Science.gov

Sample records for 7-day supplementation study

  1. A 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids was ineffective to prevent muscle damage during a marathon.

    PubMed

    Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan Jose; Abian-Vicen, Javier; González-Millán, Cristina; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to prevent muscle damage during a marathon. Forty-six experienced runners were randomly divided into two groups, one with BCAA supplementation (n = 25, supplemented with 5 g day(-1) of powdered 1:0.5:0.5 leucine:isoleucine:valine, during the 7 days prior to the competition) and the other as a control group (n = 21, supplemented with an isocaloric placebo). Before the marathon race and within 3 min of finishing, leg muscle power was measured with a maximal countermovement jump and a urine sample was obtained. During the race, running pace was measured by means of a time-chip. Myoglobin concentration was determined in the urine samples as an indirect marker of muscle damage. A visual analog scale (0-10 points) was used to assess leg muscle pain during the race. In the BCAA group, the mean running pace during the marathon was similar to the control group (3.3 ± 0.4 vs. 3.3 ± 0.5 m s(-1), respectively, 0.98). The pre- to post-race reduction in muscle power was similar in both BCAA and control groups (-23.0 ± 16.1 vs. -17.3 ± 13.8 %, P = 0.13). Post-race urine myoglobin concentration was similar in both BCAA and control groups (5.4 ± 7.5 vs. 4.5 ± 8.6 μg mL(-1), P = 0.70). Finally, there were no differences between groups in the perceived muscle pain during the race (6 ± 1 vs. 5 ± 1 points, P = 0.80). A 7-day supplementation of BCAA (5 g day(-1)) did not increase the running performance during a marathon. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation was ineffective to prevent muscle power loss, muscle damage or perceived muscle pain during a marathon race. PMID:24477835

  2. A 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids was ineffective to prevent muscle damage during a marathon.

    PubMed

    Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan Jose; Abian-Vicen, Javier; González-Millán, Cristina; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to prevent muscle damage during a marathon. Forty-six experienced runners were randomly divided into two groups, one with BCAA supplementation (n = 25, supplemented with 5 g day(-1) of powdered 1:0.5:0.5 leucine:isoleucine:valine, during the 7 days prior to the competition) and the other as a control group (n = 21, supplemented with an isocaloric placebo). Before the marathon race and within 3 min of finishing, leg muscle power was measured with a maximal countermovement jump and a urine sample was obtained. During the race, running pace was measured by means of a time-chip. Myoglobin concentration was determined in the urine samples as an indirect marker of muscle damage. A visual analog scale (0-10 points) was used to assess leg muscle pain during the race. In the BCAA group, the mean running pace during the marathon was similar to the control group (3.3 ± 0.4 vs. 3.3 ± 0.5 m s(-1), respectively, 0.98). The pre- to post-race reduction in muscle power was similar in both BCAA and control groups (-23.0 ± 16.1 vs. -17.3 ± 13.8 %, P = 0.13). Post-race urine myoglobin concentration was similar in both BCAA and control groups (5.4 ± 7.5 vs. 4.5 ± 8.6 μg mL(-1), P = 0.70). Finally, there were no differences between groups in the perceived muscle pain during the race (6 ± 1 vs. 5 ± 1 points, P = 0.80). A 7-day supplementation of BCAA (5 g day(-1)) did not increase the running performance during a marathon. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation was ineffective to prevent muscle power loss, muscle damage or perceived muscle pain during a marathon race.

  3. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkies, Krystyna; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  4. Media Studies: Texts and Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The 24 reviews in this article include textbooks on journalism and media studies; multimedia kits on advertising, TV news, reporting, and the "grammar" of media; resources on making ad interpreting films in the classroom; supplements on writing for both print and nonprint media; and professional references on improving visual literacy. (Editor)

  5. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1993-02-02

    This is the first annual summary of results for chinook salmon supplementation studies in Idaho Rivers conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Management. The Nez Perce Tribe has coordinated chinook salmon supplementation research activities with the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the Shoshone Bannock Tribe. The project is a cooperative effort involving members of the Idaho Supplementation Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC). This project has also been extensively coordinated with the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) which identified specific research needs and integrated and coordinated supplementation research activities through development of a five year work plan. In this study we are assessing what strategies, both brood stock and release stage, are best for supplementing natural or depleted spring and summer chinook populations and what effect supplementation has on these populations. This research should identify which of the supplementation strategies employed are beneficial in terms of increasing adult returns and the ability of these returns to sustain themselves. Biological evaluation points will be parr density, survival to Lower Granite Dam, adult return to weirs, redd counts and presmolt and smolt yield from both treatment and control streams. Genetic monitoring of treatment and control populations will also occur. The supplementation research study has the following objectives: (1) Monitor and evaluate the effect of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon. (2) Monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation. (3) Determine which supplementation strategies (brood stock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural

  6. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  7. [Carotenoids: 2. Diseases and supplementation studies].

    PubMed

    Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Grolier, P; Moël, G L; Stephens, J; Nabet, F

    1999-05-01

    Inverse correlations have been found in most studies on the relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids on one side and degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases on the other side. Protective effects of carotenoids have been found for pathologies of the retina and the skin. Concentrations of these molecules in blood are lower in digestive pathologies and HIV. Short- and long-term toxicity of carotenoids was found to be low. In combination with the beneficial effects found for diets rich in carotenoids, this has initiated trials with relatively high doses of carotenoid supplements. In the study in Linxian (China) in a rural population with poor nutritional status, supplementation with beta-carotene, zinc, selenium and vitamin E lowered total mortality and mortality from stomach cancer. Other studies (ATBC, Caret.) on well-fed subjects did not show beneficial effects on mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. On the contrary, higher mortality and lung cancer incidence was found in supplemented subjects that were also exposed to asbestos and cigarette smoke. In these studies, doses of supplemental beta-carotene were high and varied from 20 to 50 mg/day. One still ongoing study, called Suvimax, doses subjects for eight years with a cocktail of vitamins and minerals including 6 mg per day of beta-carotene. This supplementation with physiologically seen more "normal" doses might give clarity on the question if beta-carotene is the protective factor in fruits and vegetables. PMID:10377477

  8. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  9. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  10. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (Idaho Supplementation Studies) : Experimental Design, 1991 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.; Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon in Idaho. The goals are to assess the use of hatchery chinook to restore or augment natural populations, and to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the survival and fitness of existing natural populations.

  11. Randomized study of zinc supplementation during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Hambidge, K.M.; Oliva-Rasbach, J.; Jacobs, M.; Purcell, S.; Statland, C.; Poirier, J.

    1986-03-05

    The hypothesis underlying this study was that a daily dietary Zn supplement during pregnancy would be associated with higher values for selected indices of Zn nutriture than corresponding values for non-Zn-supplemented subjects, if, and only if, Zn status of the unsupplemented control group was sub-optimal. The 12 test and 17 control subjects were healthy, apparently well-nourished anglos who were enrolled before the 12th week of gestation. Mean age=29 yrs, mean parity=0.8. Test subjects received a daily supplement of 15 mg Zn (mean compliance=90%) from the time of enrollment until 3 months post-partum. The supplement was taken at bedtime while other vitamin/mineral preparations were taken before breakfast. Blood samples were obtained at 4 week intervals from enrollment. Selected preliminary results: plasma Zn declined progressively with length of gestation to a nadir of 53 +/- 6 ..mu..g/dl at 10 months. (Non-pregnant mean 77 +/- 7). As in a previous, non-randomized, study the rate of decline for the test group did not differ from that of the control group. Mean monthly neutrophil Zn ranged from 43 +/- 8 - 50 +/- 14 ..mu..g/10/sup 10/ cells; there was not consistent pattern across gestation. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity and pre-albumin of the test group did not differ from the control group. These data did not give any indication of sub-optimal Zn nutriture in this pregnant population.

  12. RESULTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL MST STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-07-24

    The current design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) includes an auxiliary facility, the Actinide Finishing Facility, which provides a second contact of monosodium titanate (MST) to remove soluble actinides and strontium from waste if needed. This treatment will occur after cesium removal by Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). Although the process changes and safety basis implications have not yet been analyzed, provisions also exist to recover the MST from this operation and return to the initial actinide removal step in the SWPF for an additional (third) contact with fresh waste. A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) request identified the need to study the following issues involving this application of MST: Determine the effect of organics from the solvent extraction (CSSX) process on radionuclide sorption by MST; Determine the efficiency of re-using MST for multiple contacts; and Examine fissile loading on MST under conditions using a waste containing significantly elevated concentrations of plutonium, uranium, neptunium, and strontium. This report describes the results of three experimental studies conducted to address these needs: (1) Addition of high concentrations of entrained CSSX solvent had no noticeable effect, over a two week period, on the sorption of the actinides and strontium by MST in a direct comparison experiment. (2) Test results show that MST still retains appreciable capacity after being used once. For instance, reused MST--in the presence of entrained solvent--continued to sorb actinides and strontium. (3) A single batch of MST was used to sequentially contact five volumes of a simulant solution containing elevated concentrations of the radionuclides of interest. After the five contacts, we measured the following solution actinide loadings on the MST: plutonium: 0.884 {+-} 0.00539 wt % or (1.02 {+-} 0.0112) E+04 {micro}g/g MST, uranium: 12.1 {+-} 0.786 wt % or (1.40 {+-} 0.104) E+05 {micro}g/g MST, and neptunium: 0.426 {+-} 0

  13. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, Doug; Plaster, Kurtis; Apperson, Kimberly A.

    1996-11-01

    This work was the result of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. Adult and jack chinook salmon escapement were indexed by redd counts and weir returns. Escapement in 1994 was low and in some cases approached the lowest on record. Although stream flow conditions and parr abundance were conducive to precise parr population estimates, some streams continued to exhibit wide confidence intervals. Different methods used to calculate the estimates yielded inconsistent results with regard to increasing or decreasing the population estimate and improving the precision of the estimates. No single method appeared definitively better for all streams. Emigrant traps captured 78,138 chinook salmon fry, parr, and smolts in 1994. Application of a weekly trap efficiency adjusted for stream flow produced emigration estimates that were up to 30% larger than when a seasonal trap efficiency was used. Detection rates for smolts tagged in some streams were similar to detection rates for parr tagged during the fall of the previous year. This was unexpected because overwinter mortality usually results in a lower detection rate for fall-tagged fish. Low escapement in 1994 severely hampered Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) broodstock development. The inability to develop local broodstocks for supplementation is the most important factor threatening the implementation of the ISS.

  14. Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Bowles, Edward C.; Plaster, Kurtis

    1993-10-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho. The objectives are to monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation and; determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest effects on and highest response in natural production without adverse productivity.

  15. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. PMID:27047040

  16. Updates on clinical studies of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To establish guidelines for the selenium supplementation in radiotherapy we assessed the benefits and risks of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy. Clinical studies on the use of selenium in radiotherapy were searched in the PubMed electronic database in January 2013. Sixteen clinical studies were identified among the 167 articles selected in the initial search. Ten articles were observational studies, and the other 6 articles reported studies on the effects of selenium supplementation in patients with cancer who underwent radiotherapy. The studies were conducted worldwide including European, American and Asian countries between 1987 and 2012. Plasma, serum or whole blood selenium levels were common parameters used to assess the effects of radiotherapy and the selenium supplementation status. Selenium supplementation improved the general conditions of the patients, improved their quality of life and reduced the side effects of radiotherapy. At the dose of selenium used in these studies (200–500 μg/day), selenium supplementation did not reduce the effectiveness of radiotherapy, and no toxicities were reported. Selenium supplementation may offer specific benefits for several types of cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy. Because high-dose selenium and long-term supplementation may be unsafe due to selenium toxicity, more evidence-based information and additional research are needed to ensure the therapeutic benefits of selenium supplementation. PMID:24885670

  17. Studies on the safety of creatine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Chang Keun; Carpentier, A; Poortmans, Jacques R

    2011-05-01

    Doubtful allegations of adverse effects of creatine supplementation have been released through the press media and through scientific publications. In the present review we have tried to separate the wheat from the chaff by looking for the experimental evidence of any such claims. Anecdotal reports from athletes have appeared on muscle cramp and gastrointestinal complaints during creatine supplementation, but the incidence of these is limited and not necessarily linked to creatine itself. Despite several unproved allegations, liver (enzymes, urea) and kidneys (glomerular filtration urea and albumin excretion rates) show no change in functionality in healthy subjects supplemented with creatine, even during several months, in both young and older populations. The potential effects (production of heterocyclic amines) of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity induced by creatine supplementation have been claimed by a French Sanitary Agency (AFSSA), which might put consumers at risk. Even if there is a slight increase (within the normal range) of urinary methylamine and formaldehyde excretion after a heavy load of creatine (20 g/day) this is without effect on kidney function. The search for the excretion of heterocyclic amines remains a future task to definitively exclude the unproved allegation made by some national agencies. We advise that high-dose (>3-5 g/day) creatine supplementation should not be used by individuals with pre-existing renal disease or those with a potential risk for renal dysfunction (diabetes, hypertension, reduced glomerular filtration rate). A pre-supplementation investigation of kidney function might be considered for reasons of safety, but in normal healthy subjects appears unnecessary.

  18. Idaho Supplementation Studies : Five Year Report : 1992-1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    1999-08-01

    In 1991, the Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) project was implemented to address critical uncertainties associated with hatchery supplementation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations in Idaho. The project was designed to address questions identified in the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) Five-Year-Workplan (STWG 1988). Two goals of the project were identified: (1) assess the use of hatchery chinook salmon to increase natural populations in the Salmon and Clearwater river drainages, and (2) evaluate the genetic and ecological impacts of hatchery chinook salmon on naturally reproducing chinook salmon populations. Four objectives to achieve these goals were developed: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced fish; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; (3) determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity; and (4) develop supplementation recommendations. This document reports on the first five years of the long-term portion of the ISS project. Small-scale studies addressing specific hypotheses of the mechanisms of supplementation effects (e.g., competition, dispersal, and behavior) have been completed. Baseline genetic data have also been collected. Because supplementation broodstock development was to occur during the first five years, little evaluation of supplementation is currently possible. Most supplementation adults did not start to return to study streams until 1997. The objectives of this report are to: (1) present baseline data on production and productivity indicators such as adult escapement, redd counts, parr densities, juvenile emigrant estimates, and juvenile survival to Lower Granite Dam (lower Snake

  19. Critical Thinking and Online Supplemental Instruction: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Holmes, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of research is available regarding supplemental instruction; however, a dearth exists regarding online supplemental instruction and critical thinking. This case study explored what was assumed to be known of critical thinking and investigated the extent to which critical thought was promoted within a university's online supplemental…

  20. Eccentric and concentric muscle performance following 7 days of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.; Roper, Mary L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Mcbrine, John J.; Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle strength occur in response to chronic disuse or insufficient functional loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle performance of the lower extremity and torso prior to and immediately after 7 days of simulated weightlessness (horizontal bed rest). A Biodex was used to determine concentric and eccentric peak torque and angle at peak torque for the back, abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring, soleus, and tibialis anterior. A reference angle of 0 degrees was set at full extension. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

  1. Cod liver oil supplement consumption and health: cross-sectional results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, Marleen A H; Welch, Ailsa A; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-10-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40-79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Effect of Administration of Moxifloxacin plus Rifampin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis for 7 of 7 Days versus 5 of 7 Days in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic System

    PubMed Central

    Drusano, G. L.; Sgambati, N.; Eichas, A.; Brown, D.; Kulawy, R.; Louie, A.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some trials administered antituberculosis agents for 5 of 7 days (5/7-day regimen) to optimize adherence. Since moxifloxacin has a longer half-life than rifampin, rifampin concentrations are <1% of the maximum concentration in serum (Cmax) on day 6 and nondetectable on day 7, while concentrations of moxifloxacin remain and are able to induce error-prone replication. We determined if functional moxifloxacin monotherapy for 24 h/week caused resistance. In in vitro pharmacodynamic experiments, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was treated with mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) exposures for moxifloxacin and rifampin of 400 and 600 mg/kg/day and exposures equal to 1 standard deviation (SD) above and below the mean values. The drugs were administered on schedules of 7/7 days and 5/7 days. Over the 28-day experiments, bacteria were plated onto antibiotic-free agar to determine the effects of exposure and schedule on the total population. MICs were checked for emergence of resistance. At days 7 and 14, there was a 0.56- to 1.22-log10-CFU/ml greater cell kill with the 7/7-day regimen versus the 5/7-day regimen (low exposure). This difference was not seen for the larger exposures at day 21. At day 23, the low-exposure 5/7-day arm had breakthrough resistance, with the total count increasing to >2 log10 CFU/ml above the low-exposure 7/7-day arm. Pharmacokinetic mismatching of drugs in the therapy of tuberculosis may result in emergence of resistance when a drug holiday is imposed during which there is functional monotherapy and where the remaining agent induces error-prone replication. This is particularly true for the portion of the population where the clearance is higher (1 SD above the mean). PMID:21750119

  3. Reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Research Settings: Last 7-Day Self-Administered Long Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan S.; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of the last 7-day long form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Craig et al., 2003) and to examine the construct validity for the measure in a research setting. Participants were 151 male (n = 52) and female (n = 99) university students (M age = 24.15 years, SD = 5.01)…

  4. Effects of a 7-day military training exercise on inflammatory biomarkers, serum hepcidin, and iron status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepcidin, a peptide that is released into the blood in response to inflammation, prevents cellular iron export and results in declines in iron status. Elevated serum and urinary levels of hepcidin have been observed in athletes following exercise, and declines in iron status have been reported following prolonged periods of training. The objective of this observational study was to characterize the effects of an occupational task, military training, on iron status, inflammation, and serum hepcidin. Findings Volunteers (n = 21 males) included Norwegian Soldiers participating in a 7-day winter training exercise that culminated in a 3-day, 54 km ski march. Fasted blood samples were collected at baseline, on day 4 (PRE, prior to the ski march), and again on day 7 (POST, following the ski march). Samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and serum hepcidin. Military training affected inflammation and serum hepcidin levels, as IL-6 and hepcidin concentrations increased (P < 0.05) from the baseline to POST (mean ± SD, 9.1 ± 4.9 vs. 14.5 ± 8.4 pg/mL and 6.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.2 ± 6.9 ng/mL, respectively). Iron status was not affected by the training exercise, as sTfR levels did not change over the course of the 7-day study. Conclusions Military training resulted in significant elevations in IL-6 and serum hepcidin. Future studies should strive to identify the role of hepcidin in the adaptive response to exercise, as well as countermeasures for the prevention of chronic or repeated elevations in serum hepcidin due to exercise or sustained occupational tasks which may result in longer term decrements in iron status. PMID:24188143

  5. Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB. PMID:24724083

  6. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Lei, Meiying; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Chuang; Duan, Jiaobo; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT), during a bed rest period (HDT0), and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1-HDT7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment. PMID:26029071

  7. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yang; Lei, Meiying; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Chuang; Duan, Jiaobo; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT), during a bed rest period (HDT0), and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment. PMID:26029071

  8. How to understand the results of studies of glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wernerman, Jan

    2015-11-03

    The lack of understanding of the mechanisms behind possible beneficial and possible harmful effects of glutamine supplementation makes the design of interventional studies of glutamine supplementations difficult, perhaps even hazardous. What is the interventional target, and how might it relate to outcomes? Taking one step further and aggregating results from interventional studies into meta-analyses does not diminish the difficulties. Therefore, conducting basic research seems to be a better idea than groping in the dark and exposing patients to potential harm in this darkness.

  9. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, Chris; Tabor, R.A.; Kinzer, Ryan

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes brood year 1999 juvenile production and emigration data and adult return information for 2000 for streams studied by the Nez Perce Tribe for the cooperative Idaho Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project. In order to provide inclusive juvenile data for brood year 1999, we include data on parr, presmolt, smolt and yearling captures. Therefore, our reporting period includes juvenile data collected from April 2000 through June 2001 for parr, presmolts, and smolts and through June 2002 for brood year 1999 yearling emigrants. Data presented in this report include; fish outplant data for treatment streams, snorkel and screw trap estimates of juvenile fish abundance, juvenile emigration profiles, juvenile survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ), redd counts, and carcass data. There were no brood year 1999 treatments in Legendary Bear or Fishing Creek. As in previous years, snorkeling methods provided highly variable population estimates. Alternatively, rotary screw traps operated in Lake Creek and the Secesh River provided more precise estimates of juvenile abundance by life history type. Juvenile fish emigration in Lake Creek and the Secesh River peaked during July and August. Juveniles produced in this watershed emigrated primarily at age zero, and apparently reared in downstream habitats before detection as age one or older fish at the Snake and Columbia River dams. Over the course of the ISS study, PIT tag data suggest that smolts typically exhibit the highest relative survival to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ) compared to presmolts and parr, although we observed the opposite trend for brood year 1999 juvenile emigrants from the Secesh River. SURPH2 survival estimates for brood year 1999 Lake Creek parr, presmolt, and smolt PIT tag groups to (LGJ) were 27%, 39%, and 49% respectively, and 14%, 12%, and 5% for the Secesh River. In 2000, we counted 41 redds in Legendary Bear Creek, 4 in Fishing Creek, 5 in Slate Creek, 153 in the

  10. Steelhead Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1993 Annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    1996-01-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. To evaluate supplementation, the authors focused their experimental design on post-release survival, reproductive success, long-term fitness, and ecological interactions. They began field experiments in 1993 by outplanting hatchery adults and fingerlings to assess reproductive fitness and long-term survival. They snorkeled eight streams to estimate juvenile steelhead densities, recorded temperatures in 17 streams, and tagged natural steelhead in six streams with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags.

  11. Supplement for Teaching Distributive Education II: Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater.

    This supplement is designed to provide motivational ideas for teaching the competencies in the curriculum guide, D.E. II--Course of Study (see note). Effort is made to provide ideas for teaching specific objectives for which there was not already a method recommended. Many of the suggested activities are ready to duplicate, trace, or implement…

  12. Analysis of Nonintervention Studies: Technical Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Aickin, Mikel

    2012-01-01

    Methods for analyzing data in nonintervention clinical studies are substantially different from those that are appropriate for randomized clinical trials. Although the latter methods are well known, the former are not. A systematic approach for dealing with statistical confounding in nonintervention research has been developed over the past 30 to 40 years, and the essence of this theory constitutes the contents of this article. An accompanying, less technical article explains the implications of these results for clinical research. PMID:23251125

  13. Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present runs from 2.5 million adult fish to 5.0 million adult fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults. Rearing density is one of the most important elements in fish culture. Fish culturists have attempted to rear fish in hatchery ponds at densities that most efficiently use the rearing space available. Such efficiency studies require a knowledge of cost of rearing and the return of adults to the fisheries and to the hatchery.

  14. Psychometric properties of the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andy; Taylor, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy; Rowlands, Ann

    2007-12-01

    Few self-report measures of physical activity have been validated in individuals with severe mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 7-day recall measure (7DR: [Blair, S. N. (1984). How to assess exercise habits and physical fitness. In J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weiss, (Eds.), Behavioural health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 424-447). New York: Wiley.]) through comparison with RT3 triaxial accelerometry data. Fourteen individuals took part in the study. Validity was considered by Kendall's tau correlation and (Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical-methods for assessing agreement between 2 methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1(8476), 307-310) limits of agreement and test-retest reliability was measured by ICC. The only significant correlation between measures was total energy expenditure (tau = 0.43). The 7-DR over reported moderate physical activity by 16.9 +/- 52.3 min/day, but under reported vigorous physical activity by -10.4 +/- 24.3 min/day. Test retest ICC was significant for all outcome measures. Overall, the 7-DR was reliable but exhibited questionable validity. The use of self-report questionnaires such as the 7-DR may inaccurately estimate the levels of physical activity in this population, and may not be sensitive to monitoring intervention-related changes in physical activity.

  15. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL.

  16. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL. PMID:25943335

  17. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Faurot, Keturah R.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O.; Young, Laura A.; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A.; González, Hector M.; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen’s kappa: 0.31–0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use. PMID:26917949

  18. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Faurot, Keturah R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O; Young, Laura A; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A; González, Hector M; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A; Talavera, Gregory A; Castañeda, Sheila F; Daviglus, Martha L; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen's kappa: 0.31-0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use.

  19. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Faurot, Keturah R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O; Young, Laura A; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A; González, Hector M; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A; Talavera, Gregory A; Castañeda, Sheila F; Daviglus, Martha L; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen's kappa: 0.31-0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use. PMID:26917949

  20. Studies of methylhexaneamine in supplements and geranium oil.

    PubMed

    Lisi, A; Hasick, N; Kazlauskas, R; Goebel, C

    2011-01-01

    A number of supplements are now available which are sold as fat burners or pre-workout boosters and contain stimulants which are banned in sport. Many contain methylhexaneamine under one of many pseudonyms including Geranamine, geranium oil or extract, or a number of chemical names such as 1,3-dimethylpentylamine. This has resulted in many athletes returning an adverse finding and having sanctions imposed. Other stimulants such as caffeine, phenpromethamine, synefrine, and phenethylamines are also to be found in supplements. This communication shows that geranium oils do not contain methylhexaneamine and that products labelled as containing geranium oil but which contain methylhexaneamine can only arise from the addition of synthetic material. Since the usual dose of methylhexaneamine is large, the drug is excreted at relatively high amounts for more than 29 h, the time for which the excretion was studied.

  1. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, R. J.; Morgan, R. G.; Tuttle, S. L.; Kelly, G. M.; Paull, A.; Simmons, J. M.; Stalker, R. J.; Pulsonetti, M. V.; Buttsworth, D.; Allen, G. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Reports by the staff of the University of Queensland on various research studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology are presented. These reports document the tests conducted in the reflected shock tunnel T4 and supporting research facilities that have been used to study the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen fuel in generic scramjets at flow conditions typical of hypersonic flight. In addition, topics include the development of instrumentation and measurement technology, such as combustor wall shear and stream composition in pulse facilities, and numerical studies and analyses of the scramjet combustor process and the test facility operation. This research activity is Supplement 7 under NASA Grant NAGW-674.

  2. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalker, R. J.; Hollis, P.; Allen, G. A.; Roberts, G. T.; Tuttle, S.; Bakos, R. J.; Morgan, R. G.; Pulsonetti, M. V.; Brescianini, C.; Buttsworth, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Reports by the staff of the University of Oueensland on various research studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology are presented. These reports document the tests conducted in the reflected shock tunnel T4 and supporting research facilities that have been used to study the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen fuel in generic scramjets at flow conditions typical of hypersonic flight. In addition, topics include the development of instrumentation and measurement technology, such as combustor wall shear and stream composition in pulse facilities, and numerical studies and analyses of the scramjet combustor process and the test facility operation. This research activity is Supplement 8 under NASA Grant NAGW-674.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  4. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  5. Variations in 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate of type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Verma, Narsingh; Anjum, Baby; Bhardwaj, Kshitij

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Diabetes has profound consequences on the cardiovascular system leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Blood pressure (BP) has a characteristic and reproducible circadian pattern, with high values during the day and low values at night. A 7-day timed analysis of BP through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been used not only to diagnose day and night dipping patterns of blood pressure, but also to measure day-to-day variability and the circadian hyper-amplitude-tension, a condition in which excessive circadian BP amplitude precedes the chronic established hypertension. Our objective was to assess the 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of BP and heart rate in diabetic patients, as it could be helpful in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 50 diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 non-diabetic participants were recruited for the study. General health records were individually maintained, and 7-day/24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor was carried out. Results The rhythmic parameters of systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, double amplitude, acrophase and 3-h fractionated hyperbaric index were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients. A total of 12 participants were diagnosed with circadian hyper-amplitude-tension. These data suggest that diabetic patients have certain variations in the circadian pattern of blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in disturbed vascular events, and thus are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion Seven-day/24-h monitoring might be useful as an early predictive tool in assessing future cardiovascular risk, guiding treatment and management of these patients. PMID:25422775

  6. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi; Murayama, Chieko; Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  7. Estimating Monthly, Annual, and Low 7-Day, 10-Year Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Regression equations to estimate monthly, annual, and low 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) streamflows were derived for rivers in Maine. The derived regression equations for estimating mean monthly, mean annual, median monthly, median annual, and low 7Q10 streamflows for ungaged rivers in Maine presented in this report supersede those derived in previous studies. Twenty-six U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on unregulated, rural rivers in Maine with 10 years or more of recorded streamflow were used to develop the regression equations. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to select the explanatory variables (basin and climatic characteristics) that would appear in the final regression equations. OLS regression of all possible subsets was done with 62 explanatory variables for each of 27 response variables. Five explanatory variables were chosen for the final regression equations: drainage basin area, areal fraction of the drainage basin underlain by sand and gravel aquifers, distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid, mean drainage basin annual precipitation, and mean drainage basin winter precipitation (the sum of mean monthly precipitation for December, January, and February). Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to derive the final coefficients and measures of uncertainty for the regression equations. The forms of many of the derived regression equations indicate some physical, mechanistic processes. Drainage basin area is the most statistically important explanatory variable and appears in all derived regression equations. Monthly streamflows are related inversely to the distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid during December, January, February, and March; that is, the closer a river basin is to the coast, the higher monthly streamflows are per unit drainage basin area during the winter. The relation reverses in May when higher streamflows are attributed to basins farther from the coast

  8. Steelhead Supplementation Studies; Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    2003-03-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study (SSS) has two broad objectives: (1) investigate the feasibility of supplementing depressed wild and natural steelhead populations using hatchery populations, and (2) describe the basic life history and genetic characteristics of wild and natural steelhead populations in the Salmon and Clearwater Basins. Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) personnel stocked adult steelhead from Sawtooth Fish Hatchery into Frenchman and Beaver creeks and estimated the number of age-1 parr produced from the outplants since 1993. On May 2, 2002, both Beaver and Frenchman creeks were stocked with hatchery adult steelhead. A SSS crew snorkeled the creeks in August 2002 to estimate the abundance of age-1 parr from brood year (BY) 2001. I estimated that the yield of age-1 parr per female stocked in 2001 was 7.3 and 6.7 in Beaver and Frenchman creeks, respectively. SSS crews stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts from 1993 to 1999 in the Red River drainage to assess which life stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2002, Clearwater Fish Hatchery personnel operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings. Twelve PIT-tagged adults from the smolt releases and one PIT-tagged adult from fingerling releases were detected during their migration up the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers, but none from either group were caught at the weir. The primary focus of the study has been monitoring and collecting life history information from wild steelhead populations. An adult weir has been operated annually since 1992 in Fish Creek, a tributary of the Lochsa River. The weir was damaged by a rain-on-snow event in April 2002 and although the weir remained intact, some adults were able to swim undetected through the weir. Despite damage to the weir, trap tenders captured 167 adult steelhead, the most fish since 1993. The maximum likelihood estimate of adult steelhead escapement was 242. A screw trap

  9. Delayed profound thrombocytopenia presenting 7 days after use of abciximab (ReoPro).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjiv; Bhambi, Brijesh; Nyitray, William; Sharma, Geetanjali; Shambaugh, Shawn; Antonescu, Adrian; Shukla, Pankaj; Denny, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    A case of a 65-year-old woman presenting with delayed profound thrombocytopenia 7 days after the use of abciximab (ReoPro) in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention is described. The patient had normal platelet counts for the first 24 hours after the use of abciximab (ReoPro). She presented with petechiae and profound thrombocytopenia 1 week later. The patient was treated successfully with a platelet transfusion and recovered uneventfully. Profound thrombocytopenia occurs acutely within the first few hours after abciximab (ReoPro) use, so this case was unique in that the profound thrombocytopenia presented 1 week after use of abciximab (ReoPro).

  10. Genome-wide association study of the plasma triglyceride response to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation[S

    PubMed Central

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Guénard, Frédéric; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Barbier, Olivier; Calder, Philip C.; Minihane, Anne Marie; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown a large interindividual variability in plasma TG response to long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation, which may likely be attributable to genetic variability within the populations studied. The objective is to compare the frequency of SNPs in a genome-wide association study between responders (reduction in plasma TG levels ≥0.01 mM) and nonresponders (increase in plasma TG of ≥0 mM) to supplementation. Genomic DNA from 141 subjects who completed a 2-week run-in period followed by 6-week supplementation with 5 g of fish oil daily (1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA daily) were genotyped on Illumina HumanOmni-5-QuadBeadChip. Thirteen loci had frequency differences between responders and nonresponders (P < 1 × 10−5), including SNPs in or near IQCJ-SCHIP1, MYB, NELL1, NXPH1, PHF17, and SLIT2 genes. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed by summing the number of risk alleles. This GRS explained 21.53% of the variation in TG response to n-3 PUFA supplementation when adjusted for age, sex, and BMI (P = 0.0002). Using Fish Oil Intervention and Genotype as a replication cohort, the GRS was able to explain 2% of variation in TG response when adjusted. In conclusion, subjects who decrease their plasma TG levels following n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a different genetic profile than individuals who do not respond. PMID:24847101

  11. A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day course of doripenem to a 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Gram-negative bacteria. Methods This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing a fixed 7-day course of doripenem one gram as a four-hour infusion every eight hours with a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin one gram as a one-hour infusion every eight hours (April 2008 through June 2011). Results The study was stopped prematurely at the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee that was blinded to treatment arm assignment and performed a scheduled review of data which showed signals that were close to the pre-specified stopping limits. The final analyses included 274 randomized patients. The clinical cure rate at the end of therapy (EOT) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population was numerically lower for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (45.6% versus 56.8%; 95% CI, -26.3% to 3.8%). Similarly, the clinical cure rate at EOT was numerically lower for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP, the most common Gram-negative pathogen, in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (41.2% versus 60.0%; 95% CI, -57.2 to 19.5). All cause 28-day mortality in the MITT group was numerically greater for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (21.5% versus 14.8%; 95% CI, -5.0 to 18.5) and for patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (35.3% versus 0.0%; 95% CI, 12.6 to 58.0). Conclusions Among patients with microbiologically confirmed late-onset VAP, a fixed 7-day course of doripenem was found to have non-significant higher rates of clinical failure and mortality compared to a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin. Consideration should be given to treating patients with VAP for more than seven days to optimize clinical outcome. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00589693

  12. A protocol for conducting 7-day daily renewal tests with Lemna gibba.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Solomon, Keith R

    2007-01-01

    Lemna gibba (a duckweed) is a freshwater macrophyte commonly used in toxicity testing, and Lemna spp are currently the only aquatic higher plants required for evaluation of pesticides under the pesticide registration guidelines of the EPA. The methods currently available for toxicity testing by various organizations and agencies, including ASTM, OECD, EPA and Environment Canada, are largely static or semistatic tests with unspecified renewal intervals (OECD) and may not provide a consistent means of exposure owing to short toxicant half-life in aquatic media, uptake of chemical by plants and evaporation of nutrient media. The procedure outlined here details a simple and efficient 7-day daily static renewal procedure for conducting toxicity tests with L. gibba, the appropriate end points to assess, the statistical criteria necessary for analyzing the toxicity data, as well as the steps required to culture and maintain L. gibba. This protocol is based on a modified version of a widely accepted static method. PMID:17446897

  13. Monocular blindness developing 7 days after repair of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture. A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Buckley, S B; McAnear, J T; Dolwick, M F; Aragon, S B

    1985-07-01

    Blindness following zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fracture and surgical repair is an unfortunate and uncommon complication. A review of the literature reveals fewer than 25 cases of monocular blindness resulting from zygomaticomaxillary fracture or repair. The case presented here is that of a man who was assaulted with a baseball bat and suffered a mildly displaced ZMC fracture. On admission, the patient had light perception only in his left eye. During his convalescence, vision in his left eye gradually improved to the point of allowing him to read a newspaper without difficulty. Then, 9 days after the injury (7 days after surgical repair), the patient awoke with complete blindness of the left eye. The possible mechanisms for such loss of vision are discussed.

  14. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes: A registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, J E H; Otten, E; Verheij, J B G M; de Walle, H E K

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs born in 1997-2012. By Fisher's exact test we analyzed possible differences in NTD subtype distribution between a correct FA supplementation group and incorrect FA supplementation group. We found proportionally fewer cervical/thoracic spina bifida cases and more lumbar/sacral spina bifida cases in the correct FA supplementation group, irrespective of the presence of the main NTD risk factors. The effect on NTD subtype distribution was only seen when FA supplementation was started before conception. We conclude that FA not only prevents the occurrence of a significant proportion of NTDs, but might also decrease the severity of NTDs, as long as supplementation is started before conception. PMID:26627544

  15. 76 FR 5787 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG.... The Work Colleges Program The Work Colleges September 30, Report of 2010-2011 award Program Report...

  16. 75 FR 12217 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG... Administrator, 2020 Company, LLC, 3110 Fairview Park Drive, Suite 950, Falls Church, VA 22042. 3. The...

  17. Perioperative Standard Oral Nutrition Supplements Versus Immunonutrition in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Resection in an Enhanced Recovery (ERAS) Protocol: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial (SONVI Study).

    PubMed

    Moya, Pedro; Soriano-Irigaray, Leticia; Ramirez, Jose Manuel; Garcea, Alessandro; Blasco, Olga; Blanco, Francisco Javier; Brugiotti, Carlo; Miranda, Elena; Arroyo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    To compare immunonutrition versus standard high calorie nutrition in patients undergoing elective colorectal resection within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program.Despite progress in recent years in the surgical management of patients with colorectal cancer (ERAS programs), postoperative complications are frequent. Nutritional supplements enriched with immunonutrients have recently been introduced into clinical practice. However, the extent to which the combination of ERAS protocols and immunonutrition benefits patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery is unknown.The SONVI study is a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial with 2 parallel treatment groups receiving either the study product (an immune-enhancing feed) or the control supplement (a hypercaloric hypernitrogenous supplement) for 7 days before colorectal resection and 5 days postoperatively.A total of 264 patients were randomized. At baseline, both groups were comparable in regards to age, sex, surgical risk, comorbidity, and analytical and nutritional parameters. The median length of the postoperative hospital stay was 5 days with no differences between the groups. A decrease in the total number of complications was observed in the immunonutrition group compared with the control group, primarily due to a significant decrease in infectious complications (23.8% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.0007). Of the infectious complications, wound infection differed significantly between the groups (16.4% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.0008). Other infectious complications were lower in the immunonutrition group but were not statistically significantly different.The implementation of ERAS protocols including immunonutrient-enriched supplements reduces the complications of patients undergoing colorectal resection.This study is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02393976. PMID:27227930

  18. Perioperative Standard Oral Nutrition Supplements Versus Immunonutrition in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Resection in an Enhanced Recovery (ERAS) Protocol: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial (SONVI Study).

    PubMed

    Moya, Pedro; Soriano-Irigaray, Leticia; Ramirez, Jose Manuel; Garcea, Alessandro; Blasco, Olga; Blanco, Francisco Javier; Brugiotti, Carlo; Miranda, Elena; Arroyo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    To compare immunonutrition versus standard high calorie nutrition in patients undergoing elective colorectal resection within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program.Despite progress in recent years in the surgical management of patients with colorectal cancer (ERAS programs), postoperative complications are frequent. Nutritional supplements enriched with immunonutrients have recently been introduced into clinical practice. However, the extent to which the combination of ERAS protocols and immunonutrition benefits patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery is unknown.The SONVI study is a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial with 2 parallel treatment groups receiving either the study product (an immune-enhancing feed) or the control supplement (a hypercaloric hypernitrogenous supplement) for 7 days before colorectal resection and 5 days postoperatively.A total of 264 patients were randomized. At baseline, both groups were comparable in regards to age, sex, surgical risk, comorbidity, and analytical and nutritional parameters. The median length of the postoperative hospital stay was 5 days with no differences between the groups. A decrease in the total number of complications was observed in the immunonutrition group compared with the control group, primarily due to a significant decrease in infectious complications (23.8% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.0007). Of the infectious complications, wound infection differed significantly between the groups (16.4% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.0008). Other infectious complications were lower in the immunonutrition group but were not statistically significantly different.The implementation of ERAS protocols including immunonutrient-enriched supplements reduces the complications of patients undergoing colorectal resection.This study is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02393976.

  19. Effect of burden and origin sites of premature ventricular contractions on left ventricular function by 7-day Holter monitor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Mingfang; Chen, Minglong; Yang, Bing; Wang, Daowu; Kong, Xiangqing; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Gu, Kai; Cao, Kejiang; Liu, Hailei; Jiang, Qi; Shi, Jiaojiao; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) could enlarge the heart, but its risk factors are incompletely understood as a single 24-hour recording cannot reflect the true PVC burden due to day-to-day variability. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of burden and origin sites on left ventricular (LV) function in patients with PVCs by 7-day Holter electrocardiography (ECG). From May 2012 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients with PVCs were recruited from the authors' affiliated hospital. All patients received 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead routing ECG and 7-days Holter ECG. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. A total of 102 participants with PVCs were included in the final analysis. Origin of PVCs from the tricuspid annulus had the highest burden and NT-proBNP level. LV papillary muscle had a higher LV ejection fraction (EF) level and a lower LV end-systolic dimension (ESD) than other PVC foci (P<0.05). The high burden group had a higher LV end-diastolic dimension (EDD) and LVESD but lower LVEF than the other two groups (P<0.05). Female, older age, physical work, and history of PVCs had a significantly positive correlation with symptoms. Male, older age, physical work, and high burden were positive predictors of enlarged LVEDD, LVESD and higher serum NT-proBNP level, but lower LVEF. Seven-day dynamic ECG Holter monitor showed the true PVC burden on patients with PVCs. PVCs with a lower burden or origin from the LV papillary muscle and the fascicle were relatively benign, while PVCs with a higher burden or origin from the tricuspid annulus may lead to cardiac dysfunction.

  20. The Diabetes Visual Function Supplement Study (DiVFuSS)

    PubMed Central

    Chous, A Paul; Richer, Stuart P; Gerson, Jeffry D; Kowluru, Renu A

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is known to affect visual function before onset of retinopathy (diabetic retinopathy (DR)). Protection of visual function may signal disruption of mechanisms underlying DR. Methods This was a 6-month randomised, controlled clinical trial of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes with no retinopathy or mild to moderate non-proliferative retinopathy assigned to twice daily consumption of placebo or a novel, multi-component formula containing xanthophyll pigments, antioxidants and selected botanical extracts. Measurement of contrast sensitivity, macular pigment optical density, colour discrimination, 5-2 macular threshold perimetry, Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Symptoms, foveal and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, glycohaemoglobin (HbA1c), serum lipids, 25-OH-vitamin D, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-a) and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) were taken at baseline and 6 months. Outcomes were assessed by differences between and within groups at baseline and at study conclusion using meand ± SDs and t tests (p<0.05) for continuous variables. Results There were no significant intergroup differences at baseline. At 6 months, subjects on active supplement compared with placebo had significantly better visual function on all measures (p values ranging from 0.008 to <0.0001), significant improvements in most serum lipids (p values ranging from 0.01 to 0.0004), hsCRP (p=0.01) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (Fisher's exact test, p=0.0024) No significant changes in retinal thickness, HbA1c, total cholesterol or TNF-α were found between the groups. Conclusions This study provides strong evidence of clinically meaningful improvements in visual function, hsCRP and peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes, both with and without retinopathy, and without affecting glycaemic control. Trial registration number www.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01646047 PMID:26089210

  1. Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Risk of Pre-Eclampsia-A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi Wu; Guo, Yanfang; Rodger, Marc; White, Ruth Rennicks; Yang, Qiuying; Smith, Graeme N; Perkins, Sherry L; Walker, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study designed to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) took place in Ottawa, ON and Kingston, ON, Canada, from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2008. Pregnant women, less than 20 weeks gestational age were recruited and delivered in the Ottawa region and the Kingston General Hospital. Demographic characteristics of the study participants and the patterns of supplementation of folic acid were described and occurrence of PE between women with folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and women without were compared. Multiple logistic regression was used in the estimation of the independent effect of supplementation of folic acid. Additional analyses assessing the effect of low RBC and serum folate and dose-response relationship were performed. Analyses were performed in all study participants, and then in high risk and low risk sub-groups, respectively. A total of 7,669 participants were included in the final analysis. Ninety five percent of the study participants were taking folic acid supplementation in early second trimester. The rate of PE was lower in the supplementation group than in the no supplementation group, and the difference was statistically significant in high risk women. Similar patterns of associations were observed in analysis by RBC and serum folate levels and in dose-response analysis. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy may reduce PE risk in pregnant women, especially in those women with increased risk of developing PE.

  2. The development of a 7-day community specialist palliative care service.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    The author worked as a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in community palliative care in the Central Lancashire area of England when the CNS service was extended to a 9am-to-5pm 7-day service. A project group was set up to canvas some of the key stakeholders for their views on the extension of the service. The group undertook a literature search, a telephone survey of services in other areas that were providing this level of service, and interviews to ascertain the views of district nurses in the locality of the proposed service extension. The extension of service has long been advocated and was one of the key recommendations in the UK Department of Health's peer-review process. Such an extension was implemented following the research phase and was then evaluated by the project lead and the community services manager. The extension was found to be effective in the ongoing monitoring and support of patients. Anecdotally, the CNS team also felt it had been proactive in preventing unnecessary hospital admissions, although this specific aspect is difficult to quantify. This article looks at how the service was developed, how it has evolved over time, and how it works today. Consideration is also given to benefits and limitations. PMID:24356506

  3. Applications of a 7-day Caco-2 cell model in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Yadava, Preeti; Heikkinen, Aki T; Parrott, Neil; Railkar, Aruna

    2014-06-01

    Oral delivery is the preferred route of administration and therefore good absorption after oral dosing is a prerequisite for a compound to be successful in the clinic. The prediction of oral bioavailability from in vitro permeability assays is thus a valuable tool during drug discovery and development. Caco-2 cell monolayers mimic the human intestinal epithelium in many aspects. These monolayers form tight junctions between cells and have been widely used as a model of human intestinal absorption. Caco-2 cells also express a variety of transporter proteins although the transformed nature of the cells results in unpredictable differentiation markers, transport properties and enzyme expression. Thus various modifications of the Caco-2 assay are used in laboratories across the globe. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of a time and resource saving 7-day Caco-2 assay protocol. We also discuss the impact of various experimental conditions on permeability measurements and its applications during lead optimization in early discovery and for clinical candidate characterization, specifically for prediction of absorption in human, at a later stage in drug development.

  4. Somatosensory and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials Assessed between 4 and 7 Days after Severe Stroke Onset Predict Unfavorable Outcome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Su, Ying Ying; Xiao, Shu Ying; Liu, Yi Fei

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the best predictive timing of short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SLSEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) for unfavorable outcomes in patients with early stage severe stroke. One hundred fifty-six patients with acute severe supratentorial stroke were monitored according to SLSEP, BAEP, and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at 1-3 days and 4-7 days after the onset of stroke. All patients were followed up for outcomes at 6 months after onset using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), with a score of 5-6 considered unfavorable. The predictive values of SLSEP, BAEP, and the GCS at 1-3 days were compared with 4-7 days after onset. Our results show that, according to the analysis of prognostic authenticity, the predictive values of SLSEP and BAEP at 4-7 days after stroke onset improved when compared with the values at 1-3 days for unfavorable outcomes. Most of the patients with change of worsening evoked potentials from 1-3 days to 4-7 days after onset had unfavorable outcomes. In conclusion, SLSEP and BAEP assessed at 4-7 days after onset predicted unfavorable outcomes for acute severe stroke patients. The worsening values of SLSEP and BAEP between 1-3 days and 4-7 days also present a prognostic value.

  5. Intake of multivitamin supplements and incident asthma in Norwegian adults: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lin; Brumpton, Ben; Langhammer, Arnulf; Chen, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Although intake of multivitamin supplements is becoming increasingly popular, the relationship between intake of multivitamin supplements and incident asthma remains unclear. Prospective studies in adults with long-term follow-up are especially scarce. Our objective was to investigate the association between intake of multivitamin supplements and asthma development in Norwegian adults. We followed 16 952 adult subjects from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995–1997) up to 2006–2008, who, at baseline, were free of asthma and provided information on their intake of multivitamin supplements and cod liver oil. Regular intake of multivitamin supplements or cod liver oil was defined as daily intake for ≥3 months during the year prior to baseline. Incident asthma was defined as reported new-onset asthma after the 11-year follow-up. Intake of multivitamin supplements only was associated with an increased odds ratio for incident asthma (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.12–2.13) after adjustment for a number of common confounding factors (model I). Similar odds ratios were found for intake of cod liver oil only and for intake of both supplements (1.59 and 1.73, respectively). Regular intake of multivitamin supplements was associated with an increased odds ratio for incident asthma in Norwegian adults. PMID:27730154

  6. Clinical effects of thigh cuffs during a 7-day 6° head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavy-Le Traon, Anne; Maillet, Alain; Vasseur Clausen, Pascale; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Alferova, Irina; Gharib, Claude; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier

    2001-08-01

    Thigh cuffs are used by Russian cosmonauts to limit the fluid shift induced by space flight. A ground simulation using the head-down bed rest (HDBR) model was performed to assess the effects of thigh cuffs on clinical tolerance and orthostatic adaptation. 8 male healthy volunteers (32.4±1.9 years) participated twice in a 7-day HDBR — one time with thigh cuffs (worm daily from 9 am to 7 pm) (TC) and one time without (WTC). Orthostatic tolerance was assessed by a 10 minute stand test and by a LBNP test (5 min at -15, -30, -45 mmHg) before (BDC-1) and at the end of the HDBR period (R+1). Plasma volume was measured before and at the end of HDBR by the Evans blue dye dilution technique. Thigh cuffs limits headache due to fluid shift, as well as the loss in plasma volume (TC: -5.85±0.95%; WTC: -9.09±0.82%, p<0.05). The mean duration of the stand test (R+1) did not differ in the two group (TC 7.1±1.3 min; WTC 7.0±1.0 min). The increase in HR and decrease in diastolic blood pressure were slightly but significantly larger without thigh cuffs. Duration of the LBNP tests did not differ with thigh cuffs. Thigh cuffs limit the symptoms due to fluid shift and the loss in plasma volume. They partly reduced the increase in HR during orthostatic stress but had no effect on duration of orthostatic stress tests.

  7. Recent studies on selected botanical dietary supplement ingredients.

    PubMed

    Rader, Jeanne I; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Trucksess, Mary W

    2007-09-01

    The market for botanical dietary supplements in the US has grown rapidly during the last 15 years. Use of newly introduced botanical ingredients has often outpaced an adequate scientific understanding of the ingredients themselves. This may lead to problems, including misidentification, mislabeling, adulteration, and toxicity related to the intended ingredient or one substituted for it. This article reviews recent work with several botanical ingredients (Ephedra, Citrus species, Hoodia gordonii, Teucrium, isoflavones) that illustrates the complexity of the current situation and approaches that contribute to ensuring the quality of botanical ingredients. Recent work with contamination of botanical products by mycotoxins is also reviewed. The need for tools for botanical authentication and methods for reproducible extraction of bioactive constituents is critical. Such tools, and improved analytical techniques for identifying potentially bioactive constituents in fresh plant material and in concentrated extracts and for detection of hazardous contaminants, are expected to improve the overall quality and safety of botanical dietary supplement ingredients.

  8. ENHANCED BIOREMEDIATION UTILIZING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AS A SUPPLEMENTAL SOURCE OF OXYGEN: A LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and field scale studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using hydrogen peroxide as a supplemental source of oxygen for bioremediation of an aviation gasoline fuel spill. Field samples of aviation gasoline contaminated aquifer material were artificially...

  9. Benefit beliefs about protein supplements: A comparative study of users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The consumption of protein supplements among leisure time exercisers is growing. The present study aims to identify factors that motivate protein supplement consumption by comparing users' and non-users' underlying benefit beliefs about protein supplement. The study is based on an online survey of 813 Swiss adults (376 users of protein supplements and 437 non-users). Participants answered questions related to their benefit beliefs regarding protein supplement, their protein supplements consumption frequency, their activity level (GPAQ), and their reasons for taking protein supplement. In women, the most commonly cited reasons were to increase muscles (57.3%) and to regulate their weight (48.6%); and in men to increase muscles (83.7%) and to promote regeneration (53.7%). Furthermore, a principal component analysis revealed four benefit belief factors: (a) restore nutrients/avoid weakness; (b) fitness promotion; (c) health/well-being; (d) muscle modulation/competitive performance. The analysis showed that both users and non-users predominantly perceive protein supplements consumption as a strategy to modulate muscle mass, while beliefs in a health and well-being promoting effect was more prevalent among users (M = 3.2, SD = 1.3) than non-users (M = 2.7, SD = 1.3) (p < 0.001). Moreover, health and wellbeing-related beliefs were associated with an increased likelihood of a higher protein supplements intake frequency (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9), while physical activity level was not associated with protein supplements intake frequency. In addition, a negative correlation between physical activity level and beliefs in a fitness-promoting effect of protein supplements (r = -0.14, p < 0.001) was observed, indicating that for a subgroup, protein supplements might license lower activity levels. Despite a lack of scientific evidence, consumers of varying activity levels consume protein supplements and believe in its' various positive features. Users should be

  10. Benefit beliefs about protein supplements: A comparative study of users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The consumption of protein supplements among leisure time exercisers is growing. The present study aims to identify factors that motivate protein supplement consumption by comparing users' and non-users' underlying benefit beliefs about protein supplement. The study is based on an online survey of 813 Swiss adults (376 users of protein supplements and 437 non-users). Participants answered questions related to their benefit beliefs regarding protein supplement, their protein supplements consumption frequency, their activity level (GPAQ), and their reasons for taking protein supplement. In women, the most commonly cited reasons were to increase muscles (57.3%) and to regulate their weight (48.6%); and in men to increase muscles (83.7%) and to promote regeneration (53.7%). Furthermore, a principal component analysis revealed four benefit belief factors: (a) restore nutrients/avoid weakness; (b) fitness promotion; (c) health/well-being; (d) muscle modulation/competitive performance. The analysis showed that both users and non-users predominantly perceive protein supplements consumption as a strategy to modulate muscle mass, while beliefs in a health and well-being promoting effect was more prevalent among users (M = 3.2, SD = 1.3) than non-users (M = 2.7, SD = 1.3) (p < 0.001). Moreover, health and wellbeing-related beliefs were associated with an increased likelihood of a higher protein supplements intake frequency (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9), while physical activity level was not associated with protein supplements intake frequency. In addition, a negative correlation between physical activity level and beliefs in a fitness-promoting effect of protein supplements (r = -0.14, p < 0.001) was observed, indicating that for a subgroup, protein supplements might license lower activity levels. Despite a lack of scientific evidence, consumers of varying activity levels consume protein supplements and believe in its' various positive features. Users should be

  11. Glutamine supplementation favors weight loss in nondieting obese female patients. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Laviano, A; Molfino, A; Lacaria, M T; Canelli, A; De Leo, S; Preziosa, I; Rossi Fanelli, F

    2014-11-01

    Glutamine supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in critically ill patients, and prevents obesity in animals fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that glutamine supplementation favors weight loss in humans. Obese and overweight female patients (n=6) were enrolled in a pilot, cross-over study. After recording anthropometric (that is, body weight, waist circumference) and metabolic (that is, glycemia, insulinemia, homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) characteristics, patients were randomly assigned to 4-week supplementation with glutamine or isonitrogenous protein supplement (0.5 g/KgBW/day). During supplementation, patients did not change their dietary habits nor lifestyle. At the end, anthropometric and metabolic features were assessed, and after 2 weeks of washout, patients were switched to the other supplement for 4 weeks. Body weight and waist circumference significantly declined only after glutamine supplementation (85.0±10.4 Kg vs 82.2±10.1 Kg, and 102.7±2.0 cm vs 98.9±2.9 cm, respectively; P=0.01). Insulinemia and HOMA-IR declined by 20% after glutamine, but not significantly so. This pilot study shows that glutamine is safe and effective in favoring weight loss and possibly enhancing glucose metabolism.

