While teaching in Vietnam in the spring of 2004, the author received an invitation from the national university in Hanoi. The letter asked him to teach there and specifically to develop a postgraduate course called…

  15. Thai EFL Online Diaries: Literacy Practice and Self-Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meechai, Jiraporn

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation aims to expand the definition of literacy beyond its usual text and school-based practice. It studies the online diary as a sociocultural and literacy practice that allows people from various languages and cultures to share their personal experiences and values. The participants are five Thai English as foreign language (EFL)…

  16. What's in a Diary? Di-EL First Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nott, Pauline; Brown, P. Margaret; Cowan, Rogert; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Children with hearing loss and their families are now presenting for early intervention support and guidance at increasingly younger ages. At present there is a paucity of research that informs teachers about early language development in the child with hearing loss. Di-EL First Words (Di-EL) is a diary technique through which parents record their…

  17. A Time Use Diary Study of Adult Everyday Writing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.; White, Sheida; Cohen, Steffaney B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study documents everyday adult writing by type of text and medium (computer or paper) in an "in vivo" diary study. The authors compare writing patterns by gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, age and working status. The study results reveal that (a) writing time varied with demographic variables for networkers, but…

  18. Intrusive Music: The Perception of Everyday Music Explored by Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes research investigating the perception of intrusive music, that is, music heard when choice, volume, and occurrence are not under the control of the participant. Participants were directed to record diary accounts of episodes in which music was played in instances when they were not in control of the decision to play the music…

  19. Disciplinary Technologies and Pupil Redisposition: School Equipment and Homework Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaborowski, Katrin U.; Breidenstein, Georg

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores disciplinary technologies and pupil redisposition through school and teacher focus on school equipment and homework diaries. During our field research in two contrasting secondary schools, we experienced the importance of missing school equipment to teacher and school control. We also concluded that forgotten or missing school…

  20. Diary of a First-Year Teacher of the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Carol

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts are presented from a teacher's diary of her first year of teaching gifted primary grade students. Principles learned over the first year include: (1) lesson planning must be flexible; (2) gifted students prefer subject matter content to brain exercises; and (3) work in the affective domain is as essential as study in the cognitive realm.…

  1. Prediction of glycated hemoglobin levels at 3 months after metabolic surgery based on the 7-day plasma metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Nam; Lee, Yeon Ji; Kang, Ju-Hee; Choi, Ji-Ho; An, Yong Jin; Kang, Sunmi; Lee, Dae Hyun; Suh, Young Ju; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Sunghyouk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients), and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary.

  2. "Red Shoe Diaries": Sexual Fantasy and the Construction of the (Hetero)sexual Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nina K.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes Zalman King's 1990 film "Red Shoe Diaries." Argues that the conflicting interests of sexual desire in "Red Shoe Diaries" are indicative of the placement of female heterosexual desire within contemporary culture. Concludes that "Red Shoe Diaries" offers a narrative about the importance and construction of…

  3. Analyzing clinical trial outcomes based on incomplete daily diary reports.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Neal; Harel, Ofer; Little, Roderick J A

    2016-07-30

    A case study is presented assessing the impact of missing data on the analysis of daily diary data from a study evaluating the effect of a drug for the treatment of insomnia. The primary analysis averaged daily diary values for each patient into a weekly variable. Following the commonly used approach, missing daily values within a week were ignored provided there was a minimum number of diary reports (i.e., at least 4). A longitudinal model was then fit with treatment, time, and patient-specific effects. A treatment effect at a pre-specified landmark time was obtained from the model. Weekly values following dropout were regarded as missing, but intermittent daily missing values were obscured. Graphical summaries and tables are presented to characterize the complex missing data patterns. We use multiple imputation for daily diary data to create completed data sets so that exactly 7 daily diary values contribute to each weekly patient average. Standard analysis methods are then applied for landmark analysis of the completed data sets, and the resulting estimates are combined using the standard multiple imputation approach. The observed data are subject to digit heaping and patterned responses (e.g., identical values for several consecutive days), which makes accurate modeling of the response data difficult. Sensitivity analyses under different modeling assumptions for the data were performed, along with pattern mixture models assessing the sensitivity to the missing at random assumption. The emphasis is on graphical displays and computational methods that can be implemented with general-purpose software. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. In-Clinic Use of Electronic Pain Diaries: Barriers of Implementation Among Pain Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Lisa D.; Link, Carol L.; Smith, Lauren D.; Carolan, Sarah J.; Jamison, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine barriers to the use of electronic diaries within the clinic setting and to determine outcome differences between patients who used electronic diaries to monitor their progress with summary data feedback and patients who monitored their progress with paper diaries without summary data feedback. Methods One hundred thirty-four (n=134) chronic pain patients were asked to monitor their pain, mood, activity interference, medication use, and pain location on either a paper or electronic diary immediately before each monthly clinic visit for 10 months. Patients and their treating physicians in the electronic diary group (n=67) were able to observe changes in their ratings while patients using the paper diaries (n=67) had no feedback about their data entry. Results Most participants believed that completing pain diaries was beneficial, yet only 23% of patients in the experimental condition felt that the data from the electronic diaries improved their care and less than 15% believed that their doctor made a change in their treatment based on the summary diary information. Conclusion In general, treating physicians were positive about the use of electronic diaries, although they admitted that they did not regularly incorporate the summary data in their treatment decision-making either because they forgot or they were too busy. Future studies in understanding barriers to physicians’ and patients’ use of diary data to impact treatment outcome are needed in order to improve care for persons with chronic pain. PMID:20580526

  5. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi; Murayama, Chieko; Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  6. DARPA 7-Day Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-17

    live fire challenge. ....................................... 54 Figure 62: Schedule for Live Fire Test with B. pseudomallei strain 1028...currently being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of AIDS, hepatitis C and cancer 3 . However, antigen delivery problems have...from Ac-DEX are pH- sensitive and degrade quicker in lysosomal pH (~ 5) compared to physiological pH (7.4). Beyond its performance in vaccine

  7. Modeling Seizure Self-Prediction: An E-Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Haut, Sheryl R.; Hall, Charles B.; Borkowski, Thomas; Tennen, Howard; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A subset of patients with epilepsy successfully self-predicted seizures in a paper diary study. We conducted an e-diary study to ensure that prediction precedes seizures, and to characterize the prodromal features and time windows that underlie self-prediction. Methods Subjects 18 or older with LRE and ≥3 seizures/month maintained an e-diary, reporting AM/PM data daily, including mood, premonitory symptoms, and all seizures. Self-prediction was rated by, “How likely are you to experience a seizure [time frame]”? Five choices ranged from almost certain (>95% chance) to very unlikely. Relative odds of seizure (OR) within time frames was examined using Poisson models with log normal random effects to adjust for multiple observations. Key Findings Nineteen subjects reported 244 eligible seizures. OR for prediction choices within 6hrs was as high as 9.31 (1.92,45.23) for “almost certain”. Prediction was most robust within 6hrs of diary entry, and remained significant up to 12hrs. For 9 best predictors, average sensitivity was 50%. Older age contributed to successful self-prediction, and self-prediction appeared to be driven by mood and premonitory symptoms. In multivariate modeling of seizure occurrence, self-prediction (2.84; 1.68,4.81), favorable change in mood (0.82; 0.67,0.99) and number of premonitory symptoms (1,11; 1.00,1.24) were significant. Significance Some persons with epilepsy can self-predict seizures. In these individuals, the odds of a seizure following a positive prediction are high. Predictions were robust, not attributable to recall bias, and were related to self awareness of mood and premonitory features. The 6-hour prediction window is suitable for the development of pre-emptive therapy. PMID:24111898

  8. The birth of NASA: The diary of T. Keith Glennan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glennan, Thomas Keith; Hunley, J. D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this book, part diary and recollection, T. Keith Glennan--the first administrator of NASA--relates the story of how he and others both inside and outside of the agency worked within the circumstances created by the Sputnik crisis to plan and organize a viable space program that ultimately put 12 Americans on the Moon. In the process, Glennan also reveals a great deal about Eisenhower as a human.

  9. Measuring the value of older people's production: a diary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The productive capacity of retired people is usually not valued. However, some retirees produce much more than we might expect. This diary-based study identifies the activities of older people, and suggests some value mechanisms. One question raised is whether it is possible to scale up this diary study into a larger representative study. Methods Diaries kept for one week were collected among 23 older people in the north of Sweden. The texts were analysed with a grounded theory approach; an interplay between ideas and empirical data. Results Some productive activities of older people must be valued as the opportunity cost of time or according to the market value, and others must be valued with the replacement cost. In order to make the choice between these methods, it is important to consider the societal entitlement. When there is no societal entitlement, the first or second method must be used; and when it exists, the third must be used. Conclusions An explicit investigation of the content of the entitlement is needed to justify the choice of valuation method for each activity. In a questionnaire addressing older people's production, each question must be adjusted to the type of production. In order to fully understand this production, it is important to consider the degree of free choice to conduct an activity, as well as health-related quality of life. PMID:22230745

  10. Affective instability in patients with chronic pain: a diary approach.

    PubMed

    Rost, Silke; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Koval, Peter; Sütterlin, Stefan; Vögele, Claus; Crombez, Geert

    2016-08-01

    Affective instability, conceptualized as fluctuations in mood over time, has been related to ill-health and psychopathology. In this study, we examined the role of affective instability on daily pain outcomes in 70 patients with chronic pain (Mage = 49.7 years; 46 females) using an end-of-day diary. During a baseline phase, patients completed self-reported questionnaires of pain severity, pain duration, disability, depression, and anxiety. During a subsequent diary phase, patients filled out an electronic end-of-day diary over 14 consecutive days assessing daily levels of pain severity, disability, cognitive complaints, negative affect (NA) and positive affect. Affective instability was operationalized as the mean square of successive differences in daily mood (separately for NA and positive affect), which takes into account the size of affective changes over consecutive days. Results indicated that NA instability was positively associated with daily disability, beyond the effects of daily pain severity. Furthermore, NA instability moderated the relationship between daily pain severity and daily disability and the relationship between daily pain severity and daily cognitive complaints. Positive affect instability, however, showed to be unrelated to all outcomes. Current findings extend previous results and reveal the putative role of affective instability on pain-related outcomes and may yield important clinical implications. Indeed, they suggest that targeting NA instability by improving emotion regulation skills may be a strategy to diminish disability and cognitive complaints in patients with chronic pain.

  11. Characterization of a 7 day 17 beta-estradiol transdermal delivery system: pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R A; Zegarac, E A; Eldon, M A; Sedman, A J; Forgue, S T

    1996-08-01

    To assess the delivery characteristics of a new 7 day 17 beta-estradiol transdermal delivery system (TDS), estradiol and estrone pharmacokinetics were evaluated following a single 7 d application of one TDS or two TDSs in 24 healthy, postmenopausal women in a nonblind, randomized, two-period crossover study. Serial blood samples and total urine output were collected before (baseline measurement of endogenous hormone) and during TDS application, and for 24 h (urine) or 72 h (blood) following TDS removal. Serum was assayed for estradiol and estrone by a validated radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. The combined amounts of estradiol and its conjugates, and estrone and its conjugates in urine were determined by validated RIA methods. Overall, one or two estradiol TDSs were well tolerated by healthy, postmenopausal female volunteers. Estradiol absorption from the TDS was characterized by a zero-order process and was dose proportional, resulting in average steady-state serum estradiol concentrations of 16 and 33 pg mL-1 above baseline during the 7 d application of one and two TDSs, respectively. Parallel but smaller increases in serum estrone concentrations were observed, resulting in an increase in the serum estradiol/estrone concentration ratio from approximately 0.2 at baseline to median values of 0.64 and 0.88 during application of one and two TDSs, respectively. The 7 day 17 beta-estradiol TDS delivered a nominal estradiol dose of 0.02 mg/24 h during the intended wear period.

  12. A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day course of doripenem to a 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Gram-negative bacteria. Methods This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing a fixed 7-day course of doripenem one gram as a four-hour infusion every eight hours with a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin one gram as a one-hour infusion every eight hours (April 2008 through June 2011). Results The study was stopped prematurely at the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee that was blinded to treatment arm assignment and performed a scheduled review of data which showed signals that were close to the pre-specified stopping limits. The final analyses included 274 randomized patients. The clinical cure rate at the end of therapy (EOT) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population was numerically lower for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (45.6% versus 56.8%; 95% CI, -26.3% to 3.8%). Similarly, the clinical cure rate at EOT was numerically lower for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP, the most common Gram-negative pathogen, in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (41.2% versus 60.0%; 95% CI, -57.2 to 19.5). All cause 28-day mortality in the MITT group was numerically greater for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (21.5% versus 14.8%; 95% CI, -5.0 to 18.5) and for patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (35.3% versus 0.0%; 95% CI, 12.6 to 58.0). Conclusions Among patients with microbiologically confirmed late-onset VAP, a fixed 7-day course of doripenem was found to have non-significant higher rates of clinical failure and mortality compared to a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin. Consideration should be given to treating patients with VAP for more than seven days to optimize clinical outcome. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00589693

  13. Adherence to 7-Day Primaquine Treatment for the Radical Cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-01-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  14. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  15. Effect of burden and origin sites of premature ventricular contractions on left ventricular function by 7-day Holter monitor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Mingfang; Chen, Minglong; Yang, Bing; Wang, Daowu; Kong, Xiangqing; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Gu, Kai; Cao, Kejiang; Liu, Hailei; Jiang, Qi; Shi, Jiaojiao; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have shown that premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) could enlarge the heart, but its risk factors are incompletely understood as a single 24-hour recording cannot reflect the true PVC burden due to day-to-day variability. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of burden and origin sites on left ventricular (LV) function in patients with PVCs by 7-day Holter electrocardiography (ECG). From May 2012 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients with PVCs were recruited from the authors' affiliated hospital. All patients received 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead routing ECG and 7-days Holter ECG. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. A total of 102 participants with PVCs were included in the final analysis. Origin of PVCs from the tricuspid annulus had the highest burden and NT-proBNP level. LV papillary muscle had a higher LV ejection fraction (EF) level and a lower LV end-systolic dimension (ESD) than other PVC foci (P<0.05). The high burden group had a higher LV end-diastolic dimension (EDD) and LVESD but lower LVEF than the other two groups (P<0.05). Female, older age, physical work, and history of PVCs had a significantly positive correlation with symptoms. Male, older age, physical work, and high burden were positive predictors of enlarged LVEDD, LVESD and higher serum NT-proBNP level, but lower LVEF. Seven-day dynamic ECG Holter monitor showed the true PVC burden on patients with PVCs. PVCs with a lower burden or origin from the LV papillary muscle and the fascicle were relatively benign, while PVCs with a higher burden or origin from the tricuspid annulus may lead to cardiac dysfunction. PMID:26668581

  16. Participant diaries as a source of data in research with older adults.

    PubMed

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Imperio, Kristal

    2005-09-01

    Solicited participant diaries are an excellent source of data that has not been given sufficient attention as a data collection strategy for qualitative research. In a recent grounded theory study designed to explore strategies used by older adults to manage their chronic health problems, solicited diaries, when combined with an initial and follow-up interview, provided a rich source of data about day-to-day activities of participants. There were three options for maintaining the diary: written, audiotaped, or telephone conversation. The solicited diaries were guided by a set of open-ended questions designed to encourage participants to focus on daily activities and reflect on their values. The authors provide examples of data from participant diaries and suggestions for incorporating solicited participant diaries into data collection strategies for qualitative research.

  17. Validation of the Reflux Symptom Questionnaire Electronic Diary in Partial Responders to Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vakil, Nimish; Björck, Karin; Denison, Hans; Halling, Katarina; Karlsson, Maria; Paty, Jean; Silberg, Debra G; Rydén, Anna

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop and validate the Reflux Symptom Questionnaire electronic Diary (RESQ-eD) for use in clinical trials in patients with a partial response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, using methods that meet US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory standards. METHODS: Patient interviews were performed to elicit new items and evaluate existing items from the Reflux Disease Questionnaire. The instrument's measurement properties were evaluated, based on data from two clinical trials of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with a partial response to PPIs who received lesogaberan or placebo as an add-on to PPI therapy. RESULTS: The content validity phase resulted in 13 RESQ-eD items. Principal component analysis supported a four-domain structure. All domains had a high inter-item correlation (Cronbach's alpha lower 95% confidence limit: 0.87–0.95). Test-retest reliability was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.65–0.85). Convergent and discriminant validity was confirmed by correlation assessments referencing the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. The RESQ-eD demonstrated a good ability to capture change in mean intensity and proportion of symptom-free days. Confirmatory psychometric evaluation verified internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and ability to capture change. CONCLUSIONS: The RESQ-eD demonstrated good content validity and psychometric properties in the clinical trial setting in patients with GERD who have a partial response to PPI therapy. To our knowledge, the RESQ-eD is the first electronic symptom diary for use in partial responders to PPI that has been developed in line with the FDA guidance on patient-reported outcomes. PMID:23238029

  18. The sleep of healthy people--a diary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Rose, L. R.; Hall, J. A.; Kupfer, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    To provide baseline data for various research studies at the University of Pittsburgh over a 10-year period, 266 healthy subjects (144 male, 122 female, aged 20-50 years) meeting certain criteria each completed a 14-night sleep diary. For each night, the diary allowed the subjective measurement of bedtime, wake time, time in bed (TIB), sleep efficiency, number of minutes of wake after sleep onset (WASO), alertness on awakening, and percentage of morning needing an alarm (or a person functioning as one). Weeknight versus weekend night differences in TIB (TIBdiff), weekday altertness, and reliance on alarms were examined as possible indicators of sleep debt. In addition, general descriptive data were tabulated. On average, bedtimes were at 23:48 and wake times at 07:23, yielding a mean TIB of 7 hours 35 minutes. As expected, bedtimes and wake times were later on weekend nights than on weeknights. Bedtimes were 26 minutes later, wake times 53 minutes later, yielding a mean weekend TIB increase of 27 minutes. Overall, subjects perceived their sleep latency to be 10.5 minutes, reported an average of one awakening during the night (with an average of 6.4 minutes of WASO), had a diary sleep efficiency of 96.3%, and awoke with an alterness rating of 69.5%. These variables differed little between weeknight and weekend nights. Subjects used an alarm (or a person functioning as an alarm) on 60.9% nights overall, 68.3% on weeknights, 42.5% on weekends. When TIBdiff was used as an estimate of sleep debt (comparing subjects with TIBdiff > 75 minutes with those with a TIBdiff < 30 minutes), the group with more "catch-up sleep" on weekends had shorter weeknight TIB durations (by about 24 minutes) and relied more on an alarm for weekday waking (by about 22%), indicating the possible utility of these variables as sleep debt indices.

  19. Nokia Lifeblog: a mobile diary that writes itself

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan

    2007-04-01

    Nokia Lifeblog is a combination of application software for PC and Nokia Nseries multimedia computers that automatically keeps a diary of the multimedia items collected with the mobile device, such as images, videos, messages, text and audio notes and enhances it with metadata information. Mobile device (multimedia computer) with Nokia Lifeblog is acting as a life recorder, collecting personal content, while as PC it acts as a data archive with a convenient user interface that provides an easy way to organize stored data, browse and search through it and share it.

  20. Studying learning in the healthcare setting: the potential of quantitative diary methods.

    PubMed

    Ciere, Yvette; Jaarsma, Debbie; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Snippe, Evelien; Fleer, Joke

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative diary methods are longitudinal approaches that involve the repeated measurement of aspects of peoples' experience of daily life. In this article, we outline the main characteristics and applications of quantitative diary methods and discuss how their use may further research in the field of medical education. Quantitative diary methods offer several methodological advantages, such as measuring aspects of learning with great detail, accuracy and authenticity. Moreover, they enable researchers to study how and under which conditions learning in the health care setting occurs and in which way learning can be promoted. Hence, quantitative diary methods may contribute to theory development and the optimization of teaching methods in medical education.

  1. Contribution of the Activities Diary to the pediatric teaching.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Vitor de Almeida; Scucuglia, Ana Cláudia B; T Gonsaga, Ricardo Alessandro; Biscegli, Terezinha Soares

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the fifth-year medical students' self-evaluation based on the reflexive discourse of the Activities Diaries (portfolio) from the Pediatric Internship I and Child Care Rotations. METHODS Cross sectional, qualitative and descriptive study using the collective subject discourse of the diaries used during the internship of the Medical School, in Catanduva, São Paulo, from January to November, 2011. The registered students' testimonials in the portfolio sections called self-assessment and students' impression were assessed according to their central ideas (discipline organization, breastfeeding outpatient clinic, number of admissions in the pediatric hospital ward and satisfaction with the Child Health training ), related to the teaching of Pediatrics and Child Care. The portfolios with incomplete registers were excluded. RESULTS The testimonials of 47 interns (75% of the students) were analyzed, and 21.3% of them expressed satisfaction with the discipline organization and 27.7% praised the inclusion of the breastfeeding outpatient clinics in the course. For 25.5% of the academics, the number of admissions in the pediatric wards was insufficient for an ideal learning; however, 70.2% were satisfied with the Child Health training. CONCLUSIONS This critical analysis allowed a summary of the reflections, suggestions and critics registered by the interns and can be used as a tool for improvement of the professional cycle.

  2. Contribution of the Activities Diary to the pediatric teaching

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Vitor de Almeida; Scucuglia, Ana Cláudia B.; T.Gonsaga, Ricardo Alessandro; Biscegli, Terezinha Soares

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the fifth-year medical students' self-evaluation based on the reflexive discourse of the Activities Diaries (portfolio) from the Pediatric Internship I and Child Care Rotations. METHODS Cross sectional, qualitative and descriptive study using the collective subject discourse of the diaries used during the internship of the Medical School, in Catanduva, São Paulo, from January to November, 2011. The registered students' testimonials in the portfolio sections called self-assessment and students' impression were assessed according to their central ideas (discipline organization, breastfeeding outpatient clinic, number of admissions in the pediatric hospital ward and satisfaction with the Child Health training ), related to the teaching of Pediatrics and Child Care. The portfolios with incomplete registers were excluded. RESULTS The testimonials of 47 interns (75% of the students) were analyzed, and 21.3% of them expressed satisfaction with the discipline organization and 27.7% praised the inclusion of the breastfeeding outpatient clinics in the course. For 25.5% of the academics, the number of admissions in the pediatric wards was insufficient for an ideal learning; however, 70.2% were satisfied with the Child Health training. CONCLUSIONS This critical analysis allowed a summary of the reflections, suggestions and critics registered by the interns and can be used as a tool for improvement of the professional cycle. PMID:24142320

  3. Impact of intracranial blood-flow redistribution on stroke size during ischemia-reperfusion in 7-day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Philippe; Leger, Pierre-Louis; Deroide, Nicolas; Fau, Sébastien; Baud, Olivier; Pocard, Marc; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Renolleau, Sylvain

    2011-05-15

    We evaluated color-coded pulsed Doppler ultrasound imaging for the assessment of intracranial blood flow in two models of cerebral ischemia in 7-day-old (P7) rats. Blood-flow velocities (BFVs) were measured in the internal carotid arteries and basilar trunk upstream from the circle of Willis, and in the posterior cerebral arteries downstream (1) before, (2) during left middle cerebral artery electrocoagulation and 50 min-transient either one (I/R-1) or both (I/R-2) common carotid (CCA) arteries occlusion, and (3) after release of CCA(s) occlusion. At 48 h after ischemia 41-48% (I/R-1 model) and 24% (I/R-2 model) of rats did not present a lesion. Those rats displayed increased mean BFV in both right internal carotid artery and basilar trunk in I/R-1 model, and increased mean BFV in the basilar trunk (BT) in I/R-2 model. In contrast, no significant changes in mean BFV were observed in lesioned rats. Furthermore, mean BFV in the BT was inversely correlated to the size of the lesion (r² = 0.75, p<0.0001) in the I/R-2 model. Thus, we demonstrated the protective role of collateral support in P7 rodents. Ultrasound imaging can evidence the establishment or not of the cerebral collateral recruitment, leading to the presence or absence of a lesion. This novel approach should greatly help preclinical studies to reduce animal variability.

  4. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  5. Toxicity evaluation of waters from a tributary of the River Po using the 7-Day Ceriodaphnia dubia test.

    PubMed

    Viganò, L; Bassi, A; Garino, A

    1996-12-01

    Seven-day toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were used to assess ambient water toxicity in the River Lambro, a tributary of the River Po, and in the corresponding stretch of the main river located downstream from their confluence. About once a month, toxicity tests were conducted on water samples of the River Lambro, using as dilution water the water of the main river collected upstream from the confluence. With a lower frequency, the downstream stretch of the River Po was tested for ambient toxicity at four sites located at 6, 11, 16, and 21 km from the emission of the tributary. The River Lambro demonstrated variable toxicity in different time periods, although the most frequent effects were sublethal, on both reproduction and growth. Ammonia, nickel, and zinc can be indicated as possible toxicants. Acute toxic effects to C. dubia were observed with spring samples only, when the action of some pesticides, likely insecticides, have to be taken into account. Tests conducted on downstream water gave limited results, seemingly because the dilution capacity of the River Po reduced Lambro toxicity to a level close to and often below the detection limit of the 7-day test. Accordingly, toxic effects at downstream sites could only be observed on the growth of C. dubia, which was found to be the most sensitive endpoint. Fairly good agreement was found between predictions based on toxicity tests of the River Lambro and the effects observed for downstream samples.

  6. Growth, reproduction and population growth of Ceriodaphnia cornuta sars and comparison of 7-day fecundity with Ceriodaphnia dubia richard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Dehui

    1989-06-01

    Biology of parthenogenetic females of Ceriodaphnia cornuta Sars was studied under laboratory conditions. The mean length of neonates (first-young instars) of Ceriodaphnia cornuta was found to be 0.27 mm at 25±1°C and that of the first adult instars 0.50 mm. A maximum length of 0.69 mm was attained at the 8th adult instar. The mean longevity was found to be 19.0 days for 3 preadult and 8 adult instars. Sex maturity was reached in 4.26 days. The mean number of young per brood was 6.21. The total production for each adult reached 49.7. The maximum reproduction period occurred during the 4th adult instar. At this age, the animals were 10.25 days old, and had a body length of 0.65 mm. The innate capacity for increase ( r m) was 0.40 per female per day, the net reproduction rate ( R 0) was 33.601 per generation, the mean length of a generation ( T) was 8.786 days, and the finite rate for increase (λ) was 1.492 per female per day. Comparisons using the t-test indicated that the number of eggs produced and number of broods of C. cornuta and C. dubia were not significantly different ( p>0.05) after 7 days.

  7. The effects of modafinil treatment on neuropsychological and attentional bias performance during 7-day inpatient withdrawal from methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Hester, Robert; Lee, Nicole; Pennay, Amy; Nielsen, Suzi; Ferris, Jason

    2010-12-01

    The cognitive benefits of modafinil to patients undergoing 7-day inpatient withdrawal from methamphetamine (MA) dependence were examined as part of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Recent evidence has identified modafinil-related improvements in treatment outcomes for MA-dependent patients; however, the benefits to cognition function, which is critical to treatment success but known to be impaired, has yet to be examined. The first 20 participants recruited to the study were administered either 200 mg of modafinil (once daily) or placebo, and a neuropsychological test battery (including an MA version of the emotional Stroop task) at admission (n = 17) and discharge (n = 14). Follow-up interviews were conducted at 1-month postdischarge (n = 13). After participant withdrawals (3 in each group), treatment was associated with a significant improvement in immediate verbal memory recall and nonsignificant trend toward improvement on executive function and delayed memory tasks. No benefit was seen for measures of verbal learning, visual memory, processing speed, or verbal fluency. All participants showed a significant attentional bias for MA-related stimuli on the emotional Stroop task. The magnitude of bias predicted both retention in treatment and relapse potential at follow-up but was not significantly ameliorated by modafinil treatment. While nonsignificant, the effect sizes of modafinil-related improvements in executive function and memory were consistent with those found in more robustly powered studies of cognitive benefits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, supporting the need for further research.

  8. Quasi-prospective, real-life monitoring of food craving post-bariatric surgery: comparison with overweight and normal weight women.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, H; Tetley, D; Hill, A J

    2014-06-01

    Food cravings are common post-bariatric surgery, suggested as predictors of relapse and weight regain, but relatively unstudied, especially in the longer term. The present study investigated the frequency and nature of food craving experiences after gastric surgery in comparison with non-surgical control participants. Participants were 21 women, 4-38 months post-surgery (mean age = 44 years, 9 following gastric banding, 12 after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), and two comparison samples of 39 overweight dieters and 33 normal weight non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a daily mood assessment and a food diary over a 7-day period. Over the 299 craving episodes, savoury foods were the most commonly craved (40% of craving events), followed by chocolate (31%). Post-bariatric patients reported more and stronger cravings than normal weight non-dieters but at a similar frequency and strength to overweight dieters. Neither hunger nor negative mood distinguished the food cravings of post-bariatric patients from those of comparison participants, nor did the proportion that led to eating (58%). Food cravings should be anticipated post-bariatric surgery but no more so at 12 months post-surgery than by other overweight or obese individuals. Food cravings are not the product of extreme hunger nor do they have the connection with negative mood seen in disordered eating. In addition, the ability to fulfil cravings by eating the craved food is reduced by the surgery itself, although the duration of surgical restraint is uncertain.

  9. Approach to stochastic modelling of consumer exposure for any substance from canned foods using simulant migration data.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Hart, A; Holmes, M J; Oldring, P K T

    2006-05-01

    foodstuffs represented by simulants A and B because of their importance in the diet. These estimates are based on 4- or 7-day food diaries and chronic exposure over the long-term would be expected to be lower.

  10. Diaries as a Reflective Tool in Pre-Service Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kömür, Sevki; Çepik, Hazal

    2015-01-01

    This study presents and analyzes the positive and negative reflections of ten pre-service English teachers who kept diaries on their own learning and teaching processes and daily lives. The participants were students in an English Language Teacher Education Program who took an on-campus methodology course and voluntarily agreed to keep diaries.…

  11. Pandemic influenza outbreak on a troop ship--diary of a soldier in 1918.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jennifer A

    2012-11-01

    A newly identified diary from a soldier in 1918 describes aspects of a troop ship outbreak of pandemic influenza. This diary is the only known document that describes this outbreak and provides information not officially documented concerning possible risk factors such as overcrowding and the suboptimal outbreak response by military leaders. It also presents an independent personal perspective of this overwhelming experience.

  12. Listening Diary in the Digital Age: Students' Material Selection, Listening Problems, and Perceived Usefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cheryl Wei-yu

    2016-01-01

    The current study reports on a group of Taiwanese college students' first-person diary accounts of their private, transactional listening activities outside the classroom. Issues related to students' material selection, listening problems, and perceived usefulness of keeping a listening diary were explored. It was found that most students chose…

  13. The Effects of Polya's Heuristic and Diary Writing on Children's Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensberry, Karina K. R.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that aimed at increasing students' problem-solving skills. Polya's (1985) heuristic for problem solving was used and students were required to articulate their thought processes through the use of a structured diary. The diary prompted students to answer questions designed to engage them in the phases of…

  14. The Reasons for Suicide: An Analysis of the Diary of Arthur Inman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Previous analyses of the diary of Arthur Inman, who committed suicide in 1963, portrayed him as psychiatrically disturbed, warped, corrupt, and weak. In contrast, the present article argues that he was an eccentric individual whose diary writing enabled him to live a full life by giving his life a purpose and by enabling him to ventilate at…

  15. Assessing Physical Activity in Children with Asthma: Convergent Validity between Accelerometer and Electronic Diary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floro, Josh N.; Dunton, Genevieve F.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    Convergent validity of accelerometer and electronic diary physical activity data was assessed in children with asthma. Sixty-two participants, ages 9-18 years, wore an accelerometer and reported their physical activity level in quarter-hour segments every 2 hr using the Ambulatory Diary Assessment (ADA). Moderate validity was found between…

  16. A Teaching Narrative: My Growth as a Foreign Language Educator through Teaching Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to share my perceptions and reflections on the experience of introducing elements of autonomy in a constrained educational setting in Argentina. I recorded these perceptions in teaching diaries written weekly after each class for the academic year 2005 (over 35 weeks). These teaching diaries are part of a larger,…

  17. Measurement Reactivity and Fatigue Effects in Daily Diary Research with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Bridget M.; Robles, Theodore F.; Repetti, Rena L.

    2016-01-01

    Methodological challenges associated with measurement reactivity and fatigue were addressed using diary data collected from mothers (n = 47), fathers (n = 39), and children (n = 47; 8-13 years) across 56 consecutive days. Demonstrating the feasibility of extended diary studies with families, on-time compliance rates were upward of 90% for all…

  18. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  19. Relationship between early-life stress load and sleep in psychiatric outpatients: a sleep diary and actigraphy study.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Valérie; Bader, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether stress experienced early in life is associated with actigraphic and subjective sleep measures in a sample of adult psychiatric outpatients. A total of 48 psychiatric outpatients completed self-report questionnaires assessing current depression, current anxiety symptoms and stress load during childhood (before the age of 13 years), adolescence (between the age of 13 and 18 years) and adulthood (between the age of 19 and current age). Sleep-related activity was measured using 24-h wrist actigraphy over a 7-day period at home, during which participants also kept a sleep diary. High stress load in childhood, but not in adolescence, was associated with shortened actigraphically assessed total sleep time, prolonged sleep onset latency, decreased sleep efficiency and an increased number of body movements in sleep, even after accounting for the effects of later occurring stress and psychopathological symptoms such as depression and anxiety scores. Unexpectedly, no significant associations between early-life stress load and subjective sleep measures were found. Results are consistent with findings from previous studies indicating an association between childhood adversities and higher levels of nocturnal activity. The findings suggest that high stress load during childhood might be a vulnerability factor for sleep continuity problems in adulthood.

  20. Feasibility and Acceptability of Cell Phone Diaries to Measure HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Garfein, Richard S.; Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group. PMID:24643312

  1. Feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to measure HIV risk behavior among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexis M; Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Garfein, Richard S; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2014-12-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group.

  2. Video diaries on social media: Creating online communities for geoscience research and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, V.

    2013-12-01

    Making video clips is an engaging way to learn and teach geoscience. As smartphones become increasingly common, it is relatively straightforward for students to produce ';video diaries' by recording their research and learning experience over the course of a science module. Instead of keeping the video diaries for themselves, students may use the social media such as Facebook for sharing their experience and thoughts. There are some potential benefits to link video diaries and social media in pedagogical contexts. For example, online comments on video clips offer useful feedback and learning materials to the students. Students also have the opportunity to engage in geoscience outreach by producing authentic scientific contents at the same time. A video diary project was conducted to test the pedagogical potential of using video diaries on social media in the context of geoscience outreach, undergraduate research and teaching. This project formed part of a problem-based learning module in field geophysics at an archaeological site in the UK. The project involved i) the students posting video clips about their research and problem-based learning in the field on a daily basis; and ii) the lecturer building an online outreach community with partner institutions. In this contribution, I will discuss the implementation of the project and critically evaluate the pedagogical potential of video diaries on social media. My discussion will focus on the following: 1) Effectiveness of video diaries on social media; 2) Student-centered approach of producing geoscience video diaries as part of their research and problem-based learning; 3) Learning, teaching and assessment based on video clips and related commentaries posted on Facebook; and 4) Challenges in creating and promoting online communities for geoscience outreach through the use of video diaries. I will compare the outcomes from this study with those from other pedagogical projects with video clips on geoscience, and

  3. Planktonic and biofilm communities from 7-day-old chicken cecal microflora cultures: Characterization and resistance to Salmonella colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last few years, both scientific organizations and regulatory agencies have focused on the use of antimicrobial agents in food animals and the related risk of developing antibiotic resistance. Despite increased information relating to the importance of bacterial biofilms and their potential...

  4. Point process modelling of the Afghan War Diary

    PubMed Central

    Zammit-Mangion, Andrew; Dewar, Michael; Kadirkamanathan, Visakan; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Modern conflicts are characterized by an ever increasing use of information and sensing technology, resulting in vast amounts of high resolution data. Modelling and prediction of conflict, however, remain challenging tasks due to the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of the data typically available. Here we propose the use of dynamic spatiotemporal modelling tools for the identification of complex underlying processes in conflict, such as diffusion, relocation, heterogeneous escalation, and volatility. Using ideas from statistics, signal processing, and ecology, we provide a predictive framework able to assimilate data and give confidence estimates on the predictions. We demonstrate our methods on the WikiLeaks Afghan War Diary. Our results show that the approach allows deeper insights into conflict dynamics and allows a strikingly statistically accurate forward prediction of armed opposition group activity in 2010, based solely on data from previous years. PMID:22802667

  5. Point process modelling of the Afghan War Diary.

    PubMed

    Zammit-Mangion, Andrew; Dewar, Michael; Kadirkamanathan, Visakan; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2012-07-31

    Modern conflicts are characterized by an ever increasing use of information and sensing technology, resulting in vast amounts of high resolution data. Modelling and prediction of conflict, however, remain challenging tasks due to the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of the data typically available. Here we propose the use of dynamic spatiotemporal modelling tools for the identification of complex underlying processes in conflict, such as diffusion, relocation, heterogeneous escalation, and volatility. Using ideas from statistics, signal processing, and ecology, we provide a predictive framework able to assimilate data and give confidence estimates on the predictions. We demonstrate our methods on the WikiLeaks Afghan War Diary. Our results show that the approach allows deeper insights into conflict dynamics and allows a strikingly statistically accurate forward prediction of armed opposition group activity in 2010, based solely on data from previous years.

  6. Selfies and the (Creative) Self: A Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Karwowski, Maciej; Brzeski, Arkadiusz

    2017-01-01

    In this diary investigation, over 2 weeks we monitored the intensity of selfie posting among 292 Facebook users (60% females), aged between 18 and 50, to estimate the extent of selfying’s day-to-day variability and its predictors. The obtained effect was large; 64% of the variability in selfying was located within rather than between individuals. Day-to-day changes in creative activity explained a significant proportion of selfying, similarly as previous creative achievement did. At the same time, intelligence was negatively linked to the intensity of selfie posting and moderated the relationship between creative achievements and selfying. We discuss hypothetical links between selfie posting and the situational and individual differences characteristics related to creativity and cognitive abilities. PMID:28228743

  7. A sleep diary and questionnaire study of naturally short sleepers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Welsh, D. K.; Kennedy, K. S.; Rose, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas most people require more than 6 h of sleep to feel well rested, there appears to be a group of people who can function well on between 3 and 6 h of sleep. The aims of the present study were to compare 12 naturally short (3-6 h) sleepers (9 males 3 females, mean age 39.6 years, SD age 10.1 years) recruited by a media publicity campaign with age, gender and chronotype matched medium length (7-8.5 h) sleepers on various measures. Measurement instruments included diaries and questionnaires to assess sleep duration and timing, as well as questionnaire assessments of sleep pathology, morningness-eveningness, extroversion, neuroticism, pathological daytime sleepiness, subclinical hypomania, optimism, depressive symptoms, exercise, and work habits. Few measures showed reliable differences between naturally short sleepers and controls except the obvious ones related to sleep duration. There was, however, some evidence for subclinical hypomanic symptoms in naturally short sleepers.

  8. A daily diary validity test of drinking to cope measures.

    PubMed

    Todd, Michael; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard; Carney, Margaret Anne; Affleck, Glenn

    2003-12-01

    Data from 2 daily diary studies of stress, negative affect, and drinking were used to examine the correspondence between global self-reports of drinking to cope (DTC) and within-person stress/negative affect-drinking associations. In Study 1, 83 community-residing drinkers recorded data in nightly booklets on negative events, perceived stress, negative affect, and drinking for 60 consecutive days. In Study 2, 88 community-residing drinkers recorded data on negative events and negative interpersonal exchanges nightly and negative affect and drinking in near-real time on palmtop computers for 30 consecutive days. Both studies showed only modest correspondence between self-reported DTC and between-person differences in within-day, daily, and weekly associations between stress/negative affect and drinking. The findings indicate that individuals who report higher DTC simply may drink across a wider variety of conditions than those who report relatively lower DTC.

  9. [Experiences with the use of pain diaries in the care of outpatients suffering from chronic pain.].

    PubMed

    Schülin, C; Seemann, H; Zimmermann, M

    1989-09-01

    For the present investigation 31 out-patients suffering from chronic pain received a pain diary, that is a booklet in which they recorded their pain level on visual analogue scales and daily activities several times during a day. We used weekly interviews and the patient's records in the diary to evaluate the patient's compliance and the influence of a pain diary on the pain perception and on the physician-patient-interaction. We found that most of the patients were willing and able to use the pain diary. 30 out of 31 patients kept the diary voluntarily for an average period of 4 weeks. 70% of the patients regarded the pain diary as helpful irrespective of whether or not they considered it at the same time as burden. Only 10% reported difficulties in using the pain diary. The majority of patients (70%) noticed no change by the use of the diary in their general pain perception, about 17% reported to feel an increasing fixation on their pain, while 13% felt more distance from their pain by using a pain diary. The use of a pain diary produces a survey over the pain for a longer period than a usual consultation could present. In particular the relationship between the pain level and other recorded events and activities becomes visible. The apin data become especially clear when displayed graphically in a "pain curve". In this way therapeutic interventions can be checked whether or not they are efficient. Each patient was asked at every meeting to indicate on a separate visual analogue scale the pain level he would consider bearable. This mark was accepted by all patients as their aim for the therapy, a more realistic aim than the expectation of a complete freedom from pain. When observed over a period of at least two weeks we found this mark staying constant with half of the patients. In 23.8% the patients decreased this subjectively bearable pain level more than 1 cm, in 14.3% the level was increased. In 9.5% it varied without any clear tendency. For many patients the

  10. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flows in the Hudson River basin, New York, with release-flow data on Rondout and Ashokan reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow at 67 gaging stations and 173 partial-record stations in the Hudson River basin are given in tabular form. Variation of the 7-day, 10-year low flow from point to point in selected reaches, and the corresponding times of travel, are shown graphically for Wawayanda Creek, Wallkill River, Woodbury-Moodna Creek, and the Fishkill Creek basins. The 7-day, 10-year low flow for the Saw Kill basin, and estimates of the 7-day, 10-year low flow of the Roeliff Jansen Kill at Ancram and of Birch Creek at Pine Hill, are given. Summaries of discharge from Rondout and Ashokan Reservoirs, in Ulster County, are also included. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow for gaging stations with 10 years or more of record were determined by log-Pearson Type III computation; those for partial-record stations were developed by correlation of discharge measurements made at the partial-record stations with discharge data from appropriate long-term gaging stations. The variation in low flows from point to point within the selected subbasins were estimated from available data and regional regression formula. Time of travel at these flows in the four subbasins was estimated from available data and Boning's equations.

  11. [The transdermal 7-day buprenorphine patch--an effective and safe treatment option, if tramadol or tilidate/naloxone is insufficient. Results of a non-interventional study].

    PubMed

    Schutter, U; Ritzdorf, I; Heckes, B

    2010-07-01

    The transdermal 7-day buprenorphine matrix patch provides a constant and user-friendly pain management when chronic musculoskeletal pain requires opioids. This analysis of clinical routine data evaluated the benefit of this treatment for patients previously receiving oral long-term treatment with weak opioids alone. Data of 310 patients previously treated with tramadol or tildate/naloxone and part of a multicentre observational study with 3295 patients were analyzed. In 89.7% of the 310 patients oral treatment with weak opioids was replaced by the 7-day buprenorphine patch due to insufficient analgesia. During treatment with the 7-day buprenorphine patch there was a clinically significant decrease of the mean pain intensity at rest during the day from 5.7 to 2.9, on physical effort during the day from 7.3 to 3.8 and at night from 5.2 to 2.3 (11-point NRS scale, p < or = 0.001). In addition, quality of life aspects such as mobility, self-reliance and quality of sleep improved, which are relevant for individual patient satisfaction with pain management. For patients with previous long-term tramadol or tilidate/naloxone treatment the switch to the 7-day buprenorphine matrix patch proved to be effective and safe for the management of chronic pain. The user-friendly 7-day application interval contributes to improving compliance and a reducing exposure to tablets.

  12. Food Service and Nutritional Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, J.

    1985-01-01

    The difficulty is that as we go into the Space Station world, the cost, effort, hardware, food trash, and food waste that the food service system will generate (which is quite tolerable on a 7 day mission), probably will be intolerable on a 90 day Space Station mission. The challenge in the food service supply is not so much packaging but systems engineering. The big constraints are in the supply pipeline. Those constraints and the possible tradeoffs are discussed.

  13. The Snacking Habits of Adolescents: Is Snack Food Necessary to Meet Dietary Recommendations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Susan; Reeves, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of snack foods in the diets of adolescents in relation to recommendations. Design: A quantitative study whereby the food intakes of 28 adolescents aged 11-14 years were recorded for three consecutive days. Setting: A secondary school in South West London. Methods: Food intake was recorded using food diaries and…

  14. Comparing hand-held computers and paper diaries for haemophilia home therapy: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Walker, I; Sigouin, C; Sek, J; Almonte, T; Carruthers, J; Chan, A; Pai, M; Heddle, N

    2004-11-01

    Treatment of severe haemophilia with factor concentrates is by self-infusion in the home. Adherence to record keeping on paper diaries is poor. A randomized-controlled trial compared adherence with record keeping of paper diaries with hand-held computers. Forty-one individuals with severe haemophilia, were randomized to hand-held computers (n = 22) or paper diaries (n = 19) and followed for 6 months. About 86.2% (679 of 788) of infusions by patients in the computer group were in compliance with the data submission schedule compared with only 48.3% (358 of 741) of infusions by patients using paper diaries (P < 0.0001). The time intervals between infusions and the receipt of data were shorter in the computer group (median 0.25 vs. 25 days respectively, P < 0.0001). Reminder phone calls by the clinic were made less frequently to users of hand-held computers than to users of paper diaries (median one vs. five times, P < 0.0001). Accuracy of data was similar for both methods. Compliance with hand-held computers was superior to paper diaries. The clinic received data from hand-held computers mostly on the same day, and nurses could thereby provide clinical advice more effectively. Although hand-held computers did not result in increased accuracy, errors could be detected and corrected more rapidly. Electronic data can more easily be verified, analysed and summarized than that from paper diaries.

  15. The use of web-based diaries in sexual risk behavior research: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Stalgaitis, Carolyn; Glick, Sara Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies have utilized the diary method, which provides quantitative event-level data about sexual encounters. Diaries are an attractive tool for sexual behavior research, yet little is known about the range of uses, methodological issues, and best practices associated with this technology. Objectives To conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the use of web-based diaries in sexual risk behavior studies. Design Systematic review. Data Sources Five bibliographic databases, supplemented by references from previous reviews. Methods Eligible studies were published in English before August 2013, used the Internet to transmit data from collection device to study staff, and measured behaviors affecting HIV or STI transmission risk. The primary author conducted an initial screen to eliminate irrelevant articles. Both authors conducted full-text reviews to determine final articles. We abstracted data on diary methodology, validity, and reactivity (behavior change caused by diary completion). Results Twenty-three articles representing 15 studies were identified. Most diaries were collected daily for one month via websites, and completion was generally high (>80%). Compensation varied by study and was not associated with completion. Studies comparing diary to retrospective survey data demonstrated evidence of overreporting on retrospective tools, except for the least frequent behaviors. Most studies that assessed reactivity as a result of diary completion demonstrated some change in behavior associated with frequent monitoring. Conclusions Web-based diaries are an effective means of studying sexual risk behavior. More uniform reporting and further research on the extent of reactivity are needed. PMID:24723619

  16. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  17. The Mishin Diaries, a new significant primary source of space history information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payson, Dmitry; Alifanov, Oleg; Moiseev, Ivan; Vick, Charles; Woods, David

    2016-06-01

    Vasily Mishin (1917-2001) was a prominent Russian engineer and scientist: one of the pioneers who made spaceflight a reality. In 2014 diaries that were maintained by Mishin from 1960 to 1974 (the Mishin Diaries) had been transcribed and published and can now serve as an extensive resource for first-hand historical information about that fascinating period of time. The original Diaries are now owned by the Perot Foundation and copies were generously provided by them to the Moscow Aviation Institute for this transcription project. The actual publication was made possible by Mishin's students, co-workers, family members as well as numerous spaceflight historians and enthusiasts.

  18. The Freudian subject and the Maoist mind: the diaries of Hermine Hug-Hellmuth and Lei Feng.

    PubMed

    Larson, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Although written in vastly different cultural contexts and periods, Hermine Hug-Hellmuth's "Diary of a Young Girl" (1919) and Lei Feng's "The Diary of Lei Feng" (1963) both to a large extent were written as concept pieces, with the goal of illustrating specific theories of the self. In the case of Hug-Hellmuth, the underlying theory is the Freudian sexualized unconscious mind, whereas for Lei Feng, it is Maoist revolutionary optimism. Additionally, both diaries have unusually strong inauthentic or 'fake' aspects. Although Hug-Hellmuth never admitted to writing the diary, most critics believed it came from her pen. Lei Feng's diary was revised through his own attempts to present himself as politically progressive, by editors, and through successive political movements that focused on the person behind the diary and made him one of the most widely-recognized figures in China. As such, the diaries are excellent windows into powerful and long-lasting ideological constructs.

  19. Visiting the International Space Station - my mission diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoni, U.

    2001-08-01

    Having been fortunate enough to be the first European Astronaut to visit and live aboard the International Space Station, I would like to share with you my personal diary of this very special trip. Space Shuttle "Endeavour", with an international crew of seven, lifted off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on 19 April for an 11-day mission, which included the delivery of the European-developed "Raffaello" logistics module to the Station and the attachment of the Station's new 17-metre Canadian Robotic Arm. We returned to Earth, with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California, on 1 May. Raffaello had been packed for its outward journey with 10 tons of new Station equipment, including six experiment racks and two storage racks for the US "Destiny" module, as well as supplies for the astronauts and other equipment for future construction and maintenance work. One of my main task during the mission was to oversee the safe unloading of all of the experiments and equipment into the Space Station. I was relieved that the whole exercise went so smoothly and very proud to have been the first astronaut to represent Europe on the International Space Station.

  20. Initial Evaluation of an Electronic Symptom Diary for Adolescents with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Faith; Coll, Beatriz; Kletter, Richard; Zeltzer, Paul; Miaskowski, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background The delivery of optimal care depends on accurate communication between patients and clinicians regarding untoward symptoms. Documentation of patients’ symptoms necessitates reliance on memory, which is often imprecise. We developed an electronic diary (eDiary) for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer to record symptoms. Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe the utility of an eDiary designed for AYAs with cancer, including dependability of the mobile application, the reasons for any missing recorded data, patients’ adherence rates to daily symptom queries, and patients’ perceptions of the usefulness and acceptability of symptom data collection via mobile phones. Methods Our team developed an electronic symptom diary based on interviews conducted with AYAs with cancer and their clinicians. This diary included daily severity ratings of pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and sleep. The occurrence of other selected physical sequelae was assessed daily. Additionally, patients selected descriptors of their mood. A 3-week trial of the eDiary was conducted with 10 AYA cancer patients. Mobile phones with service plans were loaned to patients who were instructed to report their symptoms daily. Patients completed a brief questionnaire and were interviewed to elicit their perceptions of the eDiary and any technical difficulties encountered. Results Overall adherence to daily symptom reports exceeded 90%. Young people experienced few technical difficulties and reported benefit from daily symptom reports. Symptom occurrence rates were high and considerable inter- and intra-patient variability was noted in symptom and mood reports. Conclusions We demonstrated the utility of an eDiary that may contribute insight into patients’ symptom patterns to promote effective symptom management. PMID:23612521

  1. Performance of an Electronic Diary System for Intensive Insulin Management in Global Diabetes Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyu; Mou, Jiani; Hackett, Andy P.; Raymond, Stephen A.; Chang, Annette M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: This report describes the performance of a wireless electronic diary (e-diary) system for data collection and enhanced patient–investigator interactions during intensive insulin management in diabetes clinical trials. Materials and Methods: We implemented a customized electronic communication system featuring an e-diary and a Web portal in three global, randomized, controlled Phase 3 clinical trials testing basal insulin peglispro compared with insulin glargine, both combined with prandial insulin lispro, in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM, respectively). We collected data during 28 weeks of study e-diary use for the report. Results: Patients (n=2,938) in 31 countries used e-diaries to transmit 2,439,087 blood glucose (BG) values, 96% of which were associated by the patient with a protocol time point during the 72-h response window. Of 208,192 hypoglycemia events captured, 96% had a BG value, and 95% had treatments and outcomes entered by patients within the 72-h window. Patients recorded administration of 1,964,477 insulin doses; 93% of basal insulin doses were adherent with the investigator prescription. Investigators adjusted 13 basal and 92 bolus insulin prescriptions per patient-year using the e-diary system. After 26 weeks of treatment and e-diary use in the combined study arms, hemoglobin A1c values decreased by 0.6% or 1.6% and fasting BG decreased by 7.8 or 28 mg/dL in patients with T1DM or T2DM, respectively. Conclusions: The e-diary system enabled comprehensive data collection and facilitated communication between investigators and patients for intensive insulin management in three global clinical trials testing basal insulins. PMID:25826466

  2. Agreement rates for sleep/wake judgments obtained via accelerometer and sleep diary: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2008-11-01

    Agreement rates for waking and sleeping obtained via sleep diary and accelerometer were evaluated, to compare the two methods. Sleep/wake data for consecutive days and nights were surveyed in 119 healthy university students. Accelerometer sleep/wake judgments obeyed the standard algorithm. Agreement rates for waking and sleeping according to accelerometer versus sleep diary, respectively, were calculated. Sleep diary data were set as a baseline. Seventy-six subjects (63.9%), 22 to 32 years of age, presented perfect data for the analysis. The mean sleep times, in minutes, judged by sleep diary and by accelerometer, were 482.3 and 629.6, respectively. The mean percentages and standard deviations of agreement on wake and sleep were 77.5% (SD = 10.2) and 86.1% (SD = 6.2), respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between the agreement rates for wake and sleep (r = -.482, p < .01). The accelerometer showed some measurement failure during waking, presumably because of the decrease in body movement. Sleep diary data during daytime appear to be more valid for detecting a sleep/wake cycle than are accelerometer data. In contrast, nocturnal sleep diary data might be supplemented by the use of an accelerometer as long as participants do not have insomnia.

  3. Reduced neural response to reward following 7 days treatment with the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist rimonabant in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Horder, Jamie; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip J; McCabe, Ciara

    2010-09-01

    Reduced subjective experience of reward (anhedonia) is a key symptom of major depression. The anti-obesity drug and cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB(1)) antagonist, rimonabant, is associated with significant rates of depression and anxiety in clinical use and was recently withdrawn from the market because of these adverse effects. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) model of reward we hypothesized that rimonabant would impair reward processing. Twenty-two healthy participants were randomly allocated to receive rimonabant (20 mg), or placebo, for 7 d in a double-blind, parallel group design. We used fMRI to measure the neural response to rewarding (sight and/or flavour of chocolate) and aversive (sight of mouldy strawberries and/or an unpleasant strawberry taste) stimuli on the final day of drug treatment. Rimonabant reduced the neural response to chocolate stimuli in key reward areas such as the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex. Rimonabant also decreased neural responses to the aversive stimulus condition in the caudate nucleus and ventral striatum, but increased lateral orbitofrontal activations to the aversive sight and taste of strawberry condition. Our findings are the first to show that the anti-obesity drug rimonabant inhibits the neural processing of rewarding food stimuli in humans. This plausibly underlies its ability to promote weight loss, but may also indicate a mechanism for inducing anhedonia which could lead to the increased risk of depressive symptomatology seen in clinical use. fMRI may be a useful method of screening novel agents for unwanted effects on reward and associated clinical adverse reactions.

  4. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM), and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is needed to examine long

  5. A RANDOMIZED TREATMENT TRIAL: SINGLE VERSUS 7 DAY DOSE OF METRONIDAZOLE FOR THE TREATMENT OF TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS AMONG HIV-INFECTED WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Kissinger, Patricia; Mena, Leandro; Levison, Judy; Clark, Rebecca A.; Gatski, Megan; Henderson, Harold; Schmidt, Norine; Rosenthal, Susan; Myers, Leann; Martin, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if the metronidazole (MTZ) 2 gm single dose (recommended) is as effective as the 7 day 500 mg BID dose (alternative) for treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV+ women. Methods Phase IV randomized clinical trial; HIV+ women with culture confirmed TV were randomized to treatment arm: MTZ 2 gm single dose or MTZ 500 mg BID 7 day dose. All women were given 2 gm MTZ doses to deliver to their sex partners. Women were re-cultured for TV at a test-of-cure (TOC) visit occurring 6-12 days after treatment completion. TV-negative women at TOC were again re-cultured at a 3 month visit. Repeat TV infection rates were compared between arms. Results 270 HIV+/TV+ women were enrolled (mean age = 40 years, ± 9.4; 92.2% African-American). Treatment arms were similar with respect to age, race, CD4 count, viral load, ART status, site, and loss-to-follow up. Women in the 7 day arm had: lower repeat TV infection rates at TOC [8.5% (11/130) versus 16.8% (21/125) (R.R. 0.50, 95% CI=0.25, 1.00; P<0.05)], and at 3 months [11.0% (8/73) versus 24.1% (19/79) (R.R. 0.46, 95% CI=0.21, 0.98; P=0.03)] compared to the single dose arm. Conclusions The 7 day MTZ dose was more effective than the single dose for the treatment of TV among HIV+ women. PMID:21423852

  6. Compliance with momentary pain measurement using electronic diaries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Morren, Mattijn; van Dulmen, Sandra; Ouwerkerk, Jessika; Bensing, Jozien

    2009-04-01

    Electronic diaries are increasingly used to assess daily pain in many different forms and populations. This systematic review aims to survey the characteristics of studies using electronic pain diaries and to examine how these characteristics affect compliance. A literature search of 11 electronic databases was conducted. Studies were evaluated on the basis of predetermined inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Study characteristics were grouped into four categories: general, population, electronic diary, and sampling procedure (i.e., response, attrition, and compliance rates) including strategies to enhance compliance. The 62 included publications reported from 43 different datasets. Papers were usually written in English and published as from 2000. Samples mostly consisted of female chronic pain patients aged 19-65 years from western countries. Most diaries held less than 20 items and were completed up to 6 times daily at fixed or prompted times for 1 month at most. Less than 25% of the studies reported both response and attrition rates; however, a majority reported compliance. Compliance was generally high, and positively associated with shorter diaries, age, having a user's manual, financial compensation and using an alarm. It is important that the various study characteristics are catalogued carefully, especially response and attrition rates, because they can affect compliance. Measures of momentary pain are often developed for the purpose of a certain study; standardisation and validation of these measures is recommended. Finally, authors should mention whether they report on data that has also been used in previous studies.

  7. Parental report of infant sleep behavior by electronic versus paper-and-pencil diaries, and their relationship to actigraphic sleep measurement.

    PubMed

    Müller, Silvana; Hemmi, Mirja H; Wilhelm, Frank H; Barr, Ronald G; Schneider, Silvia

    2011-12-01

    Reliable, valid and cost-effective methods for the assessment of infant sleep and sleep problems are of major importance. In this study, the first aim was to assess the agreement of an electronic diary as well as a paper diary with actigraphy for measuring infant sleep patterns in a community sample. The second aim was to assess the feasibility and acceptance of, and compliance with, the electronic diary and the paper diary. Ninety parents reported infant sleep behavior in a paper diary in their home environments for a total of 6 days, 95 in an electronic diary, within two consecutive weeks while actigraphic data were obtained simultaneously. We found moderate to good agreement between electronic diaries and actigraphy (r = 0.41-0.65, P < 0.01), and paper diaries and actigraphy (r = 0.47-0.70, P < 0.01). In addition, this study also found good agreement between both diaries and also between both diaries and actigraphy for sleep percentage over 24 h (electronic diaries and actigraphy: 54.1 ± 0.7%, 52.5 ± 0.7%, P < 0.05; paper diaries and actigraphy: 55.1 ± 0.5%, 52.2 ± 0.6%, P < 0.01) and for daytime (electronic diaries and actigraphy: 27.3 ± 0.9%, 23.5 ± 1.2%, P < 0.01; paper diaries and actigraphy: 27.3 ± 0.8%, 23.2 ± 1.0%, P < 0.01), with the exception that less daytime sleep was recorded on actigraphy than on either diary. In conclusion, the electronic diary and the paper diary are valid and well-accepted methods for the assessment of infant sleep. Parents preferred the electronic diary but, conversely, they were less compliant in completing it.

  8. Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania-like headaches in a child: response to a headache diary.

    PubMed

    Klassen, B D; Dooley, J M

    2000-01-01

    Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania and cluster headache are both characterized by recurrent, severe, unilateral headaches accompanied by symptoms and signs of autonomic dysfunction. They are differentiated by the frequency, duration, and medication responsiveness of the headaches. Both occur in childhood, although such reports are rare. A 6-year-old boy presented with chronic paroxysmal hemicrania-like headaches. Through the use of a headache diary, his headaches were found to follow stressful events and resolved shortly after the introduction of the diary. Precipitation of chronic paroxysmal hemicrania-like headaches by stress has not been previously reported. We recommend the use of a headache diary as both an aid to diagnosis and an initial nonpharmacological therapeutic intervention for children with such headaches.

  9. Food waste volume and origin: Case studies in the Finnish food service sector.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Heikkilä, Lotta; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Reinikainen, Anu

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a project to map the volume and composition of food waste in the Finnish food service sector. The amount, type and origin of avoidable food waste were investigated in 51 food service outlets, including schools, day-care centres, workplace canteens, petrol stations, restaurants and diners. Food service outlet personnel kept diaries and weighed the food produced and wasted during a one-week or one-day period. For weighing and sorting, the food waste was divided into two categories: originally edible (OE) food waste was separated from originally inedible (OIE) waste, such as vegetable peelings, bones and coffee grounds. In addition, food waste (OE) was divided into three categories in accordance with its origins: kitchen waste, service waste and customer leftovers. According to the results, about 20% of all food handled and prepared in the sector was wasted. The findings also suggest that the main drivers of wasted food are buffet services and overproduction.

  10. Continuous accelerated 7-days-a-week radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Long-term results of Phase III clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof . E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Golen, Maria; Tarnawski, Rafal; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Suwinski, Rafal; Sygula, Mariusz; Wygoda, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To update 5-year results of a previously published study on special 7-days-a-week fractionation continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in Stage T{sub 2-4}N{sub 0-1}M were randomized between two definitive radiation treatments: accelerated fractionation 7 days a week including weekends (CAIR) and conventional 5 days a week (control). Hence the overall treatment time was 2 weeks shorter in CAIR. Results: Five-year local tumor control was 75% in the CAIR group and 33% in the control arm (p < 0.00004). Tumor-cure benefit corresponded with significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with the incidence significantly higher in CAIR patients than in control (respectively, 94% vs. 53%). When 2.0-Gy fractions were used, radiation necrosis developed in 5 patients (22%) in the CAIR group as a consequential late effect (CLE), but when fraction size was reduced to 1.8 Gy no more CLE occurred. Actuarial 5-year morbidity-free survival rate was similar for both treatments. Conclusions: Selected head-and-neck cancer patients could be treated very effectively with 7-days-a-week radiation schedule with no compromise of total dose and with slight 10% reduction of fraction dose (2 Gy-1.8 Gy), which article gives 1 week reduction of overall treatment time compared with standard 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 47-49 days. Although this report is based on the relatively small group of patients, its results have encouraged us to use CAIR fractionation in a standard radiation treatment for moderately advanced head-and-neck cancer patients.

  11. Nonresponse and Underreporting Errors Increase over the Data Collection Week Based on Paradata from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mengyao; Gremel, Garrett W; Kirlin, John A; West, Brady T

    2017-03-15

    Background: Food acquisition diary surveys are important for studying food expenditures, factors affecting food acquisition decisions, and relations between these decisions with selected measures of health (e.g., body mass index, self-reported health). However, to our knowledge, no studies have evaluated the errors associated with these diary surveys, which can bias survey estimates and research findings. The use of paradata, which has been largely ignored in previous literature on diary surveys, could be useful for studying errors in these surveys.Objective: We used paradata to assess survey errors in the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS).Methods: To evaluate the patterns of nonresponse over the diary period, we fit a multinomial logistic regression model to data from this 1-wk diary survey. We also assessed factors influencing respondents' probability of reporting food acquisition events during the diary process by using logistic regression models. Finally, with the use of an ordinal regression model, we studied factors influencing respondents' perceived ease of participation in the survey.Results: As the diary period progressed, nonresponse increased, especially for those starting the survey on Friday (where the odds of a refusal increased by 12% with each fielding day). The odds of reporting food acquisition events also decreased by 6% with each additional fielding day. Similarly, the odds of reporting ≥1 food-away-from-home event (i.e., meals, snacks, and drinks obtained outside the home) decreased significantly over the fielding period. Male respondents, larger households, households that eat together less often, and households with frequent guests reported a significantly more difficult time getting household members to participate, as did non-English-speaking households and households currently experiencing difficult financial conditions.Conclusions: Nonresponse and underreporting of food acquisition events tended to

  12. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity.

  13. Effect of Academic Major on Students' Use of Language Learning Strategies: A Diary Study in a Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Zhenhui; Liu, Fulan

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here explored how students' use of language learning strategies (LLS) was affected by their academic major. The data were collected by asking students to keep a four-week diary, and then the findings were examined within the model of learning developed by Biggs. An analysis of diary entries showed that, although there were…

  14. How Accurate Are German Work-Time Data? A Comparison of Time-Diary Reports and Stylized Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otterbach, Steffen; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    This study compares work time data collected by the German Time Use Survey (GTUS) using the diary method with stylized work time estimates from the GTUS, the German Socio-Economic Panel, and the German Microcensus. Although on average the differences between the time-diary data and the interview data is not large, our results show that significant…

  15. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  16. Spermatozoa isolated from cat testes retain their structural integrity as well as a developmental potential after refrigeration for up to 7 days.

    PubMed

    Buarpung, Sirirak; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Thongkittidilok, Chommanart; Comizzoli, Pierre; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of preservation media for isolated feline testicular spermatozoa as well as the concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on: (1) the membrane (sperm membrane integrity (SMI)) and DNA integrity of spermatozoa; and (2) the developmental potential of spermatozoa after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Isolated cat spermatozoa were stored in HEPES-M199 medium (HM) or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) at 4°C for up to 7 days. Results indicated that HM maintained a better SMI than DPBS throughout the storage periods (P > 0.05). When spermatozoa were stored in HM supplemented with BSA at different concentrations (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), SMI obtained from HM containing 8 and 16 mg/ml BSA was higher than with 4 mg/ml BSA (P 0.05). In summary, cat spermatozoa immediately isolated from testicular tissue can be stored as a suspension in basic buffered medium at 4°C for up to 7 days. BSA supplementation into the medium improves membrane integrity of the spermatozoa during cold storage. Testicular spermatozoa stored in HM containing 16 mg/ml BSA retained full in vitro developmental potential after ICSI, similar to that of fresh controls even though DNA integrity had slightly declined.

  17. Using diaries to explore the work experiences of primary health care nursing managers in two South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    Munyewende, Pascalia O.; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background South Africa is on the brink of another wave of major health system reforms that underscore the centrality of primary health care (PHC). Nursing managers will play a critical role in these reforms. Objective The aim of the study was to explore the work experiences of PHC clinic nursing managers through the use of reflective diaries, a method hitherto under-utilised in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries. Design During 2012, a sub-set of 22 PHC nursing managers was selected randomly from a larger nurses’ survey in two South African provinces. After informed consent, participants were requested to keep individual diaries for a period of 6 weeks, using a clear set of diary entry guidelines. Reminders consisted of weekly short message service reminders and telephone calls. Diary entries were analysed using thematic content analysis. A diary feedback meeting was held with all the participants to validate the findings. Results Fifteen diaries were received, representing a 68% response rate. The majority of respondents (14/15) were female, each with between 5 and 15 years of nursing experience. Most participants made their diary entries at home. Diaries proved to be cathartic for individual nursing managers. Although inter-related and not mutually exclusive, the main themes that emerged from the diary analysis were health system deficiencies; human resource challenges; unsupportive management environment; leadership and governance; and the emotional impact of clinic management. Conclusions Diaries are an innovative method of capturing the work experiences of managers at the PHC level, as they allow for confidentiality and anonymity, often not possible with other qualitative research methods. The expressed concerns of nursing managers must be addressed to ensure the success of South Africa's health sector reforms, particularly at the PHC level. PMID:25537937

  18. Qualitative Researchers in the Blogosphere: Using Blogs as Diaries and Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Weblogs or blogs for short can be personal diaries shared by individuals giving readers a sometimes voyeuristic view into the lives and minds of these virtual authors. The ability for readers to find and promote weblogs makes the practice of blogging appealing for parties wanting to market their products and services. The popularity and the…

  19. Validity of a Sun Safety Diary Using UV Monitors in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaroch, Amy L.; Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; Maloy, Julie A.; Geno, Cristy R.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a validity study conducted among middle school students comparing self-reported sun safety behaviors from a diary with readings from ultraviolet (UV) monitors worn on different body sites. The UV monitors are stickers with panels that turn increasingly darker shades of blue in the presence of increasing amounts of UV light.…

  20. Syntactic and Semantic Coordination in Finite Complement-Clause Constructions: A Diary-Based Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köymen, Bahar; Lieven, Elena; Brandt, Silke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of matrix and subordinate clauses within finite complement-clause constructions. The data come from diary and audio recordings which include the utterances produced by an American English-speaking child, L, between the ages 1;08 and 3;05. We extracted all the finite complement-clause constructions that L…

  1. Dumb Dorky Girls and Wimpy Boys: Gendered Themes in Diary Cartoon Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy; Woloshyn, Vera

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on gendered themes promulgated in three books written in diary cartoon form. Although written for different audiences, each of these books constructs gender norms in similar ways. They promote heteronormative gender roles for boys and girls by endorsing traditional femininities and hegemonic masculinities through the…

  2. From the Learning Diary to the ELP: An E-Portfolio for Autonomous Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertolotti, Greta; Beseghi, Micol

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 the Language Centre of the University of Parma introduced a self-study programme aimed at creating an autonomy-inspired language learning environment. Students are actively engaged in the management of their own learning and co-directed by advisors and teachers in the phases of planning, monitoring and assessment. Reflective diary writing…

  3. Self-Monitoring of Self-Regulation during Math Homework Behaviour Using Standardized Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Bernhard; Perels, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at enhancing math learning and general self-regulation by supporting daily self-regulated learning during math homework. The authors use standardized diaries as a self-monitoring tool to support self-regulatory behaviour. Following the theory of self-monitoring, frequent self-monitoring of self-regulation will lead to an…

  4. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  5. Social relationships among adolescents as described in an electronic diary: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Katriina I; Anttila, Minna J; Kurki, Marjo H; Välimäki, Maritta A

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships among adolescents with mental disorders are demanding. Adolescents with depressive symptoms may have few relationships and have difficulties sharing their problems. Internet may offer reliable and easy to use tool to collect real-time information from adolescents. The aim of this study is to explore how adolescents describe their social relationships with an electronic diary. Mixed methods were used to obtain a broad picture of adolescents' social relationships with the data gathered from network maps and reflective texts written in an electronic diary. Adolescents who visited an outpatient clinic and used an intervention (N=70) designed for adolescents with signs of depression were invited to use the electronic diary; 29 did so. The quantitative data gathered in the electronic diary were summarized with descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were categorized using a thematic analysis with an inductive approach. We found that social relationships among adolescents with signs of depression can vary greatly in regards to the number of existing relationships (from lacking to 21) and the quality of the relationships (from trustful to difficult). However, the relationships may change, and the adolescents are also willing to build up their social relationships. Professionals need to be aware of the diversity of adolescents' social relationships and their need for personalized support.

  6. A Comparison of Diary Method Variations for Enlightening Form Generation in the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babapour, Maral; Rehammar, Bjorn; Rahe, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two studies in which an empirical approach was taken to understand and explain form generation and decisions taken in the design process. In particular, the activities addressing aesthetic aspects when exteriorising form ideas in the design process have been the focus of the present study. Diary methods were the starting point…

  7. Onna Rashiku (Like a Woman): The Diary of a Language Learner in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogulnick, Karen

    An American Jewish woman learning Japanese in Japan examines the relationship between language, language learning, and personal identity. Autobiographical reflections are combined with entries from a diary and scholarly observations about the interrelationship of gender, race, culture, social class, historical experiences, and language learning.…

  8. Crossing the Rubicon: Twenty-Four Faculty Transform Their Teaching. A Diary and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, James; Boehrer, John

    1993-01-01

    Through diary entries and written reflections, two educators chronicle and comment on a two-week summer seminar for college faculty on use of the case method as a teaching technique. Discussion focuses on the stresses and rewards of the experience at all levels of participation. (MSE)

  9. Functions, Targets, and Outcomes of Specific Forms of Social Aggression: A Daily Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyches, Karmon D.; Mayeux, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 8 specific forms of social aggression (SA) in terms of the functions they serve, the characteristics of the peers targeted by them, and the outcomes associated with using the behaviors. Two hundred and seventeen fifth- and seventh-grade boys and girls completed a structured daily diary for 5 consecutive days in their…

  10. Schools, Discipline and Community: Diary-writing and Schoolgirl Culture in Late Nineteenth-Century France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that 19th-century French boarding school culture used the idea of community to transmit feminine but not necessarily domestic values. These included obedience, selflessness, and interdependence. Students, however, transformed and reworked these messages to fit their individual needs, as revealed by one young woman's diary. (MJP)

  11. What if There Is Nobody Around to Speak English? Then Keep Your Voice Diary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore English Language Teaching (ELT) prep-class students' perceptions of keeping personal voice diaries via a voice recorder as a way to extend speaking practice beyond the classroom walls. Following a ten-week treatment under which 12 voluntary students attending ELT prep-class at Ondokuz Mayis University kept voice diaries…

  12. Diary-Based Strategy Assessment and Its Relationship to Performance in a Group of Trainee Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilar, Raquel; de los Angeles Martinez Ruiz, Maria; Costa, Juan Luiz Castejon

    2007-01-01

    Our work is based on the study of learning strategies used by a group of trainee teachers in a real learning situation, and how this use of strategies influences the results of the learning process. We use a diary as a tool to assess the learning strategies and compare the results obtained with those using an inventory. Our findings indicate that…

  13. "Reports from an Absurdist"--An Analysis of Artistic Features of Ukraine Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Yang

    2015-01-01

    With 13 published novels and 5 children's literature books, which have been translated into 25 languages, Andrey Kurkov has been recognized as one of the most renowned Ukrainian writers in the world of literature, and "Ukraine Diaries" is his first non-fiction literary work. This paper attempts to focus on Kurkov's unique literary…

  14. A Diary Study on the Causes of English Language Classroom Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gkonou, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on learners' diaries, the study reported in this article focused on the English language classroom anxiety (ELCA) of eight Greek EFL learners in private language school settings. The study investigated the extent to which anxiety is amenable to change and the factors contributing to the creation and increase in students' anxiety in class.…

  15. The Inside, Out: Diaries as Entry Points to Historical Perspective-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemisko, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Diaries can serve as meaningful entry points for advancing historical consciousness and develop historical thinking (Seixas, 2002) because they can connect readers/learners with the diverse emotions, thoughts and motivations of the people who wrote them in particular times and particular places. According to philosopher and historian, R.G.…

  16. Maternal Daily Diary Report in the Assessment of Childhood Separation Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of separation anxiety, the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD). Mother and child participants consisted of three groups: 96 children (aged 4-15 years) with separation anxiety disorder, 49 children with "other" anxiety disorders, and 43 healthy controls. The SADD…

  17. The Separation Anxiety Daily Diary: Child Version--Feasibility and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the feasibility and psychometric properties of the child version of the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD-C) in 125 children (ages 7-14 years) from German-speaking areas of Switzerland. Children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 58), "other" anxiety disorders (n = 36), and healthy controls (n = 31)…

  18. Time Diary and Questionnaire Assessment of Factors Associated with Academic and Personal Success among University Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Darren; Dixon, Sinikka; Stansal, Emory; Gelb, Shannon Lund; Pheri, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: A sample of 231 students attending a private liberal arts university in central Alberta, Canada, completed a 5-day time diary and a 71-item questionnaire assessing the influence of personal, cognitive, and attitudinal factors on success. Methods: The authors used 3 success measures: cumulative grade point average (GPA),…

  19. Putting Themselves in the Picture: Using Reflective Diaries in the Teaching of Feminist Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks back on the use of reflective diaries as an assessment tool in a feminist geography module over several years. It considers the ways in which reflection on practice and the valuing of the everyday could be seen as a specifically feminist pedagogic practice. It considers the alignment of module content with assessment format. The…

  20. Paper and Plastic in Daily Diary Research: Comment on Green, Rafaeli, Bolger, Shrout, and Reis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennen, Howard; Affleck, Glenn; Coyne, James C.; Larsen, Randy J.; DeLongis, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The authors applaud A. S. Green, E. Rafaeli, N. Bolger, P. E. Shrout, and H. T. Reis's (2006) response to one-sided comparisons of paper versus electronic (plastic) diary methods and hope that it will stimulate more balanced considerations of the issues involved. The authors begin by highlighting areas of agreement and disagreement with Green et…

  1. Aspects of Teaching and Learning Science: What Students' Diaries Reveal about Inquiry and Traditional Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawalkar, Aisha; Vijapurkar, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of students' reflective writing (diaries) of two cohorts of Grade 8 students, one undergoing inquiry and the other traditional science teaching. Students' writing included a summary of what students had learned in class on that day and their opinions and feelings about the class. The entries were analysed qualitatively and…

  2. Joining the Dots: Piloting the Work Diary as a Data Collection Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the pilot of one data collection tool, the work diary, for an educational research project. Before inclusion in the wider research project, the researcher developed, piloted and qualitatively assessed the feasibility of the data collection tool. As the wider research project will be conducted in and investigate…

  3. Problem Solving in Everyday Office Work--A Diary Study on Differences between Experts and Novices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Andreas; Schley, Thomas; Warwas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary office work is becoming increasingly challenging as many routine tasks are automated or outsourced. The remaining problem solving activities may also offer potential for lifelong learning in the workplace. In this study, we analyzed problem solving in an office work setting using an Internet-based, semi-standardized diary to collect…

  4. Retrospective Questions or a Diary Method? A Two-Level Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hox, Joop J.; Kleiboer, Annet M.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a comparison between retrospective questions and daily diaries inquiring about positive and negative support in spousal interactions. The design was a multitrait-multimethod matrix with trait factors of positive and negative support, and method factors of retrospective questions and daily asked questions. Five questions were…

  5. Representative Contact Diaries for Modeling the Spread of Infectious Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yang-chih; Wang, Da-Wei; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of infectious diseases have attempted to construct more realistic parameters of interpersonal contact patterns from diary-approach surveys. To ensure that such diary-based contact patterns provide accurate baseline data for policy implementation in densely populated Taiwan, we collected contact diaries from a national sample, using 3-stage systematic probability sampling and rigorous in-person interviews. A representative sample of 1,943 contact diaries recorded a total of 24,265 wide-range, face-to-face interpersonal contacts during a 24-hour period. Nearly 70% of the contacts occurred outside of respondents' households. The most active age group was schoolchildren (ages 5–14), who averaged around 16–18 daily contacts, about 2–3 times as many as the least active age groups. We show how such parameters of contact patterns help modify a sophisticated national simulation system that has been used for years to model the spread of pandemic diseases in Taiwan. Based on such actual and representative data that enable researchers to infer findings to the whole population, our analyses aim to facilitate implementing more appropriate and effective strategies for controlling an emerging or pandemic disease infection. PMID:23056193

  6. Creating Deep Time Diaries: An English/Earth Science Unit for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Vicky; Barnes, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Students love a good story. That is why incorporating literary fiction that parallels teaching goals and standards can be effective. In the interdisciplinary, thematic six-week unit described in this article, the authors use the fictional book "The Deep Time Diaries," by Gary Raham, to explore topics in paleontology, Earth science, and creative…

  7. Social relationships among adolescents as described in an electronic diary: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, Katriina I; Anttila, Minna J; Kurki, Marjo H; Välimäki, Maritta A

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships among adolescents with mental disorders are demanding. Adolescents with depressive symptoms may have few relationships and have difficulties sharing their problems. Internet may offer reliable and easy to use tool to collect real-time information from adolescents. The aim of this study is to explore how adolescents describe their social relationships with an electronic diary. Mixed methods were used to obtain a broad picture of adolescents’ social relationships with the data gathered from network maps and reflective texts written in an electronic diary. Adolescents who visited an outpatient clinic and used an intervention (N=70) designed for adolescents with signs of depression were invited to use the electronic diary; 29 did so. The quantitative data gathered in the electronic diary were summarized with descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were categorized using a thematic analysis with an inductive approach. We found that social relationships among adolescents with signs of depression can vary greatly in regards to the number of existing relationships (from lacking to 21) and the quality of the relationships (from trustful to difficult). However, the relationships may change, and the adolescents are also willing to build up their social relationships. Professionals need to be aware of the diversity of adolescents’ social relationships and their need for personalized support. PMID:28280307

  8. A NEW METHOD OF LONGITUDINAL DIARY ASSEMBLY FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure time-series modeling requires longitudinal time-activity diaries to evaluate the sequence of concentrations encountered, and hence, pollutant exposure for the simulated individuals. However, most of the available data on human activities are from cross-sectional su...