  12. Effects of 7-day continuous d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys*

    PubMed Central

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L.; Banks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice.In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined. Methods Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32 mg/kg/h). Results During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1 mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys. Conclusions The present subchronic treatment resultssupport the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice. PMID:26361713

  13. Static torsional otolith-cervical-ocular reflex after prolonged exposure to weightlessness and a 7-day immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Makarova, S. M.

    2011-05-01

    To determine the role of the support-proprioceptive factor in the functioning of the vestibular system, in particular the static torsional otolith-cervical-ocular reflex (OCOR), comparative OCOR studies with videooculography recording were performed after a 7-day "dry" horizontal immersion (16 subjects) and after a prolonged (126-195 days) exposure to weightlessness (13 cosmonauts). For the first time, it was demonstrated that minimization of the support and proprioceptive afferentation may result in an inversion or absence of the static torsional OCOR and the development of a positional nystagmus with an inverted reflex. A comparative OCOR data analysis of cosmonauts and immersion subjects has revealed similarity of responses. However, changes in OCOR after immersion were noted in only 60% of the subjects, while after space flight, 90% of cosmonauts showed them. Post-flight changes were more frequent, marked and long-lasting. Statistical analysis has shown that there were significant differences between pre- and post-flight data according to both parametric and non-parametric methods of multiple comparisons, whereas only parametric methods have found significant differences within immersion data.

  14. Growth, reproduction and population growth of Ceriodaphnia cornuta sars and comparison of 7-day fecundity with Ceriodaphnia dubia richard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Dehui

    1989-06-01

    Biology of parthenogenetic females of Ceriodaphnia cornuta Sars was studied under laboratory conditions. The mean length of neonates (first-young instars) of Ceriodaphnia cornuta was found to be 0.27 mm at 25±1°C and that of the first adult instars 0.50 mm. A maximum length of 0.69 mm was attained at the 8th adult instar. The mean longevity was found to be 19.0 days for 3 preadult and 8 adult instars. Sex maturity was reached in 4.26 days. The mean number of young per brood was 6.21. The total production for each adult reached 49.7. The maximum reproduction period occurred during the 4th adult instar. At this age, the animals were 10.25 days old, and had a body length of 0.65 mm. The innate capacity for increase ( r m) was 0.40 per female per day, the net reproduction rate ( R 0) was 33.601 per generation, the mean length of a generation ( T) was 8.786 days, and the finite rate for increase (λ) was 1.492 per female per day. Comparisons using the t-test indicated that the number of eggs produced and number of broods of C. cornuta and C. dubia were not significantly different ( p>0.05) after 7 days.

  15. Evaluation and Statistical Review of Idaho Supplementation Studies :1991-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Lutch, Jeffrey; Steinhorst, Kirk; Beasley, Chris

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) was developed to evaluate the utility of supplementation as a recovery tool for Snake River basin chinook salmon (Supplementation Technical Workgroup 1987), and to help define the potential role of supplementation in managing Idaho's anadromous fisheries (IDFG 1990; IDFG 1992). Supplementation as defined by the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project group is the use of artificial propagation in the attempt to maintain or increase natural production while maintaining the long-term fitness of the target population (RASP 1992). Poor survival has led to the decline and continued depression of upriver chinook salmon stocks due to mainstem passage and mortality factors associated with the lower Snake and Columbia river dams. Although immediate efforts should focus on alleviating the poor passage and flow conditions, supplementation may concurrently be a viable tool to meet the Northwest Power Planning Council's interim goal of doubling anadromous fish runs in the Columbia River Basin (NPPC 1987) and avoiding short-term loss of spawning aggregates.

  16. Pregnancy intentions and folic acid supplementation exemplars: findings from the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Roxanne; Volkman, Julie E; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Weisman, Carol S; Chase, Gary A; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2009-06-01

    One Healthy People 2010 objective is that 80% of women in the United States start a pregnancy with optimal levels of folic acid. This often requires women to use folic acid supplements preconceptionally to get adequate levels. Efforts to achieve the objective have resulted in a suboptimal floor effect at less than 50% of women. We advance a framework based on exemplification theory, identifying supplementation as an additive action in which two role models exemplify folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age able to become pregnant (n = 1,258). The women were participants in Phase I of the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study (CePAWHS). One exemplar identified represents the positive habits aligned with supplementers considering a pregnancy sometime in their future, while the other resides in the exemplification of positive habits aligned with supplementers not considering a pregnancy sometime in their future but still able to become pregnant. Among women not considering a future pregnancy, daily green salad consumption, weekly fish consumption, having had a health care visit in the past year, and having had any ob/gyn visit in the past 2 years resulted in increased odds of folic acid supplement use in a multivariable model. In the same model, an increase in age resulted in increased odds of folic acid supplement use. Among women considering a future pregnancy, not smoking cigarettes, having higher levels of psychosocial stress, and having higher levels of interaction social support resulted in increased odds of folic acid supplement use in a multivariable model. In the same model, those who have had a health care visit in the past year, as well as those who have received pregnancy planning counseling, were also more likely to use a folic acid supplement. Implications for strategic communication are considered.

  17. Dietary supplement use and nosebleeds in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia - an observational study.

    PubMed

    Chamali, Basel; Finnamore, Helen; Manning, Richard; Laffan, Michael A; Hickson, Mary; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L

    2016-05-01

    Understanding potential provocations of haemorrhage is important in a range of clinical settings, and particularly for people with abnormal vasculature. Patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) can report haemorrhage from nasal telangiectasia in real time, and suggested dietary factors may precipitate nosebleeds. To examine further, nosebleed severity, dietary supplement use, and blood indices were evaluated in an unselected group of 50 HHT patients recruited from a specialist UK service. Using the validated Epistaxis Severity Score, nosebleed severity ranged from 0 to 9.1 out of 10 (median 3.9). Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire, 24/50 (48%) participants reported use of dietary supplements in the previous year. A third (18/50; 36%) had used self prescribed, non-iron containing dietary supplements, ingesting between 1 and 3 different supplements each day. Eight (16%) used fish oils. Despite having more severe epistaxis (p = 0.012), the 12 iron supplement users had higher serum iron concentrations, and were able to maintain their red blood cell indices. In contrast, there was no evident benefit for the participants using non iron supplements. Furthermore, platelet counts and serum fibrinogen tended to be lower in fish oil/supplement users, and one fish oil user demonstrated reduced in vitro platelet aggregation. In conclusion, in this small study, a third of HHT patients used non-iron dietary supplements, and one in six ingested fish oils, unaware of their known anti-platelet activity. The scale of use, and potential of these "natural health supplements" to exacerbate nosebleeds has not been appreciated previously in HHT. PMID:27195194

  18. Increasing Use of Vitamin D Supplementation in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Laura H.; White, Matthew T.; Shults, Justine; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Feldman, Harold I.; Wolf, Myles; Reese, Peter P.; Denburg, Michelle R.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Lo, Joan C.; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlow, Dean; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Steigerwalt, Susan; Leonard, Mary B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined rates and determinants of vitamin D supplementation among Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) participants and determined the association between dose and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level. The 2010 Institute of Medicine Report noted a significant increase in vitamin D supplementation in the general population, but use in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Methods CRIC is a multicenter prospective observational cohort study of 3,939 participants with a median baseline age of 60 and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 42.1 mL/minute per 1.73 m2. Of the cohort, 54.9% was male, 42.1% were Black, and 48.4% were diabetic. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equations were used to examine determinants of supplementation use assessed annually between 2003 and 2011. Cross-sectional linear regression models, based on a subset of 1,155 participants, assessed associations between supplement dose and 25(OH)D level, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Results The proportion of participants reporting supplement use increased (P < .0001), from 10% at baseline to 44% at 7-year follow-up visits. This was largely due to initiation of products containing only ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol. The odds of supplementation were greater in older, female, non-Black, married participants with greater education and lower body mass index. Among participants taking supplementation, dose was positively associated with 25(OH)D level, adjusted for race, season, diabetes, dietary intake, eGFR, and proteinuria. Only 3.8% of non-Black and 16.5% of Black participants taking a supplement were deficient (<20 ng/mL), whereas 22.7% of non-Black and 62.4% of Black participants not reporting supplement use were deficient. Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation rates rose significantly among CRIC participants over 7 years of follow-up and were associated with greater serum 25(OH

  19. Candidate gene study of macular response to supplemental lutein and zeaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Hysi, Pirro G; Venturini, Cristina; Williams, Katie M; Nag, Abhishek; Beatty, Stephen; Liew, S H Melissa; Gilbert, Clare E; Hammond, Christopher J

    2013-10-01

    Supplementation with carotenoids is proposed to protect against age-related macular degeneration. There is, however, considerable variability in retinal macular pigment response, which may be due to underlying genetic variation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetic factors, which have been previously associated with cross-sectional macular pigment levels in the retina or serum lutein, also influence response to supplementation. To this end we conducted an association study in 310 subjects from the TwinsUK cohort between variants in 8 candidate genes and serum lutein and retinal macular pigment optical density (MPOD) levels before and after supplementation. Four variants were associated with MPOD response to supplementation (p < 0.05): rs11057841 (SCARB1), rs4926339 (RPE65), rs1929841 (ABCA1) and rs174534 (FADS1). We also confirmed previous associations between rs6564851 near BMCO1 (p < 0.001) and rs11057841 within SCARB1 (p = 0.01) and baseline measures of serum lutein; while the latter was also associated with MPOD response, none of the BMCO1 variants were. Finally, there was evidence for association between variants near RPE65 and ELOVL2 and changes in lutein concentration after supplementation. This study is the first to show association between genetic variants and response to carotenoids supplementation. Our findings suggest an important link between MP response and the biological processes of carotenoids transport and fatty acid metabolism.

  20. Health Supplement Consumption Behavior in the Older Adult Population: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young–old (age 50–69) and old–old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93 ± 10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young–old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old–old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young–old and old–old. Young–old group and old–old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young–old and old–old groups. PMID:24575397

  1. Teratological studies in defatted jojoba meal-supplemented rats.

    PubMed

    Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Lievens, S; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S; Decuypere, E

    2001-03-01

    To look for possible developmental effects in the offspring of jojoba meal-treated Wistar rats, and to distinguish between the effects of reduced food intake and the specific developmental effects of jojoba meal itself, mated female rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. They received during gestation: (a) normal rodent food (control group); (b) normal rodent food supplemented with 3% defatted jojoba meal (jojoba group); or (c) normal rodent food pair-fed with the jojoba group (pair-fed group). The jojoba meal group showed approximately 30% inhibition of food intake. Ten rats from each group were killed on gestation day 21. Compared to the control group, foetal body weight was reduced in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups, with a greater reduction in the jojoba group. Skeletal ossification was retarded to the same extent in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups. The other 10 rats from each group were left to produce litters. Compared with controls, the body weight of the pups was lower in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups; the reduction was slightly greater in the jojoba group, but this difference disappeared after 1 week. The offspring showed no other abnormalities and reproduced normally. We conclude that, at the dose used, the retardation in foetal skeletal ossification, induced by jojoba meal supplementation during gestation, is due to food intake inhibition. Moreover, the lower birth weight of the young of jojoba-treated dams compared with the pair-fed group is merely due to a lower body weight gain during gestation.

  2. Fertility in Angus cross beef cows following 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Whittier, William D; Currin, John F; Schramm, Holly; Holland, Sarah; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K

    2013-12-01

    The present study determined whether a 5-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol with two doses of PGF2α would improve timed artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rate compared with 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in beef cows. Angus cross beef cows (N = 1817) at 12 locations were randomly assigned to 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR groups. All cows received 100 μg of GnRH and a CIDR insert on Day 0. Cows (n = 911) in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received two doses of 25 mg PGF, the first dose given on Day 5 at CIDR removal and the second dose 6 hours later, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 8 and were inseminated concurrently, 72 hours after CIDR removal. Cows (n = 906) in 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 7, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 10 and were inseminated concurrently, 66 to 72 hours after CIDR removal. All cows were fitted with a heat detector aid at CIDR removal and were observed twice daily until insemination for estrus and heat detector aid status. Accounting for estrus expression at or before AI (P < 0.0001) and body condition score (P < 0.01), cows in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group had greater AI pregnancy rate compared with cows in the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group (58.1% vs. 55.1%; P = 0.04). More cows that exhibited estrus at or before AI became pregnant compared with cows that did not [65.7% (681/1037) vs. 44.5% (347/780); P < 0.0001]. The AI pregnancy rate was lesser for cows with body condition ≤4 [≤4 - 49.3% (101/219), 5-6 - 57.9%; >6 - 55.8%]. The mean AI pregnancy rate difference between treatment groups and projected economic outcome varied among locations. In conclusion, cows synchronized with the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had greater AI pregnancy rate than those that received the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol.

  3. The effect of thiamine supplementation on tumour proliferation. A metabolic control analysis study.

    PubMed

    Comín-Anduix, B; Boren, J; Martinez, S; Moro, C; Centelles, J J; Trebukhina, R; Petushok, N; Lee, W N; Boros, L G; Cascante, M

    2001-08-01

    Thiamine deficiency frequently occurs in patients with advanced cancer and therefore thiamine supplementation is used as nutritional support. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is metabolized to thiamine pyrophosphate, the cofactor of transketolase, which is involved in ribose synthesis, necessary for cell replication. Thus, it is important to determine whether the benefits of thiamine supplementation outweigh the risks of tumor proliferation. Using oxythiamine (an irreversible inhibitor of transketolase) and metabolic control analysis (MCA) methods, we measured an in vivo tumour growth control coefficient of 0.9 for the thiamine-transketolase complex in mice with Ehrlich's ascites tumour. Thus, transketolase enzyme and thiamine clearly determine cell proliferation in the Ehrlich's ascites tumour model. This high control coefficient allows us to predict that in advanced tumours, which are commonly thiamine deficient, supplementation of thiamine could significantly increase tumour growth through transketolase activation. The effect of thiamine supplementation on tumour proliferation was demonstrated by in vivo experiments in mice with the ascites tumour. Thiamine supplementation in doses between 12.5 and 250 times the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for mice were administered starting on day four of tumour inoculation. We observed a high stimulatory effect on tumour growth of 164% compared to controls at a thiamine dose of 25 times the RDA. This growth stimulatory effect was predicted on the basis of correction of the pre-existing level of thiamine deficiency (42%), as assayed by the cofactor/enzyme ratio. Interestingly, at very high overdoses of thiamine, approximately 2500 times the RDA, thiamine supplementation had the opposite effect and caused 10% inhibition of tumour growth. This effect was heightened, resulting in a 36% decrease, when thiamine supplementation was administered from the 7th day prior to tumour inoculation. Our results show that thiamine supplementation

  4. Maternal folic acid supplement use in early pregnancy and child behavioural problems: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Roza, Sabine J; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Folate deficiency during embryogenesis is an established risk factor for neural tube defects in the fetus. An adequate folate nutritional status is also important for normal fetal growth and brain development. The aim of the present research was to study the association between folic acid use of the mother during pregnancy and child behavioural development. Within a population-based cohort, we prospectively assessed folic acid supplement use during the first trimester by questionnaire. Child behavioural and emotional problems were assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist at the age of 18 months in 4214 toddlers. Results showed that children of mothers who did not use folic acid supplements in the first trimester had a higher risk of total problems (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.86). Folic acid supplement use protected both from internalising (OR of no supplement use 1.65; 95 % CI 1.24, 2.19) and externalising problems (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.80), even when adjusted for maternal characteristics. Birth weight and size of the fetal head did not mediate the association between folic acid use and child behaviour. In conclusion, inadequate use of folic acid supplements during early pregnancy may be associated with a higher risk of behavioural problems in the offspring. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, aimed to prevent neural tube defects, may also reduce mental health problems in children. PMID:19772683

  5. Maternal folic acid supplement use in early pregnancy and child behavioural problems: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Roza, Sabine J; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Folate deficiency during embryogenesis is an established risk factor for neural tube defects in the fetus. An adequate folate nutritional status is also important for normal fetal growth and brain development. The aim of the present research was to study the association between folic acid use of the mother during pregnancy and child behavioural development. Within a population-based cohort, we prospectively assessed folic acid supplement use during the first trimester by questionnaire. Child behavioural and emotional problems were assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist at the age of 18 months in 4214 toddlers. Results showed that children of mothers who did not use folic acid supplements in the first trimester had a higher risk of total problems (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.86). Folic acid supplement use protected both from internalising (OR of no supplement use 1.65; 95 % CI 1.24, 2.19) and externalising problems (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.80), even when adjusted for maternal characteristics. Birth weight and size of the fetal head did not mediate the association between folic acid use and child behaviour. In conclusion, inadequate use of folic acid supplements during early pregnancy may be associated with a higher risk of behavioural problems in the offspring. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, aimed to prevent neural tube defects, may also reduce mental health problems in children.

  6. Absence of diuresis during a 7-day saturation dive at 2.5 ATA N2-O2.

    PubMed

    Niu, A K; Hong, S K; Claybaugh, J R; Goldinger, J M; Kwon, O; Li, M; Randall, E; Lundgren, C E

    1990-05-01

    Three male divers were studied for 2 days during each of the predive and postdive 1 ATA air control periods and for 7 days at 2.5 ATA (2.3 ATA N2 and 0.2 ATA O2). The chamber temperature was always maintained at a comfort level. Average urine flow remained at 1500 ml.day-1 during both predive and 2.5 ATA periods; urine osmolality also remained constant at around 700 mOSM/kg. On the other hand, daily excretion of Na increased significantly from 139 mEq during the predive period to 178 mEq at 2.5 ATA (P less than 0.05) but returned to the predive level during the postdive period. In contrast, daily K excretion decreased progressively with a significant decrease during the postdive period (P less than 0.05). Plasma osmolality, Na, and K remained unchanged, whereas a 6% reduction of total protein concentration at 2.5 ATA (P less than 0.05) was observed. A quantitatively similar decrease (8%) was observed for hematocrit during the 2.5 ATA period, which did not recover at postdive. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in urinary excretion of antidiuretic hormone (P less than 0.05) and by decreases in both plasma renin and aldosterone (P less than 0.05) level and urinary excretion of aldosterone (P less than 0.05). Plasma atrial natriuretic factor remained unchanged throughout the entire dive period.

  7. Dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy: a study on the effects of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis and renal excretory function in spiny mice.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Stacey J; LaRosa, Domenic A; Kett, Michelle M; Della Gatta, Paul A; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-08-01

    Recent evidence obtained from a rodent model of birth asphyxia shows that supplementation of the maternal diet with creatine during pregnancy protects the neonate from multi-organ damage. However, the effect of increasing creatine intake on creatine homeostasis and biosynthesis in females, particularly during pregnancy, is unknown. This study assessed the impact of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis, body composition, capacity for de novo creatine synthesis and renal excretory function in non-pregnant and pregnant spiny mice. Mid-gestation pregnant and virgin spiny mice were fed normal chow or chow supplemented with 5 % w/w creatine for 18 days. Weight gain, urinary creatine and electrolyte excretion were assessed during supplementation. At post mortem, body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or tissues were collected to assess creatine content and mRNA expression of the creatine synthesising enzymes arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) and the creatine transporter (CrT1). Protein expression of AGAT and GAMT was also assessed by Western blot. Key findings of this study include no changes in body weight or composition with creatine supplementation; increased urinary creatine excretion in supplemented spiny mice, with increased sodium (P < 0.001) and chloride (P < 0.05) excretion in pregnant dams after 3 days of supplementation; lowered renal AGAT mRNA (P < 0.001) and protein (P < 0.001) expressions, and lowered CrT1 mRNA expression in the kidney (P < 0.01) and brain (P < 0.001). Creatine supplementation had minimal impact on creatine homeostasis in either non-pregnant or pregnant spiny mice. Increasing maternal dietary creatine consumption could be a useful treatment for birth asphyxia.

  8. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on endothelial function: a fully controlled dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Lieke; Dower, James I; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Kusters, Yvo H A M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Hollman, Peter C H; Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2015-11-14

    High Na and low K intakes have adverse effects on blood pressure, which increases the risk for CVD. The role of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in this pathophysiological process is not yet clear. In a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study in untreated (pre)hypertensives, we examined the effects of Na and K supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation. During the study period, subjects were provided with a diet that contained 2·4 g/d of Na and 2·3 g/d of K for a 10 460 kJ (2500 kcal) intake. After 1-week run-in, subjects received capsules with supplemental Na (3·0 g/d), supplemental K (2·8 g/d) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. After each intervention, circulating biomarkers of endothelial function and inflammation were measured. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and skin microvascular vasomotion were assessed in sub-groups of twenty-two to twenty-four subjects. Of thirty-seven randomised subjects, thirty-six completed the study. Following Na supplementation, serum endothelin-1 was increased by 0·24 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·45), but no change was seen in other endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers. FMD and microvascular vasomotion were unaffected by Na supplementation. K supplementation reduced IL-8 levels by 0·28 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·53), without affecting other circulating biomarkers. FMD was 1·16 % (95% CI 0·37, 1·96) higher after K supplementation than after placebo. Microvascular vasomotion was unaffected. In conclusion, a 4-week increase in Na intake increased endothelin-1, but had no effect on other endothelial or inflammatory markers. Increased K intake had a beneficial effect on FMD and possibly IL-8, without affecting other circulating endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers.

  9. DHA supplementation for late onset Stargardt disease: NAT-3 study

    PubMed Central

    Querques, Giuseppe; Benlian, Pascale; Chanu, Bernard; Leveziel, Nicolas; Coscas, Gabriel; Soubrane, Gisele; Souied, Eric H

    2010-01-01

    Background: We analyzed the effects of a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation in patients affected with late onset Stargardt disease (STGD). Methods: DHA (840 mg/day) was given to 20 STGD patients for six months. A complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), was performed at inclusion day 0 (D0) and at month 6 (M6). Results: Overall, no statistical differences have been observed at M6 vs D0 as regards BCVA and mfERG (P > 0.05). Mild Improvement of BCVA and improvement of mfERG was noted in seven/40 eyes of four/20 patients. In the first patient, the peak of the a wave increased from 66 nV/deg2 to 75.4 nV/deg2 in the right eye (RE) and 24.5 nV/deg2 to 49.1 nV/deg2 in the left eye (LE). The peak of the b wave improved from 122 nV/deg2 to 157 nV/deg2 in the RE, and 102 nV/deg2 to 149 nV/deg2 in the LE. In the second patient peaks of the a and b waves respectively increased from 11.8 nV/deg2 to 72.1 nV/deg2 and 53 nV/deg2 to 185 nV/deg2 in the RE. In the third patient the peak of the a wave increased from 37 nV/deg2 to 43 nV/deg2 in the RE, and from 31 nV/deg2 to 45 nV/deg2 in the LE; the peak of the b wave improved from 70 nV/deg2 to 89 nV/deg2 in the RE, and from 101 nV/deg2 to 108 nV/deg2 in the LE. In the fourth patient, the peak of the a wave increased from 39 nV/deg2 to 42 nV/deg2 in the RE, and from 40 nV/deg2 to 43 nV/deg2 in the LE; the peak of the b wave improved from 86 nV/deg2 to 94 nV/deg2 in the RE, and from 87 nV/deg2 to 107 nV/deg2 in the LE. Conclusion: DHA seems to influence some functional parameters in patients affected with STGD. However, no short-term benefit should be expected from DHA supplementation. PMID:20668719

  10. Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Recurrent Hyperthyroidism Caused by Graves' Disease: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Wang, B; Chen, S R; Hou, X; Wang, X F; Zhao, S H; Song, J Q; Wang, Y G

    2016-09-01

    The effect of selenium supplementation on recurrent hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease is unclear. Our study aimed to assess the efficacy of selenium supplementation therapy on recurrent Graves' disease. Forty-one patients with recurrent Graves' disease were enrolled in this study. All patients received the routine treatment using methimazole (MMI), while patients allocated to the selenium group received additional selenium therapy for 6 months. The influence of selenium supplementation on the concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were assessed. The remission rate was also compared between 2 groups. There was no obvious difference in the demographic data and the levels of serum FT4, FT3, TSH, and TRAb between the 2 groups at baseline. Both FT4 and FT3 decreased more at 2 months in the selenium group than the controls, while the TSH level increased more in patients receiving selenium supplementation (p<0.05). The TRAb level was significantly lower in patients receiving selenium supplementation (2.4 IU/l vs. 5.6 IU/l, p=0.04). The percentages of patients with normal TRAb level at 6 months was also significantly higher in the selenium group (19.0 vs. 0%, p=0.016). Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed patients receiving selenium supplementation had a significantly higher rate of remission than controls (Log-rank test p=0.008). In conclusion, selenium supplementation can enhance the effect of antithyroid drugs in patients with recurrent Graves' disease. Randomized trials with large number of participants are needed to validate the finding above. PMID:27392116

  11. Pilot study on the bioactivity of vitamin d in the skin after oral supplementation.

    PubMed

    Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Tang, Jean Y; Einspahr, Janine G; Bermudez, Yira; Hsu, Chiu Hsieh; Rezaee, Melika; Lee, Alex H; Tangrea, Joseph; Parnes, Howard L; Alberts, David S; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that vitamin D (VD) supplementation inhibits skin carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies report mixed findings in the association between circulating VD levels and skin cancer risk. We conducted a clinical study to determine whether oral cholecalciferol supplementation would exert direct bioactivity in human skin through modulation of the VD receptor (VDR). We enrolled 25 individuals with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels <30 ng/mL and with skin photodamage to take 50,000 IU of cholecalciferol biweekly for 8 to 9 weeks. Then, we obtained baseline and end-of-study skin biopsies from photodamaged (PD) and photoprotected (PP) skin, and from benign nevi (BN) and tested for mRNA expression of VDR and cytochrome P450-24 (CYP24), and markers of keratinocytic differentiation. High-dose cholecalciferol supplementation significantly elevated circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (P < 0.0001) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D (P < 0.0001). VDR expression in PD- and PP-skin showed minimum changes after supplementation. CYP24 expression in PD- and PP-skin was increased after supplementation by 186%, P = 0.08, and 134%, P = 0.07, respectively. In BNs from 11 participants, a trend for higher VDR and CYP24 expression was observed (average of 20%, P = 0.08, and 544%, P = 0.09, respectively). Caspase-14 expression at the basal layer in PD skin samples was the only epidermal differentiation marker that was significantly increased (49%, P < 0.0001). High-dose cholecalciferol supplementation raised serum VD metabolite levels concurrently with CYP24 mRNA and caspase-14 levels in the skin. Our findings of significant variability in the range of VDR and CYP24 expression across study samples represent an important consideration in studies evaluating the role of VD as a skin cancer chemopreventive agent.

  12. Iodine supplementation during pregnancy and infant neuropsychological development. INMA Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rebagliato, Marisa; Murcia, Mario; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Espada, Mercedes; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva-María; Forns, Joan; Aranbarri, Aritz; Llop, Sabrina; Julvez, Jordi; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-05-01

    Iodine supplementation during pregnancy is a common practice in developed countries. However, scant evidence is available regarding the safety and effectiveness of maternal iodine supplementation with regard to child neuropsychological development. We previously reported an inverse association between iodine supplementation and the psychomotor development of infants in a birth cohort from Valencia, Spain. In the present study, we assessed this association in a wider sample of mother and child pairs from 3 other regions in Spain. Neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development in 1,519 infants (median age, 16 months) between 2006 and 2009. In multivariate analyses, maternal consumption of 150 μg/day or more of iodine from supplements was related to a 1.5-fold increase in the odds of a psychomotor score less than 85 (95% confidence interval: 0.8, 2.9) and to a 1.7-fold increase in the odds of a mental score less than 85 (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 3.0). Findings previously reported in the Valencia cohort were only partially verified. The results of the present study suggest that, at least in these regions, iodine supplementation does not improve infant neuropsychological development at 1 year of age. Further research is needed on the risks and benefits of supplementary iodine for both maternal thyroid function and child neurodevelopment. PMID:23548753

  13. Prediction of glycated hemoglobin levels at 3 months after metabolic surgery based on the 7-day plasma metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Nam; Lee, Yeon Ji; Kang, Ju-Hee; Choi, Ji-Ho; An, Yong Jin; Kang, Sunmi; Lee, Dae Hyun; Suh, Young Ju; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Sunghyouk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients), and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary.

  14. Prediction of Glycated Hemoglobin Levels at 3 Months after Metabolic Surgery Based on the 7-Day Plasma Metabolic Profile

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji-ho; An, Yong Jin; Kang, Sunmi; Lee, Dae Hyun; Suh, Young Ju; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Sunghyouk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients), and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary. PMID:25384027

  15. A WHO collaborative study on iron supplementation in Burma and in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Charoenlarp, P; Dhanamitta, S; Kaewvichit, R; Silprasert, A; Suwanaradd, C; Na-Nakorn, S; Prawatmuang, P; Vatanavicharn, S; Nutcharas, U; Pootrakul, P

    1988-02-01

    Studies on the treatment and prevention of iron deficiency anemia, in pregnant and nonpregnant women and in men, were conducted in Thailand and Burma. The effects of the dose of Fe, duration of Fe administration, additional supplementation with folate, mode of supplement delivery (either supervised or unsupervised), and the presence of Hb(AE) were studied. The frequency and severity of side effects were also recorded. Fe administration resulted in an increase in hemoglobin concentration in all anemic individuals but approximately 20% failed to reach normality. The length of administration and the dose influenced the results. Frequency and severity of side effects increased with the dose of Fe administered. Folate supplementation did not affect the results. It appears possible to integrate a program of prevention and treatment of Fe deficiency anemia in a primary health-care system but the constraints and limitations of achievable results should be recognized.

  16. Association of Genetic Variants in the Apelin-APJ System and ACE2 with Blood Pressure Responses to Potassium Supplementation: the GenSalt Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; Gu, Dongfeng; Kelly, Tanika N.; Hixson, James E.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Chen, Jing; Huang, Jianfeng; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Gu, C. Charles; Whelton, Paul K.; He, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genetic factors may influence blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary potassium intake. We examined the association of genetic variants in the apelin-APJ system and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with BP responses to potassium supplementation. METHODS We conducted a 7-day potassium supplementation (60 mmol/day) intervention among 1,906 Chinese adults who participated in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt-Sensitivity (GenSalt) study. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on HapMap data and potential functional SNPs were selected in the APLN, APLNR, and ACE2 genes. Because the ACE2 and APLN genes are located on the X chromosome, men and women were analyzed separately. RESULTS In women, SNP rs2235306 in the APLN gene was significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP) response to potassium supplementation (P=0.0009). The DBP responses [95% confidence interval (CI)] among those with genotypes T/T, T/C, and C/C were −2.22 (−2.74, −1.70), −1.69 (−2.20, −1.19), and −0.81 (−1.54, −0.09) mmHg, respectively. In men, SNP rs4646174 of the ACE2 gene was significantly associated with systolic BP (SBP), DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to potassium supplementation (P=0.0001, P=0.001, and P=3.0×10−6, respectively). The SBP, DBP and MAP responses (95% CI) were −0.79 (−2.27, 0.69) versus −3.53 (−3.94, −3.12), 1.07 (−0.34, 2.49) versus −1.06 (−1.43, −0.69), and 0.44 (−0.60, 1.48) versus −1.89 (−2.22, −1.55) mmHg among men with minor G allele compared to those with major C allele of rs4646174, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicates that genetic variation of APLN and ACE2 may influence BP response to potassium intake. PMID:20224560

  17. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Part A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, contains the documents considered to be important in providing the background for the study. The materials are organized into four major areas: initial correspondence, instrumentation, special reports, and psychomotor skills. See also HE 003 275 and HE 003 276.…

  18. SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE, STUDY PLAN AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; LUMSDAINE, ARTHUR A.

    THE INITIAL PHASES OF A STUDY OF SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE WERE DESCRIBED. THE APPROACH, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, PROCEDURE, AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY PLAN WERE INCLUDED. THE MATERIALS WERE PREPARED TO SUPPLEMENT THE SECOND SEMESTER OF HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERED STATIC AND CURRENT ELECTRICITY,…

  19. Continuous accelerated 7-days-a-week radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Long-term results of Phase III clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof . E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Golen, Maria; Tarnawski, Rafal; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Suwinski, Rafal; Sygula, Mariusz; Wygoda, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To update 5-year results of a previously published study on special 7-days-a-week fractionation continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in Stage T{sub 2-4}N{sub 0-1}M were randomized between two definitive radiation treatments: accelerated fractionation 7 days a week including weekends (CAIR) and conventional 5 days a week (control). Hence the overall treatment time was 2 weeks shorter in CAIR. Results: Five-year local tumor control was 75% in the CAIR group and 33% in the control arm (p < 0.00004). Tumor-cure benefit corresponded with significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with the incidence significantly higher in CAIR patients than in control (respectively, 94% vs. 53%). When 2.0-Gy fractions were used, radiation necrosis developed in 5 patients (22%) in the CAIR group as a consequential late effect (CLE), but when fraction size was reduced to 1.8 Gy no more CLE occurred. Actuarial 5-year morbidity-free survival rate was similar for both treatments. Conclusions: Selected head-and-neck cancer patients could be treated very effectively with 7-days-a-week radiation schedule with no compromise of total dose and with slight 10% reduction of fraction dose (2 Gy-1.8 Gy), which article gives 1 week reduction of overall treatment time compared with standard 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 47-49 days. Although this report is based on the relatively small group of patients, its results have encouraged us to use CAIR fractionation in a standard radiation treatment for moderately advanced head-and-neck cancer patients.

  20. Preconceptional Folate Supplementation and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D.; Porter, Flint T.; Nyberg, David A.; Comstock, Christine H.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J.; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D.; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E.; Carr, Stephen R.; Wolfe, Honor M.; D'Alton, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Methods and Findings In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08–0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24–0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28–0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm

  1. Analysis of non-hormonal nutritional supplements for anabolic-androgenic steroids - results of an international study.

    PubMed

    Geyer, H; Parr, M K; Mareck, U; Reinhart, U; Schrader, Y; Schänzer, W

    2004-02-01

    Several recent studies have shown evidence of some nutritional supplements containing prohibited anabolic androgenic steroids, so-called prohormones, which were not declared on the label. Therefore, a broad-based investigation of the international nutritional supplement market was initiated to clarify the extent of this problem. From October 2000 until November 2001, 634 non-hormonal nutritional supplements were purchased in 13 countries from 215 different suppliers. Most supplements were bought in shops in the respective countries (578 samples = 91.2 %) and on the internet (52 samples = 8.2 %). 289 supplements were from prohormone-selling companies and 345 supplements came from companies which do not offer prohormones. After isolation from the supplement matrix 11 different anabolic androgenic steroids, mainly prohormones of testosterone and nandrolone, were analysed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Out of the 634 samples analysed 94 (14.8 %) contained anabolic androgenic steroids not declared on the label ("positive supplements"). We could not obtain reliable data for 66 samples (10.4 %) due to matrix effects. In relation to the total number of products purchased per country, most of the positive supplements were bought in the Netherlands (25.8 %), in Austria (22.7 %), in the UK (18.8 %) and the USA (18.8 %). According to the label, all positive supplements were from companies located in only five countries: the USA, the Netherlands, the UK, Italy and Germany. 21.1 % of the nutritional supplements from prohormone-selling companies contained anabolic androgenic steroids, whereas 9.6 % of the supplements from companies not selling prohormones were positive. The positive supplements showed anabolic androgenic steroid concentrations of 0.01 micro g/g up to 190 micro g/g. The administration of supplements containing nandrolone prohormones adding up to a total uptake of more than 1 micro g resulted in positive doping results for norandrosterone for several

  2. Elevated brain lesion volumes in older adults who use calcium supplements: a cross-sectional clinical observational study.

    PubMed

    Payne, Martha E; McQuoid, Douglas R; Steffens, David C; Anderson, John J B

    2014-07-28

    Recent studies have implicated Ca supplements in vascular risk elevation, and therefore these supplements may also be associated with the occurrence of brain lesions (or hyperintensities) in older adults. These lesions represent damage to brain tissue that is caused by ischaemia. In the present cross-sectional clinical observational study, the association between Ca-containing dietary supplement use and lesion volumes was investigated in a sample of 227 older adults (60 years and above). Food and supplemental Ca intakes were assessed with the Block 1998 FFQ; participants with supplemental Ca intake above zero were categorised as supplement users. Lesion volumes were determined from cranial MRI (1.5 tesla) scans using a semi-automated technique; volumes were log-transformed because they were non-normal. ANCOVA models revealed that supplement users had greater lesion volumes than non-users, even after controlling for food Ca intake, age, sex, race, years of education, energy intake, depression and hypertension (Ca supplement use: β = 0.34, SE 0.10, F(1,217)= 10.98, P= 0.0011). The influence of supplemental Ca use on lesion volume was of a magnitude similar to that of the influence of hypertension, a well-established risk factor for lesions. Among the supplement users, the amount of supplemental Ca was not associated with lesion volume (β = - 0.000035, SE 0.00 015, F(1,139)= 0.06, P= 0.81). The present study demonstrates that the use of Ca-containing dietary supplements, even low-dose supplements, by older adults may be associated with greater lesion volumes. Evaluation of randomised controlled trials is warranted to determine whether this relationship is a causal one.

  3. Histomorphological studies of broiler chicken fed diets supplemented with either raw or enzyme treated dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Saim; Banday, Mohammed Tufail; Shakeel, Irfan; Adil, Sheikh; Mir, Masood Saleem; Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Amin, Umar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Herbal plants and their derived products are extensively used particularly in many Asian, African, and other countries of the world as they are considered as ideal feed additives because of their non-residual effect and ability to influence the ecosystem of gastrointestinal microbiota in a positive way. Further, the enzymatic treatment of these herbs helps in their efficient utilization by the host. Dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds have been reported to have positive effect in terms of improving the performance of broiler chicken, but not much literature is available regarding their effect on gut histomorphology; therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effect of these herbs either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment on histomorphology of liver and small intestine of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: To achieve the envisaged objective, 273-day-old commercial broiler chicks were procured from a reputed source and reared together until 7 days of age. On the 7th day, the chicks were individually weighed, distributed randomly into 7 groups of 3 replicates with 13 chicks each. Birds in the control group were fed diets without additives (T1). The other six treatment groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% dandelion leaves (T2), 1% fenugreek seeds (T3), combination of 0.5% dandelion leaves and 1% fenugreek seeds (T4), enzyme treated dandelion leaves 0.5% (T5), enzyme treated fenugreek seeds 1% (T6), and combination of enzyme treated dandelion leaves (0.5%) and (1%) fenugreek seeds (T7). The histomorphological study of liver and small intestines was conducted among different treatment groups. Results: The results revealed the hepato-protective nature of both dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment when compared with the control group. Moreover, the histomorphological findings of jejunum revealed the beneficial effect of dandelion leaves, fenugreek

  4. Metabolism of Arginine by Aging and 7 Day Old Pumpkin Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Splittstoesser, Walter E.

    1969-01-01

    The metabolism of arginine by etiolated pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was studied over various time and age intervals by injecting arginine-U-14C into the cotyledons. At most, 25% of the 14C was transported from the cotyledon to the axis tissue and the amount of this transport decreased with increasing age of the seedlings. The cotyledons of 25 day old plants contained 60% of the administered 14C as unmetabolized arginine. Little 14C was in sugars and it appeared that arginine was the primary translocation product. Time course studies showed that arginine was extensively metabolized and the labeling patterns suggest that different pathways were in operation in the axis and cotyledons. The amount of arginine incorporated into cotyledonary protein show that synthesis and turnover were occurring at rapid rate. Only 25% of the label incorporated into protein by 1.5 hr remained after 96 hr. The label in protein was stable in the axis tissue. By 96 hr 50% of the administered label occurred as 14CO2 and it appeared that arginine was metabolized, through glutamate, by the citrio acid cycle in the cotyledons. The experiments showed that an extensive conversion of arginine carbon into other amino acids did not occur. PMID:16657070

  5. On the Effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction: A Systematic Review of Supplemental Instruction and Peer-Assisted Study Sessions Literature between 2001 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Phillip; van der Meer, Jacques; Skalicky, Jane; Cowley, Kym

    2014-01-01

    Supplemental instruction (SI)--variously known as peer-assisted learning, peer-assisted study sessions, and other names--is a type of academic support intervention popular in higher education. In SI sessions, a senior student facilitates peer learning between undergraduates studying a high-risk course. This article presents a systematic review of…

  6. Supplemental Reading Strategy Instruction for Adolescents: A Randomized Trial and Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Almasi, Janice F.; Rintamaa, Margaret; Carter, Janis C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the impact of a yearlong supplemental reading course involving daily instruction in the learning strategies curriculum on lower achieving adolescent students' reading achievement and motivation. Using a multiple-cohort randomized treatment-control group design over 4 years, they compared achievement and…

  7. Study of Vitamins and Dietary Supplements Containing Ferrous Fumarate and Ferrous Sulfate Using Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Novikov, E. G.; Semionkin, V. A.; Dubiel, S. M.

    2010-07-13

    A study of several samples of vitamins and dietary supplements containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate was carried out using Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. A presence of ferrous and ferric impurities was revealed. Small variations of Moessbauer hyperfine parameters were found for both ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates in the investigated medicines.

  8. Supplemental Educational Services: A Descriptive Study of Parent Notification and Enrollment into Free Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyers, Darryl Lavell

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and describe the implementation practices being used by school districts to notify and enroll parents into Supplemental Educational Services under No Child Left Behind. Parents participating in choice programs in the school districts of Savannah, Atlanta and Detroit participated in a survey…

  9. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Psychomotor Skills, Part B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, presents a discussion of the rationale behind the implementation of a laboratory course in psychomotor skills development for medical students. Medical educators examined resident training in terms of 3 components of cognitive elements of learning: cognitive,…

  10. A Supplement to Understanding Evaluation: The Way to Better Prevention Programs. A College Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bryn

    This case study was developed as a supplement to the U. S. Department of Education publication Understanding Evaluation: The Way to Better Prevention Programs. Its purpose is to help readers get a feel for what is involved in setting up an evaluation of a college alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention program. Although Understanding Evaluation…

  11. Increased Calcium Supplementation Postpartum Is Associated with Breastfeeding among Chinese Mothers: Finding from Two Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2016-01-01

    The calcium supplementation status during the postpartum period among Chinese lactating women is still unclear. The objective of this study is to utilize data from two population-based prospective cohort studies to examine the calcium supplementation status and to identify whether breastfeeding is associated with increased calcium supplementation among Chinese mothers after child birth. Information from 1540 mothers on breastfeeding and calcium supplementation measured at discharge, 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum were extracted to evaluate the association between breastfeeding and calcium supplementation postpartum. A generalized linear mixed model was applied to each study initially to account for the inherent correlation among repeated measurements, adjusting for socio-demographic, obstetric factors and calcium supplementation during pregnancy. In addition, breastfeeding status measured at different follow-up time points was treated as a time dependent variable in the longitudinal analysis. Furthermore, the effect sizes of the two cohort studies were pooled using fixed effect model. Based on the two cohort studies, the pooled likelihood of taking calcium supplementation postpartum among breastfeeding mothers was 4.02 times (95% confidence interval (2.30, 7.03)) higher than that of their non-breastfeeding counterparts. Dietary supplementation intervention programs targeting different subgroups should be promoted in Chinese women, given currently a wide shortage of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation postpartum. PMID:27735835

  12. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, R.; Stalker, R. J.; Brescianini, C. P.; Morgan, R. G.; Jacobs, P. A.; Wendt, M.; Ward, N. R.; Akman, N.; Allen, G. A.; Skinner, K.

    1990-01-01

    A series of reports are presented on SCRAMjet studies, shock tunnel studies, and expansion tube studies. The SCRAMjet studies include: (1) Investigation of a Supersonic Combustion Layer; (2) Wall Injected SCRAMjet Experiments; (3) Supersonic Combustion with Transvers, Circular, Wall Jets; (4) Dissociated Test Gas Effects on SCRAMjet Combustors; (5) Use of Silane as a Fuel Additive for Hypersonic Thrust Production, (6) Pressure-length Correlations in Supersonic Combustion; (7) Hot Hydrogen Injection Technique for Shock Tunnels; (8) Heat Release - Wave Interaction Phenomena in Hypersonic Flows; (9) A Study of the Wave Drag in Hypersonic SCRAMjets; (10) Parametric Study of Thrust Production in the Two Dimensional SCRAMjet; (11) The Design of a Mass Spectrometer for use in Hypersonic Impulse Facilities; and (12) Development of a Skin Friction Gauge for use in an Impulse Facility. The shock tunnel studies include: (1) Hypervelocity flow in Axisymmetric Nozzles; (2) Shock Tunnel Development; and (3) Real Gas Efects in Hypervelocity Flows over an Inclined Cone. The expansion tube studies include: (1) Investigation of Flow Characteristics in TQ Expansion Tube; and (2) Disturbances in the Driver Gas of a Shock Tube.

  13. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendt, M.; Nettleton, M.; Morgan, R. G.; Skinner, K.; Casey, R.; Stalker, R.; Brescianini, C.; Paull, A.; Allen, G.; Smart, M.

    1993-01-01

    Reports by the staff of the University of Queensland on various research studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology are presented. These reports document the tests conducted in the reflected shock tunnel T4 and supporting research facilities that have been used to study the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen fuel in generic scramjets at flow conditions typical of hypersonic flight. In addition, topics include the development of instrumentation and measurement technology, such as combustor wall shear and stream composition in pulse facilities, and numerical studies and analyses of the scramjet combustor process and the test facility operation.

  14. Oral zinc supplementation decreases the serum iron concentration in healthy schoolchildren: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-09-04

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia.

  15. Shock Tunnel Studies of Scramjet Phenomena 1995. Supplement 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. G.; Stalker, R. J.; Paull, A.

    1997-01-01

    Reports by the research staff and graduate students of the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Queensland are collected and presented. These reports cover various studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology and the operation of advanced hypervelocity shock-expansion tubes. The report topics include the experimental studies of mixing and combustion in a scramjet flow path, the measurement of integrated thrust and skin friction, and the development of a free-piston-driven expansion tunnel capable delivering a test gas at super orbital velocities.

  16. Television in Social Studies Education. NSCT News Supplement, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for School and Coll. Television, Bloomington, IN.

    The National Center for School and College Television conducted a survey and a conference to assess television materials now being offered in social studies education. Questionnaires (125) were sent to educational television stations, closed-circuit television facilities, public school systems, and state departments of education. These…

  17. Challenges with effective nutrient supplementation for amphibians: A review of cricket studies.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Shannon; Lavin, Shana R; Sullivan, Kathleen; Attard, Lydia; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, numerous studies have investigated the impact of insect supplementation on insect nutrient content. In light of recent nutrition related challenges with regards to zoo amphibians fed an insect based diet, this review attempts to comprehensively compile both anecdotal and published data in the context of practical application on this topic. Insects, primarily crickets, used for amphibian diets historically demonstrate low concentrations of key nutrients including calcium and vitamin A. Commonly used practices for supplementation involving powder dusting or gut loading have been shown to improve delivery of calcium and vitamin A, though often not reaching desired nutrient concentrations. The large variety of factors influencing insect nutrient content are difficult to control, making study design, and results often inconsistent. Formulation and availability of more effective gut loading diets, combined with a standardized protocol for insect husbandry and dietary management may be the most effective way to supplement insects for use in amphibian feeding programs. Ideally, the nutritional improvement of feeder insects would begin at the breeder level; however, until this becomes a viable choice, we confirm that supplementation of crickets through both gut-loading and dusting appear necessary to support the nutritional health of amphibians and other insectivores in managed collections.

  18. The Effects of Nutritional Juice Supplementation on the Extent of Climacteric Symptoms: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Gresser, Ursula; Richartz, Barbara M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to evaluate the effect of daily dietary nutritional supplement on somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. In this study 28 healthy, symptomatic, peri- and postmenopausal women of 47–67 years of age were allocated to use the nutritional supplement JuicePLUS+®. Primary research parameters: Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess menopausal symptoms at baseline and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. Secondary parameters: proliferation behaviour of vaginal smear was scored at baseline and after treatment. Results. Treatment with the supplement resulted in a reduction of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms. The overall MRS score showed an average improvement of 44.01%. Most benefits were observed for the psychological symptoms irritability (60.55%) and physical and mental exhaustion (49.08%); modest effects were observed for hot flashes (44.86%) and sleeping problems (35.56%). There was a minor improvement in sexual problems; 6 women reported an increased libido. No statistically significant effect was found in vaginal dryness and proliferation behaviour of vaginal mucosa. No adverse effects were observed. Conclusion. Dietary nutritional supplement may constitute an effective alternative therapy to conventional alternative medicine for somatic, psychological, and sexual symptoms.

  19. The Effects of Nutritional Juice Supplementation on the Extent of Climacteric Symptoms: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Siebler, Stefanie I; Gresser, Ursula; Richartz, Barbara M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to evaluate the effect of daily dietary nutritional supplement on somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. In this study 28 healthy, symptomatic, peri- and postmenopausal women of 47-67 years of age were allocated to use the nutritional supplement JuicePLUS+®. Primary research parameters: Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess menopausal symptoms at baseline and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. Secondary parameters: proliferation behaviour of vaginal smear was scored at baseline and after treatment. Results. Treatment with the supplement resulted in a reduction of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms. The overall MRS score showed an average improvement of 44.01%. Most benefits were observed for the psychological symptoms irritability (60.55%) and physical and mental exhaustion (49.08%); modest effects were observed for hot flashes (44.86%) and sleeping problems (35.56%). There was a minor improvement in sexual problems; 6 women reported an increased libido. No statistically significant effect was found in vaginal dryness and proliferation behaviour of vaginal mucosa. No adverse effects were observed. Conclusion. Dietary nutritional supplement may constitute an effective alternative therapy to conventional alternative medicine for somatic, psychological, and sexual symptoms. PMID:27668002

  20. The Effects of Nutritional Juice Supplementation on the Extent of Climacteric Symptoms: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Gresser, Ursula; Richartz, Barbara M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to evaluate the effect of daily dietary nutritional supplement on somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. In this study 28 healthy, symptomatic, peri- and postmenopausal women of 47–67 years of age were allocated to use the nutritional supplement JuicePLUS+®. Primary research parameters: Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess menopausal symptoms at baseline and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. Secondary parameters: proliferation behaviour of vaginal smear was scored at baseline and after treatment. Results. Treatment with the supplement resulted in a reduction of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms. The overall MRS score showed an average improvement of 44.01%. Most benefits were observed for the psychological symptoms irritability (60.55%) and physical and mental exhaustion (49.08%); modest effects were observed for hot flashes (44.86%) and sleeping problems (35.56%). There was a minor improvement in sexual problems; 6 women reported an increased libido. No statistically significant effect was found in vaginal dryness and proliferation behaviour of vaginal mucosa. No adverse effects were observed. Conclusion. Dietary nutritional supplement may constitute an effective alternative therapy to conventional alternative medicine for somatic, psychological, and sexual symptoms. PMID:27668002

  1. Pilot study of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Iheanyi; Ibegbulam, Obike; Duru, Augustine; Ocheni, Sunday; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Umar, Garba; Asinobi, Isaac; Madu, Anazoeze; Okoye, Augustine; Nwagha, Tessy; Oguonu, Uche; Uamai, Ify; Agwu, Obineche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anike, Uche; Agu, Kingsley; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Herrada, Sagrario

    2011-07-01

    In a previous retrospective study, it was observed that the greater the amounts of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the blood, the lesser the number of complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) and the higher the steady state haemoglobin level. SCD causes ischaemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation; which can be ameliorated by a metabolite of DHA that down-regulates expression of pro-inflammatory genes. The objectives of this prospective pilot study were to evaluate the effects of DHA and EPA supplements in SCD, and test the hypothesis that these effects are mediated partly by reducing inflammation. Oral DHA and EPA supplements were given to 16 SCD patients for 6 months. We then compared pre- and post-supplementation values of number of crisis, steady state Hb, plasma unconjugated bilirubin and three indices of inflammation: plasma interleukin-6, blood neutrophil and platelet counts. There was a significant reduction in the plasma level of unconjugated bilirubin, and the number of sickle cell crisis; but not in the markers of inflammation. The pilot data suggest that DHA and EPA supplements reduce the number of crisis and steady state haemolysis in SCD; but provide no evidence that these effects are mediated by reducing inflammation.