  9. Diary of a Dabbler: Ecological Influences on an EFL Teacher's Efforts to Study Japanese Informally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanave, Christine Pearson

    2012-01-01

    In this diary study, the author draws from journals written over the course of 8 years working as an English instructor at a Japanese university, with the aim of documenting the influences on her desire to invest effort in the self-study of Japanese (what she refers to as the "ecology of effort"). An ecological perspective reveals the…

  10. Bioscience Students' First Year Perspectives through Video Diaries: Home, Family and Student Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jon; Green, Paul; Cashmore, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The first year experiences of students are viewed as important in contributing to retention, overall academic success and student satisfaction. As such there is an increased focus on students' experiences of their first weeks at university. In this paper we describe some findings from a video-diary project through which bioscience students…

  11. Latent Class Models for Diary Method Data: Parameter Estimation by Local Computations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijmen, Frank; Vansteelandt, Kristof; De Boeck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of diary methods calls for the development of appropriate statistical methods. For the resulting panel data, latent Markov models can be used to model both individual differences and temporal dynamics. The computational burden associated with these models can be overcome by exploiting the conditional independence relations…

  12. A graphical vector autoregressive modelling approach to the analysis of electronic diary data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years, electronic diaries are increasingly used in medical research and practice to investigate patients' processes and fluctuations in symptoms over time. To model dynamic dependence structures and feedback mechanisms between symptom-relevant variables, a multivariate time series method has to be applied. Methods We propose to analyse the temporal interrelationships among the variables by a structural modelling approach based on graphical vector autoregressive (VAR) models. We give a comprehensive description of the underlying concepts and explain how the dependence structure can be recovered from electronic diary data by a search over suitable constrained (graphical) VAR models. Results The graphical VAR approach is applied to the electronic diary data of 35 obese patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED). The dynamic relationships for the two subgroups between eating behaviour, depression, anxiety and eating control are visualized in two path diagrams. Results show that the two subgroups of obese patients with and without BED are distinguishable by the temporal patterns which influence their respective eating behaviours. Conclusion The use of the graphical VAR approach for the analysis of electronic diary data leads to a deeper insight into patient's dynamics and dependence structures. An increasing use of this modelling approach could lead to a better understanding of complex psychological and physiological mechanisms in different areas of medical care and research. PMID:20359333

  13. Adults' Diaries: Changes Made to Written Narratives across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Examines diaries kept by 8 adults (born between 1856 and 1876) over a 70-year period of their lives. Analyzes the complexity of the narrative structure and the cohesion of the text. Finds that the diarists' narratives became structurally more complex across the life span, although they became less cohesive as ambiguous anaphors increased. (KEH)

  14. Psychological Strain and Emotional Labor among Police-Officers: A Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Benjamin; Heuven, Ellen; van Veldhoven, Marc; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Croon, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between psychological strain, emotional dissonance and emotional job demands during a working day of 65 Dutch (military) police officers, using a 5-day diary design. We hypothesized that emotional dissonance partly mediated the relationship between psychological strain at the start and at the end of a work…

  15. Is Moral Education Working? Extracts from the Diary of a Twenty-First Century Moral Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, J. Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article takes the form of a set of edited diary entries containing reflections on incidents drawn mainly from the author's professional life as a university professor and as a consultant to a disadvantaged multi-ethnic secondary school in the north of England. The form of the article allows a wide range of issues to be touched on, including…

  16. The Nation behind the Diary: Anne Frank and the Holocaust of the Dutch Jews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foray, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Since its first appearance in 1947, "The Diary of Anne Frank" has been translated into sixty-five different languages, including Welsh, Esperanto, and Faroese. Millions and perhaps even billions of readers, scattered throughout the globe and now spanning multiple generations, are familiar with the life and work of this young Jewish…

  17. A qualitative review of the psychometric properties and feasibility of electronic headache diaries for children and adults: Where we are and where we need to go

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, Jennifer N; Huguet, Anna; McGrath, Patrick; Rosenbloom, Brittany; Soobiah, Charlene; White, Meghan; Coburn, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While paper headache pain diaries have been used to determine the effectiveness of headache treatments in clinical trials, recent advances in information and communication technologies have resulted in the burgeoning use of electronic diaries (e-diaries) for headache pain. OBJECTIVE: To qualitatively review headache e-diaries, assess their measurement properties, examine measurement components and compare these components with recommended reporting guidelines. METHODS: The databases Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, PsychInfo, the Education Resources Information Centre and ISI Web of Science were searched for self-report headache e-diaries for children and adults. A total of 21 publications that involved e-diaries were found; five articles reported on the development of an e-diary and 16 used an e-diary as an outcome measure in randomized controlled trials or observational studies. The diary measures’ components, features and psychometric properties, as well as the quality of evidence of their psychometric properties, were evaluated. RESULTS: Five headache e-diaries met the a priori criteria and were included in the final analysis. None of these e-diaries had well-developed evidence of reliability and validity. Three e-diaries showed evidence of feasibility. E-diaries with ad hoc measures developed by the study investigators were most common, with little to no supportive evidence of reliability and/or validity. Compliance with the reporting guidelines was variable, with only one-half of the e-diaries measuring the recommended primary outcome of headache frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Specific recommendations regarding the development (including essential components) and testing of headache e-diaries are discussed. Further research is needed to strengthen the measurement of headache pain in clinical trials using headache e-diaries. PMID:23748255

  18. Diary Insights of an EFL Reading Teacher (Apreciaciones de un profesor de lectura en lengua inglesa escritas en un diario de clase)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopera Medina, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    It is often argued that classroom diaries are subjective. This article explores the diary insights of a foreign language reading teacher. The inquiry was based on the following research question: What do the diary insights really evidence about the teaching practices of a foreign language reading teacher? As a research method, a case study was…

  19. [Effect of mechanic stimulation of foot support zones during 7-day dry immersion on alterations of ocular saccades kinematics associated with immersion].

    PubMed

    Zobova, L N; Miller, N V; Badakva, A M

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the investigation was to evaluate how daily sessions of mechanic stimulation (MS) of foot support zones applied to mitigate the effects of lack of support loading on the postural muscles influence ocular saccades during prolonged support deprivation. According to the experimental protocol, before and immediately after 7-day dry immersion, 4 control and 4 MC human subjects (experimental group) implemented the test of rapid blanking light target appearing on the visual field periphery. Eye motions were detected using infrared images obtained at 200 Hz. Analysis of normalized and consolidated data showed that MC of foot support zones moderated significantly alterations in ocular saccade kinematics associated with support load deprivation confirmed by recruitment of support afferentation in sensory input to mechanisms of ocular saccade generation.

  20. Biodistribution of PLGA and PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles after repeat-dose oral delivery in F344 rats for 7 days

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sara M; Darensbourg, Caleb; Cross, Linda; Stout, Rhett; Coulon, Diana; Astete, Carlos E; Morgan, Timothy; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Aim To quantify in vivo the biodistribution of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles (PLGA/Chi NPs) and assess if the positive charge of chitosan significantly enhances nanoparticle absorption in the GI tract. Material & methods PLGA and PLGA/Chi NPs covalently linked to tetramethylrhodamine-5-isothiocyanate (TRITC) were orally administered to F344 rats for 7 days, and the biodistribution of fluorescent NPs was analyzed in different organs. Results The highest amount of particles (% total dose/g) was detected for both treatments in the spleen, followed by intestine and kidney, and then by liver, lung, heart and brain, with no significant difference between PLGA and PLGA/Chi NPs. Conclusion Only a small percentage of orally delivered NPs was detected in the analyzed organs. The positive charge conferred by chitosan was not sufficient to improve the absorption of the PLGA/Chi NPs over that of PLGA NPs. PMID:25491670

  1. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus confers complete clinical protection in 7 days and partial protection in 4 days: Use in emergency outbreak response.

    PubMed

    Golde, William T; Pacheco, Juan M; Duque, Hernando; Doel, Timothy; Penfold, Barry; Ferman, Geoffrey S; Gregg, Douglas R; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2005-12-30

    Recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) demonstrate that this highly contagious viral infection of cloven hoofed animals continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Debate about the most effective way to respond to outbreaks of FMDV in disease free countries continues to center on the use of vaccines. In this report, we present data showing that a commercially available, standard dose vaccine formulation can fully protect cattle against direct challenge with the virus in as little as 7 days with no carrier transmission to naïve animals. Cattle challenged 4 days after vaccination have reduced disease severity, no detectable virus in blood and little virus shedding from nasal secretions. These significant effects at 4 days post vaccination, confirmed in two separate trials, support the value of using currently available vaccines as a first line of defense against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks.

  2. Promotion of Cholera Awareness Among Households of Cholera Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7 Days (CHoBI7) Intervention.

    PubMed

    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Monira, Shirajum; Alam, Munirul; Shaly, Nusrat Jahan; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are highly susceptible to cholera infections for a 7-day period after the presentation of the index patient in the hospital. However, there is no standard of care to prevent cholera transmission in this high-risk population. Furthermore, there is limited information available on awareness of cholera transmission and prevention among cholera patients and their household contacts. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which delivers a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention to household contacts during the time they spend with the admitted cholera patient in the hospital and reinforces these messages through home visits. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 302 intervention cholera patient household members and 302 control cholera patient household members in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the CHoBI7 intervention in increasing awareness of cholera transmission and prevention, and the key times for handwashing with soap. We observed a significant increase in cholera knowledge score in the intervention arm compared with the control arm at both the 1-week follow-up {score coefficient = 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96, 2.71)} and 6 to 12-month follow-up period (score coefficient = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.05, 2.13]). This 1-week hospital- and home-based intervention led to a significant increase in knowledge of cholera transmission and prevention which was sustained 6 to 12 months post-intervention. These findings suggest that the CHoBI7 intervention presents a promising approach to increase cholera awareness among this high-risk population.

  3. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkies, Krystyna; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of 7-Day Intensive and Standard Weekly Cognitive Therapy for PTSD and Emotion-Focused Supportive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Hackmann, Ann; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Liness, Sheena; Albert, Idit; Deale, Alicia; Stott, Richard; Clark, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are usually delivered once or twice weekly over several months. It is unclear whether they can be successfully delivered over a shorter period of time. This clinical trial had two goals, (1) to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of a 7-day intensive version of cognitive therapy for PTSD, and (2) to investigate whether cognitive therapy has specific treatment effects by comparing intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy with an equally credible alternative treatment. Method Patients with chronic PTSD (N=121) were randomly allocated to 7-day intensive or standard 3-month weekly cognitive therapy for PTSD, 3-month weekly emotion-focused supportive therapy, or a 14-week waitlist condition. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms and diagnosis as assessed by independent assessors and self-report. Secondary outcomes were disability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Measures were taken at initial assessment, 6 weeks and 14 weeks (post-treatment/wait). For groups receiving treatment, measures were also taken at 3 weeks, and follow-ups at 27 and 40 weeks after randomization. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Results At post-treatment/wait assessment, 73%, 77%, 43%, 7% of the intensive cognitive therapy, standard cognitive therapy, supportive therapy, and waitlist groups, respectively, had recovered from PTSD. All treatments were well tolerated and were superior to waitlist on all outcome measures, with the exception of no difference between supportive therapy and waitlist on quality of life. For primary outcomes, disability and general anxiety, intensive and standard cognitive therapy were superior to supportive therapy. Intensive cognitive therapy achieved faster symptom reduction and comparable overall outcomes to standard cognitive therapy. Conclusions Cognitive therapy for PTSD delivered intensively over little more than a week is as effective as cognitive therapy delivered

  5. Measuring sleep habits without using a diary: the sleep timing questionnaire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Kennedy, Kathy S.; Pods, Jaime M.; DeGrazia, Jean M.; Miewald, Jean M.

    2003-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To develop a single-administration instrument yielding equivalent measures of sleep to those obtained from a formal (2-week) sleep diary. DESIGN & SETTING: A single-administration Sleep riming Questionnaire (STQ) is described (and reproduced in the Appendix). Test-retest reliability was examined in 40 subjects who were given the STQ on two occasions separated by less than 1 year. Convergent validity was measured both by comparing STO-derived measures with objective measures derived from wrist actigraphy (n=23) and by comparing STQ-derived measures with other subjective measures derived from a detailed 2-week sleep diary in two nonoverlapping samples (n=101, 93). Correlations of STQ measures with age and momingness-eveningness (chronotype) were also examined. SUBJECTS: The analyses used sample sizes of 40, 23, 101, and 93 (both genders, overall age range 20y-89y). Most subjects were healthy volunteers; some Study 4 subjects were patients (enrolled in research protocols). RESULTS: Test-retest reliability for the STQ was demonstrated for estimates of bedtime (r = 0.705, p < 0.001) and waketime (r = 0.826, p < 0.001). Convergent validity using wrist actigraphy was demonstrated by correlations of 0.592 (p < 0.005) for bedtime, and of 0.769 (p < 0.001) for waketime. Diary studies indicated STQ bedtime and waketime data to be highly correlated (at about 0.8) with those obtained from a formal 2-week sleep diary. The STQ also provided data on estimated sleep latency and wake after sleep onset (WASO), which correlated reliably (at about 0.7) with average nightly ratings of these variables from a 2-week sleep diary. Mean estimated values of sleep latency and WASO from the two instruments were within 1 minute of each other. ST-derived bedtimes and waketimes correlated with both age and chronotype in the expected direction (older subjects earlier, morning types earlier). CONCLUSION: The STQ may be a reliable valid measure of sleep timing that could provide a

  6. Analysis of Trigger Factors in Episodic Migraineurs Using a Smartphone Headache Diary Applications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Wook; Chu, Min Kyung; Kim, Jae-Moon; Park, Sang-Gue; Cho, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Various stimuli can trigger migraines in susceptible individuals. We examined migraine trigger factors by using a smartphone headache diary application. Method Episodic migraineurs who agreed to participate in our study downloaded smartphone headache diary application, which was designed to capture the details regarding headache trigger factors and characteristics for 3 months. The participants were asked to access the smartphone headache diary application daily and to confirm the presence of a headache and input the types of trigger factors. Results Sixty-two participants kept diary entries until the end of the study. The diary data for 4,579 days were analyzed. In this data set, 1,099 headache days (336 migraines, 763 non-migraine headaches) were recorded; of these, 772 headache events had with trigger factors, and 327 events did not have trigger factors. The common trigger factors that were present on headache days included stress, fatigue, sleep deprivation, hormonal changes, and weather changes. The likelihood of a headache trigger was 57.7% for stress, 55.1% for sleep deprivation, 48.5% for fatigue, and 46.5% for any trigger. The headaches with trigger factors were associated with greater pain intensity (p<0.001), headache-related disability (p<0.001), abortive medication use (p = 0.02), and the proportion of migraine (p < 0.001), relative to those without trigger factors. Traveling (odd ratios [OR]: 6.4), hormonal changes (OR: 3.5), noise (OR: 2.8), alcohol (OR: 2.5), overeating (OR: 2.4), and stress (OR:1.8) were significantly associated with migraines compared to non-migraine headaches. The headaches that were associated with hormonal changes or noise were more often migraines, regardless of the preventive medication. The headaches due to stress, overeating, alcohol, and traveling were more often migraines without preventive medication, but it was not evident with preventive medication. Conclusion Smartphone headache diary application is an

  7. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Nittby, Henrietta; Brun, Arne; Eberhardt, Jacob; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after

  8. Mapping Access to Community-Developed Healthy Food Baskets Including Cost and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginn, Alison; Majumdar, Anne; Carr, Marimba; Eastwood, Ginny; Menger, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food security is a topical issue but one that can be difficult to measure. Objective: To develop a community-approved food basket tool and use this to investigate the availability and affordability of a healthy diet in a multicultural urban setting. Design: A 7-day healthy food basket (HFB) containing 96 foods for six household types…

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Consensus Sleep Diary in Those With Insomnia Disorder.

    PubMed

    Maich, Kristin H G; Lachowski, Angela M; Carney, Colleen E

    2016-05-27

    The Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD) is a standardized, prospective tool for tracking nightly subjective sleep. The current study evaluated the validity and utility of the CSD, with consideration for challenges inherent to psychometric evaluation of diary measures. Results showed that the CSD indices differentiated good sleepers from those with insomnia and were associated with similar objective indices and a subjective insomnia severity measure. The ability to detect treatment improvements after cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) was tested by comparing pre- and post-CBT-I CSD indices with a subjective rating of insomnia symptom severity. Improvement in insomnia symptom severity was significantly related to improvement on the CSD indices. Completion rate of the CSD amongst participants across all 14 days was 99.8%. These findings provide support for the validity, clinical utility, and usability of the CSD.

  10. The association between park visitation and physical activity measured with accelerometer, GPS, and travel diary

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Orion T.; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Fesinmeyer, Megan D.; Zhou, Chuan; Saelens, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    Public parks are promoted as places that support physical activity (PA), but evidence of how park visitation contributes to overall PA is limited. This study observed adults living in the Seattle metropolitan area (n=671) for one week using accelerometer, GPS, and travel diary. Park visits, measured both objectively (GPS) and subjectively (travel diary), were temporally linked to accelerometer-measured PA. Park visits occurred at 1.4 per person-week. Participants who visited parks at least once (n=308) had an adjusted average of 14.3 (95% CI: 8.9, 19.6) minutes more daily PA than participants who did not visit a park. Even when park-related activity was excluded, park visitors still obtained more minutes of daily PA than non-visitors. Park visitation contributes to a more active lifestyle, but is not solely responsible for it. Parks may best serve to complement broader public health efforts to encourage PA. PMID:26798965

  11. The Diary of Frances Jacobs: Astronomical Observations by a 19th-century Oregon Woman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGown, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    This abstract summarizes my research, transcription and editing of Francis Jacob's 170-page handwritten astronomical diary. This diary is a unique example of a time in early Portland history, illustrating the mind of a young woman who was interested in science and astronomy. Reflected in her diary are the discoveries and mention of leading astronomers of the day like Emerson Bernard and Edward Pickering. Francis Jacobs lived in an era of the great refractors For example, ``The Leviathan," built by Lord Rosse in Ireland was completed in 1847. In this 72-inch telescope, stars of 18th magnitude could be seen. The first spiral nebulae to be revealed was M51 - known today as the Whirlpool Galaxy. The Earl was the first to suggest that these spirals could actually be rotating masses of stars. At the turn of the century, study of observational astronomy was rooted in naked eye observing, study of binary stars and nebula. This was a time when women were becoming interested in the sciences and had begun to play an important role in science and astronomy. It was an incredible inspiration for other women across the country to hear what was happening on the astronomical frontiers at Harvard. Some constellation asterisms used in Francis Jacob's diary were different than they are today. One asterism in particular, the Egyptian Cross, is relatively unknown now. The summer triangle and winter circle asterisms were used in her notes and obviously popular in her era, as today. Her written comments included some Messier catalogue numbers and in some case written on her sketches and diagrams nicknames, such as the 'Dumbbell' nebula. She also referred to M99 as `St. Katherine's Wheel', a nickname that is not in common use today.

  12. Haemoassist--a hand-held electronic patient diary for haemophilia home care.

    PubMed

    Mondorf, W; Siegmund, B; Mahnel, R; Richter, H; Westfeld, M; Galler, A; Pollmann, H

    2009-03-01

    On-demand or prophylactic home-treatment is currently the treatment of choice for haemophilia patients. To allow physicians to monitor the amount of factor concentrates administered, the patients document each factor injection in a paper-diary. Nevertheless, because of the fact that most patients visit their physicians only two to four times a year, there could be considerable delay in detecting medication problems. The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether an electronic documentation tool could successfully replace traditional paper-diaries for haemophilia A patients and enable the physician to have a timely overview of the patient's treatment. An electronic, hand-held documentation tool, Haemoassist, was developed. In this study, patients using prophylaxis and on-demand therapies documented their factor consumption both electronically and on paper-diaries. Documentations were compared and descriptively evaluated. Patients also completed a survey to evaluate the feasibility and gather their opinions on the Haemoassist system. Ten patients from two haemophilia treatment centres in Germany submitted a total of 548 records via hand-held device during the observation period, from March 2006 to February 2007. Comparison of electronic and paper-based records showed differing responses among patients with some patients entering more electronic and some others more paper-based documentations. In the questionnaires on feasibility and usefulness of Haemoassist, three patients preferred the electronic tool, two patients wanted to continue using paper-based diaries, and one had no preference. The study shows that an electronic documentation system is feasible for haemophilia patients and provides the physician with the opportunity to more closely monitor patients. However, not all patients seem to be qualified for using an electronic tool, and the tool has to run reliably without major errors for ensuring reliability and acceptability. In the future, Haemoassist might

  13. The Effects of Diaries on Self-Regulation Strategies of Preservice Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsal, Zeki

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of diaries on self-regulation strategies of the pre-service science teachers. The participants of the study were 60 pre-service science teachers, 30 of which were in the experimental and the remaining 30 were in the control group. The Pintrich's self-regulation model was taken as a basis in the study. The Pintrich's…

  14. Feasibility of utilizing pedometer diaries in a rural African American community-based walking intervention for health promotion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Limited research is available on the feasibility or effectiveness of utilizing pedometer diaries in community-based interventions targeting rural, low socioeconomic, African American populations. The objectives of this walking intervention study were to assess participant adherence to maint...

  15. Fosfomycin in a single dose versus a 7-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Estebanez, A; Pascual, R; Gil, V; Ortiz, F; Santibáñez, M; Pérez Barba, C

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the efficacy of a single dose of 3 g of fosfomycin to that of a 7-day regimen of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A randomised, prospective, interventional, analytical, longitudinal study was undertaken, in which the efficacy of two antibiotic regimens (one short and the other long) in the treatment of pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria is compared. One hundred and nine patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 56 were treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate and 53 with fosfomycin. The two groups were similar in terms of co-morbidity, treatments received during pregnancy, obstetric, gynaecological and surgical history and laboratory data. The efficacy of the two regimens was similar and the eradication rate was over 80% in both groups (P = 0.720) (relative risk [RR] 1.195, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.451-3.165). The number of reinfections was greater in the amoxicillin-clavulanate group (P = 0.045). The secondary effects were lower in the fosfomycin group (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in the number of persistences (P = 0.39), development of symptomatic urinary infections (P = 0.319) or recurrences (P = 0.96). Treatment with a single dose of fosfomycin is as effective as the standard course of treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate and may be preferable due to its simpler administration and the smaller number of reinfections.

  16. [Effect of water-salt dietary supplements on tolerance to head-pelvis acceleration after 7 days of "dry" immersion and during normal motor activity].

    PubMed

    Kokova, N I

    1984-01-01

    The effect of water-salt supplements as an agent increasing human tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration with a slow onset was examined. The test subjects were rotated in a 7.25 m arm centrifuge after 7-day dry immersion or normal motor activity. The water-salt supplements were given at a dose of 0.15 g NaCl and 18 ml water per kg body weight (with the total daily dose consumed in four fractions). During immersion fluid retention was significantly higher than during normal activity (818 +/- 139.7 ml versus 478 +/- 69 ml). Water-salt supplements consumed produced a positive effect on tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration. During centrifugation after water-salt supplementation the physiological responses were less strained. Water-salt supplements taken on the last immersion day increased the tolerance level as compared to the control. The amount of the fluid retained in the body was found to be inversely proportional to the tolerance level. It is concluded that water-salt supplements may be recommended to increase tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration in aerospace medicine.

  17. Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms and air pollution: Methodological issues and results

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. ); Wypij, D.; Dockery D.; Ware, J.; Spengler, J.; Ferris, B. Jr. ); Zeger, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms are a powerful technique for detecting acute effects of air pollution exposure. While conceptually simple, these diary studies can be difficult to analyze. The daily symptom rates are highly correlated, even after adjustment for covariates, and this lack of independence must be considered in the analysis. Possible approaches include the use of incidence instead of prevalence rates and autoregressive models. Heterogeneity among subjects also induces dependencies in the data. These can be addressed by stratification and by two-stage models such as those developed by Korn and Whittemore. These approaches have been applied to two data sets: a cohort of school children participating in the Harvard Six Cities Study and a cohort of student nurses in Los Angeles. Both data sets provide evidence of autocorrelation and heterogeneity. Controlling for autocorrelation corrects the precision estimates, and because diary data are usually positively autocorrelated, this leads to larger variance estimates. Controlling for heterogeneity among subjects appears to increase the effect sizes for air pollution exposure. Preliminary results indicate associations between sulfur dioxide and cough incidence in children and between nitrogen dioxide and phlegm incidence in student nurses.

  18. Pocket-sized psychology studies: exploring daily diary software for palm pilots.

    PubMed

    Le, Benjamin; Choi, Hat Nim; Beal, Daniel J

    2006-05-01

    Daily dairies, also known as experience sampling methods (ESM) or everyday experience methods, are a common methodology utilized to provide insight into momentary psychological processes. Traditionally, such studies often have utilized paper-and-pencil surveys administered several times each day over a span of several days or weeks. However, advances in technology now allow these studies to be conducted using palmtop computers (i.e., personal digital assistants; PDAs). Three software packages for running these studies on the Palm operating system were explored and compared on a number of features Specifically, ESP (Experience Sampling Program, by Feldman Barrett & Barrett, 2001), iESP Version 3.2 (Intel Experience Sampling Program, by Intel Research Seattle & the University of Washington Computer Science and Engineering Department), and PMAT Version 2.0 (Purdue Momentary Assessment Tool, by the Military Family Research Institute at Purdue University) were examined, with their key features compared. These advances in software for running diary studies include a number of features that provide researchers with methods and information previously unavailable in diary studies and may expand the range of possibilities in diary study designs.

  19. Diurnal blood pressure variability and physical activity measured electronically and by diary.

    PubMed

    Gretler, D D; Carlson, G F; Montano, A V; Murphy, M B

    1993-02-01

    In order for 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to be useful in clinical decision making, it is necessary to quantify ambient physical activity and to develop appropriate norms of ambulatory pressure for different levels of activity. The present study has compared the predictive value of physical activity determined by an electronic activity monitor or a written diary, for concomitantly recorded blood pressure during ABPM in healthy normotensive subjects. Each subject wore four activity monitors, on the right and left wrists, on the left ankle and at the waist, respectively. Linear regression analysis was performed for each subject to determine the correlation between ABPM data (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate) and activity data (obtained from diaries and the four monitors). Significant differences in the degree of correlation were found for both the location of the activity monitor and the time (1/2, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min preceding blood pressure measurement) over which activity was averaged (P < .05 by two-way analysis of variance). The best correlation was obtained with the activity monitor worn on the dominant wrist, and when activity was averaged over 2 to 10 min preceding blood pressure determination, accounting for 18 to 69% (mean 36 +/- 5%) of systolic blood pressure variation. Diaries performed similarly in these well-motivated subjects. It is concluded that because of the significant interaction between activity and blood pressure, ABPM data should be interpreted only in the light of concomitant activity data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Exploring multiple sources of climatic information within personal and medical diaries, Bombay 1799-1828

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, George

    2016-04-01

    Private diaries are being recognised as an important source of information on past climatic conditions, providing place-specific, often daily records of meteorological information. As many were not intended for publication, or indeed to be read by anyone other than the author, issues of observer bias are lower than some other types of documentary sources. This paper comprises an exploration of the variety of types of climatic information can be mined from a single document or set of documents. The focus of the analysis is three private and one medical diary kept by British colonists in Bombay, western India, during the first decades of the nineteenth century. The paper discusses the potential of the diaries for reconstruction of precipitation, temperature and extreme events. Ad-hoc temperature observations collected by the four observers prove to be particularly fruitful for reconstructing monthly extreme temperatures, with values comparable to more systematic observations collected during the period. This leads to a tentative conclusion that extreme temperatures in Bombay were around 5°C lower during the period than today, a difference likely predominantly attributable to the urban heat island effect.

  1. Self-reported exertion levels on time/activity diaries: application to exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, M.; Terblanche, A.P.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent developments in air pollution analysis have focused on methods for collecting data on contaminant levels in the locations actually frequented by people, especially personal monitoring. While there is still much to understand about human exposures, the next advancements will be in the area of dose assessment. This paper discusses the results of a study designed to provide data for linking exposure to dose. Specifically, we used time/activity diaries to collect information on the exertion levels associated with the reported activities. As part of a community health study, 91 children between the ages of 9 and 11 kept diaries over a two-week summer-time period (July 1989) and during a two-week school-time period (September 1989). The diary was also administered for two days to 42 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17. This paper describes our concerns about interpreting self-reported exertion levels, particularly with respect to the disparity between participant and researcher perception and coding. We then present the distribution of exertion levels associated with children's activities, highlighting seasonal, day-of-week, and age-group differences.

  2. Digital Photography as an Educational Food Logging Tool in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Lessons Learned from A Randomized, Crossover Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ehrmann, Brett J.; Anderson, Robert M.; Piatt, Gretchen A.; Funnell, Martha M.; Rashid, Hira; Shedden, Kerby; Douyon, Liselle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the utility of, and areas of refinement for, digital photography as an educational tool for food logging in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods Thirty-three patients aged 18-70 with T2DM, BMI at least 30 kg/m2, and A1C 7.5-9% were recruited from an endocrinology clinic and randomized to a week of food logging using a digital camera (DC) or paper diary (PD), crossing over for week two. Patients then viewed a presentation about dietary effects on blood glucose, using patient DC and blood glucose entries. Outcomes of adherence (based on number of weekly entries), changes in mean blood glucose and frequency of blood glucose checks, and patient satisfaction were compared between methods. Patient feedback on the DC intervention and presentation was also analyzed. Results Thirty patients completed the study. Adherence was identical across methods. The mean difference in number of entries was not significant between methods. This difference increased and neared statistical significance (favoring DC) among patients who were adherent for at least one week (21 entries, with 2 entries per day for 5 of 7 days, n=25). Mean blood glucose did not significantly decrease in either method. Patient satisfaction was similar between interventions. Feedback indicated concerns over photograph accuracy, forgetting to use the cameras, and embarrassment using them in public. Conclusion Though comparable to PD in adherence, blood glucose changes, and patient satisfaction in this pilot trial, patient feedback suggested specific areas of refinement to maximize utility of DC-based food logging as an educational tool in T2DM. PMID:24168836

  3. Comparison of follicular dynamics and hormone concentrations between the 7-day and 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR program in primiparous beef cows.

    PubMed

    Bridges, G A; Mussard, M L; Helser, L A; Day, M L

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to compare follicular dynamics, preovulatory estradiol concentrations, and progesterone concentrations between the 7-day (7CO, n = 15) and 5-day (5CO, n = 13) CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) program in primiparous suckled beef cows. On Day -7 (7CO) or Day -5 (5CO), GnRH (100 μg) was administered (GnRH-1) and a CIDR was inserted. On Day 0, hour 0, CIDR was removed and cows received PGF2α (25 mg) at hours 0 and 12. Animals were administered GnRH (100 μg, GnRH-2) at either hour 60 (7CO) or 72 (5CO). Follicular growth and ovulation to both GnRH-1 and GnRH-2 were evaluated using ultrasonography. Concentrations of estradiol were determined in blood samples taken at hours 0, 36, 60, and 72 (5CO). Blood samples were collected on Days 5, 8, and 14 for progesterone quantification. Ovulation rate to GnRH-1 did not differ between the 7CO (11/15) and 5CO (8/13) treatments, and for all dependent variables the statistical model included treatment, ovulation to GnRH-1, and their interaction. Diameter (mm) of the ovulatory follicle did not differ between treatments (13.4 ± 0.3) but was greater (P < 0.05) in cows that responded to GnRH-1 (13.8 ± 0.3) than those did not (12.6 ± 0.6). Maximum estradiol concentrations tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in the 5CO (7.3 ± 0.5 pg/mL) than 7CO (6.1 ± 0.7 pg/mL) treatment and tended to be greater (P = 0.08) in cows that responded to GnRH-1 (7.1 ± 0.5 pg/mL) than those did not (5.6 ± 0.9 pg/mL). Three cows in the 7CO treatment failed to develop a CL after GnRH-2. There was a treatment by response to GnRH-1 interaction (P < 0.05) for progesterone concentrations. In cows that did not respond to GnRH-1 in the 7CO treatment, progesterone concentrations were less (P < 0.05) than in those that responded to GnRH-1 in the 7CO treatment and tended (P = 0.09) to be less than in cows in the 5CO treatment that did not respond to GnRH-1. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that failure to

  4. A phase I trial of the selective oral cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor seliciclib (CYC202; R-Roscovitine), administered twice daily for 7 days every 21 days

    PubMed Central

    Benson, C; White, J; Bono, J De; O'Donnell, A; Raynaud, F; Cruickshank, C; McGrath, H; Walton, M; Workman, P; Kaye, S; Cassidy, J; Gianella-Borradori, A; Judson, I; Twelves, C

    2006-01-01

    Seliciclib (CYC202; R-roscovitine) is the first selective, orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 1, 2, 7 and 9 to enter clinical trial. Preclinical studies showed antitumour activity in a broad range of human tumour xenografts. A phase I trial was performed with a 7-day b.i.d. p.o. schedule. Twenty-one patients (median age 62 years, range: 39–73 years) were treated with doses of 100, 200 and 800 b.i.d. Dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 800 mg b.i.d.; grade 3 fatigue, grade 3 skin rash, grade 3 hyponatraemia and grade 4 hypokalaemia. Other toxicities included reversible raised creatinine (grade 2), reversible grade 3 abnormal liver function and grade 2 emesis. An 800 mg portion was investigated further in 12 patients, three of whom had MAG3 renograms. One patient with a rapid increase in creatinine on day 3 had a reversible fall in renal perfusion, with full recovery by day 14, and no changes suggestive of renal tubular damage. Further dose escalation was precluded by hypokalaemia. Seliciclib reached peak plasma concentrations between 1 and 4 h and elimination half-life was 2–5 h. Inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation was not demonstrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. No objective tumour responses were noted, but disease stabilisation was recorded in eight patients; this lasted for a total of six courses (18 weeks) in a patient with ovarian cancer. PMID:17179992

  5. Trichilia monadelpha bark extracts inhibit carrageenan-induced foot-oedema in the 7-day old chick and the oedema associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ainooson, G K; Owusu, G; Woode, E; Ansah, C; Annan, K

    2012-01-01

    Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Meliaceae) bark extract is used in African traditional medicine for the management of various disease conditions including inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. monadelpha using the 7-day old chick-carrageenan footpad oedema (acute inflammation) and the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (chronic inflammation). TWE and TPEE significantly inhibited the chick-carrageenan footpad oedema with maximal inhibitions of 57.79±3.92 and 63.83±12 respectively, but TAE did not. The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of 64.92±2.03 and 71.85±15.34 respectively. Furthermore, all the extracts and the reference anti-inflammatory agents (diclofenac, dexamethasone, methotrexate) inhibited the inflammatory oedema associated with adjuvant arthritis with maximal inhibitions of 64.41±5.56, 57.04±8.57, 62.18±2.56%, for TWE, TAE and TPEE respectively and 80.28±5.79, 85.75±2.96, 74.68±3.03% for diclofenac, dexamethasone and methotrexate respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant bark confirmed the presence of a large array of plant constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids, all of which may be potential sources of phyto-antiinflammatory agents. In conclusion, our work suggests that T. monadelpha is a potential source of antiinflammatory agents.

  6. Concentrations of dapivirine in the rhesus macaque and rabbit following once daily intravaginal administration of a gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Jeremy P; Thake, Daryl C; Lewis, Mark G; Ferkany, John W; Romano, Joseph W; Mitchnick, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    Dapivirine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being developed as a topical microbicide for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The distribution of radioactivity and drug in plasma and in vaginal, cervical, and draining lymph node tissues was investigated after daily application of a vaginal gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine to rhesus macaques. This was preceded by a preliminary study with rabbits. Following the intravaginal administration of [14C]dapivirine ( approximately 0.1 mg/ml [15 microCi/ml]) to rabbits (0.5 ml/day) and macaques (1 ml/day) for 7 days, the dapivirine levels associated with vaginal and cervical tissue samples 1 h after the final dose were high (quantities of microg/g of tissue) and remained detectable at 24 h (mean, >or=2.5 ng/g in rabbits) and 48 h (mean, >80 ng/g in macaques). Radioactivity levels were low in the plasma and very low or unquantifiable in the draining lymph nodes of the macaques. Microautoradiography identified drug-related material (DRM) on the surfaces of the vaginal and cervical tissues of the rabbits and macaques. Although DRM was primarily associated with the outermost layer of shedding cells in rabbits, two animals showed some evidence of small quantities in the mucosal epithelium of the cervix. In macaques, DRM was seen within the keratinized layer of the vaginal epithelium and and was found to extend into the superficial cellular layers, and in at least one animal it appeared to be present in the deepest (germinal) layer of the epithelium and in submucosal tissues. The persistence of biologically significant concentrations of dapivirine in vaginal and cervical tissues for >24 h supports the development of dapivirine as a microbicide for once daily application.

  7. Comparison of global positioning system (GPS) tracking and parent-report diaries to characterize children's time-location patterns.

    PubMed

    Elgethun, Kai; Yost, Michael G; Fitzpatrick, Cole T E; Nyerges, Timothy L; Fenske, Richard A

    2007-03-01

    Respondent error, low resolution, and study participant burden are known limitations of diary timelines used in exposure studies such as the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS). Recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology have produced tracking devices sufficiently portable, functional and affordable to utilize in exposure assessment science. In this study, a differentially corrected GPS (dGPS) tracking device was compared to the NHEXAS diary timeline. The study also explored how GPS can be used to evaluate and improve such diary timelines by determining which location categories and which respondents are least likely to record "correct" time-location responses. A total of 31 children ages 3-5 years old wore a dGPS device for all waking hours on a weekend day while their parents completed the NHEXAS diary timeline to document the child's time-location pattern. Parents misclassified child time-location approximately 48% of the time using the NHEXAS timeline in comparison to dGPS. Overall concordance between methods was marginal (kappa=0.33-0.35). The dGPS device found that on average, children spent 76% of the 24-h study period in the home. The diary underestimated time the child spent in the home by 17%, while overestimating time spent inside other locations, outside at home, outside in other locations, and time spent in transit. Diary data for time spent outside at home and time in transit had the lowest response concordance with dGPS. The diaries of stay-at-home mothers and mothers working unskilled labor jobs had lower concordance with dGPS than did those of the other participants. The ability of dGPS tracking to collect continuous rather than categorical (ordinal) data was also demonstrated. It is concluded that automated GPS tracking measurements can improve the quality and collection efficiency of time-location data in exposure assessment studies, albeit for small cohorts.

  8. Agreement between paper and pen visual analogue scales and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system (PRO-Diary©), for continuous monitoring of free-living subjective appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, P L S; Dodd-Reynolds, C J; Stevenson, E

    2013-10-01

    Electronic capture of free-living subjective appetite data can provide a more reliable alternative to traditional pen and paper visual analogue scales (P&P VAS), whilst reducing researcher workload. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the agreement between P&P VAS and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system known as the PRO-Diary© technique, for monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children. On one occasion, using a within-subject design, the 12 children (n=6 boys; n=6 girls) recorded their subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption, and fullness), at two time points before lunch (11:30 and 12:00) and every 60 min thereafter until 21:00. The agreement between the P&P VAS and PRO-Diary© technique was explored using 95% limits of agreement and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using the Bland and Altman (1986) technique. For hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness, the 95% limits of agreement were -1±25 mm (95% CI: lower limit -8mm; upper limit +6mm), 0±21 mm (95% CI: lower limit -6mm; upper limit +6mm) and -6±24 mm (95% CI: lower limit -14 mm; upper limit +1mm), respectively. Given the advantages associated with electronic data capture (inexpensive; integrated alarm; data easily downloaded), we conclude that the PRO-Diary© technique is an equivalent method to employ when continuously monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children, but should not be used interchangeably with P&P VAS.

  9. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Azevedo, Bruna Fernades; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  10. Events diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    From 18 January until 28 March the 2000 IEE Faraday Lecture will be touring venues in the UK, aiming to inspire and encourage students to choose a career in science and engineering. The lecture tour is being supported by communications and IT company, Marconi, and it is being presented by University College London. Interactive experiments for the audience of 14 - 16 year-olds will combine with a multimedia presentation on the theme `Time and Place in the Communications Age', exploring our ability to make precise measurements of time, place and space and how these impact on our personal and business lives. Among the curious facts from the lecture is the discovery that Cornwall rises and falls by 20 cm every time the tide moves in and out. The whole of the UK rises and falls by 50 cm every time the Moon goes by and the UK is actually 20 m shorter than was thought ten years ago, before the Global Positioning Satellite system was in operation. Attendance at the lectures is free and schools interested in booking tickets should visit the Faraday website at www.faraday.org.uk . Further details of the tour are available from the Faraday Lecture Office, Institution of Electrical Engineers, Michael Faraday House, Six Hills Way, Stevenage, Herts SG1 2AY (tel: 01438 313311, fax: 01438 742856, e-mail: faraday@iee.org.uk ). Among the `Strands' on the programme at the 2000 Edinburgh international science festival on 2 - 18 April are: visions of the future; time; the natural world; new materials; science book festival; science film festival. Festival programmes should be available soon from the festival office at 8 Lochend Road, Edinburgh EH6 8BR (tel: 0131 530 2001, fax: 0131 530 2002, e-mail: esf@scifest.demon.co.uk ). BA2000 will be one of the key features of the `creating SPARKS' festival where the sciences meet the arts in London during 6 - 30 September. Centred on South Kensington, and led by the British Association, creating SPARKS will be staged at such famous institutions as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  11. Stool Diary

    MedlinePlus

    ... descriptors for describing stool consistency: Type 1: Separate hard lumps, like nuts. Type 2: Sausage-shaped but lumpy. Type 3: Like a sausage or snake but with cracks on its surface. Type 4: Like a sausage or snake, smooth and soft. ...

  12. Motorcycle Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Hope J.

    2005-01-01

    This article relates the experiences of Jeff Fischer, an instructor in the Computer Integrated Machining department at South Central College (SCC) in North Mankato, Minnesota. Facing dwindling student enrollment and possible departmental budget costs, Fischer was able to turn his passion for custom-built cycles and the intricate machining that…

  13. Phases of organ integration and conflict in a transplant recipient: a longitudinal study using a diary.

    PubMed

    Decker, Oliver; Lehmann, Antje; Fangmann, Josef; Brosig, Burkhard; Winter, Merve

    2008-09-01

    In this paper the results from a research project on self-perception and psychological processing following transplantation of solid organs are presented. A diary at the individual case level was introduced to generate a longitudinal analysis. In the following paper we describe an evaluation of the entries of a single patient following a living donor kidney transplant. Conflicts in the relationship between the transplant recipient and the donor, who is also his wife, are clearly evident, and these are interpreted as incorporation conflicts in light of current psychoanalytic theory.

  14. Earliest datable records of aurora-like phenomena in the astronomical diaries from Babylonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Mitsuma, Yasuyuki; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Miyahara, Hiroko; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2016-11-01

    The astronomical diaries from Babylonia (ADB) are excellent sources of information of natural phenomena, including astronomical ones, in pre-Christ era because it contains the record of highly continuous and systematic observations. In this article, we present results of a survey of aurora-like phenomena in ADB, spanning from BCE 652 to BCE 61. We have found nine records of aurora-like phenomena. Philological and scientific examinations suggest that five of them can be considered as likely candidate for aurora observations. They provide unique information about the solar and aurora activities in the first millennium BCE. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Earliest datable records of aurora-like phenomena in the astronomical diaries from Babylonia.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Mitsuma, Yasuyuki; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Miyahara, Hiroko; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The astronomical diaries from Babylonia (ADB) are excellent sources of information of natural phenomena, including astronomical ones, in pre-Christ era because it contains the record of highly continuous and systematic observations. In this article, we present results of a survey of aurora-like phenomena in ADB, spanning from BCE 652 to BCE 61. We have found nine records of aurora-like phenomena. Philological and scientific examinations suggest that five of them can be considered as likely candidate for aurora observations. They provide unique information about the solar and aurora activities in the first millennium BCE. Graphical abstract.

  16. Using diaries to measure parameters of transactional sex: an example from the Trans-Africa highway in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Alan G; Morris, Chester N; Kariuki, Cecilia W

    2006-01-01

    Conventional methods of elicitation have severe limitations where sensitive information is being sought, resulting from both self-disclosure and recall bias. The use of diaries largely circumvents both of these problems. Four hundred and three female sex workers based on a section of the Trans-Africa Highway in Kenya completed standard diaries for consecutive 28-day periods. Variables measured included numbers and types of different clients, condom use, occupation of client, movement patterns and days of menses. Mean numbers of sexual partners, liaisons and sex acts and inter-relationships between the variables measured are analysed. The study affirms the value of diaries as an elicitation method for studying transactional sex in a resource-poor setting. Usable diaries were received from 70% of those who had agreed to participate in the study. The diaries yield detailed quantitative data that describe the characteristics and dynamics of transactional sex on a major highway in Africa and provide information that may be used to estimate HIV transmission rates.

  17. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  18. Threatened belonging and preference for comfort food among the securely attached.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Jordan D; Gabriel, Shira; Derrick, Jaye L; Geisler, Alyssa

    2015-07-01

    Research has shown that comfort food triggers relationship-related cognitions and can fulfill belongingness needs for those secure in attachment (i.e., for those with positive relationship cognitions) (Troisi & Gabriel, 2011). Building on these ideas, we examined if securely attached individuals prefer comfort food because of its "social utility" (i.e., its capacity to fulfill belongingness needs) in one experiment and one daily diary study using two samples of university students from the United States. Study 1 (n = 77) utilized a belongingness threat essay among half of the participants, and the results showed that securely attached participants preferred the taste of a comfort food (i.e., potato chips) more after the belongingness threat. Study 2 (n = 86) utilized a 14-day daily diary design and found that securely attached individuals consumed more comfort food in response to naturally occurring feelings of isolation. Implications for the social nature of food preferences are discussed.

  19. Comparison of prospective daily diaries and retrospective recall to measure oral contraceptive adherence

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Larissa R. Brunner; Broel, Elizabeth C.; Mitchelides, Ashley N.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Dulin, Michael; Scholes, Delia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine if retrospective recall of oral contraceptive (OC) adherence provides data that are similar to data collected via daily diaries over the same time period. Factors associated with inconsistent agreement between prospective and retrospective measurements of adherence also were explored. STUDY DESIGN A total of 185 women participated in a longitudinal, prospective cohort of OC users and 113 of these women provided complete information on OC adherence during follow-ups. Concordance beyond chance was assessed using weighted kappa statistics and logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with inconsistent reporting of adherence. RESULTS There was substantial agreement between prospective and retrospective adherence information (weighted kappa=0.64; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.77). Participants with a high school education or less and those who had problems with feeling sad while using OCs had increased odds of inconsistent reporting of adherence (OR=4.38, 95% CI: 1.41, 13.61 and OR=3.52, 95% CI: 1.25, 9.94; respectively). CONCLUSION While prospective data collection via diaries may improve accuracy, the added expense and burden on study participants may not be necessary. However, the use of retrospective recall may not be appropriate for all study populations. PMID:23582236

  20. Hay fever in a changing climate: linking an Internet-based diary with environmental data.

    PubMed

    Medek, Danielle Eve; Kljakovic, Marjan; Fox, Ian; Pretty, David George; Prebble, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    Investigating the impact of climate change on human health requires the development of efficient tools that link patient symptoms with changing environmental variables. We developed an internet-based hay fever diary linked to simultaneously recorded pollen load and weather variables in Canberra, Australia over spring 2010. We recruited 42 hay fever sufferers to complete a simple online pollen diary daily over a period of 60 days. In conjunction, daily airborne pollen load was counted and meteorological data collected simultaneously. We focused on the relationships between temperature, rainfall, pollen count and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. Pollen load increased after a peak rainfall event until the end of the study. Compliance was high, averaging 79% of days per person. Nasal rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms increased in concert with increasing pollen load, and then remained high. Mucosal itching increased more gradually and strongly coincided with increased daily maximum temperature. Our study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of linking pollen load and climate variables to symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis in the Australian community. However, a larger study would better explore the nature of associations between these variables. Similar online methods could be used to monitor a range of health responses to our changing environment.

  1. Getting to the heart of the matter: a diary study of swimmers' appraisals of organisational stressors.

    PubMed

    Didymus, Faye F; Fletcher, David

    2012-01-01

    We explored sport performers' cognitive appraisals of organisational stressors. The relevant demands and transactional alternatives that athletes experience in relation to the situational properties were identified. Thirteen national standard swimmers completed semi-structured, interval-contingent daily diaries for a 28-day period. A combination of inductive and deductive content analysis was used to organise and analyse the diary entries with a focus on the following areas: organisational stressors, their underlying situational properties, and the swimmers' transactional alternatives. One hundred and thirty-one of the organisational stressors were appraised as threat, 41 as challenge, and 83 as harm/loss. Support was found for the majority of Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) situational properties with the only exception being temporal uncertainty. Imminence was associated with the greatest number of threat appraisals (47), novelty was associated with the greatest number of challenge appraisals (17), and duration was associated with the greatest number of harm/loss appraisals (22). It is concluded that appraisal plays a pivotal role in sport performers' experiences of their organisational environment. Swimmers' transactional alternatives are influenced by the situational properties of the stressors encountered.

  2. True and false autobiographical memories in schizophrenia: preliminary results of a diary study.

    PubMed

    Pernot-Marino, Elodie; Schuster, Caroline; Hedelin, Guy; Berna, Fabrice; Zimmermann, Marie-Agathe; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2010-08-30

    The frequency of true and false autobiographical memories and associated states of conscious awareness, i.e., conscious recollection and simply knowing, as well as the respective roles of affective and cognitive processes in autobiographical memory construction, were assessed in eight patients with schizophrenia and eight control participants. A diary study methodology was used in combination with the Remember/Know procedure. The results showed a higher frequency of Know responses associated with the retrieval of both true and false memories in patients than in control participants. Whereas control participants rated higher at retrieval than at encoding the distinctiveness and personal importance of events, as well as the extent to which events furthered current personal plans, patients exhibited an opposite pattern of ratings, with ratings being lower at retrieval than at encoding. These preliminary results show a high frequency of simply knowing associated with the retrieval of true and false autobiographical memories in patients with schizophrenia and provide evidence for the interest of the diary study methodology for studying autobiographical memory in schizophrenia.

  3. Contrasting Regulatory Focus and Reinforcement Sensitivity: A Daily Diary Study of Goal Pursuit and Emotion.

    PubMed

    Eddington, Kari M; Majestic, Catherine; Silvia, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of motivational orientation on daily affect and goal pursuit. Based on recent revisions to Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, measures of BIS (BIS-r and Fight-Flight-Freeze System or FFFS), BAS, and regulatory focus (Promotion and Prevention) were administered to 84 college students who participated in a 14-day diary study. Diary items assessed goal-directed activities and positive and negative affect (PA and NA). Results showed that higher FFFS and Promotion were consistently associated with higher NA and PA, respectively, and FFFS was also associated with avoidance of responsibilities. Higher Promotion predicted greater daily goal progress and tendencies to rate goals as more promotion- and prevention-focused. Relationships between daily goal-directed activities and both sadness and satisfaction were moderated by BIS-r. Inconsistent with our hypothesis, low BAS Reward Responsiveness predicted increased enthusiasm with greater goal progress. A trend in the data showed evidence of regulatory fit in daily activities predicted by both Promotion and Prevention. Implications for the theoretical and practical distinctions between measures of motivational orientation are discussed.

  4. University students' notebook computer use: lessons learned using e-diaries to report musculoskeletal discomfort.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, K; Foley, G; Punnett, L; Hall, V; Gore, R; Brownson, E; Ansong, E; Markowitz, J; McKinnon, M; Steinberg, S; Ing, A; Wuest, Ellen; Dibiccari, Leah

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to identify if notebook accessories (ergonomic chair, desktop monitor and notebook riser) combined with a wireless keyboard, mouse and participatory ergonomics training would have the greatest impact on reducing self-reported upper extremity musculoskeletal discomfort in university students. In addition to pre-post computing and health surveys, the Ecological Momentary Assessment was used to capture change in discomfort over time using a personal digital assistant (PDA) as the e-diary. The PDA was programmed with a survey containing 45 questions. Four groups of university students were randomised to either intervention (three external computer accessories) or to control. Participants reported less discomfort with the ergonomic chair and notebook riser based on the pre-post survey data and the e-diary/PDA ANOVA analysis. However, the PDA data, adjusted for the effect of hours per day of computer use, showed no benefit of the chair and limited benefit from the riser. Statement of Relevance:University students' use of notebook computers has increased. This study found evidence of a positive effect of an adjustable chair or notebook riser when combined with ergonomic training on reducing discomfort. Daily notebook computer use of 4 h was confirmed as a risk factor. Without some form of ergonomic intervention, these students are likely to enter the workforce with poor computing habits, which places them on the road to future injuries as technology continues to play a dominant role in their lives.

  5. Treatment of chronic insomnia with yoga: a preliminary study with sleep-wake diaries.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2004-12-01

    There is good evidence for cognitive and physiological arousal in chronic insomnia. Accordingly, clinical trial studies of insomnia treatments aimed at reducing arousal, including relaxation and meditation, have reported positive results. Yoga is a multicomponent practice that is also known to be effective in reducing arousal, although it has not been well evaluated as a treatment for insomnia. In this preliminary study, a simple daily yoga treatment was evaluated in a chronic insomnia population consisting of sleep-onset and/or sleep-maintenance insomnia and primary or secondary insomnia. Participants maintained sleep-wake diaries during a pretreatment 2-week baseline and a subsequent 8-week intervention, in which they practiced the treatment on their own following a single in-person training session with subsequent brief in-person and telephone follow-ups. Sleep efficiency (SE), total sleep time (TST), total wake time (TWT), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), number of awakenings, and sleep quality measures were derived from sleep-wake diary entries and were averaged in 2-week intervals. For 20 participants completing the protocol, statistically significant improvements were observed in SE, TST, TWT, SOL, and WASO at end-treatment as compared with pretreatment values.

  6. An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an “app” created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33 %) or having a high school diploma (33 %). The mean age was 39 years (SD = 11.78). Anal intercourse occurred on days when women also reported using illicit drugs, specifically methamphetamine and cocaine. Anal intercourse was not an isolated sexual activity, but took place on days when vaginal intercourse and giving and receiving oral sex also occurred along with illicit drug use. Anal intercourse also occurred on days when women reported they wanted sex. HIV prevention interventions must address the risks of anal intercourse for women, taking into account concurrent drug use and sexual pleasure that may reduce individual harm-reduction behaviors. PMID:25835461

  7. Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex.

    PubMed

    Becht, Andrik I; Branje, Susan J T; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Maciejewski, Dominique F; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Denissen, Jaap J A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with regard to future implications to study identity processes, both on smaller and larger time intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an "app" created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33 %) or having a high school diploma (33 %). The mean age was 39 years (SD = 11.78). Anal intercourse occurred on days when women also reported using illicit drugs, specifically methamphetamine and cocaine. Anal intercourse was not an isolated sexual activity, but took place on days when vaginal intercourse and giving and receiving oral sex also occurred along with illicit drug use. Anal intercourse also occurred on days when women reported they wanted sex. HIV prevention interventions must address the risks of anal intercourse for women, taking into account concurrent drug use and sexual pleasure that may reduce individual harm-reduction behaviors.

  9. Sleep diaries of Vietnam War veterans with chronic PTSD: the relationships among insomnia symptoms, psychosocial stress, and nightmares.

    PubMed

    Gehrman, Philip R; Harb, Gerlinde C; Cook, Joan M; Barilla, Holly; Ross, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired sleep and nightmares are known symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the veteran population. In order to assess prospectively the sleep disturbances in this population, sleep diaries are an effective way to obtain information over an extended period of time. In this investigation, a sample of veterans (N = 105) completed daily sleep diaries for a 6-week period. Greater PTSD severity and nightmare-related distress were correlated with more awakenings, shorter duration of sleep, longer sleep latency, and greater frequency of nightmares. Perceived frequency of daytime stressors was associated with an increased number of nightmares, nightmare-related distress, and longer sleep latency. The use of sleep diaries in future investigations may allow targeted treatments for veteran populations with PTSD and sleep disturbances.

  10. The Effectiveness of Parental Communication in Modifying the Relation between Food Advertising and Children's Consumption Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer…

  11. Graduated Frequencies alcohol measures for monitoring consumption patterns: Results from an Australian national survey and a US diary validity study.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Kerr, William C; Bond, Jason; Ye, Yu; Stockwell, Tim

    2009-10-01

    We investigate several types of graduated frequency (GF) instruments for monitoring drinking patterns. Two studies with 12-month GF measures and daily data were used: (i) the Australian 2004 National Drug Strategy Household Survey (n = 24,109 aged 12+; 22,546 with GF and over 8000 with yesterday data) and (ii) a US methodological study involving a 28-day daily diary plus GF summary measures drawn from the National Alcohol Survey (n = 3,025 screened, 119 eligible study completers). The NDSHS involved (i) "drop and collect" self-completed forms with random sampling methods; the Measurement study (ii) screened 3+ drinkers by telephone and collected 28-day drinking diaries and pre- and post-diary 28-day GFs. We compared mean values for the GF quantity ranges from yesterday's drinks (study i) and 28-day diaries (study ii), also examining volume influence. Using Yesterday's drinking, Australian results showed GF quantity range means close to arithmetic midpoints and volume effects only for the lowest two levels (1-2, and 3-4 drinks; p < .001). U.S. calibration results on the GF using 28-day diaries were similar, with a volume effect only at these low quantity levels (p < .001). Means for the highest quantity thresholds were 23.5 drinks for the 20+ (10 gram) drink level (Australia) and 15.5 drinks for the 12+ (14 g) drink level (US). In the US study, summary GF frequency and volume were highly consistent with diary-based counterparts. A conclusion is that algorithms for computing volume may be refined using validation data. We suggest measurement methods may be improved by taking better account of empirical drink ethanol content.

  12. Contact Patterns in a High School: A Comparison between Data Collected Using Wearable Sensors, Contact Diaries and Friendship Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Mastrandrea, Rossana; Fournet, Julie; Barrat, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Given their importance in shaping social networks and determining how information or transmissible diseases propagate in a population, interactions between individuals are the subject of many data collection efforts. To this aim, different methods are commonly used, ranging from diaries and surveys to decentralised infrastructures based on wearable sensors. These methods have each advantages and limitations but are rarely compared in a given setting. Moreover, as surveys targeting friendship relations might suffer less from memory biases than contact diaries, it is interesting to explore how actual contact patterns occurring in day-to-day life compare with friendship relations and with online social links. Here we make progresses in these directions by leveraging data collected in a French high school and concerning (i) face-to-face contacts measured by two concurrent methods, namely wearable sensors and contact diaries, (ii) self-reported friendship surveys, and (iii) online social links. We compare the resulting data sets and find that most short contacts are not reported in diaries while long contacts have a large reporting probability, and that the durations of contacts tend to be overestimated in the diaries. Moreover, measured contacts corresponding to reported friendship can have durations of any length but all long contacts do correspond to a reported friendship. On the contrary, online links that are not also reported in the friendship survey correspond to short face-to-face contacts, highlighting the difference of nature between reported friendships and online links. Diaries and surveys suffer moreover from a low sampling rate, as many students did not fill them, showing that the sensor-based platform had a higher acceptability. We also show that, despite the biases of diaries and surveys, the overall structure of the contact network, as quantified by the mixing patterns between classes, is correctly captured by both networks of self-reported contacts and

  13. Contact Patterns in a High School: A Comparison between Data Collected Using Wearable Sensors, Contact Diaries and Friendship Surveys.

    PubMed

    Mastrandrea, Rossana; Fournet, Julie; Barrat, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Given their importance in shaping social networks and determining how information or transmissible diseases propagate in a population, interactions between individuals are the subject of many data collection efforts. To this aim, different methods are commonly used, ranging from diaries and surveys to decentralised infrastructures based on wearable sensors. These methods have each advantages and limitations but are rarely compared in a given setting. Moreover, as surveys targeting friendship relations might suffer less from memory biases than contact diaries, it is interesting to explore how actual contact patterns occurring in day-to-day life compare with friendship relations and with online social links. Here we make progresses in these directions by leveraging data collected in a French high school and concerning (i) face-to-face contacts measured by two concurrent methods, namely wearable sensors and contact diaries, (ii) self-reported friendship surveys, and (iii) online social links. We compare the resulting data sets and find that most short contacts are not reported in diaries while long contacts have a large reporting probability, and that the durations of contacts tend to be overestimated in the diaries. Moreover, measured contacts corresponding to reported friendship can have durations of any length but all long contacts do correspond to a reported friendship. On the contrary, online links that are not also reported in the friendship survey correspond to short face-to-face contacts, highlighting the difference of nature between reported friendships and online links. Diaries and surveys suffer moreover from a low sampling rate, as many students did not fill them, showing that the sensor-based platform had a higher acceptability. We also show that, despite the biases of diaries and surveys, the overall structure of the contact network, as quantified by the mixing patterns between classes, is correctly captured by both networks of self-reported contacts and

  14. Clinical bioequivalence of a dose of clopidogrel Leti Cravid tablets 75 mg versus clopidogrel Sanofi Plavix tablets 75 mg administered on a daily dose for 7 days on healthy volunteers: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Aixa; Octavio, José; González, María Y; Contreras, Jesús; Méndez, Gisela; Portillo, Milagros; Valero, Zuleima

    2010-01-01

    Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention procedures, as in patients with coronary disease, should receive treatment indefinitely with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel. New brands of clopidogrel have been developed at lower costs, for helping to avoid premature suspension of antiplatelet therapy, as Cravid Leti Laboratories clopidogrel. Its effectiveness and safety must be compared with Plavix international standard. A prospective, comparative, cross-over, and randomized study was conducted in healthy volunteers. Each group received 1 tablet of Clopidogrel Leti or Clopidogrel Sanofi, 75 mg in a single dose daily for 7 days, followed by 7-day washout period before administration of second treatment. Platelet aggregation was measured at the start of each period and at 7 days of treatment through optical aggregometry, using an optical aggregometer 490-2D Chrono-Log, with a self-calibration system working with platelet-rich plasma with readings 0%-100% of light transmission. An important decrease of platelet aggregation was observed in both groups at 7 days of treatment of more than 50%, independent of adenosine diphosphate reactive (Helena and Chrono-Log) used for aggregation (P < 0.05). The relationship between the mean and 90% confidence interval ratio obtained with the 2 different adenosine diphosphate brands were between 80% and 125%, therefore, it can be considered that both brands are bioequivalent and perfectly exchangeable.

  15. Using Digital and Paper Diaries for Assessment and Learning Purposes in Higher Education: A Case of Critical Reflection or Constrained Compliance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleaves, Alan; Walker, Caroline; Grey, John

    2008-01-01

    This is the second of two papers based on a study of how digital and paper diaries contribute to students' understanding of the processes of their learning within their academic disciplines. The purpose of the study was to use diary writing as a vehicle by which we would try and comprehend how students both make sense of assessment feedback and…

  16. Notepad Is NOT Bad: Employing Yahoo! Notepad as an Online Research Diary in Educational Enquiry Based on a PhD Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2011-01-01

    Reflective tools have been gaining ground in educational research. Diaries, especially electronic ones, can be effective in enabling researchers to organise and reflect upon their research. Online diaries are flexible Web-based facilities since the recording process can be conducted quickly and smoothly. Here, I report on using Yahoo! Notepad as…

  17. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your ...

  18. [Examination of the effects of stress coping on later affect using daily diary methods].

    PubMed

    Takamoto, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    In response to recent calls in the literature for within-person examination of coping processes over time, this study used daily diary methods to investigate the relationships between daily events, coping, and daily affects. Every day for two weeks, 62 undergraduates recorded their perceived interpersonal stress, most troublesome events, how they coped, positive events, and positive and negative affect. A hierarchical linear model was used to examine the relations between these variables. The results suggested that both positive and negative events made significantly influenced current-day positive and negative affect. In addition, avoidance thinking was associated with within-level adjustment, while emotional sharing with others, distancing and positive reappraisal were associated with within-level maladjustment.

  19. Syntactic and semantic coordination in finite complement-clause constructions: a diary-based case study.

    PubMed

    Köymen, Bahar; Lieven, Elena; Brandt, Silke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of matrix and subordinate clauses within finite complement-clause constructions. The data come from diary and audio recordings which include the utterances produced by an American English-speaking child, L, between the ages 1;08 and 3;05. We extracted all the finite complement-clause constructions that L produced and compared the grammatical acceptability of these utterances with that of the simple sentences of the same length produced within the same two weeks and with that of the simple sentences containing the same verb produced within the same month. The results show that L is more likely to make syntactic errors in finite complement-clause constructions than she does in her simple sentences of the same length or with the same verb. This suggests that the errors are more likely to arise from the syntactic and semantic coordination of the two clauses rather than limitations in performance or lexical knowledge.

  20. Use of Daily Phone Diary to study religiosity and mood: Convergent validity

    PubMed Central

    Szczesniak, Rhonda D.; Zou, Yuanshu; Dimitriou, Sophia M.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Grossoehme, Daniel H.

    2017-01-01

    Studies of religious/spiritual behavior frequently rely on self-reported questionnaire data, which is susceptible to bias. The Daily Phone Diary (DPD) was developed to minimize bias in reporting activities and behavior across a 24-hour period. A cross-sectional study of 126 parents of children with cystic fibrosis was used to establish the validity of the DPD to study religious/spiritual behaviors. Longitudinal models were used to determine the odds of improved mood during religious/spiritual activities. Convergent validity was found. Participants had increased odds of improved mood during religious/spiritual activities compared to non-religious/spiritual activities. Associations with gender and religious affiliations were found. The DPD is a valid tool for studying religious/spiritual activities and opens novel avenues for chaplaincy research and the development of chaplaincy interventions incorporating these findings. PMID:27869567

  1. Maternal daily diary report in the assessment of childhood separation anxiety.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jennifer L; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of separation anxiety, the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD). Mother and child participants consisted of three groups: 96 children (aged 4-15 years) with separation anxiety disorder, 49 children with "other" anxiety disorders, and 43 healthy controls. The SADD assesses the frequency of anxiety-provoking and non-anxiety-provoking separations, along with associated parental anxiety, thoughts, child behaviors, and corresponding parental reactions. The SADD demonstrated acceptable compliance and convergent validity with hypothesized measures. Substantial improvement in the prediction of diagnostic group membership was shown when SADD items assessing child symptoms were added to information gathered from a separation anxiety symptom questionnaire.

  2. [Extraordinary news of a curious apothecary. Monsters and wonders in the Florentine diary of Luca Landucci].

    PubMed

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    This article offers a new reading of the well-known diary kept by the Florentine apothecary Luca Landucci between 1450 and 1516, examining its accounts of prodigies and other "monstrous" occurrences from a modern scientific point of view. Particular consideration is given to descriptions of a variety of birth defects observed in various Italian cities at the time, providing explanations for each case based on the latest medical theories. A detailed analysis is provided for a case of cranioschisis recorded in Volterra in 1474, a case of Opitz syndrome occurring in Venice in 1489, the birth of conjoined twins in Padua in the same year, conjoined triplets born to a 60-year-old woman in Venice, the well-publicized account of the 1512 Ravenna monster and, finally, the thoraco-acephalus tetramelus adolescent that Landucci personally observed in Florence in 1513.

  3. Early phonological and lexical development and otitis media: a diary study.

    PubMed

    Donahue, M L

    1993-10-01

    This diary study describes early phonological and lexical development in a child with chronic otitis media with effusion. Equipped with the tools of a referential/analytic language-learner, the child solved the problem of reduced and fluctuating auditory input with phonological selection and avoidance strategies that capitalized on prosodic cues. This 'tone-language' approach resulted in a lexical inventory that would be categorized as an extreme expressive style. Having 'boot-strapped' her lexical learning, the child continued to rely on phonological constraints and selection strategies to fuel lexical and syntactic growth, i.e. cross-domain interactions leading to a vocabulary spurt and the onset of two-word utterances. These findings illustrate the need to consider interactions among performance, input and linguistic constraints in order to explain individual variation in language learning.

  4. Modeling trait and state variation using multilevel factor analysis with PANAS daily diary data

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Erin L.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This study used daily diary data to model trait and state Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA) using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Data were collected from 364 college students over five days. Intraclass correlation coefficients suggested approximately equal amounts of variability at the trait and state levels. Multilevel factor analysis revealed that the model specifying two correlated factors (PA, NA) and correlated uniqueness terms among redundant items provided the best fit. Trait and state PA and NA were generally associated with stress, anxiety, depression, and three types of self-esteem (performance, academic, social). The coefficients describing these relationships differed somewhat, suggesting that trait and state measurement may have different predictive utility. PMID:21516166

  5. Oskar Kokoschka and Alma Mahler: art as diary and as therapy.

    PubMed

    Blum, Harold P

    2011-01-01

    The Austrian artist, Oskar Kokoschka, had an affair with Alma Mahler, widow of the composer Gustav Mahler, 1912-1914. This affair profoundly influenced his life and art. His palette at first brightened, with thick brush strokes and flashes of light and dark, indicating his psychological and emotional lability. Painting what he did not or could not express in words, his art of this period can be understood as an intimate visual diary of the vicissitudes of his relationship with Alma Mahler. For Kokoschka his work became a form of art therapy, following the crushing loss of Alma Mahler and near fatal physical injuries sustained in World War I. His gradual recovery was associated with his extraordinary attachment to and destruction of a lifelike effigy of Alma Mahler, thereby working through childhood trauma.

  6. Dispositional Hope and the Propensity to Cope: A Daily Diary Assessment of Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Scott C.; Duangado, Kate M.; Vaughn, Allison A.; Aldridge, Arianna A.; Villodas, Feion

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the predictive ability of dispositional hope components (pathways, agency) in explaining minority adolescents’ consistent use of daily coping strategies. Using daily diary methodology, 126 low socioeconomic status minority participants completed a multidimensional measure of dispositional hope and reported on subsequent stressful events that they experienced and the coping strategies that they employed over the course of a 5-day period. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that hope–pathways was uniquely and positively related to direct problem solving, planning, positive thinking, religious coping, distracting action, and overall coping use. Hope–agency was uniquely and positively associated with instrumental support for actions. Discussion focuses on the role of hope as a protective factor for minority adolescents experiencing stress, and particularly the unique predictive ability of each hope component. PMID:20438157

  7. Addictive buying: causes, processes, and symbolic meanings. Thematic analysis of a buying addict's diary.

    PubMed

    García Ureta, Irene

    2007-11-01

    The aims of this study were twofold. On the one hand, to reach an understanding of, and to illustrate the experience of addictive buying and, on the other, to throw some light on the controversial subject of addicts' personal responsibility for their behavior. With these aims, a thematic analysis of an extensive diary written by a compulsive buyer is presented. Four themes emerge from the analysis: the defining characteristics of addiction to buying that determine the boundary separating it from other forms of impulsive or careless buying; several causal factors; the role that money and material objects play in family relationships and friendships through the symbolic meanings they adopt; and the relationship of personal values with impulsiveness and self-control. In view of the results, the moral model of addiction to buying is discussed, and an explanatory model of the ambivalence that is characteristic of addiction to buying is proposed, based on a personal hierarchy of values.

  8. A Diary Study of Implicit Self-esteem, Interpersonal Interactions and Alcohol Consumption in College Students

    PubMed Central

    DeHart, Tracy; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen; Todd, Michael; Mohr, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    A 30-day daily diary study examined the relations among implicit self-esteem, interpersonal interactions, and alcohol consumption in college students. Multilevel analyses revealed that students with low implicit self-esteem drank more on days when they experienced more negative interpersonal interactions. In contrast, students with high implicit self-esteem drank more on days when they experienced more positive interpersonal interactions. Spending time with people who were drinking mediated both the low implicit self-esteem by negative interpersonal events interaction and the high implicit self-esteem by positive interpersonal events interaction. These findings suggest that people with low implicit self-esteem may unintentionally drink as a way to regulate unfulfilled needs for acceptance. On the other hand, people with high implicit self-esteem may drink as a way to enhance positive interpersonal experiences. PMID:20161219

  9. Use of the Daily Phone Diary to Study Religiosity and Mood: Convergent Validity.

    PubMed

    Szczesniak, Rhonda D; Zou, Yuanshu; Dimitriou, Sophia M; Quittner, Alexandra L; Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    Studies of religious/spiritual behavior frequently rely on self-reported questionnaire data, which is susceptible to bias. The Daily Phone Diary (DPD) was developed to minimize bias in reporting activities and behavior across a 24-hour period. A cross-sectional study of 126 parents of children with cystic fibrosis was used to establish the validity of the DPD to study religious/spiritual behaviors. Longitudinal models were used to determine the odds of improved mood during religious/spiritual activities. Convergent validity was found. Participants had increased odds of improved mood during religious/spiritual activities compared to nonreligious/spiritual activities. Associations with gender and religious affiliations were found. The DPD is a valid tool for studying religious/spiritual activities and opens novel avenues for chaplaincy research and the development of chaplaincy interventions incorporating these findings.

  10. Analog study investigating diary assessments of rewards and punishments for emotional states.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Shudo, Yusuke; Sakai, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Behavioral Activation is a treatment for depression relying on rewards from activities; but it is possible that the effects of punishments should also be considered, as should its generalizability to the healthy population. Effect of rewards and punishments on emotional states and depression were investigated by using the daily diary method. Participants (7 men, 21 women; M age = 19.4 yr.) recorded their daily activities and the intensity of rewards and punishments accompanying each activity for one week. Positive and negative affects of participants were assessed using the Japanese version of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both rewards and punishments predicted depressive symptoms. Moreover, rewards (but not punishments) predicted positive affect, whereas punishments predicted negative affects (and rewards did not). These preliminary results suggest that the effects of both rewards and punishments given for activities should be considered in models of behavioral activation.

  11. Using Video Diaries to Record Student Attitudes and Emotions towards Mathematics in Year Three and Year Six Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Kevin; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Accessing children's feelings and attitudes towards mathematics is a challenging proposition since methods for data collection may be fraught in terms of bias and power relations. This paper explores a method using iPads and a video diary technique not dissimilar to the "Big Brother" room with which many children are familiar. We…

  12. The Diary of Schiaparelli in Berlin (26 October 1857-10 May 1859): a guide for his future scientific activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, P.

    In February 1857, three years after his degree in Turin, Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli moved to Berlin with a scholarship from the Sardinian government. There he lived for over two years and from October he attended the University. Berlin was an important astronomical center at the time and the young Schiaparelli had the opportunity to study with some of the most distinguished astronomers of his epoch and to be in one of the best equipped observatory in the world. During his staying in Berlin Schiaparelli regularly wrote a diary which runs from Monday, October 26, 1857 to Tuesday, May 10, 1859. The Diary is very important for the reconstruction of Schiaparelli's training as an astronomer. In this communication I'll give some information about the sections of the Diary which deal more strictly with astronomy. In the Diary all astronomical trainings of the mature Schiaparelli are outlined. But there is an exception: Mars and the inhabitability of other worlds. This rises an intere-sting historiographical problem which pushes historians to find elsewhere the origins of a research which is inextricably linked to Schiaparelli and that allowed him to found the planetology as a new astronomical discipline.