  2. Challenges with effective nutrient supplementation for amphibians: A review of cricket studies.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Shannon; Lavin, Shana R; Sullivan, Kathleen; Attard, Lydia; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, numerous studies have investigated the impact of insect supplementation on insect nutrient content. In light of recent nutrition related challenges with regards to zoo amphibians fed an insect based diet, this review attempts to comprehensively compile both anecdotal and published data in the context of practical application on this topic. Insects, primarily crickets, used for amphibian diets historically demonstrate low concentrations of key nutrients including calcium and vitamin A. Commonly used practices for supplementation involving powder dusting or gut loading have been shown to improve delivery of calcium and vitamin A, though often not reaching desired nutrient concentrations. The large variety of factors influencing insect nutrient content are difficult to control, making study design, and results often inconsistent. Formulation and availability of more effective gut loading diets, combined with a standardized protocol for insect husbandry and dietary management may be the most effective way to supplement insects for use in amphibian feeding programs. Ideally, the nutritional improvement of feeder insects would begin at the breeder level; however, until this becomes a viable choice, we confirm that supplementation of crickets through both gut-loading and dusting appear necessary to support the nutritional health of amphibians and other insectivores in managed collections. PMID:25273604

  3. Scoping Study of Airlift Circulation Technologies for Supplemental Mixing in Pulse Jet Mixed Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Berglin, Eric J.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2015-04-07

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a scoping study to investigate supplemental technologies for supplying vertical fluid motion and enhanced mixing in Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels designed for high solids processing. The study assumed that the pulse jet mixers adequately mix and shear the bottom portion of a vessel. Given that, the primary function of a supplemental technology should be to provide mixing and shearing in the upper region of a vessel. The objective of the study was to recommend a mixing technology and configuration that could be implemented in the 8-ft test vessel located at Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE). Several mixing technologies, primarily airlift circulator (ALC) systems, were evaluated in the study. This technical report contains a review of ALC technologies, a description of the PNNL testing and accompanying results, and recommended features of an ALC system for further study.

  4. Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Richard B

    2003-02-01

    Creatine has become a popular nutritional supplement among athletes. Recent research has also suggested that there may be a number of potential therapeutic uses of creatine. This paper reviews the available research that has examined the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations. Review of the literature indicates that over 500 research studies have evaluated the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle physiology and/or exercise capacity in healthy, trained, and various diseased populations. Short-term creatine supplementation (e.g. 20 g/day for 5-7 days) has typically been reported to increase total creatine content by 10-30% and phosphocreatine stores by 10-40%. Of the approximately 300 studies that have evaluated the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation, about 70% of these studies report statistically significant results while remaining studies generally report non-significant gains in performance. No study reports a statistically significant ergolytic effect. For example, short-term creatine supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5-15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5-15%), single-effort sprint performance (1-5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5-15%). Moreover, creatine supplementation during training has been reported to promote significantly greater gains in strength, fat free mass, and performance primarily of high intensity exercise tasks. Although not all studies report significant results, the preponderance of scientific evidence indicates that creatine supplementation appears to be a generally effective nutritional ergogenic aid for a variety of exercise tasks in a number of athletic and clinical populations.

  5. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment.

  6. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment. PMID:26067703

  7. The quality and fertility of sperm collected from European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses refrigerated for up to 7 days.

    PubMed

    Shishova, Natalia V; Uteshev, Viktor K; Sirota, Nikolai P; Kuznetsova, Elena A; Kaurova, Svetlana A; Browne, Robert K; Gakhova, Edith N

    2013-01-01

    There is a catastrophic decrease in the biodiversity of amphibians coupled with the loss of genetic variation. The perpetuation of amphibian biodiversity demands a multifaceted approach, including the use of reproduction technologies (RTs), to enable efficient reproduction in captivity and to prevent the loss of genetic variation. Reproduction technologies for the storage of amphibian sperm for days to weeks, when refrigerated at 4°C, or for millennia when cryopreserved have recently undergone rapid development. Sperm from amphibians may be obtained through excision and maceration of testes; however, this is sometimes not possible with rare or endangered species. Alternate methods of obtaining sperm are through hormonal induction, or as spermatozoa from the carcasses of recently dead amphibians. The use of sperm from carcasses of recently dead amphibians is particularly valuable when sampled from genetically important founders in conservation breeding programs, or where catastrophic mortality is occurring in natural population. Sperm harvested over a period of 7 days from the testes of European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses stored in a refrigerator were assessed for percentage and progressive motility, cell membrane integrity, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and fertilizing ability. In addition, the survival of resulting embryos to hatch was recorded. Results indicated that some sperm of R. temporaria remain motile and fertile when harvested from frog carcasses refrigerated up to 7 days post-mortem, and resulting embryos can develop to hatch. PMID:23609917

  8. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000–2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18–75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18–49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users. PMID:21909288

  9. Determination of designer doping agent--2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane--in dietary supplements and excretion study following single oral supplement dose.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Marzena; Jarek, Anna; Chajewska, Katarzyna; Turek-Lepa, Ewa; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2015-11-10

    The quantitative analysis of a new designer doping agent, 2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane (EAPB) and its metabolite, 2-amino-1-phenylbutane (APB) in urine samples, and the determination of EAPB in dietary supplement samples, have been presented. The main purpose of the present study was to develop simple and reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (GC-MS) for excretion study following a single oral administration of dietary supplements containing EAPB. Three analytical methods for the determination of EAPB in urine and supplement samples, and APB in urine samples using the GC-MS system, have been validated. The method of the determination of EAPB in supplement samples was applied to analyze seventeen dietary supplements, CRAZE and DETONATE. Two other methods were used to determine the urinary excretion profile of EAPB and APB in the case of three healthy volunteers and, on further investigation, it was applied to the anti-doping control in sport. Quantification was obtained on the basis of the ions at m/z 86, 58 and 169, monitored for EAPB, APB and diphenylamine (used as an internal standard), respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 2.4 and 7.3μg/g for EAPB in the case of supplement analysis, 2.9 and 8.8ng/mL for EAPB in the case of urine analysis, and 3.2 and 9.7ng/mL for APB. The other validation parameters as linearity, precision and trueness have been also investigated with the acceptable results. The extraction yield of all presented methods was above 69%. EAPB was detected in fourteen analyzed supplements (not included EAPB in their labels) and its content varied between 1.8 and 16.1mg/g. Following oral administration of three supplements with EAPB to one male and two female volunteers, the parent compound of EAPB and its metabolite were monitored and the excretion parameters as the maximum concentration of the analyte in urine (2.2-4.2μg/mL for EAPB; 1.1-5.1μg/mL for APB) and the time for the maximum height of the excretion

  10. Cohort Profile: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Study.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-04-01

    The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children's health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002-03, and 2007-08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center.

  11. Cohort Profile: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Study

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-01-01

    The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children’s health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002–03, and 2007–08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center. PMID:24706732

  12. Effect of zinc supplementation on mood states in young women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sawada, T; Yokoi, K

    2010-03-01

    The relation of zinc (Zn) nutriture to brain development and function has been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to examine whether Zn supplementation improves mood states in young women. The study used a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled procedure. The major outcomes were psychological measures, somatic symptoms and serum Zn. Thirty women were placed randomly and in equal numbers into two groups, and they ingested one capsule containing multivitamins (MVs) or MV and 7 mg Zn daily for 10 weeks. Women who took MV and Zn showed a significant reduction in anger-hostility score (P=0.009) and depression-dejection score (P=0.011) in the Profile of Moods State (POMS) and a significant increase in serum Zn concentration (P=0.008), whereas women who took only MV did not. Our results suggest that Zn supplementation may be effective in reducing anger and depression.

  13. Adherence to 7-Day Primaquine Treatment for the Radical Cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-01-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  14. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  15. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest.

    PubMed

    Vernikos, J; Dallman, M F; Keil, L C; O'Hara, D; Convertino, V A

    1993-07-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8338147

  16. Pilot study of dietary fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Elliot D; Kushner, Laura J; Kramer, Neil; Kazandjian, Gregory

    2003-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been demonstrated in vitro and in many disease states, in particular in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The benefit of n-3 PUFA supplementation has been documented in animal models of periodontal inflammation and a trend towards reduced inflammation has been seen in human experimental gingivitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of PUFA supplementation, by administration of fish oil as a source of the n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and borage oil as a source of the n-6 PUFA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), to adults with periodontitis. Thirty adult human subjects with periodontitis were administered either fish oil 3000 mg daily; borage oil 3000 mg daily; fish oil 1500 and borage oil 1500 mg daily, or placebo. The modified gingival index, the plaque index (PI), periodontal probing depths and beta-glucuronidase levels in gingival crevicular fluid were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Improvement in gingival inflammation was observed in subjects treated with borage oil (P<0.016), with a trend apparent in subjects treated with fish oil or a combination of PUFA. There was no statistically significant improvement in PI, although a trend was apparent in those receiving borage oil. Improvement in probing depth was seen in those subjects treated with either fish oil alone or borage oil alone, but statistical significance was only seen for the comparison of borage oil and placebo (P<0.044). No change was seen in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) beta-glucuronidase levels. The use of borage oil supplementation, a source of the n-6 PUFA, GLA, can have beneficial effects on periodontal inflammation. n-6 PUFA supplementation seemed to offer more impressive results than either n-3 PUFA supplementation or the combination of lower doses of the two supplements. Additional studies will be necessary to more fully assess the

  17. Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Folic acid (FA) added to foods during fortification is 70-85% bioavailable compared to 50% of folate occurring naturally in foods. Thus, if FA supplements also are taken during pregnancy, both mother and fetus can be exposed to FA exceeding the Institute of Medicine's recommended tolerable upper limit (TUL) of 1,000 micrograms per day (μg/d) for adult pregnant women. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of women taking folic acid (FA) doses exceeding the TUL before and during pregnancy, and to identify correlates of high FA use. Methods During 2005-2008, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related data on dietary supplementation were obtained by interviewing 539 pregnant women enrolled at two obstetrics-care facilities in Durham County, North Carolina. Results Before pregnancy, 51% of women reported FA supplementation and 66% reported this supplementation during pregnancy. Before pregnancy, 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2%-14.6%) of women reported supplementation with FA doses above the TUL of 1,000 μg/day, and a similar proportion reported this intake prenatally. Before pregnancy, Caucasian women were more likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 2.99; 95% = 1.28-7.00), compared to African American women, while women with chronic conditions were less likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.21-0.97). Compared to African American women, Caucasian women were also more likely to report FA intake in doses exceeding the TUL during pregnancy (OR = 5.09; 95%CI = 2.07-12.49). Conclusions Fifty-one percent of women reported some FA intake before and 66% during pregnancy, respectively, and more than one in ten women took FA supplements in doses that exceeded the TUL. Caucasian women were more likely to report high FA intake. A study is ongoing to identify possible genetic and non-genotoxic effects of these high doses. PMID:21255390

  18. The effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones studied by vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lani, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Baliouskas, Gerasimos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2014-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is utilized to examine the effects of increased calcium, vitamin D, and combined calcium-vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones with induced inflammation. The study includes different bone sites (femur, tibia, humerus, vertebral rib) in an effort to explore possible differences among the sites. We evaluate the following parameters: mineral-to-matrix ratio, carbonate content, and non-apatitic species (labile acid phosphate and labile carbonate) contribution to bone mineral. Results show that a relatively high dose of calcium or calcium with vitamin D supplementation increases the bone mineralization index significantly. On the other hand, vitamin D alone is not as effective in promoting mineralization even with high intake. Mature B-type apatite was detected for the group with calcium supplementation similar to that of aged bone. High vitamin D intake led to increased labile species concentration revealing bone formation. This is directly associated with the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines linked to induced inflammation. The latter is known to adversely alter bone metabolism, contributing to the aetiopathogenesis of osteoporosis. Thus, a high intake of vitamin D under inflammation-induced osteoporosis does not promote mineralization but suppresses bone resorption and restores metabolic balance.

  19. An exploratory study evaluating the effects of macular carotenoid supplementation in various retinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Crosby-Nwaobi, Roxanne; Hykin, Philip; Peto, Tunde; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the impact of daily oral supplementation with Macushield (10 mg/d meso-zeaxanthin, 10 mg/d lutein, and 2 mg/d zeaxanthin) on eye health in patients with retinal diseases by assessing the macular pigment (MP) profile, the visual function, and the quality of life. Methods Fifty-one patients with various retinal diseases were supplemented daily and followed up for 6 months. The MP optical density was measured using the customized heterochromatic flicker photometry and dual-wavelength autofluorescence. Visual function was evaluated by assessing the change in best corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare sensitivity in mesopic and photopic conditions. Vision-related and general quality of life changes were determined using the National Eye Insititute- Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25) and EuroQoL-5 dimension questionnaires. Results A statistically significant increase in the MP optical density was observed using the dual-wavelength autofluorescence (P=0.04) but not with the customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Statistically significant (P<0.05) improvements in glare sensitivity in low and medium spatial frequencies were observed at 3 months and 6 months. Ceiling effects confounded other visual function tests and quality of life changes. Conclusion Supplementation with the three carotenoids enhances certain aspects of visual performance in retinal diseases. PMID:27274188

  20. Pilot study with a glutamine-supplemented enteral formula in critically ill infants.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, E; Moreira, E A; Goes, J E; Faintuch, J

    1999-01-01

    Seriously ill infants often display protein-calorie malnutrition due to the metabolic demands of sepsis and respiratory failure. Glutamine has been classified as a conditionally essential amino acid, with special usefulness in critical patients. Immunomodulation, gut protection, and prevention of protein depletion are mentioned among its positive effects in such circumstances. With the intent of evaluating the tolerance and clinical impact of a glutamine supplement in seriously ill infants, a prospective randomized study was done with nine patients. Anthropometric and biochemical determinations were made, and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), in the hospital, and under artificial ventilation, and septic morbidity and mortality were tabulated. Infants in the treatment group (n = 5) were enterally administered 0.3 g/kg of glutamine, whereas controls received 0.3 g/kg of casein during a standard period of five days. Septic complications occurred in 75% of the controls (3/4) versus 20% of the glutamine-treated group (1/5, p < or = 0.10), and two patients in the control group died of bacterial infections (50% vs. 0%, p < or = 0.10). Days in the ICU, in the hospital, and with ventilation numerically favored glutamine therapy, although without statistical significance. The supplements were usually well tolerated, and no patient required discontinuation of the program. The conclusion was that glutamine supplementation was safe and tended to be associated with less infectious morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population.

  1. A prospective study of nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common clinical manifestation that may have clinical significance. Objectives To evaluate if there is a difference between nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation on nutritional status in patients with AD. Methods A randomized, prospective 6-month study which enrolled 90 subjects with probable AD aged 65 years or older divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG) [n = 27], Education Group (EG) [n = 25], which participated in an education program and Supplementation Group (SG) [n = 26], which received two daily servings of oral nutritional supplementation. Subjects were assessed for anthropometric data (weight, height, BMI, TSF, AC and AMC), biochemical data (total protein, albumin, and total lymphocyte count), CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating), MMSE (Mini-mental state examination), as well as dependence during meals. Results The SG showed a significant improvement in the following anthropometric measurements: weight (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), BMI (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), AC (H calc = 12.99, p =< 0.002), and AMC (H calc = 8.67, p =< 0.013) compared to the CG and EG. BMI of the EG was significantly greater compared to the CG. There were significant changes in total protein (H calc = 6.17, p =< 0.046), and total lymphocyte count in the SG compared to the other groups (H cal = 7.94, p = 0.019). Conclusion Oral nutritional supplementation is more effective compared to nutrition education in improving nutritional status. PMID:21943331

  2. Dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on the composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements☆

    PubMed Central

    Roseland, Janet M.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen W.; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and other government agencies to design and populate a dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database will provide reliable estimates of vitamin and mineral content of dietary supplement (DS) products. The DSID will initially be populated with multivitamin/mineral (MVM) products because they are the most commonly consumed supplements. Challenges associated with the analysis of MVMs were identified and investigated. A pilot study addressing the identification of appropriate analytical methods, sample preparation protocols, and experienced laboratories for the analysis of 12 vitamins and 11 minerals in adult MVM supplement products was completed. Preliminary studies support the development of additional analytical studies with results that can be applied to the DSID. Total intakes from foods and supplements are needed to evaluate the associations between dietary components and health. The DSID will provide better estimates of actual nutrient intake from supplements than databases that rely on label values alone. PMID:24307755

  3. Effects of n-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Plasma Phospholipids Fatty Acid Composition in Patients with Obstructive Jaundice- a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Tamara; Ranic, Marija; Bulajic, Predrag; Milicevic, Miroslav; Arsic, Aleksandra; Vucic, Vesna; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional and immunological status of patients with obstructive jaundice is usually severely altered, with high mortality rates. The n-3 polyunsaturate fatty acids (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), posess potent immunomodulatory activities. Thus, our aim was to compare the plasma phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition of these patients with healthy subjects, as well as before and after 7 days preoperative supplementation with high doses of EPA (0.9 g per day) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3, 0.6 g per day). We found impaired FA status in obstructive jaundice patients, especially EPA, DHA and PUFA, but significantly increased content of total n-3 FA, 22:5 n-3 FA and particularly EPA, which increased more than 3 fold, after 7 days supplementation. In addition, the n6/n3 ratio significantly decreased from 14.24 to 10.24, demonstrating severely improved plasma phospholipid profile in these patients after the intervention. PMID:19902030

  4. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy and of dietary folate intake with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). Methods The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 65,668 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 1999–2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until week 24 during pregnancy. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4–5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,628). Results The median total folate intake was 266 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 154–543) in the overall population and 540 μg/d (IQR 369–651) in the supplement users. Eighty-three percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while 42% initiated folic acid supplementation before their pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of folate intake from the diet (hazard ratio HR 1.16; confidence interval CI 0.65-2.08) and from the folic acid supplements (HR 1.04; CI 0.95-1.13) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for PTD (HR 1.19; CI 1.05-1.34) compared to no folic acid supplementation pre-conception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks pre-conception (HR 1.01; CI 0.88-1.16). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and

  5. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Heine-Bröring, Renate C; Winkels, Renate M; Renkema, Jacoba M S; Kragt, Lea; van Orten-Luiten, Anne-Claire B; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Chan, Doris S M; Norat, Teresa; Kampman, Ellen

    2015-05-15

    Use of dietary supplements is rising in countries where colorectal cancer is prevalent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk. We identified relevant studies in Medline, Embase and Cochrane up to January 2013. Original and peer-reviewed papers on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer incidence were included. "Use-no use"(U-NU), "highest-lowest"(H-L) and "dose-response"(DR) meta-analyses were performed. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary estimates. In total, 24 papers were included in the meta-analyses. We observed inverse associations for colorectal cancer risk and multivitamin (U-NU: RR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87,0.97) and calcium supplements (U-NU: RR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79,0.95; H-L: RR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.70,0.92; DR: for an increase of 100 mg/day, RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94,0.99). Inconsistent associations were found for colon cancer risk and supplemental vitamin A and vitamin C, and for colorectal cancer risk and supplemental vitamin D, vitamin E, garlic and folic acid. Meta-analyses of observational studies suggest a beneficial role for multivitamins and calcium supplements on colorectal cancer risk, while the association with other supplements and colorectal cancer risk is inconsistent. Residual confounding of lifestyle factors might be present. Before recommendations can be made, an extensive assessment of dietary supplement use and a better understanding of underlying mechanisms is needed. PMID:25335850

  6. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  7. Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older women.

    PubMed

    Gotshalk, Lincoln A; Kraemer, William J; Mendonca, Mario A G; Vingren, Jakob L; Kenny, Anne M; Spiering, Barry A; Hatfield, Disa L; Fragala, Maren S; Volek, Jeff S

    2008-01-01

    Muscle power and strength decrease with age leading to reduced independence and increased health risk from falls. Creatine supplementation can increase muscle power and strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 7 days of creatine supplementation on body composition, muscular strength, and lower-body motor functional performance in older women. Thirty 58-71 year old women performed three test sessions (T1-T3) each separated by one week. Each session consisted of one repetition maximum tests for bench press and leg press, and isometric hand-grip, tandem gait, upper-body ergometer, and lower-body ergometer tests. Following T2, subjects were assigned to a creatine monohydrate (0.3 g kg body mass(-1) for 7 days) (CR: 63.31 +/- 1.22 year, 160.00 +/- 1.58 cm, 67.11 +/- 4.38 kg) or a placebo (PL: 62.98 +/- 1.11 year, 162.25 +/- 2.09 cm, 67.84 +/- 3.90 kg) supplementation group. CR significantly (P < 0.05) increased bench press (1.7 +/- 0.4 kg), leg press (5.2 +/- 1.8 kg), body mass (0.49 +/- 0.04 kg) and fat free mass (0.52 +/- 0.05) and decreased completion time on the functional tandem gait tests from T2-T3. No significant changes were found for PL on any of the measured variables. No adverse side-effects were reported by either group. Short-term creatine supplementation resulted in an increase in strength, power, and lower-body motor functional performance in older women without any adverse side effects.

  8. Natural Supplements for H1N1 Influenza: Retrospective Observational Infodemiology Study of Information and Search Activity on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jun; Ungar, Lyle; Hennessy, Sean; Leonard, Charles E; Holmes, John

    2011-01-01

    Background As the incidence of H1N1 increases, the lay public may turn to the Internet for information about natural supplements for prevention and treatment. Objective Our objective was to identify and characterize websites that provide information about herbal and natural supplements with information about H1N1 and to examine trends in the public’s behavior in searching for information about supplement use in preventing or treating H1N1. Methods This was a retrospective observational infodemiology study of indexed websites and Internet search activity over the period January 1, 2009, through November 15, 2009. The setting is the Internet as indexed by Google with aggregated Internet user data. The main outcome measures were the frequency of “hits” or webpages containing terms relating to natural supplements co-occurring with H1N1/swine flu, terms relating to natural supplements co-occurring with H1N1/swine flu proportional to all terms relating to natural supplements, webpage rank, webpage entropy, and temporal trend in search activity. Results A large number of websites support information about supplements and H1N1. The supplement with the highest proportion of H1N1/swine flu information was a homeopathic remedy known as Oscillococcinum that has no known side effects; supplements with the next highest proportions have known side effects and interactions. Webpages with both supplement and H1N1/swine flu information were less likely to be medically curated or authoritative. Search activity for supplements was temporally related to H1N1/swine flu-related news reports and events. Conclusions The prevalence of nonauthoritative webpages with information about supplements in the context of H1N1/swine flu and the increasing number of searches for these pages suggest that the public is interested in alternatives to traditional prevention and treatment of H1N1. The quality of this information is often questionable and clinicians should be cognizant that patients

  9. Ganoderma lucidum ("Lingzhi"), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker responses in a controlled human supplementation study.

    PubMed

    Wachtel-Galor, Sissi; Tomlinson, Brian; Benzie, Iris F F

    2004-02-01

    Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) is a woody mushroom highly regarded in traditional medicine and is widely consumed in the belief that it promotes health and longevity, lowers the risk of cancer and heart disease and boosts the immune system. However, objective scientific validation of the putative health benefits of Lingzhi in human subjects is lacking, and issues of possible toxicity must be addressed. The present double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention study investigated the effects of 4 weeks Lingzhi supplementation on a range of biomarkers for antioxidant status, CHD risk, DNA damage, immune status, and inflammation, as well as markers of liver and renal toxicity. It was performed as a follow-up to a study that showed that antioxidant power in plasma increased after Lingzhi ingestion, and that 10 d supplementation was associated with a trend towards an improved CHD biomarker profile. In the present study, fasting blood and urine from healthy, consenting adults (n 18; aged 22-52 years) was collected before and after 4 weeks supplementation with a commercially available encapsulated Lingzhi preparation (1.44 g Lingzhi/d; equivalent to 13.2 g fresh mushroom/d) or placebo. No significant change in any of the variables was found, although a slight trend toward lower lipids was again seen, and antioxidant capacity in urine increased. The results showed no evidence of liver, renal or DNA toxicity with Lingzhi intake, and this is reassuring. The present study of the effects in healthy, well-nourished subjects provides useful, new scientific data that will support controlled intervention trials using at-risk subjects in order to assess the therapeutic effect of Lingzhi in the promotion of healthy ageing. PMID:14756912

  10. "There is iron and iron…" Burkinabè women's perceptions of iron supplementation: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Compaore, A; Gies, S; Brabin, B; Tinto, H; Brabin, L

    2014-10-01

    Most pregnant women in Burkina Faso are iron deficient and many are anemic. This study assessed women's understanding of anemia and the role of iron in preventing and treating this condition. A qualitative study was conducted within a randomized controlled trial of weekly iron supplementation in a rural malaria endemic area. Focus groups with women of similar age, parity, and marital status took place in 12 of 24 study villages. Two additional focus groups were conducted with female field workers. Tape-recorded transcripts were translated into French and analyzed using Framework analysis. Anemia, for which no Mooré term or traditional treatment for anemia was evident, was described in terms of blood volume. Moderate blood loss (diminished blood) could be easily replaced by eating well and was not considered serious. Massive blood loss (finished blood) was a rare, life-threatening illness. Iron tablets could increase blood volume and help women withstand massive blood loss at delivery, but for the latter, transfusion was indicated. Women had no knowledge of iron's role and did not readily concede that iron supplements contained elemental iron. Neither adolescents nor field workers were convinced of the benefits of supplementing non-pregnant adolescents, who were incorrectly considered to be at low risk of anemia. Young women's knowledge of anemia did not provide an adequate explanatory framework to motivate anemia prevention. Improving information on the role of iron is especially important for adolescent girls who may be incorrectly considered at low risk of anemia as they have not yet experienced pregnancy.

  11. Vitamin D Supplementation and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A Study in Healthy School Children

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Fatemeh; Namakin, Kokab; Zardast, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Background The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level has been shown to have a significant role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Low vitamin D levels have been shown to be correlated with dyslipidemia, but limited data exist on indigenous children. Objectives We aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on HDL-C levels in school-aged Iranian children. Methods In this prospective controlled clinical trial, 47 healthy children (23 boys) aged 10 - 14 years, students of Birjand (Iran) elementary schools, were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The study group received a vitamin D supplement (1000 mg capsule) daily for one month, and placebo tablets were prescribed to the controls. Before and after the treatment course, the serum HDL-C and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels of both groups were measured. The data were analyzed by SPSS, ver. 16, and Chi-square tests, Fisher’s exact test, paired-sample t-tests, and Pearson’s correlation were used, wherever appropriate. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results Forty children completed the study; their mean age was 11.5 ± 1.175 years. The mean serum levels of both HDL-C and vitamin D showed a significant rise following the treatment in the study group (P = 0.007 and P < 0.001, respectively), whereas both variables decreased slightly in the control group (P = 0.27). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean serum levels of HDL-C and vitamin D between the two groups after the intervention (P = 0.11 and P = 0.20, respectively). Conclusions Vitamin D supplements seem to have a positive impact on serum HDL-C levels and may be effective in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in the long term. PMID:27713805

  12. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

  13. Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on immune responses and infection in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Chandra, R K

    1992-11-01

    Ageing is associated with impaired immune responses and increased infection-related morbidity. This study assessed the effect of physiological amounts of vitamins and trace elements on immunocompetence and occurrence of infection-related illness. 96 independently living, healthy elderly individuals were randomly assigned to receive nutrient supplementation or placebo. Nutrient status and immunological variables were assessed at baseline and at 12 months, and the frequency of illness due to infection was ascertained. Subjects in the supplement group had higher numbers of certain T-cell subsets and natural killer cells, enhanced proliferation response to mitogen, increased interleukin-2 production, and higher antibody response and natural killer cell activity. These subjects were less likely than those in the placebo group to have illness due to infections (mean [SD] 23 [5] vs 48 [7] days per year, p = 0.002). Supplementation with a modest physiological amount of micronutrients improves immunity and decreases the risk of infection in old age.

  14. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  15. DNA protective effect of ginseng and the antagonistic effect of Chinese turnip: A supplementation study

    PubMed Central

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Kam Shing; Han, Andrea; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. Materials and Methods: Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart. About 2 mL of fasting blood sample for baseline measurement was taken on arrival. They were requested to ingest the content of 5 ginseng capsules in 200 mL water. The subject remained fasting for 2 h until the second blood sample taken. In the other occasion, the experiment was repeated except a piece of cooked turnip (10 g) was taken with the ginseng extract. The two occasions could be interchanged. Comet assay was performed on two specimens on the same day for the evaluation of lymphocytic DNA damage with or without oxidative stress. Results: For the group with ginseng supplementation, there was a significant decrease in comet score for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment over the 2-h period while no change in DNA damage for unstressed sample. For the group with ginseng together with turnip supplementation, there was no significant difference in comet score for both H2O2 treatment and phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Ginseng extract could reduce DNA damage mediated by H2O2 effectively, but this protection effect was antagonized by the ingestion of cooked turnip at the same time. Conclusion: In the current study, commercial ginseng extract was used for supplementing volunteers. Ginseng extract could protect DNA from oxidative stress in vivo while turnip diminished the protection. PMID:27757261

  16. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  17. Favorable neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses to 7 days of exercise with an eccentric overload in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; DeVita, P

    2000-08-01

    The metabolic, cardiovascular, and neural cost of eccentric muscle contraction is less than that of concentric contraction, but the strength and neural adaptations in eccentric contractions are significantly greater following resistive exercise. We thus compared the short-term effects of exercise with an eccentric overload (n = 10) with those of exercise with a standard load distribution (n = 10) in ostensibly healthy sedentary elderly women (mean age 71.4). Subjects were tested for concentric and eccentric three-repetition maximum, maximal isokinetic eccentric and concentric and isometric force, and associated electromyographic activity of selected thigh muscles before and after 7 consecutive days of exercise training of the left knee extensors. The exercise program was designed so that the total weight lifted was similar between eccentric overload and standard groups, but the eccentric overload group exercised with an approximately 50% greater eccentric load. Control subjects did not exercise (n = 10). There was a 46% increase in the total weight lifted over 7 days. When all strength measures were combined, the eccentric overload group's strength gains were 1.8-fold greater than those of the standard group, and the cardiovascular stress in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, rate pressure product, and perceived exertion was significantly lower. The increases in muscle strength were achieved by increased muscle activation, but the strength gains were independent of the changes in antagonistic muscle coactivity. Because the strength gains occurred after a short period of exercise at a relatively low intensity and cardiovascular demand, the prescription of exercise with an eccentric overload appears suitable for elders, individuals deconditioned as a result of an injury, and the chronically diseased.

  18. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reighn, Christopher A.; Lewis, Bert; Taki, Doug

    1999-06-01

    Information contained in this report summarizes the work that has been done by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fisheries Department under BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450. Relevant data generated by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe will be collated with other ISS cooperator data collected from the Salmon and Clearwater rivers and tributary streams. A summary of data presented in this report and an initial project-wide level supplementation evaluation will be available in the ISS 5 year report that is currently in progress. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department is responsible for monitoring a variety of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production parameters as part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies (BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450). Parameters include parr abundance in tributaries to the upper Salmon River; adult chinook salmon spawner abundance, redd counts, and carcass collection. A rotary screw trap is operated on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag chinook smolts. These traps are also used to monitor parr movement, and collect individuals for the State and Tribal chinook salmon captive rearing program. The SBT monitors fisheries parameters in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork. Chinook populations in all SBT-ISS monitored streams continue to decline. The South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek have the strongest remaining populations. Snorkel survey methodology was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. Confidence intervals for the parr population estimates were large, especially when the populations were low. In 1998, based on ISS cooperator agreement, snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was ceased due to the large confidence intervals. A rotary screw trap was

  19. Vitamin supplement use during breast cancer treatment and survival: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nechuta, Sarah; Lu, Wei; Chen, Zhi; Zheng, Ying; Gu, Kai; Cai, Hui; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2011-01-01

    Background Antioxidants may protect normal cells from the oxidative damage that occurs during radiotherapy and certain chemotherapy regimens, however, the same mechanism could protect tumor cells and potentially reduce effectiveness of cancer treatments. We evaluated the association of vitamin supplement use in the first six-months after breast cancer diagnosis and during cancer treatment with total mortality and recurrence. Methods We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study of 4,877 women aged 20–75 years diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in Shanghai, China between March 2002 and April 2006. Women were interviewed approximately six-months after diagnosis and followed-up by in-person interviews and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Results During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 444 deaths and 532 recurrences occurred. Vitamin use shortly after breast cancer diagnosis was associated with reduced mortality and recurrence risk, adjusted for multiple lifestyle factors, sociodemographics, and known clinical prognostic factors. Women who used antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C, multivitamins) had 18% reduced mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65–1.02) and 22% reduced recurrence risk (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.63–0.95). The inverse association was found regardless of whether vitamin use was concurrent or non-concurrent with chemotherapy, but was only present among patients who did not receive radiotherapy. Conclusions Vitamin supplement use in the first six months after breast cancer diagnosis may be associated with reduced risk of mortality and recurrence. Impact Our results do not support the current recommendation that breast cancer patients should avoid use of vitamin supplements. PMID:21177425

  20. Lung permeability, antioxidant status, and NO2 inhalation: a selenium supplementation study in rats.

    PubMed

    de Burbure, C Y; Heilier, J-F; Nève, J; Becker, A; Albrecht, C; Borm, P J A; Gromadzinska, J; Wasowicz, W; Rydzynski, K; Bernard, A M

    2007-02-01

    Little is known about antioxidant status, selenium status in particular, and lung response to NO2, which acts as a proinflammatory air pollutant. The effects of a low selenium diet (1.3 microg Se/d) with or without selenium supplementation were therefore studied in 128 Wistar rats, 2 mo old, male exposed to either acute (50 ppm, 30 min), intermittent subacute (5 ppm, 6 h/d, 5 d), intermittent long-term NO2 (1 ppm, 10 ppm, 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, 28 d), or normal atmospheric air (controls). Following sacrifice, measurements of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, chemiluminescence), antioxidative protective enzymes (glutathione peroxidase [GPx], superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione S-transferase [GST], ceruloplasmin), lung damage (lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline and acid phosphatases), lung permeability (total protein, albumin), and inflammation (cell populations), along with the determination of new biomarkers such as CC16 (Clara-cell protein), were performed in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). While selenium-supplemented animals had increased GPx activity in serum prior to inhalation experiments, they also had decreased BALF CC16, blood SOD, and GST levels. Nevertheless, the protective role of normal selenium status with respect to NO2 lung toxicity was evident both for long-term and acute exposures, as the increase in BALF total proteins and corresponding decrease in serum (indicating increased lung permeability) was significantly more pronounced in selenium-deficient animals. During the various inhalation experiments, serum CC16 demonstrated its key role as an early marker of increased lung permeability. These findings corroborate the important role of selenium status in NO2 oxidative damage modulation, but also indicate, in view of its negative impact on CC16, a natural anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressor, that caution should be used prior to advocating selenium supplementation. PMID:17365591

  1. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Nittby, Henrietta; Brun, Arne; Eberhardt, Jacob; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after

  2. An open label study on the supplementation of Gymnema sylvestre in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Smriti Nanda; Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, and associated with long-term damage and dysfunction of various organs. Management of diabetes is therefore vital and involves maintaining euglycemia as much as possible by reducing blood glucose and by increasing insulin sensitivity and peripheral glucose uptake. Ayurveda has promoted the management of diabetes by regulating carbohydrate metabolism using several medicinal herbs, one of which is Gymnema sylvestre (GS). GS has been used in parts of India as a hypoglycemic agent and the results have been encouraging. Accordingly, we planned a quasi-experimental study to investigate the efficacy of the herb among type 2 diabetics. Patients enrolled from free-living population were purposively assigned to experimental or control groups, based on their willingness to participate in the study. The experimental group was supplemented with 500 mg of the herb per day for a period of 3 months, and the efficacy of the herb was assessed through a battery of clinical and biochemical tests. Supplementation of the diet with GS reduced polyphagia, fatigue, blood glucose (fasting and post-prandial), and glycated hemoglobin and there was a favorable shift in lipid profiles and in other clinico-biochemical tests. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of GS in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  3. An open label study on the supplementation of Gymnema sylvestre in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Smriti Nanda; Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, and associated with long-term damage and dysfunction of various organs. Management of diabetes is therefore vital and involves maintaining euglycemia as much as possible by reducing blood glucose and by increasing insulin sensitivity and peripheral glucose uptake. Ayurveda has promoted the management of diabetes by regulating carbohydrate metabolism using several medicinal herbs, one of which is Gymnema sylvestre (GS). GS has been used in parts of India as a hypoglycemic agent and the results have been encouraging. Accordingly, we planned a quasi-experimental study to investigate the efficacy of the herb among type 2 diabetics. Patients enrolled from free-living population were purposively assigned to experimental or control groups, based on their willingness to participate in the study. The experimental group was supplemented with 500 mg of the herb per day for a period of 3 months, and the efficacy of the herb was assessed through a battery of clinical and biochemical tests. Supplementation of the diet with GS reduced polyphagia, fatigue, blood glucose (fasting and post-prandial), and glycated hemoglobin and there was a favorable shift in lipid profiles and in other clinico-biochemical tests. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of GS in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22432517

  4. The clinical benefits of long-term supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids in cystic fibrosis patients - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hanssens, L; Thiébaut, I; Lefèvre, N; Malfroot, A; Knoop, C; Duchateau, J; Casimir, G

    2016-05-01

    Effectiveness of omega-3 supplementation in cystic fibrosis (CF) remains controversial. This study sought to evaluate clinical status, exercise tolerance, inflammatory parameters, and erythrocyte fatty acid profile after 1 year of oral omega-3 supplementation in CF patients. Fifteen ΔF508-homozygous patients undergoing chronic azithromycin were randomized to receive omega-3 fish oil supplementation at a dose of 60mg/Kg/day or placebo. In comparison with the previous year, in the supplemented group, the number of pulmonary exacerbations decreased at 12 months (1.7 vs. 3.0, p<0.01), as did the duration of antibiotic therapy (26.5 days vs. 60.0 days, p<0.025). Supplementation significantly increased the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as early as <3 months of administration, with concomitant decreases in arachidonic acid (AA) levels. This pilot study suggests that long-term omega-3 supplementation offers several clinical benefits as to the number of exacerbations and duration of antibiotic therapy in CF patients.

  5. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South

  6. Selective uptake of boronated low-density lipoprotein in melanoma xenografts achieved by diet supplementation.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Y; Moore, D E; Allen, B J

    1996-12-01

    The lipid core of human plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was extracted using hexane and the LDL reconstituted with the addition of n-octyl-carborane. Biodistribution studies of the boronated LDL were performed in BALB/c mice bearing subcutaneous Harding-Passey melanoma xenografts. When diet supplementation with coconut oil and cholesterol for 21 days and regular dosing with hydrocortisone for 7 days before the studies was used to down-regulate the liver LDL receptors and the adrenal receptors, respectively, the tumour-blood boron concentration ratio of 5:1 was achieved.

  7. Effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on preeclampsia: the folic acid clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi Wu; Champagne, Josee; Rennicks White, Ruth; Coyle, Doug; Fraser, William; Smith, Graeme; Fergusson, Dean; Walker, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT) aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 8(0/7) and 16(6/7) weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159.

  8. Incidence and Predictors of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Septic Shock Patients in a Medical ICU: Data from 7-Day Holter ECG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Guenancia, Charles; Binquet, Christine; Laurent, Gabriel; Vinault, Sandrine; Bruyère, Rémi; Prin, Sébastien; Pavon, Arnaud; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Quenot, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated incidence, risk factors for new-onset atrial fibrillation (NAF), and prognostic impact during septic shock in medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Methods Prospective, observational study in a university hospital. Consecutive patients from 03/2011 to 05/2013 with septic shock were eligible. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, history of AF, transfer with prior septic shock. Included patients were equipped with long-duration (7 days) Holter ECG monitoring. NAF was defined as an AF episode lasting >30 seconds. Patient characteristics, infection criteria, cardiovascular parameters, severity of illness, support therapies were recorded. Results Among 66 patients, 29(44%) developed NAF; 10 (34%) would not have been diagnosed without Holter ECG monitoring. NAF patients were older, with more markers of heart failure (troponin and NT-pro-BNP), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), longer QRS duration and more nonsustained supra ventricular arrhythmias (<30s) on day 1 than patients who maintained sinus rhythm. By multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.06; p = 0.01) and LVEF<45% (OR: 13.01, p = 0.03) were associated with NAF. NAF did not predict 28 or 90 day mortality. Conclusions NAF is common, especially in older patients, and is associated with low ejection fraction. We did not find NAF to be independently associated with higher mortality. PMID:25965915

  9. Advanced Placement (AP) Social Studies Teachers' Use of Academic Course Blogs as a Supplemental Resource for Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Seth M.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between Advanced Placement (AP) social studies teachers' utilization of academic course blogs and student achievement. Simultaneously, the study examined the participating teachers' perceptions on the use of course blogs and other social media as supplemental learning resources. The…

  10. Effect of supplemental vitamin A on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Winsey, K.; Simon, R.J.; Levenson, S.M.; Seifter, E.; Demetriou, A.A.

    1987-02-01

    We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin A on the healing of colon anastomoses in irradiated bowel. Rats were divided into two groups. Those in the first group were fed a standard chow diet and those in the second group were fed the same diet supplemented with 150 IU vitamin A/g of chow. The rats were maintained on their respective diets throughout the experiment. After 7 days, half the rats in each group underwent abdominal irradiation (200 rads). Seven days later, all of the rats underwent distal colon division and anastomosis under pentobarbital anesthesia. All rats were killed 7 days postoperatively, the colons excised, and bursting strength and hydroxyproline determinations performed on both the anastomotic segment and a normal proximal segment of adjacent colon. There was a significant decrease in the bursting strength at the colon anastomosis (p less than 0.02) and in the collagen content (p less than 0.02) after preoperative irradiation. This effect was mitigated by dietary vitamin A supplementation.

  11. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  12. Chemical studies of phytoestrogens and related compounds in dietary supplements: flax and chaparral.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, W R; Musser, S M; Betz, J M; Casey, R E; Pohland, A E; Page, S W

    1995-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and mass spectrometric (MS) procedures were developed to determine lignans in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) and chaparral (Larrea tridentata). Flaxseed contains high levels of phytoestrogens. Chaparral has been associated with acute nonviral toxic hepatitis and contains lignans that are structurally similar to known estrogenic compounds. Both flaxseed and chaparral products have been marketed as dietary supplements. A mild enzyme hydrolysis procedure to prevent the formation of artifacts in the isolation step was used in the determination of secoisolariciresinol in flaxseed products. HPLC with ultraviolet spectral (UV) or MS detection was used as the determinative steps. HPLC procedures with UV detection and mass spectrometry were developed to characterize the phenolic components, including lignans and flavonoids, of chaparral and to direct fractionation studies for the bioassays.

  13. Circulating Vitamin D, Supplement Use, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: The MrOS Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Archna; Stone, Katie L.; Peters, Katherine; Parimi, Neeta; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bauer, Doug; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Hoffman, Andrew R.; Orwoll, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Context: Evidence suggests an inverse association between circulating 25(OH) vitamin D and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To determine the association between serum 25(OH) vitamin D and risk for CVD events. Setting and Design: From March 2000 to April 2002, participants were recruited for the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. Between December 2003 and March 2005, members of the MrOS cohort were invited to participate in the MrOS Sleep Study. Participants were recruited from 6 clinical centers across the United States and followed for a mean of 5.9 years. Three-thousand-one-hundred-thirty-five men ages 65 and older were included from the MrOS cohort, of whom 116 were excluded for missing vitamin D or CVD data. Participants were divided into two groups based on serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels, <20 ng/mL and ≥20 ng/mL. Participants were followed for CVD endpoints including coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular events. Age- and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated and stratified by use of vitamin D containing supplements. Results: We observed no significant association between circulating 25(OH) vitamin D and risk of CVD event (HR, 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.73–1.13) and CHD event (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61–1.07). For cerebrovascular events, men with vitamin D deficiency exhibited a higher risk (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.00–2.08) using the minimally adjusted model and after excluding supplement users (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.02–2.83). Conclusions: 25(OH) vitamin D was not associated with risk of CVD and CHD events. However, vitamin D deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular events. PMID:24670083

  14. Supplemental Educational Services: An Action Science Research Study of Achieving State Standards for Provider Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, Cynthia Collette

    2012-01-01

    Supplemental educational services are designed to contribute tremendous support to local school districts and communities through state-approved provider programs. The state, however, prior to approving supplemental educational services provider programs, must utilize all available resources to assist in the process of screening and approving…

  15. Bibliography of Materials Available from the Russian Studies Center for Secondary Schools, Supplement, May 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate School, Wallingford, CT. Russian Studies Center for Secondary Schools.

    Background and instructional materials acquired since the February 1967 supplement are listed in this supplement to the "Bibliography of Materials" issued by the Russian Center for Secondary Schools. The majority of the items are in English, and all are available from the Center on a 3-week loan to secondary school teachers of Russian. Major…

  16. Nutritional supplementation improves ovulation and pregnancy rates in female goats managed under natural grazing conditions and exposed to the male effect.

    PubMed

    Fitz-Rodríguez, G; De Santiago-Miramontes, M A; Scaramuzzi, R J; Malpaux, B; Delgadillo, J A

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if nutritional supplementation improved ovulation and pregnancy rates in female goats managed under grazing conditions and submitted to the male effect. In Experiment 1, one group of does did not receive nutritional supplementation, while the other group was supplemented daily for 7 days starting at the time when the males were introduced to the females. The ovulation rate at the second male-induced ovulation was greater (P<0.05) in supplemented (2.0+/-0.1) than in non-supplemented (1.6+/-0.1) does. For Experiment 2, female goats were supplemented for 0, 7, 14 or 28 days, starting 9 days following buck introduction. The proportion of does that were pregnant in the group supplemented for 28 days was greater (P<0.05) than in the non-supplemented group, but did not differ from 14-day and the 7-day supplemented groups. The proportion of pregnant does was greater (P<0.05) in the group supplemented for 14 days compared to the group supplemented for 7 days and the non-supplemented group. These latter two groups did not differ (P>0.05). In conclusion, feed supplementation for 7 days, starting at the time when males were introduced increased ovulation rate and feed supplementation for 14 or 28 days starting 9 days after males were introduced improved pregnancy rates in goats managed under grazing conditions and exposed to males.

  17. Studies on nutrient requirements and cost-effective supplements for ethanol production by recombinant E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    This article describes a systematic study of the nutritional requirements of a patented recombinant ethanologenic Escherichia coli (11303:pLOI297) and provides cost-effective formulations that are compatible with the production of fuel ethanol in fermentations of lignocellulosic prehydrolysate characterized by high xylose conversion efficiency. A complex and nutrient-rich laboratory medium, Luria broth (LB), provided the benchmark with respect to fermentation performance standard. Xylose fermentation performance was assessed in terms of the target values for operational process parameters established by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-final ethanol concentration (25 g/L), xylose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency (90%), and volumetric productivity (0.52 g/L{center_dot}h). Biomass prehydrolysates that are rich in xylose also contain acetic acid, and in anticipation of a need to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the fermentors were operated with a pH control set-point of 7.0 Growth and fermentation in the minimal defined salts (DS) medium was only about 15% compared to the reference medium. Amendment of the minimal medium containing 6 wt% xylose with both vitamins and amino acids resulted in improved growth, but the volume productivity was still only about 54% of that with LB. Formulations directed at cost reduction through the use of less expensive commercial complex nutritional supplements were within 90% of the NREL process target with respect to yield and provided a productivity at about 80% of the LB medium, but were not economical. Corn steep liquor (CSL) at about 7-8 g/L was shown to be a complete source of nutritional requirements and supported a fermentation performance approaching that of LB. At a cost of CSL of $50/t (dry wt), the economic impact of using this amount CSL as the sole nutritional supplement in a cellulosic ethanol plant was estimated to be about 4 cents/gal of ethanol. 45 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the Vietnam pre-conceptual micronutrient supplementation trial (PRECONCEPT): a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low birth weight and maternal anemia remain intractable problems in many developing countries. The adequacy of the current strategy of providing iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements only during pregnancy has been questioned given many women enter pregnancy with poor iron stores, the substantial micronutrient demand by maternal and fetal tissues, and programmatic issues related to timing and coverage of prenatal care. Weekly IFA supplementation for women of reproductive age (WRA) improves iron status and reduces the burden of anemia in the short term, but few studies have evaluated subsequent pregnancy and birth outcomes. The Preconcept trial aims to determine whether pre-pregnancy weekly IFA or multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation will improve birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status compared to the current practice of prenatal IFA supplementation only. This paper provides an overview of study design, methodology and sample characteristics from baseline survey data and key lessons learned. Methods/design We have recruited 5011 WRA in a double-blind stratified randomized controlled trial in rural Vietnam and randomly assigned them to receive weekly supplements containing either: 1) 2800 μg folic acid 2) 60 mg iron and 2800 μg folic acid or 3) MM. Women who become pregnant receive daily IFA, and are being followed through pregnancy, delivery, and up to three months post-partum. Study outcomes include birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status. Data are being collected on household characteristics, maternal diet and mental health, anthropometry, infant feeding practices, morbidity and compliance. Discussion The study is timely and responds to the WHO Global Expert Consultation which identified the need to evaluate the long term benefits of weekly IFA and MM supplementation in WRA. Findings will generate new information to help guide policy and programs designed to reduce the burden of anemia in women and children and improve maternal

  19. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation with an ethanolic extract of propolis on broiler intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Eyng, C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Santos, T C

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of an ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) on broiler performance, carcass characteristics, weight of gastrointestinal organs, intestinal morphometry and digestive enzyme activity. 1020 male broiler chicks were assigned in a completely randomised experimental design to six treatments (EEP supplement levels of 0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 ppm) and five replications, and 34 birds per experimental unit. The experimental diets were administered from 1 to 21 days of age, and the birds were subsequently provided a ration based on corn and soybean meal. EEP supplementation from 1 to 7 days negatively affected (p < 0.05) the weight gain and feed intake. The proventriculus weight at 7 days exhibited a quadratic response (p < 0.05), which predicted a lower weight at a dose of 2865 ppm of the EEP. For the duodenum at 21 days of age, the response pattern (p < 0.05) predicted that birds that were fed 2943 and 3047 ppm of the EEP would exhibit an improved crypt depth and villus-to-crypt ratio respectively. The villus height, crypt depth and villus-to-crypt ratio in the jejunum and the ileum were not affected (p > 0.05). With increased EEP doses, the duodenal sucrase activity linearly decreased at 7 days of age and linearly increased in the jejunum at 21 days of age (p < 0.05), while pancreatic enzyme activity was unaffected (p > 0.05). Although the carcass and cut yields did not improve, the percentage of abdominal fat decreased (p < 0.05). The supplementation of the broiler pre-starter diet with 1000-5000 ppm of the EEP impaired performance at this stage, most likely due to the decreased sucrase activity. However, the EEP supplementation from 3000 ppm improved intestinal morphophysiology at 21 days of age and did not affect the performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age.

  1. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tavafzadeh, Somayeh Sadat; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Chen, Chee Keong; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hung, Leong Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation. PMID:26176016

  2. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Tavafzadeh, Somayeh Sadat; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Chen, Chee Keong; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hung, Leong Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation.

  3. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Tavafzadeh, Somayeh Sadat; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Chen, Chee Keong; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hung, Leong Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation. PMID:26176016

  4. A Critical Assessment of Epidemiology Studies Regarding Dietary/Supplemental Zinc and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Leslie C.; Franklin, Renty B.; Tan, Ming T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of prostate cancer, the etiology and factors associated with its development and progression are largely unknown. An important relationship in prostate cancer is the role of zinc. Clinical evidence and experimental evidence have established that prostate cancer is associated with a decrease in the zinc uptake and accumulation in the malignant cells; and that the accumulation of zinc in the prostate cells prevents malignancy. In contrast to this established consistent clinical relationship, numerous epidemiology studies and reports of the effect of dietary and supplemental zinc on the incidence of prostate cancer have provided divergent, inconsistent, and inconclusive results; which range from adverse effects of zinc, protective effects of zinc, and no effect of zinc on the risk of prostate cancer. Despite these divergent and inconclusive results, a prevailing view and public warning has evolved from unsubstantiated and uncorroborated epidemiology studies that zinc consumption increases the risk of developing advanced stage prostate cancer. Such a conclusion is not well-founded and has serious, confusing and erroneous implications for the medical/scientific community and for the public-at-large. The admonition of Dimitrios Trichopoulos over a decade ago [1] that, “… (epidemiology) studies will inevitably generate false positive and false negative results with disturbing frequency. …, when (people) do take us seriously, we may unintentionally do more harm than good” can be applied to the situation that is the subject of this report. Therefore it is extremely important to review the epidemiology studies that have lead to the conclusion of an adverse effect of zinc, and also that have produced such inconsistent and divergent results. This critical review defines issues, problems, and shortcomings that exist in the conduct, conclusions, and dissemination of the epidemiology studies. We caution that one should be knowledgeable and

  5. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure and arterial stiffness: a fully controlled dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, L; Dower, J I; Mensink, M; Siebelink, E; Bakker, S J L; Geleijnse, J M

    2015-10-01

    We performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in untreated (pre)hypertensive individuals. During the study, subjects were on a fully controlled diet that was relatively low in sodium and potassium. After a 1-week run-in period, subjects received capsules with supplemental sodium (3 g d(-1), equals 7.6 g d(-1) of salt), supplemental potassium (3 g d(-1)) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. Fasting office BP, 24-h ambulatory BP and measures of arterial stiffness were assessed at baseline and every 4 weeks. Of 37 randomized subjects, 36 completed the study. They had a mean pre-treatment BP of 145/81 mm Hg and 69% had systolic BP ⩾140 mm Hg. Sodium excretion was increased by 98 mmol per 24 h and potassium excretion by 63 mmol per 24 h during active interventions, compared with placebo. During sodium supplementation, office BP was significantly increased by 7.5/3.3 mm Hg, 24-h BP by 7.5/2.7 mm Hg and central BP by 8.5/3.6 mm Hg. During potassium supplementation, 24-h BP was significantly reduced by 3.9/1.6 mm Hg and central pulse pressure by 2.9 mm Hg. Pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were not significantly affected by sodium or potassium supplementation. In conclusion, increasing the intake of sodium caused a substantial increase in BP in subjects with untreated elevated BP. Increased potassium intake, on top of a relatively low-sodium diet, had a beneficial effect on BP. Arterial stiffness did not materially change during 4-week interventions with sodium or potassium.

  6. Trichilia monadelpha bark extracts inhibit carrageenan-induced foot-oedema in the 7-day old chick and the oedema associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ainooson, G K; Owusu, G; Woode, E; Ansah, C; Annan, K

    2012-01-01

    Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Meliaceae) bark extract is used in African traditional medicine for the management of various disease conditions including inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. monadelpha using the 7-day old chick-carrageenan footpad oedema (acute inflammation) and the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (chronic inflammation). TWE and TPEE significantly inhibited the chick-carrageenan footpad oedema with maximal inhibitions of 57.79±3.92 and 63.83±12 respectively, but TAE did not. The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of 64.92±2.03 and 71.85±15.34 respectively. Furthermore, all the extracts and the reference anti-inflammatory agents (diclofenac, dexamethasone, methotrexate) inhibited the inflammatory oedema associated with adjuvant arthritis with maximal inhibitions of 64.41±5.56, 57.04±8.57, 62.18±2.56%, for TWE, TAE and TPEE respectively and 80.28±5.79, 85.75±2.96, 74.68±3.03% for diclofenac, dexamethasone and methotrexate respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant bark confirmed the presence of a large array of plant constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids, all of which may be potential sources of phyto-antiinflammatory agents. In conclusion, our work suggests that T. monadelpha is a potential source of antiinflammatory agents.

  7. Study of Vitamins and Dietary Supplements Containing Ferrous Fumarate and Ferrous Sulfate Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Novikov, E. G.; Dubiel, S. M.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    A study of several samples of vitamins and dietary supplements containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. A presence of ferrous and ferric impurities was revealed. Small variations of Mössbauer hyperfine parameters were found for both ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates in the investigated medicines.

  8. The Potential of Supplemental Instruction in Engineering Education--Helping New Students to Adjust to and Succeed in University Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a programme that is attached to difficult courses with the objective of increasing student performance and retention. However, an SI programme also has the potential to increase overall student performance and retention during the first critical year if applied to introductory courses. In this study the latter…

  9. Lessons from Africa: A Supplement to Middle School Courses in World Culture, Global Studies, and World Geography. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    These lessons were written by African social studies specialists for U.S. middle school students to stimulate interest in and develop a positive attitude toward Africans and their culture. Each lesson provides objectives, materials, teaching procedures, and is meant to be used as a textbook supplement. To promote understanding of young Africans,…

  10. Lessons from Africa: A Supplement to Middle School Courses in World Cultures, Global Studies, and World Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    Written by 25 African educators from 15 African nations that make up the African Social Studies Programme (ASSP), a Pan-African organization headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya, this document is designed to supplement the sparse material on Africa available in the K-12 curriculum and textbooks in the United States, and these 11 lessons encourage U.S.…

  11. Supplemental studies for cardiovascular risk assessment in safety pharmacology: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Picard, Sandra; Goineau, Sonia; Guillaume, Philippe; Henry, Joël; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Rouet, René

    2011-12-01

    Safety Pharmacology studies for the cardiovascular risk assessment, as described in the ICH S7A and S7B guidelines, appear as being far from sufficient. The fact that almost all medicines withdrawn from the market because of life-threatening tachyarrhythmias (torsades-de-pointes) were shown as hERG blockers and QT interval delayers led the authorities to focus mainly on these markers. However, other surrogate biomarkers, e.g., TRIaD (triangulation, reverse-use-dependence, instability and dispersion of ventricular repolarization), have been identified to more accurately estimate the drug-related torsadogenic risk. In addition, more attention should be paid to other arrhythmias, not related to long QT and nevertheless severe and/or not self-extinguishing, e.g., atrial or ventricular fibrillation, resulting from altered electrical conduction or heterogeneous shortening of cardiac repolarization. Moreover, despite numerous clinical cases of drug-induced pulmonary hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, or heart valvular failure, few safety investigations are still conducted on drug interaction with cardiac and regional hemodynamics other than changes in aortic blood pressure evaluated in conscious large animals during the core battery mandatory studies. This critical review aims at discussing the usefulness, relevance, advantages, and limitations of some preclinical in vivo, in vitro, and in silico models, with high predictive values and currently used in supplemental safety studies.

  12. Ginkgo biloba medicines and food supplements on the Belgian market: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Saevels, J; Corthout, J

    2005-01-01

    Medicines and food supplements based on the dry extract of the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. were evaluated by determination of the content of total flavonoids, rutin and terpene lactones by means of liquid chromatography. All examined medicines complied with the fixed requirements whereas all food supplements deviated from 1 or more of the criteria. It could also be demonstrated that some products contained extracts to which rutin was added.

  13. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M.

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  14. No association between periconceptional multivitamin supplementation and risk of multiple congenital abnormalities: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, Andrew E; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2006-11-15

    Two previous Hungarian intervention trials showed that periconceptional folic acid-containing multivitamin supplementation did not change the total (birth + fetal) prevalence of cases with multiple congenital abnormalities (MCAs). However, two US observational studies found an elevated risk for MCAs in the offspring of women who reported periconceptional use of multivitamins containing folic acid. These conflicting results stimulated us to evaluate the data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities and to check the possible association between the use of periconceptional multivitamin supplementations and the total prevalence of cases with MCAs. Of 1,349 cases with MCA, 69 (5.1%) had mothers who used multivitamins during the second and third month of pregnancy. Of 2,405 matched controls without any defect, 126 (5.2%) had mothers who used multivitamin supplementation in early pregnancy. Of 21,494 malformed controls with isolated congenital abnormalities, 1,052 (4.9%) mothers received supplementation with multivitamins during the critical period of CAs including MCAs. There was no difference in the use of multivitamins among the study groups either in the total data set or at the evaluation of only prospective medically recorded data. Medically recorded folic acid use without any multivitamins in the second and third gestational month showed some protective effect for MCAs. In conclusion, our observational case-control study did not detect a folic acid containing multivitamins during the early pregnancy as a risk factor for MCAs.

  15. Efficacy of a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel as a tear film supplement: a masked controlled study.

    PubMed

    Williams, David L; Mann, Brenda K

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness.

  16. Efficacy of a Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel as a Tear Film Supplement: A Masked Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David L.; Mann, Brenda K.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness. PMID:24914681

  17. Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis

    PubMed Central

    Che Ramli, Muhammad Danial

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone), Control (laminectomy with SCI), and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180 mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis). A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord. PMID:25152764

  18. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  19. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Rivero, Miguel; Rojas, Ernesto; Verduguez-Orellana, Aleida; Pardo, Henry; Torrico, Mary Cruz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Åkesson, Björn; Sejas, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit. PMID:25397995

  20. Probiotic supplement consumption alters cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a preliminary study using healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, N J; Garaiova, I; Williams, E A; Michael, D R; Plummer, S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of daily probiotic supplementation upon the immune profile of healthy participants by the assessment of ex vivo cytokine production. Twenty healthy adult volunteers received a multi-strain probiotic supplement consisting of two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus (CUL60 and CUL21), Bifidobacterium lactis (CUL34) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (CUL20) and fructooligosaccharide for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cultured ex vivo in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide and cytokine production was assessed. Postintervention, a significant decrease in the production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β was apparent when PBMCs were incubated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, whilst a significant increase in IL-10 and transforning growth factor-β production was seen when the cells were incubated without an additional stimulus. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of a multi-strain probiotic supplement to alter the immune response as demonstrated by changes in ex vivo cytokine production. Such results demonstrate the potential benefit of probiotic supplementation for healthy individuals and warrants further investigation.

  1. Probiotic supplement consumption alters cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a preliminary study using healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, N J; Garaiova, I; Williams, E A; Michael, D R; Plummer, S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of daily probiotic supplementation upon the immune profile of healthy participants by the assessment of ex vivo cytokine production. Twenty healthy adult volunteers received a multi-strain probiotic supplement consisting of two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus (CUL60 and CUL21), Bifidobacterium lactis (CUL34) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (CUL20) and fructooligosaccharide for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cultured ex vivo in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide and cytokine production was assessed. Postintervention, a significant decrease in the production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β was apparent when PBMCs were incubated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, whilst a significant increase in IL-10 and transforning growth factor-β production was seen when the cells were incubated without an additional stimulus. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of a multi-strain probiotic supplement to alter the immune response as demonstrated by changes in ex vivo cytokine production. Such results demonstrate the potential benefit of probiotic supplementation for healthy individuals and warrants further investigation. PMID:24311314

  2. A clinical study of the effectiveness of oral glutamine supplementation during total parenteral nutrition: influence on mesenteric mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Aosasa, S; Mochizuki, H; Yamamoto, T; Ono, S; Ichikura, T

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) is a well-known insult during total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and a high incidence of morbidity has been reported in septic patients receiving TPN. Inflammatory cytokines were shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of critical complications following sepsis. Previous studies have indicated that supplementation of TPN with glutamine is effective in preventing BT in animals, but its effectiveness in humans is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of oral glutamine supplementation to patients receiving TPN in suppressing cytokine production of mesenteric blood mononuclear cells (M-MNC). Fifteen colorectal cancer patients were divided into 3 groups according to preoperative nutrition management. (1) TPN group: TPN with conventional glutamine-free amino acid solution. (2) Gln group: TPN with oral glutamine supplementation of 30 g/d. (3) CONTROL GROUP: oral intake of normal food. M-MNC were obtained immediately after laparotomy and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production of M-MNC was evaluated with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. TNF-alpha and IL-10 production by LPS-stimulated M-MNC was increased in the TPN group and suppressed in the Gln group. In conclusion, oral glutamine supplementation to patients with TPN was shown to be effective for the prevention of M-MNC activation to avoid excessive production of cytokines.

  3. Multivitamin and dietary supplements, body weight and appetite: results from a cross-sectional and a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Major, Geneviève C; Doucet, Eric; Jacqmain, Mélanie; St-Onge, Myriam; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2008-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to compare characteristics of consumers and non-consumers of vitamin and/or dietary supplements (study 1) and to assess the effect of a multivitamin and mineral supplementation during a weight-reducing programme (study 2). Body weight and composition, energy expenditure, and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores were compared between consumers and non-consumers of micronutrients and/or dietary supplements in the Québec Family Study (study 1). In study 2, these variables and appetite ratings (visual analogue scales) were measured in forty-five obese non-consumers of supplements randomly assigned to a double-blind 15-week energy restriction ( - 2930 kJ/d) combined with a placebo or with a multivitamin and mineral supplement. Compared with non-consumers, male consumers of vitamin and/or dietary supplements had a lower body weight (P < 0.01), fat mass (P < 0.05), BMI (P < 0.05), and a tendency for greater resting energy expenditure (P = 0.06). In women, the same differences were observed but not to a statistically significant extent. In addition, female supplements consumers had lower disinhibition and hunger scores (P < 0.05). In study 2, body weight was significantly decreased after the weight-loss intervention (P < 0.001) with no difference between treatment groups. However, fasting and postprandial appetite ratings were significantly reduced in multivitamin and mineral-supplemented women (P < 0.05). Usual vitamin and/or dietary supplements consumption and multivitamin and mineral supplementation during a weight-reducing programme seems to have an appetite-related effect in women. However, lower body weight and fat were more detectable in male than in female vitamin and/or dietary supplements consumers.

  4. Press Releases Issued by Supplements Industry Organisations and Non-Industry Organisations in Response to Publication of Clinical Research Findings: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michael T. M.; Gamble, Greg; Bolland, Mark J.; Grey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use is increasing despite lack of evidence of benefits, or evidence of harm. Press releases issued by the supplements industry might contribute to this situation by using ‘spin’ (strategies to hype or denigrate findings) to distort the results of clinical studies. We assessed press releases issued in response to publication of clinical studies on dietary supplements. Methods and Findings We analyzed 47 supplements industry press releases and 91 non-industry press releases and news stories, generated in response to 46 clinical studies of dietary supplements published between 1/1/2005 and 5/31/2013. The primary outcome was ‘spin’ content and direction. We also assessed disposition towards use of dietary supplements, reporting of study information, and dissemination of industry press releases. More supplements industry press releases (100%) contained ‘spin’ than non-industry media documents (55%, P<0.001). Hyping ‘spin’ scores were higher in industry than non-industry media documents for studies reporting benefit of supplements (median ‘spin’ score 3.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.5 vs 0.5, 0–1.0; P<0.001). Denigratory ‘spin’ scores were higher in industry than non-industry media documents for studies reporting no effect (6.0, 5.0–7.0 vs 0, 0–0; P<0.001) or harm (6.0, 5.5–7.5 vs 0, 0–0.5; P<0.001) from a supplement. Industry press releases advocated supplement use in response to >90% of studies that reported no benefit, or harm, of the supplement. Industry press releases less frequently reported study outcomes, sample size, and estimates of effect size than non-industry media documents (all P<0.001), particularly for studies that reported no benefit of supplements. Industry press releases were referenced by 148 news stories on the websites of 6 organizations that inform manufacturers, retailers and consumers of supplements. Conclusions Dietary supplements industry press releases issued in response to clinical research

  5. Evaluation of nutritional and sub-acute toxicological study of plant based supplement of Achyranthes aspera.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nudrat; Dar, Nabeela G; Imran, Hina; Sohail, Tehmina; Asghar, Uzma; Yaqeen, Zahra; Syed, Shazia; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted for the nutritional, microbiological and toxicological evaluation of test compound having main ingredient Achyranthes aspera. Nutritional value assessment, microbiological analysis and toxicological studies were conducted according to the standard reported methods which exhibited that A. aspera contains moisture 4.05%, proteins 20.54%, fats 0.903%, ash 20.25%, carbohydrates 54,26% and energy 294 Kcal. Vitamin profile was found to be B(1) 0.27mg/100g, B(2) 0.28mg/100g, B(3) 0.58mg/100g, B(6) 0.27mg/100g and B(9) 39μg/100g. The content of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus was found to be 1119.67, 5385.23, 5446.08, 1343.6, 675880.73 and 1447.5mg/kg respectively and trace metals i.e. iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminum were detected as 283.05, 8.062, 48.37, 16.12 and 9.853 mg/kg respectively. The microbiological result indicated that the compound qualifies the international standards of microbial limit and was found free from Salmonella species. The toxicological study was conducted to find safe use of Achyranthes aspera compound in human as a nutritive supplement in blood disorders. The toxicity studies exhibited that the test compound has a good effect on general health as an increase in body weights of animals of test group was noticed as compared to that of control group. Blood parameters before and after the study were monitored which confirms our hypothesis by showing an increase in hemoglobin from 9.133 to 10.96, RBC count from 3.11 to 3.6, WBC count from 5.68 to 5.73 and platelets from 245 to 319. PMID:25176360

  6. Evaluation of nutritional and sub-acute toxicological study of plant based supplement of Achyranthes aspera.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nudrat; Dar, Nabeela G; Imran, Hina; Sohail, Tehmina; Asghar, Uzma; Yaqeen, Zahra; Syed, Shazia; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted for the nutritional, microbiological and toxicological evaluation of test compound having main ingredient Achyranthes aspera. Nutritional value assessment, microbiological analysis and toxicological studies were conducted according to the standard reported methods which exhibited that A. aspera contains moisture 4.05%, proteins 20.54%, fats 0.903%, ash 20.25%, carbohydrates 54,26% and energy 294 Kcal. Vitamin profile was found to be B(1) 0.27mg/100g, B(2) 0.28mg/100g, B(3) 0.58mg/100g, B(6) 0.27mg/100g and B(9) 39μg/100g. The content of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus was found to be 1119.67, 5385.23, 5446.08, 1343.6, 675880.73 and 1447.5mg/kg respectively and trace metals i.e. iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminum were detected as 283.05, 8.062, 48.37, 16.12 and 9.853 mg/kg respectively. The microbiological result indicated that the compound qualifies the international standards of microbial limit and was found free from Salmonella species. The toxicological study was conducted to find safe use of Achyranthes aspera compound in human as a nutritive supplement in blood disorders. The toxicity studies exhibited that the test compound has a good effect on general health as an increase in body weights of animals of test group was noticed as compared to that of control group. Blood parameters before and after the study were monitored which confirms our hypothesis by showing an increase in hemoglobin from 9.133 to 10.96, RBC count from 3.11 to 3.6, WBC count from 5.68 to 5.73 and platelets from 245 to 319.

  7. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    PubMed

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p < 0.01) and lesser body weight gain significantly in amaranth (p < 0.05) as compared to control. They seemed to bring down plasma ghrelin levels while meliorating plasma leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels postprandially (p < 0.01). Although both quinoa diet and amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty.

  8. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    PubMed

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p < 0.01) and lesser body weight gain significantly in amaranth (p < 0.05) as compared to control. They seemed to bring down plasma ghrelin levels while meliorating plasma leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels postprandially (p < 0.01). Although both quinoa diet and amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty. PMID:26396423

  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus) with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer’s test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES. PMID:27274185

  10. Review of dietary supplements for the management of osteoarthritis in dogs in studies from 2004 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Comblain, F; Serisier, S; Barthelemy, N; Balligand, M; Henrotin, Y

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, painful, degenerative and inflammatory disease that affects the synovial joints and leads finally to the loss of mobility. It is highly prevalent in dogs. Nowadays, no cure exists, and the pharmacological treatment is limited to clinical signs alleviation. Some positive beneficial effects have been highlighted with dietary supplements in the course of dog OA. The goals of this narrative review are to summarize the scientific data available in the literature on dietary supplements assessed in dog OA and to discuss some trails about how to improve several aspects of research and issues with dietary supplements, such as bioavailability and dosage regimen. Chondroitin sulphate, glucosamine, undenaturated type II collagen, avocado-soya bean unsaponifiables, curcumin and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied in dog OA and therefore discussed in the present review. Most of them showed anticatabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, few data exist concerning their pharmacokinetics. Their bioavailability is low, but new formulations are developed to enhance their gastrointestinal absorption. The clinical relevance of these new formulations compared to native forms should be demonstrated in good clinical trials. Even if further investigations are needed, dietary supplements should be considered in OA management. PMID:26205697

  11. An assessment of food supplementation to chronically sick patients receiving home based care in Bangwe, Malawi : a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Cameron; Kalilani, Linda; Marsh, Reg; Misiri, Humphrey; Cleary, Paul; Bowie, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Background The effect of food supplementation provided by the World Food Programme to patients and their families enrolled in a predominantly HIV/AIDS home based care programme in Bangwe Malawi is assessed. Methods The survival and nutritional status of patients and the nutritional status of their families recruited up to six months before a food supplementation programme started are compared to subsequent patients and their families over a further 12 months. Results 360 patients, of whom 199 died, were studied. Food supplementation did not improve survival but had an effect (not statistically significant) on nutritional status. Additional oil was given to some families; it may have improved survival but not nutritional status. Conclusion Food supplementation to HIV/AIDS home based care patients and their families does not work well. This may be because the intervention is too late to affect the course of disease or insufficiently targeted perhaps due to problems of distribution in an urban setting. The World Food Programme's emphasis on supplementary feeding for these families needs to be reviewed. PMID:15777483

  12. The Boston FICSIT study: the effects of resistance training and nutritional supplementation on physical frailty in the oldest old.

    PubMed

    Fiatarone, M A; O'Neill, E F; Doyle, N; Clements, K M; Roberts, S B; Kehayias, J J; Lipsitz, L A; Evans, W J

    1993-03-01

    Research indicates that lower extremity muscle weakness in the elderly is consistently related to impaired mobility and fall risk. Reversible components of the muscle weakness of aging include underuse syndromes and undernutrition, both of which are prevalent in nursing home populations. The Boston FICSIT study is a nursing home-based intervention to improve muscle strength through progressive resistance training of the lower extremities and/or multi-nutrient supplementation in chronically institutionalized subjects aged 70-100. Baseline measurements of falls, medical status, psychological variables, functional status, nutritional intake and status, body composition, muscle mass and morphology, muscle function, and gait and balance are taken. The nursing home residents are then randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 10 weeks: (1) high intensity progressive resistance training of the hip and knee extensors 3 days per week; (2) multi-nutrient supplementation with a 360-kcal high carbohydrate, low fat liquid supplement every day; (3) a combination of groups (1) and (2); and (4) a control group. Both non-supplemented groups receive a liquid placebo every day, and both non-exercising groups attend three sessions of "leisure activities" every week in order to control for the attentional aspects of the exercise and nutritional interventions. At the end of the 10-week period, all baseline measurements are re-assessed.

  13. “Test me and treat me”—attitudes to vitamin D deficiency and supplementation: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kotta, Siddharth; Gadhvi, Dev; Jakeways, Niki; Saeed, Maryum; Sohanpal, Ratna; Hull, Sally; Famakin, Olufunke; Martineau, Adrian; Griffiths, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objective Lay interest in vitamin D and the potential benefits of supplementation is considerable, but little information exists concerning lay knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards vitamin D to inform public health initiatives and professional guidance. Design Qualitative focus group study. Participants 58 adults capturing diversity in disease status, gender, age and ethnicity. Setting A large general practice in east London. Results Many respondents lacked knowledge about vitamin D, including dietary sources and government recommendations. Most were positive about sun exposure, but confused by ambiguous health messages about risks and benefits of sunshine. Medicalised views of vitamin D were prominent, notably from those in favour of supplementation, who talked of “doses”, “side effects” and “regular testing.” Fortification of food with vitamin D was controversial, with opposing utilitarian (better overall for the majority) and libertarian (freedom to choose) views. Conclusions Knowledge about vitamin D was limited. Clearer messages are needed about risks and benefits of sun exposure. Testing and supplementation by health professionals, while potentially useful in some high-risk groups, have contributed to a medicalised view of vitamin D. Health policy should address the public's need for clear information on sources and effects of vitamin D, including risks and benefits of sun exposure, and take account of divergent views on fortification. Professional guidance is needed on testing and supplementation to counter inappropriate medicalisation. PMID:26173717

  14. Effect of mineral source and mannan oligosaccharide supplements on zinc and copper digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Alexandre; Matte, J Jacques; Guay, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of organic (proteinate) and inorganic (sulphate) copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) supplements, in presence or absence of a mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplement, on mineral solubility and digestibility in pigs. Twenty-eight barrows (25 ± 4 kg) assigned randomly to four treatment groups were fed a corn-wheat-soya bean meal diet with 10 mg/kg of Cu and 100 mg/kg of Zn supplied as organic or inorganic supplement, and supplemented or not with 0.1% MOS. After an adaptation period, total faeces and urine were collected for a period of 6-7 days. Pigs were then euthanatised and digesta from ileum and caecum were collected. Apparent digestibility was calculated in ileum and caecum using titanium dioxide. The organic mineral supplement improved total (faecal) digestibility and retained/ingested ratio of Cu (p < 0.05) while reducing apparent digestibility of Zn in the ileum (p < 0.05) without effect on total digestibility of Zn. Solubilities of Cu and Zn in liquid fraction of ileum and caecum were not affected by mineral sources. Although MOS supplement increased Cu solubility in the ileum (p < 0.05), it had no effect on digestibility of Zn and Cu in ileum, caecum and faeces, retained/ingested ratio of Zn and Cu, or pH and volatile fatty acid concentration in ileal and caecal digesta. In conclusion, organic mineral supplement improved total digestibility and retained/ingested ratio of Cu in pigs but this cannot be attributed to its solubility in ileal and caecal digesta. The MOS supplement did not interfere with digestibility or dietary utilisation of Zn and Cu in pigs fed above the Zn and Cu requirements.

  15. Analyzing large-scale conservation interventions with Bayesian hierarchical models: a case study of supplementing threatened Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Semmens, Brice X; Ford, Michael J; Cooney, Tom; Carmichael, Richard W

    2015-05-01

    Myriad human activities increasingly threaten the existence of many species. A variety of conservation interventions such as habitat restoration, protected areas, and captive breeding have been used to prevent extinctions. Evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions requires appropriate statistical methods, given the quantity and quality of available data. Historically, analysis of variance has been used with some form of predetermined before-after control-impact design to estimate the effects of large-scale experiments or conservation interventions. However, ad hoc retrospective study designs or the presence of random effects at multiple scales may preclude the use of these tools. We evaluated the effects of a large-scale supplementation program on the density of adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Snake River basin in the northwestern United States currently listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We analyzed 43 years of data from 22 populations, accounting for random effects across time and space using a form of Bayesian hierarchical time-series model common in analyses of financial markets. We found that varying degrees of supplementation over a period of 25 years increased the density of natural-origin adults, on average, by 0-8% relative to nonsupplementation years. Thirty-nine of the 43 year effects were at least two times larger in magnitude than the mean supplementation effect, suggesting common environmental variables play a more important role in driving interannual variability in adult density. Additional residual variation in density varied considerably across the region, but there was no systematic difference between supplemented and reference populations. Our results demonstrate the power of hierarchical Bayesian models to detect the diffuse effects of management interventions and to quantitatively describe the variability of intervention success. Nevertheless, our study could not address whether ecological factors

  16. Analyzing large-scale conservation interventions with Bayesian hierarchical models: a case study of supplementing threatened Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Semmens, Brice X; Ford, Michael J; Cooney, Tom; Carmichael, Richard W

    2015-05-01

    Myriad human activities increasingly threaten the existence of many species. A variety of conservation interventions such as habitat restoration, protected areas, and captive breeding have been used to prevent extinctions. Evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions requires appropriate statistical methods, given the quantity and quality of available data. Historically, analysis of variance has been used with some form of predetermined before-after control-impact design to estimate the effects of large-scale experiments or conservation interventions. However, ad hoc retrospective study designs or the presence of random effects at multiple scales may preclude the use of these tools. We evaluated the effects of a large-scale supplementation program on the density of adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Snake River basin in the northwestern United States currently listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We analyzed 43 years of data from 22 populations, accounting for random effects across time and space using a form of Bayesian hierarchical time-series model common in analyses of financial markets. We found that varying degrees of supplementation over a period of 25 years increased the density of natural-origin adults, on average, by 0-8% relative to nonsupplementation years. Thirty-nine of the 43 year effects were at least two times larger in magnitude than the mean supplementation effect, suggesting common environmental variables play a more important role in driving interannual variability in adult density. Additional residual variation in density varied considerably across the region, but there was no systematic difference between supplemented and reference populations. Our results demonstrate the power of hierarchical Bayesian models to detect the diffuse effects of management interventions and to quantitatively describe the variability of intervention success. Nevertheless, our study could not address whether ecological factors

  17. Analyzing large-scale conservation interventions with Bayesian hierarchical models: a case study of supplementing threatened Pacific salmon

    PubMed Central

    Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Semmens, Brice X; Ford, Michael J; Cooney, Tom; Carmichael, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Myriad human activities increasingly threaten the existence of many species. A variety of conservation interventions such as habitat restoration, protected areas, and captive breeding have been used to prevent extinctions. Evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions requires appropriate statistical methods, given the quantity and quality of available data. Historically, analysis of variance has been used with some form of predetermined before-after control-impact design to estimate the effects of large-scale experiments or conservation interventions. However, ad hoc retrospective study designs or the presence of random effects at multiple scales may preclude the use of these tools. We evaluated the effects of a large-scale supplementation program on the density of adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Snake River basin in the northwestern United States currently listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We analyzed 43 years of data from 22 populations, accounting for random effects across time and space using a form of Bayesian hierarchical time-series model common in analyses of financial markets. We found that varying degrees of supplementation over a period of 25 years increased the density of natural-origin adults, on average, by 0–8% relative to nonsupplementation years. Thirty-nine of the 43 year effects were at least two times larger in magnitude than the mean supplementation effect, suggesting common environmental variables play a more important role in driving interannual variability in adult density. Additional residual variation in density varied considerably across the region, but there was no systematic difference between supplemented and reference populations. Our results demonstrate the power of hierarchical Bayesian models to detect the diffuse effects of management interventions and to quantitatively describe the variability of intervention success. Nevertheless, our study could not address whether ecological

  18. Folic acid supplement use and menstrual cycle characteristics: a cross-sectional study of Danish pregnancy planners

    PubMed Central

    Cueto, Heidi T.; Riis, Anders H.; Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Wise, Lauren A.; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Sørensen, Henrik T.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between folic acid (FA) supplementation obtained through either single FA tablets or multivitamins (MVs) and menstrual cycle characteristics among 5,386 women aged 18–40 years, enrolled in an Internet-based study of Danish women attempting pregnancy during 2007–2011. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of FA supplementation with menstrual cycle regularity, short (<27 days), long (30–33 days), and very long (≥34 days) cycle length, and duration and intensity of menstrual bleeding. Results Compared with non-use, FA supplementation was associated with reduced odds of short cycle length [OR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.68–0.94], and a trend towards increased odds of very long cycle length [OR=1.21, 95% CI: 0.87–1.68] compared with cycle length of 27–29 days. The inverse association with short cycle length was stronger among 18–30 year-old women [OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.53–0.87], nulliparous women [OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.52–0.84], and women who used both FA and MVs [OR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.60–0.95]. We found no clear association between FA supplementation and cycle regularity and duration and intensity of menstrual bleeding. Conclusion FA supplementation was inversely associated with short menstrual cycle length. This association was strongest among women aged 18–30 years, nulliparous women, and women who used both FA and MVs. PMID:26123570

  19. GluN2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and excitatory amino acid transporter 3 are upregulated in primary sensory neurons after 7 days of morphine administration in rats: implication for opiate-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Gong, Kerui; Bhargava, Aditi; Jasmin, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of the peripheral nervous system to opiate-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is not well understood. In this study, we determined the changes in excitability of primary sensory neurons after sustained morphine administration for 7 days. Changes in the expression of glutamate receptors and glutamate transporters after morphine administration were ascertained in dorsal root ganglions. Patch clamp recordings from intact dorsal root ganglions (ex vivo preparation) of morphine-treated rats showed increased excitability of small diameter (≤30 μm) neurons with respect to rheobase and membrane threshold, whereas the excitability of large diameter (>30 μm) neurons remained unchanged. Small diameter neurons also displayed increased responses to glutamate, which were mediated mainly by GluN2B containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and to a lesser degree by the neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3/excitatory amino acid carrier 1. Coadministration in vivo of the GluN2B selective antagonist Ro 25-6981 with morphine for 7 days prevented the appearance of OIH and increased morphine-induced analgesia. Administration of morphine for 7 days led to an increased expression of GluN2B and excitatory amino acid transporter 3/excitatory amino acid carrier 1, but not of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate, kainate, or group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, or of the vesicular glutamate transporter 2. These results suggest that peripheral glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to OIH and that GluN2B subunit of NMDA receptors in the periphery may be a target for therapy.

  20. Influence of supplemental vitamin D on intensity of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A longitudinal clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhzadeh, Mahboobeh; Lotfi, Yones; Mousavi, Abdollah; Heidari, Behzad; Monadi, Mohsen; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is linked to vitamin D deficiency. This clinical trial aimed to determine the influence of vitamin D supplementation on intensity of BPPV. Methods: The study population was selected consecutively and the diagnosis of BPPV was made by history and clinical examination and exclusion of other conditions. Intensity of BPVV was assessed based on VAS score (0-10). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured using ELISA method and levels < 20 ng/ml was considered a deficiency. All patients received rehabilitation treatment using Epley's maneuver one time per week for one month. Serum 25-OHD deficient patients were classified as treated and non-treated groups (rehabilitation with or without 50.000 IU cholecalciferol weekly for two months).The results of treatment were compared with vitamin D sufficient group as control. All patients were followed-up for 6 months. Results: After two months of treatment, in both vitamin D treated and non-treated groups the intensity of BPPV decreased significantly as compared with control (P=0.001 for both groups) but at endpoint, the intensity of BPPV aggravated and regressed to the baseline value in vitamin D deficient non-treated group (P=0.001) whereas, in vitamin D treated group, improvement of BPPV remained stable and unchanged over the study period. Conclusion: This study indicates that correction of vitamin D deficiency in BPPV provides additional benefit to rehabilitation therapy (Epley maneuver) regarding duration of improvement. These findings suggest serum 25-OHD measurement in recurrent BPPV. PMID:27386060

  1. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Arega Sadore, Abinet; Abebe Gebretsadik, Lakew; Aman Hussen, Mamusha

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777)), knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537)), and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368)) were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation. PMID:26839573

  2. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bretz, Justin K.; Olson, Jill M.

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued working as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, broodstock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate the project data points and augment past data. Supplementation treatments included the release of 51,329 left ventral-clipped smolts into Clear Creek (750 were PIT tagged), and 12,000 unmarked coded-wire tagged parr into Pete King Creek (998 were PIT tagged). Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 579 naturally produced spring chinook juveniles in Clear Creek, and 54 on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. For Clear Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam of hatchery produced supplementation and naturally produced PIT tagged smolts, were 36.0%, and 53.1%, respectively. For Pete King Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam, of hatchery produced supplementation smolts and naturally produced smolts PIT tagged as parr and presmolts, were 18.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. Adults collected for broodstock in 2002 represented the final adult broodstock group collected for the ISS project. Twenty-six ventral clipped, and 28 natural adult spring chinook were transported above the weir. Monitoring and evaluation of spawning success was continued on Clear and Pete King creeks. A total of 69 redds were counted and 79 carcasses were recovered on Clear Creek. Two redds were observed and no carcasses were collected on Pete King Creek.

  3. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jill Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices. Key pointsSupplement use among the child and adolescent athlete population is widespread with the most frequently used supplement being a form of vitamin/mineral supplement.The effects of supplement use on the growth and development of children and adolescents remain unclear and thus use of supplements by this population should be discouraged.It is likely that there is a misunderstanding as to the role of vitamins and minerals in the diet, their function in maintaining overall health, their role

  4. Effects of Alphabet-Supplemented Speech on Brain Activity of Listeners: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fercho, Kelene; Baugh, Lee A.; Hanson, Elizabeth K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine the neural mechanisms associated with increases in speech intelligibility brought about through alphabet supplementation. Method: Neurotypical participants listened to dysarthric speech while watching an accompanying video of a hand pointing to the 1st letter spoken of each word on an alphabet…

  5. Case study: molasses as the primary energy supplement on an organic grazing dairy farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic dairies face many challenges, one of which is the high cost of purchasing organic feed grains. Many of these farms are seeking lower-cost feed ingredients that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows. Molasses seems to be a viable, less expensive source of supplemental energy and vit...

  6. Dietary supplement labeling and advertising claims: are clinical studies on the full product required?

    PubMed

    Villafranco, John E; Bond, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Whether labeling and advertising claims for multi-ingredient dietary supplements may be based on the testing of individual, key ingredients--rather than the actual product--has caused a good deal of confusion. This confusion stems from the dearth of case law and the open-endedness of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on this issue. Nevertheless, the relevant regulatory guidance, case law and self-regulatory case law--when assessed together--indicate that the law allows and even protects "key ingredient claims" (i.e., claims based on efficacy testing of key ingredients in the absence of full product testing). This article provides an overview of the relevant substantiation requirements for dietary supplement claims and then reviews FTC's and FDA's guidance on key ingredient claims; relevant case law; use of key ingredient claims in the advertising of other consumer products; and the National Advertising Division of the Better Business Bureau, Inc.'s (NAD's) approach to evaluating key ingredient claims for dietary supplements. This article concludes that key ingredient claims--provided they are presented in a truthful and non-deceptive manner--are permissible, and should be upheld in litigation and cases subject to industry self-regulation. This article further concludes that the NAD's approach to key ingredient claims provides practical guidance for crafting and substantiating dietary supplement key ingredient claims. PMID:19998572

  7. Spanish Books for Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced Studies: Elementary Schools, High Schools, Colleges, Libraries. Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1968

    This bibliography, a supplement to the 1967 catalog of 2,400 items of Spanish culture and language, includes 4,165 listings and additional categories in: (1) Spanish and Latin American authors, (2) Spanish translations of international authors, (3) fiction-library selections, (4) anthologies-complete works, (5) individual author collections, (6)…

  8. Dietary supplement labeling and advertising claims: are clinical studies on the full product required?

    PubMed

    Villafranco, John E; Bond, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Whether labeling and advertising claims for multi-ingredient dietary supplements may be based on the testing of individual, key ingredients--rather than the actual product--has caused a good deal of confusion. This confusion stems from the dearth of case law and the open-endedness of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on this issue. Nevertheless, the relevant regulatory guidance, case law and self-regulatory case law--when assessed together--indicate that the law allows and even protects "key ingredient claims" (i.e., claims based on efficacy testing of key ingredients in the absence of full product testing). This article provides an overview of the relevant substantiation requirements for dietary supplement claims and then reviews FTC's and FDA's guidance on key ingredient claims; relevant case law; use of key ingredient claims in the advertising of other consumer products; and the National Advertising Division of the Better Business Bureau, Inc.'s (NAD's) approach to evaluating key ingredient claims for dietary supplements. This article concludes that key ingredient claims--provided they are presented in a truthful and non-deceptive manner--are permissible, and should be upheld in litigation and cases subject to industry self-regulation. This article further concludes that the NAD's approach to key ingredient claims provides practical guidance for crafting and substantiating dietary supplement key ingredient claims.

  9. Language and Literacy Curriculum Supplement for Preschoolers Who Are Academically At Risk: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; McGinty, Anita S.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Kilday, Carolyn R.; Knighton, Kathy; Huffman, Ginger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The potential benefit that a low-cost scripted language and literacy supplemental curriculum titled "Read It Again!" (RIA; L. M. Justice, A. S. McGinty, A. R. Beckman, & C. R. Kilday, 2006) may have on preschool-age children's skills was explored. RIA was developed to meet the needs of preschool educators who may not have access to…

  10. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  11. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of spirulina supplementation on indices of mental and physical fatigue in men.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Morgan; Hassinger, Lauren; Davis, Joshua; Devor, Steven T; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Spirulina may increase people's ability to resist mental and physical fatigue. This study tested that hypothesis in a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study in men. After 1 week, a 3 g/day dose of spirulina produced a small, but statistically significant increase in exercise output (Kcals consumed in 30 min exercise on a cross trainer machine). A mathematical based mental fatigue test showed improved performance 4 h after the first time of supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. Similarly, a subjective survey for a sense of physical and mental fatigue showed improvement within 4 h of the first supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. These results show that spirulina intake can affect fatigue in men. PMID:26888417

  12. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... not been able to prove that dietary or herbal supplements (including omega-3 supplements, cinnamon, and other herbs) ... of people with diabetes used some type of herbal therapy , while another study found that 31 percent used dietary supplements . Certain ethnic groups, such as Hispanics, Native Americans, ...

  13. Real-world experiences of folic acid supplementation (5 versus 30 mg/week) with methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Koh, K T; Teh, C L; Cheah, C K; Ling, G R; Yong, M C; Hong, H C; Gun, S C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the tolerability of methotrexate in two different regimes of folic acid (FA) supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We performed a multicenter, cross-sectional observational cohort study on 240 RA patients with 120 patients each in 5 mg of FA weekly and 30 mg of FA weekly supplementation. There were no significant differences for side effects (14.2 versus 22.5%, P=0.523) and discontinuation of methotrexate (3.6 versus 13.3%, P=0.085). RA patients given 5 mg of FA weekly supplementation had a lower disease activity score 28 compared to 30 mg of FA weekly supplementation [3.44 (1.10) versus 3.85 (1.40), P=0.014]. FA supplementation of 5 mg per week and 30 mg per week was associated with similar tolerability of methotrexate in RA patients. PMID:27608797

  14. Real-world experiences of folic acid supplementation (5 versus 30 mg/week) with methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Koh, K T; Teh, C L; Cheah, C K; Ling, G R; Yong, M C; Hong, H C; Gun, S C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the tolerability of methotrexate in two different regimes of folic acid (FA) supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We performed a multicenter, cross-sectional observational cohort study on 240 RA patients with 120 patients each in 5 mg of FA weekly and 30 mg of FA weekly supplementation. There were no significant differences for side effects (14.2 versus 22.5%, P=0.523) and discontinuation of methotrexate (3.6 versus 13.3%, P=0.085). RA patients given 5 mg of FA weekly supplementation had a lower disease activity score 28 compared to 30 mg of FA weekly supplementation [3.44 (1.10) versus 3.85 (1.40), P=0.014]. FA supplementation of 5 mg per week and 30 mg per week was associated with similar tolerability of methotrexate in RA patients.

  15. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken. PMID:27536035

  16. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  17. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  18. Differential effects of erythropoietin on neural and cognitive measures of executive function 3 and 7 days post-administration.

    PubMed

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Inkster, Becky; O'Sullivan, Ursula; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Goodwin, Guy M; Harmer, Catherine J

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects and improves cognitive function in animal models of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric illness. In humans, weekly Epo administration over 3 months improves cognitive function in schizophrenia. The neural underpinnings and time-course of this effect of Epo are currently unknown. It is also unclear whether the cognitive improvement reflects direct neurobiological actions or is secondary to hematological effects. We therefore assessed the actions of single administration of Epo (40,000 IU) vs. saline to healthy volunteers on cognitive and neural measures of executive function using a verbal fluency task and N-back working memory (WM) paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on day 3 and 7 after administration in two separate cohorts of subjects. Epo modulated neuronal response in a fronto-parietal network during WM performance at both time points; on day 3 after administration, activation was increased in left-hemisphere frontal and cingulate cortex and reduced in the right parietal cortex; in contrast, neural response was enhanced in a right-lateralized fronto-parietal network and reduced in left-side regions 1 week post-administration. In addition, Epo-treated volunteers displayed improved verbal fluency performance 1 week post-administration. These effects occurred in the absence of changes in hematological measures suggesting that they reflect direct neurobiological actions of Epo. The findings are consistent with enduring effects of Epo on neurotrophic signaling and induction of neurochemical changes over time in neural networks typically affected in neuropsychiatric illness. The present study supports the notion that Epo may have clinical applications in the treatment of psychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive dysfunction.

  19. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Design Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. Results A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes. PMID:26605139

  20. Assessing the clinical significance of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 3A activity: comparison of a milk thistle and black cohosh product to rifampin and clarithromycin.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Bill; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Thaden, John; Tong, Yudong; Gentry, W Brooks; Breen, Philip; Carrier, Danielle J; Cheboyina, Shreekar

    2006-02-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) may underlie many herb-drug interactions. This study's purpose was to assess the effects of milk thistle and black cohosh supplementation on CYP3A activity and compare them to a clinically recognized inducer, rifampin, and inhibitor, clarithromycin. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized milk thistle (900 mg) or black cohosh (80 mg) supplement for 14 days. Subjects also received rifampin (600 mg) and clarithromycin (1000 mg) for 7 days as positive controls for CYP3A induction and inhibition, respectively. Midazolam was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. The effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, rifampin, and clarithromycin on midazolam pharmacokinetics were determined using noncompartmental techniques. Unlike those observed for rifampin and clarithromycin, midazolam pharmacokinetics was unaffected by milk thistle or black cohosh. Milk thistle and black cohosh appear to have no clinically relevant effect on CYP3A activity in vivo.

  1. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation in infertile men with low-grade varicocele: an open, uncontrolled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Festa, R; Giacchi, E; Raimondo, S; Tiano, L; Zuccarelli, P; Silvestrini, A; Meucci, E; Littarru, G P; Mancini, A

    2014-09-01

    Many conditions associated with male infertility are inducers of oxidative stress, including varicocele. Antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10, may be useful in this case. To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma of infertile men with varicocele before and after an oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 , 38 patients were recruited from a pilot clinical trial. A standard semen analysis was also performed at baseline and 3 months after an oral supplementation with exogenous coenzyme Q10 100 mg per die. Seminal plasma antioxidant capacity was measured using a spectroscopic method. Coenzyme Q10 therapy improved semen parameters and antioxidant status. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of male infertility, namely in varicocele, and strengthens the possibility of the usefulness of the antioxidant therapy.

  2. γ-Tocopherol-rich supplementation additively improves vascular endothelial function during smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Ballard, Kevin D; Barker, Tyler; Rogers, Victoria E; Parker, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation persist years after smoking cessation thereby limiting the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). Although short-term smoking cessation improves VEF, no studies have examined co-therapy of antioxidants in combination with smoking cessation to improve VEF. We hypothesized that improvements in γ-tocopherol (γ-T) status during smoking cessation would improve VEF beyond that from smoking cessation alone by decreasing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in otherwise healthy smokers (22 ± 1 years; mean ± SEM) who quit smoking for 7 days with placebo (n=14) or γ-T-rich supplementation (n=16; 500 mg γ-T/day). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), cotinine, and biomarkers of antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and inflammation were measured before and after 7 days of smoking cessation. Smoking cessation regardless of supplementation similarly decreased plasma cotinine, whereas γ-T-rich supplementation increased plasma γ-T by seven times and its urinary metabolite γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman by nine times (P<0.05). Smoking cessation with γ-T-rich supplementation increased FMD responses by 1.3% (P<0.05) beyond smoking cessation alone (4.1 ± 0.6% vs 2.8 ± 0.3%; mean ± SEM). Although plasma malondialdehyde decreased similarly in both groups (P<0.05), plasma oxidized LDL and urinary F2-isoprostanes were unaffected by smoking cessation or γ-T-rich supplementation. Plasma TNF-α and myeloperoxidase decreased (P<0.05) only in those receiving γ-T-rich supplements and these were inversely related to FMD (P<0.05; R=-0.46 and -0.37, respectively). These findings demonstrate that short-term γ-T-rich supplementation in combination with smoking cessation improved VEF beyond that from smoking cessation alone in young smokers, probably by decreasing the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α and myeloperoxidase.

  3. Folate supplementation, MTHFR gene polymorphism and neural tube defects: a community based case control study in North India.

    PubMed

    Deb, Roumi; Arora, Jyoti; Meitei, Sanjenbam Yaiphaba; Gupta, Sangeeta; Verma, Vanita; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Saran, Sunil; Kalla, Aloke Kumar

    2011-09-01

    The present study analyses the potential role of MTHFR gene polymorphism, folate supplementation and dietary pattern among the mothers of NTD neonates and controls in heterogeneous populations of North India, with the special focus on their ethnic labels. Results indicated significant increased risk for neural tube defects with respect to low folic acid supplementation and vegetarian diet in univariate and multivariate analyses. There was no significant difference in the genotypic or allelic distribution of MTHFR C677T polymorphism, however, high frequency of CT genotype, as observed, among controls suggests heterozygous advantage probably due to supplementary folate. Among the two communities, Muslim NTD mothers had higher TT genotype showing increased risk for neural tube defects (adjusted OR: 12.9; 95% CI: 1.21-136.8) and lower folic acid supplementation (adjusted OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.18-10.22). Whereas, marginal increased risk for NTDs with vegetarian diet was observed among Hindus. Cultural and ethnic variation in the risk factors for neural tube defects is highlighted in the study. PMID:21792640

  4. An amphetamine isomer whose efficacy and safety in humans has never been studied, β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA), is found in multiple dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Bloszies, Clayton; Yee, Caleb; Gerona, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The amphetamine isomer β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA) was first synthesized in the early 1930s, but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been studied. Recently, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) detected BMPEA in dietary supplements labelled as containing Acacia rigidula. Over a year after the FDA reported its findings, we analyzed Acacia rigidula dietary supplements to determine if BMPEA had been removed. Supplements were analyzed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Diluted methanolic extract from each supplement was run three times and each data set obtained was analyzed using Agilent MassHunter Qualitative Analysis. The presence of BMPEA was confirmed by accurate mass, retention time and mass spectra match against a reference standard. Quantification of BMPEA was determined using an eight-point calibration curve of spiked standard to a matrix blank. Twenty-one brands of Acacia rigidula supplements were analyzed. More than half (11/21; 52.4%) of the Acacia rigidula supplement brands contained BMPEA. The stimulant was present at quantities such that consumers following recommended maximum daily servings would consume a maximum of 93.7 mg of BMPEA per day. Consumers of Acacia rigidula supplements may be exposed to pharmacological dosages of an amphetamine isomer that lacks evidence of safety in humans. The FDA should immediately warn consumers about BMPEA and take aggressive enforcement action to eliminate BMPEA in dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  6. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  7. Case Study: Symptomatic Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia in an Endurance Runner Despite Sodium Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Myers, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is known to be a potential complication from overhydration during exercise, but there remains a general belief that sodium supplementation will prevent EAH. We present a case in which a runner with a prior history of EAH consulted a sports nutritionist who advised him to consume considerable supplemental sodium, which did not prevent him from developing symptomatic EAH during a subsequent long run. Emergency medical services were requested for this runner shortly after he finished a 17-hr, 72-km run and hike in Grand Canyon National Park during which he reported having consumed 9.2-10.6 L of water and >6,500 mg of sodium. First responders determined his serum sodium concentration with point-of-care testing was 122 mEq/L. His hyponatremia was documented to have improved from field treatment with an oral hypertonic solution of 800 mg of sodium in 200 ml of water, and it improved further after significant aquaresis despite in-hospital treatment with isotonic fluids (lactated Ringer's). He was discharged about 5 hr after admission in good condition. This case demonstrates that while oral sodium supplementation does not necessarily prevent symptomatic EAH associated with overhydration, early recognition and field management with oral hypertonic saline in combination with fluid restriction can be effective treatment for mild EAH. There continues to be a lack of universal understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and appropriate hospital management of EAH. PMID:26061675

  8. Effects of pre-weaning feed supplementation and total versus fenceline weaning on the physiology and performance of beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-eight Angus steer calves (initial body weight = 312 ± 28 kilograms), housed on pasture with their dams, were equalized by initial body weight and assigned randomly to receive a highly palatable, high fiber supplement (YS; 4.5 kilograms/head/day) or no supplement (NS) for 7 days prior to weani...

  9. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan C; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-05-11

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals.

  10. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Edmonds, Rohan C.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L.; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals. PMID:27187451

  11. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan C; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals. PMID:27187451

  12. Systematic review of the effects of iodised salt and iodine supplements on prenatal and postnatal growth: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Farebrother, Jessica; Naude, Celeste E; Nicol, Liesl; Sang, Zhongna; Yang, Zhenyu; Andersson, Maria; Jooste, Pieter L; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iodine is an essential micronutrient and component of the thyroid hormones. Sufficient ingestion of iodine is necessary for normal growth and development. If iodine requirements are not met, growth can be impaired. Salt iodisation and supplementation with iodine can prevent iodine deficiency disorders and stunted growth. No systematic review has yet collated the evidence linking iodine to growth. With an increased emphasis on stunting within the WHO Global Nutrition Targets for 2025, we propose a systematic review to address this question. Methods and analysis We will undertake a systematic review, and if appropriate, meta-analyses, evaluating the effects of iodised salt or iodine supplements on prenatal and postnatal somatic growth, until age 18. We will search a number of databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsychINFO, the Cochrane Library, including the CENTRAL register of Controlled Trials and also the WHO library and ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), which includes the Clinicaltrials.gov repository. We will also search Wanfang Data and the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. Included studies must have compared exposure to iodised salt, iodine supplements or iodised oil, to placebo, non-iodised salt or no intervention. Primary outcomes will be continuous and categorical markers of prenatal and postnatal somatic growth. Secondary outcomes will cover further measures of growth, including growth rates and indirect markers of growth such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Ethics and dissemination The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and will be sent directly to the WHO, United Nations Children's Fund, International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and other stakeholders. The results generated from this systematic review will provide evidence to support future programme recommendations regarding iodine fortification or supplementation and

  13. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  14. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure diseases. Do not take supplements instead of your ... Partners Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy ...