  13. Mythorealistic Concept of "Beautiful Lady" in the Structure of the Author's Identity (Based on the Diaries of Alexander Blok)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minets, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The present paper deals with the diaries of Alexander Blok dated 1901-1921 reflecting the process of the writer's self-identification. During 20 years under the influence of various social and cultural situations Blok's "Self-Conception" is undergoing significant changes. The vector of these changes shows the complicated evolution of the…

  14. A Longitudinal Daily Diary Study of Family Assistance and Academic Achievement among Adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telzer, Eva H.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal daily diary method was employed to examine the implications of family assistance for the academic achievement of 563 adolescents (53% female) from Mexican (n = 217), Chinese (n = 206), and European (n = 140) backgrounds during the high school years (mean age 14.9 years in 9th grade to 17.8 years in 12th grade). Although changes in…

  15. The Freedom Writers Diary: How a Teacher and 150 Teens Used Writing To Change Themselves and the World around Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    A young teacher attempted to engage a class of high-risk urban students by introducing them to books about intolerance and ethnic misunderstanding and developing their own awareness of discrimination and social bias through diaries that documented their own thoughts and feelings. Calling themselves the "Freedom Writers," these students arranged…

  16. Understanding Anne Frank's "The Diary of a Young Girl": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopf, Hedda Rosner

    Anne Frank's "The Diary of a Young Girl" is the most widely read text about the Holocaust, yet it represents only one example of the tragic consequences of the Nazi policy to eliminate the Jews of Europe during World War II. This casebook enriches Anne Frank's remarkable personal account with a variety of historical documents that…

  17. eDiary and Female Sexual Distress Scale(©) in evaluating distress in hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD).

    PubMed

    Derogatis, Leonard R; Clayton, Anita H; Goldstein, Andrew; Lewis-D'Agostino, Diane; Wunderlich, Glen; Cotton, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Sex-related distress is integral to the diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). This article describes the results of three prospective, non-treatment validation studies (two North American and one European), each testing over 200 participants with HSDD, other types of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), or no FSD in which the 12-item Female Sexual Distress Scale(©) (FSDS(©)), the 13-item FSDS-Revised(©)(FSDS-R(©)), and a single question asked using a daily electronic diary (the eDiary For HSDD Trials(©); eDiary) were used to measure sex-related distress. FSDS results with 30- and seven-day recall were equivalent. The results observed with FSDS-R Item 13 (a single question assessing concern due to low sexual desire) were comparable to the FSDS. Mean eDiary monthly distress scores were closer to the minimum possible score (equivalent to "a little bit" of distress) and were about twice as variable as FSDS or FSDS-R Item 13 scores in participants with HSDD. All three measures confirmed that there is more distress in women with HSDD compared to women with no sexual dysfunction at all time points, demonstrating discriminant validity.

  18. New Perspectives for the Evaluation of Training Sessions in Self-Regulated Learning: Time-Series Analyses of Diary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Bernhard; Wiese, Bettina S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study combines a standardized diary approach with time-series analysis methods to investigate the process of self-regulated learning. Based on a process-focused adaptation of Zimmerman's (2000) learning model, an intervention (consisting of four weekly training sessions) to increase self-regulated learning was developed. The diaries…

  19. World Cinema: Diary of a Day. A Celebration of the Centenary of Cinema: In Conjunction with bfi [British Film Institute].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Peter, Ed.

    This publication resulted from a project of the British Film Institute (bfi). The aim was to emphasize that cinema takes a number of different forms, fulfills a variety of roles within different societies, and has different models of its social function. Toward this end, film-makers from all over the world were invited to write a diary about the…

  20. Passive smoking, air pollution, and acute respiratory symptoms in a diary study of student nurses

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Zeger, S. )

    1990-01-01

    A cohort of approximately 100 student nurses in Los Angeles was recruited for a diary study of the acute effects of air pollution. Smoking histories and presence of asthma and other allergies were determined by questionnaire. Diaries were completed daily and collected weekly for as long as 3 yr. Air pollution was measured at a monitoring location within 2.5 miles of the school. Incidence and duration of a symptom were modeled separately. Pack-years of cigarettes were predictive of the number of episodes of coughing (p less than 0.0001) and of bringing up phlegm (p less than 0.0001). Current smoking, rather than cumulative smoking, was a better predictor of the duration of a phlegm episode (p less than 0.0001). Controlling for personal smoking, a smoking roommate increased the risk of an episode of phlegm (odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, p less than 0.001), but not of cough. Excluding asthmatics (who may be medicated), increased the odds ratio for passive smoking to 1.76 (p less than 0.0001). In logistic regression models controlling for temperature and serial correlation between days, an increase of 1 SD in carbon monoxide exposure (6.5 ppm) was associated with increased risk of headache (OR = 1.09, p less than 0.001), photochemical oxidants (7.4 pphm) were associated with increased risk of chest discomfort (OR = 1.17, p less than 0.001) and eye irritation (OR = 1.20 p less than 0.001), and nitrogen dioxide (9.1 pphm) was associated with increased risk of phlegm (OR = 1.08 p less than 0.01), sore throats (OR = 1.26, p less than 0.001), and eye irritation (OR = 1.16, p less than 0.001).

  1. Performance of the First Combined Smartwatch and Smartphone Diabetes Diary Application Study

    PubMed Central

    Årsand, Eirik; Muzny, Miroslav; Bradway, Meghan; Muzik, Jan; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wearable computing has long been described as the solution to many health challenges. However, the use of this technology as a diabetes patient self-management tool has not been fully explored. A promising platform for this use is the smartwatch—a wrist-worn device that not only tells time but also provides internet connection and ability to communicate information to and from a mobile phone. Method: Over 9 months, the design of a diabetes diary application for a smartwatch was completed using agile development methods. The system, including a two-way communication between the applications on the smartwatch and mobile phone, was tested with 6 people with type 1 diabetes. A small number of participants was deliberately chosen due to ensure an efficient use of resources on a novel system. Results: The designed smartwatch system displays the time, day, date, and remaining battery time. It also allows for the entry of carbohydrates, insulin, and blood glucose (BG), with the option to view previously recorded data. Users were able to record specific physical activities, program reminders, and automatically record and transfer data, including step counts, to the mobile phone version of the diabetes diary. The smartwatch system can also be used as a stand-alone tool. Users reported usefulness, responded positively toward its functionalities, and also provided specific suggestions for further development. Suggestions were implemented after the feasibility study. Conclusions: The presented system and study demonstrate that smartwatches have opened up new possibilities within the diabetes self-management field by providing easier ways of monitoring BG, insulin injections, physical activity and dietary information directly from the wrist. PMID:25591859

  2. Using trip diaries to mitigate route risk and risky driving behavior among older drivers.

    PubMed

    Payyanadan, Rashmi P; Maus, Adam; Sanchez, Fabrizzio A; Lee, John D; Miossi, Lillian; Abera, Amsale; Melvin, Jacob; Wang, Xufan

    2016-10-06

    To reduce exposure to risky and challenging driving situations and prolong mobility and independence, older drivers self-regulate their driving behavior. But self-regulation can be challenging because it depends on drivers' ability to assess their limitations. Studies using self-reports, survey data, and hazard and risk perception tests have shown that driving behavior feedback can help older drivers assess their limitations and adjust their driving behavior. But only limited work has been conducted in developing feedback technology interventions tailored to meet the information needs of older drivers, and the impact these interventions have in helping older drivers self-monitor their driving behavior and risk outcomes. The vehicles of 33 drivers 65 years and older were instrumented with OBD2 devices. Older drivers were provided access to customized web-based Trip Diaries that delivered post-trip feedback of the routes driven, low-risk route alternatives, and frequency of their risky driving behaviors. Data were recorded over four months, with baseline driving behavior collected for one month. Generalized linear mixed effects regression models assessed the effects of post-trip feedback on the route risk and driving behaviors of older drivers. Results showed that post-trip feedback reduced the estimated route risk of older drivers by 2.9% per week, and reduced their speeding frequency on average by 0.9% per week. Overall, the Trip Diary feedback reduced the expected crash rate from 1 in 6172 trips to 1 in 7173 trips, and the expected speeding frequency from 46% to 39%. Thus providing older drivers with tailored feedback of their driving behavior and crash risk could help them appropriately self-regulate their driving behavior, and improve their crash risk outcomes.

  3. Sodium metasilicate affects growth of Campylobacter jejuni in fresh, boneless, uncooked chicken breast fillets stored at 4 degrees Celsius for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Sharma, C S; Williams, S K; Schneider, K R; Schmidt, R H; Rodrick, G E

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial effects of sodium metasilicate (SMS) treatments against Campylobacter jejuni in fresh, boneless, uncooked chicken breast fillets and to ascertain the effects of SMS treatments on pH. The fillets were inoculated with C. jejuni, treated with 0% SMS and no inoculum (negative control), 0% SMS and inoculum (positive control), 1 and 2% SMS solutions, and stored at 4 ± 1°C. All samples were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d storage for C. jejuni, psychrotrophic organisms, and pH. Campylobacter jejuni and psychrotrophic counts for samples treated with 1 and 2% SMS solutions were similar (P > 0.05) to the positive control on all storage days. The pH values for 2% SMS marinade treatments were higher (P < 0.05) when compared with the negative and positive controls through 7 d of storage. Based on the findings in this study, a second study was conducted to determine the level of SMS necessary to reduce C. jejuni by at least 1 log cfu/g. The treatments were the same as previously discussed, except SMS was used at levels of 1 and 2% of the weight of the meat instead of percentage of the solution. Chicken fillets treated with 1 and 2% SMS (by weight of meat) resulted in 1.12 to 1.26 and 3.27 to 3.79 log cfu/g reductions in C. jejuni, respectively, when compared with the positive control. Except for d 0, psychrotrophic counts for samples treated with 2% SMS were lower (P < 0.05) than negative and positive controls on all storage days. The pH values were higher (P < 0.05) for all SMS treatments when compared with the negative and positive controls. This study revealed that SMS, when used at elevated levels in excess of the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service 2% approved level, could function to control Campylobacter jejuni and extend the shelf life of raw poultry by retarding the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria.

  4. The Role of Pre-Exposure to Novel Food Tastes in Activity-Based Conditioned Taste Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heth, C. Donald; Pierce, W. David

    2007-01-01

    Rats were given differential exposure to three distinct and novel foods. One of these foods was exposed for 7 days; another for 2 days, and the last was not exposed. Next, half of the rats received six daily sessions in which a compound of the three flavors was followed by opportunities to run in wheels. The other rats received the food compound…

  5. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  6. Cow's milk protein allergy and other food hypersensitivities in infants.

    PubMed

    Venter, Carina

    2009-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FHS) is the umbrella term used to describe both food allergy, which involves the immune system, and food intolerances, which do not. It is therefore important that the diagnosis is made by a specialist health care professional such as a paediatrician or allergist. Some experienced dietitians and health visitors may be able to assist in making a diagnosis. The diagnostic work-up includes a medical history and blood tests/skin tests (where applicable). A food and symptom diary followed by a special test diet to identify the foods causing the infant's symptoms may also be needed. Once a diagnosis is made, dietary advice should be given to eliminate or reduce the intake of the offending foods. For cow's milk hypersensitivity in infants, this will include choosing the most appropriate specialised infant formula.

  7. Dear diary, is plastic better than paper? I can't remember: Comment on Green, Rafaeli, Bolger, Shrout, and Reis (2006).

    PubMed

    Takarangi, Melanie K T; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2006-03-01

    In this commentary, the authors discuss the implications of A. S. Green, E. Rafaeli, N. Bolger, P. E. Shrout, and H. T. Reis's (2006) diary studies with respect to memory. Researchers must take 2 issues into account when determining whether paper-and-pencil or handheld electronic diaries gather more trustworthy data. The first issue is a matter of prospective memory, and the second is a matter of reconstructive memory. The authors review the research on these issues and conclude that regardless of the type of diary researchers use, several factors can conspire to produce prompt--but inaccurate--data.

  8. Water Intake in a Sample of Greek Adults Evaluated with the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) and a Seven-Day Diary

    PubMed Central

    Athanasatou, Adelais; Malisova, Olga; Kandyliari, Aikaterini; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ), a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years). In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years). Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43) mL/day and 2551 (SE 39) mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59) mL/day and 1832 (SE 56) mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake) and milk (5% of total water intake). These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use. PMID:27626443

  9. Adherence to a Smartphone Application for Weight Loss Compared to Website and Paper Diary: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Burley, Victoria Jane; Nykjaer, Camilla; Cade, Janet Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the use of information communication technologies to treat obesity. An intervention delivered by smartphone could be a convenient, potentially cost-effective, and wide-reaching weight management strategy. Although there have been studies of texting-based interventions and smartphone applications (apps) used as adjuncts to other treatments, there are currently no randomized controlled trials (RCT) of a stand-alone smartphone application for weight loss that focuses primarily on self-monitoring of diet and physical activity. Objective The aim of this pilot study was to collect acceptability and feasibility outcomes of a self-monitoring weight management intervention delivered by a smartphone app, compared to a website and paper diary. Methods A sample of 128 overweight volunteers were randomized to receive a weight management intervention delivered by smartphone app, website, or paper diary. The smartphone app intervention, My Meal Mate (MMM), was developed by the research team using an evidence-based behavioral approach. The app incorporates goal setting, self-monitoring of diet and activity, and feedback via weekly text message. The website group used an existing commercially available slimming website from a company called Weight Loss Resources who also provided the paper diaries. The comparator groups delivered a similar self-monitoring intervention to the app, but by different modes of delivery. Participants were recruited by email, intranet, newsletters, and posters from large local employers. Trial duration was 6 months. The intervention and comparator groups were self-directed with no ongoing human input from the research team. The only face-to-face components were at baseline enrollment and brief follow-up sessions at 6 weeks and 6 months to take anthropometric measures and administer questionnaires. Results Trial retention was 40/43 (93%) in the smartphone group, 19/42 (55%) in the website group, and 20/43 (53%) in

  10. Pattern of active and inactive sequences of diabetes self-monitoring in mobile phone and paper diary users.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Nikhil S; Jing Wang

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot randomized controlled trial involving overweight or obese participants with type 2 diabetes, we find that smartphone users have sharply higher adherence to self-monitoring of diet, physical activity, blood glucose, and body weight, as compared to paper diary users. By characterizing the pattern of adherence with the probability of continuation of active and inactive sequences of self-monitoring, we find that smartphone users have longer active sequences of self-monitoring of all four behaviors that were being monitored. Smartphone users are also quicker to resume self-monitoring of diet and physical activity after a lapse in self-monitoring, whereas paper diary users have shorter inactive sequences for monitoring blood glucose and body weight. The findings are informative for data collection methodology in this burgeoning area of research.

  11. Measuring and validating physical activity and sedentary behavior comparing a parental questionnaire to accelerometer data and diaries.

    PubMed

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Mäder, Urs; Ruch, Nicole; Kriemler, Susi; Grize, Leticia; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2012-05-01

    Accurately measuring children's physical activity and their sedentary behavior is challenging. The present study compared 189 parental responses to a questionnaire surveying physical activity and sedentary behavior of children aged 6-14 years, to accelerometer outputs and time activity diaries for the same group. Responses were analyzed taking age, sex and maternal education into account. Correlation coefficients between questionnaire reports and accelerometer-based physical activity across all age groups were acceptable (up to r = .55). Yet, adjustment for age markedly attenuated these associations, suggesting concomitant influences of biological and behavioral processes linked to age. The comparisons of general time indications in the questionnaire with 24h-diary records suggested that parents tended to under- and over-report single activities, possibly due to social desirability. We conclude that physical activity questionnaires need to be designed for specific age groups and be administered in combination with objective measurements.

  12. Sleep timing and quantity in ecological and family context: a nationally representative time-diary study.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Snell, Emily K; Pendry, Patricia

    2007-03-01

    Associations between demographic characteristics, school schedules, activity choices, family functioning, and sleep behaviors were estimated using nationally representative time-diary data from 2,454 children (ages 5.5 to 11.9 years) and adolescents (ages 12.0 to 19.1 years). For weekdays, African American adolescents, Asian children, and those with earlier school start times and longer travel times to school reported fewer sleep hours. More time spent watching television (for children), doing homework (for adolescents), and engaging in religious activities predicted fewer hours, whereas a longer time spent on meals predicted greater hours of weekday sleep. For younger children, greater parental warmth predicted more hours of weekday sleep, whereas for adolescents, stricter household rules were protective. On weekends, African American adolescents and Hispanic children slept less, and there were strong effects of activity choices including time spent on television, computer and videogames, sports, religious activities, socializing, and employment. In accounting for age-related decreases in sleep hours from childhood to adolescence, earlier school start times, greater hours of homework, greater paid employment, less time spent on meals, and fewer household rules were all significant mediators.

  13. Daily diaries and minority adolescents: random coefficient regression modeling of attributional style, coping, and affect.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Aldridge, Arianna A; Villodas, Feion

    2009-10-01

    Many researchers underscore the importance of coping in the daily lives of adolescents, yet very few studies measure this and related constructs at this level. Using a daily diary approach to stress and coping, the current study evaluated a series of mediational coping models in a sample of low-income minority adolescents (N = 89). Specifically, coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between attributional style (and dimensions) and daily affect. Using random coefficient regression modeling, the relationship between (a) the locus of causality dimension and positive affect was completely mediated by the use of acceptance and humor as coping strategies; (b) the stability dimension and positive affect was completely mediated by the use of both problem-solving and positive thinking; and (c) the stability dimension and negative affect was partially mediated by the use of religious coping. In addition, the locus of causality and stability (but not globality) dimensions were also directly related to affect. However, the relationship between pessimistic explanatory style and affect was not mediated by coping. Consistent with previous research, these findings suggest that attributions are both directly and indirectly related to indices of affect or adjustment. Thus, attributions may not only influence the type of coping strategy employed, but may also serve as coping strategies themselves.

  14. Recovery of handwritten text from the diaries and papers of David Livingstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Keith T.; Easton, Roger L., Jr.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Boydston, Kenneth

    2011-03-01

    During his explorations of Africa, David Livingstone kept a diary and wrote letters about his experiences. Near the end of his travels, he ran out of paper and ink and began recording his thoughts on leftover newspaper with ink made from local seeds. These writings suffer from fading, from interference with the printed text and from bleed through of the handwriting on the other side of the paper, making them hard to read. New image processing techniques have been developed to deal with these papers to make Livingstone's handwriting available to the scholars to read. A scan of the David Livingstone's papers was made using a twelve-wavelength, multispectral imaging system. The wavelengths ranged from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. In these wavelengths, the three different types of writing behave differently, making them distinguishable from each other. So far, three methods have been used to recover Livingstone's handwriting. These include pseudocolor (to make the different writings distinguishable), spectral band ratios (to remove text that does not change), and principal components analysis (to separate the different writings). In initial trials, these techniques have been able to lift handwriting off printed text and have suppressed handwriting that has bled through from the other side of the paper.

  15. Substituting activities mediates the effect of cognitive flexibility on physical activity: a daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Scout M; Updegraff, John A

    2017-03-02

    Pursuit of physical activity goals often requires modifying plans, but research on these flexible processes is limited. Cognitive flexibility may heighten one's likelihood of using flexible self-regulatory strategies (e.g., substitution), thereby increasing physical activity. This study used daily diary methodology to test the indirect effect of cognitive flexibility on physical activity via activity substitution. A sample of 128 college students (73% female, mean age 19.9) completed baseline measures and cognitive flexibility assessments, then logged physical activity daily for 2 weeks. Activity substitution was defined as adopting an alternate activity on a day another planned activity was unfulfilled. Controlling for baseline activity, intentions, and time, a multilevel mediation model revealed a significant indirect effect of cognitive flexibility on physical activity via activity substitution (b = 81.36, p = .041). Our results indicate that people with greater cognitive flexibility are more likely to use flexible self-regulation, leading to greater physical activity.

  16. Effects of a mass media intervention on HIV-related stigma: 'Radio Diaries' program in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Creel, A H; Rimal, R N; Mkandawire, G; Böse, K; Brown, J W

    2011-06-01

    HIV-related stigma has been recognized as a significant public health issue, yet gaps remain in development and evaluation of mass media interventions to reduce stigma. The Malawi 'Radio Diaries' (RD) program features people with HIV telling stories about their everyday lives. This study evaluates the program's effects on stigma and the additional effects of group discussion. Thirty villages with 10 participants each were randomized to listen to RD only, to the program followed by group discussion or to a control program. Post-intervention surveys assessed four stigma outcomes: fear of casual contact, shame, blame and judgment and willingness to disclose HIV status. Regression analyses indicated that fear of casual contact was reduced by the intervention. Shame was reduced by the radio program, but only for those reporting prior exposure to the radio program and for those who did not have a close friend or relative with HIV. Shame was not reduced when the radio program was followed by discussion. The intervention reduced blame for men and not women and for younger participants but not older participants. Including people with HIV/AIDS in mass media interventions has potential to reduce stigma.

  17. Illness, everyday life and narrative montage: the visual aesthetics of cancer in Sara Bro's Diary.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Nina; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2011-05-01

    This article presents a study of Sara Bro's Diary (2004), a book montage of images and texts recording the experiences of a Danish breast cancer survivor, Sara Bro. It examines two montages of photography and text, drawing on Roland Barthes' concept of 'the third meaning' to explain and discuss the effect of the layered meanings in the montage alongside their multi-medium and self-referential expression. The discussion is centred on the aesthetic practices that are invited by Bro's book montage. The article considers how the juxtaposition of images and texts are experienced and co-created by the reader. It points to the effect of the aesthetics of disguise and carnival implicit in the visual-verbal montage and argues that these generate a third meaning. This meaning is associated with the breast cancer experience but is not directly discernible in the montage. The article concludes by discussing how Bro's montage acts as an ideological statement, subverting or 'poaching on' the health care system.

  18. Cannabis and Psychosis: What Can Daily Diaries Tell Us About Who is Vulnerable?

    PubMed Central

    Kimhy, David; Durbin, Kelly; Corcoran, Cheryl M.

    2009-01-01

    The association between cannabis use and the initial development of psychotic symptoms has attracted increased interest over the past decade. In particular, researchers have attempted to elucidate whether cannabis use increases the risk of psychosis among vulnerable individuals or may just represent attempts to self-medicate distressing symptoms. While a growing literature suggests that cannabis use may contribute to the development of psychotic symptoms, these findings are based primarily on retrospective assessments that have limited ability to clarify the temporal link between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms. The authors review the literature regarding the link between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms; point out the limitations associated with retrospective assessments; and discuss advantages of incorporating daily diary methods, such as Experience Sampling Method (ESM), to study cannabis use and symptoms during daily functioning in “real world” environments. The authors also discuss potential future applications of ESM in research and clinical practice that may inform the identification of individuals vulnerable to develop psychotic symptoms, as well as the development of treatments that target this population. PMID:19606270

  19. Relationship of headache to phase of the menstrual cycle among young women: a daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Johannes, C B; Linet, M S; Stewart, W F; Celentano, D D; Lipton, R B; Szklo, M

    1995-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between headache occurrence and phase of the menstrual cycle in a 4-month daily diary study of 74 women, 22 to 29 years old, residing in Washington County, Maryland. We selected subjects from women reporting a history of migraine symptoms and at least two migraine headache attacks per month in a 1986 to 1987 population-based survey. Data collection was from March 1987 through April 1988. By using detailed headache symptom information collected daily, we classified headaches into four categories: migraine with aura, migraine without aura, tension-type, and all other headaches. Odds ratios were separately estimated for the individual headache types and all types combined during each of three phases of the menstrual cycle. Risk of migraine without aura was significantly elevated during the first 3 days of menstruation (odds ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.26), but headache risk was not significantly increased during the 2 days immediately preceding onset of menstruation or on the estimated day of ovulation (day 14 before the onset of menstruation). Participants reported headaches on 28% of the study days overall, suggesting that onset of menstruation is an independent but not exclusive precipitating factor for headache attacks among young adult women with migraine. Our data show that onset of menstruation only accounts for a small proportion of migraine attacks among young women with frequent episodes of migraine.

  20. Exploring the relation of depression and overt behavior with daily diaries.

    PubMed

    Hopko, Derek R; Mullane, C M

    2008-09-01

    Behavioral models of depression highlight decreased response-contingent positive reinforcement as critical toward conceptualizing depressive affect, decreased reinforcement being caused by changes in the quantitative (i.e., number or intensity) or qualitative (i.e., type or function) aspects of reinforcing events, availability of reinforcement, inadequate instrumental behaviors, and/or an increased frequency of punishment [Lewinsohn, P. M. (1974). A behavioral approach to depression. In R. M. Friedman, & M. M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research. New York: Wiley]. Building on previous research and addressing methodological limitations, this study utilized a daily diary method and behavioral coding system to directly assess whether qualitative aspects (or types) of human behavior differed as a function of depression level. Relative to non-depressed individuals, mildly depressed participants engaged less frequently in social, physical, and educational behaviors and more frequently in employment-related activities. These data support behavioral models of depression and have clinical relevance as highlighted with reference to behavioral activation interventions for depression.

  1. A daily diary study of perceived social isolation, dietary restraint, and negative affect in binge eating.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E; Braitman, Abby L; Lewis, Robin J

    2016-02-01

    Negative affect and dietary restraint are key predictors of binge eating, yet less is known about the impact of social factors on binge eating. The study sought to replicate and extend research on the relationships between negative affect, dietary restraint, perceived social isolation and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. College women (N = 54) completed measures of dietary restraint, negative affect, perceived social isolation, and binge eating daily for 14 days. Participants completed the measures nightly each day. A series of generalized estimating equations showed that dietary restraint was associated with less binge eating while controlling for negative affect and for perceived social isolation separately. Negative affect and perceived social isolation were associated with greater binge eating while controlling for restraint in separate analyses, but only perceived social isolation was significant when modeled simultaneously. All two-way interactions between negative affect, dietary restraint, and perceived social isolation predicting binge eating were nonsignificant. This study furthers our understanding of predictors of binge eating in a nonclinical sample. Specifically, these data suggest perceived social isolation, negative affect, and dietary restraint are important variables associated with binge eating in daily life and warrant further research.

  2. Daily Deviations in Anger, Guilt, and Sympathy: A Developmental Diary Study of Aggression.

    PubMed

    Colasante, Tyler; Zuffianò, Antonio; Malti, Tina

    2016-11-01

    With a diary study of 4- and 8-year-olds, we tested the association between daily deviations in anger and aggressive behavior, and whether this link was moderated by feelings of guilt and sympathy. Caregivers reported their children's anger and aggression for 10 consecutive days (470 records; N = 80, 53 % girls). To calculate daily anger deviations from average anger levels, we subtracted each child's average anger score (i.e., across 10 days) from his/her daily anger scores. Children reported their guilty feelings in response to vignettes depicting intentional harm, as well as their dispositional sympathy levels. Multilevel modeling indicated that within-child spikes in daily anger were associated with more aggression, above and beyond between-child differences in average anger levels. However, this association was weaker for children who reported higher levels of guilt. Sympathy did not moderate the anger-aggression link. We discuss potential implications for affective-developmental models of aggression and interventions that target anger-related aggression.

  3. Empowering citizens for well-being and chronic disease management with wellness diary.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Elina; Korhonen, Ilkka; Salminen, Jukka H; Ahtinen, Aino; Koskinen, Esa; Särelä, Antti; Pärkkä, Juha; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2010-03-01

    Chronic conditions closely related to lifestyles are the major cause of disability and death in the developed world. Behavior change is the key to managing well-being and preventing and managing chronic diseases. Wellness diary (WD) is a mobile application designed to support citizens in learning about their behavior, and both making and maintaining behavior changes. WD has been found acceptable, useful, and suitable for long-term use as a part of an intervention. When used independently, however, it does not seem to have enough engaging and motivating features to support adoption and long-term commitment. The main improvement needs identified based on a review of WD-related studies were: personalization of the application to individual needs, increasing motivation during early use, maintaining motivation, and aiding in relapse recovery in long-term use. We present concepts to improve the personalization of WD as well as improvements to the feedback and interpretation of the self-observation data. We also present usage models on how this type of mobile application could be utilized.

  4. Seeing America--diary of a drug-focused study tour made in 1967.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Griffith

    2010-06-01

    In 1965 the British government was forced to admit that the country had an escalating heroin problem, with the supply coming mainly from prescribing by private practitioners. Within the official responses to what was seen at that time as a very worrying public health situation was the decision to fund the setting-up of the Addiction Research Unit (ARU) at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. The US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) generously sponsored a study tour for the nominated director of the ARU shortly before the opening of the British research centre. Extensive contemporaneous diary notes of a visit included contact with administrators, researchers, clinicians, parish priests, narcotic agents and addicts themselves. From a mass of often conflicting advice, some insights could be derived. In particular, these included the need for an awareness of any country's way of dealing with drug problems as a dynamic, multi-factorial total system--a holistic 'national response'. A further conclusion was to see policy itself as a complex subject for analysis: drug policy should be as much an issue for research as drug taking. Besides these broad conclusions, the experience provided many specific leads to development of a British addiction research programme, and fostered professional friendships of immeasurable worth.

  5. Neighborhood cohesion and daily well-being: results from a diary study.

    PubMed

    Robinette, Jennifer W; Charles, Susan T; Mogle, Jacqueline A; Almeida, David M

    2013-11-01

    Neighborly cohesiveness has documented benefits for health. Furthermore, high perceived neighborhood cohesion offsets the adverse health effects of neighborhood socioeconomic adversity. One potential way neighborhood cohesion influences health is through daily stress processes. The current study uses participants (n = 2022, age 30-84 years) from The Midlife in the United States II and the National Study of Daily Experiences II, collected between 2004 and 2006, to examine this hypothesis using a within-person, daily diary design. We predicted that people who perceive high neighborhood cohesion are exposed to fewer daily stressors, such as interpersonal arguments, lower daily physical symptoms and negative affect, and higher daily positive affect. We also hypothesized that perceptions of neighborhood cohesion buffer decline in affective and physical well-being on days when daily stressors do occur. Results indicate that higher perceived neighborhood cohesion predicts fewer self-reported daily stressors, higher positive affect, lower negative affect, and fewer physical health symptoms. High perceived neighborhood cohesion also buffers the effects of daily stressors on negative affect, even after adjusting for other sources of social support. Results from the present study suggest interventions focusing on neighborhood cohesion may result in improved well-being and may minimize the adverse effect of daily stressors.

  6. Need satisfaction and employees' recovery state at work: A daily diary study.

    PubMed

    van Hooff, Madelon L M; Geurts, Sabine A E

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to advance insight in the associations between employees' daily effort expenditure at work and their recovery state during the workday, and specifically focused on the role of daily work-related need satisfaction in this process. We examined (a) if high intrinsic work motivation and low self-control effort act as mediating mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of need satisfaction, and (b) to what extent need satisfaction mitigates the adverse effects of high job demands (work pressure and cognitive demands) on employee recovery. Data were collected by means of a 5-day daily diary study (2 measurements daily: in the morning before work, and at the end of the workday) among 68 participants. Multilevel analyses showed that need satisfaction at work was related to a beneficial recovery state at the end of the workday, and that this association was mediated by high intrinsic work motivation and low self-control effort. Furthermore, need satisfaction attenuated the adverse effects of high work pressure on employee recovery. All in all, this study increased our understanding of employees' daily effort and recovery processes at work, and highlighted the beneficial role of need satisfaction at work.

  7. Spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into nonwork: A daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Corts, Inés; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Boz, Marina

    2015-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 20(3) of Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (see record 2015-15847-001). There was a misspelling in the figures. The legends for Figure 1 and Figure 2 should read "High Daily Resilience".] This study among a heterogeneous sample of employees expands the Job-Demands (JD-R) theory by examining how interpersonal conflicts at work-task and relationship conflict-spillover into the nonwork domain on a daily basis. We hypothesized that daily personal resources can buffer the daily negative spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into the nonwork domain. A total of 113 employees (n = 565 occasions) filled in a daily diary questionnaire in the evening before bedtime over 5 consecutive working days. Results of multilevel analysis showed that the presence of daily personal resources is essential to buffer the spillover of interpersonal conflict at work to the nonwork domain. Specifically, on days that employees were not very optimistic or resilient, interpersonal conflicts resulted in higher strain-based work-life conflict experiences. These findings contribute to the JD-R theory and show how the unfavorable effects of daily interpersonal conflicts in the work domain may be avoided in the nonwork domain through enhancing personal resources. We discuss the implications for theory and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Patterns of alcohol drinking in a population of young social drinkers: a comparison of questionnaire and diary measures.

    PubMed

    Townshend, J M; Duka, T

    2002-01-01

    Studies of alcohol use often depend on self-reported alcohol intake measured by quantity/frequency questionnaires. Previous research has shown that alcohol consumption may be underestimated by this type of retrospective questionnaire. The primary aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of an Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ) with a 4-week diary account. A further aim was to explore patterns of drinking in young social drinkers, with particular attention to binge drinking, which has been suggested as a factor in increasing the risk of alcohol dependency. University students completed the AUQ in the laboratory. They were then asked to keep a record of their alcohol, nicotine and caffeine consumption over a 4-week period (diary). The questionnaire and the diaries were compared on factors of alcohol intake (units per week) and patterns of drinking behaviour (speed of drinking, number of times being drunk and percentage of times getting drunk when drinking). The two measures (AUQ and diary) were highly correlated on alcohol consumption and the other questions relating to drinking behaviour. However, differences were found between the two measures on alcohol intake, speed of drinking (drinks per hour) and number of times being drunk. Alcohol consumption was underestimated by approximately 12% on the questionnaire, and, when the accuracy of estimation of drinking habits was examined, it was found that high drinkers tended to underestimate their drinking behaviour, whereas lower drinkers tended to overestimate. The results suggest that the AUQ can be used with a reasonable degree of confidence, bearing in mind the tendency for high drinkers to underestimate consumption and drinking behaviour. Relationships between 'binge scores', beverage specificity and alcohol consumption support the idea that the criteria for binge drinkers should be based on patterns of drinking rather than alcohol consumption.

  9. Professional Caregivers’ Perceptions on how Persons with Mild Dementia Might Experience the Usage of a Digital Photo Diary

    PubMed Central

    Harrefors, Christina; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Lundquist, Anders; Lundquist, Bengt; Axelsson, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairments influence the possibility of persons with dementia to remember daily events and maintain a sense of self. In order to address these problems a digital photo diary was developed to capture information about events in daily life. The device consisted of a wearable digital camera, smart phone with Global Positioning System (GPS) and a home memory station with computer for uploading the photographs and touch screen. The aim of this study was to describe professional caregiver’s perceptions on how persons with mild dementia might experience the usage of this digital photo diary from both a situation when wearing the camera and a situation when viewing the uploaded photos, through a questionnaire with 408 respondents. In order to catch the professional caregivers’ perceptions a questionnaire with the semantic differential technique was used and the main question was “How do you think Hilda (the fictive person in the questionnaire) feels when she is using the digital photo diary?”. The factor analysis revealed three factors; Sense of autonomy, Sense of self-esteem and Sense of trust. An interesting conclusion that can be drawn is that professional caregivers had an overall positive view of the usage of digital photo diary as supporting autonomy for persons with mild dementia. The meaningfulness of each situation when wearing the camera and viewing the uploaded pictures to be used in two different situations and a part of an integrated assistive device has to be considered separately. Individual needs and desires of the person who is living with dementia and the context of each individual has to be reflected on and taken into account before implementing assistive digital devices as a tool in care. PMID:22509232

  10. Understanding the different types of social support offered by audience to A-list diary-like and informative bloggers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hsiu-Chia; Wang, Li-Ling; Xu, Yi-Ting

    2013-03-01

    Blogs offer audiences a forum through which they can exchange ideas and provide feedback about the everyday lives and experiences of the bloggers. Such interactions and communication between audiences and bloggers could be regarded as a kind of social support. The present study aims to identify and compare the types of social support offered by audiences to continuous popular diary-like and informative bloggers, and to explore the possible benefits that bloggers may obtain from such social support. Content analysis was used to analyze the 485 and 390 comments provided by the audiences to the A-list diary-like and informative blog posts, respectively. Results reveal that validation, compliment, and encouragement are the most common types of social support given by audiences to A-list bloggers. Chi-square test results show that the audiences offer more encouragement-type of social support to diary-like bloggers and more complimentary and informational social support to informative bloggers. Such types of social support may enhance A-list bloggers' self-esteem, boost their confidence, promote their self-understanding, and help them obtain the benefits of social validation, which in turn encourage bloggers to commit continuous self-disclosure.

  11. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  12. 7 day chronic ceriodaphnia toxicity test -- reproductive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent causes death (acute toxicity) or reduction in the reproduction of the test organisms (chronic toxicity) during a seven day period. A series of dilutions of the effluent are set to determine how much the effluent must be diluted before toxic effects are no longer noted. Acute toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly more organisms die in the effluent dilutions than in the control treatment, and, if significantly more die, how much the effluent must be diluted so as to kill only 50% of the test organisms (the LC50). Chronic toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly fewer young are produced by test organisms exposed to the effluent dilutions. Results indicate the lowest effluent concentration which shows a toxic effect (the LOEC) and the highest effluent concentration which does not demonstrate an effect (NOEC).

  13. Validation and reproducibility of an Australian caffeine food frequency questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Watson, E J; Kohler, M; Banks, S; Coates, A M

    2017-01-05

    The aim of this study was to measure validity and reproducibility of a caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ) developed for the Australian population. The C-FFQ was designed to assess average daily caffeine consumption using four categories of food and beverages including; energy drinks; soft drinks/soda; coffee and tea and chocolate (food and drink). Participants completed a seven-day food diary immediately followed by the C-FFQ on two consecutive days. The questionnaire was first piloted in 20 adults, and then, a validity/reproducibility study was conducted (n = 90 adults). The C-FFQ showed moderate correlations (r = .60), fair agreement (mean difference 63 mg) and reasonable quintile rankings indicating fair to moderate agreement with the seven-day food diary. To test reproducibility, the C-FFQ was compared to itself and showed strong correlations (r = .90), good quintile rankings and strong kappa values (κ = 0.65), indicating strong reproducibility. The C-FFQ shows adequate validity and reproducibility and will aid researchers in Australia to quantify caffeine consumption.