  15. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  16. Supplemental vitamin D increases serum cytokines in those with initially low 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyler; Rogers, Victoria E; Levy, Mark; Templeton, Jenna; Goldfine, Howard; Schneider, Erik D; Dixon, Brian M; Henriksen, Vanessa T; Weaver, Lindell K

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if vitamin D status before supplementation influences the cytokine response after supplemental vitamin D. Forty-six reportedly healthy adults (mean(SD); age, 32(7) y; body mass index (BMI), 25.3(4.5) kg/m(2); serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 34.8(12.2) ng/mL) were randomly assigned (double blind) to one of three groups: (1) placebo (n=15), or supplemental vitamin D (cholecalciferol) at (2) 4000 (n=14) or (3) 8000IU (n=17). Supplements were taken daily for 35days. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Baseline, Bsl) and 35-days after (35-d) supplementation. Serum 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)D), cytokines, and intact parathyroid hormone with calcium were measured in each blood sample. Supplemental vitamin D increased serum 25(OH)D (4000IU, ≈29%; 8000IU, ≈57%) and 1,25(OH)D (4000IU, ≈12%; 8000IU, ≈38%) without altering intact parathyroid hormone or calcium. The vitamin D metabolite increases in the supplemental vitamin D groups (n=31) were dependent on initial levels as serum 25(OH)D (r=-0.63, p<0.05) and 1,25(OH)D (r=-0.45, p<0.05) at Bsl correlated with their increases after supplementation. Supplemental vitamin D increased interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 in subjects that were vitamin D insufficient (serum 25(OH)D<29ng/mL) compared to sufficient (serum 25(OH)D⩾30ng/mL) at Bsl. We conclude that supplemental vitamin D increase a pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine in those with initially low serum 25(OH)D. PMID:25461390

  17. Effect of intravenous GLutamine supplementation IN Trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition study protocol (GLINT Study): a prospective, blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Paratz, Jennifer D; Cohen, Jeremy; Banks, Merrilyn; Dulhunty, Joel; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background Trauma patients are characterised by alterations in the immune system, increased exposure to infectious complications, sepsis and potentially organ failure and death. Glutamine supplementation to parenteral nutrition has been proven to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, glutamine supplementation in patients receiving enteral nutrition and its best route are still controversial. Previous trials have been limited by a small sample size, use of surrogate outcomes or a limited period of supplementation. The aim of this trial is to investigate if intravenous glutamine supplementation to trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition is associated with improved clinical outcomes in terms of decreased organ dysfunction, infectious complications and other secondary outcomes. Methods/design Eighty-eight critically ill patients with multiple trauma receiving enteral nutrition will be recruited in this prospective, triple-blind, block-randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive either 0.5 g/kg/day intravenous undiluted alanyl-glutamine or intravenous placebo by continuous infusion (24 h/day). Both groups will be receiving the same standard enteral nutrition protocol and the same standard intensive care unit care. Supplementation will continue until discharge from the intensive care unit, death or a maximum duration of 3 weeks. The primary outcome will be organ-dysfunction evaluation assessed by the pattern of change in sequential organ failure assessment score over a 10-day period. The secondary outcomes are: the changes in total sequential organ failure assessment score on the last day of treatment, infectious complications during the ICU stay, 60-day mortality, length of stay in the intensive care unit and body-composition analysis. Discussion This study is the first trial to investigate the effect of intravenous alanyl-glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition on reducing severity of

  18. Effect of intravenous GLutamine supplementation IN Trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition study protocol (GLINT Study): a prospective, blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Al Balushi, Ruqaiya M; Paratz, Jennifer D; Cohen, Jeremy; Banks, Merrilyn; Dulhunty, Joel; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background Trauma patients are characterised by alterations in the immune system, increased exposure to infectious complications, sepsis and potentially organ failure and death. Glutamine supplementation to parenteral nutrition has been proven to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, glutamine supplementation in patients receiving enteral nutrition and its best route are still controversial. Previous trials have been limited by a small sample size, use of surrogate outcomes or a limited period of supplementation. The aim of this trial is to investigate if intravenous glutamine supplementation to trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition is associated with improved clinical outcomes in terms of decreased organ dysfunction, infectious complications and other secondary outcomes. Methods/design Eighty-eight critically ill patients with multiple trauma receiving enteral nutrition will be recruited in this prospective, triple-blind, block-randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive either 0.5 g/kg/day intravenous undiluted alanyl-glutamine or intravenous placebo by continuous infusion (24 h/day). Both groups will be receiving the same standard enteral nutrition protocol and the same standard intensive care unit care. Supplementation will continue until discharge from the intensive care unit, death or a maximum duration of 3 weeks. The primary outcome will be organ-dysfunction evaluation assessed by the pattern of change in sequential organ failure assessment score over a 10-day period. The secondary outcomes are: the changes in total sequential organ failure assessment score on the last day of treatment, infectious complications during the ICU stay, 60-day mortality, length of stay in the intensive care unit and body-composition analysis. Discussion This study is the first trial to investigate the effect of intravenous alanyl-glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition on reducing severity of organ

  19. Nutrition and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

    1999-08-01

    Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally

  20. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  1. Vitamin and multiple-vitamin supplement intake and incidence of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Yu, Qiuyan; Zhu, Zhenli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Meilan; Tang, Pingyi; Li, Ke

    2015-01-01

    This paper systematically evaluated the association of intake of different vitamins and multiple-vitamin supplements and the incidence of colorectal cancer. Relevant studies were identified in MEDLINE via PubMed (published up to April 2014). We extracted data from articles on vitamins A, C, D, E, B9 (folate), B2, B3, B6, and B12 and multiple-vitamin supplements. We used multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and a random-effects model for analysis and random effects. With heterogeneity, we looked for the source of heterogeneity or performed sensitivity and stratified analyses. We found 47 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The multivariable-adjusted RR for pooled studies for the association between the highest versus lowest vitamin B9 (folate) intake and colorectal cancer was 0.88 [95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.81-0.95]. Vitamin D was 0.87 (95 % CI 0.77-0.99); vitamin B6, 0.88 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99); vitamin B2, 0.86 (95 % CI, 0.76-0.97); vitamin A, 0.87 (95 % CI, 0.75-1.03); vitamin C, 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.80-1.06); vitamin E, 0.94 (95 % CI, 0.82-1.07); vitamin B12, 1.10 (95 % CI, 0.92-1.32); vitamin B3, 1.18 (95 % CI, 0.76-1.84). Vitamin B9 (folate), D, B6, and B2 intake was inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer, but further study is needed. Our study featured unacceptable heterogeneity for studies of multiple-vitamin supplements, so findings were inconclusive.

  2. Efficacy of micronutrient supplementation on skin aging and seasonal variation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Fanian, Ferial; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Jeudy, Adeline; Lihoreau, Thomas; Messikh, Rafat; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Elkhyat, Ahmed; Guichard, Alexandre; Kenari, Kamran Hejazi; Humbert, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have confirmed dramatic changes in skin surface parameters during the winter months. Although there are many studies supporting the positive effects of topical treatment, there are no published studies demonstrating the effects of oral supplementation in the prevention of negative skin changes during winter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral micronutrient supplement in preventing the negative effects of winter weather on skin quality using noninvasive biometrologic instruments. Methods This study included 80 healthy female volunteers aged 35–55 years with phototype II–IV skin. Randomization was balanced. Two tablets of a micronutrient supplement (Perfectil® Platinum) or placebo were administered once daily for 4 months. The volunteers were examined at baseline, after 4 months, and 6 weeks after termination of treatment (month 5.5). The evaluation included skin microrelief by Visioscan® as the main outcome, and the secondary outcomes were results on standard macrophotography, skin tension by Reviscometer®, skin high-frequency ultrasound, and self-assessment. Results For all pseudoroughness and microrelief indicators, there was a significant increase from baseline to month 4 in the placebo group (P<0.05) but no change in the active group. Descriptive statistics for the mean minimum, mean maximum, and minimum to maximum ratio on the nonexposed study zone showed a significant and dramatic difference between baseline and month 4 and between baseline and month 5.5 (P<0.05) in the active group, indicating decreasing anisotropy of the skin. High-frequency ultrasound on the exposed study zone revealed that skin thickness was significantly decreased in the placebo group during winter but was stable in the treated group (P<0.01). The photography scaling and self-assessment questionnaire revealed no significant changes in either group. Conclusion These results indicate that the skin is prone to seasonal changes

  3. A pilot study of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral concentrations and growth of exclusively breast fed infants.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Taghipour, Sharare; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila; Hezaveh, Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami

    2015-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of breast milk mineral contents for health and growth of the infants, they decrease with the duration of lactation. So, this pilot study aimed to determine the effects of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral composition and infants' growth. In this pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 57 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive a daily supplement of synbiotic (n=30) or a placebo (n=27) for 30 days. Breast milk zinc, copper, Iron, magnesium and, calcium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Weight for age Z-score (WAZ) and height for age Z-score (HAZ) were assessed for infants. Dietary intake was collected from lactating women using the 24-h recall method. Data analyses were carried out using nutritionist IV, Epi Info and SPSS soft wares. Synbiotic supplementation led to an insignificant increase of the mean breast milk levels of zinc (from 2.44±0.65 to 2.55±0.55mgL(-1)), copper (from 0.35±0.24 to 0.40±0.26mgL(-1)), iron (from 0.28±0.42 to 0.31±0.38mgL(-1)), magnesium (from 17.14±1.35 to 17.17±1.09mgL(-1)), and calcium (from 189±25.3 to 189.9±21.7mgL(-1)); whilst in the placebo group, these variables decreased significantly (P=0.001). The observed changes between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Although WAZ and HAZ of infants increased slightly in the supplemented group (from 1.19±0.79 to 1.20±0.69 and 0.36±0.86 to 0.37±0.85 respectively), these two parameters decreased in the placebo group which was significant only for WAZ (P=0.01). Moreover, no significant association was found between mineral intake and breast milk mineral contents. It seems, synbiotic supplementation may have positive effects on breast milk mineral contents.

  4. Probiotic supplementation prevents high-fat, overfeeding-induced, insulin resistance in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hulston, Carl J.; Churnside, Amelia A.; Venables, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus casei Shirota [LcS]) prevents diet-induced insulin resistance in humans. Seventeen healthy individuals were randomised to probiotic (n = 8) or control (n = 9) groups. The probiotic group consumed an LcS-fermented milk drink twice daily for 4 weeks whereas the control group received no supplementation. Subjects maintained their normal diet for the first 3 weeks of the study, after which they consumed a high-fat (65% energy) high-energy (+50% kcal) diet for 7 days. Whole body insulin sensitivity was assessed via an oral glucose tolerance test conducted before and after overfeeding. Body mass increased by 0.6 ± 0.2 kg in the control group (p < 0.05) and 0.3 ± 0.2 kg in the probiotic group (p > 0.05). Fasting plasma glucose concentrations increased following 7 days of overeating (control group only; 5.3 ± 0.1 vs. 5.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L, p < 0.05) whereas fasting serum insulin concentrations were maintained in both groups. Glucose AUC increased by 10% (from 817 ± 45 to 899 ± 39 mmol/L/120 min, p < 0.05) and whole body insulin sensitivity decreased by 27% (from 5.3 ± 1.4 to 3.9 ± 0.9, p < 0.05) in the control group, whereas normal insulin sensitivity was maintained in the probiotic group (4.4 ± 0.8 and 4.5 ± 0.9 before and after overeating, respectively, p > 0.05). These results suggest that probiotic supplementation may be useful in the prevention of diet-induced metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. PMID:25630516

  5. β-alanine Supplementation Fails to Increase Peak Aerobic Power or Ventilatory Threshold in Aerobically Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Katalinas, Matthew E; Shaholli, Danielle M; Gallo, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 30 days of β-alanine supplementation on peak aerobic power and ventilatory threshold (VT) in aerobically fit males. Fourteen males (28.8 ± 9.8 yrs) were assigned to either a β-alanine (SUPP) or placebo (PLAC) group; groups were matched for VT as it was the primary outcome measure. β-alanine supplementation consisted of 3 g/day for 7 days, and 6 g/day for the remaining 23 days. Before and after the supplementation period, subjects performed a continuous, graded cycle ergometry test to determine VO2 peak and VT. Metabolic data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 ANOVA with repeated measures. Thirty days of β-alanine supplementation (SUPP) did not increase VO2 peak (4.05 ± 0.6 vs. 4.14 ± 0.6 L/min) as compared to the placebo (PLAC) group (3.88 ± 0.2 vs. 3.97 ± 0.2 L/min) (p > .05). VT did not significantly improve in either the SUPP (3.21 ± 0.5 vs. 3.33 ± 0.5 L/min) or PLAC (3.19 ± 0.1 vs. 3.20 ± 0.1 L/min) group (p > .05). In conclusion, 30 days of β-alanine supplementation had no effect on VO2 peak or VT in aerobically trained athletes.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves dry eye symptoms in patients with glaucoma: results of a prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Vazquez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement with a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye symptoms caused by chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops in patients with glaucoma. Patients and methods A total of 1,255 patients with glaucoma and dry eye symptoms related to antiglaucoma topical medication participated in an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective, and multicenter study and were instructed to take three capsules a day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudypio® 1.5 g) for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (graded as 0–3 [none to severe, respectively]), conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time, Schirmer I test, Oxford grading scheme, and intraocular pressure were assessed. Results After 12 weeks of administration of the dietary supplement, all dry eye symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001) (mean 1.3 vs 0.6 for scratching, 1.4 vs 0.7 for stinging sensation, 1.6 vs 0.7 for grittiness, 1.0 vs 0.4 for tired eyes, 1.1 vs 0.5 for grating sensation, and 0.8 vs 0.3 for blurry vision). The Schirmer test scores and the tear breakup time also increased significantly. There was an increase in the percentage of patients grading 0–I in the Oxford scale and a decrease in those grading IV–V. Compliance was recorded in 62.5% of patients. In compliant patients, the mean differences at 12 weeks vs baseline of dry eye symptoms were statistically significant as compared to noncompliant patients. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with Brudypio® may be a clinically valuable additional option for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. These results require confirmation with an appropriately designed randomized controlled study. PMID:27103781

  7. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. PMID:27405305

  8. Estimation of minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge for selected stream sites, and associated low-flow water-quality data, southeast Texas, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Texas that provides discharge data used for water-management decisions and various other purposes. Operating stations at all locations where discharge data are needed is not feasible, but the statistical characteristics of the network station data can be used to estimate discharge characteristics at ungaged sites. Regionalization techniques such as regression analyses relate discharge-frequency characteristics to selected physical and climatic characteristics of drainage basins. A particular discharge-frequency characteristic that can be regionalized is the minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge1 (7Q2). In Texas, the 7Q2 is used at stream sites to analyze permit applications for water allocation, water-supply planning, aquatic maintenance (instream flow) requirements, and waste-load allocation for point and nonpoint source discharges.

  9. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  10. Vitamin D3 Supplementation and Antibiotic Consumption – Results from a Prospective, Observational Study at an Immune-Deficiency Unit in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Norlin, Anna-Carin; Hansen, Susanne; Wahren-Borgström, Emilie; Granert, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed to improve clinical symptoms during respiratory tract infections (RTIs), but results from randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCT) are inconclusive. Previously, we performed an RCT in patients with various immune-disorders and observed that supplementation with 4000 IU vitamin D/day during 12 months significantly reduced antibiotic consumption and RTIs. This formed the basis for new guidelines at our unit; i.e. patients with insufficient levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (≤75 nmol/L) are now offered vitamin D supplementation. The aim of this prospective follow-up study was to evaluate the outcome of these new recommendations with regard to antibiotic consumption in our unit. Method 277 patients with insufficiency were supplemented with vitamin D3, 1500–1600 IU/day for 12 months. Each patient was its own control and data on antibiotic consumption was monitored 12 months before and 12 months after initiation of vitamin D3 supplementation. Results Vitamin D3 supplementation resulted in a significantly reduced antibiotic consumption, from 20 to 15 days/patient (p<0.05). The number of antibiotic-free patients increased from 52 to 81 after vitamin D3 supplementation; OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.20–2.66 (p<0.01). The number of antibiotic-prescriptions decreased significantly, a finding that mainly was attributed to a reduction of respiratory tract antibiotics (p<0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that only patients without immunoglobulin substitution (n = 135) had a significant effect of vitamin D supplementation. Conclusion Vitamin D3 supplementation of 1600 IE /day is safe to use in immunodeficient patients with 25-OHD levels less than 75 nmol/L and significantly reduced the antibiotic consumption in patients without immunoglobulin substitution. PMID:27657724

  11. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes: A 1-year, open-label randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects prevents the development of diabetes is a matter of debate, and the results are inconsistent. This open-label, randomized study in subjects with prediabetes evaluated the effect of 12 months of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes in an ethnically homogeneous Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 subjects were diagnosed as prediabetes out of which 137 subjects were randomized to receive in addition to standard lifestyle measures, either Vitamin D 60,000 IU weekly for 4 weeks and then 60,000 IU monthly (n = 69) or no Vitamin D (n = 68). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels were estimated at 0, 6 and 12 months. Changes in FPG, 2-h plasma glucose, A1C level and the proportion of subjects developing diabetes were assessed among 129 subjects. Results: At 12 months, A1C levels were significantly lesser (5.7% ± 0.4%) in the Vitamin D supplemented group when compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented (6.0% ± 0.3%). Similarly, FPG (97 ± 7) and 2-h plasma glucose (132 ± 16) were significantly less in Vitamin D supplemented group as compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented group (FPG = 116 ± 6 and 2-h plasma glucose = 157 ± 25) at 12 months. Nine out of 65 in non-Vitamin D supplemented and seven out of 64 in the Vitamin D supplemented group developed diabetes. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects significantly lowered FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels. PMID:25932396

  12. Effect of a novel dietary supplement on pH levels of healthy volunteers: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen Douglas; Lu, Xiaomin; Bank, Ginny; Heekin, Kacey; Saha, Debbie; Dubyak, Pamela Jean; Hausenblas, Heather Ann

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of a greens alkalizing dietary supplement on urinary pH levels in individuals with lower than average pH levels. METHODS The present study investigated the effects of an alkalizing formula (Reserveage Wholeganic Greens™) on four individuals who had average urinary pH levels below 6.0 for three consecutive days. Following the three-day, baseline period, participants received Reserveage Wholeganic Greens™ for four consecutive days and were instructed to continue to measure their urine pH levels. Paired samples t-tests were used to examine pH levels before and after a four day treatment period with Reserveage Wholeganic Greens™. RESULTS Compared to baseline, mean urine pH levels in all volunteers were significantly higher following the supplementation with Reserveage Wholeganic Greens™ (5.89 ± 0.20 vs 5.56 ± 0.23; P<0.01). Participants’ pH levels were also significantly higher than baseline on days 5, 6, and 7 of the treatment period (P < 0.05). Noteworthy, on day 7, participants’ mean pH levels were significantly higher than at the beginning of the treatment period (6.03 ± 0.15 at day 7 vs 5.65 ± 0.24 at day 4; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION The findings of this study suggest that supplementation with Reserveage Wholeganic Greens™ has an alkalizing effect on the body and can increase the urine pH levels in individuals with lower than average pH levels. PMID:24125056

  13. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain – a pilot study of gait analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Otsuka, Yuta; Izumo, Takayuki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Nagao, Hideyuki; Ogawara, Keita; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Seiji; Nakamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, we demonstrated that glucosamine-containing supplementation was effective for improving locomotor functions, especially walking speed. However, the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy has not been elucidated. This study aimed to address this challenge in subjects with knee pain, using a motion capture system. Methods An open label study was conducted in 30 Japanese subjects with knee pain. The subjects were administered a daily supplement containing 1,200 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride, 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate, 45 mg of type II collagen peptides, 90 mg of quercetin glycosides, 10 mg of imidazole peptides, 1 mg of proteoglycan, and 5 μg of vitamin D (GCQID). The intervention continued for 16 weeks. Efficacy for locomotor functions involving the knee joint was evaluated mainly using the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) and the 5-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-5). To examine the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy for locomotor functions, motions of subjects in a normal walking state were captured. Gait analysis was conducted and efficacy for gait parameters such as normal walking speed, stride length, cadence, and angle of soles was evaluated. Results GCQID significantly improved total scores on the JKOM and GLFS-5. In gait analysis, normal walking speed, stride length, and angle of soles at the end of the stance phase were all significantly increased, but cadence did not change significantly during the intervention period. There were significant intercorrelations of changes in normal walking speed, stride length, and angle of soles at the end of the stance phase, and between changes in stride length and total JKOM score. Conclusion A GCQID supplement may increase walking speed through increased stride length and angle of kicking from the ground during steps, which might be mainly associated with alleviated knee pain. PMID:27382267

  14. A preliminary study on Oxya fuscovittata (Marschall) as an alternative nutrient supplement in the diets of Poecillia sphenops (Valenciennes).

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Arijit; Chakravorty, Ranita; Sarkar, Angshuman; Mandal, Dipak K; Haldar, Parimalendu; Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, Jose Manuel Pino

    2014-01-01

    Growth of the ornamental fish industry is being hindered by the scarcity of low cost feed; hence alternative protein supplements should be explored. In this context the present study aims to evaluate whether the grasshopper Oxya fuscovittata could be used as a supplement for fish meal in the diets of Poecillia sphenops, which is one of the most common ornamental fishes worldwide. The present work is divided into three phases: In the first phase proximate composition of the grasshopper is obtained and five diets are prepared where fish meal is gradually replaced by Oxya meal and named as control, D1, D2, D3 and D4. All the diets are formulated on iso-nitrogenous basis where the protein percentage is fixed at 400 g/kg. The second phase deals with feeding trial and in the third phase all the data of the feeding trial are subjected to a linear model. The feeding trial shows that the control, D1 and D2 fed fishes have almost similar results. The linear model proves that the variation in the indices are mainly due to replacement of fish meal by Oxya meal, not due to the variations of rice husk and mustard oil cake that are also used to formulate the diets of the present study. From the results two Oxya supplemented diets, i.e. D1 and D2 are proved to be almost equivalent to the control diet. Hence it is concluded that Oxya meal is able to replace 25% to 50% of fish meal from the diets of P. sphenops. PMID:25383946

  15. A Preliminary Study on Oxya fuscovittata (Marschall) as an Alternative Nutrient Supplement in the Diets of Poecillia sphenops (Valenciennes)

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Arijit; Chakravorty, Ranita; Sarkar, Angshuman; Mandal, Dipak K.; Haldar, Parimalendu; Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, Jose Manuel Pino

    2014-01-01

    Growth of the ornamental fish industry is being hindered by the scarcity of low cost feed; hence alternative protein supplements should be explored. In this context the present study aims to evaluate whether the grasshopper Oxya fuscovittata could be used as a supplement for fish meal in the diets of Poecillia sphenops, which is one of the most common ornamental fishes worldwide. The present work is divided into three phases: In the first phase proximate composition of the grasshopper is obtained and five diets are prepared where fish meal is gradually replaced by Oxya meal and named as control, D1, D2, D3 and D4. All the diets are formulated on iso-nitrogenous basis where the protein percentage is fixed at 400 g/kg. The second phase deals with feeding trial and in the third phase all the data of the feeding trial are subjected to a linear model. The feeding trial shows that the control, D1 and D2 fed fishes have almost similar results. The linear model proves that the variation in the indices are mainly due to replacement of fish meal by Oxya meal, not due to the variations of rice husk and mustard oil cake that are also used to formulate the diets of the present study. From the results two Oxya supplemented diets, i.e. D1 and D2 are proved to be almost equivalent to the control diet. Hence it is concluded that Oxya meal is able to replace 25% to 50% of fish meal from the diets of P. sphenops. PMID:25383946

  16. Effect of salt intake and potassium supplementation on serum renalase levels in Chinese adults: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Dan; Mu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Ke-Yu; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Chu, Chao; Wang, Lan; Geng, Li-Ke; Yuan, Zu-Yi

    2014-07-01

    Renalase, a recently discovered enzyme released by the kidneys, breaks down blood-borne catecholamines and may thus regulate blood pressure (BP). Animal studies have suggested that high levels of dietary salt might reduce blood and kidney renalase levels. We conducted a randomized trial to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium intake on serum renalase levels and the relationship between serum renalase levels and BP in humans.Forty-two subjects (28-65 years of age) were selected from a rural community of northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for additional 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl), and a high-salt diet with potassium supplementation for final 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl + 4.5 g/day of KCl).Serum renalase levels were significantly higher than baseline levels during the low-salt diet intervention period. Renalase levels decreased with the change from the low-salt to high-salt diet, whereas dietary potassium prevented the decrease in serum renalase induced by the high-salt diet. There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum renalase level and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. No significant correlation was found between the renalase level and BP among the different dietary interventions.The present study indicates that variations in dietary salt intake and potassium supplementation affect the serum renalase concentration in Chinese subjects.

  17. A study on verifying the effectiveness of 4-week composite weight-loss dietary supplement ingestion on body composition and blood lipid changes in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yoonseok; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Sung, Suhyun; Jung, Matthew; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a composite weight-loss dietary supplement on body composition and blood lipid changes in middle-aged women. Methods Thirty seven middle-aged women living in the Kyunggi area participated in this study and they were randomly divided into 2 groups (Dietary supplement ingestion group; DG, n = 20 and Placebo group; PG, n = 17). Blood draw and dual energy x-ray (DEXA) measurements were conducted to examine changes in body composition and blood lipids. Results There were no significant changes in weight and BMI in both groups. There was an interaction between the composite weight-loss dietary supplement intake and lean body mass in DG and there was a significant decrease in percent body fat in DG. Blood lipid changes in the study results showed that there was no significant difference in TC, TG, and LDL in both groups; however, there was a significant interaction between the composite weight-loss dietary supplement intake and HDL-C as well as an increase in the HDL-C of DG. Conclusion In conclusion, it seems that 4-week ingestion of the composite weight-loss dietary supplement decreased body fat, increased lean body mass, and increased HDL-C. Therefore, the composite weight-loss dietary supplement is expected to prevent obesity and induce health improvements in middle-aged women. PMID:26527460

  18. Individually and Combined Water-Based Exercise With Ginger Supplement, on Systemic Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome Indices, Among the Obese Women With Breast Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Niloofar; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Fathi Bayatiyani, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast neoplasms has known as the most common cancer among the women worldwide, and relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and cancer has been recognized since many years ago. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the individual and concomitant effect of 6-weeks water-based exercise and oral ginger supplement on markers that have related to metabolic syndrome and systemic inflammation in obese women with breast neoplasms. Patients and Methods: Forty women whose have diagnosed with breast neoplasms have volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects have randomly assigned into four groups; placebo, exercise training, ginger supplement and exercise training+ ginger supplement groups. Subjects in the ginger supplement group and the exercise training+ ginger supplement group have orally received 4 capsules, 7 days a week and for 6 weeks. The water-based exercise training program have collected at a progressive intensity and time, have ranged from 50% to 75% of heart rate reserve, in a pool, 4 times a week for 6 weeks. Fasting blood sampling has collected at the pretest and post-test. Results: The ginger supplementation and the water-base exercise have resulted in a reduction of hs-CRP, IL-10, insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, LDL-C, TG; but an increase in HDL-C and HDL-C/LDL-C. The water-base exercise and ginger supplement group have significantly shown larger positive effect in all outcomes, in comparison with the water-base exercise or ginger supplement alone groups. Conclusions: Findings have suggested that obese breast neoplasms survivors have commonly shown metabolic syndrome and elevated inflammation, which placed them at an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, data has indicated a protective effect of the nondrug strategies, such as water-base exercise and ginger supplementation have played an important role in pathogenesis of inflammatory and metabolic responses, among diagnosed breast

  19. Long-term improvements in sensory inhibition with gestational choline supplementation linked to α7 nicotinic receptors through studies in Chrna7 null mutation mice.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Karen E; Choo, Kevin S; Stitzel, Jerry A; Marks, Michael J; Adams, Catherine E

    2014-03-13

    Perinatal choline supplementation has produced several benefits in rodent models, from improved learning and memory to protection from the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure. We have shown that supplemented choline through gestation and lactation produces long-term improvement in deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice which models a similar deficit in schizophrenia patients. The present study extends that research by feeding normal or supplemented choline diets to DBA/2 mice carrying the null mutation for the α7 nicotinic receptor gene (Chrna7). DBA/2 mice heterozygotic for Chrna7 were bred together. Dams were placed on supplemented (5 gm/kg diet) or normal (1.1 gm/kg diet) choline at mating and remained on the specific diet until offspring weaning. Thereafter, offspring were fed standard rodent chow. Adult offspring were assessed for sensory inhibition. Brains were obtained to ascertain hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor levels. Choline-supplemented mice heterozygotic or null-mutant for Chrna7 failed to show improvement in sensory inhibition. Only wildtype choline-supplemented mice showed improvement with the effect solely through a decrease in test amplitude. This supports the hypothesis that gestational-choline supplementation is acting through the α7 nicotinic receptor to improve sensory inhibition. Although there was a significant gene-dose-related change in hippocampal α7 receptor numbers, binding studies did not reveal any choline-dose-related change in binding in any hippocampal region, the interaction being driven by a significant genotype main effect (wildtype>heterozygote>null mutant). These data parallel a human study wherein the offspring of pregnant women receiving choline supplementation during gestation, showed better sensory inhibition than offspring of women on placebo. PMID:24462939

  20. Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and fat metabolism in rats with L-tryptophan supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Wen, Yanmei; Zhou, Yan; Fu, Xiaofang; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Yao, Kang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2014-12-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is an important precursor for several neurotransmitters and metabolic regulators, which play a vital role in regulating nutrient metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tryptophan supplementation on the biochemical profiles, intestinal structure, liver structure and serum metabolome in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either tryptophan at doses of 200 mg/kg body weight per day or saline (control group) for 7 days. TRP supplementation had a tendency to decrease the body weight of rats (P > 0.05). The levels of urea and CHO in serum were decreased in the TRP-supplemented group rats compared with control group rats (P < 0.05). TRP supplementation increased the villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum compared to control group rats (P < 0.05). Metabolic effects of tryptophan supplementation include: (1) increases in the serum concentrations of lysine, glycine, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, citrulline, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and albumin, and decreases in the concentrations of serum branched-chain amino acid (isoleucine, valine and leucine); (2) decreases in the serum concentrations of formate and nitrogenous products (trimethylamine, TMAO, methylamine and dimethylamine), and in the contraction of trimethylamine in feces; (3) decreases in serum levels of lipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, together with the elevated ratio of acetoacetate to β-hydroxybutyrate. The results indicate that tryptophan supplementation reduced the catabolism of dietary amino acids and promoted protein synthesis in rats, promoted the oxidation of fatty acid and reduced fat deposition in the body of rats. PMID:25139634

  1. Glucose Metabolism Effects of Vitamin D in Prediabetes: The VitDmet Randomized Placebo-Controlled Supplementation Study

    PubMed Central

    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Voutilainen, Sari; Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; de Mello, Vanessa D. F.; Schwab, Ursula; Hakumäki, Martti; Pulkki, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a role for vitamin D in type 2 diabetes prevention. We investigated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on glucose metabolism and inflammation in subjects with prediabetes. A 5-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention with three arms (placebo, 40 μg/d, or 80 μg/d vitamin D3) was carried out among sixty-eight overweight (BMI 25–35) and aging (≥60 years) subjects from Finland, with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] < 75 nmol/L and either impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Analyses included 66 subjects who completed the trial. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by fasting and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test-derived indices and glycated hemoglobin. Inflammation was evaluated by high-sensitive C-reactive protein and five cytokines. Although a dose-dependent increase in serum 25(OH)D3 over the supplementation period was observed (P trend < 0.001), there were no other statistically significant differences in changes in the 13 glucose homeostasis indicators between the study groups other than increase in the 120 min glucose concentration (P trend = 0.021) and a decreasing trend both in 30 min plasma insulin (P trend = 0.030) and glycated hemoglobin (P trend = 0.024) concentrations. A borderline statistically significant decreasing trend in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist concentration was observed (P = 0.070). Vitamin D3 supplementation does not improve glucose metabolism in ageing subjects with prediabetes but may have modest anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26106626

  2. Glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-07-18

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formulation of enteral nutrition contains some glutamine: 2-4 g/L. However, this dose is insufficient to normalize glutamine plasma concentration.Plasma concentration of glutamine is low in many patients with critical illness and a low level is an independent risk factor for mortality. A low plasma glutamine concentration is the best indicator of glutamine depletion. Data are emerging about how the endogenous production of glutamine is regulated. We know that skeletal muscle is the major producer of glutamine and that a part of the profound depletion of skeletal muscle seen in critical illness is a reflection of the need to produce glutamine.Glutamine is utilized in rapidly dividing cells in the splanchnic area. Quantitatively most glutamine is oxidized, but the availability of glutamine in surplus is important for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides and necessary for cell division and protein synthesis. More knowledge about the regulation of the endogenous production of glutamine is needed to outline better guidelines for glutamine supplementation in the future.

  3. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... specialist. The doc will be able to offer alternatives to supplements based on your body and sport. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: January 2015 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Sports Center Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A ...

  4. Maternal supplement, micronutrient, and cured meat intake during pregnancy and risk of medulloblastoma during childhood: a children's oncology group study.

    PubMed

    Bunin, Greta R; Gallagher, Paul R; Rorke-Adams, Lucy B; Robison, Leslie L; Cnaan, Avital

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a case-control study of medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors of brain (PNET) to pursue findings related to vitamin and mineral supplements, micronutrients, and cured meat consumption during gestation. Mothers of 315 cases ages <6 years at diagnosis in 1991 to 1997 identified from the United States and Canada through the Children's Oncology Group and mothers of 315 controls selected by random-digit dialing were interviewed. In the periconception period of the index pregnancy, case mothers were less likely than control mothers to report use of multivitamins [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.4-1.0; P = 0.08] and to be in the highest quartile of iron and folate intake from food and supplements combined (adjusted OR for iron, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P(trend) = 0.008; adjusted OR for folate, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P(trend) = 0.007). Case and control mothers had similar intakes of cured meats, although case mothers were more likely to have the combination of high cured meat and low vitamin C intake (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.3; P = 0.08). The results of the study add to the evidence of a protective role for multivitamins, suggest a possible role for micronutrients early in pregnancy, and generally do not support an association between cured meats and medulloblastoma/PNET. PMID:16985028

  5. Functional foods and food supplements for athletes: from myths to benefit claims substantiation through the study of selected biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Brouns, Fred; Nieuwenhoven, Michiel van; Jeukendrup, Asker; Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter van

    2002-11-01

    The development of the sports food market and industrial involvement have led to numerous nutritional studies to define the type of nutrients that are most suited to support energy metabolism, fluid balance and muscle function. The key question in many of these studies was: 'Does the product lead to a significant product/consumer benefit that can be used as a claim on the package?' New methods and techniques have been developed, partly with sponsorship of the food industry, with the goal of measuring the effects of specific nutrients and supplements on athletic performance and metabolism. In line with this development, a wide variety of supplements and sports foods/drinks labelled with various performance or health benefit statements have been launched on the sports nutrition market. Although a variety of products have been tested clinically, there are also many products on the market with benefit claims that cannot be supported by sound nutritional and sports physiological science. The current short review highlights some of the methods and biomarkers that are used to substantiate product/consumer benefit claims for foods and drinks that are marketed as functional foods for athletes.

  6. Tongkat Ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ralf R; Wang, Ruxiang; Bassett, Susan H; Chen, Tao; Liu, Na; Zhu, Ying; Tambi, Mohd Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength. PMID:23754792

  7. Tongkat Ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ralf R; Wang, Ruxiang; Bassett, Susan H; Chen, Tao; Liu, Na; Zhu, Ying; Tambi, Mohd Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength.

  8. Functional foods and food supplements for athletes: from myths to benefit claims substantiation through the study of selected biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Brouns, Fred; Nieuwenhoven, Michiel van; Jeukendrup, Asker; Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter van

    2002-11-01

    The development of the sports food market and industrial involvement have led to numerous nutritional studies to define the type of nutrients that are most suited to support energy metabolism, fluid balance and muscle function. The key question in many of these studies was: 'Does the product lead to a significant product/consumer benefit that can be used as a claim on the package?' New methods and techniques have been developed, partly with sponsorship of the food industry, with the goal of measuring the effects of specific nutrients and supplements on athletic performance and metabolism. In line with this development, a wide variety of supplements and sports foods/drinks labelled with various performance or health benefit statements have been launched on the sports nutrition market. Although a variety of products have been tested clinically, there are also many products on the market with benefit claims that cannot be supported by sound nutritional and sports physiological science. The current short review highlights some of the methods and biomarkers that are used to substantiate product/consumer benefit claims for foods and drinks that are marketed as functional foods for athletes. PMID:12495460

  9. The potential of Supplemental Instruction in engineering education - helping new students to adjust to and succeed in University studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2015-07-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a programme that is attached to difficult courses with the objective of increasing student performance and retention. However, an SI programme also has the potential to increase overall student performance and retention during the first critical year if applied to introductory courses. In this study the latter objective is investigated in an engineering educational environment. The study shows that an SI programme attached to difficult first semester courses for new engineering students has substantial positive effects on both first-year student performance and retention. Both male and female students appear to benefit from attending SI to the same extent. Some potential reasons for these improved first-year student performances are that attendance at SI sessions appears to lead to improved self-confidence, a broader network of study partners, improved study strategies and problem-solving skills and an increased ability to critically review material and work with others.

  10. Factors associated with compliance of prenatal iron folate supplementation among women in Mecha district, Western Amhara: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Taye, Bekele; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonen, Alemetsehaye

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iron and folate supplementation can effectively control and prevent anaemia in pregnancy. In Ethiopia, all pregnant women are prescribed iron folate during their ANC visit. However, limited adherence is thought to be a major reason for the low effectiveness of iron supplementation programs. Therefore this study was done to investigate factors associated with compliance of prenatal iron folate supplementation among women who gave birth in the last 12 months before the survey in Mecha district. Methods Community based cross sectional study design was employed in Mecha district from June 25 - July 15/2013. A sample of 634 women who gave birth 12 months before the survey was included in the study. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling technique after allocating the total sample to each kebele proportionally. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured Amharic questionnaire. Collected data were edited, coded and entered to Epi info version 3.1 and exported to‘ SPSS version 16. Bivariate and multivariable analysis was computed. Results A total of 628 women who gave birth twelve months before the survey were enrolled. In this study only 20.4% of participants were compliant with iron foliate supplementation. In multivariable analysis, age of the mother, educational status of the mother, knowledge of anaemia and iron folate tablets, and history of anaemia during pregnancy were significantly associated with compliance to iron folate supplementation (P < .05). Belief that too many tablets would harm the baby and fear of side effects were the major reasons given for noncompliance. Conclusion Compliance to iron folate supplementation is very low in the study area. Increasing female education and increasing knowledge of women about anaemia and iron folate tablets are recommended to increase compliance to iron folate supplementation. PMID:26090001

  11. Efficacy of early neonatal vitamin A supplementation in reducing mortality during infancy in Ghana, India and Tanzania: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin A supplementation of 6-59 month old children is currently recommended by the World Health Organization based on evidence that it reduces mortality. There has been considerable interest in determining the benefits of neonatal vitamin A supplementation, but the results of existing trials are conflicting. A technical consultation convened by WHO pointed to the need for larger scale studies in Asia and Africa to inform global policy on the use of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Three trials were therefore initiated in Ghana, India and Tanzania to determine if vitamin A supplementation (50,000 IU) given to neonates once orally on the day of birth or within the next two days will reduce mortality in the period from supplementation to 6 months of age compared to placebo. Methods/Design The trials are individually randomized, double masked, and placebo controlled. The required sample size is 40,200 in India and 32,000 each in Ghana and Tanzania. The study participants are neonates who fulfil age eligibility, whose families are likely to stay in the study area for the next 6 months, who are able to feed orally, and whose parent(s) provide informed written consent to participate in the study. Neonates randomized to the intervention group receive 50,000 IU vitamin A and the ones randomized to the control group receive placebo at the time of enrolment. Mortality and morbidity information are collected through periodic home visits by a study worker during infancy. The primary outcome of the study is mortality from supplementation to 6 months of age. The secondary outcome of the study is mortality from supplementation to 12 months of age. The three studies will be analysed independent of each other. Subgroup analysis will be carried out to determine the effect by birth weight, sex, and timing of DTP vaccine, socioeconomic groups and maternal large-dose vitamin A supplementation. Discussion The three ongoing studies are the largest studies evaluating the

  12. Different doses of supplemental vitamin D maintain interleukin-5 without altering skeletal muscle strength: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in vitamin D sufficient adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Supplemental vitamin D modulates inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle function, but results are inconsistent. It is unknown if these inconsistencies are dependent on the supplemental dose of vitamin D. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different doses of supplemental vitamin D on inflammatory cytokines and muscular strength in young adults. Methods Men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) received a daily placebo or vitamin D supplement (200 or 4000 IU) for 28-d during the winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), cytokine concentrations and muscular (leg) strength measurements were performed prior to and during supplementation. Statistical significance of data were assessed with a two-way (time, treatment) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference to test multiple pairwise comparisons. Results Upon enrollment, 63% of the subjects were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/ml). Serum 25(OH)D and interleukin (IL)-5 decreased (P < 0.05) across time in the placebo group. Supplemental vitamin D at 200 IU maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations and increased IL-5 (P < 0.05). Supplemental vitamin D at 4000 IU increased (P < 0.05) serum 25(OH)D without altering IL-5 concentrations. Although serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated (P < 0.05) with muscle strength, muscle strength was not changed by supplemental vitamin D. Conclusion In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OH)D and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OH)D increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection

  13. Improved human visuomotor performance and pupil constriction after choline supplementation in a placebo-controlled double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Marnix; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    Only few nutrients are known to enhance cognition. Here we explore whether visuomotor performance can be improved through the intake of the nutrient choline, an essential chemical compound in a vertebrate’s diet. Choline is abundant in for example eggs and shrimps and many animal studies suggest that it serves as a cognitive enhancer. As choline is important for the communication between motor neurons and the control of skeletal muscles, we assumed that choline supplementation may have positive effects on action coordination in humans. A group of twenty-eight individuals ingested two grams of choline bitartrate or a placebo in two separate sessions. Seventy minutes post ingestion, participants performed a visuomotor aiming task in which they had to rapidly hit the centers of targets. Results showed that participants hit targets more centrally after choline supplementation. Pupil size (a cognition-sensitive biomarker) also significantly decreased after choline intake and correlated positively with the hit distance to the targets and the number of target misses, and negatively with reaction times. These findings point to a choline-induced bias towards action precision in the trade-off between speed and accuracy. The changes in pupil size suggest that choline uptake alters cholinergic functions in the nervous system. PMID:26271904

  14. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs.

  15. Maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects in offspring: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-02-17

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I(2) = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs.

  16. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63–0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs. PMID:25687545

  17. Instituting a standards-based K--12 science curriculum supplement program at the National Institutes of Health: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherly, Jeffre

    Research on student achievement indicates the U.S. K-12 education system is not adequately preparing American students to compete in the 21st century global economy in the areas of science and mathematics. Congress has asked the scientific entities of the federal government to help increase K-12 science learning by creating standards-based learning tools for science classrooms as part of a "voluntary curriculum." One problem facing federal entities, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is the need to create science-learning tools that conform to the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for curriculum materials and, therefore, are standards-based and applicable to the K-12 curriculum. This case study sought to better understand the change process at one federal agency as it went from producing K-12 learning tools that were educational in nature to a program that produced K-12 standards-based learning tools: the NIH Science Curriculum Supplement Program (NIH SCSP). The NIH SCSP was studied to gain insight into how this change in educational approach occurred, what factors enabled or inhibited the change process, and what the long-term benefits of the NIH SCSP are to the NIH. Kurt Lewin's three-step theory of change guided data gathering and data analysis. Semi-structured interviews and programmatic document review served as the major data gathering sources. Details describing the process of organizational change at the NIH were revealed during analysis of these data following the coding of interview transcripts and written record documents. The study found the process of change at the NIH proceeded in a manner generally predicted by the Lewinian change model. Enablers to the change were cost-sharing with individual institutes, support of senior leadership, and crediting the role of individual institutes prominently in each supplement. The cost of creating a supplement was reported as the single inhibitor to the program. This case study yielded a

  18. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12-supplemented yogurt in healthy adults on antibiotics: a phase I safety study.

    PubMed

    Merenstein, Daniel J; Tan, Tina P; Molokin, Aleksey; Smith, Keisha Herbin; Roberts, Robert F; Shara, Nawar M; Mete, Mihriye; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in sufficient doses, provide health benefits on the host. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires phase I safety studies for probiotics when the intended use of the product is as a drug. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12 (BB-12)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of adults who were prescribed a 10-day course of antibiotics for a respiratory infection. Secondary aims were to assess the ability of BB-12 to affect the expression of whole blood immune markers associated with cell activation and inflammatory response. A phase I, double-blinded, randomized controlled study was conducted in compliance with FDA guidelines for an Investigational New Drug (IND). Forty participants were randomly assigned to consume 4 ounces of either BB-12 -supplemented yogurt or non-supplemented control yogurt daily for 10 d. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, assessed by the number of reported adverse events. A total of 165 non-serious adverse events were reported, with no differences between the control and BB-12 groups. When compared to the control group, B lactis fecal levels were modestly higher in the BB-12-supplemented group. In a small subset of patients, changes in whole blood expression of genes associated with regulation and activation of immune cells were detected in the BB-12-supplemented group. BB-12-supplemented yogurt is safe and well tolerated when consumed by healthy adults concurrently taking antibiotics. This study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential immunomodulatory effects of BB-12-supplemented yogurt in a variety of disease states.

  19. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12-supplemented yogurt in healthy adults on antibiotics: a phase I safety study

    PubMed Central

    Merenstein, Daniel J; Tan, Tina P; Molokin, Aleksey; Smith, Keisha Herbin; Roberts, Robert F; Shara, Nawar M; Mete, Mihriye; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in sufficient doses, provide health benefits on the host. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires phase I safety studies for probiotics when the intended use of the product is as a drug. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12 (BB-12)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of adults who were prescribed a 10-day course of antibiotics for a respiratory infection. Secondary aims were to assess the ability of BB-12 to affect the expression of whole blood immune markers associated with cell activation and inflammatory response. A phase I, double-blinded, randomized controlled study was conducted in compliance with FDA guidelines for an Investigational New Drug (IND). Forty participants were randomly assigned to consume 4 ounces of either BB-12 -supplemented yogurt or non-supplemented control yogurt daily for 10 d. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, assessed by the number of reported adverse events. A total of 165 non-serious adverse events were reported, with no differences between the control and BB-12 groups. When compared to the control group, B lactis fecal levels were modestly higher in the BB-12-supplemented group. In a small subset of patients, changes in whole blood expression of genes associated with regulation and activation of immune cells were detected in the BB-12-supplemented group. BB-12-supplemented yogurt is safe and well tolerated when consumed by healthy adults concurrently taking antibiotics. This study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential immunomodulatory effects of BB-12-supplemented yogurt in a variety of disease states. PMID:25569274

  20. Pomegranate Supplementation Protects against Memory Dysfunction after Heart Surgery: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ropacki, Susan A; Patel, Sapna M; Hartman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    Memory dysfunction is a common complaint following heart surgery and may be related to a diffuse ischemic state induced by microemboli dislodged during the procedure. Ischemia can induce damage by a number of mechanisms, including oxidative stress. Because pomegranates contain a variety of polyphenols with antioxidant and other potentially beneficial effects, we tested whether supplementation with a pomegranate extract before and after heart surgery could protect against postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery were given either 2 g of pomegranate extract (in 2 POMx pills) or placebo (pills containing no pomegranate ingredients) per day from one week before surgery to 6 weeks after surgery. The patients were also administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to assess memory function at 1 week before surgery (baseline), 2 weeks after surgery, and 6 weeks after surgery. The placebo group had significant deficits in postsurgery memory retention, and the pomegranate treatment not only protected against this effect, but also actually improved memory retention performance for up to 6 weeks after surgery as compared to presurgery baseline performance.

  1. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  2. Changes in messenger RNA of pancreatic enzymes and intestinal cholecystokinin after a 7-day bile-pancreatic juice diversion from the proximal small intestine in rats.

    PubMed

    Hara, H; Ochi, Y; Kasai, T

    1997-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated the bile-pancreatic juice (BPJ)-independent stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion in chronic BPJ-diverted rats. Pancreatic and intestinal adaptation to 7-day BPJ diversion was next examined. Pancreatic enzyme mRNA and cholecystokinin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa were measured in rats with BPJ diverted into the ileum (PBD rats) in comparison with the figures for rats with BPJ returned to the duodenum (normal rats) or laparotomized (Intact) rats under well-nourished conditions. Amylase mRNA in the pancreas was lower and trypsinogen plus chymotrypsinogen mRNA was higher in the PBD rats than in the intact rats. The change in pancreatic mRNA was similar to that in the specific activities of the enzymes after a chronic BPJ diversion. This finding suggests that these pancreatic enzymes were regulated by the mRNA level. The portal concentration of cholecystokinin in the postabsorptive period (exogenously non-stimulated status) was 4-fold higher in the PBD group than in the normal and intact groups. Cholecystokinin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of PBD rats was somewhat higher than that of intact rats. These results suggest that intestinal cholecystokinin was predominantly increased at the translational or later stage by chronic BPJ diversion.

  3. Short and longer-term effects of creatine supplementation on exercise induced muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    Rosene, John; Matthews, Tracey; Ryan, Christine; Belmore, Keith; Bergsten, Alisa; Blaisdell, Jill; Gaylord, James; Love, Rebecca; Marrone, Michael; Ward, Kristine; Wilson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo) participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo supplementation (20 g.d-1 for 7 d followed by 6g.d-1 for 23 d = 30 d). Prior to the supplementation period, measurements were obtained for maximal dynamic strength, maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Following 7 days of creatine supplementation, on day 8, subjects began consuming 6 g.d-1 of creatine for 23 days. Additionally on days 8 and 31, subjects performed an eccentric exercise protocol using the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Indirect markers of muscle damage, including maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of CK and LDH, were collected at 12, 24, and 48 hours following each exercise bout. The results indicated that acute bouts of creatine have no effect on indirect markers of muscle damage for the acute (7 days) bout. However, maximal isometric force was greater for the creatine group versus placebo for the chronic (30 days) bout. This suggests that the ergogenic effect of creatine following 30 days of supplementation may have a positive impact on exercise induced muscle damage. Key points Eccentric muscle actions highly associated with exercise induced muscle damage. Creatine supplementation has ergogenic effect to increase protein synthesis. Creatine supplementation does not attenuate exercise induced muscle damage with short term supplementation (7 days). Increased maximal isometric force seen with creatine supplementation after 30 days following exercise induced muscle damage. Ergogenic effect of creatine

  4. Pre-conceptional intake of folic acid supplements is inversely associated with risk of preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age birth: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Guan, Yuhong; Zhao, Yimin; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xuejuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Meilong; Wu, Lingping; Zhu, Shanlin; Liu, Huijuan; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2016-02-14

    Associations of folic acid supplementation with risk of preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were unclear for the Chinese populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations in a large Chinese prospective cohort study: the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. In the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, 240 954 pregnant women visited local clinics or hospitals within their first trimester in Southeast China during 1999-2012. Information on anthropometric parameters, folic acid supplementation and other maternal characteristics were collected by in-person interviews during their first visit. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded during the follow-up of these participants. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association of folic acid supplementation with pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of folic acid supplementation was 24·9% in the cohort. The prevalence of PTB and SGA birth was 3·48 and 9·2%, respectively. Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation was associated with 8% lower risk of PTB (relative risk (RR) 0·92; 95% CI 0·85, 1·00; P=0·04) and 19% lower risk of SGA birth (RR 0·81; 95% CI 0·70, 0·95; P=0·008), compared with non-users. Higher frequency of pre-conceptional folic acid use was associated with lower risk of PTB (P trend=0·032) and SGA birth (P trend=0·046). No significant association between post-conceptional initiation of folic acid supplementation and either outcome was observed. In conclusion, the present study suggests an association between pre-conceptional, but not post-conceptional, folic acid supplementation and lower risk of PTB and SGA birth in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. Further research in other cohorts of large sample size is needed to replicate these findings.

  5. Towards an empirical model of performance enhancing supplement use: a pilot study among high performance UK athletes.

    PubMed

    Mazanov, J; Petróczi, A; Bingham, J; Holloway, A

    2008-04-01

    This paper addressed a gap in the literature of empirically derived models of performance enhancing supplement use by developing a demographic and psychosocially based model of athlete supplement use. Selected questions were used from a larger survey conducted by UK Sport into British athletes' experiences, knowledge, attitudes and opinions in relation to anti-doping activities. Forward conditional step wise logistic regression was employed on data from n=757 athletes to develop a model that discriminated supplement non-users from users. The model identified that British athletes most likely to use supplements were younger (under 23) males who were more likely to see doping as a problem in their sport and were more knowledgeable about testing procedures than their non-user counterparts. Post hoc analysis reinforced that non-users saw doping as less of a problem in their sport and were less knowledgeable about drug testing procedures relative to those using supplements. The pattern of results indicated gender-specific interventions on supplement use for young male athletes may yield significant benefits. The relationship between supplement use and perception of a doping problem suggested more work is needed to understand supplement use culture within sports. The relationship between knowledge of testing procedures and supplement use suggested further research is needed to see whether this is a positive or negative effect of detection-based doping deterrence activity.