  14. Analysis of Ozone And CO2 Profiles Measured At A Diary Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Hasson, A. S.; Ashkan, S.; Steele, J.; Shelton, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone and carbon dioxide are both greenhouse gasses in the planetary boundary layer. Ozone is a harmful secondary pollutant in the troposphere produced mostly during the day when there is a photochemical reaction in which primary pollutant precursors such as nitrous oxide (NOx) or volatile organic compounds (VOC's) mix with sunlight. As with most pollutants in the lower troposphere, both ozone and carbon dioxide vary in spatial and temporal scale depending on sources of pollution, environmental conditions and the boundary layer dynamics. Among the several factors that influence ozone variation, the seasonal changes in meteorological parameters and availability of ozone precursors are crucial because they control ozone formation and decay. Understanding how the difference in emission sources affect vertical transport of ozone and carbon dioxide is considered crucial to the improvement of their regional inventory sources. The purpose of this study is to characterize vertical transport of ozone and carbon at a diary facility. The study was conducted in the summer of 2011 and 2012 at a commercial dairy facility in Central California and involved profile measurements of ozone and CO2 using electrochemical ozonesondes, meteorological sondes and CO2 probe tethered to a 9 cubic meters helium balloon. On each day of the data collection, multiple balloon launches were made over a period representing different stages of the boundary layer development. The results show ozone and CO2 profiles display different characteristics. Regardless of the time of the day, the CO2 concentration decreases with height with a sharp gradient near the surface that is strengthened by a stable atmospheric condition, a feature suggesting the surface as the source. On the other hand, ozone profiles show greater link to the evolution of the lower boundary layer. Ozone profiles display unique features indicating ozone destruction near the surface. This unusual near the surface, observed even in the

  15. Assessment of sleep in patients with fibromyalgia: qualitative development of the fibromyalgia sleep diary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep disturbance is a common experience in fibromyalgia (FM). The field lacks a sleep specific patient reported outcome (PRO) measure developed and validated in a FM population. The study objective is to gain an in-depth understanding of sleep in FM and to develop a PRO measure of it. Methods Research involved the following stages: 1) A literature review conducted to identify key concepts associated with FM patient experience of sleep and PRO measures that have been used to assess this; 2) Qualitative interviews with therapeutic area experts; 3) Focus groups with FM patients who experienced sleep disturbance; 4) Development of a conceptual framework and the Fibromyalgia Sleep Diary (FMSD); and 5) Cognitive interviews with patients to explore content validity of the FMSD. Results The literature review and expert interviews supported sleep disturbance being an important aspect of the FM patient experience, and underscored the need for a new FM specific sleep PRO measure. Results from the focus groups demonstrated that FM patients experience sleep disturbances that they attribute to their FM symptoms, such as pain and stiffness, confirming the importance of understanding more about sleep changes. Aspects of sleep raised by FM patients included poor sleep quality and insufficient quantity including difficulty with falling asleep, getting comfortable, and staying asleep; restlessness; light sleep; not feeling rested upon awakening; and difficulty starting the day. Cognitive interview results showed that the 8-item FMSD, developed to reflect the concepts identified above, was relevant to FM patients with content that was interpreted as intended. Conclusions The FMSD was developed in line with the recommendations of the FDA PRO guidance and ISPOR PRO Task Force. The qualitative evidence generated thus far strongly supports the content validity of the FMSD as a PRO measure of sleep disturbance in FM populations. Psychometric evaluation of the FMSD to

  16. The validation of a computer-based food record for older adults: the Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing (NANA) method.

    PubMed

    Timon, Claire M; Astell, Arlene J; Hwang, Faustina; Adlam, Tim D; Smith, Tom; Maclean, Lin; Spurr, Daynor; Forster, Sarah E; Williams, Elizabeth A

    2015-02-28

    Dietary assessment in older adults can be challenging. The Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing (NANA) method is a touch-screen computer-based food record that enables older adults to record their dietary intakes. The objective of the present study was to assess the relative validity of the NANA method for dietary assessment in older adults. For this purpose, three studies were conducted in which a total of ninety-four older adults (aged 65-89 years) used the NANA method of dietary assessment. On a separate occasion, participants completed a 4 d estimated food diary. Blood and 24 h urine samples were also collected from seventy-six of the volunteers for the analysis of biomarkers of nutrient intake. The results from all the three studies were combined, and nutrient intake data collected using the NANA method were compared against the 4 d estimated food diary and biomarkers of nutrient intake. Bland-Altman analysis showed a reasonable agreement between the dietary assessment methods for energy and macronutrient intake; however, there were small, but significant, differences for energy and protein intake, reflecting the tendency for the NANA method to record marginally lower energy intakes. Significant positive correlations were observed between urinary urea and dietary protein intake using both the NANA and the 4 d estimated food diary methods, and between plasma ascorbic acid and dietary vitamin C intake using the NANA method. The results demonstrate the feasibility of computer-based dietary assessment in older adults, and suggest that the NANA method is comparable to the 4 d estimated food diary, and could be used as an alternative to the food diary for the short-term assessment of an individual's dietary intake.

  17. Dietary aspects of adverse reactions to foods in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, S L; Sussman, G L; Krondl, M

    1988-01-01

    Dietary considerations play an important role in the diagnosis, treatment and management of immunologic and nonimmunologic reactions to foods. Food diaries and trial elimination diets may prove helpful in identifying the responsible foods. Elimination diets must be monitored carefully for nutritional adequacy and should be used no longer than absolutely necessary; in some instances appropriate vitamin and mineral supplementation may be necessary. Ideally the identification of foods that provoke symptoms should be confirmed by means of double-blind challenge testing. Avoidance of some problem foods is unlikely to cause nutritional problems, but the practical and nutritional implications of allergies to staple foods such as cow's milk, eggs and wheat are far greater. Nonimmunologic adverse reactions that may mimic food allergic reactions include gastrointestinal disorders, sensitivity to food additives and psychologically based adverse reactions. There may be some degree of tolerance in metabolic disorders, which makes dietary management easier. Sensitivity to food additives necessitates careful scrutiny of food labels. In psychologic adverse reactions to foods, several foods are often involved, which increases the risk of nutritional problems. PMID:3048623

  18. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  19. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    PubMed

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  20. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... soap after preparing each food item. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. To ...

  1. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... the food came from, whether the food is organic, and certain health claims. So who decides what ... make that claim. Foods that are labeled "USDA organic" are required to have at least 95% organic ...

  2. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  3. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin 1 g once daily for 3 days in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: an open-label randomised comparison with amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Paris, R; Confalonieri, M; Dal Negro, R; Ligia, G P; Mos, L; Todisco, T; Rastelli, V; Perna, G; Cepparulo, M

    2008-02-01

    This randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study was designed to demonstrate that a 3-day course of oral azithromycin 1 g once daily was at least as effective as a standard 7-day course of oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily in the treatment of outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (Fine class I and II). In total, 267 patients with clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia were randomly assigned to receive either the azithromycin (n=136) or the amoxicillin-clavulanate (n=131) regimen. At screening, 60/136 (58.8%) and 61/131 (62.9%) respectively had at least one pathogen identified by sputum culture, PCR, or serology. The primary endpoint was the clinical response in the intent-to-treat population at the end of therapy (day 8 to 12). Clinical success rates were 126/136 (92.6%) for azithromycin and 122/131 (93.1%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate (treatment difference: - 0.48%; 95% confidence interval: - 5.66%; 4.69%). Clinical and radiological success rates at follow-up (day 22-26) were consistent with the end of therapy results, no patient reporting clinical relapse. Bacteriological success rates at the end of therapy were 32/35 (91.4%) for azithromycin and 30/33 (90.9%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate (treatment difference: 0.52%; 95% confidence interval - 10.81%; 11.85%). Both treatment regimens were well tolerated: the overall incidence of adverse events was 34/136 (25.0%) for azithromycin and 22/132 (16.7%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate. In both treatment groups, the most commonly reported events were gastrointestinal symptoms. Azithromycin 1g once daily for 3 days is at least as effective as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days in the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

  4. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed.

  5. From neighborhood design and food options to residents' weight status.

    PubMed

    Cerin, Ester; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E; Conway, Terry L; Chapman, James E; Glanz, Karen

    2011-06-01

    This study examined associations of accessibility, availability, price, and quality of food choices and neighborhood urban design with weight status and utilitarian walking. To account for self-selection bias, data on adult residents of a middle-to-high-income neighborhood were used. Participants kept a 2-day activity/travel diary and self-reported socio-demographics, height, and weight. Geographic Information Systems data were used to objectively quantify walking-related aspects of urban design, and number of and distance to food outlets within respondents' 1km residential buffers. Food outlets were audited for availability, price, and quality of healthful food choices. Number of convenience stores and in-store healthful food choices were positively related to walking for errands which, in turn, was predictive of lower risk of being overweight/obese. Negative associations with overweight/obesity unexplained by walking were found for number of grocery stores and healthful food choices in sit-down restaurants. Aspects of urban form and food environment were associated with walking for eating purposes which, however, was not predictive of overweight/obesity. Access to diverse destinations, food outlets and healthful food choices may promote pedestrian activity and contribute to better weight regulation. Accessibility and availability of healthful food choices may lower the risk of overweight/obesity by providing opportunities for healthier dietary patterns.

  6. The Communal Coping Model of Pain Catastrophizing in Daily Life: A Within-Couples Daily Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John W.; Gerhart, James I.; Post, Kristina M.; Smith, David A.; Porter, Laura S.; Schuster, Erik; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Fras, Anne Marie; Keefe, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    The Communal Coping Model (CCM) characterizes pain catastrophizing as a coping tactic whereby pain expression elicits assistance and empathic responses from others. Married couples (N = 105 couples; one spouse with chronic low back pain) completed electronic daily diary assessments 5 times/day for 14 days. On these diaries, patients reported pain catastrophizing, pain, function, and perceived spouse support, criticism and hostility. Non-patient spouses reported on their support, criticism, and hostility directed toward patients, as well as their observations of patient pain and pain behaviors. Hierarchical linear modeling tested concurrent and lagged (3 hours later) relationships. Principal findings included: a) within-person increases in pain catastrophizing were positively associated with spouse reports of patient pain behavior in concurrent and lagged analyses; b) within-person increases in pain catastrophizing were positively associated with patient perceptions of spouse support, criticism, and hostility in concurrent analyses; c) within-person increases in pain catastrophizing were negatively associated with spouse reports of criticism and hostility in lagged analyses. Spouses reported patient behaviors that were tied to elevated pain catastrophizing, and spouses changed their behavior during and following elevated pain catastrophizing episodes. Pain catastrophizing may affect the interpersonal environment of patients and spouses in ways consistent with the CCM. PMID:26320945

  7. Healthy Change Processes-A Diary Study of Five Organizational Units. Establishing a Healthy Change Feedback Loop.

    PubMed

    Lien, Mathilde; Saksvik, Per Øystein

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores a change process in the Central Norway Regional Health Authority that was brought about by the implementation of a new economics and logistics system. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to understanding of how employees' attitudes towards change develop over time and how attitudes differ between the five health trusts under this authority. In this paper, we argue that a process-oriented focus through a longitudinal diary method, in addition to action research and feedback loops, will provide greater understanding of the evaluation of organizational change and interventions. This is explored through the assumption that different units will have different perspectives and attitudes towards the same intervention over time because of different contextual and time-related factors. The diary method aims to capture the context, events, reflections and interactions when they occur and allows for a nuanced frame of reference for the different phases of the implementation process and how these phases are perceived by employees. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability.

  9. Evaluation of the Project P.A.T.H.S. Based on Students' Weekly Diaries: Findings from Eight Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (positive adolescent training through holistic social programmes) based on eight datasets collected between 2005 and 2009. A total of 1,138 students who participated in the program were randomly invited (from the whole grade or in some classes) to write a piece of journal in the form of a weekly diary in order to reveal their perceptions and feelings regarding the program and the perceived benefits of the program. Based on an integration of findings from different databases, results showed that the respondents generally (1) had positive views on the program, (2) had positive views on the instructors, and (3) perceived that they had acquired competencies at the societal, school, familial, interpersonal, and personal levels after joining the program. Acknowledging the limitations of diaries, the present qualitative findings provide support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22593676

  10. Development and Validation of a Standardized Questionnaire and Standardized Diary for Use in Integrative Medicine Consultations in Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Hack, C. C.; Hüttner, N. B. M.; Fasching, P. A.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in diagnoses is not standardized and is very heterogeneous. There are few published standards on integrative medicine consultations or CAM-specific validated follow-up questionnaires. The aim of this study was to develop a standard for integrative medicine consultations, a patient questionnaire which could be used as a basis for medical decisions, and a diary to evaluate the course of the integrative therapy. Patients and Methods: Between June 2013 and September 2014 a standardized integrative medicine consultation in gynecologic oncology was developed and implemented at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Erlangen University Hospital. A standard operating procedure for consultations was developed; the necessary instruments were developed and validated. Results: Overall patient assessment of the integrative medicine questionnaire and the integrative medicine diary with regard to the time required for completion, comprehensibility, complexity and functionality was positive. Patients evaluated the standardized overall concept of the integrative medicine consultation and its instruments as suitable. Conclusion: Our team is one of the first study groups to develop, validate and publish a standard procedure for integrative medicine consultations. In future, the standard operating procedure for integrative medicine procedures of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Erlangen University Hospital could be introduced in other hospitals and certified breast cancer centers and gynecologic cancer centers. This would offer patients maximum security and a standardized quality of care in integrative medicine. PMID:26028695

  11. Psychosocial effects of the 2001 UK foot and mouth disease epidemic in a rural population: qualitative diary based study

    PubMed Central

    Mort, Maggie; Convery, Ian; Baxter, Josephine; Bailey, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To understand the health and social consequences of the 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic for a rural population. Design Longitudinal qualitative analysis. Setting North Cumbria, the worst affected area in Britain. Sample Purposive sample of 54 respondents divided in six demographically balanced rural occupational and population groups. Main outcome measures 3071 weekly diaries contributed over 18 months; 72 semistructured interviews (with the 54 diarists and 18 others); 12 group discussions with diarists Results The disease epidemic was a human tragedy, not just an animal one. Respondents' reports showed that life after the foot and mouth disease epidemic was accompanied by distress, feelings of bereavement, fear of a new disaster, loss of trust in authority and systems of control, and the undermining of the value of local knowledge. Distress was experienced across diverse groups well beyond the farming community. Many of these effects continued to feature in the diaries throughout the 18 month period. Conclusions The use of a rural citizens' panel allowed data capture from a wide spectrum of the rural population and showed that a greater number of workers and residents had traumatic experiences than has previously been reported. Recommendations for future disaster management include joint service reviews of what counts as a disaster, regular NHS and voluntary sector sharing of intelligence, debriefing and peer support for front line workers, increased community involvement in disposal site or disaster management, and wider, more flexible access to regeneration funding and rural health outreach work. PMID:16214809

  12. Prospective Measurement of Daily Health Behaviors: Modeling Temporal Patterns in Missing Data, Sexual Behavior, and Substance Use in an Online Daily Diary Study of Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Mustanski, Brian; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-08-01

    Daily diary and other intensive longitudinal methods are increasingly being used to investigate fluctuations in psychological and behavioral processes. To inform the development of this methodology, we sought to explore predictors of and patterns in diary compliance and behavioral reports. We used multilevel modeling to analyze data from an online daily diary study of 371 gay and bisexual men focused on sexual behavior and substance use. We found that greater education and older age as well as lower frequency of substance use were associated with higher compliance. Using polynomial and trigonometric functions, we found evidence for circaseptan patterns in compliance, sexual behavior, and substance use, as well as linear declines in compliance and behavior over time. The results suggest potential sources of non-random patterns of missing data and suggest that trigonometric terms provide a similar but more parsimonious investigation of circaseptan rhythms than do third-order polynomial terms.

  13. Food Sensitivities

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Food sensitivities are a common but frequently unrecognized cause of chronic symptomatology in patients with known allergies. Food sensitivities often are not detected by skin testing. This article discusses the controversy surrounding the treatment of food sensitivities; the provocative sublingual and intradermal tests for sensitivities, and the importance of eliciting complete past and family histories from the allergic patient. Because patients with symptoms of food sensitivity are likely to visit their family doctor first, he should be the first to detect and treat them. Usually patients with a food sensitivity obtain relief from symptoms when the offending food(s) are excluded from their diet. PMID:21283500

  14. Exploring quality of life in families of children living with and without a severe food allergy.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Althea Z; Knibb, Rebecca C

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the impact of food allergy on quality of life in children with food allergy and their primary caregivers, compared to a healthy non-food allergy comparison group. Food allergy children (n=34) and control children (n=15), aged 8-12, and their respective primary caregivers (n=30/n=13), completed generic quality of life scales (PedsQL™ and WHOQOLBREF) and were asked to take photographs and keep a diary about factors that they believed enhanced and/or limited their quality of life, over a one-week period. Questionnaire analysis showed that parents of children with food allergy had significantly lower quality of life in the social relationships domain and lower overall quality of life than the comparison parents. In contrast, children with food allergy had similar or higher quality of life scores compared to comparison children. Content analysis of photograph and diary data identified ten themes that influenced both child and parental quality of life. It was concluded that although food allergy influenced quality of life for some children, their parent's quality of life was hindered to a greater extent. The variability in findings highlights the importance of assessing quality of life in individual families, considering both children with allergies and their primary caregivers.

  15. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics), neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination) were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other than home, so future studies

  16. High cortisol levels are associated with low quality food choice in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Duong, Michelle; Cohen, Jessica I; Convit, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis control may be impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Glucocorticoids increase consumption of low quality foods high in calories, sugar, and fat. We explored the relationship between cortisol levels, poor blood glucose control, and food quality choice in T2DM. Twenty-seven healthy controls were age-, gender- and education-matched to 27 T2DM participants. Standard clinical blood tests and cortisol values were measured from fasting blood samples. Participants recorded all consumed food and drink items in a consecutive 3-day food diary. Diaries were analyzed for "high quality" and "low quality" foods using a standardized method with high reliability (0.97 and 0.86, respectively). Controlling for education, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), log-transformed cortisol (LogC) predicted the percent of low quality foods (R (2) = 0.092, β = 0.360, P < 0.05), but not the percent of high quality foods chosen. Controlling for education, BMI, and LogC, HbA1C significantly predicted both the percent of low quality foods (ΔR (2) = 0.079, β = 0.348, P = 0.024) and high quality foods chosen (ΔR (2) = 0.085, β = -0.362, P = 0.022). The relationship between HbA1C and low quality food choice may be mediated by cortisol, controlling for BMI and education (P < 0.01). HbA1C displayed both an indirect (cortisol-mediated) effect (P < 0.05) and direct effect on low quality food choice (P < 0.05). The relationship between HbA1C and low quality food choice may be partially mediated by cortisol. Poor blood glucose control may cause HPA axis disruption, increased consumption of low quality foods.

  17. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M⊙, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R⊙, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  18. Vitamins A and C, calcium, fruit, and dairy products are limited in food pantries.

    PubMed

    Akobundu, Ucheoma O; Cohen, Nancy L; Laus, Mary J; Schulte, Marsha J; Soussloff, Margaret N

    2004-05-01

    Food pantries serve over 19 million Americans, yet little is known about the nutritional quality of foods distributed in pantry bags. Foods in bags from 133 clients from 19 pantry sites were itemized, and a mean site value for nutrient and food group content was calculated. If an individual consumed the pantry foods according to the Food Guide Pyramid, the bag would contain sufficient bread group foods to last approximately 7 days; vegetable and meat/protein group foods would last about 5 days, and fruit and milk group foods would last only approximately 3 days. Foods distributed were of adequate or high nutrient density for protein, fiber, iron, and folate, but were of low nutrient density for calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Creative efforts are needed for pantries to procure, store, and distribute additional fruit, dairy products, and other sources of vitamins A and C and calcium.

  19. Using Travel Diary Data to Estimate the Emissions Impacts of Transportation Strategies: The Puget Sound Telecommuting Demonstration Project.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Dennis K; Koenig, Brett E; Mokhtarian, Patricia L

    1996-01-01

    Transportation control measures are often implemented for their environmental benefits, but there is a need to quantify what benefits actually occur. Telecommuting has the potential to reduce the number of daily trips and miles traveled with personal vehicles and, consequently, the overall emissions resulting from vehicle activity. This search studies the emissions impacts of telecommuting for the participants of the Puget Sound Telecommuting Demonstration Project (PSTDP). The California Air Resources Board's emissions models, EMFAC7F and BURDEN7F, are used to estimate the emissions on telecommuting days and non-telecommuting days, based on travel diaries completed by program participants. This study, among the first of its kind, represents the most sophisticated application of emissions models to travel diary data. Analysis of the travel diary data and the emissions model output supports the hypothesis that telecommuting has beneficial transportation and air quality impacts. The most important results are that telecommuting decreases the number of daily trips (by 30%), the vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) (by 63%), and the number of cold starts (by 44%), especially those taking place in early morning. These reductions are shown to have a large effect on daily emissions, with a 50% to 60% decrease in pollutants generated by a telecommuter's personal vehicle use on a telecommuting day. These net savings are almost entirely due to the elimination of commute trips, as non-commute trips increased by 0.33 trips per person-day (9% of the total trips), and the non-commute VMT increased by 2.2 miles. Overall reduc- tions in travel and emissions of this magnitude are observed because the telecommuters in this sample are long-distance commuters, with commutes twice as long as the regional average. However, even as telecommuting adoption moves into the mainstream, its net impacts are still expected to be beneficial- a reduction in VMT and in emissions. It is important to note

  20. [Applying the Methodology and Practice of Microhistory: The Diary of a Confucian Doctor, Yi Mun-gǒn (1495-1567)].

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongwon

    2015-08-01

    Since microhistory's approach to the past is based on an understanding of and a sympathy for the concrete details of human lives, its area of interests overlaps with the history of medicine and medical humanities, which examine illness and health. If we put a specific region and society in a specific period under a microscope and increase the magnifying power, we can understand the numerous network connections among the body, illness management, and medicine and how multilayered were the knowledge and power applied to them. And this approach of using microhistory to illuminate medical history can be more effective than any other historical approach. This article focuses on Yi Mun-gǒn's extensive volumes of Mukchaeilgi (Mukchae's diary) in approaching medical history from the perspective of microhistory. Simply defined, this work is a Confucian scholar-doctor's diary. Its author, Yi Mun-gǒn, played the role of a Confucian doctor, although not professionally, during his 23-year exile, after serving in a high governmental office on the senior grade of the third court rank. Thanks to this extensive and detailed diary, we can now get adetailed andthorough picture of his medical practice in the Sǒngju region, 270 kilometers southeast of Seoul, where he was exiled. This article aims to understand the state of medical practice in the Sǒngju region in the 16thcentury through the"zoom-in" method adopted by microhistory. In particular, I will focus on the following three aspects:1) Yi Mun-gǒn's motivation for and method of medical study, 2)the character of Yi Mun-gǒn'spatient treatment as hwarin (the act of life-saving), and 3) the plural existence of various illness management methods, including pyǒngjǒm (divination of illness), sutra-chanting, exorcism, and ch'oje (ritual toward Heaven). All three aspects are closely related to Confucianism. First, Yi Mun-gǒn decided to acquire professional-level medical knowledge in order to practice the Confucian virtue of filial

  1. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... food allergy syndrome In many people who have hay fever, fresh fruits and vegetables and certain nuts and ... if asthma, eczema, hives or allergies such as hay fever are common in your family. A past food ...

  2. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a food allergy, learn how to use injectable epinephrine. You should have it with you at all ... even hives) after eating the food: Inject the epinephrine. Then go to the nearest hospital or emergency ...

  3. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes from eating foods that contain germs like bad bacteria or toxins, which are poisonous substances. Bacteria ... But you can learn how to avoid those bad germs in food. Which Germs Are to Blame? ...

  4. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... November 2016 by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. If you have a food allergy ... clinical trials below: Idiopathic Anaphylaxis Natural History and Genetics of Food Allergy and Related Conditions Featured Research ...

  5. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  6. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  7. A longitudinal daily diary study of family assistance and academic achievement among adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2009-04-01

    A longitudinal daily diary method was employed to examine the implications of family assistance for the academic achievement of 563 adolescents (53% female) from Mexican (n = 217), Chinese (n = 206), and European (n = 140) backgrounds during the high school years (mean age 14.9 years in 9th grade to 17.8 years in 12th grade). Although changes in family assistance time within individual adolescents were not associated with simultaneous changes in their Grade Point Averages (GPAs), increases in the proportion of days spent helping the family were linked to declines in the GPAs of students from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. The negative implications of spending more days helping the family among these two groups was not explained by family background factors or changes in study time or school problems. These results suggest that the chronicity rather than the amount of family assistance may be difficult for adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds.

  8. Translation, Validation, and Adaptation of the Time Use Diary from English into the Malay Language for Use in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Asmuri, Siti Noraini; Brown, Ted; Broom, Lisa J

    2016-07-01

    Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes.

  9. Is leisure time availability associated with more or less severe daily stressors? An examination using eight-day diary data

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The stress suppressing model proposes that sufficient resources reduce stress. The stress exposure model suggests that certain factors expose individuals to more stress. The current study tested these two models by assessing the within-person lagging effect of leisure time on perceived severity of daily stressors. Analyzing eight-day diary data (N=2,022), we found that having more leisure time than usual on a day reduced perceived severity of daily stressors the next day and that the decrease in severity became larger with further increase in leisure time. Additionally, the effect is much stronger among busy individuals who usually had little leisure time. The findings demonstrated an accelerated suppressing effect that differed between-person, and the lagging effect affords stronger implication for causality than correlational analysis. PMID:24563564

  10. Learning Diaries in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom: A Tool for Accessing Learners' Perceptions of Lessons and Developing Learner Autonomy and Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn from students' frame of reference how they experience foreign language classes. Data include learning diaries written during 2005 for more than 35 weeks (March to November). Subjects were 95 Argentine, Caucasian, mostly female, middle-class, Spanish-speaking College students between 19 and 21 years of age who…

  11. A Critical Review of Ann Rinaldi's "My Heart Is on the Ground: The Diary of Nannie Little Rose, A Sioux Girl, Carlisle Indian School, Pennsylvania, 1880."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Debby; Slapin, Beverly; Landis, Barb; Atleo, Marlene; Caldwell, Naomi; Mendoza, Jean; Miranda, Deborah; Rose, La Vera; Smith, Cynthia

    This paper critically reviews the book, "My Heart Is On the Ground: The Diary of Nannie Little Rose, a Sioux Girl, Carlisle Indian School, 1800." The review begins with a profile of Captain Richard Henry Pratt who founded the Carlisle (Pennsylvania) Indian Industrial School in 1879. Pratt's philosophy was to "kill the Indian and…

  12. Applying social marketing principles to understand the effects of the radio diaries program in reducing HIV/AIDS stigma in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Rimal, Rajiv N; Creel, Alisha H

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the extent to which health campaigns can play a constructive role in reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. The Malawi Radio Diaries is a program in which HIV-positive men and women openly discuss day-to-day events in their lives with the goal of reducing stigma in the population. Adopting a social marketing perspective, we analyze the various components of the Radio Diaries program in terms of three of the "Four P's": product (stigma reduction), place (radio), and promotion (the program itself). We first investigated the important dimensions of stigma and then developed a model to test the demographic and psychosocial correlates of these dimensions. A midterm household survey was then used to determine the relationship between exposure to the Radio Diaries program and stigma. In multivariate analyses, lower education and knowledge were associated with stronger beliefs that persons living with HIV should be isolated from others. Exposure to the Radio Diaries program did not have a main-effect on stigma, but there was a significant interaction between exposure and efficacy to reduce number of partners such that there was little difference in stigma by exposure level for those with low efficacy, but a significant difference by exposure level for those with high efficacy. Findings are discussed in terms of social marketing principles.

  13. Young People's Everyday Romance and Sexual Experiences in Relation to Sex-Related Conversations with Parents: A Diary Study in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalenberg, Wieke G.; Timmerman, Margaretha C.; Kunnen, E. Saskia; Van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    This study builds on existing research into how young people's emergent sexual development is connected to parent-child sex-related communication through avoidance vs. disclosure. Over the course of one year, a total of 21 young people (age range 12-17.5) reported in longitudinal qualitative diaries their (1) everyday sexual experiences and (2)…

  14. Can Anne Be Like Margot and Still Be Anne? Adolescent Girls' Development and "Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin-DeVitis, Linda; Benjamin, Beth

    1995-01-01

    Explores the thoughts and feelings of a group of young adolescent girls on dilemmas of identity, self, and society through reading and discussing "The Diary of Anne Frank." Discusses adolescent females in literature and life, the double standard revisited, the dilemma of being right or being nice, and the challenge of including girls'…

  15. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  16. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  17. [Insanity and suicide, as described in the "Okuni-nikki (Diaries of our clan)" of the Hirosaki Clan Government].

    PubMed

    Okada, Yasuo

    2011-09-01

    The "Okuni-nikki (Diaries of our Clan)" of the Hirosaki Clan Government covers the years 1661-1867. Akitomo Matsuki and Yōichi Hanada picked up medical topics from these diaries, and edited them in two volumes of "Tsugaru-ijibunka-shiryōshūsei: Okuni-nikki" (1993, 1994). I selected cases of insanity and suicide from these volumes. Selected were (1) 12 cases of insanity (in its wider sense) (5 cases of insanity, 2 cases of depression, a case of mania, a case of hypochondriasis, a case of epilepsy, a case of pavor nocturnus, and a case of insomnia), (2) 16 cases of suicide and self injury, cased by insanity (in its wider sense) (11 cases of suicide, a case of suicide and injuring another person, a case of attempted suicide, 2 cases of lovers' attempted suicide, and a case of self injury; 8 cases of them were caused by insanity), (3) 3 cases of killing and injuring others, caused by insanity (a case of killing another person, and 2 cases of injuring others), (4) a drunk case of injuring another person, and (5) 13 cases of suicide and self injury, without description of insanity (9 cases of suicide, 2 cases of attempted suicide, a case of lovers' suicide, and a case of penis cutting off). There were no described cases of possession or alcoholism. In the Edo Era, in several provinces and clans had legal procedure to confine insane patients. As for the Hirosaki Clan, I could not find clues to suggest the existence of such legal or customary procedures.

  18. The doctor and the rebels--the diary of Charles Molteno Murray, recorded during the 1914 Boer rebellion.

    PubMed

    Murray, R

    2000-12-01

    Just 12 years after the conclusion of the Anglo-Boer war, South Africa was led by ex-Boer Generals Botha and Smuts into what was to become the Great War, on the side of the British. This was utterly unacceptable to thousands of Boers who had engaged in a bitter struggle, against overwhelming odds, to prevent their country from becoming part of the mighty British Empire. Led by Generals de Wet, Beyers, and de la Rey, Lieutenant-Colonel Maritz and Major Kemp, they took up arms in a doomed rebellion, without proper weapons, equipment or organisation--by the time they were defeated the casualty figures for both sides exceeded those that would later result from the German South West campaign. Charles Molteno Murray, 37 years old, was a GP in Kenilworth, Cape Town, at the time. His father was an Irish immigrant doctor, his mother the daughter of the first Prime Minister of the Cape, Sir John Charles Molteno. In spite of having a busy and successful practice, with a surgical appointment at Victoria Hospital, Charles Murray volunteered for duty and soon found himself in the Orange Free State and northern Cape, caring for the wounded and dying of both sides in the rebellion. He kept a meticulous record of his experiences, written on loose-leaf pages sent as letters to his wife, which were later bound into leather-backed diaries. These diaries were passed on to his grandson, Dr Robert Murray, who had them transcribed into modern format. They contain details of daily life in the midst of military action, and also insights into important and little-publicised events of the Boer Rebellion of 1914.

  19. Daily diary reports of social connection, objective sleep, and the cortisol awakening response during adolescents' first year of college.

    PubMed

    Sladek, Michael R; Doane, Leah D

    2015-02-01

    Poor sleep and alterations in the stress-sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be mechanisms through which loneliness impacts adolescents' well-being. Few researchers have explored whether daily variation in experiences of social connection predict day-to-day variation in sleep and HPA axis activity among adolescents navigating the college context. Using daily diary reports of social connection, objective measures of sleep (actigraphy), and naturalistic salivary assessment, the present study examined within-person associations between first-year college students' social connection during the day and sleep that night, as well as diurnal cortisol activity the following day. The present study also explored trait-level loneliness as a moderator of these associations after adjusting for baseline loneliness assessed in high school. Seventy-one first-year college students (23% male; M age = 18.85; 52% non-Hispanic White) completed daily diary reports, wore a wrist-based accelerometer (actigraph watch), and provided saliva samples five times daily across three consecutive weekdays. The results from hierarchical linear models indicated that within-person increases in daily social connection were significantly associated with longer time spent in bed and more actual time asleep that night only for adolescents high on loneliness. Within-person increases in daily social connection were associated with a greater cortisol awakening response (CAR) the next day, regardless of trait loneliness. These findings illustrate that more daily social connection with others than usual may predict improved sleep quantity for lonely adolescents and a physiological index of anticipating upcoming daily demands (CAR) in general. Future intervention programs might consider including strategies focused on enhancing daily social interactions among adolescents starting college, particularly for lonely adolescents.

  20. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S.; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K. M.; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A.; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Mahmud, Md. Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J.; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Bradley Sack, R.; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention. PMID:26728766

  1. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks.

  2. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention.

  3. Ad lib smoking in post-traumatic stress disorder: an electronic diary study.

    PubMed

    Beckham, Jean C; Wiley, Matthew T; Miller, Susannah C; Dennis, Michelle F; Wilson, Sarah M; McClernon, F Joseph; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2008-07-01

    Using ambulatory methods for 1 week of monitoring, this study investigated the association between smoking and situational cues in 22 smokers with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 23 smokers without PTSD. Generalized estimating equations contrasted 1,759 smoking and 1,088 nonsmoking situations by group status controlling for multiple covariates. PTSD smokers reported higher stress and PTSD symptoms across daily activities. For all smokers, higher nicotine dependence, craving, food and caffeine consumption, and being outside were related to smoking. PTSD smokers were more likely to smoke when experiencing PTSD symptoms, anxiety, and stress. Following smoking, smokers with PTSD reported a significant reduction in negative affect. These results are consistent with previous ambulatory findings regarding mood in smokers, and underscore that in smokers with PTSD, PTSD symptom variables as well as stress and anxiety are significantly associated with ad lib smoking.

  4. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies.

  5. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206

  6. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  7. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  8. The "dirty weather" diaries of Reverend Richard Davis: insights about early colonial-era meteorology and climate variability for northern New Zealand, 1839-1851

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrey, Andrew M.; Chappell, Petra R.

    2016-03-01

    Reverend Richard Davis (1790-1863) was a colonial-era missionary stationed in the Far North of New Zealand who was a key figure in the early efforts of the Church Mission Society. He kept meticulous meteorological records for the early settlements of Waimate North and Kaikohe, and his observations are preserved in a two-volume set in the Sir George Grey Special Collections in the Auckland Central Library. The Davis diary volumes are significant because they constitute some of the earliest land-based meteorological measurements that were continually chronicled for New Zealand. The diary measurements cover nine years within the 1839-1851 time span that are broken into two parts: 1839-1844 and 1848-1851. Davis' meteorological recordings include daily 9 a.m. and noon temperatures and midday pressure measurements. Qualitative comments in the diary note prevailing wind flow, wind strength, cloud cover, climate variability impacts, bio-indicators suggestive of drought, and notes on extreme weather events. "Dirty weather" comments scattered throughout the diary describe disturbed conditions with strong winds and driving rainfall. The Davis diary entries coincide with the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) and they indicate southerly and westerly circulation influences and cooler winter temperatures were more frequent than today. A comparison of climate field reconstructions derived from the Davis diary data and tree-ring-based winter temperature reconstructions are supported by tropical coral palaeotemperature evidence. Davis' pressure measurements were corroborated using ship log data from vessels associated with iconic Antarctic exploration voyages that were anchored in the Bay of Islands, and suggest the pressure series he recorded are robust and can be used as "station data". The Reverend Davis meteorological data are expected to make a significant contribution to the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions across the Earth (ACRE) project, which feeds the major data

  9. The "Dirty Weather" diaries of Reverend Richard Davis: insights about early Colonial-era meteorology and climate variability for Northern New Zealand, 1839-1851

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrey, A. M.; Chappell, P. R.

    2015-08-01

    Reverend Richard Davis (1790-1863) was a Colonial-era missionary stationed in the Far North of New Zealand who was a key figure in the early efforts of the Church Mission Society. He kept meticulous meteorological records for the early settlements of Waimate North and Kaikohe, and his observations are preserved in a two-volume set in the rare manuscripts archive at the Auckland City Library. The Davis diary volumes are significant because they constitute some of the earliest land-based meteorological measurements that were continually chronicled for New Zealand. The diary measurements cover nine years within the 1839-1851 timespan that are broken into two parts: 1839-1844 and 1848-1851. Davis' meteorological recordings include daily 9 AM and noon temperatures and mid-day pressure measurements. Qualitative comments in the diary note prevailing wind flow, wind strength, cloud cover, climate variability impacts, bio-indicators suggestive of drought, and notes on extreme weather events. "Dirty weather" comments scattered throughout the diary describe disturbed conditions with strong winds and driving rainfall. The Davis diary entries coincide with the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) and they indicate southerly and westerly circulation influences and cooler winter temperatures were more frequent than today. A comparison of climate field reconstructions derived from the Davis diary data and tree ring-based winter temperature reconstructions are supported by tropical coral palaeotemperature evidence. Davis' pressure measurements were corroborated using ship log data from vessels associated with iconic Antarctic exploration voyages that were anchored in the Bay of Islands, and suggest the pressure series he recorded are robust and can be used as `station data'. The Reverend Davis meteorological data are expected to make a significant contribution to the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions across the Earth (ACRE) project, which feeds the major data requirements for the

  10. Dietary Assessment in Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Reedy, Jill; Butler, Eboneé N.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Subar, Amy F.; Thompson, Frances E.; McKinnon, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Context The existing evidence on food environments and diet is inconsistent, potentially due in part to heterogeneity in measures used to assess diet. The objective of this review, conducted in 2012–2013, was to examine measures of dietary intake utilized in food environment research. Evidence acquisition Included studies were published from January 2007 through June 2012 and assessed relationships between at least one food environment exposure and at least one dietary outcome. Fifty-one articles were identified using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO; references listed in the papers reviewed and relevant review articles; and the National Cancer Institute's Measures of the Food Environment website. The frequency of the use of dietary intake measures and assessment of specific dietary outcomes was examined, as were patterns of results among studies using different dietary measures. Evidence synthesis The majority of studies used brief instruments, such as screeners or one or two questions, to assess intake. Food frequency questionnaires were used in about a third of studies, one in ten used 24-hour recalls, and fewer than one in twenty used diaries. Little consideration of dietary measurement error was evident. Associations between the food environment and diet were more consistently in the expected direction in studies using less error-prone measures. Conclusions There is a tendency toward the use of brief dietary assessment instruments with low cost and burden rather than more detailed instruments that capture intake with less bias. Use of error-prone dietary measures may lead to spurious findings and reduced power to detect associations. PMID:24355678

  11. Anaerobic digestion of food waste using yeast.

    PubMed

    Suwannarat, Jutarat; Ritchie, Raymond J

    2015-08-01

    Fermentative breakdown of food waste seems a plausible alternative to feeding food waste to pigs, incineration or garbage disposal in tourist areas. We determined the optimal conditions for the fermentative breakdown of food waste using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in incubations up to 30days. Yeast efficiently broke down food waste with food waste loadings as high as 700g FW/l. The optimum inoculation was ≈46×10(6)cells/l of culture with a 40°C optimum (25-40°C). COD and BOD were reduced by ≈30-50%. Yeast used practically all the available sugars and reduced proteins and lipids by ≈50%. Yeast was able to metabolize lipids much better than expected. Starch was mobilized after very long term incubations (>20days). Yeast was effective in breaking down the organic components of food waste but CO2 gas and ethanol production (≈1.5%) were only significant during the first 7days of incubations.

  12. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys.

  13. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. B. G.; Timmins, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two children with food allergy could not be successfully managed on dietary restriction alone. There was a good response to treatment with oral sodium cromoglycate but none to placebo treatment. The use of sodium cromoglycate in the management of food allergy should be studied further. PMID:105671

  14. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  15. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... delicious dessert, but then you see the crushed peanuts on top. Darn! You're allergic to peanuts. Maybe just one little bite? Nope. If you ... alone. These foods cause the most food allergies: peanuts and other nuts seafood, such as shrimp milk, ...