  6. Wheat Seedlings as Food Supplement to Combat Free Radicals: An In Vitro Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, P.; Shalini, G.; Jeyam, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of 5 organic solvent extracts (petroleum ether, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol) of wheat grains, 3, 5 and 7 days old wheat seedlings. To determine the antioxidant activity of five extracts of four different samples, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and ferrous reducing power ability were carried out. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect of chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of 3 days old wheat seedlings was higher than wheat grains. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 3 days old wheat seedlings exhibited higher 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging effcet than extracts of other samples. The phenolic content was high in chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of 5 days old wheat seedlings. When compared with wheat grain, reducing power ability was high in chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of wheat seedlings, especially in 3 and 5 days old wheat seedlings. From the above results, it was concluded that chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of 3, 5 and 7 days old wheat seedlings showed better antioxidant activity than the wheat grain extracts. Hence, the results of the present study suggest the intake of wheat seedlings as a food supplement to combat the diseases caused by free radicals. PMID:26798175

  7. Bioavailability and inter-conversion of sulforaphane and erucin in human subjects consuming broccoli sprouts or broccoli supplement in a cross-over study design

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, John D.; Hsu, Anna; Riedl, Ken; Bella, Deborah; Schwartz, Steven J.; Stevens, Jan F.; Ho, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Broccoli consumption may reduce the risk of various cancers and many broccoli supplements are now available. The bioavailability and excretion of the mercapturic acid pathway metabolites isothiocyanates after human consumption of broccoli supplements has not been tested. Two important isothiocyanates from broccoli are sulforaphane and erucin. We employed a cross-over study design in which 12 subjects consumed 40 grams of fresh broccoli sprouts followed by a 1 month washout period and then the same 12 subjects consumed 6 pills of a broccoli supplement. As negative controls for isothiocyanate consumption four additional subjects consumed alfalfa sprouts during the first phase and placebo pills during the second. Blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours during each phase and analyzed for sulforaphane and erucin metabolites using LC-MS/MS. The bioavailability of sulforaphane and erucin is dramatically lower when subjects consume broccoli supplements compared to fresh broccoli sprouts. The peaks in plasma concentrations and urinary excretion were also delayed when subjects consumed the broccoli supplement. GSTP1 polymorphisms did not affect the metabolism or excretion of sulforaphane or erucin. Sulforaphane and erucin are able to interconvert in vivo and this interconversion is consistent within each subject but variable between subjects. This study confirms that consumption of broccoli supplements devoid of myrosinase activity does not produce equivalent plasma concentrations of the bioactive isothiocyanate metabolites compared to broccoli sprouts. This has implications for people who consume the recommended serving size (1 pill) of a broccoli supplement and believe they are getting equivalent doses of isothiocyanates. PMID:21816223

  8. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognitive Functions and Neural Substrates: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Pagani, Marco; Caporali, Paola; Galbusera, Alberto; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; Neri, Cristina; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Human and experimental studies have revealed putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in aging, evidencing positive correlations between peripheral n-3 PUFA levels and regional grey matter (GM) volume, as well as negative correlations between dietary n-3 PUFA levels and cognitive deficits. We recently showed that n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibit better hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions, along with enhanced cellular plasticity and reduced neurodegeneration, thus supporting a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in preventing cognitive decline during aging. To corroborate these initial results and develop new evidence on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on brain substrates at macro-scale level, here we expanded behavioral analyses to the emotional domain (anxiety and coping skills), and carried out a fine-grained regional GM volumetric mapping by using high-resolution MRI-based voxel-based morphometry. The behavioral effects of 8 week n-3 PUFA supplementation were measured on cognitive (discriminative, spatial and social) and emotional (anxiety and coping) abilities of aged (19 month-old at the onset of study) C57B6/J mice. n-3 PUFA supplemented mice showed better mnesic performances as well as increased active coping skills. Importantly, these effects were associated with enlarged regional hippocampal, retrosplenial and prefrontal GM volumes, and with increased post mortem n-3 PUFA brain levels. These findings indicate that increased dietary n-3 PUFA intake in normal aging can improve fronto-hippocampal GM structure and function, an effect present also when the supplementation starts at late age. Our data are consistent with a protective role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in counteracting cognitive decline, emotional dysfunctions and brain atrophy. PMID:26973513

  9. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognitive Functions and Neural Substrates: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; Pagani, Marco; Caporali, Paola; Galbusera, Alberto; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; Neri, Cristina; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Human and experimental studies have revealed putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in aging, evidencing positive correlations between peripheral n-3 PUFA levels and regional grey matter (GM) volume, as well as negative correlations between dietary n-3 PUFA levels and cognitive deficits. We recently showed that n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibit better hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions, along with enhanced cellular plasticity and reduced neurodegeneration, thus supporting a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in preventing cognitive decline during aging. To corroborate these initial results and develop new evidence on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on brain substrates at macro-scale level, here we expanded behavioral analyses to the emotional domain (anxiety and coping skills), and carried out a fine-grained regional GM volumetric mapping by using high-resolution MRI-based voxel-based morphometry. The behavioral effects of 8 week n-3 PUFA supplementation were measured on cognitive (discriminative, spatial and social) and emotional (anxiety and coping) abilities of aged (19 month-old at the onset of study) C57B6/J mice. n-3 PUFA supplemented mice showed better mnesic performances as well as increased active coping skills. Importantly, these effects were associated with enlarged regional hippocampal, retrosplenial and prefrontal GM volumes, and with increased post mortem n-3 PUFA brain levels. These findings indicate that increased dietary n-3 PUFA intake in normal aging can improve fronto-hippocampal GM structure and function, an effect present also when the supplementation starts at late age. Our data are consistent with a protective role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in counteracting cognitive decline, emotional dysfunctions and brain atrophy. PMID:26973513

  10. A Randomized Trial of Long-term Multivitamin Supplementation and Cognitive Function in Men: The Physicians’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Grodstein, Francine; O’Brien, Jacqueline; Kang, Jae Hee; Dushkes, Rimma; Cook, Nancy R.; Okereke, Olivia; Manson, JoAnn E.; Glynn, Robert J.; Buring, Julie E.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Sesso, Howard D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread use of multivitamin supplements, their effect on cognitive health – a critical issue with aging – remains inconclusive. To date, there have been no long-term clinical trials to study multivitamin use and cognitive decline in older persons. Objective To evaluate whether long-term multivitamin supplementation affects cognitive health in later-life. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a multivitamin from 1997 to June 1, 2011. The cognitive function sub-study began in 1998; we completed up to four repeated cognitive assessments by telephone interview over 12 years. Setting The Physicians’ Health Study II. Patients 5,947 male physicians aged ≥ 65 years. Intervention Daily multivitamin, or placebo. Measurements A global composite score averaging 5 tests of global cognition, verbal memory, and category fluency. The secondary endpoint was a verbal memory score combining 4 tests of verbal memory, a strong predictor of Alzheimer disease. Results There was no difference in the mean cognitive change over time between the multivitamin and placebo groups, or in the mean level of cognition at any of the four assessments. Specifically, for the global composite score, the mean difference in cognitive change over follow-up was −0.01 (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.04, 0.02) standard units, comparing treatment versus placebo. Similarly, there was no difference in cognitive performance between the treated and placebo groups on the secondary outcome, verbal memory (e.g., mean difference in cognitive change over follow-up=−0.005, 95% CI −0.04, 0.03). Limitations Doses of vitamins may be too low, or population may be too well-nourished to benefit from multivitamin. Conclusions In male physicians aged ≥ 65 years, long-term use of a daily multivitamin did not provide cognitive benefits. Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00270647 PMID:24490265

  11. Shaping Health Behavior across Generations: Evidence from Time Use data in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Supplements.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Frank; Chiteji, Ngina

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines ways that families use time to shape their children's health behaviors. Specifically, it explores ways that parents can prepare children to make health-enhancing choices as adults. It also analyzes ways that offspring manage their time during young adulthood, when they are old enough to make independent decisions about whether they will spend their time producing health, as the Grossman model argues that individuals can do (Grossman 2000). The empirical research uses time diary data from the Child Development Supplement CDS), data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) core and the PSID's Transition to Adulthood (TA) module. By examining the intergenerational transmission of healthy behaviors, it is possible to better understand decisions individuals make in adulthood.

  12. [Study of qualitative and quantitative of dietary fibre composition in dry breakfasts and food supplements, contains wheaten brain].

    PubMed

    Berketova, L V

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative and quanitative composition of 15 samples of dry breakfasts and 19 variants food supplements, containing wheaten brain, was studied with a help of enzyme method, based on hydrolysis of protein and starch by enzymes, analogous with enzymes of digestive tract homo. It is shown, that the common contents of dietary fibres in samples of dry breakfasts is in limits from 11 up to 39%. Greatest contents IDF is observed in samples of breakfasts with addition of a thistle from 21 up to 35%, and greatest contents SDF with addition (see text for symbol) and beet - 9% and 7% accordingly. The common contents of dietary fibres in samples biologically active additives is in limits from 26 up to 73% that is caused by qualitative and quantitative structure of initial raw material. Group IDF in biologically active additive has made from 23 up to 69%, and contents SDF changes from 1% up to 19%. PMID:16729757

  13. Protein-carbohydrate supplements improve muscle protein balance in muscular dystrophy patients after endurance exercise: a placebo-controlled crossover study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Grete; Ørngreen, Mette C; Preisler, Nicolai; Jeppesen, Tina D; Krag, Thomas O; Hauerslev, Simon; van Hall, Gerrit; Vissing, John

    2015-01-15

    In healthy individuals, postexercise protein supplementation increases muscle protein anabolism. In patients with muscular dystrophies, aerobic exercise improves muscle function, but the effect of exercise on muscle protein balance is unknown. Therefore, we investigated 1) muscle protein balance before, during, and after exercise and 2) the effect of postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation on muscle protein balance in patients with muscular dystrophies. In 17 patients [7 women and 10 men, aged 33 ± 11 yr (18-52), body mass index: 22 ± 3 kg/m(2) (16-26)] and 8 healthy matched controls [3 women and 5 men, age 33 ± 13 years (19-54), body mass index: 23 ± 3 kg/m(2) (19-27)], muscle protein synthesis, breakdown, and fractional synthesis rates (FSR) were measured across the leg using tracer dilution methodology on two occasions, with and without oral postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation. In patients, muscle protein breakdown increased in the recovery period (11 ± 1 μmol phenylalanine/min) vs. rest (8 ± 1 μmol phenylalanine/min, P = 0.02), enhancing net muscle protein loss. In contrast, postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation reduced protein breakdown, abolished net muscle protein loss, and increased the muscle FSR in patients (0.04 to 0.06%/h; P = 0.03). In conclusion, postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation reduces skeletal mixed-muscle protein breakdown, enhances FSR, resulting in a reduced net muscle loss in patients with muscular dystrophies. The findings suggest that postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation could be an important add-on to exercise training therapy in muscular dystrophies, and long-term studies of postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation are warranted in these conditions.

  14. Seizure prophylaxis in an animal model of epilepsy by dietary fluoxetine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Richman, Alyssa; Heinrichs, Stephen C

    2007-04-01

    Clinical and animal model evidence suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) act as anticonvulsants. The present studies tested the possibility that the El mouse model of genetically predisposed/handling-triggered epilepsy would exhibit fewer seizures following SSRI treatment via dietary fluoxetine adulteration. In particular, potential bioenergetic and neural mechanisms for anticonvulsant efficacy of fluoxetine were explored using food intake/body weight monitoring and quantification of brain serotonin transporter protein. El mice consuming a chow diet ad libitum or yoked in quantity to fluoxetine diet intake exhibited seizure incidence of 40% in response to tail-suspension handling, whereas seizures were abolished (0%) among El mice consuming a fluoxetine-adultered diet over 7 days. A 3 day period of fluoxetine administration was insufficient to exert anticonvulsant efficacy and all treatment groups exhibited the same circadian locomotor activity patterns at the time of seizure susceptibility testing. Bioenergetic factors could not account for the anticonvulsant efficacy of fluoxetine since yoked diet controls with matched food intake, body weight change and blood glucose levels exhibited the same 40% seizure incidence as ad libitum chow controls. Importantly, the 7 day period of dietary fluoxetine exposure was effective in selectively reducing cell density in the parietal cortex and increasing serotonin transporter protein content in the nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results suggest that dietary fluoxetine supplementation abolishes handling-induced seizure susceptibility in El mice via a neural remodeling mechanism independent of energy balance.

  15. β-Alanine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Emerson, Nadia S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    β-Alanine is rapidly developing as one of the most popular sport supplements used by strength/power athletes worldwide. The popularity of β-alanine stems from its unique ability to enhance intramuscular buffering capacity and thereby attenuating fatigue. This review will provide an overview of the physiology that underlies the mechanisms of action behind β-alanine, examine dosing schemes, and examine the studies that have been conducted on the efficacy of this supplement. In addition, the effect that β-alanine has on body mass changes or whether it can stimulate changes in aerobic capacity also will be discussed. The review also will begin to explore the potential health benefits that β-alanine may have on older adult populations. Discussion will examine the potential adverse effects associated with this supplement as well as the added benefits of combining β-alanine with creatine.

  16. The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): reliability and validity against doubly labeled water and 7-day activity diaries.

    PubMed

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Neilson, Heather K; Kopciuk, Karen A; Khandwala, Farah; Liu, Andrew; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Bryant, Heather E; Lau, David C W; Robson, Paula J

    2014-08-15

    We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009-2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ρs of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE.

  17. The effect of selenium supplementation in the prevention of DNA damage in white blood cells of hemodialyzed patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zachara, Bronislaw A; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Palus, Jadwiga; Zbrog, Zbigniew; Swiech, Rafal; Twardowska, Ewa; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2011-09-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased incidence of cancer. It is well known that long periods of hemodialysis (HD) treatment are linked to DNA damage due to oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the effect of selenium (Se) supplementation to CKD patients on HD on the prevention of oxidative DNA damage in white blood cells. Blood samples were drawn from 42 CKD patients on HD (at the beginning of the study and after 1 and 3 months) and from 30 healthy controls. Twenty-two patients were supplemented with 200 μg Se (as Se-rich yeast) per day and 20 with placebo (baker's yeast) for 3 months. Se concentration in plasma and DNA damage in white blood cells expressed as the tail moment, including single-strand breaks (SSB) and oxidative bases lesion in DNA, using formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG), were measured. Se concentration in patients was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (P < 0.0001) and increased significantly after 3 months of Se supplementation (P < 0.0001). Tail moment (SSB) in patients before the study was three times higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0.01). After 3 months of Se supplementation, it decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and was about 16% lower than in healthy subjects. The oxidative bases lesion in DNA (tail moment, FPG) of HD patients at the beginning of the study was significantly higher (P < 0.01) compared with controls, and 3 months after Se supplementation it was 2.6 times lower than in controls (P < 0.01). No changes in tail moment was observed in the placebo group. In conclusion, our study shows that in CKD patients on HD, DNA damage in white blood cells is higher than in healthy controls, and Se supplementation prevents the damage of DNA. PMID:20661660

  18. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    MedlinePlus

    ... study. These include glucosamine (for joint pain) and herbal supplements such as echinacea (immune health) and flaxseed oil ( ... be fine,” Coates says. “According to the FDA, supplement products most likely ... ingredients are herbal remedies promoted for weight loss and for sexual ...

  19. Effect of dietary beta-agonist treatment, vitamin D3 supplementation and electrical stimulation of carcasses on colour and drip loss of steaks from feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Hope-Jones, M; Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Webb, E C

    2012-03-01

    In this study, 20 young steers received no beta-agonist (C) and 100 animals all received zilpaterol hydrochloride (Z), with 1 group receiving Z while the other 4 groups receiving Z and vitamin D(3) at the following levels (IU/animal/day) and durations before slaughter: 7million for 3days (3D7M) or 6days (6D7M), 7million for 6days with 7days no supplementation (6D7M7N) and 1million for 9days (9D1M). Left carcass sides were electrically stimulated (ES) and right sides not (NES). Samples were analysed fresh or vacuum-aged for 14days post mortem. Parameters included drip loss and instrumental colour measurements. In general, zilpaterol showed increased drip loss, lighter meat, and reduced redness. Vitamin D(3) supplementation could not consistently overcome these negative effects. All vitamin D(3) treatments reduced drip loss of stimulated aged steaks.

  20. Modulation of inflammation by vitamin E and C supplementation prior to anterior cruciate ligament surgery.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyler; Leonard, Scott W; Trawick, Roy H; Martins, Thomas B; Kjeldsberg, Carl R; Hill, Harry R; Traber, Maret G

    2009-03-01

    Muscle atrophy commonly follows anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and surgery. Proinflammatory cytokines can induce and exacerbate oxidative stress, potentiating muscle atrophy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of prior antioxidant (AO) supplementation on circulating cytokines following ACL surgery. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in men undergoing ACL surgery, who were randomly assigned to either: (1) AO (200 IU of vitamin E (50% d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and 50% d-alpha-tocopherol) and 500 mg ascorbic acid), or (2) matching placebos (PL). Subjects took supplements twice daily for 2 weeks prior to and up to 12 weeks after surgery. Each subject provided five blood samples: (1) baseline (Bsl, prior to supplementation and approximately 2 weeks prior to surgery), (2) presurgery (Pre), (3) 90 min, (4) 72 h, and (5) 7 days postsurgery. Following surgery, inflammation and muscle damage increased in both groups, as assessed by increased circulating IL-6, C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase. During AO supplementation, plasma alpha-T and AA increased while gamma-T concentrations decreased significantly (P< 0.05). At 90 min the AO group displayed a significant decrease in AA, an inverse correlation between AA and (interleukin) IL-8 (r(2)= 0.50, P< 0.05), and a significantly lower IL-10 response than that of the PL group. IL-10 was significantly elevated at 90 min and 72 h in the PL group. In summary, our findings show that circulating inflammatory cytokines increase and AO supplementation attenuated the increase in IL-10 in patients post-ACL surgery.

  1. Role of creatine supplementation on exercise-induced cardiovascular function and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Daniel; Mason, Laura; Kilduff, Liam P; McEneny, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Many degenerative diseases are associated with increased oxidative stress. Creatine has the potential to act as an indirect and direct antioxidant; however, limited data exist to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of creatine supplementation within in vivo human systems. This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral creatine supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses following exhaustive cycling exercise. Following preliminary testing and two additional familiarization sessions, 18 active males repeated two exhaustive incremental cycling trials (T1 and T2) separated by exactly 7 days. The subjects were assigned, in a double-blind manner, to receive either 20 g of creatine (Cr) or a placebo (P) for the 5 days preceding T2. Breath-by-breath respiratory data and heart rate were continually recorded throughout the exercise protocol and blood samples were obtained at rest (preexercise), at the end of exercise (postexercise), and the day following exercise (post24 h). Serum hypdroperoxide concentrations were elevated at postexercise by 17 ± 5% above preexercise values (p = 0.030). However, supplementation did not influence lipid peroxidation (serum hypdroperoxide concentrations), resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidative stress (t1/2max LDL oxidation) and plasma concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, lycopene and vitamin C). Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males. PMID:20716911

  2. Zinc asparaginate supplementation induces redistribution of toxic trace elements in rat tissues and organs

    PubMed Central

    Skalny, Andrey A.; Medvedeva, Yulia S.; Alchinova, Irina B.; Karganov, Mikhail Yu.; Ajsuvakova, Olga P.; Skalny, Anatoly V.; Nikonorov, Alexandr A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study was the investigation of the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation for 7 and 14 days on toxic metal and metalloid content in rat organs and tissues. Rats obtained zinc asparaginate in doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the experiment rat tissues and organs (liver, kidney, heart, m. gastrocnemius, serum, and hair) were collected for subsequent analysis. Estimation of Zn, Al, As, Li, Ni, Sn, Sr content in the harvested organs was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. The obtained data showed that intragastric administration of zinc significantly increased liver, kidney and serum zinc concentrations. Seven-day zinc treatment significantly affected the toxic trace element content in the animals’ organs. Zinc supplementation significantly decreased particularly liver aluminium, nickel, and tin content, whereas lead tended to increase. Zinc-induced changes in kidney metal content were characterized by elevated lithium and decreased nickel concentration. Zinc-induced alteration of myocardical toxic element content was multidirectional. Muscle aluminium and lead concentration were reduced in response to zinc supplementation. At the same time, serum and hair toxic element concentrations remained relatively stable after 7-day zinc treatment. Zinc asparaginate treatment of 14 days significantly depressed liver and elevated kidney lithium content, whereas a significant zinc-associated decrease was detected in kidney strontium content. Zinc supplementation for 14 days resulted also in multidirectional changes in the content of heart toxic elements. At the same time, significant zinc-associated decrease in muscle lithium and nickel levels was observed. Fourteen-day zinc treatment resulted in significantly increased serum arsenic and tin concentrations, whereas hair trace element content remained relatively stable. Generally, the obtained data indicate a

  3. Zinc asparaginate supplementation induces redistribution of toxic trace elements in rat tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Andrey A; Tinkov, Alexey A; Medvedeva, Yulia S; Alchinova, Irina B; Karganov, Mikhail Yu; Ajsuvakova, Olga P; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of the current study was the investigation of the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation for 7 and 14 days on toxic metal and metalloid content in rat organs and tissues. Rats obtained zinc asparaginate in doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the experiment rat tissues and organs (liver, kidney, heart, m. gastrocnemius, serum, and hair) were collected for subsequent analysis. Estimation of Zn, Al, As, Li, Ni, Sn, Sr content in the harvested organs was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. The obtained data showed that intragastric administration of zinc significantly increased liver, kidney and serum zinc concentrations. Seven-day zinc treatment significantly affected the toxic trace element content in the animals' organs. Zinc supplementation significantly decreased particularly liver aluminium, nickel, and tin content, whereas lead tended to increase. Zinc-induced changes in kidney metal content were characterized by elevated lithium and decreased nickel concentration. Zinc-induced alteration of myocardical toxic element content was multidirectional. Muscle aluminium and lead concentration were reduced in response to zinc supplementation. At the same time, serum and hair toxic element concentrations remained relatively stable after 7-day zinc treatment. Zinc asparaginate treatment of 14 days significantly depressed liver and elevated kidney lithium content, whereas a significant zinc-associated decrease was detected in kidney strontium content. Zinc supplementation for 14 days resulted also in multidirectional changes in the content of heart toxic elements. At the same time, significant zinc-associated decrease in muscle lithium and nickel levels was observed. Fourteen-day zinc treatment resulted in significantly increased serum arsenic and tin concentrations, whereas hair trace element content remained relatively stable. Generally, the obtained data indicate a

  4. Metabolomic profile of response to supplementation with β-carotene in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study123

    PubMed Central

    Mondul, Alison M; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Evans, Anne M; Karoly, Edward D; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two chemoprevention trials found that supplementation with β-carotene increased the risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. The biologic basis of these findings remains poorly understood. Objective: The objective was to compare the on-study change in metabolomic profiles of men randomly assigned to receive or not receive β-carotene supplements in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. Design: The ATBC Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary cancer prevention trial; participants were Finnish male smokers assigned to 1 of 4 intervention groups: 1) α-tocopherol, 2) β-carotene, 3) both, or 4) placebo. Fifty participants with both baseline and follow-up fasting serum samples were randomly selected from each of these groups. Metabolomic profiling was conducted by mass spectrometry. The association between change in each metabolite over time and trial assignment (β-carotene or no β-carotene) was estimated by linear regression. Results: We measured 489 metabolites, and 17 changed significantly (P < 0.05) in response to β-carotene supplementation. More of these 17 metabolites were of xenobiotic origin than would be expected by chance (9 of 60, or 15%; P = 0.00004). We also found a suggestive association with 1,5-anhydroglucitol—a marker of glycemic control (β = −0.379, P = 0.0071). Conclusions: Male smokers supplemented with β-carotene developed metabolomic profiles consistent with the induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, the primary metabolizers of xenobiotics in humans. These findings may shed light on the increased mortality associated with β-carotene supplementation in the ATBC Study and suggest the need to explore potential interactions between medication use and dietary supplements, particularly among smokers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342992. PMID:23803886

  5. Improvement of liver function by the administration of oyster extract as a dietary supplement to habitual alcohol drinkers: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    OSAKI, KENJI; SHIMIZU, YOSHIO; YAMAMOTO, TETSURO; MIYAKE, FUMIHARU; KONDO, SUMIO; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by elevated serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity with hepatic steatosis, hepatitis or occasionally fibrosis that may progress to cirrhosis. The potential therapeutic role of oyster extract (OE) or OE-containing dietary supplements (OE supplement) in ALD has seldom been evaluated. In the present study, 84 adults who had an alcohol-drinking habit and marginally high serum GGT levels were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled feeding trial to study the effect on alcohol-impaired liver function as reflected by an increased serum level of GGT, as well as the safety, of an OE supplement. The subjects were randomized to receive either an OE supplement (OE group) or placebo (placebo group). There were 42 subjects (31 males and 11 females) in each group, and all the enrolled subjects entered the study. Four individuals (5%) dropped out for reasons unassociated with the study and 6 other subjects were excluded from the efficacy analysis because they did not maintain the required frequency of alcohol intake. As a result, 38 subjects in the placebo group and 36 in the OE group underwent efficacy assessment. Assays of GGT and other liver enzymes were performed at baseline (week 0) and at weeks 4, 8 and 12 of the intervention period. The mean serum levels of GGT in the placebo group gradually increased, while those in the OE group tended to decrease, although no significant within-group differences were observed for either group. A significant between-group difference in the change of mean GGT from baseline was, however, found at week 12 (P=0.049). No OE supplement-associated untoward side-effects nor any abnormal changes in routine laboratory tests and anthropometric parameters were observed throughout the 12-week intervention. An OE supplement shows promise in reducing risk factors associated with ALD in adults with an alcohol intake habit. PMID:26622379

  6. Effect of Dietary Supplementation with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mannan Oligosaccharide on the Bacterial Community Structure of Broiler Cecal Contents▿†

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, A.; Horgan, K.; Clipson, N.; Murphy, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with a prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on broiler performance, bacterial community structure, and phylogenetic populations of cecal contents. Bird performance data were collected, and cecal samples were extracted from randomly caught poults from each treatment group every 7 days from hatching to the age of 42 days. Weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency ratios did not differ significantly between groups. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) of the bacterial communities in birds receiving MOS-supplemented diets indicated that dietary supplementation with MOS at either of 2 levels significantly altered the bacterial community structure from that of the control group on all sample days. The phylogenetic identities of bacteria contained within the cecum were determined by constructing a 16S rRNA gene clone library. A total of 594 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the cecal contents were analyzed and compared for the three dietary treatments. The dominant bacteria of the cecum belonged to three phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria; of these, Firmicutes were the most dominant in all treatment groups. Statistical analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the compositions of the clone libraries from broilers receiving MOS-supplemented diets were, in most cases, significantly different from that of the control group. It can be concluded that in this trial MOS supplementation significantly altered the cecal bacterial community structure. PMID:21803917

  7. Zinc supplementation to improve mucositis and dermatitis in patients after radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancers: A double-blind, randomized study

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.-C. . E-mail: 8508A6@mail.chimei.org.tw; Que, Jenny; Lin, L.-K.; Lin, F.-C.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether zinc supplementation can accelerate the healing of mucositis and dermatitis after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In this double-blind study, patients were placed into two randomized groups (experimental and control) of 50 patients each. The groups were homogeneous with respect to medical history, tumor characteristics, and therapeutic details. The experimental group received a standard dose of a zinc supplement, and the control group was given a placebo. Results: Patients in the control group developed Grade 2 mucositis and dermatitis earlier and sooner than patients in the experimental group. There was also a significant difference in the development of Grade 3 mucositis and dermatitis between the two groups. Patients in the experimental group were found to have milder mucositis and dermatitis. Zinc supplementation did not show much benefit in those patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy or make a substantial impact on weight changes. Conclusions: Zinc supplementation used in conjunction with radiotherapy could postpone the development of severe mucositis and dermatitis for patients with cancers of the head and neck. Zinc supplementation can also alleviate the degree of mucositis and dermatitis. The impact of zinc on tumor growth and patient survival is under further investigation.

  8. The effect of a combination of chlorhexidine diacetate, sodium fluoride and xylitol on plaque wet weight and periodontal index scores in military academy cadets refraining from mechanical tooth cleaning for 7-day experimental periods.

    PubMed

    Nuuja, T; Meurman, J H; Murtomaa, H; Kortelainen, S; Metteri, J

    1992-02-01

    45 subjects participated in a double-blind cross-over mouthwash study where a new tablet-form combination of chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol (XYLIHEX) was studied together with solutions of chlorhexidine (CHX) and sodium fluoride (NaF). The preparation XYLIHEX was developed as a dental chemotherapeutic that could easily be added to the soldiers' kit to be used under circumstances where practising normal oral hygiene habits is restricted. For comparative purposes, XYLIHEX was prediluted in this study to make a solution. Before starting, professional prophylaxis was given to the subjects to bring their gingivitis index scores as close to 0 as possible. The subjects refrained from mechanical tooth cleaning for three 7-day test periods. Plaque wet weight and periodontal index scores were recorded before and after the test periods. The results showed that the preparations XYLIHEX and CHX did not statistically differ from each other in reducing plaque wet weight values and the recorded periodontal index scores. Both these preparations were statistically highly significantly more effective antiplaque agents than NaF, as expected.

  9. Efficacy of Multivitamin/mineral Supplementation to Reduce Chronic Disease Risk: A Critical Review of the Evidence from Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Giana; Drake, Victoria J; Frei, Balz

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed recent scientific evidence regarding the effects of multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements on risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related eye diseases. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational, prospective cohort studies were examined. The majority of scientific studies investigating the use of MVM supplements in chronic disease risk reduction reported no significant effect. However, the largest and longest RCT of MVM supplements conducted to date, the Physicians' Health Study II (PHS II), found a modest and significant reduction in total and epithelial cancer incidence in male physicians, consistent with the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. In addition, PHS II found a modest and significant reduction in the incidence of nuclear cataract, in agreement with several other RCTs and observational, prospective cohort studies. The effects of MVM use on other subtypes of cataract and age-related macular degeneration remain unclear. Neither RCTs nor prospective cohort studies are without their limitations. The placebo-controlled trial design of RCTs may be inadequate for nutrient interventions, and residual confounding, measurement error, and the possibility of reverse causality are inherent to any observational study. National surveys show that micronutrient inadequacies are widespread in the US and that dietary supplements, of which MVMs are the most common type, help fulfill micronutrient requirements in adults and children. PMID:24941429

  10. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements in relation to risk of colorectal cancer: Results from the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Elizabeth D; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Signorello, Lisa B; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-11-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence has emerged to suggest that use of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements may be associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We therefore evaluated the association between use of these non-vitamin, non-mineral supplements and risk of CRC in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Regular use of glucosamine and chondroitin was first assessed in 2002 and participants were followed until 2010, over which time 672 CRC cases occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) within each cohort, and results were pooled using a random effects meta-analysis. Associations were comparable across cohorts, with a RR of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.63-1.00) observed for any use of glucosamine and a RR of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.59-1.01) observed for any use of chondroitin. Use of glucosamine in the absence of chondroitin was not associated with risk of CRC, whereas use of glucosamine + chondroitin was significantly associated with risk (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.58-0.999). The association between use of glucosamine + chondroitin and risk of CRC did not change markedly when accounting for change in exposure status over follow-up (RR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58-0.96), nor did the association significantly vary by sex, aspirin use, body mass index, or physical activity. The association was comparable for cancers of the colon and rectum. Results support a protective association between use of glucosamine and chondroitin and risk of CRC. Further study is needed to better understand the chemopreventive potential of these supplements. PMID:27357024

  11. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation in ultraendurance triathletes.

    PubMed

    Knez, Wade L; Peake, Jonathan M

    2010-12-01

    Ultraendurance exercise training places large energy demands on athletes and causes a high turnover of vitamins through sweat losses, metabolism, and the musculoskeletal repair process. Ultraendurance athletes may not consume sufficient quantities or quality of food in their diet to meet these needs. Consequently, they may use oral vitamin and mineral supplements to maintain their health and performance. We assessed the vitamin and mineral intake of ultraendurance athletes in their regular diet, in addition to oral vitamin and mineral supplements. Thirty-seven ultraendurance triathletes (24 men and 13 women) completed a 7-day nutrition diary including a questionnaire to determine nutrition adequacy and supplement intake. Compared with dietary reference intakes for the general population, both male and female triathletes met or exceeded all except for vitamin D. In addition, female athletes consumed slightly less than the recommended daily intake for folate and potassium; however, the difference was trivial. Over 60% of the athletes reported using vitamin supplements, of which vitamin C (97.5%), vitamin E (78.3%), and multivitamins (52.2%) were the most commonly used supplements. Almost half (47.8%) the athletes who used supplements did so to prevent or reduce cold symptoms. Only 1 athlete used supplements on formal medical advice. Vitamin C and E supplementation was common in ultraendurance triathletes, despite no evidence of dietary deficiency in these 2 vitamins. PMID:21116023

  12. A Point-of-Sale Communications Campaign to Provide Consumers Safety Information on Drug-Dietary Supplement Interactions:A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Adam I.; Lebow, David G.; Raphael, Karen; Ali, Ather; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent use of dietary supplements with over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals has become increasingly common, and with this trend, so has the incidence of adverse drug–supplement interactions. In the current market, consumers have no way to distinguish between safe and potentially harmful supplements. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that messages designed to increase consumers' awareness of potential health risks of concurrent use of dietary supplements with over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals would promote further consideration and action, as evidenced by (a) seeking additional information from an authoritative source or qualified health care professional and (b) changing dietary supplement usage patterns. To test this hypothesis, an innovative consumer information delivery system, referred to as the Buyer Information Network (BuyIN), was utilized. BuyIN uses currently available, Web-enabled point-of-sale (POS) technology to provide up-to-date, evidence-based, health- and safety-related messages to consumers at the retail checkout counter. Results showed that more than one-fourth (27.1%) of consumers (n = 199) who purchased targeted items reported they were aware of the messages. Of this subgroup of aware consumers, 11.2% reported that they sought additional information from a physician or pharmacist, 11.5% reported that they visited the website listed on the coupon, and 10.5% indicated that they changed their dietary supplement usage patterns as a result of the messages. Future research should include a large-scale study of a fully implemented and capable system at multiple test sites around the country, including investigating the utility of BuyIN in different retail settings. PMID:23356591

  13. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Azevedo, Bruna Fernades; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  14. Study protocol: a randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial to study the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycaemic control in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus SUNNY trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Besides the classical role of vitamin D on calcium and bone homeostasis, vitamin D deficiency has recently been identified as a contributing factor in the onset of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it is uncertain whether vitamin D deficiency and poor glycaemic control are causally interrelated or that they constitute two independent features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are limited clinical trials carried out which measured the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycaemic control. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycaemic control and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods/design In a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted in five general practices in the Netherlands three hundred patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with lifestyle advises or metformin or sulphonylurea-derivatives are randomised to receive either placebo or 50,000 IU Vitamin D3 at monthly intervals. The primary outcome measure is the change in glycated haemoglobin level between baseline and six months. Secondary outcome measures include blood pressure, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, insulin resistance, quality of life, advanced glycation end products and safety profiles. Quality of life will be measured by The Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey questionnaire. Advanced glycation end products are measured by an AGE-reader. Discussion This trial will be the first study exploring the effect of vitamin D supplementation on both glycaemic control and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our findings will contribute to the knowledge of the relationship between vitamin D status and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Trial registration The Netherlands trial register: NTR3154 PMID:25033925

  15. Effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: a randomized double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Cavallini, Daniela CU; Abdalla, Dulcinéia SP; Vendramini, Regina C; Bedani, Raquel; Bomdespacho, Laura Q; Pauly-Silveira, Nadiége D; de Valdez, Graciela F; Rossi, Elizeu A

    2009-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in natural treatments to control dyslipidemia and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of soy yogurt fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and of dietary isoflavones on the lipid profile. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt, fermented with E. faecium CRL183, on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia. Methods Forty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to eight groups fed on the following diets for 60 days: C - control; IY - isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; H - hypercholesterolemic (1.0% cholesterol wt/wt diet); HY - hypercholesterolemic plus soy yogurt; HIY - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; HP - hypercholesterolemic plus placebo; HI - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone and HE - hypercholesterolemic plus pure culture of E. faecium CRL 183. Serum lipids and autoantibodies against oxLDL (oxLDL Ab) were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 60 of the treatment and the atherosclerotic lesions were quantified at the end of the experiment. Results Soy yogurt, soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones and placebo promoted significant reductions in total cholesterol level (38.1%, 27.0% and 26.6%, respectively). Significant increases in serum HDL-C concentration relative to group H were detected in animals that ingested soy yogurt, with or without the isoflavone supplement (55.2%), E. faecium culture (43.3%) or placebo (35.8%). Intake of soy yogurt and soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones prevented the rise of oxLDL Ab during the study period. The extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aortas was reduced in the HIY, HY and HP groups. However, when the whole aorta was analyzed, animals treated with soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones exhibited the greatest reduction (51.4%, P < 0.05) in atherosclerotic

  16. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: Review of methods and characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the methods and characteristics of 12 studies from developing countries included in a meta-analysis of the impact of antenatal supplements of multiple micronutrients compared with iron–folic acid on micronutrient status, maternal nutritional status, birth outcomes, and neonatal...

  17. A Guide to the Study of the United States of America. Representative Books Reflecting the Development of American Life and Thought. Supplement 1956-1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Oliver H., Jr.; And Others

    This supplement to the 1960 edition of "A Guide to the Study of the United States of America" contains titles held by the Library of Congress that reflect the development of the United States and were published between 1956 and 1965. In some instances a few pre-1956 publications are entered. These include parts of series or multivolume studies…

  18. A randomized study on the effect of Vitamin D3 supplementation on skeletal muscle morphology and Vitamin D receptor concentration in older women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies examining whether vitamin D supplementation increases muscle mass or muscle-specific vitamin D receptor (VDR) concentration are lacking. Our objective was to determine whether vitamin D3 4000 IU/d alters muscle fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA) and intramyonuclear VDR concentration over 4 mo...

  19. Outdoor Pursuits: Self to Nature Activities -- A Supplement to the Physical Education Course of Study. The Protestant School Board of Greater Montreal, March 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter; And Others

    In keeping with the Department of Education's course content in physical education, this supplement to the Physical Education Course of Study was prepared. Suggestions for teaching and organizing classes in 16 "Self to Nature" activities are outlined. Activities are: backpacking, bicycling, boating, camping, canoeing, fishing, hebertisme (an…

  20. Physical Activity and BMI: Evidence from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohensee, Caroline W.; Nies, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the association between amount of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) percentile among middle and high school children. Total daily physical activity needs to include both in and out of school physical activity. Methods: A secondary data analysis was performed on 1306 children drawn from the Panel Study of…

  1. The effect of vitamin D(3) supplementation on texture and oxidative stability of beef loins from steers treated with zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Stine; Frylinck, Lorinda; Strydom, Phillip E

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 10 young steers received no beta agonist (C), 50 animals all received zilpaterol hydrochloride (Z), with 1 group receiving Z while the other 4 groups received Z and vitamin D(3) at the following levels (IU/animal /day) and durations before slaughter: 7 million for 3 days (3D7M) or 6 days (6D7M), 7 million for 6 days with 7 days no supplementation (6D7M7N) and 1 million for 9 days (9D1M). LD samples were vacuum-aged 14 days post mortem, and repacked in high-oxygen modified atmosphere (70% O(2)/30% CO(2)) for a further 7 days. Parameters included Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibril fragment length, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, free thiol levels, muscle fat, and instrumental colour parameters. When allowing for a conversion period of vitamin D(3) to its active metabolites, supplementing the zilpaterol treated steers with a high dosage of vitamin D(3) (6D7M7N) resulted in improved colour stability, higher stability towards protein oxidation and lower stability towards lipid oxidation.

  2. Effect of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in rats: A multigeneration study.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in the first and second generation offspring. However, there is a need to examine if the effects are sustained in the third generation offspring. This study reports the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across three consecutive generations on brain neurotrophins like brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); nerve growth factor (NGF) and cognitive performance in the third generation male offspring. Three successive generations of Wistar rats were assigned the following groups throughout pregnancy, lactation and adulthood: i) Control, ii) vitamin B12 deficient (BD), iii) vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), iv) vitamin B12 supplemented (BS) and v) vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The BD group demonstrated lower (p < 0.01) NGF in the cortex but not BDNF levels although the cognition was impaired (p < 0.01). In contrast, in the BDO group, higher NGF levels were observed in the hippocampus and animals demonstrated improved (p < 0.01) cognitive performance. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed comparable BDNF levels in the hippocampus while their levels were lower in the cortex as compared to the control (p < 0.05). These animals showed more reference and working memory errors (p < 0.01) as compared to the control group. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid showed higher (p < 0.01) levels of DHA and NGF in the hippocampus, higher BDNF in both hippocampus and cortex and improved cognitive performance. Our findings have implications for fortification of foods with vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids in improving brain development.

  3. Effect of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in rats: A multigeneration study.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in the first and second generation offspring. However, there is a need to examine if the effects are sustained in the third generation offspring. This study reports the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across three consecutive generations on brain neurotrophins like brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); nerve growth factor (NGF) and cognitive performance in the third generation male offspring. Three successive generations of Wistar rats were assigned the following groups throughout pregnancy, lactation and adulthood: i) Control, ii) vitamin B12 deficient (BD), iii) vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), iv) vitamin B12 supplemented (BS) and v) vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The BD group demonstrated lower (p < 0.01) NGF in the cortex but not BDNF levels although the cognition was impaired (p < 0.01). In contrast, in the BDO group, higher NGF levels were observed in the hippocampus and animals demonstrated improved (p < 0.01) cognitive performance. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed comparable BDNF levels in the hippocampus while their levels were lower in the cortex as compared to the control (p < 0.05). These animals showed more reference and working memory errors (p < 0.01) as compared to the control group. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid showed higher (p < 0.01) levels of DHA and NGF in the hippocampus, higher BDNF in both hippocampus and cortex and improved cognitive performance. Our findings have implications for fortification of foods with vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids in improving brain development. PMID:27569259

  4. Periconceptional vitamin supplementation and neural tube defects; evidence from a case-control study in Western Australia and a review of recent publications.

    PubMed Central

    Bower, C; Stanley, F J

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the association of neural tube defects with periconceptional vitamin supplementation. DESIGN--This was a matched, population based case-control study. SETTING--Western Australia, 1982-1984. PARTICIPANTS--Mothers of 77 cases (93% of those eligible) with isolated neural tube defects, mothers of 77 matched control infants with defects other than neural tube defects (control group I), and mothers of 154 liveborn, matched, control infants with no birth defects (control group II) participated in the study. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Information was collected by interview and self administered questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (and their 95% confidence intervals) showed a small but non-significant protective effect of folate supplementation in comparisons with both control groups. The adjusted ratios for the three months before pregnancy were 0.69 (0.06, 8.53) with control group I, and 0.11 (0.01, 1.33) with control group II. In the first six weeks of pregnancy, the adjusted odds ratios were 0.70 (0.32, 1.52) with control group I and 0.74 (0.29, 1.88) with control group II. The odds ratios for vitamin supplementation of any kind were all very close to or greater than one, and all confidence intervals embraced unity. CONCLUSIONS--These data do not provide evidence of an association between periconceptional vitamin supplementation and neural tube defects, although a protective effect of folate supplementation cannot be excluded with confidence, due to the low power of the study. Of three other observational studies of vitamins and neural tube defects, two have shown an association. While further studies of this kind may be of value, evidence must now be sought from randomised controlled trials. PMID:1583432

  5. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M⊙, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R⊙, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  6. Program of Policy Studies in Science and Technology, supplement to seven year review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The activities of the Program of Policy Studies are described and evaluated. Awards, seminars, publications are included along with student researcher profiles, graduate program in science, technology, and public policy, and a statement of program capability.

  7. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and redox status in a short-term low-dosed multivitamin and mineral supplementation study in two human age groups.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Eugene; Beekhof, Piet; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Luksiene, Dalia; Baceviciene, Migle

    2015-10-01

    A 60-day intervention study was conducted in which the participants took a low dose of a multivitamin and mineral supplement. The study consists of a final number of 66 volunteers (30 males and 36 females), divided into two age groups of 30-35 and 60-65 years. For 30 days they took a multivitamin and mineral supplement with 1× the recommended daily intake (RDI) followed by another 30 days with 2× the RDI. The aim of the study was to monitor oxidative stress and redox status of both young and old age groups. In serum, the expected increase of the water-soluble vitamins folate and vitamin B12 was observed with a concomitant decrease in homocysteine. Serum biomarkers of oxidative stress, the reactive oxygen metabolites, of the antioxidant status, the biological antioxidant potential did not change. However, the total thiol levels in serum, biomarker of the redox status, decreased significant, only in both groups of elderly after 60 days. In erythrocytes, there was a change in the glutathione metabolism as observed by an increase in glutathione reductase and to a lower extend in glutathione peroxidase, indicating an increase in oxidative stress in all groups. It is concluded that a low-dosed multivitamin and -mineral supplementation have different effects on the redox status in young versus old. It remained to explain why a low dose of a multivitamin and -mineral supplement cause increased oxidative stress.

  8. Comparison of the urinary excretion of quercetin glycosides from red onion and aglycone from dietary supplements in healthy subjects: a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuanlu; Williamson, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Some intervention studies have shown that quercetin supplementation can regulate certain biomarkers, but it is not clear how the doses given relate to dietary quercetin (e.g. from onion). We conducted a two-period, two-sequence crossover study to compare the bioavailability of quercetin when administered in the form of a fresh red onion meal (naturally glycosylated quercetin) or dietary supplement (aglycone quercetin) under fasting conditions. Six healthy, non-smoking, adult males with BMI 22.7 ± 4.0 kg m(-2) and age 35.3 ± 12.3 y were grouped to take the two study meals in random order. In each of the 2 study periods, one serving of onion soup (made from 100 g fresh red onion, providing 156.3 ± 3.4 μmol (47 mg) quercetin) or a single dose of a quercetin dihydrate tablet (1800 ± 150 μmol (544 mg) of quercetin) were administered following 3 d washout. Urine samples were collected up to 24 h, and after enzyme deconjugation, quercetin was quantified by LC-MS. The 24 h urinary excretion of quercetin (1.69 ± 0.79 μmol) from red onion in soup was not significantly different to that (1.17 ± 0.44 μmol) for the quercetin supplement tablet (P = 0.065, paired t-test). This means that, in practice, 166 mg of quercetin supplement would be comparable to about 10 mg of quercetin aglycone equivalents from onion. These data allow intervention studies on quercetin giving either food or supplements to be more effectively compared.

  9. Understanding admixture patterns in supplemented populations: a case study combining molecular analyses and temporally explicit simulations in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Charles; Baglinière, Jean-Luc; Evanno, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Genetic admixture between wild and introduced populations is a rising concern for the management of endangered species. Here, we use a dual approach based on molecular analyses of samples collected before and after hatchery fish introduction in combination with a simulation study to obtain insight into the mechanisms of admixture in wild populations. Using 17 microsatellites, we genotyped pre- and post-stocking samples from four Atlantic salmon populations supplemented with non-native fish to estimate genetic admixture. We also used individual-based temporally explicit simulations based on realistic demographic and stocking data to predict the extent of admixture. We found a low admixture by hatchery stocks within prestocking samples but moderate to high values in post-stocking samples (from 12% to 60%). The simulation scenarios best fitting the real data suggested a 10–25 times lower survival of stocked fish relative to wild individuals. Simulations also suggested relatively high dispersal rates of stocked and wild fish, which may explain some high levels of admixture in weakly stocked populations and the persistence of indigenous genotypes in heavily stocked populations. This study overall demonstrates that combining genetic analyses with simulations can significantly improve the understanding of admixture mechanisms in wild populations. PMID:23798972

  10. Carotenoids and egg quality in the lesser blackbacked gull Larus fuscus: a supplemental feeding study of maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Blount, Jonathan D; Surai, Peter F; Nager, Ruedi G; Houston, David C; Møller, Anders Pape; Trewby, Michael L; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2002-01-01

    Egg quality is a phenotype of, and can profoundly influence fitness in, both mother and offspring. However, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this maternal effect are poorly understood. Carotenoids are hypothesized to enhance antioxidant activity and immune function, and are responsible for the pigmentation of egg yolk. The proximate basis and consequences of this maternal investment, however, have not previously been studied in wild birds. In this supplemental feeding study of lesser black-backed gulls, Larus fuscus, carotenoid-fed females are shown to have increased integument pigmentation, higher plasma concentrations of carotenoids and antioxidant activity, and lower plasma concentrations of immunoglobulins (Igs) in comparison with controls. In turn, carotenoid-fed females produced eggs containing high carotenoid but low Ig concentrations (i.e. passive immunity), whereas control females produced eggs containing low carotenoid but high Ig concentrations. Within-clutch patterns of these resources varied over the laying sequence in a similar manner in both carotenoid-fed and control nests. Our results suggest that carotenoids could be one resource responsible for egg quality maternal effects in birds. We discuss the possible implications of carotenoid-mediated effects on phenotype for fitness in mothers and their offspring. PMID:11788033

  11. Study of KAP with regard to taking folic acid supplements and factors affecting the recommendation and prescription of those supplements among obstetricians and specialists in women's health in six provinces of Northern China, 2009.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Zhu, Jun; Zeng, Ziqian; Wang, Yanping; Liang, Juan; Yuan, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Taking folic acid (FA) supplements reduces the risks of neural tube defects (NTDs) in early pregnancy. Obstetricians and specialists in women's health play important roles in promoting FA intake. However, surveys on their knowledge of, attitudes toward, and behavior regarding giving FA to pregnant women are limited. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 5,860 obstetricians and specialists in women's health using a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on participants' demographic characteristics and their knowledge of and attitudes toward and practices related to taking FA supplements. Chi-square analysis was used for rate comparison while logistic regression analysis was performed to predict influencing factors. For items on knowledge about FA and taking FA supplements the overall correct response rate was 60.3% (24,235/40,173). Questions about related practices and attitudes were correctly answered for the most part (more than 90%), but participants were less likely to follow the practice of prescribing FA tablets to women planning a pregnancy while working (77.2%). Statistical analysis indicated that the "Level of facility where the participant works" and "Rate of correct responses on a test of knowledge" were the main factors affecting participants' recommendation to take FA while "Job title", "Amount of professional work experience", and "Rate of correct responses on a test of knowledge" were the main factors affecting participants' prescription of FA. In conclusion, participants had a good deal of knowledge about NTDs and FA but the lack of some knowledge possibly led to the relatively low rate of correct behaviors. Therefore, educating obstetricians and specialists in women's health in this regard is crucial.

  12. ClinicalTrials.gov registration can supplement information in abstracts for systematic reviews: a comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inclusion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in conference abstracts in systematic reviews is controversial, partly because study design information and risk of bias is often not fully reported in the abstract. The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) requires trial registration of abstracts submitted for their annual conference as of 2007. Our goal was to assess the feasibility of obtaining study design information critical to systematic reviews, but not typically included in conference abstracts, from the trial registration record. Methods We reviewed all conference abstracts presented at the ARVO meetings from 2007 through 2009, and identified 496 RCTs; 154 had a single matching registration record in ClinicalTrials.gov. Two individuals independently extracted information from the abstract and the ClinicalTrials.gov record, including study design, sample size, inclusion criteria, masking, interventions, outcomes, funder, and investigator name and contact information. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We assessed the frequencies of reporting variables appearing in the abstract and the trial register and assessed agreement of information reported in both sources. Results We found a substantial amount of study design information in the ClinicalTrials.gov record that was unavailable in the corresponding conference abstract, including eligibility criteria associated with gender (83%; 128/154); masking or blinding of study participants (53%, 82/154), persons administering treatment (30%, 46/154), and persons measuring the outcomes (40%, 61/154)); and number of study centers (58%; 90/154). Only 34% (52/154) of abstracts explicitly described a primary outcome, but a primary outcome was included in the “Primary Outcome” field in the ClinicalTrials.gov record for 82% (126/154) of studies. One or more study interventions were reported in each abstract, but agreed exactly with those reported in Clinical

  13. Effect of supplementation with vitamins E, C and β-carotene on antioxidative/oxidative status parameters in sows during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Szczubiał, M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of vitamins E, C and β-carotene supplementation in sows on the parameters of antioxidative/oxidative status during the postpartum period was investigated. Twenty four primiparous sows, divided into two groups (experimental and control), were included in the study. After the half-way point of pregnancy until farrowing, each experimental sow received feed supplemented twice a week with 200 mg of vitamin E and 1000 mg of vitamin C, and additionally, 70 mg of β-carotene were administered via intramuscular injection, on day 14 and day 7 before farrowing. The control group was not supplemented. Blood samples were collected before supplementation (gestational day 57-58), 48 hours and 7 days after parturition. The following antioxidative and oxidative parameters were measured using spectrophotometric methods: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), vitamin C, vitamin E, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and sulfhydryl groups (SH groups). In supplemented sows the erythrocyte activity of GSH-Px and CAT was found to be significantly higher on day 7 after farrowing and the activity of SOD was significantly higher at 48 hours postpartum, compared to the control group. The concentration of vitamins C and E in plasma of the supplemented group was found to be significantly higher and the content of TBARS was found significantly lower at both postpartum measurement points, compared to the control group. The content of SH groups was significantly higher on day 7 postpartum, compared to the control group. The study findings indicate that supplementation of pregnant sows with vitamins E, C and β-carotene in the second half of pregnancy has beneficial effects on the antioxidative/oxidative balance in the postpartum period by increasing the antioxidative potential and reducing lipid and protein peroxidation. PMID:26172179

  14. N,N-dimethyl-2-phenylpropan-1-amine quantification in urine: application to excretion study following single oral dietary supplement dose.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Marzena; Jarek, Anna; Chajewska, Katarzyna; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    N,N-dimethyl-2-phenylpropan-1-amine (NN-DMPPA) is a new designer stimulant prohibited in sport in-competition according to the List of Prohibited Substances and Methods published by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The first published data on the excretion study of NN-DMPPA to support the knowledge of NN-DMPPA in routine anti-doping control have been presented. The reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry quantitative method (GC-MS) has been validated and applied to the excretion study of NN-DMPPA. The validation parameters of the GC-MS method for determination of NN-DMPPA in human urine were the linear calibration range of 100 to 7500 ng/mL, the LOD of 13.9 ng/mL and the LOQ of 42.2 ng/mL. According to the obtained repeatability, intermediate precision, and trueness, the applied GC-MS method was precise and accurate. Urine samples from three volunteers in the excretion study were collected for 5 days after single oral administration of the supplement NOXPUMP containing NN-DMPPA. The obtained results showed the maximum concentration of NN-DMPPA (189-303 ng/mL) in urine samples at a time of 2-3 h post-administration. The NN-DMPPA concentration in urine samples was higher than 50 ng/mL until 22-23 h after the dietary supplement ingestion. This means that according to the WADA rules the use of a supplement containing NN-DMPPA may be related to a positive case when athletes took this supplement in-competition. Moreover, excretion results demonstrate also that NN-DMPPA may be detected in urine samples by the applied GC-MS method till 46 h after supplement administration. Additionally, the excretion study of β-methylphenethylamine as the second prohibited substance present in the supplement NOXPUMP has been investigated. Graphical Abstract Excretion study of new designer stimulant, N,N-dimethyl-2-phenylpropan-1-amine, and β-methylphenethylamine following single oral NOXPUMP supplement dose. PMID:27178556

  15. [Bibliography of Studies and Research in Camping and Outdoor Education and Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    Following discussions on the need for research in outdoor education and on the American Camping Association's program of research, over 1,000 partially annotated bibliographic entries published between 1909 and 1964 are presented. The listings are divided into 4 sections: theses and dissertations; studies sponsored by local community welfare…

  16. SUGGESTED UNIT ABOUT THE NEGRO TO SUPPLEMENT A TWELFTH GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    SUGGESTIONS ARE OFFERED FOR INTEGRATING INFORMATION ABOUT THE NEGRO INTO SOCIAL STUDIES DISCUSSIONS, AND ARE PRESENTED IN GUIDE FORM FOR TEACHERS OF 12TH-GRADE STUDENTS. THROUGH THE USE OF DISCUSSIONS, FILMS, RECORDINGS, AND SPECIAL REFERENCES, INFORMATION ABOUT THE NEGRO CAN BE GIVEN. IT CAN BE PRESENTED IN SUCH DIVISIONS AS DEMOCRACY, BIOLOGICAL…

  17. Three Afro-Brazilian Writers: A Supplemental Guide for Black and Latin American Studies Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    This biographical/bibliographic guide provides profiles of three Afro-Brazilian writers: Jorge de Lima (1893-1953); Luiz Gonzaga Pinto da Gama (1830-1882); and Abdias do Nascimento (1914- ). The life of each author is briefly described and sources of English language translations together with critical studies of their works are listed. Four…

  18. 78 FR 76189 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study, Prince George...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Study Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and a Department of the Army Individual Permit (IP... minimize aquatic resource impacts. The USACE is preparing the document as part of its evaluation of the IP... stated in the draft SEIS. Actions available to the USACE for the proposed project are to issue the...

  19. Insulin Resistance and Body Weight: Recent Human Studies Documenting the Benefits of Supplemental Chromium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essentiality of chromium for humans was confirmed more than three decades ago with the studies showing that patients on total parenteral nutritrion (TPN) developed severe diabetic-like symptoms that could be reversed by the addition of chromium to their parenteral nutrition solutions. Since the...

  20. Perspectives on the Instructional Dimensions Study; A Supplemental Report from the National Institute of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    In this volume the April, 1978 Instructional Dimensions Study Conference is reported. The conference focused on four areas of compensatory education: (1) opportunity to learn; (2) instructional setting; (3) planning, organization, and management; and (4) individualized instruction. An overview of the proceedings outlines and briefly discusses each…

  1. Law: The Language of Liberty. Supplemental Materials for Alabama Social Studies Teachers. Grades 5-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Administrative Office of Courts, Montgomery.

    Student activity pages, teacher background information, and lesson ideas for teaching about the law in social studies classrooms are provided in this supplementary packet. An introductory section provides a rationale for the unit, a guide to bringing law-related resource persons into the classroom, a teacher checklist for helping resource persons…

  2. Teachers Guide to Man and the Economic Society: A Social Studies Curriculum Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Milo F.

    Endeavoring to reach a goal of economic literacy, this K-12 economic resource guide provides the teacher with a context, concepts, and content about the economics of American society and the study of economics in general. Its purpose is to shorten the amount of work and time that a teacher needs to spend on reading and locating material. Based…

  3. Career Development and Occupational Studies: A Supplement to the Adult Education Resource Guide and Learning Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavey, Kay S.; Krieger, Alan

    This publication focuses on New York's learning standards for career development and occupational studies (CDOS) in adult education: career development, integrated learning, universal foundation skills, and career majors. A section on the adult learner provides information on engaging learners to increase motivation. The next section focuses on…

  4. Law: The Language of Liberty. Supplemental Materials for Alabama Social Studies Teachers. Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Administrative Office of Courts, Montgomery.

    Student activity pages, teacher background information, and lesson ideas for teaching about the law in social studies classrooms are provided in this supplementary packet. An introductory section provides a rationale for the unit, a guide to bringing law-related resource persons to the classroom, a teacher checklist for helping resource persons…

  5. An open-label study on the effect of flax seed powder (Linum usitatissimum) supplementation in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani; Biswas, Mamta; Kumar, Smriti Nanda

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with aberrations in the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid that result in development of secondary complications. Extensive studies have indicated that nutritional therapy plays a pivotal role in the controlling or postponing of development of these secondary complications. Several functional foods have been shown to possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Flax seed (FS) is a functional food that is rich in omega 3 fatty acids and antioxidants and is low in carbohydrates. In exploratory studies, FS was incorporated in recipes, which resulted in a reduction in the glycemic index of the food items. These observations prompted us to investigate the efficacy of FS supplementation in type 2 diabetics (n = 29). Subjects were assigned to the experimental (n = 18) or the control group (n = 11) on the basis of their desire to participate in the study. The experimental group's diet was supplemented daily with 10 g of FS powder for a period of 1 month. The control group received no supplementation or placebo. During the study, diet and drug intake of the subjects remained unaltered. The efficacy of supplementation with FS was evaluated through a battery of clinico-biochemical parameters. Supplementation with FS reduced fasting blood glucose by 19.7% and glycated hemoglobin by 15.6%. A favorable reduction in total cholesterol (14.3%), triglycerides (17.5%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (21.8%), and apolipoprotein B and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.9%) were also noticed. These observations suggest the therapeutic potential of FS in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  6. An open-label study on the effect of flax seed powder (Linum usitatissimum) supplementation in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani; Biswas, Mamta; Kumar, Smriti Nanda

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with aberrations in the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid that result in development of secondary complications. Extensive studies have indicated that nutritional therapy plays a pivotal role in the controlling or postponing of development of these secondary complications. Several functional foods have been shown to possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Flax seed (FS) is a functional food that is rich in omega 3 fatty acids and antioxidants and is low in carbohydrates. In exploratory studies, FS was incorporated in recipes, which resulted in a reduction in the glycemic index of the food items. These observations prompted us to investigate the efficacy of FS supplementation in type 2 diabetics (n = 29). Subjects were assigned to the experimental (n = 18) or the control group (n = 11) on the basis of their desire to participate in the study. The experimental group's diet was supplemented daily with 10 g of FS powder for a period of 1 month. The control group received no supplementation or placebo. During the study, diet and drug intake of the subjects remained unaltered. The efficacy of supplementation with FS was evaluated through a battery of clinico-biochemical parameters. Supplementation with FS reduced fasting blood glucose by 19.7% and glycated hemoglobin by 15.6%. A favorable reduction in total cholesterol (14.3%), triglycerides (17.5%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (21.8%), and apolipoprotein B and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.9%) were also noticed. These observations suggest the therapeutic potential of FS in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22432725

  7. Effect of Resistance Training and Various Sources of Protein Supplementation on Body Fat Mass and Metabolic Profile in Sarcopenic Overweight Older Adult Men: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Maltais, Mathieu L; Perreault, Karine; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Lagacé, Jean Christophe; Barsalani, Razieh; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2016-02-01

    The decrease in resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat oxidation with aging is associated with an increase in fat mass (FM), and both could be prevented by exercise such as resistance training. Dairy consumption has also been shown to promote FM loss in different subpopulations and to be positively associated with fat oxidation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether resistance exercise combined with dairy supplementation could have an additive impact on FM and energy metabolism, especially in individuals with a deficit in muscle mass. Twenty-six older overweight sarcopenic men (65 ± 5 years old) were recruited for the study. They participated in 4 months of resistance exercise and were randomized into three groups for postexercise shakes (control, dairy, and nondairy isocaloric and isoprotein supplement with 375 ml and ~280 calories per shake). Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry and REE by indirect calorimetry. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, inflammatory profile, and blood lipid profile were also measured. Significant decreases were observed with FM only in the dairy supplement group; no changes were observed for any other variables. To conclude, FM may decrease without changes in metabolic parameters during resistance training and dairy supplementation with no caloric restriction without having any impact on metabolic properties. More studies are warranted to explain this significant decrease in FM. PMID:26894503

  8. Reactivity of Chromium(III) Nutritional Supplements in Biological Media: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, A.; Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.

    2009-05-22

    Chromium(III) nutritional supplements are widely used due to their purported ability to enhance glucose metabolism, despite growing evidence on low activity and the potential genotoxicity of these compounds. Reactivities of Cr(III) complexes used in nutritional formulations, including [Cr3O(OCOEt)6(OH2)3]+ (A), [Cr(pic)3] (pic) = 2-pyridinecarboxylato(-) (B), and trans-[CrCl2(OH2)4]+ (CrCl3 {center_dot} 6H2O; C), in a range of natural and simulated biological media (artificial digestion systems, blood and its components, cell culture media, and intact L6 rat skeletal muscle cells) were studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectroscopic data were processed by multiple linear-regression analyses with the use of a library of model Cr(III) compounds, and the results were corroborated by the results of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. Complexes A and B underwent extensive ligand-exchange reactions under conditions of combined gastric and intestinal digestion (in the presence of a semisynthetic meal, 3 h at 310 K), as well as in blood serum and in a cell culture medium (1-24 h at 310 K), with the formation of Cr(III) complexes with hydroxo and amino acid/protein ligands. Reactions of compounds A-C with cultured muscle cells led to similar ligand-exchange products, with at least part of Cr(III) bound to the surface of the cells. The reactions of B with serum greatly enhanced its propensity to be converted to Cr(VI) by biological oxidants (H2O2 or glucose oxidase system), which is proposed to be a major cause of both the insulin-enhancing activity and toxicity of Cr(III) compounds (Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P. A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 4504-4507). This finding enhances the current concern over the safety of consumption of large doses of Cr(III) supplements, particularly [Cr(pic)3].

  9. (In)Consistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Froio de Araujo Dias, Gabriela; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Sale, Craig; Giannini Artioli, Guilherme; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB). Design and Methods 15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m) completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110%) following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials) or placebo (PL, 2 trials). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD) was recorded as the exercise outcome. Results SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001); absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05). Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001), and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none. Conclusions The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation. Trial Registration

  10. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  11. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  12. Tocotrienol rich fraction supplementation improved lipid profile and oxidative status in healthy older adults: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vitamin E supplements containing tocotrienols are now being recommended for optimum health but its effects are scarcely known. The objective was to determine the effects of Tocotrienol Rich Fraction (TRF) supplementation on lipid profile and oxidative status in healthy older individuals at a dose of 160 mg/day for 6 months. Methods Sixty-two subjects were recruited from two age groups: 35-49 years (n = 31) and above 50 years (n = 31), and randomly assigned to receive either TRF or placebo capsules for six months. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 3rd and 6th months. Results HDL-cholesterol in the TRF-supplemented group was elevated after 6 months (p < 0.01). Protein carbonyl contents were markedly decreased (p < 0.001), whereas AGE levels were lowered in the > 50 year-old group (p < 0.05). Plasma levels of total vitamin E particularly tocopherols were significantly increased in the TRF-supplemented group after 3 months (p < 0.01). Plasma total tocotrienols were only increased in the > 50 year-old group after receiving 6 months of TRF supplementation. Changes in enzyme activities were only observed in the > 50 year-old group. SOD activity was decreased after 3 (p < 0.05) and 6 (p < 0.05) months of TRF supplementation whereas CAT activity was decreased after 3 (p < 0.01) and 6 (p < 0.05) months in the placebo group. GPx activity was increased at 6 months for both treatment and placebo groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion The observed improvement of plasma cholesterol, AGE and antioxidant vitamin levels as well as the reduced protein damage may indicate a restoration of redox balance after TRF supplementation, particularly in individuals over 50 years of age. PMID:21702918

  13. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Nogiec, Christopher D; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology. PMID:23967053

  14. To Supplement or Not to Supplement: A Metabolic Network Framework for Human Nutritional Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Nogiec, Christopher D.; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology. PMID:23967053

  15. Young Coconut Juice Supplementation Results in Greater Bone Mass and Bone Formation Indices in Ovariectomized Rats: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Morii, Yuko; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Minami, Akira; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan; Watanabe, Kazushi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Young coconut juice (Cocos nucifera Linn.) (YCJ) has traditionally been consumed to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause by women in Southeast Asia. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of YCJ on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Female 10-week-old Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following 4 groups: Baseline, Sham, Ovx, and Ovx + YCJ (n = 10 rats per group). Rats in the Baseline group were sacrificed immediately, and those in the other groups were subjected to either sham operation (Sham) or bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx and Ovx + YCJ). The Ovx + YCJ rats were administered 5×-concentrated YCJ at a dose of 10 mL/kg body weight per day. Six weeks after surgery, the rats were sacrificed, and indices of bone mass and bone histomorphometry were measured. The bone mineral density of the left femur was significantly higher in the Ovx + YCJ group compared with the Ovx group. In addition, the Ovx + YCJ group showed significantly higher measurements for bone formation rate compared with the Ovx group. These findings suggest that YCJ supplementation has a positive effect on bone metabolism and thus represents a possible intervention to slow the bone loss observed following menopause.

  16. XAS and XFM studies of selenium and copper speciation and distribution in the kidneys of selenite-supplemented rats.

    PubMed

    Weekley, Claire M; Shanu, Anu; Aitken, Jade B; Vogt, Stefan; Witting, Paul K; Harris, Hugh H

    2014-09-01

    Dietary selenium has been implicated in the prevention of cancer and other diseases, but its safety and efficacy is dependent on the supplemented form and its metabolites. In this study, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) have been used to investigate the speciation and distribution of Se and Cu in vivo. In kidneys isolated from rats fed a diet containing 5 ppm Se as selenite for 3 weeks, Se levels increased 5-fold. XFM revealed a strong correlation between the distribution of Se and the distribution of Cu in the kidney, a phenomenon that has previously been observed in cell culture (Weekley et al., JBIC, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem., 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s00775-014-1113-x). However, X-ray absorption spectra suggest that most of the Se in the kidney is found as Se-Se species, rather than Cu-bound, and that most of the Cu is bound to S and N, presumably to amino acid residues in proteins. Furthermore, SOD1 expression did not change in response to the high Se diet. We cannot rule out the possibility of some Cu-Se bonding in the tissues, but our results suggest mechanisms other than the formation of Cu-Se species and SOD1 upregulation are responsible for the highly correlated distributions of Se and Cu in the kidneys of rats fed high selenite diets.

  17. Studies on Using Azolla for O2-Supplementation and Its Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.-C.; Liu, X.-S.; Chen, M.; Bian, Z.-L.

    Establishment of Controlling Ecological Life Safety System (CELSS) is a key technical part in the study on manned station. In order to meet the requirement of long-term out-earth man-carrying flight, it is necessary to build plant-based O2-supplying CELSS. It also possesses the possibility to contribute the realization of mankind dream to live in out-earth planets. Using the physiological reaction of organisms, this system settled the problem in food supply, O2 and water recycle, the regeneration and utilization of CO2 and life residues, thus guarantee the spacemen the health, safety and efficient work when they are far from earth and arrived the space where human is difficult to life in. Azolla as a plant that possesses high growing speed, short growing cycle, high photosynthesis and O2-releasing capacity, and can be artificially grow in multi-layer facilities, it is hopeful to be an important biological part in CELSS for it's the function in O2 production and to be a part of fresh vegetable as well as CO2 absorption. This paper described the study in Azolla as a plant for supplementary O2 supply in future space station flight. The "Azolla-dog" controlling tight system was firstly established in order to determine the regulation of O2-CO2 variation and balance using different weights of dogs with different Azolla growing areas. The further studies included the development of air-tight cabinets where "Azolla-human" airtight experiments were conducted, and the relationship between Azolla-growing area and O2 requirement by human was analyzed. Based on these works, the further experiment on supplementary O2-supply of Azolla-human system was conducted in demonstration cabin for environmental controlling and life security. The O2-supplying amount of Azolla was further gained, and it will provide the experimental basis to probe optimum condition to grow Azolla in space and human-machine combining experiment, also to lay a basis for Azolla as a biological part to enter

  18. Limited agreement exists between rationale and practice in athletes' supplement use for maintenance of health: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P; Mazanov, Jason; Holloway, Allison; Bingham, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Background The widespread use of nutritional supplements among athletes is poorly understood. The prevalence of supplement intake and users' knowledge have been researched independently leading to useful, but disconnected, information on supplement use. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874) were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [φ], to discover observed incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results are given for test pairs between 'motive for use' [doctor's advice, avoiding sickness, overcoming injuries and enhancement of diet] and each supplement used and these were categorized as strong (φ > .7), intermediate (7 < φ > .3) and weak (φ < .3). Results The use of selected supplements varied widely as follows: multivitamin (72.7%), vitamin C (70.4%), echinacea (30.8%), iron (29.8%), magnesium (11.0%) and ginseng (8.3%). Associations with motive were found in 8 of the 10 test pairs which were expected from literature precedents, however only weak associations exist. Of these, four were associated with avoidance of sickness [iron (χ2 = 11.94, p < .001; φ = .15, p = .001), multivitamin (χ2 = 6.43, p < .001; φ = .11, p = .011), vitamin C (χ2 = 54.67, p < .001; φ = .32, p < .001) and echinacea (χ2 = 40.34, p < .001; φ = .28, p < .001)]. The remaining 4 associations were: no time to prepare meals with ginseng (χ2 = 7.64, p = .006; φ = .12, p = .006) and multivitamin (χ2 = 9.103, p = .003; φ = .13, p = .003); overcoming injuries with magnesium (χ2 = 6.99, p = .008; φ = .11, p = .008); doctors' advice and iron (χ2 = 35.00, p < .001; φ = .25, p = .001). Conclusion These results suggest a lack of understanding regarding supplements and health maintenance, except for vitamin C and echinacea. Furthermore, supplement use is apparently independent of physicians/dieticians' advice, except for iron. This may suggest a widespread circumvention of expert advice in

  19. Effects of n-3 FA supplementation on the release of proresolving lipid mediators by blood mononuclear cells: the OmegAD study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuzhe; Hjorth, Erik; Vedin, Inger; Eriksdotter, Maria; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Cederholm, Tommy; Palmblad, Jan; Schultzberg, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    Specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) induce resolution of inflammation. SPMs are derivatives of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and may mediate their beneficial effects. It is unknown whether supplementation with PUFAs influences the production of SPMs. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with brain inflammation and reduced levels of SPMs. The OmegAD study is a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial on AD patients, in which placebo or a supplement of 1.7 g DHA and 0.6 g EPA was taken daily for 6 months. Plasma levels of arachidonic acid decreased, and DHA and EPA levels increased after 6 months of n-3 FA treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained before and after the trial. Analysis of the culture medium of PBMCs incubated with amyloid-β 1-40 showed unchanged levels of the SPMs lipoxin A4 and resolvin D1 in the group supplemented with n-3 FAs, whereas a decrease was seen in the placebo group. The changes in SPMs showed correspondence to cognitive changes. Changes in the levels of SPMs were positively correlated to changes in transthyretin. We conclude that supplementation with n-3 PUFAs for 6 months prevented a reduction in SPMs released from PBMCs of AD patients, which was associated with changes in cognitive function. PMID:25616438

  20. Experimental Guidelines for Studies Designed to Investigate the Impact of Antioxidant Supplementation on Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Scott K.; Smuder, Ashley J.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Hudson, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    Research interest in the effects of antioxidants on exercise-induced oxidative stress and human performance continues to grow as new scientists enter this field. Consequently, there is a need to establish an acceptable set of criteria for monitoring antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage in tissues. Numerous reports have described a wide range of assays to detect both antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage to biomolecules, but many techniques are not appropriate in all experimental conditions. Here, the authors present guidelines for selecting and interpreting methods that can be used by scientists to investigate the impact of antioxidants on both exercise performance and the redox status of tissues. Moreover, these guidelines will be useful for reviewers who are assigned the task of evaluating studies on this topic. The set of guidelines contained in this report is not designed to be a strict set of rules, because often the appropriate procedures depend on the question being addressed and the experimental model. Furthermore, because no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate in every experimental situation, the authors strongly recommend using multiple assays to verify a change in biomarkers of oxidative stress or redox balance. PMID:20190346

  1. Use of high doses of folic acid supplements in pregnant women in Spain: an INMA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manoli; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Riaño, Isolina; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the use of low (<400 μg/day, including no use) and high folic acid supplement (FAS) dosages (≥1000 μg/day) among pregnant women in Spain, and explored factors associated with the use of these non-recommended dosages. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Spain. Participants We analysed data from 2332 pregnant women of the INMA study, a prospective mother-child cohort study in Spain. Main outcome measures We assessed usual dietary folate and the use of FAS from preconception to the 3rd month (first period) and from the 4th to the 7th month (second period), using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate relative risk ratios (RRRs). Results Over a half of the women used low dosages of FAS in the first and second period while 29% and 17% took high dosages of FAS, respectively. In the first period, tobacco smoking (RRR=1.63), alcohol intake (RRR=1.40), multiparous (RRR=1.44), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=4.20) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.58, lower use of high FAS dosages among those with previous abortions) were significantly associated with low FAS dosages. Alcohol consumption (RRR=1.42), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=2.66) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.68) were associated with high dosage use. In the second period, only tobacco smoking was significantly associated with high FAS dosage use (RRR=0.67). Conclusions A high proportion of pregnant women did not reach the recommended dosages of FAS in periconception and a considerable proportion also used FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/day. Action should be planned by the Health Care System and health professionals to improve the appropriate periconceptional use of FAS, taking into consideration the associated factors. PMID:26603248

  2. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets of soybean and coconut oil on serum lipids in normolipidemic humans. A 28-day study was divided into four 7-day experimental periods. Dietary periods were soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fiber (SO + PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fiber (CO + PF), and were arranged to a randomized cross over design. Ten subjects consumed controlled diet containing 30% fat calories (20% from test oils and 10% from controlled diet) and 20 g per day of psyllium during fiber supplementation periods. SO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with SO diet (P < 0.001). CO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with CO diet (P < 0.014). Hypocholesterolemic response was greater with SO + PF compared with CO + PF (0.36 mmol 1(-1) vs 0.31 mmol 1(-1)). Reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were parallel to reductions of serum cholesterol. SO diet decreased, while CO diet increased serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo B. Very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo A-1 were unaffected by psyllium fiber and saturation of fat. Reduction of serum cholesterol was due to reduction of LDL cholesterol. Psyllium fiber supplementation lowered serum cholesterol regardless of saturation level of dietary fat.

  3. Prospective study of the modified atkins diet in combination with a ketogenic liquid supplement during the initial month.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L; Turner, Zahava; Pyzik, Paula L

    2011-02-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate treatment for intractable childhood epilepsy. As data suggest that a stricter diet onset can be more effective, we added a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month. Thirty children with intractable epilepsy were prospectively started on the modified Atkins diet in combination with a daily 400-calorie KetoCal shake. At 1 month, 24 (80%) children had >50% seizure reduction, of which 11 (37%) had >90% seizure reduction. There was no significant loss of efficacy during the second month after KetoCal was discontinued. The use of this ketogenic supplement increased daily fat intake and thus the ketogenic ratio (1.8:1 versus 1.0:1 in the modified Atkins diet alone, P = .0002), but did not change urinary or serum ketosis. The addition of a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month appears to be beneficial.

  4. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution.

    PubMed

    Powers, Michael E.; Arnold, Brent L.; Weltman, Arthur L.; Perrin, David H.; Mistry, Dilawaar; Kahler, David M.; Kraemer, William; Volek, Jeff

    2003-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of oral creatine (Cr) monohydrate supplementation on muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) volumes. DESIGN AND SETTING: After an overnight fast, urinary Cr and creatinine concentrations, muscle Cr concentration, body mass, TBW, ECW, and ICW were measured, and subjects were randomly assigned to either a Cr or a placebo (P) group. The Cr group ingested 25 g/d of Cr for 7 days (loading phase) and 5 g/d for the remaining 21 days (maintenance phase), whereas the P group ingested a sucrose P using the same protocol. All the measures were reassessed immediately after the loading and maintenance phases. SUBJECTS: Sixteen men (age = 22.8 +/- 3.01 years, height = 179.8 +/- 7.1 cm, body mass = 84.8 +/- 11.2 kg) and 16 women (age = 21.8 +/- 2.51 years, height = 163.4 +/- 5.9 cm, body mass = 63.6 +/- 14.0 kg) involved in resistance training volunteered to participate in this study. MEASUREMENTS: Muscle Cr concentration was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle using a percutaneous needle-biopsy technique. Total body water, ECW, and ICW volumes were assessed using deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution analyses. RESULTS: The Cr group experienced a significant increase in muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and TBW. The P group experienced a small but significant increase in TBW only. CONCLUSIONS: The Cr supplementation protocol was effective for increasing muscle Cr concentrations, body mass, and TBW; however, fluid distribution was not changed.

  5. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Brent L.; Weltman, Arthur L.; Perrin, David H.; Mistry, Dilawaar; Kahler, David M.; Kraemer, William; Volek, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of oral creatine (Cr) monohydrate supplementation on muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) volumes. Design and Setting: After an overnight fast, urinary Cr and creatinine concentrations, muscle Cr concentration, body mass, TBW, ECW, and ICW were measured, and subjects were randomly assigned to either a Cr or a placebo (P) group. The Cr group ingested 25 g/d of Cr for 7 days (loading phase) and 5 g/d for the remaining 21 days (maintenance phase), whereas the P group ingested a sucrose P using the same protocol. All the measures were reassessed immediately after the loading and maintenance phases. Subjects: Sixteen men (age = 22.8 ± 3.01 years, height = 179.8 ± 7.1 cm, body mass = 84.8 ± 11.2 kg) and 16 women (age = 21.8 ± 2.51 years, height = 163.4 ± 5.9 cm, body mass = 63.6 ± 14.0 kg) involved in resistance training volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements: Muscle Cr concentration was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle using a percutaneous needle-biopsy technique. Total body water, ECW, and ICW volumes were assessed using deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution analyses. Results: The Cr group experienced a significant increase in muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and TBW. The P group experienced a small but significant increase in TBW only. Conclusions: The Cr supplementation protocol was effective for increasing muscle Cr concentrations, body mass, and TBW; however, fluid distribution was not changed. PMID:12937471

  6. Human recombinant glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1) supplemented with oxaloacetate induces a protective effect after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mato, M; Ramos-Cabrer, P; Sobrino, T; Blanco, M; Ruban, A; Mirelman, D; Menendez, P; Castillo, J; Campos, F

    2014-01-09

    Blood glutamate scavenging is a novel and attractive protecting strategy to reduce the excitotoxic effect of extracellular glutamate released during ischemic brain injury. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1) activation by means of oxaloacetate administration has been used to reduce the glutamate concentration in the blood. However, the protective effect of the administration of the recombinant GOT1 (rGOT1) enzyme has not been yet addressed in cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to analyze the protective effect of an effective dose of oxaloacetate and the human rGOT1 alone and in combination with a non-effective dose of oxaloacetate in an animal model of ischemic stroke. Sixty rats were subjected to a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Infarct volumes were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before treatment administration, and 24 h and 7 days after MCAO. Brain glutamate levels were determined by in vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) during artery occlusion (80 min) and reperfusion (180 min). GOT activity and serum glutamate concentration were analyzed during the occlusion and reperfusion period. Somatosensory test was performed at baseline and 7 days after MCAO. The three treatments tested induced a reduction in serum and brain glutamate levels, resulting in a reduction in infarct volume and sensorimotor deficit. Protective effect of rGOT1 supplemented with oxaloacetate at 7 days persists even when treatment was delayed until at least 2 h after onset of ischemia. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the combination of human rGOT1 with low doses of oxaloacetate seems to be a successful approach for stroke treatment.

  7. Effect of cod liver oil supplementation on the stearoyl-CoA desaturase index in obese children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yukihiko; Okada, Tomoo; Abe, Yuriko; Kazama, Minako; Saito, Emiko; Kuromori, Yuki; Iwata, Fujihiko; Hara, Mitsuhiko; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Yohei; Shimizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity, we treated 10 obese children (mean age: 12.9 years) with cod liver oil once daily for 12 weeks. The effects of cod liver oil supplementation on SCD activity, as estimated by the palmitoleate/palmitate ratio, depended on the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents at baseline. Baseline DHA contents were negatively correlated with baseline SCD activity. After the treatment, baseline DHA contents were found to be significantly associated with the reduction of SCD activity. Cod liver oil supplementation may be a complementary treatment for obese children with low baseline contents of DHA.

  8. A randomized, double-masked study to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in meibomian gland dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Oleñik, Andrea; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Alejandre-Alba, Nicolás; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysfunction of the meibomian gland (MG) is among the most frequent causes of ophthalmological symptoms. The inflammation seen in meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is part of its pathogenesis, and evidence of the antioxidant-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids suggests this to be an appropriate treatment for MGD. Objective We aimed to assess the effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids versus placebo, in improving the symptoms and signs of MGD. Methods We conducted a randomized and double-mask trial of 3 months duration. We enrolled 61 patients who presented with symptomatic MGD and no tear instability (defined as tear breakup time [TBUT] <10 seconds). Participants were randomly assigned to two homogeneous subgroups. For patients in group A, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus a placebo oral agent. For patients in group B, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus oral supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. We performed the following tests: (1) TBUT; (2) Schirmer I test; (3) Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI©; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA); (4) MG expression; (5) evaluation of lid margin inflammation; and (6) interpalpebral and corneal dye staining. Results After 3 months of evaluation, the mean OSDI, TBUT, lid margin inflammation, and MG expression presented improvement from the baseline values, in group B (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively). The Schirmer test results were also improved and statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion Oral omega-3 fatty acids, 1.5 grams per day, may be beneficial in the treatment of MGD, mainly by improving tear stability. PMID:24039409

  9. Reduced peak, but no diurnal variation, in thrombin generation upon melatonin supplementation in tetraplegia. A randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Per Ole; Dahm, Anders; Skretting, Grethe; Mowinckel, Marie-Christine; Stranda, Annicke; Østerud, Bjarne; Sandset, Per Morten; Kostovski, Emil

    2015-11-01

    Tetraplegic patients have increased risk of venous thrombosis despite anti-thrombotic prophylaxis. Moreover, they have blunted plasma variations in melatonin and altered diurnal variation of several haemostatic markers, compared with able-bodied. However, whether healthy individuals and tetraplegic patients, with or without melatonin, display abnormalities in thrombin generation during a 24-hour (h) cycle, is unknown. We therefore used the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT) assay to examine diurnal variations and the possible role of melatonin in thrombin generation. Six men with long-standing complete tetraplegia were included in a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study with melatonin supplementation (2 mg, 4 consecutive nights), whereas six healthy, able-bodied men served as controls. Ten plasma samples were collected frequently during a 24-h awake/sleep cycle. No significant diurnal variation of any of the measured CAT indices was detected in the three study groups. Whereas endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was independent (p > 0.05) of whether the tetraplegic men received melatonin or placebo, melatonin decreased (p = 0.005) peak values in tetraplegia compared with those given placebo. Able-bodied men had lower (p = 0.019) ETP and Lag-Time (p = 0.018) compared with tetraplegics receiving placebo. Neither the Time-to-Peak nor the Start-Tail was affected (p > 0.05) by melatonin in tetraplegia. In conclusion, indices of thrombin generation are not subjected to diurnal variation in healthy able-bodied or tetraplegia, but peak thrombin generation is reduced in tetraplegic men receiving oral melatonin. PMID:26202881

  10. Supplementation of soybean lecithin-based semen extender by antioxidants: complementary flowcytometric study on post-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mohsen; Zhandi, Mahdi; Akbari Sharif, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of cysteine (C) and glutathione (G) on the post-thawed ram sperm quality. Collected semen samples from four mature rams were diluted with five soybean lecithin (SL)-based extenders containing: no antioxidant (SL-0), 5 mM cysteine (SL-C5), 10 mM cysteine (SL-C10), 5 mM glutathione (SL-G5) and 10 mM glutathione (SL-G10). After freeze-thawing process, motion and velocity parameters, plasma membrane integrity and functionality, morphological abnormality, lipid peroxidation, acrosomal status, mitochondria activity, and apoptosis status of post-thawed ram spermatozoa were assessed. The results showed that SL-C10 increased the total motility and plasma membrane integrity (p < 0.05) of post-thawed ram spermatozoa (55.86 ± 1.37 and 60.57 ± 1.34 %) compared to other extenders. Progressive motility was significantly higher in SL-C10 (24.71 ± 1.13 %) compared to SL-0 (20 ± 1.13 %) and SL-G10 (15 ± 1.13 %). Mitochondrial activity was significantly higher in SL-C10 (56.83 ± 2.29 %) compared to SL-G10 (38.75 ± 2.29 %). Capacitation and acrosomal status, lipid peroxidation, and the percentage of dead spermatozoa were not affected by different extenders. The percentage of live spermatozoa was higher in SL-C10 (56.33 ± 1.35 %) compared to other extenders. Also, SL-C10 resulted in a lower percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa (14.17 ± 0.53 %) compared to other extenders. The results of this study showed that supplementation of SL-based ram semen extender with 10 mM cysteine resulted in an improved quality of post-thawed ram spermatozoa.

  11. The hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) supplementation in a Cretan population with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mazokopakis, Elias E.; Papadomanolaki, Maria G.; Fousteris, Andreas A.; Kotsiris, Dimitrios A.; Lampadakis, Ioannis M.; Ganotakis, Emmanuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background A pilot study was conducted to determine the effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) on Cretan patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Spirulina is a filamentous cyanobacterium taken as a dietary supplement. Methods Fifteen adult Cretan outpatients (13 men), median age 48 (range: 29-62) years, with NAFLD were orally supplemented with 6 g of Spirulina (Greek production) per day for six months. Anthropometric characteristics (height, weight, waist circumference), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, complete blood count, biochemical assessments, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, health-related quality of life and abdominal sonographic findings were recorded and measured, before and after Spirulina supplementation. Results At the end of the 6-month intervention period, the mean levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased: 38.5%, 37.5%, 26.7%, 24.8%, 9.6%, 9.1%, and 13.5% respectively, whereas the mean levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and hemoglobin were significantly increased: 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. Spirulina supplementation resulted also in a significant reduction in weight and HOMA-IR index (8.1% and 19.6% respectively) and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life scale. No changes in sonographic findings were observed. Conclusion Spirulina supplementation at a high dosage of 6 g daily in NAFLD patients has strong and multiple beneficial metabolic effects and improves their health-related quality of life. PMID:25331487

  12. Effects of oral glutamine supplementation on exercise-induced gastrointestinal permeability and tight junction protein expression.

    PubMed

    Zuhl, Micah N; Lanphere, Kathryn R; Kravitz, Len; Mermier, Christine M; Schneider, Suzanne; Dokladny, Karol; Moseley, Pope L

    2014-01-15

    The objectives of this study are threefold: 1) to assess whether 7 days of oral glutamine (GLN) supplementation reduces exercise-induced intestinal permeability; 2) whether supplementation prevents the proinflammatory response; and 3) whether these changes are associated with upregulation of the heat shock response. On separate occasions, eight human subjects participated in baseline testing and in GLN and placebo (PLA) supplementation trials, followed by a 60-min treadmill run. Intestinal permeability was higher in the PLA trial compared with baseline and GLN trials (0.0604 ± 0.047 vs. 0.0218 ± 0.008 and 0.0272 ± 0.007, respectively; P < 0.05). IκBα expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was higher 240 min after exercise in the GLN trial compared with the PLA trial (1.411 ± 0.523 vs. 0.9839 ± 0.343, respectively; P < 0.05). In vitro using the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2, we measured effects of GLN supplementation (0, 4, and 6 mM) on heat-induced (37° or 41.8°C) heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), and occludin expression. HSF-1 and HSP70 levels increased in 6 mM supplementation at 41°C compared with 0 mM at 41°C (1.785 ± 0.495 vs. 0.6681 ± 0.290, and 1.973 ± 0.325 vs. 1.133 ± 0.129, respectively; P < 0.05). Occludin levels increased after 4 mM supplementation at 41°C and 6 mM at 41°C compared with 0 mM at 41°C (1.236 ± 0.219 and 1.849 ± 0.564 vs. 0.7434 ± 0.027, respectively; P < 0.001). GLN supplementation prevented exercise-induced permeability, possibly through HSF-1 activation. PMID:24285149

  13. Study of the effects of oral zinc supplementation on peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for the biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high levels of NO are toxic and have negative effects on sperm functions. Although several studies have considered the relationship between infertility and semen NO concentrations, no study on the effects of asthenospermia treatments such as oral zinc supplementation on concentrations of NO, which are important in fertility, has been reported. Studies have shown that oral zinc supplementation develops sperm count, motility and the physical characteristics of sperm in animals and in some groups of infertile men. The present study was conducted to study the effect of zinc supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen, along with enzymes of the NO pathway in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 60 fertile and 60 asthenozoospermic infertile men of matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate; each participant took two capsules (220 mg per capsule) per day for 3 months. Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction of the seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. The stable metabolites of NO (nitrite) in seminal plasma were measured by nitrophenol assay. Arginase activity and NO synthase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. Results Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity, NO synthase activity and various sperm parameters were compared among fertile controls and infertile patients (before and after treatment with zinc sulfate). Peroxynitrite levels and NO synthase activity were significantly higher in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Conversely, arginase activity was significantly higher in the fertile group than the infertile patients. Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity of the infertile patient were restored to

  14. FSH supplementation to culture medium is beneficial for activation and survival of preantral follicles enclosed in equine ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, F L N; Lunardi, F O; Lima, L F; Rocha, R M P; Bruno, J B; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Cibin, F W S; Nunes-Pinheiro, D C S; Gastal, M O; Rodrigues, A P R; Apgar, G A; Gastal, E L; Figueiredo, J R

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of adding different concentrations of bovine recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone on the IVC of equine preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue fragments. Randomized ovarian fragments were fixed immediately (fresh noncultured control) or cultured for 1 or 7 days in α-MEM(+) supplemented with 0, 10, 50, and 100 ng/mL FSH and subsequently analyzed by classical histology. Culture media collected on Day 1 or Day 7 and were analyzed for steroids (estradiol and progesterone) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). After Day 1 and Day 7 of culture, 50-ng/mL FSH treatment had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of morphologically normal follicles when compared to the other groups, except the 10-ng/mL FSH treatment at Day 1 of culture. The percentage of developing follicles (transition, primary, and secondary), and follicular and oocyte diameters were higher (P < 0.05) in the 50-ng/mL FSH treatment compared to the other groups after Day 7 of culture. Furthermore, estradiol secretion and ROS production were maintained (P > 0.05) throughout the culture in the 50-ng/mL FSH treatment. In conclusion, the addition of 50 ng/mL of FSH promoted activation of primordial follicles to developing follicles, improved survival of preantral follicles, and maintained estradiol and ROS production of equine ovarian tissue after 7 days of culture.

  15. Effect of vitamin supplementation on cytokine response and on muscle damage after strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Petersen, E W; Ostrowski, K; Ibfelt, T; Richelle, M; Offord, E; Halkjaer-Kristensen, J; Pedersen, B K

    2001-06-01

    The present double-blinded, placebo-controlled study investigated whether antioxidant vitamin supplementation was able to modulate the cytokine and lymphocyte responses after strenuous eccentric exercise. Furthermore, muscle enzyme release was examined to see whether antioxidant treatment could reduce muscle damage. Twenty male recreational runners randomly received either antioxidants (500 mg of vitamin C and 400 mg of vitamin E) or placebo for 14 days before and 7 days after a 5% downhill 90-min treadmill run at 75% .VO(2 max). Although the supplemented group differed significantly with regard to plasma vitamin concentration before and after exercise when compared with the placebo group, the two groups showed identical exercise-induced changes in cytokine, muscle enzyme, and lymphocyte subpopulations. The plasma level of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist increased 20- and 3-fold after exercise. The plasma level of creatine kinase was increased sixfold the day after exercise. The concentrations of CD4+ memory T cells, CD8+ memory and naïve T cells, and natural killer cells increased at the end of exercise. The total lymphocyte concentration was below prevalues in the postexercise period. In conclusion, the present study does not support the idea that exercise-induced inflammatory responses are induced by free oxygen radicals.

  16. Evaluation Series on Safety and Efficacy of Nutritional Supplements in Newly Diagnosed Hyperglycemia: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Hemant; Bantwal, Ganapati; Jain, Sunil; Kalra, Sanjay; Kale, Shailaja; Saboo, Banshi; Gupta, Jugal B.; Sivam, Sakthivel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is endemic with developing economies contributing to the bulk of this pandemic. Despite the evidence of incremental benefit of glycemic control starting early in life, acceptance of and adherence to modern medications remain suboptimal. Aims: To determine the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-lowering efficacy and safety of nutritional supplement, PreCrea®, in adult Indians with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia. Materials and Methods: Double-blind, randomized study conducted in six diabetes centers in India. A total of 193 treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) >100 mg/dL were randomized into either PreCrea® 600 mg (n = 90) or matched placebo (n = 89) capsules twice daily, along with lifestyle modification, for 12 weeks. The main outcomes were changes in HbA1c and FPG levels, attainment of the American Diabetes Association (ADA)-defined goals for HbA1c, and clinical and biochemical measures of safety. Results: At 12 weeks, mean HbA1c in PreCrea® group reduced by 0.91% compared with 0.08% increase in the placebo group (P < .001). The reductions in the mean FPG at week 4 (P < .001) and week 12 (P = 0.04) were significant compared to the baseline. ADA goal of HbA1c <7% increased from 15.5% at the baseline to 35.6% at week 12 in PreCrea® subjects. Clinical safety and biochemical safety did not change. Hypoglycemia and weight gain were not observed with PreCrea®. Conclusions: Nearly 1% point reduction in HbA1c at week 12 with PreCrea® is comparable with most first-line glucose-lowering drugs. The safety and tolerability of PreCrea® highlights its potential as a first-line therapy in newly detected hyperglycemia. PMID:27042609

  17. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and the risk of preterm births in China: a large prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Folic acid-containing multivitamins have been associated with a reduced risk of preterm birth. We examined whether periconceptional use of folic acid alone reduced this risk. Methods: Data were derived from a large population-based cohort study conducted in China to evaluate the prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation. The sample comprised 207 936 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 20–42 weeks to women from two provinces in southern China. Healthcare workers recorded folic acid intake prospectively each month. Gestational age calculation was based on the first day of the last menstrual period. Preterm births were categorized into three clinical subtypes: iatrogenic preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and spontaneous preterm birth. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between folic acid use and the risk of preterm birth, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The incidence of preterm birth was significantly lower among folic acid users (5.28%) than among non-users (6.10%). Folic acid use showed a 14% risk reduction for preterm birth overall [adjusted risk ratio (RR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–0.90]. This association was strongest for spontaneous preterm birth (adjusted RR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.78–0.86) and was not significant for iatrogenic preterm birth (adjusted RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.88–1.07) or PPROM (adjusted RR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.93–1.23). Conclusions: Daily intake of 400 μg folic acid alone during the periconceptional period was associated with a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm birth. PMID:24603317

  18. Effects of Gingko biloba supplementation in Alzheimer's disease patients receiving cholinesterase inhibitors: data from the ICTUS study.

    PubMed

    Canevelli, Marco; Adali, Nawal; Kelaiditi, Eirini; Cantet, Christelle; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Cesari, Matteo

    2014-05-15

    Ginkgo biloba (Gb) is currently the most investigated and adopted herbal remedy for cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, its efficacy in the prevention and treatment of dementia still remains controversial. Specifically, the added effects of Gb in subjects already receiving "conventional" anti-dementia treatments have been to date very scarcely investigated. We evaluated whether the use of Gb is associated with additional cognitive and functional benefit in AD patients already in treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs). Data are from mild to moderate AD patients under ChEI treatment recruited in the Impact of Cholinergic Treatment USe (ICTUS) study. Mixed model analyses were performed to measure six-monthly modifications in the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog) subscale score, and the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale over a follow-up of 1 year according to the additional Gb supplementation. A total of 828 subjects were considered for the present analyses. Significantly different modifications at the MMSE score over the 12-month follow-up were reported between patients on combined therapy compared to those only taking ChEIs. On the contrary, the modification of the ADAS-Cog score between the two groups did not show statistically significant differences, although similar trends were noticed. No significant modifications of the two adopted outcome measures were observed at the mid-term 6-month evaluation. The modifications over time of the ADL score did not show statistically significant differences between the two groups of interest. Our findings suggest that Gb may provide some added cognitive benefits in AD patients already under ChEIs treatment. The clinical meaningfulness of such effects remains to be confirmed and clarified.

  19. A Descriptive Study of Enrollment in Supplemental Educational Services in the Four RRE Appalachia Region States. REL 2012-No.109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, James; Harrison, Lynn; Mokher, Christine; Franceschini, Louis; Zoblotsky, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The supplemental educational services program is a core provision of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. The program offers free tutoring in reading/language arts and math from state-approved providers outside of regular school hours. This report explores differences across states and school urban and rural locales in providing…

  20. NIH-funded study shows increased prostate cancer risk from vitamin E supplements | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Men who took 400 international units (I.U.) of vitamin E daily had more prostate cancers compared to men who took a placebo, according to an updated review of data from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). The findings showed that, per 1,000 men, there were 76 prostate cancers in men who took only vitamin E supplements, vs. |

  1. Academic Effectiveness of Podcasting: A Comparative Study of Integrated versus Supplemental Use of Podcasting in Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; Facer, Betty Rose; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2012-01-01

    With podcasting gaining more mainstream adoption in higher education, it's critical to examine its effectiveness in improving the student learning experience. To this end, this paper examines the effectiveness of podcasts integrated into the curriculum (PIC) versus podcasts as supplemental material (PSM). Considering recent empirical work on the…

  2. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks.

  3. Genetic and phenotypic changes in an Atlantic salmon population supplemented with non-local individuals: a longitudinal study over 21 years

    PubMed Central

    Le Cam, Sabrina; Perrier, Charles; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Bernatchez, Louis; Evanno, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    While introductions and supplementations using non-native and potentially domesticated individuals may have dramatic evolutionary effects on wild populations, few studies documented the evolution of genetic diversity and life-history traits in supplemented populations. Here, we investigated year-to-year changes from 1989 to 2009 in genetic admixture at 15 microsatellite loci and in phenotypic traits in an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population stocked during the first decade of this period with two genetically and phenotypically distinct source populations. We detected a pattern of temporally increasing introgressive hybridization between the stocked population and both source populations. The proportion of fish returning to the river after a single winter at sea (versus several ones) was higher in fish assigned to the main source population than in local individuals. Moreover, during the first decade of the study, both single-sea-winter and multi-sea-winter (MSW) fish assigned to the main source population were smaller than local fish. During the second decade of the study, MSW fish defined as hybrids were lighter and smaller than fish from parental populations, suggesting outbreeding depression. Overall, this study suggests that supplementation with non-local individuals may alter not only the genetic diversity of wild populations but also life-history traits of adaptive significance. PMID:25608883

  4. The Effects of Hyperhydrating Supplements Containing Creatine and Glucose on Plasma Lipids and Insulin Sensitivity in Endurance-Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Polyviou, Thelma P.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brown, Benjamin; Speakman, John R.; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of simple sugars to creatine (Cr) supplements is central. The study aimed to determine whether ingestion of glucose (Glu) simultaneously with Cr and glycerol (Cr/Gly) supplement is detrimental to plasma lipids of endurance-trained individuals and find out whether modification arising can be attenuated by replacing part of the Glu with alpha lipoic acid (Ala). Twenty-two endurance-trained cyclists were randomized to receive Cr/Gly/Glu (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, and 150 g Glu) or Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, 100 g Glu, and 1 g Ala) for 7 days. Fasting concentration of TAG increased significantly (P < 0.01) after supplementation with Cr/Gly/Glu (before: 0.9 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L) and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (before: 0.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but changes were not different between the groups. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio but had no effect on fasting concentration of total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol and insulin resistance. Thus, addition of Glu to Cr containing supplements enhances plasma TAG concentration and the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio and this enhancement cannot be attenuated by partial replacement of Glu with Ala. PMID:26167296

  5. A study on the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention: Verification of mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill-Gwang

    2016-05-18

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention of university students majoring in physical education and verify the mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention. To achieve the purpose of this study, 700 university students majoring in physical education from 10 universities in Korea were selected from October 2013 to December 2013 as the target of this study through the cluster random sampling and data of 228 university students who had experience in the intake of protein supplements among them was analyzed. The composite reliability of each factor was in between 0.869 and 0.958, and the convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified. SPSS 18.0 and Amos 22.0 were utilized as data processing methods and the verification of significance on the medication effects and indirect effects of word-of-mouth intention was carried out using the frequency analysis, correlation analysis, CFA, SEM, and Amos bootstrapping. The result is as follows. The protein supplements intake satisfaction level had a positive effect on the word-of-mouth intention and the word-of-mouth intention had a positive effect on the repurchase intention. Also, it was shown that the word-of-mouth intention played a full mediation role between the intake satisfaction level and the repurchase intention.

  6. Effects of pyridoxine supplementation on severity, frequency and duration of migraine attacks in migraine patients with aura: A double-blind randomized clinical trial study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Omid; Nasiri, Morteza; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Pahlavani, Naseh; Rezaie, Masoud; Askari, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Migraine is a chronic disease that affects nearly 6% of men and 18% of women worldwide. There are various drugs, which can successfully decrease migraine symptoms and frequency of migraine attacks, but these drugs usually are expensive. Hence, this study aimed to assess the effects of pyridoxine supplementation on severity, frequency and duration of migraine attacks as well as headache diary results (HDR). Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 66 patients with migraine with aura (MA) in Khorshid and Emam Mosa Sadr clinics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2013. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either pyridoxine supplements (80 mg pyridoxine per day) or placebo. Severity, frequency and duration of migraine attacks and HDR were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: Mean age of patients was 34.24 ± 9.44 years old. Pyridoxine supplementation led to a significant decrease in headache severity (−2.20 ± 1.70 compared with −1 ± 1.50; P = 0.007), attacks duration (−8.30 ± 12.60 compared with −1.70 ± 9.60; P = 0.030) and HDR (−89.70 ± 134.60 compared with −6.10 ± 155.50; P = 0.040) compared with placebo, but was not effective on the frequency of migraine attacks (−2.30 ± 4 compared with −1.20 ± 7.80; P = 0.510). Conclusion: Pyridoxine supplementation in patients with MA was effective on headache severity, attacks duration and HDR, but did not affect the frequency of migraine attacks. PMID:26056551

  7. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of the Performance of Houses With and Without Supplemental Dehumidification in a Hot-Humid Climate, New Orleans, Louisiana (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This report, Evaluation of the Performance of Houses with and without Supplemental Dehumidification in a Hot-Humid Climate, describes a research study that that was conducted by the Building Science Corporation (BSC) Building America Research Team. BSC seeks to research and report on the field monitoring of the performance of in-situ supplemental dehumidification systems in low energy, high performance, homes in a Hot-Humid climate. The purpose of this research project was to observe and compare the humidity control performance of new, single family, low energy, and high performance, homes. Specifically, the study sought to compare the interior conditions and mechanical systems operation between two distinct groups of houses, homes with a supplemental dehumidifier installed in addition to HVAC system, and homes without any supplemental dehumidification. The subjects of the study were ten single-family new construction homes in New Orleans, LA. Data logging equipment was installed at each home in 2012. Interior conditions and various end-use loads were monitored for one year. In terms of averages, the homes with dehumidifiers are limiting elevated levels of humidity in the living space. However, there was significant variation in humidity control between individual houses. An analysis of the equipment operation did not show a clear correlation between energy use and humidity levels. In general, no single explanatory variable appears to provide a consistent understanding of the humidity control in each house. Indoor humidity is likely due to all of the factors we have examined, and the specifics of how they are used by each occupant.

  8. MicroRNAs as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity in a randomized placebo-controlled study of simvastatin and ubiquinol supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Pek, Sharon LT; Woon, Kaing; Lin, Lifang; Ong, Choon Nam; Lim, Su Chi; Sum, Chee Fang

    2015-01-01

    Statins are potent cholesterol-lowering drugs and are generally well tolerated. Hepatotoxicity is a rare but serious adverse effect of statins; however, its mechanisms are not clear. Coenzyme Q10 deficiency has been suggested, and supplementation of reduced coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinol) has been shown to have hepatoprotective effects. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small nucleotides that have been shown to be up-regulated in drug-induced liver injury. We hypothesized that circulating miRNAs may be differentially regulated after simvastatin treatment and by comparing with that of simvastatin and ubiquinol supplementation could potentially uncover signatory miRNA profile for simvastatin-induced liver injury. In this double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial, miRNA profiles and liver enzymes were compared between simvastatin-treated patients, with and without ubiquinol supplementation, over 12 weeks compared to baseline. miRNA expression was further validated in HepG2 liver cell lines by real-time PCR. Changes in miR-192, miR-146a, miR-148a, miR-15a, and miR-21 were positively correlated (p<0.05) with alanine aminotransferase in simvastatin-only treated patients. In ubiquinol supplementation group, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly down-regulated after 12 weeks and changes in miR-15a, miR-21 and miR-33a were negatively correlated with alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.05). Bioinformatics analyses predicted that miRNA regulation in simvastatin group was related to reduce proliferation and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters. Ubiquinol supplementation additionally regulated miRNAs that inhibit apoptotic and inflammatory pathways, suggesting potential hepatoprotective effects. Our results suggest that 20 mg/day of simvastatin does not have significant risk of hepatotoxicity and ubiquinol supplementation may, at the miRNA level, provide potential beneficial changes to reduce the effects of coenzyme Q10 deficiency in the

  9. MicroRNAs as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity in a randomized placebo-controlled study of simvastatin and ubiquinol supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pek, Sharon Lt; Tavintharan, Subramaniam; Woon, Kaing; Lin, Lifang; Ong, Choon Nam; Lim, Su Chi; Sum, Chee Fang

    2016-02-01

    Statins are potent cholesterol-lowering drugs and are generally well tolerated. Hepatotoxicity is a rare but serious adverse effect of statins; however, its mechanisms are not clear. Coenzyme Q10 deficiency has been suggested, and supplementation of reduced coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinol) has been shown to have hepatoprotective effects. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small nucleotides that have been shown to be up-regulated in drug-induced liver injury. We hypothesized that circulating miRNAs may be differentially regulated after simvastatin treatment and by comparing with that of simvastatin and ubiquinol supplementation could potentially uncover signatory miRNA profile for simvastatin-induced liver injury. In this double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial, miRNA profiles and liver enzymes were compared between simvastatin-treated patients, with and without ubiquinol supplementation, over 12 weeks compared to baseline. miRNA expression was further validated in HepG2 liver cell lines by real-time PCR. Changes in miR-192, miR-146a, miR-148a, miR-15a, and miR-21 were positively correlated (p<0.05) with alanine aminotransferase in simvastatin-only treated patients. In ubiquinol supplementation group, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly down-regulated after 12 weeks and changes in miR-15a, miR-21 and miR-33a were negatively correlated with alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.05). Bioinformatics analyses predicted that miRNA regulation in simvastatin group was related to reduce proliferation and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters. Ubiquinol supplementation additionally regulated miRNAs that inhibit apoptotic and inflammatory pathways, suggesting potential hepatoprotective effects. Our results suggest that 20 mg/day of simvastatin does not have significant risk of hepatotoxicity and ubiquinol supplementation may, at the miRNA level, provide potential beneficial changes to reduce the effects of coenzyme Q10 deficiency in the

  10. Overview of Dietary Supplements in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yacoubian, Aline; Dargham, Rana Abu; Khauli, Raja B; Bachir, Bassel G

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer is a key health concern for men with its etiology still under investigation. Recently, the role of dietary supplements has been noted to have a major inhibitory effect on prostate cancer and numerous studies have been conducted in this regard. This review provides a summary on numerous recent studies conducted in this field. Some of the studies reviewed revealed a protective role for supplements, and others showed no correlation while some even had an adverse effect. The mechanism of how these supplements act on the prostate is still not clear. Further studies are warranted especially for supplements that have been shown to have a potential inhibitory role in prostate cancer.

  11. A summary of the iodine supplementation study protocol (I2S2): a UK multicentre randomised controlled trial in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Williams, Fiona; Hume, Robert; Ogston, Simon; Brocklehurst, Peter; Morgan, Kayleigh; Juszczak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarises the study protocol for the randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in preterm infants. Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroxine, and thyroxine is essential for normal brain development in utero and for the first 2-3 years of life. The recommended iodine intake in parenteral nutrition regimens is 1 μg/kg/day and commercially available parenteral solutions for infants reflect these recommendations. In the absence of other iodine sources, infants are vulnerable to negative iodine balance and insufficiency. As many preterm infants are fed parenterally for prolonged periods with solutions which have been shown to be iodine-deficient, the I2S2 Trial was designed to establish whether iodine supplementation of preterm infants benefits neurodevelopment.

  12. Selenium Supplementation in Fish: A Combined Chemical and Biomolecular Study to Understand Sel-Plex Assimilation and Impact on Selenoproteome Expression in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, John; Martin, Samuel A. M.; Feldmann, Jörg; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential oligonutrient, as a component of several Se-containing proteins (selenoproteins), which exert important biological functions within an organism. In livestock, Se-enriched products have been proposed as dietary supplements to be included into functional feeds for animal preventive health care. To this end, it is important to understand the optimal range of concentrations for supplementation and how long it takes to be assimilated into the organism. Methods In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed a control diet containing 0.9 g Kg-1 Se or the same diet supplemented with a Se-Yeast product (Sel-Plex) to achieve Se concentrations ranging from 1.5–8.9 g Kg-1 for a period of ten weeks. Fish were sampled every two weeks for analysis. The kinetics of Se bioaccumulation and the effects on fish selenoprotein expression was determined in different tissues combining chemical and bimolecular techniques. Results The Sel-Plex enriched diets did not have any effect on survival and growth performance. The highest Se levels were found in liver and kidney followed by muscle and blood cells. Analysis of the Se concentration factor showed that liver is able to initially regulate the amount of Se accumulated. However, with higher dietary Se level (4.8 and 8.9 g Kg-1) and longer times of exposure (10 weeks), regulation is ineffective and the Se tissue concentration increases. The expression of the selected trout selenoprotein transcripts showed an inverse correlation with Sel-Plex augmentation in most cases. In liver, kidney and blood cells the highest up-regulation of the trout selenoprotein genes was seen mostly in the group fed the diet enriched with the lowest concentration of Sel-Plex (0.5 g Kg-1) for 10 weeks. Conclusion Sel-Plex may represent an excellent Se supplement to deliver a high level of Se without provoking harm to the fish and to guarantee the maximal absorption of the element. According to our results, a

  13. Physical activity does not influence the effect of antioxidant supplementation at nutritional doses on the incidence of impaired fasting glucose: a 7.5 year post-hoc analysis from the SU.VI.MAX study.

    PubMed

    Fezeu, L; Henegar, A; Kesse-Guyot, E; Julia, C; Galan, P; Hercberg, S; Ristow, M; Czernichow, S

    2010-10-01

    Supplementation with high doses of antioxidant vitamins prevents the insulin-sensitizing effects of physical exercise. However, little is known whether antioxidant supplementation affects the incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Data from 8938 subjects included in a randomized controlled trial on supplementation with antioxidants vitamins and trace elements at nutritional doses (SU.VI.MAX) were used to examine the effects of antioxidants on incident IFG after 7.5 years of follow-up, with and without stratification for daily physical exercise. The odds-ratio (95% CI) for developing an IFG among study participants receiving antioxidant supplementation was 1.34 (0.90-1.97) (p=0.33), in comparison to placebo. This risk did not vary significantly according to physical activity level (p for homogeneity=0.10). Supplementation with trace elements and antioxidants at nutritional doses apparently does not affect the incidence of IFG irrespective of self-reported physical exercise habits.

  14. Evaluation of a multi-herb supplement for erectile dysfunction: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence is lacking for multi-ingredient herbal supplements claiming therapeutic effect in sexual dysfunction in men. We examined the safety and efficacy of VigRX Plus (VXP) – a proprietary polyherbal preparation for improving male sexual function, in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled, parallel groups, multi-centre study. Methods 78 men aged 25–50 years of age; suffering from mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED), participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to receive VXP or placebo at a dose of two capsules twice daily for 12 weeks. The international index of erectile function (IIEF) was the primary outcome measure of efficacy. Other efficacy measures were: Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS), Serum testosterone, Semen analysis, Investigator’s Global assessment and Subjects’ opinion. Results In subjects receiving VXP, the IIEF-Erectile Function (EF) scores improved significantly as compared to placebo. After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean (sd) IIEF-EF score at baseline increased from 16.08 (2.87) to 25.08 (4.56) in the VXP group versus 15.86 (3.24) to 16.47 (4.25) in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). Similar results were observed in each of the remaining four domains of the IIEF (orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction).There was a significant difference for VXP versus placebo comparison of mean (sd) EDITS scores of patients: 82.31(20.23) vs 36.78(22.53) and partners :(82.75(9.8) vs 18.50(9.44);P < 0.001. Thirty-five out of 39 (90%) subjects from the VXP group and one (3%) from the placebo group wished to continue with the treatment they received. Investigator’s global assessment rated VXP therapy as very good to excellent in more than 50% patients and placebo therapy as fair to good in about 25% of patients. Incidence of side effects and subject’s rating for tolerability of treatment was similar in both groups. Conclusions Vig

  15. Enabling students to learn: Design, implementation and assessment of a supplemental study strategies course for an introductory undergraduate biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, Jayanthi Sanjeevi

    Attrition in the STEM disciplines is a national problem and one of the important reasons for this is student experiences in introductory courses. A myriad of factors influence students' experiences in those courses; inadequate student preparation is one of the most cited reasons. Incoming freshmen often lack the learning strategies required to meaningfully learn and succeed in college courses. Unfortunately, the instructors have limited time and/or have little experience in teaching learning strategies. In this paper, the design, implementation, and evaluation of a Supplemental Course (SC) model that emphasizes learning strategies is presented. SC was offered concurrently with the introductory biology courses for four consecutive semesters (fall 2011 to spring 2013); for 10 weeks in fall 2012 and 7 weeks in the other semesters at Miami University. 10 weeks SC began earlier in the semester than the shorter SC. This study evaluated the effects of the SC on students' (1) performance in the introductory biology course, (2) perceived changes in self-regulation and social support, and (3) experiences in the introductory biology course before, during, and after participation in the SC. A mixed methods approach was used to address these goals. A pre-post survey was administered to obtain students' use of self-regulation strategies and social-support data. Quantitative methods were utilized to analyze content exam grades and changes in self-regulation strategies and social-support. To explore the experiences of the students, semi-structured interviews were conducted, followed by analysis using grounded theory. The findings reveal that participants of the longer duration SC (with an earlier start date) significantly improved in content exam performance, perceived use of self-regulation strategies, and social support compared to the non-participants. Participants of the shorter duration SC (with a later start date) did not significantly improve in content exam performance

  16. Determining the Optimal Duration of Progesterone Supplementation prior to Transfer of Cryopreserved Embryos and Its Impact on Implantation and Pregnancy Rates: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Abha

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the optimal duration of progesterone supplementation prior to transfer of cryopreserved embryos and its impact on implantation and pregnancy rates. Study Design. Prospective randomised study. Materials and Methods. In an IVF unit of a tertiary centre, sixty-six patients undergoing cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles were included. Endometrial preparation was done with estradiol valerate. Once it reached a minimum of 7 mm, patients were allocated randomly into group I (n = 39) and group II (n = 27). Injectable progesterone 100 mg daily was then started for 3 and 4 days, respectively. This was followed by transfer of at least one thawed cleavage stage day 2 embryo of good quality. Groups I and II were compared in terms of clinical pregnancy and implantation rates. Results. In group I (3-day progesterone) and group II (4-day progesterone) the pregnancy rates were 41.02% (16/39) and 18.51% (5/27), respectively. On the other hand, the implantation rates were 16.82% (18/107) and 7.69% (6/78), respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p values 0.0172 and 0.0386, resp.). Conclusion. Progesterone supplementation for three days before the transfer of cleavage stage (day 2) cryopreserved embryos has significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates, as compared to four-day supplementation. PMID:27752538

  17. Effect of High-Dose Cysteine Supplementation on Erythrocyte Glutathione: a Double-Blinded, Randomized Placebo Controlled Pilot Study in Critically Ill Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Kara L.; Sanchez, Lauren A.; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Faull, Kym F.; Yoon, Alexander J.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Le, Thuc; Shew, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study’s objective was to determine if parenteral cysteine when compared to isonitrogenous non-cysteine supplementation increases erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH) in neonates at high risk for inflammatory injury. Material and Methods Neonates with a score for neonatal acute physiology (SNAP) > 10 requiring mechanical ventilation and parenteral nutrition (PN) were randomized in a double-blinded, placebo controlled study to receive parenteral cysteine-HCl (CYS group) or additional PN amino acids (ISO group) at 121 mg/kg/day for ≥ seven days. A six-hour [13C2] glycine IV infusion was administered at study week one to determine fractional synthetic rate of glutathione (FSR-GSH). Results Baseline characteristics were similar between the CYS (n=17) and ISO groups (n=21). Erythrocyte GSH and total glutathione concentrations, GSH:oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and FSR-GSH after treatment were not different between groups. However, the CYS group had a larger individual positive change in GSH and total glutathione (infusion day – baseline) compared to the ISO group (p=0.02 for each). After adjusting for treatment, a lower enrollment weight and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion were associated with a decreased change in total glutathione and GSH (p< 0.05 for each). Conclusion When compared to isonitrogenous non-cysteine supplementation, high dose cysteine supplementation for at least one week in critically ill neonates resulted in a larger and more positive individual change in glutathione. Smaller infants and those who received transfused blood demonstrated less effective change in glutathione with cysteine supplementation. The benefit of cysteine remains promising and deserves further investigation. PMID:25139979

  18. "Omics" of Selenium Biology: A Prospective Study of Plasma Proteome Network Before and After Selenized-Yeast Supplementation in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Indu; Karagoz, Kubra; Fogle, Rachel L; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Zea, Arnold H; Arga, Kazim Y; Stanley, Anne E; Hawkes, Wayne C; Sinha, Raghu

    2016-04-01

    Low selenium levels have been linked to a higher incidence of cancer and other diseases, including Keshan, Chagas, and Kashin-Beck, and insulin resistance. Additionally, muscle and cardiovascular disorders, immune dysfunction, cancer, neurological disorders, and endocrine function have been associated with mutations in genes encoding for selenoproteins. Selenium biology is complex, and a systems biology approach to study global metabolomics, genomics, and/or proteomics may provide important clues to examining selenium-responsive markers in circulation. In the current investigation, we applied a global proteomics approach on plasma samples collected from a previously conducted, double-blinded placebo controlled clinical study, where men were supplemented with selenized-yeast (Se-Yeast; 300 μg/day, 3.8 μmol/day) or placebo-yeast for 48 weeks. Proteomic analysis was performed by iTRAQ on 8 plasma samples from each arm at baseline and 48 weeks. A total of 161 plasma proteins were identified in both arms. Twenty-two proteins were significantly altered following Se-Yeast supplementation and thirteen proteins were significantly changed after placebo-yeast supplementation in healthy men. The differentially expressed proteins were involved in complement and coagulation pathways, immune functions, lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Reconstruction and analysis of protein-protein interaction network around selected proteins revealed several hub proteins. One of the interactions suggested by our analysis, PHLD-APOA4, which is involved in insulin resistance, was subsequently validated by Western blot analysis. Our systems approach illustrates a viable platform for investigating responsive proteomic profile in 'before and after' condition following Se-Yeast supplementation. The nature of proteins identified suggests that selenium may play an important role in complement and coagulation pathways, and insulin resistance. PMID:27027327

  19. Role of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in reducing risk of developing gestational hypertensive disorders: a meta-analysis of studies from developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypertension in pregnancy stand alone or with proteinuria is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world. Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that an inverse relationship exists between calcium intake and development of hypertension in pregnancy though the effect varies based on baseline calcium intake and pre-existing risk factors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate preventive effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on gestational hypertensive disorders and related maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries. Methods A literature search was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional databases. Data were extracted into a standardized excel sheet. Identified studies were graded based on strengths and limitations of studies. All the included studies were from developing countries. Meta-analyses were generated where data were available from more than one study for an outcome. Primary outcomes were maternal mortality, eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, and severe preeclampsia. Neonatal outcomes like neonatal mortality, preterm birth, small for gestational age and low birth weight were also evaluated. We followed standardized guidelines of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) to generate estimates of effectiveness of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries, for inclusion in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Results Data from 10 randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Pooled analysis showed that calcium supplementation during pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction of 45% in risk of gestational hypertension [Relative risk (RR) 0.55; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.36-0.85] and 59% in the risk of pre-eclampsia [RR 0.41; 95 % CI 0.24-0.69] in developing countries. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy was also associated with a significant reduction in neonatal mortality

  20. From Science to Finance-A Tool for Deriving Economic Implications from the Results of Dietary Supplement Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Christopher J; de Lorimier, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines evidence showing that the use of key dietary supplements can reduce overall disease treatment-related hospital utilization costs associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States among those at a high risk of experiencing a costly, disease-related event. Results show that the potential avoided hospital utilization costs related to the use of omega-3 supplements at preventive intake levels among the target population can be as much as $2.06 billion on average per year from 2013 to 2020. The potential net savings in avoided CHD-related hospital utilization costs after accounting for the cost of omega-3 dietary supplements at preventive daily intake levels would be more than $3.88 billion in cumulative health care cost savings from 2013 to 2020. Furthermore, the use of folic acid, B6, and B12 among the target population at preventive intake levels could yield avoided CHD-related hospital utilization costs savings of an average savings of $1.52 billion per year from 2013 to 2020. The potential net savings in avoided CHD-related health care costs after accounting for the cost of folic acid, B6, and B12 utilization at preventive daily intake levels would be more than $5.23 billion in cumulative health care cost net savings during the same period. Thus, targeted dietary supplement regimens are recommended as a means to help control rising societal health care costs, and as a means for high-risk individuals to minimize the chance of having to deal with potentially costly events and to invest in increased quality of life.

  1. From Science to Finance-A Tool for Deriving Economic Implications from the Results of Dietary Supplement Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Christopher J; de Lorimier, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines evidence showing that the use of key dietary supplements can reduce overall disease treatment-related hospital utilization costs associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States among those at a high risk of experiencing a costly, disease-related event. Results show that the potential avoided hospital utilization costs related to the use of omega-3 supplements at preventive intake levels among the target population can be as much as $2.06 billion on average per year from 2013 to 2020. The potential net savings in avoided CHD-related hospital utilization costs after accounting for the cost of omega-3 dietary supplements at preventive daily intake levels would be more than $3.88 billion in cumulative health care cost savings from 2013 to 2020. Furthermore, the use of folic acid, B6, and B12 among the target population at preventive intake levels could yield avoided CHD-related hospital utilization costs savings of an average savings of $1.52 billion per year from 2013 to 2020. The potential net savings in avoided CHD-related health care costs after accounting for the cost of folic acid, B6, and B12 utilization at preventive daily intake levels would be more than $5.23 billion in cumulative health care cost net savings during the same period. Thus, targeted dietary supplement regimens are recommended as a means to help control rising societal health care costs, and as a means for high-risk individuals to minimize the chance of having to deal with potentially costly events and to invest in increased quality of life. PMID:25166888

  2. A comparative study of the bone metabolic response to dried plum supplementation and PTH treatment in adult, osteopenic ovariectomized rat.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brenda J; Bu, So Young; Wang, Yan; Rendina, Elizabeth; Lim, Yin F; Marlow, Denver; Clarke, Stephen L; Cullen, Diane M; Lucas, Edralin A

    2014-01-01

    Dried plum has been reported to have potent effects on bone in osteopenic animal models, but the mechanisms through which bone metabolism is altered in vivo remain unclear. To address this issue, a study comparing the metabolic response of dried plum to the anabolic agent, parathyroid hormone (PTH), was undertaken. Six month-old female Sprague Dawley rats (n=84) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX) and maintained on a control diet for 6wks until osteopenia was confirmed. Treatments were initiated consisting of a control diet (AIN-93M) supplemented with dried plum (0, 5, 15 or 25%; w/w) or a positive control group receiving PTH. At the end of 6wks of treatment, whole body and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) were restored by the two higher doses of dried plum to the level of the SHAM group. Trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness were also improved with these two doses of dried plum. Dried plum suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover as indicated by systemic biomarkers of bone metabolism, N-terminal procollagen type 1 (P1NP) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Dynamic bone histomorphometric analysis of the tibial metaphysis revealed that dried plum restored the OVX-induced increase in cancellous bone formation rate (BFR) and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) to the SHAM group, but some doses of dried plum increased endocortical mineral apposition rate (MAR). As expected, PTH significantly increased endocortical MAR and BFR, periosteal BFR, and trabecular MAR and BFR beyond that of the OVX and maintained the accelerated rate of bone resorption associated with OVX. Dried plum up-regulated bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) while down-regulating nuclear factor T cell activator 1 (Nfatc1). These findings demonstrate that in the adult osteopenic OVX animal, the effects of dried plum differ from that of PTH in that dried plum primarily suppressed bone turnover with the exception of the indices of bone

  3. Comparative study on growth, yield and carbon content in Pongamia pinnata under water stress and urea supplementation.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, S Gnaana; Ezhilarasi, S

    2012-05-01

    The growth, yield, and carbon content of eight-month old seedlings of Pongamia pinnata were compared under water and urea supplementation. One set of plants were subjected to water stress condition (WS), whereas the other supplied with 2 g of urea (WS+U) under WS. Both the experimental set ups were exposed to varying treatment levels which include full irrigation (100%, control) followed by 75% (T1), 50% (T2), 25% (T3) and 12.5% (T4). The growth, leaf area and relative water content were maximum under WS when compared to WS+U (p < 0.001). The maximum biomass was produced in the seedlings under WS in control (1.68 g) followed by T1 (1.38 g), T2 (1.53 g), T3 (0.93 g) and T4 (0.73 g). A significant (p < 0.001) reduction in biomass production was observed in WS+U in control (1.28 g), T1 (0.66 g), T2 (1.13 g) and T3 (0.44 g). T4 of WS+U showed similar biomass (0.73 g) as that of T4 of WS. Under WS, the highest biomass allocation was recorded in shoots followed by leaves and roots. Similar trend was observed in WS+U. However, the percentage of allocation was more in the roots of WS+U (27.2%) when compared to WS (22.24 %). The highest amount of carbon content was observed in control plants treated under WS (9.59 g) followed by control plants of WS+U (7.31 g) (p < 0.001). The results of the preliminary study clearly indicated that P. pinnata seedlings were able to cope-up with water stress conditions without urea application and can perform well in 50% water availability and is best suited for the plantation programs in the semi-arid ecosystems. PMID:23029906

  4. Dietary supplements and medical foods for osteopenia and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplements, medical foods, and pharmaceutical agents are all used in the management of metabolic bone disease. The intended populations, governing regulations, safety standards scientific requirements, physician supervision, and distribution vary markedly between supplements, medical foods, and drugs. This article will review characteristics of dietary supplements and medical foods and their use in osteoporosis care. A study that compares the pharmacokinetics of a supplement and a medical food containing similar ingredients is used to contrast the categories of dietary supplements and medical foods.

  5. Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests.

    PubMed

    Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

    2008-03-01

    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 +/- 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 +/- 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (-12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as "tired eyes," "blurry eyes," "muscle pain/stiffness," "early satiety," "epigastralgia," "dizziness," "arthralgia" and "easily breaking into a sweat." The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for "dizziness." On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy. PMID:18385825

  6. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  7. A randomized double-blind intervention study on the effect of calcium supplementation on esophageal precancerous lesions in a high-risk population in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, L D; Qiu, S L; Yang, G R; Lipkin, M; Newmark, H L; Yang, C S

    1993-01-01

    To determine whether dietary calcium supplementation affects esophageal precancerous lesions, 200 subjects with esophageal lesions in a high-risk area for esophageal cancer in China (Huixian, Henan) were randomly divided into 2 groups (100 subjects/group). Subjects in one group received an oral supplementation of calcium carbonate tablets (1200 mg of calcium daily), and subjects in the other group received placebo pills for 11 months. At the entry and the end of the trial, esophagoscopy was performed, and 2 or 3 biopsy specimens were taken from the middle and lower thirds of the esophagus and from macroscopic lesions, if any, of each subject for histopathology and cell proliferation analysis with deoxythymidine labeling. In comparison to normal epithelium, increased proliferative compartment size was observed in epithelia with hyperplasia or dysplasia. After the intervention, the percentage of individuals with "normal epithelium," "basal cell hyperplasia," "basal cell hyperplasia II," and "basal cell hyperplasia III and dysplasia" were 44, 31, 13, and 11% in the calcium group and 35, 39, 17, and 6% in the placebo group, respectively. The labeling index was 0.046 in the calcium group and 0.044 in the placebo group. After the intervention, the labeling index in basal cell layers 1 to 5, the major zone of cell proliferation, fell 38% in the calcium group and 44% in the placebo group from before the intervention. Therefore, in this study, calcium supplementation was not shown to have beneficial effects in alleviating precancerous lesions and abnormal cell proliferation patterns.

  8. The Effect of Yerba Mate (Ilex Paraguariensis) Supplementation on Nutrient Degradability in Dairy Cows: An In sacco and In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartemink, Ellen; Giorgio, Daniela; Kaur, Ravneet; Di Trana, Adriana; Celi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Yerba Mate (YM) supplementation on nutrients’ degradation, in vitro dry matter disappearance, gas production and rumen ammonia concentration. Three rumen-fistulated Holstein Friesian cows were used for the in situ incubations and provided rumen liquor for in vitro incubations. The inclusion of YM in a control diet (pasture+pellets) affected some in sacco degradation parameters. YM supplementation decreased the effective degradability and degradation rate of pasture crude protein (CP), and it seems to slow down the degradation of pasture neutral detergent fiber. A significant increase of degradation of pasture acid detergent fiber (ADF) was detected after YM inclusion in the control diet. YM supplementation reduced in vitro gas production of pasture and ammonia concentration of pellets. The addition of YM in ruminant diet could decrease ammonia production and increase protein availability for productive purposes. The moderate presence of tannins in YM could have affected the degradation kinetics of pasture CP and ADF and the ammonia production of pellets. PMID:26580285

  9. Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sien, Yeo Pei; Sahril, Norhafizah; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta; Zaki, Nor Azian Mohd; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents.

  10. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrient recommendations: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Online DRI tool Daily Value (DV) tables For more advice on buying dietary supplements: Office of Dietary Supplements Frequently Asked Questions: Which brand(s) ...

  11. Perioperative Standard Oral Nutrition Supplements Versus Immunonutrition in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Resection in an Enhanced Recovery (ERAS) Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Pedro; Soriano-Irigaray, Leticia; Ramirez, Jose Manuel; Garcea, Alessandro; Blasco, Olga; Blanco, Francisco Javier; Brugiotti, Carlo; Miranda, Elena; Arroyo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare immunonutrition versus standard high calorie nutrition in patients undergoing elective colorectal resection within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program. Despite progress in recent years in the surgical management of patients with colorectal cancer (ERAS programs), postoperative complications are frequent. Nutritional supplements enriched with immunonutrients have recently been introduced into clinical practice. However, the extent to which the combination of ERAS protocols and immunonutrition benefits patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery is unknown. The SONVI study is a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial with 2 parallel treatment groups receiving either the study product (an immune-enhancing feed) or the control supplement (a hypercaloric hypernitrogenous supplement) for 7 days before colorectal resection and 5 days postoperatively. A total of 264 patients were randomized. At baseline, both groups were comparable in regards to age, sex, surgical risk, comorbidity, and analytical and nutritional parameters. The median length of the postoperative hospital stay was 5 days with no differences between the groups. A decrease in the total number of complications was observed in the immunonutrition group compared with the control group, primarily due to a significant decrease in infectious complications (23.8% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.0007). Of the infectious complications, wound infection differed significantly between the groups (16.4% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.0008). Other infectious complications were lower in the immunonutrition group but were not statistically significantly different. The implementation of ERAS protocols including immunonutrient-enriched supplements reduces the complications of patients undergoing colorectal resection. This study is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02393976. PMID:27227930

  12. Oral nutritional supplement fortified with beta-alanine improves physical working capacity in older adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    McCormack, William P; Stout, Jeffrey R; Emerson, Nadia S; Scanlon, Tyler C; Warren, Ashlee M; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Mangine, Gerald T; Robinson, Edward H; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the effects of an oral nutritional supplement fortified with two different doses of beta-alanine on body composition, muscle function and physical capacity in older adults. Using a double-blind placebo controlled design, 60 men and women (age ± SD = 70.7 ± 6.2 yrs) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: 1) oral nutritional supplement (ONS; n = 20) (8 oz; 230 kcal; 12 g PRO; 31 g CHO; 6 g FAT), 2) ONS plus 800 mg beta-alanine (ONS800; n = 19), and 3) ONS plus 1200 mg beta-alanine (ONS1200; n = 21). Treatments were consumed twice per day for 12 weeks. At pre- and post-supplementation period, participants performed a discontinuous, submaximal cycle ergometry test to determine physical working capacity at fatigue threshold (PWCFT). Fat mass, total body and arm lean soft tissue mass (ALSTM) were measured with DEXA while muscle strength was assessed with handgrip dynamometry (GRIP) and 30-s sit-to-stand (STS) was used to measure lower body functionality. Muscle quality (MQ) was calculated with GRIPmax and DEXA derived ALSTM [GRIP (kg)·ALSTM (kg)(-1)]. Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare pre- to post-supplementation measures and group differences. There were 16 dropouts over the duration of the study. Final group sizes were ONS = 16 (m = 11, w = 5), ONS800 = 15 (m = 5, w = 10), and ONS1200 = 13 (m = 6, w = 7). No significant changes were observed for body composition or GRIP values pre to post. Significant increases in PW(CFT) were seen in ONS1200 (13.6%) and ONS800 (17.8%) pre- to post-supplementation (p < 0.05). These changes were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the changes in ONS (-6.3%). ONS1200 and ONS had significant increases in STS (22.2 and 10.7%, respectively). While ONS significantly increased in STS, no differences (p > 0.05) in change scores were found between ONS and ONS800. ONS fortified with beta-alanine may improve physical working capacity, muscle quality and function in older men and women

  13. Carotenoid Supplementation Positively Affects the Expression of a Non-Visual Sexual Signal

    PubMed Central

    Van Hout, Alain J.-M.; Eens, Marcel; Pinxten, Rianne

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of pigments which are widely used by animals for the expression of yellow-to-red colour signals, such as bill or plumage colour. Since they also have been shown to promote immunocompetence and to function as antioxidants, many studies have investigated a potential allocation trade-off with respect to carotenoid-based signals within the context of sexual selection. Although an effect of carotenoids on non-visual (e.g. acoustic) signals involved in sexual selection has been hypothesized, this has to date not been investigated. First, we examined a potential effect of dietary carotenoid supplementation on overall song rate during the non-breeding season in captive male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). After only 3–7 days, we found a significant (body-mass independent) positive effect of carotenoid availability on overall song rate. Secondly, as a number of studies suggest that carotenoids could affect the modulation of sexual signals by plasma levels of the steroid hormone testosterone (T), we used the same birds to subsequently investigate whether carotenoid availability affects the increase in (nestbox-oriented) song rate induced by experimentally elevated plasma T levels. Our results suggest that carotenoids may enhance the positive effect of elevated plasma T levels on nestbox-oriented song rate. Moreover, while non-supplemented starlings responded to T-implantation with an increase in both overall song rate and nestbox-oriented song, carotenoid-supplemented starlings instead shifted song production towards (reproductively relevant) nestbox-oriented song, without increasing overall song rate. Given that song rate is an acoustic signal rather than a visual signal, our findings therefore indicate that the role of carotenoids in (sexual) signalling need not be dependent on their function as pigments. PMID:21283591

  14. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF PHENOBARBITAL TO MALE AND FEMALE CD1 MICE FOR 2 OR 7 DAYS: EXAMINATION OF IN-LIFE, HEPATOCELLULAR ENZYME, PROLIFERATION, AND GENE EXPRESSION RESPONSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phenobarbital (PB) is a barbiturate used to relieve anxiety and control epilepsy. PB is also an archetypical inducer of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), resulting in liver hypertrophy in humans and both liver hypertrophy and hyperplasia in rodents. In this study, male ...

  15. Zinc bioavailability in rats fed a plant-based diet: a study of fermentation and zinc supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Claudia E.; Vargas, Mirian; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency is a significant problem, in developing countries and in vegetarians, which can be caused by plant-based diets. Thus, dietary strategies, such as fermentation, to improve zinc bioavailability of diets should be investigated. Objective To improve zinc bioavailability in a plant-based diet by the inclusion of fermented food. Design Cassava tubers were fermented and made to replace the unfermented cassava in a basal plant-based diet, and compared with plant-based diets with and without zinc supplement. The zinc bioavailability of the diets was evaluated in Wistar rats that were fed these diets for 28 days. The evaluation was for zinc apparent absorption (ZnAA), serum zinc levels, and zinc deposits in liver and femur; in addition, the feed efficiency ratio (FER) of the diets and femur weight (FW) of the rats were evaluated. Results During the cassava fermentation, lactic acid increased and pH decreased (from 6.8 to 3.9), which is favorable for native phytase activity, resulting in a 90.2% reduction of phytate content in cassava. The diet containing fermented cassava showed significantly higher levels of ZnAA, FER, and FW (p<0.001). Moreover, the zinc levels in serum and femur were significantly higher (p<0.001) compared with the results of the diet with unfermented cassava. The results clearly show a higher zinc bioavailability in the diet containing fermented cassava and are comparable with the results obtained with the plant-based diet with zinc supplement. Conclusions In conclusion, the fermentation of cassava reduces the phytate content. The diet containing the fermented cassava represents a better nutritional alternative than the diet with unfermented cassava and is comparable with the zinc-supplemented diets. PMID:26626410

  16. Performance-enhancing supplements.

    PubMed

    Pecci, M A; Lombardo, J A

    2000-11-01

    Supplements that are marketed as ergogenic aids have achieved widespread use in the United States. In image-conscious society, these agents are not only being consumed by athletes, but also by those looking for a quick fix to enhance their appearance. Many assume that the performance claims made by the manufacturers are based on actual data, and that these agents must be safe because they are sold to the general public. Unfortunately, in most cases these assumptions are false. Creatine has become very popular, particularly among college and high school athletes. Studies within the last 5 years have shown that creatine does seem to have certain ergogenic benefits in a laboratory setting. It is not currently known whether these benefits actually can be transferred to the playing field. Although creatine has not consistently been shown to cause any major side effects, there is some question regarding creatine's effect on the kidneys, particularly with long-term use. Also, the safety of supplementation in children and adolescents has not been examined at all; its use in this population should be discouraged until there are more data. Androstenedione is an agent that has received a large amount of popular press in the last year, and this has led to an surge in its usage. It is believed to exert its ergogenic effects through conversion to testosterone. But what limited data are available suggest that at the recommended dosage, it does not cause any measurable change in testosterone levels, or provide any ergogenic benefit in inexperienced weight lifters. Also, it has yet to be determined whether androstenedione causes any of the side effects often attributed to use of the illegal anabolic steroids. Its mechanism of action suggests it has the potential to cause many of these negative effects. Studies are just beginning to appear in the literature, and certainly more data need to be gathered before androstenedione supplementation can be recommended for use as an ergogenic

  17. Effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Hujaz; Rao, P. V. Raman; Raghuvanshi, Rita S.; Mondal, B. C.; Singh, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 120-day-old Japanese quails, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups viz. T1-control, T2-0.5% A. vera, T3-0.5% clove, and T4-(0.25% A. vera + 0.25% clove) powder, each having three replications consisting of ten Japanese quails. The birds in control group (T1) were fed no supplement whereas in treatments T2-T4 birds were supplemented with A. vera leaf powder, clove, and mixture of both (powdered form) at 0.5, 0.5, and 0.25+0.25% of feed, respectively. After 7 days of brooding, a feeding trial of 35 days was conducted. On 35th day of trial birds were sacrificed and dressing percentage, cut up parts, organ weight, processing losses and carcass meat composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick were recorded. Blood samples were collected on the same day and serum was separated to evaluate serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Results: It showed significantly (p<0.05) higher values of dressing percentage with and without giblet and breast weight in the T2-T4 group as compared to the T1 group. No significant (p>0.05) differences were observed in giblet weight, other cut up parts and composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick muscles in all the treatment groups. Serum ALT and AST did not vary significantly among different treatment groups. Conclusion: A. vera and clove supplementation improved the dressing percentage and breast weight without adversely affecting the meat composition and serum enzymes. Thus, these can be used as a growth promoter in Japanese quails. PMID:27047153

  18. Vitamin-mineral supplement use and nutritional status of athletes.

    PubMed

    Bazzarre, T L; Scarpino, A; Sigmon, R; Marquart, L F; Wu, S M; Izurieta, M

    1993-04-01

    Dietary, anthropometric, and chronic disease risk factors (CDRF) including blood lipids and blood pressure (BP), were measured in 91 vitamin-mineral supplement users (SU) and nonusers (NU) representing a wide range of athletic interests. Supplements were used by 46 (51%) subjects; 100% of female athletes and 51% of male athletes used supplements while none of a group of 15 control female subjects currently used supplements. Both dietary intake and energy expenditure were measured using 7-day records. Adiposity was determined from body weight, body mass index, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum ferritin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, zinc, copper, and vitamin C were based on 12-hour fasting blood samples. Dietary intake (excluding supplements) for SU tended to be greater than NU for vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12, folate, calcium, iron and magnesium. Plasma vitamin C levels were significantly higher among SU than NU of both gender groups (p < 0.05). Although SU may exhibit additional healthy lifestyle practices, lipid profiles for many of these athletes were unfavorable with regard to CDRF.

  19. The effect of subchronic supplementation with folic acid on homocysteine induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Rasic-Markovic, A; Rankov-Petrovic, B; Hrncic, D; Krstic, D; Colovic, M; Macut, Dj; Djuric, D; Stanojlovic, Olivera

    2015-06-01

    Influence of folic acid on the CNS is still unclear. Folate has a neuroprotective effect, while on the other hand excess folate can exacerbate seizures in epileptics. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of subchronic administration of folic acid on behavioural and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of DL homocysteine thiolactone induced seizures in adult rats. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase in different brain regions was investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into groups: 1. Controls (C, 0.9% NaCl); 2. DL homocysteine-thiolactone 8.0 mmol/kg (H); 3. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid 5 mg/kg for 7 days (F) and 4. Subchronic supplementation with F + single dose of H (FH). Seizure behaviour was assessed by incidence, latency, number and intensity of seizure episodes. Seizure severity was described by a descriptive scale with grades 0-4. For EEG recordings, three gold-plated recording electrodes were implanted into the skull. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid did not affect seizure incidence, median number of seizure episodes and severity in FH, comparison with H (p > 0.05). The majority of seizure episodes in all groups were of grade 2. There were no significant differences in lethal outcomes at 24 h upon H injection in the FH vs. H group. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase was significantly increased in almost all examined structures in the FH vs. H group. Subchronic folic acid administration did not exacerbate H induced seizures and completely recovered the activity of ATPases.

  20. Effects of Pomegranate Extract Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Physical Function in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Tzu; Fitschen, Peter J; Kistler, Brandon M; Jeong, Jin Hee; Chung, Hae Ryong; Aviram, Michael; Phillips, Shane A; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral supplementation with pomegranate extract on cardiovascular risk, physical function, oxidative stress, and inflammation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-three HD subjects were randomized to the pomegranate (POM) or placebo (CON) group. Patients in POM ingested a 1000 mg capsule of a purified pomegranate polyphenol extract 7 days/week for 6 months. Individuals in CON ingested a noncaloric placebo capsule using the same protocol. Measurements were conducted at baseline and repeated 6 months following the start of the intervention. Brachial blood pressure (BP) was obtained using an automatic digital BP monitor. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using ultrasound and arterial tonometry. Blood samples were collected for the measurements of circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Muscle strength and physical function were assessed by isokinetic dynamometry, a validated shuttle walk test, and a battery of tests to assess functional fitness. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were reduced by 24 ± 13.7 and 10 ± 5.3 mmHg, respectively, in POM (P < .05). However, the BP differences in POM were no longer significant after controlling for baseline BP. The paraoxonase-1 activity increased by 26.6% (P < .05) in POM, compared to no significant change in CON. However, pomegranate supplementation had no effect on other markers of cardiovascular disease risk, inflammation and oxidative stress, or measures of physical function and muscle strength. While pomegranate extract supplementation may reduce BP and increase the antioxidant activity in HD patients, it does not improve other markers of cardiovascular risk, physical function, or muscle strength.

  1. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  2. Cognitive effects of a dietary supplement made from extract of Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a noncomparative, exploratory clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Zanotta, Danilo; Puricelli, Silvana; Bonoldi, Guido

    2014-01-01

    A prospective cohort, noncomparative, multicenter trial was conducted to explore the potential of a phytotherapeutic compound, available as a dietary supplement and containing extracts of Bacopa monnieri and Haematococcus pluvialis (astaxanthin) plus phosphatidylserine and vitamin E, in improving cognition in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. Enrolled subjects (n=104) were aged 71.2±9.9 years and had a mini-mental state examination score of 26.0±2.0 (mean ± standard deviation). They underwent the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) test and the clock drawing test at baseline and upon completion of a 60-day period of dietary supplementation with one tablet daily of the tested compound. In 102 assessable subjects, total ADAS-cog scores improved from 13.7±5.8 at baseline to 9.7±4.9 on day 60, and the clock drawing test scores improved from 8.5±2.3 to 9.1±1.9. Both changes were statistically significant (P<0.001). Memory tasks were the individual components of ADAS-cog showing the largest improvements. In a multivariate analysis, larger improvements in total ADAS-cog score were associated with less compromised baseline mini-mental state examination scores. Perceived efficacy was rated as excellent or good by 62% of study subjects. The tested compound was well tolerated; one nonserious adverse event was reported in the overall study population, and perceived tolerability was rated excellent or good by 99% of the subjects. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with the tested compound shows potential for counteracting cognitive impairment in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and warrants further investigation in adequately controlled, longer-term studies. PMID:24523587

  3. The preservation of vital functions in cat ovarian tissues during vitrification depends more on the temperature of the cryoprotectant exposure than on the sucrose supplementation.

    PubMed

    Mouttham, Lara; Comizzoli, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to better characterize the impact of cryoprotectant exposure (temperature and sucrose supplementation) on the health and function of preantral follicles in ovarian tissues during vitrification using the domestic cat model. Ovarian cortical pieces from peri-pubertal individuals were exposed to cryoprotectants at 4 °C or room temperature and supplemented with 0 or 0.5 M of sucrose, followed by vitrification. After rapid warming, cortical pieces were cultured in vitro and assessed for normal follicular morphology, viability and resumption of transcriptional activities for up to 7 days. Throughout the culture period, follicular morphology (up to 67.5% normal follicles) and global RNA transcription (up to 50.9% follicles with transcriptional activity) in warmed tissues were improved by cryoprotectant exposure at 4 °C compared to room temperature, but viability (up to 84.6% viable follicles) did not seem to be affected by exposure temperature. Sucrose supplementation did not have a consistent effect as it increased RNA transcription but decreased normal follicular morphology. For the first time, the study demonstrated that the preservation of critical tissue functions, such as the transcriptional activities, highly depends on the temperature of the cryoprotectant exposure and not necessarily on the presence of sucrose. PMID:27475292

  4. Comparative histological study of the effects of high calcium diet and vitamin D supplements on epiphyseal plates of vitamin-D-deficient chicks.

    PubMed

    Jande, S S; Dickson, I R

    1980-01-01

    A comparative histological and microradiographic study of the tibial epiphyseal plates of chickens raised on: (1) a vitamin-D-deficient diet; (2) a vitamin-D-deficient diet supplemented with cholecalciferol, and (3) a vitamin-D-deficient diet to which extra calcium had been added, has revealed that a high-calcium diet did not normalize the epiphyseal plates completely. However, it restored the normal length and chondrocyte arrangement to the proliferative zone. The degenerative zone became elongated and this seems to be related to the hypophosphataemic condition which has developed as a result of the special diet.

  5. β-Alanine supplemented diets enhance behavioral resilience to stress exposure in an animal model of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ostfeld, Ishay; Stout, Jeffrey R; Harris, Roger C; Kaplan, Zeev; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of β-alanine (BA) ingestion on the behavioral and neuroendocrine response of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a murine model. Animals were fed a normal diet with or without (PL) BA supplementation (100 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days. Animals were then exposed to a predator-scent stress (PSS) or a sham (UNEX). Behaviors were evaluated using an elevated plus maze (EPM) and acoustic startle response (ASR) 7 days following exposure to the PSS. Corticosterone concentrations (CS), expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and brain carnosine concentrations were analyzed a day later. Animals in PSS+PL spent significantly less time in the open arms and in the number of entries in the EPM than PSS+BA, UNEX+BA, or UNEX+PL. Animals in PSS+BA had comparable scores to UNEX+BA. Anxiety index was higher (p < 0.05) in PSS+PL compared to PSS+BA or animals that were unexposed. ASR and freezing were greater (p < 0.05) in animals exposed to PSS compared to animals unexposed. CS expression was higher (p < 0.05) in animals exposed to PSS compared to unexposed animals. Brain carnosine concentrations in the hippocampus and other brain sections were significantly greater in animals supplemented with BA compared to PL. BDNF expression in the CA1 and DG subregions of the hippocampus was lower (p < 0.05) in animals exposed and fed a normal diet compared to animals exposed and supplemented with BA, or animals unexposed. In conclusion, BA supplementation in rats increased brain carnosine concentrations and resulted in a reduction in PTSD-like behavior, which may be mediated in part by maintaining BDNF expression in the hippocampus.

  6. Is there a reduction of congenital abnormalities in the offspring of diabetic pregnant women after folic acid supplementation? A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Dakhlaoui, Abdallah; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew A E

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the preventive effect of folic acid for structural birth defects (i.e. congenital abnormalities [CAs]) in the offspring of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM-1). The occurrence of medically recorded DM-1 in pregnant women who had malformed fetuses/newborns (cases) and delivered healthy babies (controls) with or without folic acid supplementation was compared in the population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities. The case group included 22,843 offspring, and there were 79 (0.35%) pregnant women with DM-1, while the control group comprised of 38,151 newborns, and 88 (0.23%) had mothers with DM-1. Case mothers with DM-1 associated with a higher risk of total rate of CAs in their offspring (OR with 95% CI: 1.5, 1.1-2.0) compared to the total rate of CAs in the offspring of non-diabetic case mothers. This higher risk can be explained by four specific types/groups of CAs: isolated renal a/dysgenesis; obstructive CA of the urinary tract; cardiovascular CAs; and multiple CAs, namely caudal dysplasia sequence. However, there was no higher rate of total CAs in the children of pregnant women with DM-1 after folic acid supplementation; in addition, neural-tube defect and renal a/dysgenesis did not occur. However, this benefit cannot be explained by the CA reduction effect of folic acid during the critical period of major CAs. In conclusion, there was a certain reduction in maternal teratogenic effect of DM-1 after folic acid supplementation during pregnancy, but the explanation of this effect requires further study.

  7. Behavioral and omics analyses study on potential involvement of dipeptide balenine through supplementation in diet of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8.

    PubMed

    Wada, Nobuhiro; Yamanaka, Satoru; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Hirako, Satoshi; Iizuka, Yuzuru; Kim, Hyounju; Matsumoto, Akiyo; Kimura, Ai; Takenoya, Fumiko; Yasunaga, Genta; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates effects of dipeptide balenine, as a major component of whale meat extract (hereafter, WME), supplementation on senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), an Alzheimer's disease (AD) model at level of learning and memory formation and brain expression profiles genome-wide in brain. Mice fed experimental balenine (+ WME) supplemented diet for 26 weeks were subjected to four behavioral tests - open field, Y-maze, new object recognition, and water-filled multiple T-maze - to examine effects on learning and memory. Brain transcriptome of SAMP8 mice-fed the WME diet over control low-safflower oil (LSO) diet-fed mice was delineated on a 4 × 44 K mouse whole genome DNA microarray chip. Results revealed the WME diet not only induced improvements in the learning and memory formation but also positively modulated changes in the brain of the SAMP8 mouse; the gene inventories are publically available for analysis by the scientific community. Interestingly, the SAMP8 mouse model presented many genetic characteristics of AD, and numerous novel molecules (Slc2a5, Treh, Fbp1, Aldob, Ppp1r1a, DNase1, Agxt2l1, Cyp2e1, Acsm1, Acsm2, and Pah) were revealed over the SAMR1 (senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1) mouse, to be oppositely regulated/recovered under the balenine (+ WME) supplemented diet regime by DNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses. Our present study demonstrates an experimental strategy to understand the effects of dipeptide balenine, prominetly contained in meat diet, on SAMP8, providing new insight into whole brain transcriptome changes genome-wide. The gene expression data has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO): GSE76459. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation. PMID:27672559

  8. Effect of supplementing urea-treated barley straw with lucerne or vetch hays on feed intake, digestibility and growth of Arsi Bale sheep.

    PubMed

    Abate, Dawit; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The study was conducted at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia to assess the supplementation of graded levels of vetch (Vicia dasycarpa 'lana') and lucerne (Medicago sativa,' Hunter river') hay on feed intake, digestibility and body weight (BW) change of Arsi-Bale sheep fed urea treated barley straw (UTBS). A 7 day- digestibility and a 90 day- feed intake trials were conducted using 28 and 35 sheep, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with seven dietary treatments that consisted of feeding UTBS (T1) as the control treatment, UTBS plus 150, 250 and 350 g dry matter (DM) per day of vetch for T2, T3, T4, respectively and UTBS plus 150, 250 and 350 g DM per day of lucerne for T5, T6 and T7, respectively. Intake of UTBS was not affected (P > 0.05) by inclusion of lucerne hay at 25-35% of daily DM intake. The supplements increased daily intake of total DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and metabolizable energy (ME) (P < 0.001) as well as apparent digestibility of DM, OM (P < 0.001), NDF (P < 0.01), ADF, crude protein (CP) (P < 0.05) and daily BW gain (P < 0.001). Supplementation with lucerne than vetch hay promoted higher (P < 0.001) CP and ME intakes and daily BW gain. Feeding with the UTBS without supplementation was enough to meet the maintenance requirements of the sheep and allow small BW gain. The results of the study showed that urea treatment of barley straw in conjunction with supplementation of lucerne or vetch hay could serve as a useful strategy in improving smallholder sheep production in the tropics.

  9. The SOS Pilot Study: A RCT of Routine Oxygen Supplementation Early after Acute Stroke—Effect on Recovery of Neurological Function at One Week

    PubMed Central

    Roffe, Christine; Ali, Khalid; Warusevitane, Anushka; Sills, Sheila; Pountain, Sarah; Allen, Martin; Hodsoll, John; Lally, Frank; Jones, Peter; Crome, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mild hypoxia is common after stroke and associated with poor long-term outcome. Oxygen supplementation could prevent hypoxia and improve recovery. A previous study of routine oxygen supplementation showed no significant benefit at 7 and 12 months. This pilot study reports the effects of routine oxygen supplementation for 72 hours on oxygen saturation and neurological outcomes at 1 week after a stroke. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke were recruited within 24 h of hospital admission between October 2004 and April 2008. Participants were randomized to oxygen via nasal cannulae (72 h) or control (room air, oxygen given only if clinically indicated). Clinical outcomes were assessed by research team members at 1 week. Baseline data for oxygen (n = 148) and control (n = 141) did not differ between groups. Results The median (interquartile range) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score for the groups at baseline was 6 (7) and 5 (7) respectively. The median Nocturnal Oxygen Saturation during treatment was 1.4% (0.3) higher in the oxygen than in the control group (p<0.001) during the intervention. At 1 week, the median NIHSS score had reduced by 2 (3) in the oxygen and by 1 (2) in the control group. 31% of participants in the oxygen group and 14% in the control group had an improvement of ≥4 NIHSS points at 1 week doubling the odds of improvement in the oxygen group (OR: 2.9). Conclusion Our data show that routine oxygen supplementation started within 24 hours of hospital admission with acute stroke led to a small, but statistically significant, improvement in neurological recovery at 1 week. However, the difference in NIHSS improvement may be due to baseline imbalance in stroke severity between the two groups and needs to be confirmed in a larger study and linked to longer-term clinical outcome. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN12362720; European Clinical Trials Database 2004-001866-41 PMID:21625533

  10. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Melton, Genevieve B; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions.

  11. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  12. The ovulation rate in anoestrous female goats managed under grazing conditions and exposed to the male effect is increased by nutritional supplementation.

    PubMed

    De Santiago-Miramontes, M A; Rivas-Muñoz, R; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, M; Malpaux, B; Scaramuzzi, R J; Delgadillo, J A

    2008-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine if feed supplementation before exposure of anoestrous does to males increases ovulation rate. Does (n=50) grazing natural vegetation were divided into two groups (n=25). One group received no feed supplementation, while the other was supplemented daily, with a mixture of 950 g of alfalfa hay, 290 g of rolled corn and 140 g of soy bean per animal for 7 days before exposure to bucks. On April 7, all females were exposed to four adult sexually active bucks (two per group) for 15 days. The ovulation rate at the ovulation detected within 5 days of exposure to males, assessed by transrectal ultrasonography, was greater (P<0.05) in supplemented (1.6+/-0.2) than in non-supplemented females (1.0+/-0.2). In contrast, ovulation rate at the subsequent ovulation, detected between days 6 and 15 of contact with males, was not different (P>0.05) between supplemented (1.3+/-0.1) and non-supplemented females (1.3+/-0.2). Feed supplementation 7 days before exposure to sexually active bucks of females managed under grazing conditions increased their ovulation rate at the first male-induced ovulation but the stimulatory effect of supplementation did not persist and was not observed at the subsequent ovulation. PMID:18178343

  13. Novel probiotic Enterococcus faecium IS-27526 supplementation increased total salivary sIgA level and bodyweight of pre-school children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Surono, Ingrid S; Koestomo, Fiona P; Novitasari, Nuni; Zakaria, Fransiska R; Yulianasari; Koesnandar

    2011-12-01

    Enterococcus faecium IS-27526 is a novel probiotic isolated from dadih, an Indonesian traditional fermented buffalo milk. A 90 days randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of pre-post trial was conducted in pre-school children with two groups, placebo and probiotic group. Ultra High Temperature low fat milk was used as a carrier in each group. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of E. faecium IS-27526 in milk on humoral immune response and on bodyweight of pre-school children. Total serum IgA and total salivary sIgA were measured by sandwich ELISA. The bodyweight of young children was measured. The results showed that total serum IgA did not significantly increase in the probiotic group compared with the placebo group. Total salivary sIgA level and the bodyweight significantly increased (p < 0.05) in probiotic groups compared to the placebo. Changes of total salivary sIgA level were significantly higher in underweight children supplemented with probiotic. Weight gain was observed significantly in children with normal bodyweight supplemented with probiotic. Neither mortality nor weight loss was recorded throughout the study. Taken together, novel probiotic E. faecium IS-27526 has significant positive effects on humoral immune response, salivary sIgA, in underweight pre-school children, and on weight gain of pre-school children.

  14. Do dietary supplements help promote weight loss?

    PubMed

    Bell, Stacey J; Van Ausdal, Wendy; Grochoski, Greg

    2009-01-01

    As two-thirds of the US population is overweight or obese, new strategies are needed to help individuals safely and effectively lose weight. One option is to use dietary supplements, but not all supplements that are touted for weight loss have published clinical support for efficacy. The purpose of this article was to identify all published articles on dietary supplements for weight loss. Effectiveness of these supplements was defined as promoting 1-2 lb of weight loss each week. Although several dozen different dietary supplements are sold, only 14 published studies were identified. Four individual ingredients and three blends of ingredients were considered to be effective. Additionally, we compared weight loss from these dietary supplements to over-the-counter (OTC) orlistat (alli™, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK). Five single ingredients and three blends of ingredients produced more weight loss than OTC orlistat. Persons who use dietary supplements for weight management, counsel patients on how to lose weight, and retailers who sell dietary supplements, should become familiar with those supplements only that