  16. Food Labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the U.S. have food labels. On every food label you will see Serving size, number of servings, and number of calories per serving Information on the amount of dietary fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, carbohydrates, dietary proteins, vitamins, ...

  17. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  18. Food porn.

    PubMed

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  19. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  20. Gender Differences in Depression: Assessing Mediational Effects of Overt Behaviors and Environmental Reward through Daily Diary Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ryba, Marlena M.; Hopko, Derek R.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of depression are well documented. To further explore the relation between gender and depression, this study used daily diaries to examine gender differences within thirteen behavioral domains and whether differential frequency of overt behaviors and environmental reward mediated the relationship between gender and depression severity. The sample included 82 undergraduate students [66% females; 84% Caucasian; Mean age = 20.2 years]. Overall, females engaged in a significantly greater breadth of behavioral domains and reported a higher level of environmental reward. Females spent more time in the domains of health/hygiene, spiritual activities, and eating with others. Males spent more time in the domains of physical activity, sexual activity, and hobbies and recreational experiences. Females found social activities, passive/sedentary behaviors, eating with others, and engagement in “other” activities more rewarding. Gender had a significant direct effect on depression severity, with females reporting increased depression. This effect was attenuated by the mediator (total environmental reward) such that to the extent females exhibited increased environmental reward, the gender effect on depression was attenuated. These data support behavioral models of depression, indicate increased reinforcement sensitivity among females, and have clinical relevance in the context of assessment and behavioral activation interventions for depression. PMID:22454769

  1. Perceived Partner Responsiveness Mediates the Association Between Sexual and Marital Satisfaction: A Daily Diary Study in Newlywed Couples.

    PubMed

    Gadassi, Reuma; Bar-Nahum, Lior Eadan; Newhouse, Sarah; Anderson, Ragnar; Heiman, Julia R; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Janssen, Erick

    2016-01-01

    Sexuality is an integral part of intimate relationships, yet surprisingly little is known about how and for whom sexuality matters. The present research investigated the interplay of sexual and non-sexual factors that contribute to relationship satisfaction. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the association between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction is mediated by a non-sexual factor-namely, perceived partner responsiveness (PPR). Additionally, we tested the role of gender as a possible moderator of this mediated association. Thirty-four newlywed couples completed diaries with each spouse reporting their sexual satisfaction, marital satisfaction, and PPR every day for 30 days. We tested our predictions at both the person level (i.e., the mean level across 30 days) and the daily level. At the person level, we found that sexual satisfaction and PPR separately predicted marital satisfaction. Moreover, the effect of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction was partially mediated by PPR. No gender differences emerged at this level. At the daily level, we found similar support for partial mediation. However, at this level, gender did serve as a moderator. The stronger mediation found for women was driven by a stronger association between sexual satisfaction and PPR for women than for men. This study joins a growing literature highlighting the role of PPR in dyadic relationships.

  2. The predictive value of attentional bias towards pain-related information in chronic pain patients: a diary study.

    PubMed

    Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Crombez, Geert; Goubert, Liesbet; De Houwer, Jan; Onraedt, Thomas; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-03-01

    Theoretical accounts of chronic pain hypothesize that attentional bias towards pain-related information is a maintaining or exacerbating factor, fuelling further pain, disability, and distress. However, empirical research testing this idea is currently lacking. In the present study, we investigated whether attentional bias towards pain-related information predicts daily pain-related outcomes in a sample of chronic pain patients (n=69; M(age)=49.64 years; 46 females). During an initial laboratory session, attentional bias to pain-related information was assessed using a modified spatial cueing task. In advance, patients completed a number of self-report measures assessing current pain intensity, current disability, and pain duration. Subsequently, daily pain outcomes (self-reported pain severity, disability, avoidance behaviour, and distractibility) were measured for 2 weeks by means of an electronic diary. Results indicated that, although an attentional bias towards pain-related information was associated with the current level of disability and pain severity, it had no additional value above control variables in predicting daily pain severity, avoidance, distractibility, and disability. Attentional bias towards pain-related information did, however, moderate the relationship between daily pain severity and both daily disability and distractibility, indicating that, particularly in those patients with a strong attentional bias, increases in pain were associated with increased disability and distractibility. The use of interventions that diminish attentional bias may therefore be helpful to reduce daily disability and the level of distraction from current tasks despite the presence of pain in chronic pain patients.

  3. Daily stress magnifies the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems: an integration of longitudinal and diary methods.

    PubMed

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Almeida, David M; Seeman, Teresa E; Lachman, Margie E

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether long-term fluid cognitive decline was associated with memory problems in everyday life, and whether stress plays a moderating role. We expected that the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems would be magnified in the context of self-reported and physiological stress. Data are from the Boston Longitudinal Study, a subsample of the Midlife in the United States study. Participants in the current study (n = 112) completed a battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning at Time 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) over 10 years. At T2, participants completed weekly diaries of self-reported daily stressors and everyday memory problems for 12 consecutive weeks. Also at T2, participants provided 4 saliva samples over the course of 1 day to assess physiological stress using diurnal cortisol profiles [cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS)]. Self-reported daily stressors and a less healthy DCS were associated with more everyday memory problems, and participants with greater cognitive decline reported more memory problems compared to those with less or no decline. Self-reported daily stressors and CAR moderated the relationship of cognitive decline and memory problems. As expected, more cognitive decline was associated with greater increases in memory problems on weeks when individuals reported more daily stressors and for individuals with a less healthy CAR. The current findings can inform interventions aimed to identify factors, such as daily stress, that contribute to daily functioning in the context of cognitive decline.

  4. Daily Stress Magnifies the Association between Cognitive Decline and Everyday Memory Problems: An Integration of Longitudinal and Diary Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth H.; Almeida, David M.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether long-term fluid cognitive decline was associated with memory problems in everyday life, and whether stress plays a moderating role. We expected that the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems would be magnified in the context of self-reported and physiological stress. Data are from the Boston Longitudinal Study, a subsample of the Midlife in the United States study. Participants in the current study (n=112) completed a battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning at Time 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) over ten years. At T2, participants completed weekly diaries of self-reported daily stressors and everyday memory problems for twelve consecutive weeks. Also at T2, participants provided four saliva samples over the course of one day to assess physiological stress using diurnal cortisol profiles [cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS)]. Self-reported daily stressors and a less healthy DCS were associated with more everyday memory problems, and participants with greater cognitive decline reported more memory problems compared to those with less or no decline. Self-reported daily stressors and CAR moderated the relationship of cognitive decline and memory problems. As expected, more cognitive decline was associated with greater increases in memory problems on weeks when individuals reported more daily stressors and for individuals with a less healthy CAR. The current findings can inform interventions aimed to identify factors, such as daily stress, that contribute to daily functioning in the context of cognitive decline. PMID:25365691

  5. Vaginal Practices among Women at High Risk of HIV Infection in Uganda and Tanzania: Recorded Behaviour from a Daily Pictorial Diary

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Suzanna C.; Baisley, Kathy; Lees, Shelley S.; Andrew, Bahati; Zalwango, Flavia; Seeley, Janet; Vandepitte, Judith; Ao, Trong T.; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Kapiga, Saidi; Grosskurth, Heiner; Hayes, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravaginal practices (IVP) are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan African and have been implicated as risk factors for HIV acquisition. However, types of IVP vary between populations, and detailed information on IVP among women at risk for HIV in different populations is needed. We investigated IVP among women who practice transactional sex in two populations: semi-urban, facility workers in Tanzania who engage in opportunistic sex work; and urban, self-identified sex workers and bar workers in Uganda. The aim of the study was to describe and compare IVP using a daily pictorial diary. Methodology/Principal Findings Two hundred women were recruited from a HIV prevention intervention feasibility study in Kampala, Uganda and in North-West Tanzania. Women were given diaries to record IVP daily for six weeks. Baseline data showed that Ugandan participants had more lifetime partners and transactional sex than Tanzanian participants. Results from the diary showed that 96% of Tanzanian participants and 100% of Ugandan participants reported intravaginal cleansing during the six week study period. The most common types of cleansing were with water only or water and soap. In both countries, intravaginal insertion (e.g. with herbs) was less common than cleansing, but insertion was practiced by more participants in Uganda (46%) than in Tanzania (10%). In Uganda, participants also reported more frequent sex, and more insertion related to sex. In both populations, cleansing was more often reported on days with reported sex and during menstruation, and in Uganda, when participants experienced vaginal discomfort. Participants were more likely to cleanse after sex if they reported no condom use. Conclusions While intravaginal cleansing was commonly practiced in both cohorts, there was higher frequency of cleansing and insertion in Uganda. Differences in IVP were likely to reflect differences in sexual behaviour between populations, and may warrant different approaches to

  6. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: The CoCo trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM) has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also in better blood pressure control. Objective Improvement of self-monitoring and improved blood pressure control by using a new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Outcome Primary outcome: Change in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure 6 months after using the new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Secondary outcome: Adherence to blood pressure self-measurement (number of measurements/entries). Methods/Design Randomised controlled study. Population: 138 adult patients in primary care with uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy. The control group uses a conventional blood pressure diary; the intervention group uses the new colour-coded blood pressure diary (green, yellow, red according a traffic light system). Expected results/conclusion The visual separation and entries in three colour-coded areas reflecting risk (green: blood pressure in the target range ≤ 140/≤ 90 mmHg, yellow: blood pressure >140/>90 mmHg, red: blood pressure in danger zone > 180 mmHg/>110 mmHg) lead to better self-monitoring compared with the conventional (non-colour-coded) blood pressure booklet. The colour-coded, visualised information supports improved perception (awareness and interpretation) of blood pressure and triggers correct behaviour, in the means of improved adherence to the recommended treatment as well as better communication between patients and doctors resulting in improved blood pressure control. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01013467 PMID:20398258

  7. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... These eight foods are: Milk Eggs Peanuts Tree nuts (such as almonds, cashews, walnuts) Fish (such as bass, cod, flounder) Shellfish (such as crab, lobster, shrimp) Soy Wheat U.S. food labels take ... the type of tree nut (almond, walnut) or the type of crustacean shellfish ( ...

  8. Eaten up by boredom: consuming food to escape awareness of the bored self

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Andrew B.; van Tilburg, Wijnand A. P.; Igou, Eric R.; Wisman, Arnaud; Donnelly, Alan E.; Mulcaire, Jessie B.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that being bored affectively marks an appraised lack of meaning in the present situation and in life. We propose that state boredom increases eating in an attempt to distract from this experience, especially among people high in objective self-awareness. Three studies were conducted to investigate boredom’s effects on eating, both naturally occurring in a diary study and manipulated in two experiments. In Study 1, a week-long diary study showed that state boredom positively predicted calorie, fat, carbohydrate, and protein consumption. In Study 2, a high (vs. low) boredom task increased the desire to snack as opposed to eating something healthy, especially amongst those participants high in objective self-awareness. In addition, Study 3 demonstrated that among people high in objective self-awareness, high (vs. low) boredom increased the consumption of less healthy foods and the consumption of more exciting, healthy foods. However, this did not extend to unexciting, healthy food. Collectively, these novel findings signify the role of boredom in predicting maladaptive and adaptive eating behaviors as a function of the need to distant from the experience of boredom. Further, our results suggest that more exciting, healthy food serves as alternative to maladaptive consumption following boredom. PMID:25883579

  9. Food acquisition habits in a group of African refugees recently settled in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carolina A N; Larder, Nicolette; Somerset, Shawn

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated how recently arrived refugees acquired food in their local food neighbourhood. Ten African humanitarian migrants belonging to separate households were asked to keep a travel and food diary for one week. Participants' food neighbourhoods were mapped using online satellite pictures and direct observation. On average 78 food outlets were available within a 2km radius of participants' homes. Vegetable consumption was higher in participants who resided <1km from a major grocery retailer (p<0.05). Foods provided during migrant orientation events were the major opportunities where subjects were introduced to foods more typical of reported usual intake in the general sedentee Australian population. The initial 12 months of resettlement is a critical period for acculturation as participants stabilise food habits. While participants seemed not to live in food deserts, intakes of all food groups remained inferior to recommended levels suggesting physical proximity and implied in-store choice alone do not guarantee a healthy diet. Migrant orientation events may represent an important setting for education about suitable options for adopting new foods into diets.

  10. Food safety and older people: the Kitchen Life study.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Angela; Wills, Wendy; Meah, Angela; Short, Frances

    2014-05-01

    Foodborne illness (FBI) is a major public health problem in the UK. Recent increases in cases of listeriosis in older people have focused attention on consumer food-related practices. Previous studies highlight poor relationships between what people know, what they say they do and what they actually do in the kitchen. The aim of the Kitchen Life study was to examine what actually happens in the domestic kitchen to assess whether and how this has the potential to influence food safety in the home. Drawing on a qualitative ethnographic approach, methods included a kitchen tour, photography, observation, video observation, informal interviews and diary methods. Ten households with older people (aged 60+) were recruited across the UK. It was found that trust in the food supply, use of food-labelling (including use-by dates), sensory logics (such as the feel or smell of food) and food waste were factors with the potential to influence risk of foodborne illness. Practices shifted with changing circumstances, including increased frailty, bereavement, living alone, receiving help with care and acquiring new knowledge, meaning that the risk of and vulnerability to foodborne illness is not straightforward.

  11. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  12. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and children's consumption behaviour.

    PubMed

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer communication (concept-oriented vs. socio-oriented) moderated the relation between children's advertising exposure and their consumption of advertised energy-dense food products. Interaction analysis in regression showed that active advertising mediation (i.e. explaining the purpose and nature of advertising), and socio-oriented consumer communication (i.e. emphasizing control and restrictions) significantly reduced the impact of advertising on children's food consumption. Parental restrictions of advertising exposure were only effective among younger children (<8). These results suggest that critical discussion about advertising and rule making about consumption are most effective in countering the impact of food advertising.

  13. Food pollution.

    PubMed

    Trevino, R J

    1999-06-01

    Food can influence the human body in many ways, both positively and negatively. Several key elements of contemporary food cultivation and production are presented, along with their potential consequences to our health. The history of food cultivation and consumption is contrasted between early hunter-gatherer societies and modern day societies. Natural nutrient-rich foods produced from the soil in early societies have been replaced with artificial supplements and treated with pesticides and herbicides to control plant disease. The evolution of pesticides is chronicled from the synthesis of DDT in 1870 to present day. Several commonly used chemicals are described along with their documented side effects. A number of methods of pest control from ancient to modern day are offered as alternatives to polluting chemicals. Integrated pest management is proposed as a promising, economically feasible method of pest management, reducing pollution and risk to wildlife and human health.

  14. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... cereals, produce, and chips. When buying packaged meat, poultry (chicken or turkey), or fish, check the expiration ... your cart. Separate any raw meat, fish, or poultry from vegetables, fruit, and other foods you'll ...

  15. "Convenience Food."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  16. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... than others. Unsaturated fats , which are found in vegetable oils, nuts, and fish, are often called "good fats." ... these foods too, but they are also in vegetable oils that have been specially treated (hydrogenated) so they ...

  17. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safety of fish caught in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Advisories may recommend that ... Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids Students Adults Families Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, MyWins ...

  18. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  19. Future food.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  20. Food extrusion.

    PubMed

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility.

  1. Exposure of Polish children to Southampton food colours.

    PubMed

    Gajda-Wyrębek, J; Kuźma, K; Świtka, A; Jarecka, J; Beresińska, M; Postupolski, J

    2017-01-01

    A study published in 2007 showed that the intake of six food colours (the so-called 'Southampton colours') may have an adverse effect on activity and attention in children. The present study set out to assess the exposure of Polish children (3 and 8-9 years old, n = 149) to six of the target colours. Two methods were used to evaluate colour consumption by children: scenario 1 using the maximum permitted levels (MPLs) and actual food consumption data; and scenario 2 using the actual levels in food and actual food consumption data. The data on the actual consumption of food containing the colours was collected using a 7-day questionnaire survey. The results of laboratory analysis of food consumed by children provided data on the actual levels of the colours in food. Consumption of the colours estimated by scenario 1 in any case did not exceed the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) of the colours in both age groups of children. For more refined colour intake (scenario 2), isolated cases exceeding the ADI were recorded for four colours, but assuming that manufacturers comply with the current legislation on MPL of colours in food, the intake of the colours assessed in scenario 2 should not be a reason for exceeding of ADIs for the target food colours.

  2. Emotional Intolerance and Core Features of Anorexia Nervosa: A Dynamic Interaction during Inpatient Treatment? Results from a Longitudinal Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Stroe-Kunold, Esther; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Stadnitski, Tatjana; Wesche, Daniela; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schwab, Michael; Wild, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of emotion dysregulation with regard to the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is increasingly discussed. It is both assumed that AN symptoms have an impact on difficulties in tolerating aversive emotions and that—conversely—emotion dysregulation influences AN. To date, such conclusions are drawn on the basis of cross-sectional data not allowing for inferences on the temporal dynamics. The current study investigates the longitudinal interaction between emotional intolerance and core AN symptoms over the course of inpatient treatment by comparing patients with high (BMI<15 kg/m2) vs. low symptom severity (HSS vs. LSS). Method The study adopted a longitudinal, process-oriented design with N = 16 analysed electronic diaries. Throughout the course of their inpatient treatment, the patients answered questions daily about emotional intolerance and their AN-specific cognitions and behaviours. The temporal dynamics between emotional intolerance and these variables were analysed using a multivariate time series approach. Results The time series of the processes under investigation adequately reflected the individual treatment courses. The majority of significant linear time trends was found for HSS patients. Most importantly, analysis revealed significant temporal interactions between emotional intolerance and AN symptoms in almost 70% of HSS patients. Thereby, up to 37% of variance in eating restraint and up to 23% in weight concern could be attributed to changes in emotional intolerance. Conclusions The findings support the notion that intolerable unpleasant emotions in severely affected AN patients influence their psychopathology. Additionally, time series analysis outlined the inter-individual heterogeneity of psychosomatic treatment courses of AN patients. PMID:27191959

  3. The impact of reduced worktime on sleep and perceived stress - a group randomized intervention study using diary data.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Helena; Lekander, Mats; Rajaleid, Kristiina; Hellgren, Carina; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Barck-Holst, Peter; Kecklund, Göran

    2017-03-01

    Objective Insufficient time for recovery between workdays may cause fatigue and disturbed sleep. This study evaluated the impact of an intervention that reduced weekly working hours by 25% on sleep, sleepiness and perceived stress for employees within the public sector. Method Participating workplaces (N=33) were randomized into intervention and control groups. Participants (N=580, 76% women) worked full-time at baseline. The intervention group (N=354) reduced worktime to 75% with preserved salary during 18 months. Data were collected at baseline and after 9 and 18 months follow-up. Sleep quality, sleep duration, sleepiness, perceived stress,and worries and stress at bedtime were measured with diary during one week per data collection. Result A multilevel mixed model showed that compared with the control group, at the 18-month follow-up, the intervention group had improved sleep quality and sleep duration (+23 minutes) and displayed reduced levels of sleepiness, perceived stress, and worries and stress at bedtime on workdays (P<0.002). The same effects were shown for days off (P<0.006), except for sleep length. Effect sizes were small (Cohen's f2<0.08). Adding gender, age, having children living at home, and baseline values of sleep quality and worries and stress at bedtime as additional between-group factors did not influence the results. Conclusion A 25% reduction of weekly work hours with retained salary resulted in beneficial effects on sleep, sleepiness and perceived stress both on workdays and days off. These effects were maintained over an 18-month period. This randomized intervention thus indicates that reduced worktime may improve recovery and perceived stress.

  4. Appetitive traits and food intake patterns in early life1

    PubMed Central

    Syrad, Hayley; Johnson, Laura; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H

    2016-01-01

    Background: High food responsiveness (FR) and low satiety responsiveness (SR) are 2 appetitive traits that have been associated longitudinally with risk of excessive weight gain; however, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the associations between these traits and eating patterns in daily life in young children. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that higher FR is independently associated with a higher meal frequency and that lower SR is associated with a larger meal size. Design: Data were from 1102 families (2203 children) from the Gemini twin birth cohort. Appetite was assessed with the use of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire when the children were 16 mo old (mean ± SD: 15.73 ± 1.08 mo old), and meal frequency (eating occasions per day) and meal size (kilojoules per eating occasion) were determined from 3-d diet diaries completed by parents when the children were 21 mo old (mean ± SD: 20.65 ± 1.10 mo old). Complex samples general linear models were used to explore cross-sectional associations between appetitive traits and meal variables. Results: After adjustment for the covariates gestational age, birth weight, sex, difference in age at diet-diary completion, and appetite measurement, higher FR was associated with more-frequent meals (B ± SE: 0.13 ± 0.04; P = 0.001) but not with meal size (P = 0.41), and lower SR was associated with a larger meal size (B ± SE: −47.61 ± 8.79; P < 0.001) but not with meal frequency (P = 0.15). Conclusions: FR and SR predict different eating variables with more food-responsive children eating more frequently, whereas less–satiety-responsive children eat more food on each eating occasion. Different strategies may be required to reduce the potential effects of FR and SR on weight gain. PMID:26675767

  5. A participatory assessment of dietary patterns and food behavior in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Allison; Englberger, Lois; Flores, Rafael; Lorens, Adelino; Fitzgerald, Maureen H

    2008-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are escalating rapidly within the Pacific region, including Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. A shift in dietary patterns from indigenous, high fiber, healthy local food to energy-dense, imported food with low nutritional value, and increased sedentary lifestyles are expediting this process. Essential to counteract this trend is an understanding of how people make food decisions. This participatory assessment utilized a quantitative and qualitative approach to capture diet patterns and knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of food consumption. A structured 7-day food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to quantify the diets of 293 adult Pohnpeian women attending an island-wide education/disability screening program. An ethnographic approach, including in-depth interviews, informal focus groups and observations documented food behavior practices and contributed to the design of the FFQ. Of those responding to the FFQ, 96% reported eating rice frequently (3-7 days/week) whereas 75% reported eating locally grown carbohydrate foods frequently. Factors associated with culture change, including availability, affordability, convenience, and status of food items were found to determine food decisions. Food-based, culturally sensitive and innovative strategies that utilize existing resources are required to promote local food production and consumption. Prevention programs with an information, education and communication (IEC) approach are needed to provide accurate and available health and nutrition knowledge and to increase the demand for local foods. Behavior modification requires the continued collaboration of the national, state, and community organizations that partnered on this research to strategize programs in order to target individual food choices and to transform the environment to support these decisions.

  6. Public Report on Health: Development of a Nutritive Value Calculator for Indian Foods and Analysis of Food Logs and Nutrient Intake in six States

    PubMed Central

    Sathyamala, C; Kurian, NJ; DE, Anuradha; Saxena, KB; Priya, Ritu; Baru, Rama; Srivastava, Ravi; Mittal, Onkar; Noronha, Claire; Samson, Meera; Khalsa, Sneh; Puliyel, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The Public Report on Health (PRoH) was initiated in 2005 to understand public health issues for people from diverse backgrounds living in different region specific contexts. States were selected purposively to capture a diversity of situations from better-performing states and not-so-well performing states. Based on these considerations, six states – the better-performing states of Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Himachal Pradesh (HP) and the not-so-well performing states of Madhya Pradesh (MP), Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Orissa (OR) – were selected. This is a report of a study using food diaries to assess food intakes in sample households from six states of India. Method: Food diaries were maintained and all the raw food items that went into making the food in the household was measured using a measuring cup that converted volumes into dry weights for each item. The proportion consumed by individual adults was recorded. A nutrient calculator that computed the total nutrient in the food items consumed, using the ‘Nutritive Value of Indian Foods by Gopalan et al., was developed to analyze the data and this is now been made available as freeware (http://bit.ly/ncalculator). The total nutrients consumed by the adults, men and women was calculated. Results: Identifying details having been removed, the raw data is available, open access on the internet http://bit.ly/foodlogxls.The energy consumption in our study was 2379 kcal per capita per day. According to the Summary Report World Agriculture the per capita food consumption in 1997-99 was 2803 which is higher than that in the best state in India. The consumption for developing countries a decade ago was 2681 and in Sub-Saharan Africa it was 2195. Our data is compatible in 2005 with the South Asia consumption of 2403 Kcal per capita per day in 1997-99. For comparison, in industrialized countries it was 3380. In Tamil Nadu it was a mere 1817 kcal. Discussion: The nutrient consumption in this study suggests that

  7. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  8. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... than half the calories are from fat, the fat content must be reduced by 50% or more. Sugar terms: Sugar-free: Less than 1/2 gram of sugar per serving. Reduced ... to a similar food. Fat terms: Fat-free: Less than 1/2 gram ...

  9. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... during growing or shipping can contain animal or human waste. Food may be handled in an unsafe way during ... to RSS Follow us ... MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  10. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... The same sort of thing happens with any allergy, whether it's a medicine (like penicillin), pollen in the air (from grasses, weeds, and trees), or a food, like peanuts. So the thing itself isn't harmful, but the way your body reacts to it ... a Reaction Like? If a kid with peanut allergy would have eaten that peanut-topped brownie, here's ...

  11. Weaning Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for…

  12. The risk of salmonellae shedding by dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets.

    PubMed

    Finley, Rita; Ribble, Carl; Aramini, Jeff; Vandermeer, Meredith; Popa, Maria; Litman, Marcus; Reid-Smith, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-eight research dogs were enrolled to determine the prevalence of salmonellae shedding after consumption of 1 Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diet meal. Sixteen dogs were exposed to Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets and 12 to Salmonella-free commercial raw food diets. Seven of the exposed dogs shed salmonellae 1-7 days after consumption of Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets. None of the dogs fed Salmonella-free diets shed salmonellae. No clinical signs were observed in either group. Five of the 7 dogs shed the same serotypes as those recovered from food samples used for feeding. Results showed the same serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern in 2 of the 7 shedders. Dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets can shed salmonellae and may, therefore, be a source of environmental contamination potentially leading to human or animal illness.

  13. Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'.

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, J I; Hetherington, M M

    1995-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that some foods are eaten to alter mood, the relationship between mood and intake of chocolate was investigated in 40 women. Twenty self-identified chocolate 'addicts' and 20 controls rated hunger, mood, intensity of craving and amount of chocolate eaten in a diary for seven consecutive days. The 'addicts' reported a significantly greater number of eating episodes and consumed a larger amount of chocolate than controls. 'Addicts' also rated depression, guilt and craving higher and feeling content and relaxed as lower before eating than controls. However, eating chocolate resulted in increased feelings of guilt in the 'addicts' and no significant changes in feeling depressed or relaxed. On indices of disordered eating and depression, 'addicts' scored significantly higher than controls; however, eating chocolate did not improve mood. Although chocolate is a food which provides pleasure, for those who consider intake of this food to be excessive, any pleasure experienced is short lived and accompanied by feelings of guilt.

  14. Subjective but Not Actigraphy-Defined Sleep Predicts Next-Day Fatigue in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Prospective Daily Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Charlotte; Wearden, Alison J.; Fairclough, Gillian; Emsley, Richard A.; Kyle, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between subjective and actigraphy-defined sleep, and next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and (2) investigate the potential mediating role of negative mood on this relationship. We also sought to examine the effect of presleep arousal on perceptions of sleep. Methods: Twenty-seven adults meeting the Oxford criteria for CFS and self-identifying as experiencing sleep difficulties were recruited to take part in a prospective daily diary study, enabling symptom capture in real time over a 6-day period. A paper diary was used to record nightly subjective sleep and presleep arousal. Mood and fatigue symptoms were rated four times each day. Actigraphy was employed to provide objective estimations of sleep duration and continuity. Results: Multilevel modelling revealed that subjective sleep variables, namely sleep quality, efficiency, and perceiving sleep to be unrefreshing, predicted following-day fatigue levels, with poorer subjective sleep related to increased fatigue. Lower subjective sleep efficiency and perceiving sleep as unrefreshing predicted reduced variance in fatigue across the following day. Negative mood on waking partially mediated these relationships. Increased presleep cognitive and somatic arousal predicted self-reported poor sleep. Actigraphy-defined sleep, however, was not found to predict following-day fatigue. Conclusions: For the first time we show that nightly subjective sleep predicts next-day fatigue in CFS and identify important factors driving this relationship. Our data suggest that sleep specific interventions, targeting presleep arousal, perceptions of sleep and negative mood on waking, may improve fatigue in CFS. Citation: Russell C, Wearden AJ, Fairclough G, Emsley RA, Kyle SD. Subjective but not actigraphy-defined sleep predicts next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome: a prospective daily diary study. SLEEP 2016;39(4):937–944. PMID:26715232

  15. Targeting binge eating through components of dialectical behavior therapy: preliminary outcomes for individually supported diary card self-monitoring versus group-based DBT.

    PubMed

    Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined two condensed adaptations of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for binge eating. Women with full- or sub-threshold variants of either binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to individually supported self-monitoring using adapted DBT diary cards (DC) or group-based DBT, each 15 sessions over 16 weeks. DC sessions focused on problem-solving diary card completion issues, praising diary card completion, and supporting nonjudgmental awareness of eating-related habits and urges, but not formally teaching DBT skills. Group-based DBT included eating mindfulness, progressing through graded exposure; mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills; and coaching calls between sessions. Both treatments evidenced large and significant improvements in binge eating, bulimic symptoms, and interoceptive awareness. For group-based DBT, ineffectiveness, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and perfectionism also decreased significantly, with medium to large effect sizes. For DC, results were not significant but large in effect size for body dissatisfaction and medium in effect size for ineffectiveness and drive for thinness. Retention for both treatments was higher than recent trends for eating disorder treatment in fee-for-service practice and for similar clinic settings, but favored DC, with the greater attrition of group-based DBT primarily attributed to its more intensive and time-consuming nature, and dropout overall associated with less pretreatment impairment and greater interoceptive awareness. This preliminary investigation suggests that with both abbreviated DBT-based treatments, substantial improvement in core binge eating symptoms is possible, enhancing potential avenues for implementation beyond more time-intensive DBT.

  16. Mojave Desert Diary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breed, Allen F.

    1974-01-01

    This is an account of a trip to the Mojave Desert sponsored by the California Youth Authority's Community Parole Center for wards who are selected on the basis of their potential for growth and their ability to make a connection between what they do in the wilderness and what they do on the streets. (PD)

  17. NEWS: Conference diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    18 - 20 October 2000 Santa Fe, Argentina 5th Symposium of Investigators in Physics Education. Info: Ing Cristina Camara, GIDEAF Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica - UNL, Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina (ccamara@fiqus.unl.edu.ar or www.unl.edu.ar/sief5 )

  18. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  19. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  20. The relation between phosphine sorption and terminal gas concentrations in successful fumigation of food commodities.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Palvai Vanitha; Rajashekar, Yellappa; Begum, Khamrunissa; Leelaja, Bhadravathi Chandrappa; Rajendran, Somiahnadar

    2007-01-01

    Owing to increased tolerance and the development of resistance in stored product insects to the fumigant phosphine, in recent years there has been a shift in the target terminal concentration from 100 ppm (100 mL m(-3)) to a higher level of 1000 ppm to achieve 100% insect mortality in 7 day commodity treatments. Therefore, there is a need to investigate whether the revised target concentration could be achieved for food commodities fumigated with phosphine at the standard dose of 2 g m(-3) for 7 days under airtight conditions at > or = 25 degrees C. When different types of food commodity (total 74) were fumigated (300 g per replicate) with phosphine at 2 g m(-3) for 7 days, the terminal gas concentrations in the free space of the commodities varied from 0 to > 2000 ppm. In chambers containing no substrate, a 1417 ppm concentration was recorded. Paddy rice, most of the oilseeds, shelled tree nuts, butter beans, cardamom, green gram splits, coriander powder, rice bran and cocoa powder were more sorptive (> or =60%), such that the target concentration of 1000 ppm was not achieved at the end of 7 days. For these commodities, increased doses of 3-6 g m(-3) were required to attain 1000 ppm. In-shell almonds, green cardamom, in-shell peanuts, leaf tea, tamarind pulp and sunflower seeds were exceptionally sorptive (>90%), so that 0, 41, 112, 168, 203 and 217 ppm respectively were noted at the end of 7 days; the dose must exceed 6 g m(-3) for effective fumigation of these commodities.

  1. Sun exposure behaviour among subgroups of the Danish population. Based on personal electronic UVR dosimetry and corresponding exposure diaries.

    PubMed

    Thieden, Elisabeth

    2008-02-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the most important etiological factor in skin cancer development. The main objective of this thesis was to achieve an objective, basic knowledge of the individual UVR exposure dose pattern and to reveal the factors and with which power they influence on the UVR dose among the Danes. Eight open prospective, observational studies and one study analyzing the compliance and reliability of data were performed in healthy Danish volunteers with an age range of 4-68 years. The subjects were chosen to cover an age span group of children, adolescents, and indoor workers and in addition, groups with expected high UVR exposure, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners. We developed a personal, electronic UVR dosimeter in a wristwatch (SunSaver). The subjects wore the UVR dosimeter that measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SED) and completed diaries with data on their sun exposure behaviour. This resulted in corresponding UVR dosimeter and diary data from 346 sun-years where one sun-year is one person participating in one summer half-year (median 119 days). The annual UVR doses were calculated based on the personal and ambient measured UVR doses. We found a huge variation in annual UVR exposure dose within the total population sample, median 173 SED (range, 17-980 SED). The inter-group variation in annual UVR dose was from median 132 SED among indoor workers to median 224 SED among gardeners. No significant correlation was found between annual UVR dose and age either within the total population or among the adults. But the subjects below 20 years of age had an increase in annual UVR dose of 5 SED per year. Young people before the age of 20 years did not get a higher proportion of the lifetime UVR dose than expected (25%) when assuming a life expectancy of 80 years. There was no significant difference in annual UVR dose between males and females in the total population sample. But, among children, girls

  2. Contrasting approaches to 'doing' family meals: a qualitative study of how parents frame children's food preferences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2016-05-26

    Family meals, as acts of domestic food provisioning, are shaped by the competing influences of household resources, food preferences and broader cultural norms around dietary practices. The place of children's food tastes in family meal practices is particularly complex. Food tastes stand in a reciprocal relationship with family food practices: being both an influence on and a product of them. This paper explores how parents think about and respond to their children's food preferences in relation to family meal practices. A qualitative study was conducted with residents of Sandwell, UK. The results presented here are based on the responses of nine key participants and their families. Photo elicitation methods generated participant food photo diaries that were used to inform subsequent interviews. A thematic analysis revealed two contrasting ways of incorporating children's tastes into family meal routines: (1) 'what we fancy' and (2) 'regulated'. The former entails repeatedly consulting and negotiating with children over what to cook for each meal. It is supported by the practical strategies of multiple and individually modified meals. The latter relies upon parents developing a repertoire of meals that 'work' for the family. This repertoire is performed as a series of 'set meals' in which any requests for variation are strongly resisted. Our findings add to the small body of literature on household food provisioning and suggest that achieving the idealised ritual of the family meal is underpinned by a range of values and strategies, some of which may run counter to health messages about nutrition.

  3. Anger as a predictor of psychological distress and self-harm ideation in inmates: a structured self-assessment diary study.

    PubMed

    Humber, Naomi; Emsley, Richard; Pratt, Daniel; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2013-11-30

    Suicidal ideation and behaviour are common among inmates. Anger is found at exaggerated levels and has been associated with suicidal ideation and behaviour in inmate samples suggesting its possible salience in the prediction of suicide. The study investigated relationships between anger, psychological distress, and self-harm/suicidal ideation among inmates. The principles of Ecological Momentary Assessment were considered and a structured self-assessment diary was utilised to examine relationships between the variables of interest. Participants completed a structured self-assessment diary for six consecutive days which included momentary ratings of items describing psychological states of concurrent affects, thoughts, and appraisals related to anger, psychological distress, and self-harm/suicidal ideation. Psychometric assessment measures were also conducted. Temporal associations between predictors and outcomes were investigated. Multilevel modelling analyses were performed. Increased anger was significantly associated with concurrent high levels of self-harm ideation in inmates, when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Temporal analyses also revealed that anger at one time point did not predict suicidal ideation at the next time point. Elucidating the temporal nature of the relationship between anger, psychological distress, and self-harm/suicidal ideation has advanced understanding of the mechanisms of suicidal behaviour, by demonstrating an increased risk of suicide when a male inmate is angry.

  4. Occurrence and co-occurrence of nonsuicidal self-injury and disordered eating in a daily diary study: Which behavior, when?

    PubMed

    Turner, Brianna J; Yiu, Angelina; Claes, Laurence; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J; Chapman, Alexander L

    2016-12-30

    Although research has explored between-person traits that may account for the co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and disordered eating (DE), little is known about within-person processes that predict when each behavior occurs. This study describes the socioemotional contexts of NSSI and DE behaviors during a two-week daily diary period. Young adults (aged 18-35) who reported ≥1 episode of NSSI and ≥1 episode of DE (binge eating, purging, or fasting) during the diary period were included (N=25). NSSI and DE co-occurred approximately one third of the time. Participants were more likely to act on NSSI thoughts following arguments and feelings of rejection. They were more likely to act on binge eating/purging thoughts after eating or watching television, and when they felt self-hatred. They were more likely to act on fasting thoughts after discussing upsetting memories, and when they were in a public setting. NSSI days were marked by more intense negative mood in the evenings relative to fasting days, and greater fatigue in the morning relative to binge eating/purging days. This study underscores the utility of using experience-sampling methods to develop and test within-person models to advance our understanding of co-occurring behaviors.

  5. Finger Foods for Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Finger Foods for Babies KidsHealth > For Parents > Finger Foods for ... will accept a new food. previous continue Finger Foods to Avoid Finger feeding is fun and rewarding ...

  6. [Food toxicology].

    PubMed

    Würzner, H P

    1984-02-01

    The complex problems of food toxicology and especially of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis require continuing efforts for a better understanding of the mechanisms, risk evaluation and prevention. Essential progress was the recognition of mutation. In vitro tests now provide reproducible results within a short time. Risk evaluation remains a difficult problem, since is has not been possible yet to establish thresholds values for genotoxic substances. However, threshold levels for carcinogen promoters gain increasing importance as demonstrated for 3 representative classes of substances: mycotoxines , nitrosamines and pesticides.

  7. A food frequency questionnaire validated for estimating dietary flavonoid intake in an Australian population.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Shawn; Papier, Keren

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids, a broad category of nonnutrient food components, are potential protective dietary factors in the etiology of some cancers. However, previous epidemiological studies showing associations between flavonoid intake and cancer risk have used unvalidated intake assessment methods. A 62-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) based on usual intake of a representative Australian adult population sample was validated against a 3-day diet diary method in 60 young adults. Spearman's rank correlations showed 17 of 25 individual flavonoids, 3 of 5 flavonoid subgroups, and total flavonoids having strong/moderate correlation coefficients (0.40-0.70), and 8 of 25 individual flavonoids and 2 of 5 flavonoid subgroups having weak/insignificant correlations (0.01-0.39) between the 2 methods. Bland-Altman plots showed most subjects within ±1.96 SD for intakes of flavonoid subgroups and total flavonoids. The FFQ classified 73-90% of participants for all flavonoids except isorhamnetin, cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin; 73.3-85.0% for all flavonoid subgroups except Anthocyanidins; and 86.7% for total flavonoid intake in the same/adjacent quartile determined by the 3-day diary. Weighted kappa values ranged from 0.00 (Isorhamnetin, Pelargonidin) to 0.60 (Myricetin) and were statistically significant for 18 of 25 individual flavonoids, 3 of 5 subgroups, and total flavonoids. This FFQ provides a simple and inexpensive means to estimate total flavonoid and flavonoid subgroup intake.

  8. The dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride accelerates extinction and delays reacquisition of food self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Koerber, Jonathon; Goodman, David; Barnes, Jesse L; Grimm, Jeffrey W

    2013-12-01

    Dopamine receptors are implicated in the reinforcing effects of food and drug reinforcement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether blocking D2 dopamine receptors during extinction (secondary reinforcement) would affect reacquisition of responding for food pellets (primary reinforcement). Food-restricted rats self-administered (fixed-ratio 1) food pellets in 1-h daily sessions for 7 days. For the next 7 days rats responded in extinction conditions. Before each extinction session rats were injected with saline or the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride (0.03 mg/kg, subcutaneously). After the extinction phase, rats were allowed to reacquire food pellet self-administration in seven daily sessions, and received saline or eticlopride before each session. Four treatment groups were represented: saline extinction, saline reacquisition; eticlopride extinction, saline reacquisition; saline extinction, eticlopride reacquisition; and eticlopride extinction, eticlopride reacquisition. Locomotor activity did not differ between eticlopride-treated and saline-treated rats throughout the study. Extinction was accelerated in eticlopride-treated rats. Eticlopride also delayed reacquisition of food self-administration compared with saline-treated rats. Rats administered eticlopride during extinction showed delayed reacquisition and a decreased response rate for food during the reacquisition phase. Indirectly reducing the value of a reinforcer in this way may provide a novel approach for reducing addiction-related food or drug self-administration behaviors.

  9. A toy story: Association between young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums and their fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2016-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys.

  10. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  11. "Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex": Correction to Becht et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Assessment of Identity During Adolescence Using Daily Diary Methods: Measurement Invariance Across Time and Sex" by Andrik I. Becht, Susan J. T. Branje, Wilma A. M. Vollebergh, Dominique F. Maciejewski, Pol A. C. van Lier, Hans M. Koot, Jaap J. A. Denissen and Wim H. J. Meeus (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 10, 2015, np). In the article the participants should have been reported as N = 494. No differences were found in the results upon reanalyzing the data with the correct number of participants. Additionally, the last sentence of the first full paragraph in the Invariance Across Boys and Girls subsection of the Method section should read "In the fourth model, strict invariance was examined, in which the residual variances were constrained to be equal for boys and girls." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-36246-001.) The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with

  12. [Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    2009-04-01

    The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy.

  13. It’s Called “Going Out to Play”: A Video Diary Study of Hmong Girls’ Perspectives on Running Away

    PubMed Central

    Edinburgh, Laurel D.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    How do Hmong immigrant adolescent girls’ decide to run away, return home, leave again, or stay home? Video diaries by 11 sexually-exploited runaway Hmong girls, age 13–16, revealed four themes: “Fighting restrictions,” resisting family cultural expectations and desires to be like other American teens; “Not Running Away, Going Out to Play,” which captured impulsive decision-making; “Unrestrained Partying” described runaway experiences but minimized dangers they faced; and “Trying to Change,” returning home because of family bonds and wanting to “be someone good.” Given their limited ability to anticipate risks, interventions should focus on runaway prevention initiatives for Hmong families and teens. PMID:23311908

  14. Does leisure time moderate or mediate the effect of daily stress on positive affect? An examination using eight-day diary data

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the applicability of moderation and mediation models to leisure time as a stress coping resource. Analyzing eight-day diary data (N=2,022), we examined the within-person process of using leisure time to cope with daily stressors. We found that relatively high daily stress frequency, while reducing positive affect, prompted an individual to allocate more time to leisure than usual, which then increased positive affect, thus partially remedying the damage by high daily stress frequency. This within-person process, however, is significantly stronger among those with less leisure time on average than leisure-rich individuals. The findings support a partial counteractive mediation model, demonstrate between-person difference in the within-person coping process, and reveal the importance of positive affect as a coping outcome. PMID:25221350

  15. "I Hate Maths: Why Do We Need to Do Maths?" Using iPad Video Diaries to Investigate Attitudes and Emotions towards Mathematics in Year 3 and Year 6 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Kevin; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Accessing children's feelings and attitudes towards mathematics is a challenging proposition since methods for data collection may be fraught in terms of bias and power relations. This article explores a method of collecting information from young students about their attitudes towards mathematics using iPads, and a video diary technique not…

  16. Diary of an astronaut: examination of the remains of the late Israeli astronaut Colonel Ilan Ramon's Crew Notebook recovered after the loss of NASA's space shuttle Columbia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon; Sin-David, Laser

    2007-05-01

    Two months after the fatal re-entering into the Earth's atmosphere of Columbia flight STS-107, the remains of Israeli astronaut Colonel Ilan Ramon's Crew Notebook were found strewn in a field in San Augustine County, TX. The random pile of papers was found to have survived the calamity of the Shuttle's disintegration remarkably well. Most of the papers recovered were torn and/or washed out to varying degrees but only mildly charred around the edges. The sheets of paper could be categorized into four groups: Group I: eight sides of paper written while in space in black ink and in pencil--Ramon's personal diary; the writing on these eight sides of paper survived well and is only missing where the pages were torn. Small fragments found in the field were physically matched to holes in the pages thus locating their original positions in the text. Group II: six sides of technical preparation notes written by Ramon before the mission. The writing on these pages was washed out entirely, but much of it was visualized using infrared luminescence. Group III: eight sides of personal notes prepared by Ramon before the mission written in blue ink. The writing on these pages was barely visible to the naked eye and not visualized by infrared luminescence, but was made largely legible by digital enhancement imaging. Group IV: a few sides of printed technical information. These pages were mostly intact and were not examined at length as they contained standard printed material. After completion of examinations at the Questioned Document Laboratory of the Israel Police, the diary was transferred to the Paper Conservation Department of the Israel Museum for preservation and strengthening treatments.

  17. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  18. Food insecurity, neighborhood food access, and food assistance in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Victoria L; Hillier, Amy; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Long, Judith A

    2014-12-01

    An estimated 17.6 million American households were food insecure in 2012, meaning they were unable to obtain enough food for an active and healthy life. Programs to augment local access to healthy foods are increasingly widespread, with unclear effects on food security. At the same time, the US government has recently enacted major cuts to federal food assistance programs. In this study, we examined the association between food insecurity (skipping or reducing meal size because of budget), neighborhood food access (self-reported access to fruits and vegetables and quality of grocery stores), and receipt of food assistance using the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. Of 11,599 respondents, 16.7% reported food insecurity; 79.4% of the food insecure found it easy or very easy to find fruits and vegetables, and 60.6% reported excellent or good quality neighborhood grocery stores. In our regression models adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, compared to those who reported very difficult access to fruits and vegetables, those who reported difficult, easy or very easy access were less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.62: 95% CI 0.43-0.90, 0.33: 95% CI 0.23-0.47, and 0.28: 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Compared to those who reported poor stores, those who reported fair, good, and excellent quality stores were also less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.81: 95% CI 0.60-1.08, 0.58: 95% CI 0.43-0.78, and 0.43: 95% CI 0.31-0.59). Compared to individuals not receiving food assistance, those receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits were significantly more likely to be food insecure (OR 1.36: 95% CI 1.11-1.67), while those receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) (OR 1.17: 95% CI 0.77-1.78) and those receiving both SNAP and WIC (OR 0.84: 95% CI 0.61-1.17) did not have significantly different odds of food insecurity

  19. Inclusion of Pork Meat in the Diets of Young Women Reduces Their Intakes of Energy-Dense, Nutrient-Poor Foods: Results from a Randomized Controlled Tria

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Jennifer O.; Gough, Natalie M.; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Adherence of young women to dietary recommendations has been examined predominantly by surveys. This study aimed to determine the quality of women’s diets relative to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE); and to evaluate dietary changes during an intervention trial with pork meat or an iron supplement. A 12-week randomized trial was conducted in young women who were assigned to one of three groups. They maintained three, seven-day food diaries while continuing their routine diet (CG); taking an iron supplement (SG); or incorporating into their diets 500 g/week of pork (PG). Participants (n = 58) provided dietary information on 1218 diary-days. The serves consumed from the vegetable, fruit and dairy groups were lower (p < 0.001), and from the meat and alternatives group greater (p < 0.001) than the recommended serves. PG consumed significantly fewer (p < 0.001) serves of “extra” foods, and ate fruit more frequently (p < 0.001) than CG and SG. The participants’ dietary self-assessment showed poor agreement with the AGHE description of “serve”. The inclusion of pork in the diets of young women is associated with the reduced consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor “extra” foods and increased frequency of fruit intake. The effect may be explained by diverse factors such as increased food knowledge, cooking skills and the effect of pork on satiety. PMID:24949547

  20. Mood Food

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. Methods A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, ≥16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, ≥22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Results Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score ≥16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (≥22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, <.01). These associations extended to both men and women. These findings did not appear to be explained by a general increase in fat, carbohydrate, or energy intake. Conclusion Higher CES-D depression scores were associated with greater chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study. PMID:20421555

  1. The World Food Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1975-01-01

    Cites evidence to support the theory that the world food shortage will become a chronic condition. Describes the depletion of surplus food supplies and the increasing dependence on North America for food supplies. (MLH)

  2. Space Food and Nutrition

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an introduction to the Space Food System and Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory. Topics cover food systems of programs past, present and future, and issues surrounding food systems and foo...

  3. Sodium and Food Sources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Sodium and Food Sources Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: More ...

  4. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  5. Calorie count - Fast food

    MedlinePlus

    ... count - fast food FOOD ITEM SERVING SIZE CALORIES Breakfast Foods Dunkin Donuts Egg White Veggie Wrap 1 ... Cheese Biscuit Sandwich 1 sandwich 510 BK Ultimate Breakfast Platter 1 platter 1190 McDonalds Fruit 'n Yogurt ...

  6. FoodSafety.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Temperatures Food Poisoning Food Safety News for Educators Report a Problem Contaminated Carbo Load Top Searches Cumin E.Coli Salmonella Listeria Ground Turkey Botulism Tuna Stay Connected Our Partners About FoodSafety.gov ...

  7. Changes in mouse mu opioid receptor exon 7/8-like immunoractivity following food restriction and food deprivation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hadjimarkou, Maria M.; Abbadie, Catherine; Kasselman, Lora; Pan, Ying-Xian; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Bodnar, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Opioid agonists and antagonists respectively increase and decrease food intake. That selective mu opioid antagonists are more effective than antisense probes directed against the mu opioid receptor (MOR-1) gene in reducing deprivation-induced feeding suggests a role for isoforms. Both food restriction and deprivation alter protein and mRNA levels of opioid peptides and receptors. Antisera directed against exon 4 of the MOR-1-like immunoreactivity (LI) (Exon 4) clone or directed against mouse exons 7/8 (mE7/8-LI) revealed high levels of immunoreactivity in brain nuclei related to feeding behavior. Therefore, the present study assessed MOR-1LI and mE7/8-LI in hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic sites in rats exposed to ad libitum feeding, food restriction (2, 7, 14 days) or food deprivation (24, 48 h). MOR-1-LI displayed robust reactivity, but was insensitive to food restriction or deprivation. mE7/8-LI, both in terms of cell counts and relative optical density, was significantly and selectively increased in the dorsal and ventral parvocellular subdivisions of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in food-restricted (14 days) rats, but all other restriction or deprivation regimens were ineffective in other hypothalamic nuclei. In contrast, significant and site-specific decreases in relative optical density in the rostral part of the nucleus tractus solitarius were observed in food-restricted (2, 7 days) or food-deprived (24, 48 h) animals, but these regimens were ineffective in the other extrahypothalamic sites. This study indicates the sensitivity of this mE7/8-LI probe in the hypothalamic parvocellular paraventricular nucleus and rostral nucleus tractus solitarius to food restriction and deprivation in rats. PMID:19301417

  8. Use of a bacteriophage cocktail to control Salmonella in food and the food industry.

    PubMed

    Spricigo, Denis Augusto; Bardina, Carlota; Cortés, Pilar; Llagostera, Montserrat

    2013-07-15

    The use of lytic bacteriophages for the biocontrol of food-borne pathogens in food and in the food industry is gaining increasing acceptance. In this study, the effectiveness of a bacteriophage cocktail composed of three different lytic bacteriophages (UAB_Phi 20, UAB_Phi78, and UAB_Phi87) was determined in four different food matrices (pig skin, chicken breasts, fresh eggs, and packaged lettuce) experimentally contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. A significant bacterial reduction (>4 and 2 log/cm(2) for S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, respectively; p≤0.005) was obtained in pig skin sprayed with the bacteriophage cocktail and then incubated at 33 °C for 6h. Significant decreases in the concentration of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis were also measured in chicken breasts dipped for 5 min in a solution containing the bacteriophage cocktail and then refrigerated at 4 °C for 7 days (2.2 and 0.9 log10 cfu/g, respectively; p≤0.0001) as well as in lettuce similarly treated for 60 min at room temperature (3.9 and 2.2 log10 cfu/g, respectively; p≤0.005). However, only a minor reduction of the bacterial concentration (0.9 log10 cfu/cm(2) of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium; p≤0.005) was achieved in fresh eggs sprayed with the bacteriophage cocktail and then incubated at 25 °C for 2 h. These results show the potential effectiveness of this bacteriophage cocktail as a biocontrol agent of Salmonella in several food matrices under conditions similar to those used in their production.

  9. Materialism and food security.

    PubMed

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  10. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  11. Food allergy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods are more likely than others to be tolerated in late childhood and adulthood. The diagnosis of food allergy rests with the detection of food-specific IgE in the context of a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity-mediated symptoms after ingestion of the suspected food or by eliciting IgE-mediated symptoms after controlled administration of the suspected food. Presently, the only available treatment of food allergies is dietary vigilance and administration of self-injectable epinephrine.

  12. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy.

  13. Development of Lymantria dispar affected by manganese in food.

    PubMed

    Kula, Emanuel; Martinek, Petr; Chromcová, Lucie; Hedbávný, Josef

    2014-10-01

    We studied the response of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)) to the content of manganese in food in the laboratory breeding of caterpillars. The food of the caterpillars {Betula pendula Roth (Fagales: Betulaceae) leaves} was contaminated by dipping in the solution of MnCl2 · 4H2O with manganese concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5 and 10 mg ml(-1), by which differentiated manganese contents (307; 632; 4,087 and 8,124 mg kg(-1)) were reached. Parameters recorded during the rearing were as follows: effect of manganese on food consumption, mortality and length of the development of caterpillars, pupation and hatching of imagoes. At the same time, manganese concentrations were determined in the offered and unconsumed food, excrements, and exuviae of the caterpillars, pupal cases and imagoes by using the AAS method. As compared with the control, high manganese contents in the food of gypsy moth caterpillars affected the process of development particularly by increased mortality of the first instar caterpillars (8 % mortality for caterpillars with no Mn contamination (T0) and 62 % mortality for subjects with the highest contamination by manganese (T3)), by prolonged development of the first-third instar (18.7 days (T0) and 27.8 days (T3)) and by increased food consumption of the first-third instar {0.185 g of leaf dry matter (T0) and 0.483 g of leaf dry matter (T3)}. The main defence strategy of the caterpillars to prevent contamination by the increased manganese content in food is the translocation of manganese into frass and exuviae castoff in the process of ecdysis. In the process of development, the content of manganese was reduced by excretion in imagoes to 0.5 % of the intake level even at its maximum inputs in food.

  14. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  15. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  16. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  17. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives in standardized foods. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  19. Aspects of Self and Identity in Narrations About Recent Events: Communication With Individuals With Alzheimer's Disease Enabled by a Digital Photograph Diary.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Eva; Zingmark, Karin; Axelsson, Karin; Sävenstedt, Stefan

    2017-02-02

    narrate autobiographical memories is important for maintaining the identity of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current study explored how the sense of self is manifested in narrations about recent events, enabled via a digital photograph diary. Use of a digital photograph diary was tested with seven individuals with AD and their household members. Narrative analysis was used to analyze audiorecordings of the pairs' communication about recent events shown in the photographs. The results show how individuals with AD understand events illustrated in recent photographs in relation to their sense of self and associated skills and abilities that are facets of their selfhood. This type of digital photograph diary has the potential to support individuals with AD to maintain their sense of self and participation in everyday life, and strengthen their relationships with household members; it could be an important tool in person-centered care. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, xx(x), xx-xx.].

  20. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  1. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  2. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  3. The Reliability and Validity of Short Online Questionnaires to Measure Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adults: The Fruit Test and Vegetable Test

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Steenhuyzen, Saidja; Dejaegere, Liesbet; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Verloigne, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the stability of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test over time and whether the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test are capable of measuring fruit and vegetable intake with consistency. Second, the study aimed to examine criterion (concurrent) validity of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test by testing their agreement with 7-day food diary-derived measures of fruit and vegetable intake. In total 58 adults (31% male, mean age = 30.0±12.09y) completed the Flemish Fruit and Vegetable test by indicating the frequency of days that they ate fruit and vegetables and the number of portions during the past week. Validity was tested by using a 7-day food diary as a golden standard. Adults were asked to register their fruit and vegetable intake daily in a diary during one week. Spearman correlations were measured to compare total intake reported in the Fruit and Vegetable Test and in the 7-day diary. Agreement plots were used to illustrate absolute agreement. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by having participants completing the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test twice. The Fruit Test (ICC = 0.81) and Vegetable Test (ICC = 0.78) showed excellent and substantial reliability. The Fruit Test (ρ = 0.73) and Vegetable Test showed good validity. Agreement plots showed modest variability in differences between vegetable and fruit intake as measured by the Vegetable and Fruit Test and the 7-day food diary. Also a small underestimation of fruit intake in the Fruit test and vegetable intake in the Vegetable test against the 7-day food diary was shown. Based on the results, it is suggested to include portion size pictures and consumption of mixed vegetables to prevent underestimation. To prevent overestimation, it is concluded to add a moderate number of representative fruit and vegetable items, questions on portion size, household sizes with sufficient detail and food items highly tailored to the dietary behaviors and local food items of the

  4. Food restriction and streptozotocin differentially modify sensitivity to the hypothermic effects of direct- and indirect-acting serotonin receptor agonists in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Xu; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P

    2009-06-24

    Food restriction and experimentally-induced diabetes (streptozotocin) can modify serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission and sensitivity to drugs acting on 5-HT systems. This study examined the effects of food restriction and streptozotocin on the hypothermic effects of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), the 5-HT(2) receptor agonist (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine hydrochloride (DOM), the 5-HT releaser fenfluramine, and the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. All four drugs significantly decreased body temperature in free feeding rats. Limiting rats to 10 g/day of food for 7 days decreased body weight and sensitivity to 8-OH-DPAT induced hypothermia, without affecting sensitivity to DOM, fenfluramine, or fluoxetine induced hypothermia. Subsequently, 7 days of free feeding restored body weight and sensitivity to 8-OH-DPAT. Sensitivity to all drugs was significantly decreased 7 days after 50 mg/kg streptozotocin; subsequently, 10 days of insulin replacement restored sensitivity to all drugs. These results extend to body temperature the observation that food restriction and experimentally-induced diabetes differentially modify sensitivity to drugs acting on 5-HT systems and they further suggest that the clinical response to therapeutic drugs acting on 5-HT systems might be impacted by nutritional and insulin status.

  5. Applying indoor and outdoor modeling techniques to estimate individual exposure to PM2.5 from personal GPS profiles and diaries: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gerharz, Lydia E; Krüger, Antonio; Klemm, Otto

    2009-09-01

    Impacts of individual behavior on personal exposure to particulate matter (PM) and the associated individual health effects are still not well understood. As outdoor PM concentrations exhibit highly temporal and spatial variations, personal PM exposure depends strongly on individual trajectories and activities. Furthermore, indoor environments deserve special attention due to the large fraction of the day people spend indoors. The indoor PM concentration in turn depends on infiltrated outdoor PM and indoor particle sources, partially caused by the activities of people indoor. We present an approach to estimate PM2.5 exposure levels for individuals based upon existing data sources and models. For this pilot study, six persons kept 24-hour diaries and GPS tracks for at least one working day and one weekend day, providing their daily activity profiles and the associated geographical locations. The survey took place in the city of Münster, Germany in the winter period between October 2006 and January 2007. Environmental PM2.5 exposure was estimated by using two different models for outdoor and indoor concentrations, respectively. For the outdoor distribution, a dispersion model was used and extended by actual ambient fixed site measurements. Indoor concentrations were modeled using a simple mass balance model with the estimated outdoor concentration fraction infiltrated and indoor activities estimated from the diaries. A limited number of three 24-hour indoor measurements series for PM were performed to test the model performance. The resulting average daily exposure of the 14 collected profiles ranged from 21 to 198 microg m(-3) and showed a high variability over the day as affected by personal behavior. Due to the large contribution of indoor particle sources, the mean 24-hour exposure was in most cases higher than the daily means of the respective outdoor fixed site monitors. This feasibility study is a first step towards a more comprehensive modeling approach for

  6. Adjustments for drink size and ethanol content: New results from a self-report diary and trans-dermal sensor validation study

    PubMed Central

    Bond, J. C.; Greenfield, T. K.; Patterson, D.; Kerr, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies adjusting self-reported measures of alcohol intake for drink size and ethanol content have relied on single-point assessments. Methods A prospective 28-day diary study investigated magnitudes of drink ethanol adjustments and factors associated with these adjustments. Transdermal alcohol sensor (TAS) readings and prediction of alcohol-related problems by number of drinks versus ethanol-adjusted intake were used to validate drink ethanol adjustments. Self-completed event diaries listed up to 4 beverage types and 4 drinking events/day. Eligible volunteers had ≥ weekly drinking and ≥ 3+ drinks per occasion with ≥ 26 reported days and pre- and post-summary measures (n = 220). Event reports included drink types, sizes, brands or spirits contents, venues, drinks consumed and drinking duration. Results Wine drinks averaged 1.19, beer, 1.09 and spirits 1.54 US standard drinks (14g ethanol). Mean adjusted alcohol intake was 22% larger using drink size and strength (brand/ethanol concentration) data. Adjusted drink levels were larger than “raw” drinks in all quantity ranges. Individual-level drink ethanol adjustment ratios (ethanol adjusted/unadjusted amounts) averaged across all days drinking ranged from 0.73-3.33 (mean 1.22). Adjustment ratio was only marginally (and not significantly) positively related to usual quantity, frequency and heavy drinking (all ps<.1), independent of gender, age, employment, and education, but those with lower incomes (both p<.01) drank stronger/bigger drinks. Controlling for raw number of drinks and other covariates, degree of adjustment independently predicted alcohol dependence symptoms (p<.01) and number of consequences (p<.05). In 30 respondents with sufficiently high quality TAS readings, higher correlations (p=.04) were found between the adjusted vs. the raw drinks/event and TAS areas under the curve. Conclusions Absent drink size and strength data, intake assessments are downward biased by at least 20

  7. Food security and child nutritional status among Orang Asli (Temuan) households in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Tham, B L

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of household food insecurity and its potential risk factors and outcomes among the Orang Asli (Temuan) households. Socioeconomic, demographic and food security information of the households and anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 64) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food security was assessed using the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument. Diet quality was based on 24 hour recall and analyzed according to the Malaysian RDA and Food Guide Pyramid. Majority of the households (82%) reported some kind of household food insecurity. The prevalence of significant underweight, stunting and wasting were 45.3%, 51.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Dietary intakes were less than 2/3 RDA levels for calories, calcium and iron. However, the intakes of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and niacin exceeded the RDA and the sources for these nutrients were mainly rice, fish and green leafy vegetables. Among the five food groups, only the number of servings from cereals/cereal products/tubers group was achieved while that of the milk/diary products was the worst. Majority of the children (68.7%) had poor, 31.3% had fair and none with excellent diet quality. In general, diet quality and nutritional status of the children decreased as household food insecurity worsened. It is recommended that the nutritional problems of Orang Asli children be addressed through health, nutrition and economic programs and further studies should be carried out on determinants and consequences of household food insecurity.

  8. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in 9–10 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Pouya; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9–10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman’s correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9–10 year-old children in New Zealand. PMID:27164137

  9. Food reinforcement during infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kai Ling

    2017-01-01

    The motivation to eat, as operationalized by measuring how hard someone will work for food, is cross-sectionally and prospectively related to obesity. Persons high in food reinforcement consume more calories, and energy intake mediates the relationship between food reinforcement and obesity. Research has shown avid sucking for milk in early infancy predicts later adiposity, and the relationship between food reinforcement and excess body weight has been observed in infants as young as 9 months of age. New methodological developments in studying food reinforcement in infants and young children provide the first opportunity to study the origin of food reinforcement. This review seeks to provide background on the measurement of food reinforcement, and to present, for the first time, prenatal and postnatal predictors of infant food reinforcement. Lastly, potential mechanisms for an increasing trajectory of food reinforcement throughout development are proposed. PMID:27373207

  10. Government perspective: food labeling.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Tomas

    2005-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration acknowledges the severity of the obesity epidemic. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the importance of food labeling as a vehicle for dietary messages and, thus, enforces stringent guidelines to maintain the integrity of the food label. As food labels await another upgrade to make them more effective and easier to understand, the Food and Drug Administration considers what information will be most useful for consumers to make healthy choices. The causal relationship between food labels and subsequent diet choice is not well understood; more research in this area is needed. The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration has recently appointed an Obesity Working Group to develop proposals on pertinent topics of obesity, including the role of food labeling as a dietary guide.

  11. Nanosensors for food safety.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixiong; Sheng, Chenxing

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent research and development of nanosensors applied to the food safety. Since the food safety is directly related to the people's health and life, the food detection has received considerable attentions. However, this food security has emerged in China as a severe problem in recent years. Food safety problems frequently compromised due to formaldehyde, poison vegetables, excessive pesticide residues, etc. These kinds of food contaminations could not be detected efficiently by traditional methods. Applying nanotechnology and nanominerals, various food contaminations can be identified accurately. Therefore nanosensors have been widely used in the food detection. We introduce current research on nanosensors followed by the industrial application of nanosensors. Finally, the challenges for the future food safety using nanosensors are discussed.

  12. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  13. Biotechnology and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Helm, Ricki M

    2002-01-01

    The production of genetically modified foods for an increasingly informed and selective consumer requires the coordinated activities of both the companies developing the transgenic food and regulatory authorities to ensure that these foods are at least as safe as the traditional foods they are supplementing in the diet. Although the size and complexity of the food sector ensures that no single player can control the process from seed production through farming and processing to final products marketed in a retail outlet, checks and balances are in place to ensure that transgenic foods will provide a convenient, wholesome, tasty, safe, affordable food source. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of companies developing the genetically modified food to provide relevant data to regulatory agencies, such as the US Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, and Food and Drug Administration, to confirm that the transgenic product is reasonably safe for the consumer, as zero risk from allergen sensitization is nonexistent.

  14. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  15. The buffering effect of selection, optimization, and compensation strategy use on the relationship between problem solving demands and occupational well-being: a daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Antje; Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated within-person relationships between daily problem solving demands, selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategy use, job satisfaction, and fatigue at work. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that high SOC strategy use boosts the positive relationship between problem solving demands and job satisfaction, and buffers the positive relationship between problem solving demands and fatigue. Using a daily diary study design, data were collected from 64 administrative employees who completed a general questionnaire and two daily online questionnaires over four work days. Multilevel analyses showed that problem solving demands were positively related to fatigue, but unrelated to job satisfaction. SOC strategy use was positively related to job satisfaction, but unrelated to fatigue. A buffering effect of high SOC strategy use on the demands-fatigue relationship was found, but no booster effect on the demands-satisfaction relationship. The results suggest that high SOC strategy use is a resource that protects employees from the negative effects of high problem solving demands.

  16. When regulating emotions at work pays off: a diary and an intervention study on emotion regulation and customer tips in service jobs.

    PubMed

    Hülsheger, Ute R; Lang, Jonas W B; Schewe, Anna F; Zijlstra, Fred R H

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between deep acting, automatic regulation and customer tips with 2 different study designs. The first study was a daily diary study using a sample of Dutch waiters and taxi-drivers and assessed the link of employees' daily self-reported levels of deep acting and automatic regulation with the amount of tips provided by customers (N = 166 measurement occasions nested in 34 persons). Whereas deep acting refers to deliberate attempts to modify felt emotions and involves conscious effort, automatic regulation refers to automated emotion regulatory processes that result in the natural experience of desired emotions and do not involve deliberate control and effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that both types of emotion regulation were positively associated with customer tips. The second study was an experimental field study using a sample of German hairdressers (N = 41). Emotion regulation in terms of both deep acting and automatic regulation was manipulated using a brief self-training intervention and daily instructions to use cognitive change and attentional deployment. Results revealed that participants in the intervention group received significantly more tips than participants in the control group.

  17. Investigating the Impact of a Metals Foundry on Neighborhood Air Quality through PM2.5 PMF Analysis and Mobile Environmental Odor Diaries App

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, D.; Clayton, I.; George, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Chapman Elementary School in Portland, OR was identified by USA Today as being in the 2nd percentile of schools in the nation for poor air quality. This ranking was based on the EPA Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model using the EPA's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program. The metals foundry identified in the report as the leading contributor to the poor air quality at Chapman currently meets its Title V permit and reports these permitted emissions to the TRI program. However, the poor air quality ranking is based on models that rely on emissions from permits and are not necessarily reflective of actual emissions. Several observational approaches were employed to assess the potential source contributors to air quality at Chapman. Two MiniVol Tactical Air Samplers (TAS) were co-located 1km from the facility at Chapman Elementary to sample according to the EPA six-day monitoring schedule for one year, filters were analyzed for mass and metals via XRF. Ogawa NO2 samplers were placed at various points around the Chapman neighborhood to develop an NO2 high-density measurement campaign to assess pollutant transport. In addition, a novel mobile environmental odor diaries app was developed and deployed to collect and geo-locate resident observation of odors. All observations were analyzed through mapping, dispersion modeling (AERMOD) and positive-matrix-factorization (PMF) analysis. This multi-dimensional analysis is designed to provide a framework for future studies to address increasing citizen concern about neighborhood level pollution.

  18. Clones in the Classroom: A Daily Diary Study of the Nonshared Environmental Relationship Between Monozygotic Twin Differences in School Experience and Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Asbury, Kathryn; Almeida, David; Hibel, Jacob; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Do genetically identical children experience the same classroom differently? Are nonshared classroom experiences associated with differences in achievement? We designed a telephone diary measure which we administered every school day for 2 weeks to 122 10-year-olds in 61 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. Each pair shared genes, a classroom, peers and a teacher. We found that MZ twins did experience their classrooms differently (rMZ < 0.65 for all measures of classroom experience). Furthermore, MZ differences in peer problems were significantly associated with MZ differences in Mathematics achievement (ES = 8%); differences in positivity about school were significantly associated with differences in Mathematics (ES = 15%) and Science (ES = 8%) achievement; and differences in ‘flow’ in Science lessons were associated with differences in Science achievement (ES = 12%). In a multiple regression analysis, MZ differences in positivity about school significantly predicted MZ differences in Mathematics achievement (R2 = 0.16, p < .01) and MZ differences in ‘flow’ in Science significantly predicted MZ differences in Science achievement (R2 = 0.10, p < .05). These results indicate that MZ twins experience the classroom differently and that differences in their experience are associated with differences in their achievement. PMID:19016614

  19. Food and feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  20. Food Service System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The 3M Food Service System 2 employs a "cook/chill" concept for serving food in hospitals. The system allows staff to prepare food well in advance, maintain heat, visual appeal and nutritional value as well as reducing operating costs. The integral heating method, which keeps hot foods hot and cold foods cold, was developed by 3M for the Apollo Program. In the 1970s, the company commercialized the original system and in 1991, introduced Food Service System 2. Dishes are designed to resemble those used at home, and patient satisfaction has been high.

  1. Food Antimicrobials Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Padilla, Adriana; Soto, Karen M.; Hernández Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Natural food antimicrobials are bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of microorganisms involved in food spoilage or food-borne illness. However, stability issues result in degradation and loss of antimicrobial activity. Nanoencapsulation allows protection of antimicrobial food agents from unfavorable environmental conditions and incompatibilities. Encapsulation of food antimicrobials control delivery increasing the concentration of the antimicrobials in specific areas and the improvement of passive cellular absorption mechanisms resulted in higher antimicrobial activity. This paper reviews the present state of the art of the nanostructures used as food antimicrobial carriers including nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, nanoparticles, and nanofibers. PMID:24995363

  2. Double-blind, randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000/125 milligrams) versus those of amoxicillin-clavulanate (875/125 milligrams), both given twice daily for 7 days, in treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in adults.

    PubMed

    File, T M; Lode, H; Kurz, H; Kozak, R; Xie, H; Berkowitz, E

    2004-09-01

    This randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial was designed to demonstrate that pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000/125 mg) was at least as effective clinically as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg, both given twice daily for 7 days, in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. In total, 633 clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia patients (intent-to-treat population) were randomized to receive either oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 2,000/125 mg (n = 322) or oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg (n = 311). At screening, 160 of 633 (25.3%) patients had at least one typical pathogen isolated from expectorated or invasive sputum samples or blood culture (bacteriology intent-to-treat population). Streptococcus pneumoniae (58 of 160, 36.3%), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (34 of 160, 21.3%), and Haemophilus influenzae (33 of 160, 20.6%) were the most common typical causative pathogens isolated in both groups in the bacteriology intent-to-treat population. Clinical success in the clinical per protocol population at test of cure (days 16 to 37), the primary efficacy endpoint, was 90.3% (223 of 247) for amoxicillin-clavulanate 2,000/125 mg and 87.6% (198 of 226) for amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg (treatment difference, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, -3.0, 8.3). Bacteriological success at test of cure in the bacteriology per protocol population was 86.6% (58 of 67) for amoxicillin-clavulanate 2,000/125 mg and 78.4% (40 of 51) for amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg (treatment difference, 8.1%; 95% confidence interval, -5.8, 22.1). Both therapies were well tolerated. Amoxicillin-clavulanate 2,000/125 mg twice daily was shown to be as clinically effective as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days in the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia, without a noted increase in the reported rate of adverse events.

  3. Efficacy and safety of pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 milligrams twice daily for 5 days versus amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 milligrams twice daily for 7 days in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sanjay; Breton, John; Wynne, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This randomized, controlled trial was designed to show that a short, 5-day course of pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg (Augmentin XR) is as effective clinically as a longer, 7-day course of conventional amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 mg (both given twice daily) in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB). Amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg was designed to extend the therapeutic levels of amoxicillin in serum over the 12-h dosing interval, compared with conventional formulations, to eradicate bacterial strains for which amoxicillin MICs were < or =4 microg/ml while retaining efficacy against beta-lactamase-producing pathogens. A total of 893 patients were randomized and received study medication (amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg for 443 patients and 875/125 mg for 450 patients). Overall, 141 patients receiving amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg and 135 receiving the comparator formulation had at least one pathogen identified at screening. Amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg was as effective clinically in the per-protocol (PP) population at the test of cure (days 14 to 21, primary efficacy endpoint) as amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 mg (clinical success rates of 93.0 and 91.2%, respectively; treatment difference, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.2, 5.7). Bacteriological success in the bacteriology PP population was high for both formulations (amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg, 76.7%; amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 mg, 73.0%; treatment difference, 3.8; 95% CI, -7.5, 15.0). Both therapies were well tolerated, with a similar incidence of adverse events. Fewer than 5% of patients in each group withdrew from the study due to adverse events. The shorter, 5-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg was shown to be as effective clinically as a longer, 7-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 mg, with high bacteriological efficacy and no difference in

  4. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered.

  5. Short-term effects of whole-grain wheat on appetite and food intake in healthy adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bodinham, Caroline L; Hitchen, Katie L; Youngman, Penelope J; Frost, Gary S; Robertson, M Denise

    2011-08-01

    While it has been proposed, based on epidemiological studies, that whole grains may be beneficial in weight regulation, possibly due to effects on satiety, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming this. The present cross-over study aimed to investigate the short-term effects on appetite and food intake of 48 g of whole-grain wheat (daily for 3 weeks) compared with refined grain (control). A total of fourteen healthy normal-weight adults consumed, within their habitual diets, either two whole-grain bread rolls (providing 48 g of whole grains over two rolls) or two control rolls daily for 3 weeks. Changes in food intake were assessed using 7 d diet diaries. Changes in subjective appetite ratings and food intake were also assessed at postprandial study visits. There were no significant differences between interventions in energy intake (assessed by the 7 d diet diaries and at the ad libitum test meal), subjective appetite ratings or anthropometric measurements. However, there was a significant difference between interventions for systolic blood pressure, which decreased during the whole-grain intervention and increased during the control intervention (-2 v. 4 mmHg; P = 0·015). The present study found no effect of whole grains on appetite or food intake in healthy individuals; however, 48 g of whole grain consumed daily for 3 weeks did have a beneficial effect on systolic blood pressure. The findings from the present study therefore do not support epidemiological evidence that whole grains are beneficial in weight regulation, although further investigation in other population groups (such as overweight and obese) would be required.

  6. Food nanotechnology - an overview.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S

    2010-05-04

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.

  7. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  8. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  9. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated ...

  10. Food For Thought

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space food research meets the challenge of providing food that tastes good and travels well in space. This lesson emphasizes inquiry and cooperative involvement of students as they explore the uniq...

  11. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  12. Apollo food technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.; Huber, C. S.; Bourland, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Large improvements and advances in space food systems achieved during the Apollo food program are discussed. Modifications of the Apollo food system were directed primarily toward improving delivery of adequate nutrition to the astronaut. Individual food items and flight menus were modified as nutritional countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness. Unique food items were developed, including some that provided nutritional completeness, high acceptability, and ready-to-eat, shelf-stable convenience. Specialized food packages were also developed. The Apollo program experience clearly showed that future space food systems will require well-directed efforts to achieve the optimum potential of food systems in support of the physiological and psychological well-being of astronauts and crews.

  13. Arsenic in Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... been measuring total arsenic concentrations in foods, including rice and juices, through its Total Diet Study program ... found in certain food and beverage products, including rice, fruit juices and juice concentrates. How does arsenic ...

  14. Food and Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvey, Lindsay

    1997-01-01

    Argues that intensive agriculture restricted to suitable lands will be required in the future due to global population growth, declining food prices, and extreme poverty. Discusses the challenge of balancing environmental care with food production. (DDR)

  15. MyFoodAdvisor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Password? Login Cancel Can I eat this? . . . Meal Planning and Tips Managing diabetes is a challenge that ... can make it easier. Discover more about meal planning options and how MyFoodAdvisor can help. Explore Foods ...

  16. Healthy food trends -- microgreens

    MedlinePlus

    ... your local health food store or natural foods market. Look near the lettuce for packages of greens ... 5 cm, in length). Check your local farmer's market as well. Microgreen growing kits can be ordered ...

  17. Food guide plate

    MedlinePlus

    ... FOODS: CHOOSE LEAN PROTEINS Protein foods include meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, ... beef, pork, or lamb 1 oz (28 grams) poultry; such as turkey or chicken 1 large egg ...

  18. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  19. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  20. Traveling with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ... Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ...