Science.gov

Sample records for 7-day time frame

  1. Comparing the 7-Day PAR with a Triaxial Accelerometer for Measuring Time in Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Lobach, David; Kraus, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary study aim was to evaluate associations of estimated weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise from self-reports of the telephone-administered 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) with data captured by the RT3 triaxial accelerometer. Methods This investigation was undertaken as part of the FRESH START study, a randomized clinical trial that tested an iteratively-tailored diet and exercise mailed print intervention among newly diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors. A convenience sample of 139 medically-eligible subjects living within a 60-mile radius of the study center provided both 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data at enrollment. Ultimately n=115 substudy subjects were found eligible for the FRESH START study and randomized to one of two study treatment arms. Follow-up assessments at Year 1 (n=103) and Year 2 (n=99) provided both the 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data. Results There was moderate agreement between the 7-Day PAR and the accelerometer with longitudinal serial correlation coefficients of .54 (baseline), .24 (Year 1) and .53 (Year 2), all P-values < .01, though the accelerometer estimates for weekly time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were much higher than those of the 7-Day PAR at all time points. The two methods were poorly correlated in assessing sensitivity to change from baseline to Year 1 (rho=.11, P=.30). Using mixed models repeated measures analysis, both methods exhibited similar non-significant treatment arm X time interaction P-values (7-Day PAR=.22, accelerometer=.23). Conclusions The correlations for three serial time points were in agreement with findings of other studies that compared self-reported time in exercise with physical activity captured by accelerometry. However, these methods capture somewhat different dimensions of physical activity and provide differing estimates of change over time. PMID:19461530

  2. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A.

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  3. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  4. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  5. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  6. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  7. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  8. The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): reliability and validity against doubly labeled water and 7-day activity diaries.

    PubMed

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Neilson, Heather K; Kopciuk, Karen A; Khandwala, Farah; Liu, Andrew; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Bryant, Heather E; Lau, David C W; Robson, Paula J

    2014-08-15

    We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009-2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ρs of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE.

  9. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  10. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  11. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  12. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  13. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  14. Time reversibility in the quantum frame

    SciTech Connect

    Masot-Conde, Fátima

    2014-12-04

    Classic Mechanics and Electromagnetism, conventionally taken as time-reversible, share the same concept of motion (either of mass or charge) as the basis of the time reversibility in their own fields. This paper focuses on the relationship between mobile geometry and motion reversibility. The goal is to extrapolate the conclusions to the quantum frame, where matter and radiation behave just as elementary mobiles. The possibility that the asymmetry of Time (Time’s arrow) is an effect of a fundamental quantum asymmetry of elementary particles, turns out to be a consequence of the discussion.

  15. The effects of the framing of time on delay discounting.

    PubMed

    DeHart, William Brady; Odum, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of the framing of time on delay discounting. Delay discounting is the process by which delayed outcomes are devalued as a function of time. Time in a titrating delay discounting task is often framed in calendar units (e.g., as 1 week, 1 month, etc.). When time is framed as a specific date, delayed outcomes are discounted less compared to the calendar format. Other forms of framing time; however, have not been explored. All participants completed a titrating calendar unit delay-discounting task for money. Participants were also assigned to one of two delay discounting tasks: time as dates (e.g., June 1st, 2015) or time in units of days (e.g., 5000 days), using the same delay distribution as the calendar delay-discounting task. Time framed as dates resulted in less discounting compared to the calendar method, whereas time framed as days resulted in greater discounting compared to the calendar method. The hyperboloid model fit best compared to the hyperbola and exponential models. How time is framed may alter how participants attend to the delays as well as how the delayed outcome is valued. Altering how time is framed may serve to improve adherence to goals with delayed outcomes.

  16. 40 CFR 35.510 - Time frame for EPA action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time frame for EPA action. 35.510 Section 35.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL....510 Time frame for EPA action. The Regional Administrator will review a complete application...

  17. 40 CFR 35.110 - Time frame for EPA action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time frame for EPA action. 35.110... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Epa Action on Application § 35.110 Time frame for EPA action. The Regional Administrator will review a complete application and either...

  18. 40 CFR 35.510 - Time frame for EPA action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time frame for EPA action. 35.510... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Epa Action on Application § 35.510 Time frame for EPA action. The Regional Administrator will review a complete application...

  19. 40 CFR 35.110 - Time frame for EPA action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time frame for EPA action. 35.110... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Epa Action on Application § 35.110 Time frame for EPA action. The Regional Administrator will review a complete application and either...

  20. 40 CFR 35.510 - Time frame for EPA action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time frame for EPA action. 35.510... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Epa Action on Application § 35.510 Time frame for EPA action. The Regional Administrator will review a complete application...

  1. 40 CFR 35.110 - Time frame for EPA action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time frame for EPA action. 35.110 Section 35.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... frame for EPA action. The Regional Administrator will review a complete application and either...

  2. 12 CFR 1805.503 - Time frame for raising match.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time frame for raising match. 1805.503 Section 1805.503 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE... frame for raising match. Applicants shall satisfy matching funds requirements within the period...

  3. 12 CFR 1805.503 - Time frame for raising match.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time frame for raising match. 1805.503 Section 1805.503 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE... frame for raising match. Applicants shall satisfy matching funds requirements within the period...

  4. Time and Outcome Framing in Intertemporal Tradeoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A robust anomaly in intertemporal choice is the delay-speedup asymmetry: Receipts are discounted more, and payments are discounted less, when delayed than when expedited over the same interval. We developed 2 versions of the tradeoff model (Scholten & Read, 2010) to address such situations, in which an outcome is expected at a given time but…

  5. Reducing video frame rate increases remote optimal focus time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve observers made best optical focus adjustments to a microscope whose high-resolution pattern was video monitored and displayed first on a National Television System Committee (NTSC) analog color monitor and second on a digitally compressed computer monitor screen at frame rates ranging (in six steps) from 1.5 to 30 frames per second (fps). This was done to determine whether reducing the frame rate affects the image focus. Reducing frame rate has been shown to be an effective and acceptable means of reducing transmission bandwidth of dynamic video imagery sent from Space Station Freedom (SSF) to ground scientists. Three responses were recorded per trial: time to complete the focus adjustment, number of changes of focus direction, and subjective rating of final image quality. It was found that: the average time to complete the focus setting increases from 4.5 sec at 30 fps to 7.9 sec at 1.5 fps (statistical probability = 1.2 x 10(exp -7)); there is no significant difference in the number of changes in the direction of focus adjustment across these frame rates; and there is no significant change in subjectively determined final image quality across these frame rates. These data can be used to help pre-plan future remote optical-focus operations on SSF.

  6. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Cone, Jeremy; Rand, David G

    2014-01-01

    What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy). Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect.

  7. 12 CFR 516.190 - Will a meeting affect application processing time frames?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... time frames? 516.190 Section 516.190 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... processing time frames? If OTS decides to conduct a meeting, it may suspend applicable application processing time frames, including the time frames for deeming an application complete and the applicable...

  8. 12 CFR 516.190 - Will a meeting affect application processing time frames?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... time frames? 516.190 Section 516.190 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... processing time frames? If OTS decides to conduct a meeting, it may suspend applicable application processing time frames, including the time frames for deeming an application complete and the applicable...

  9. Stability of Gabor Frames Under Small Time Hamiltonian Evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.; Gröchenig, Karlheinz; Romero, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    We consider Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor systems, where the window evolves according to the action of a Schrödinger propagator and the phase-space nodes evolve according to the corresponding Hamiltonian flow. We prove the stability of the frame property for small times and Hamiltonians consisting of a quadratic polynomial plus a potential in the Sjöstrand class with bounded second-order derivatives. This answers a question raised in de Gosson (Appl Comput Harmonic Anal 38(2):196-221, 2015)

  10. Flexible conceptual projection of time onto spatial frames of reference.

    PubMed

    Torralbo, Ana; Santiago, Julio; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2006-07-08

    Flexibility in conceptual projection constitutes one of the most challenging issues in the embodiment and conceptual metaphor literatures. We sketch a theoretical proposal that places the burden of the explanation on attentional dynamics in interaction with mental models in working memory that are constrained to be maximally coherent. A test of this theory is provided in the context of the conceptual projection of time onto the domain of space. Participants categorized words presented at different spatial locations (back-front, left-right) as referring to the past or to the future. Responses were faster when the irrelevant word location was congruent with the back-past, front-future metaphoric mapping. Moreover, when a new highly task-relevant spatial frame of reference was introduced, it changed the projection of past and future onto space in a way that was congruent with the new frame (past was now projected to left space and future to right space), as predicted by the theory. This study shows that there is substantial flexibility in conceptual projection and opens a venue to study metaphoric variation across tasks, individuals, and cultures as the result of attentional dynamics.

  11. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program specific review process: Time frames. 457... process: Time frames. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must complete the review of a matter described in § 457.1130(a) within a reasonable amount of time. In setting time frames, the State...

  12. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination....

  13. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination....

  14. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination....

  15. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination....

  16. Investigating Two Different Training Time Frames during Ramadan Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Ramin; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Memari, Amir-Hossein; Najafabadi, Mahboubeh Ghayour

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Muslim athletes may continue training and competing while they are fasting. There is a concern about negative effects of fasting on sports performance. This study aimed to investigate the influence of two training time frames on athletes’ body composition and performance during Ramadan fasting. Methods An observational study was conducted and thirty four male volunteer athletes from different sports including volleyball, karate, taekwondo and football were assigned in two groups. The first group included 14 elite athletes who during Ramadan voluntarily participated in training sessions at 1 hour before Iftar (BI) and the second group of 20 elite athletes who during Ramadan participated in training sessions at 3 hours after Iftar (AI). Testing was performed one week before; in the first and fourth weeks of Ramadan and one week after Ramadan. Weights, heights and skinfold thickness were assessed at each time point and body mass index was calculated. Each player was assessed for agility and explosive strength as well. Results The mean weight and body mass index of both groups decreased significantly during Ramadan (P<0.001). Performance variables were not negatively affected by fasting in BI or AI group athletes. Conclusions Weight reduction might come with either BI or AI training schedules in Ramadan. Daytime or evening training did not inversely affect the agility and power performances in a group of elite athletes during Ramadan fasting. PMID:22375240

  17. Quantum Reference Frames in Flat Space-Time and Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayburov, S.

    2002-12-01

    It was argued recently that in Quantum Mechanics (QM) the correct definition of physical reference frame (RF) must differ principally from universally accepted one. [1]. The reason is that in exact theory the quantum properties of any massive object M1 with which physical RF F1 associated must be taken into account, despite their possible smallness in laboratory conditions. Consequently F1 evolution must obey to Schrodinger equation, and its free state relative to external observer at rest F0 is the localizable wave packet Ψ(x1,t), not the classical trajectory. As the example F1 can be rocket in outer space and F0 earth, M0 → ∞. If F1 localized state Ψ(x,t0) ~ δ(x) prepared by F0 it will smear in space unrestrictedly with the time σx ~ t1/2. This smearing introduces additional uncertainty into the measurement of particles mi space coordinates by F1 xi1 = xi-x1 in F1, because x1 is also operator, mi states transformations between two such quantum RFs includes quantum corrections to Galilean transformations, which depends on RFs states vectors [1]. Consistent nonrelativistic quantization in such RFs of free particles mi and other quantum systems in two alternative formalisms was proposed [2]...

  18. Data rate management and real time operation: recursive adaptive frame integration of limited data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-08-01

    Recursive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed to support conventional frame integration. The technique uses two thresholds -one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate, and places integration process between those thresholds. This configuration allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single-frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single-frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration. Adding the third threshold may help in managing real time operations. In the paper the Recursive Frame Integration is presented in form of multiple parallel recursive integration. Such an approach can help not only in data rate management but in mitigation of low single frame SNR issue for Recursive Integration as well as in real time operations with frame integration.

  19. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  20. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  1. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  2. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  3. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  4. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar....950 Time frame for making a redetermination. (a) General rule. The contractor mails, or otherwise... last known addresses within 60 calendar days of the date the contractor receives a timely filed...

  5. 40 CFR 35.105 - Time frame for submitting an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time frame for submitting an application. 35.105 Section 35.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER....105 Time frame for submitting an application. An applicant should submit a complete application to...

  6. 40 CFR 35.506 - Time frame for submitting an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time frame for submitting an application. 35.506 Section 35.506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... Application § 35.506 Time frame for submitting an application. An applicant should submit a...

  7. 20 CFR 30.421 - What are the time frames for submitting bills and reimbursement requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the time frames for submitting bills and reimbursement requests? 30.421 Section 30.421 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Bills § 30.421 What are the time frames for submitting...

  8. 21 CFR 814.40 - Time frames for reviewing a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time frames for reviewing a PMA. 814.40 Section 814.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.40 Time frames...

  9. 42 CFR 405.922 - Time frame for processing initial determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time frame for processing initial determinations. 405.922 Section 405.922 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... § 405.922 Time frame for processing initial determinations. The contractor issues initial...

  10. 42 CFR 405.1016 - Time frames for deciding an appeal before an ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time frames for deciding an appeal before an ALJ. 405.1016 Section 405.1016 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Time frames for deciding an appeal before an ALJ. (a) When a request for an ALJ hearing is filed...

  11. 20 CFR 10.336 - What are the time frames for submitting bills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the time frames for submitting bills? 10.336 Section 10.336 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Bills § 10.336 What are the time frames...

  12. 21 CFR 60.28 - Time frame for determining regulatory review periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time frame for determining regulatory review periods. 60.28 Section 60.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period Determinations § 60.28 Time frame...

  13. 20 CFR 30.421 - What are the time frames for submitting bills and reimbursement requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the time frames for submitting bills and reimbursement requests? 30.421 Section 30.421 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Bills § 30.421 What are the time frames for submitting...

  14. 42 CFR 405.922 - Time frame for processing initial determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time frame for processing initial determinations. 405.922 Section 405.922 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... § 405.922 Time frame for processing initial determinations. The contractor issues initial...

  15. 21 CFR 814.40 - Time frames for reviewing a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time frames for reviewing a PMA. 814.40 Section 814.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.40 Time frames...

  16. 20 CFR 10.336 - What are the time frames for submitting bills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the time frames for submitting bills? 10.336 Section 10.336 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Bills § 10.336 What are the time frames...

  17. 40 CFR 35.105 - Time frame for submitting an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time frame for submitting an application. 35.105 Section 35.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER....105 Time frame for submitting an application. An applicant should submit a complete application to...

  18. 40 CFR 35.506 - Time frame for submitting an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time frame for submitting an application. 35.506 Section 35.506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... Application § 35.506 Time frame for submitting an application. An applicant should submit a...

  19. 21 CFR 60.28 - Time frame for determining regulatory review periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time frame for determining regulatory review periods. 60.28 Section 60.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period Determinations § 60.28 Time frame...

  20. 42 CFR 405.1016 - Time frames for deciding an appeal before an ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time frames for deciding an appeal before an ALJ. 405.1016 Section 405.1016 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Time frames for deciding an appeal before an ALJ. (a) When a request for an ALJ hearing is filed...

  1. 42 CFR 403.251 - Loss ratio date and time frame provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loss ratio date and time frame provisions. 403.251... Certification Program: Loss Ratio Provisions § 403.251 Loss ratio date and time frame provisions. (a) Initial... policy's expected loss ratio. (1) The initial calculation date may be before, the same as, or after...

  2. 42 CFR 403.251 - Loss ratio date and time frame provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Loss ratio date and time frame provisions. 403.251... Certification Program: Loss Ratio Provisions § 403.251 Loss ratio date and time frame provisions. (a) Initial... policy's expected loss ratio. (1) The initial calculation date may be before, the same as, or after...

  3. 42 CFR 403.251 - Loss ratio date and time frame provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Loss ratio date and time frame provisions. 403.251... Certification Program: Loss Ratio Provisions § 403.251 Loss ratio date and time frame provisions. (a) Initial... policy's expected loss ratio. (1) The initial calculation date may be before, the same as, or after...

  4. 42 CFR 403.251 - Loss ratio date and time frame provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loss ratio date and time frame provisions. 403.251... Certification Program: Loss Ratio Provisions § 403.251 Loss ratio date and time frame provisions. (a) Initial... policy's expected loss ratio. (1) The initial calculation date may be before, the same as, or after...

  5. 42 CFR 403.251 - Loss ratio date and time frame provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Loss ratio date and time frame provisions. 403.251... Certification Program: Loss Ratio Provisions § 403.251 Loss ratio date and time frame provisions. (a) Initial... policy's expected loss ratio. (1) The initial calculation date may be before, the same as, or after...

  6. Examining the Variability of Wind Power Output in the Regulation Time Frame: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B. M.; Shedd, S.; Florita, A.

    2012-08-01

    This work examines the distribution of changes in wind power for different time scales in the regulation time frame as well as the correlation of changes in power output for individual wind turbines in a wind plant.

  7. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... life or health or ability to attain, maintain or regain maximum function. If the enrollee has access to... extend the 72-hour time frame by up to 14 calendar days, if the enrollee requests an extension....

  8. Transformation from proper time on earth to coordinate time in solar system barycentric space-time frame of reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, T. D.

    1976-01-01

    An expression was derived for the time transformation t - tau, where t is coordinate time in the solar system barycentric space-time frame of reference and tau is proper time obtained from a fixed atomic clock on earth. This transformation is suitable for use in the computation of high-precision earth-based range and Doppler observables of a spacecraft or celestial body located anywhere in the solar system; it can also be used in obtaining computed values of very long baseline interferometry data types. The formulation for computing range and Doppler observables, which is an explicit function of the transformation t - tau, is described briefly.

  9. 25 CFR 900.135 - May the time frames for action set out in this subpart be reduced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the time frames for action set out in this subpart be... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Construction § 900.135 May the time frames for action set out in this subpart be reduced? Yes. The time frames in this subpart are intended to be maximum times and may be reduced based...

  10. 25 CFR 900.135 - May the time frames for action set out in this subpart be reduced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May the time frames for action set out in this subpart be... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Construction § 900.135 May the time frames for action set out in this subpart be reduced? Yes. The time frames in this subpart are intended to be maximum times and may be reduced based...

  11. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  12. 45 CFR 286.160 - What are the applicable time frames and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the applicable time frames and procedures... and Processing § 286.160 What are the applicable time frames and procedures for submitting a Tribal... Secretary according to the following time frames: Implementation date: Letter of intent due to ACF and...

  13. 45 CFR 286.160 - What are the applicable time frames and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the applicable time frames and procedures... and Processing § 286.160 What are the applicable time frames and procedures for submitting a Tribal... Secretary according to the following time frames: Implementation date: Letter of intent due to ACF and...

  14. A Possible Approach to Inclusion of Space and Time in Frame Fields of Quantum Representations of Real and Complex Numbers

    DOE PAGES

    Benioff, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Tmore » his work is based on the field of reference frames based on quantum representations of real and complex numbers described in other work. Here frame domains are expanded to include space and time lattices. Strings of qukits are described as hybrid systems as they are both mathematical and physical systems. As mathematical systems they represent numbers. As physical systems in each frame the strings have a discrete Schrodinger dynamics on the lattices.he frame field has an iterative structure such that the contents of a stage j frame have images in a stage j - 1 (parent) frame. A discussion of parent frame images includes the proposal that points of stage j frame lattices have images as hybrid systems in parent frames.he resulting association of energy with images of lattice point locations, as hybrid systems states, is discussed. Representations and images of other physical systems in the different frames are also described.« less

  15. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, Michael Andrew

    2016-02-22

    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  16. 42 CFR 405.942 - Time frame for filing a request for a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time frame for filing a request for a redetermination. 405.942 Section 405.942 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Determinations, Redeterminations, Reconsiderations,...

  17. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... process: Time frames. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must complete the review of a matter... services matter. The State must ensure that reviews are completed in accordance with the medical needs of... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS...

  18. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  19. 7000 miles and 7 days from the battlefield.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Margaret M

    2010-01-01

    Critically injured combat casualties are rapidly evacuated from the battlefield, and within hours of their injuries they begin a 7000-mile journey home, often arriving in the United States within 7 days. National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, is a major facility for wounded warrior care in the Military Health System. Throughout the facility, the staff from a variety of disciplines and all military services provides care for military personnel with injuries and illnesses, with the goal of optimizing recovery and quality of life. The foundational evidence for select aspects of this care is discussed. Innovations in training and care delivery include the Air Force Nurse Corps' Critical Care Fellowship, the new inpatient Traumatic Brain Injury Unit, and the National Intrepid Center for Excellence for Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health. The future of the Medical Center includes a new name, expanded staff, and newly constructed space by Department of Defense Base Realignment and Closure activities.

  20. Generalized Sturmians in the time-dependent frame: effect of a fullerene confining potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frapiccini, Ana Laura; Gasaneo, Gustavo; Mitnik, Dario M.

    2017-02-01

    In this work we present a novel implementation of the Generalized Sturmian Functions in the time-dependent frame to numerically solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We study the effect of the confinement of H atom in a fullerene cage for the 1s → 2p resonant transition of the atom interacting with a finite laser pulse, calculating the population of bound states and spectral density.

  1. LCFM - LIVING COLOR FRAME MAKER: PC GRAPHICS GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.

    1994-01-01

    Computer graphics are often applied for better understanding and interpretation of data under observation. These graphics become more complicated when animation is required during "run-time", as found in many typical modern artificial intelligence and expert systems. Living Color Frame Maker is a solution to many of these real-time graphics problems. Living Color Frame Maker (LCFM) is a graphics generation and management tool for IBM or IBM compatible personal computers. To eliminate graphics programming, the graphic designer can use LCFM to generate computer graphics frames. The graphical frames are then saved as text files, in a readable and disclosed format, which can be easily accessed and manipulated by user programs for a wide range of "real-time" visual information applications. For example, LCFM can be implemented in a frame-based expert system for visual aids in management of systems. For monitoring, diagnosis, and/or controlling purposes, circuit or systems diagrams can be brought to "life" by using designated video colors and intensities to symbolize the status of hardware components (via real-time feedback from sensors). Thus status of the system itself can be displayed. The Living Color Frame Maker is user friendly with graphical interfaces, and provides on-line help instructions. All options are executed using mouse commands and are displayed on a single menu for fast and easy operation. LCFM is written in C++ using the Borland C++ 2.0 compiler for IBM PC series computers and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The program requires a mouse and an EGA/VGA display. A minimum of 77K of RAM is also required for execution. The documentation is provided in electronic form on the distribution medium in WordPerfect format. A sample MS-DOS executable is provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools

  2. Estimating the distribution of rest-frame time-scales for blazar jets: a statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liodakis, I.; Blinov, D.; Papadakis, I.; Pavlidou, V.

    2017-03-01

    In any flux-density limited sample of blazars, the distribution of the time-scale modulation factor Δt΄/Δt, which quantifies the change in observed time-scales compared to the rest-frame ones due to redshift and relativistic compression follows an exponential distribution with a mean depending on the flux limit of the sample. In this work, we produce the mathematical formalism that allows us to use this information in order to uncover the underlining rest-frame probability density function of measurable time-scales of blazar jets. We extensively test our proposed methodology using a simulated Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar population with a 1.5 Jy flux-density limit in the simple case (where all blazars share the same intrinsic time-scale), in order to identify limits of applicability and potential biases due to observational systematics and sample selection. We find that for monitoring with time intervals between observations longer than ∼30 per cent of the intrinsic time-scale under investigation the method loses its ability to produce robust results. For time intervals of ∼3 per cent of the intrinsic time-scale, the error of the method is as low as 1 per cent in recovering the intrinsic rest-frame time-scale. We applied our method to rotations of the optical polarization angle of blazars observed by RoboPol. We found that the intrinsic time-scales of the longest duration rotation event in each blazar follows a narrow distribution, well described by a normal distribution with mean 87 d and standard deviation 5 d. We discuss possible interpretations of this result.

  3. Analysis of data systems requirements for global crop production forecasting in the 1985 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W.; Larsen, P. A.; Gerstner, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Data systems concepts that would be needed to implement the objective of the global crop production forecasting in an orderly transition from experimental to operational status in the 1985 time frame were examined. Information needs of users were converted into data system requirements, and the influence of these requirements on the formulation of a conceptual data system was analyzed. Any potential problem areas in meeting these data system requirements were identified in an iterative process.

  4. Quantum frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  5. 20 CFR 666.205 - What are the time frames under which States submit performance progress reports and apply for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the time frames under which States submit performance progress reports and apply for incentive grants? 666.205 Section 666.205 Employees... the time frames under which States submit performance progress reports and apply for incentive...

  6. 45 CFR 287.55 - What time frames and guidelines apply regarding the obligation and liquidation periods for NEW...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What time frames and guidelines apply regarding the obligation and liquidation periods for NEW Program funds? 287.55 Section 287.55 Public Welfare... NEW Program Funding § 287.55 What time frames and guidelines apply regarding the obligation...

  7. 20 CFR 666.205 - What are the time frames under which States submit performance progress reports and apply for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the time frames under which States submit performance progress reports and apply for incentive grants? 666.205 Section 666.205 Employees... the time frames under which States submit performance progress reports and apply for incentive...

  8. SLR Station Recovery, Center of Frame Motion, and Time Varying Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelensky, Nikita P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Melachroinos, Stavros; Wiser Beall, Jennifer; Larson, Jordan D.

    2012-01-01

    Weekly station position estimates, beginning with 1993, are derived from the ITRF2008-based SLR processing of up to four satellites: Lageos 1, Lageos2, Starlette, and Stella. Helmert parameters obtained from c omparison of weekly SLR station positions and the a-priori SLRF2008 station complement are evaluated for geocenter motion and scale. Two me thods for modeling time varying gravity are employed in the SLR satel lite POD processing, with GGM03S serving as the static gravity field. Both methods forward model atmosphere gravity derived from 6-hour ECM WF pressure data. The standard approach applies an annual 20x20 field estimated from 4 years of GRACE data, and the IERS2003 recommended linear rates for C20, C30, C40, C21, and S21. The alternate approach us es a new set of low-order/degree 4x4 coefficients estimated weekly fr om SLR & DORIS processing to 10 satellites from 1993-2012. This exper imental tvg4x4 model has been shown to improve the TOPEX, Jason-1, and Jason-2 altimeter satellite orbits,. In this paper we apply the more detailed time-variable gravity modeling to the SLR satellite POD pro cessing and subsequent reference frame analyses. For this study we will evaluate the orbit differences (periodic and secular) for the satel lites concerned, characterize the impact on the station coordinate solutions, and the impact on reference frame parameters (geocenter and s cale).

  9. Evaluating the Human Damage of Tsunami at Each Time Frame in Aggregate Units Based on GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Akiyama, Y.; Kanasugi, H.; Shibasaki, R.; Kaneda, H.

    2016-06-01

    Assessments of the human damage caused by the tsunami are required in order to consider disaster prevention at such a regional level. Hence, there is an increasing need for the assessments of human damage caused by earthquakes. However, damage assessments in japan currently usually rely on static population distribution data, such as statistical night time population data obtained from national census surveys. Therefore, human damage estimation that take into consideration time frames have not been assessed yet. With these backgrounds, the objectives of this study are: to develop a method for estimating the population distribution of the for each time frame, based on location positioning data observed with mass GPS loggers of mobile phones, to use a evacuation and casualties models for evaluating human damage due to the tsunami, and evaluate each time frame by using the data developed in the first objective, and 3) to discuss the factors which cause the differences in human damage for each time frame. By visualizing the results, we clarified the differences in damage depending on time frame, day and area. As this study enables us to assess damage for any time frame in and high resolution, it will be useful to consider provision for various situations when an earthquake may hit, such as during commuting hours or working hours and week day or holiday.

  10. Side oblique real-time orthophotography with the 9Kx9K digital framing camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, Brian A.

    2003-08-01

    BAE SYSTEMS has reported on a new framing camera incorporating an ultra high resolution CCD detector array comprised of 9,216 x 9,216 pixels fabricated on one silicon wafer. The detector array features a 1:2 frame-per-second readout capable of stereo imagery with Nyquist resolution of 57 lp/mm from high velocity, low altitude (V/H) airborne platforms. Flight tests demonstrated the capability of the focal plane electronics for differential image motion compensation (IMC) with Nyquist performance utilizing a focal plane shutter (FPS) to enable both nadir and significant side and forward oblique imaging angles. The impact of FPS for differential image motion compensation is evaluated with the exterior orientation calibration parameters, which include the existing shutter velocity and flight dynamics from sample mapping applications. System requirements for GPS/INS are included with the effect of vertical error and side oblique angle impact of the digital elevation map (DEM) required to create the orthophoto. Results from the differentiated "collinearity equations" which relate the image coordinates to elements of interior and exterior orientation are combined with the DEM impact to provide useful guidelines for side oblique applications. The application of real-time orthophotography is described with the implications for system requirements for side oblique orthophoto capability.

  11. Real-time 3D ultrasound fetal image enhancment techniques using motion-compensated frame rate up-conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gun-Ill; Park, Rae-Hong; Song, Young-Seuk; Kim, Cheol-An; Hwang, Jae-Sub

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we present a motion compensated frame rate up-conversion method for real-time three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound fetal image enhancement. The conventional mechanical scan method with one-dimensional (1-D) array converters used for 3-D volume data acquisition has a slow frame rate of multi-planar images. This drawback is not an issue for stationary objects, however in ultrasound images showing a fetus of more than about 25 weeks, we perceive abrupt changes due to fast motions. To compensate for this defect, we propose the frame rate up-conversion method by which new interpolated frames are inserted between two input frames, giving smooth renditions to human eyes. More natural motions can be obtained by frame rate up-conversion. In the proposed algorithm, we employ forward motion estimation (ME), in which motion vectors (MVs) ar estimated using a block matching algorithm (BMA). To smooth MVs over neighboring blocks, vector median filtering is performed. Using these smoothed MVs, interpolated frames are reconstructed by motion compensation (MC). The undesirable blocking artifacts due to blockwise processing are reduced by block boundary filtering using a Gaussian low pass filter (LPF). The proposed method can be used in computer aided diagnosis (CAD), where more natural 3-D ultrasound images are displayed in real-time. Simulation results with several real test sequences show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Dynamics of supersonic microparticle impact on elastomers revealed by real-time multi-frame imaging.

    PubMed

    Veysset, David; Hsieh, Alex J; Kooi, Steven; Maznev, Alexei A; Masser, Kevin A; Nelson, Keith A

    2016-05-09

    Understanding high-velocity microparticle impact is essential for many fields, from space exploration to medicine and biology. Investigations of microscale impact have hitherto been limited to post-mortem analysis of impacted specimens, which does not provide direct information on the impact dynamics. Here we report real-time multi-frame imaging studies of the impact of 7 μm diameter glass spheres traveling at 700-900 m/s on elastomer polymers. With a poly(urethane urea) (PUU) sample, we observe a hyperelastic impact phenomenon not seen on the macroscale: a microsphere undergoes a full conformal penetration into the specimen followed by a rebound which leaves the specimen unscathed. The results challenge the established interpretation of the behaviour of elastomers under high-velocity impact.

  13. Dynamics of supersonic microparticle impact on elastomers revealed by real–time multi–frame imaging

    PubMed Central

    Veysset, David; Hsieh, Alex J.; Kooi, Steven; Maznev, Alexei A.; Masser, Kevin A.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding high–velocity microparticle impact is essential for many fields, from space exploration to medicine and biology. Investigations of microscale impact have hitherto been limited to post–mortem analysis of impacted specimens, which does not provide direct information on the impact dynamics. Here we report real–time multi–frame imaging studies of the impact of 7 μm diameter glass spheres traveling at 700–900 m/s on elastomer polymers. With a poly(urethane urea) (PUU) sample, we observe a hyperelastic impact phenomenon not seen on the macroscale: a microsphere undergoes a full conformal penetration into the specimen followed by a rebound which leaves the specimen unscathed. The results challenge the established interpretation of the behaviour of elastomers under high–velocity impact. PMID:27156501

  14. Dynamics of supersonic microparticle impact on elastomers revealed by real–time multi–frame imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veysset, David; Hsieh, Alex J.; Kooi, Steven; Maznev, Alexei A.; Masser, Kevin A.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding high–velocity microparticle impact is essential for many fields, from space exploration to medicine and biology. Investigations of microscale impact have hitherto been limited to post–mortem analysis of impacted specimens, which does not provide direct information on the impact dynamics. Here we report real–time multi–frame imaging studies of the impact of 7 μm diameter glass spheres traveling at 700–900 m/s on elastomer polymers. With a poly(urethane urea) (PUU) sample, we observe a hyperelastic impact phenomenon not seen on the macroscale: a microsphere undergoes a full conformal penetration into the specimen followed by a rebound which leaves the specimen unscathed. The results challenge the established interpretation of the behaviour of elastomers under high–velocity impact.

  15. Real-time volumetric lipid imaging in vivo by intravascular photoacoustics at 20 frames per second

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Springeling, Geert; Lovrak, Matija; Mastik, Frits; Iskander-Rizk, Sophinese; Wang, Tianshi; van Beusekom, Heleen M. M.; van der Steen, A. F. W.; Van Soest, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    Lipid deposition can be assessed with combined intravascular photoacoustic/ultrasound (IVPA/US) imaging. To date, the clinical translation of IVPA/US imaging has been stalled by a low imaging speed and catheter complexity. In this paper, we demonstrate imaging of lipid targets in swine coronary arteries in vivo, at a clinically useful frame rate of 20 s−1. We confirmed image contrast for atherosclerotic plaque in human samples ex vivo. The system is on a mobile platform and provides real-time data visualization during acquisition. We achieved an IVPA signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB. These data show that clinical translation of IVPA is possible in principle. PMID:28270995

  16. Full-Field Spectroscopy at Megahertz-frame-rates: Application of Coherent Time-Stretch Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Peter Thomas Setsuda

    Outliers or rogue events are found extensively in our world and have incredible effects. Also called rare events, they arise in the distribution of wealth (e.g., Pareto index), finance, network traffic, ocean waves, and e-commerce (selling less of more). Interest in rare optical events exploded after the sighting of optical rogue waves in laboratory experiments at UCLA. Detecting such tail events in fast streams of information necessitates real-time measurements. The Coherent Time-Stretch Transform chirps a pulsed source of radiation so that its temporal envelope matches its spectral profile (analogous to the far field regime of spatial diffraction), and the mapped spectral electric field is slow enough to be captured by a real-time digitizer. Combining this technique with spectral encoding, the time stretch technique has enabled a new class of ultra-high performance spectrometers and cameras (30+ MHz), and analog-to-digital converters that have led to the discovery of optical rogue waves and detection of cancer cells in blood with one in a million sensitivity. Conventionally, the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform maps the spectrum into the temporal electric field, but the time-dilation process along with inherent fiber losses results in reduction of peak power and loss of sensitivity, a problem exacerbated by extremely narrow molecular linewidths. The loss issue notwithstanding, in many cases the requisite dispersive optical device is not available. By extending the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform to the temporal near field, I have demonstrated, for the first time, phase-sensitive absorption spectroscopy of a gaseous sample at millions of frames per second. As the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform may capture both near and far field optical waves, it is a complete spectro-temporal optical characterization tool. This is manifested as an amplitude-dependent chirp, which implies the ability to measure the complex refractive index dispersion at megahertz frame rates. This

  17. Time-resolved measurement technique for pulsed electron beam envelope basing on framing and streaking principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Guo; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Huang; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The time-resolved electron beam envelope parameters, including cross sectional distribution and beam centroid position, are very important for the study of beam transmission characteristics in a magnetic field and for verifying the rationality of the magnetic field parameters employed. One kind of high time-resolved beam envelope measurement system has recently been developed, constituted of a high-speed framing camera and a streak camera. It can obtain three panoramic images of the beam and time continuous information along the given beam profile simultaneously. Recently obtained data has proved that several fast vibrations of the beam envelope along the diameter direction occur during the front and the tail parts of the electron beam. The vibration period is several nanoseconds. The effect of magnetic field on the electron beam is also observed and verified. Beam debugging experiments have proved that the existing beam transmission design is reasonable and viable. This beam envelope measurement system will establish a good foundation for beam physics research. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10675104, 11375162)

  18. TACImager: a high frame rate 320 x 256 SPAD time to amplitude converter array with adjustable time zoom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Neil; Parmesan, Luca; Dutton, Neale A. W.; Calder, Neil J.; Henderson, Robert K.

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) in the form of high-resolution imaging pixel arrays are used in 3D cameras, motion-tracking, biomedical and time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) applications. Rapid spatial and temporal zoom onto objects of interest is an attractive feature. We present here novel high-speed time-zoom functionality achieved with the digital readout mode of the TACImager, a 256 x 256 TCSPC image sensor array based on sample and hold Time to Amplitude Converter (TAC) pixels. A column-parallel flash Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC) is implemented in the TACImager to support fast digital readout, allowing per-pixel, 3-bin TCSPC histogramming at frame rates of 4 kfps. New results related to this high-speed mode of operation are presented. The TACImager utilises a global ramp voltage as a timing reference, allowing time-zoom to be achieved through dynamic adjustment of comparator voltages, ramp offset voltages and ramp waveforms. We demonstrate the influence of fixed pattern noise in the pixels and column parallel ADCs on the results.

  19. Real time measurement for deformation of large expansion frame based on retro-reflective technique and vision method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wei; Jiang, Kai; Zhao, Hui

    2015-02-01

    Large frames made of compound material are widely used in many areas such as industry and aerospace. To ensure the frames working properly, monitor of its deformation after expansion is of great importance. A real time measurement system based on retro-reflective technique and vision method is proposed. Several round retro-reflective marks are placed on some defined positions of the frame as mark points which can precisely describe the shape of the frame. The marks are illuminated by laser beams and the image of the marks is captured by a camera. The positions of the marks on the camera are determined by designed image process program. Experimental results show that the whole process can be finished within 0.1 second. The designed system can measure the deformation of up to 50mm and the accuracy of the measurement is better than 0.02 mm.

  20. Dependence of dietary intake estimates on the time frame of assessment.

    PubMed

    Löwik, M R; Hulshof, K F; Brussaard, J H; Kistemaker, C

    1999-10-01

    Food chemical risk management needs, among other things, assessment of exposure. For dietary intake food consumption surveys are the data source to be used. One complicating factor in the usage of these data is the dependence of dietary intake estimates on the time frame of assessment. Central to this time dependence is the within-subject variation regarding the usage of food products and, as a consequence, the intake of chemicals. Within-subject variation is mostly as large as or larger than between-subject variation. Expressed per kilogram body weight, average (total) variation in intake variables depends on the age group, with variation usually being greater at younger age, most likely as a result of the higher intake levels at that age. Combination of age groups results in an increase in between-subject variation, and correction based on the figures for the total population will be too small. Ideally, exposure data for all days of one's life should be available to assess lifetime exposure. Since information on all these days is not an attainable and practical option, and not an option to strive for either, the most recent available data should be used that can be extended with simulation studies to anticipate future developments. The present food consumption surveys available in European countries are based on data that vary from 1 day (24-h recall and dietary record) to habitual intake (dietary history and food frequency). The data of a survey based on 1 day refer to 0.004% of an average lifetime of 70 years. Based on the demographic picture of the population, a reasonable approximation of lifetime intake can be obtained. The proportion of users and the consumption level among users depend on the time frame of assessment, especially for irregularly consumed products. Usage of the concept of "users only" overestimates lifetime exposure of the population, the extent of overestimation depending on the duration of the survey. The likelihood that all consumers have

  1. Possible overlapping time frames of acquisition and consolidation phases in object memory processes: a pharmacological approach

    PubMed Central

    Akkerman, Sven; Blokland, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) are able to improve object memory by enhancing acquisition processes. On the other hand, only PDE-Is improve consolidation processes. Here we show that the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil also improves memory performance when administered within 2 min after the acquisition trial. Likewise, both PDE5-I and PDE4-I reversed the scopolamine deficit model when administered within 2 min after the learning trial. PDE5-I was effective up to 45 min after the acquisition trial and PDE4-I was effective when administered between 3 and 5.5 h after the acquisition trial. Taken together, our study suggests that acetylcholine, cGMP, and cAMP are all involved in acquisition processes and that cGMP and cAMP are also involved in early and late consolidation processes, respectively. Most important, these pharmacological studies suggest that acquisition processes continue for some time after the learning trial where they share a short common time frame with early consolidation processes. Additional brain concentration measurements of the drugs suggest that these acquisition processes can continue up to 4–6 min after learning. PMID:26670184

  2. Time-Resolved Molecular Frame Dynamics of Fixed-in-Space CS2 Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bisgaard, Christer; Clarkin, Owen; Wu, Guorong; Lee, Anthony; Gessner, Oliver; Hayden, Carl; Stolow, Albert

    2009-04-02

    Random orientation of molecules within a sample leads to blurred observationsof chemical reactions studied from the laboratory perspective. Methodsdeveloped for the dynamic imaging of molecular structures and processesstruggle with this, as measurements are optimally made in the molecular frame.Here we uselaser alignment to transiently fix CS2 molecules in space longenough to elucidate, in the molecular reference frame, details of ultrafast electronic vibrationaldynamics during a photochemical reaction. These three-dimensional photoelectron imaging results, combined with ongoing efforts in molecular alignment and orientation, presage a wide range of insights obtainable fromtime-resolved studies in the molecular frame.

  3. Frame-Transfer Gating Raman Spectroscopy for Time-Resolved Multiscalar Combustion Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Fischer, David G.; Kojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Accurate experimental measurement of spatially and temporally resolved variations in chemical composition (species concentrations) and temperature in turbulent flames is vital for characterizing the complex phenomena occurring in most practical combustion systems. These diagnostic measurements are called multiscalar because they are capable of acquiring multiple scalar quantities simultaneously. Multiscalar diagnostics also play a critical role in the area of computational code validation. In order to improve the design of combustion devices, computational codes for modeling turbulent combustion are often used to speed up and optimize the development process. The experimental validation of these codes is a critical step in accepting their predictions for engine performance in the absence of cost-prohibitive testing. One of the most critical aspects of setting up a time-resolved stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) diagnostic system is the temporal optical gating scheme. A short optical gate is necessary in order for weak SRS signals to be detected with a good signal- to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of strong background optical emissions. This time-synchronized optical gating is a classical problem even to other spectroscopic techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Traditionally, experimenters have had basically two options for gating: (1) an electronic means of gating using an image intensifier before the charge-coupled-device (CCD), or (2) a mechanical optical shutter (a rotary chopper/mechanical shutter combination). A new diagnostic technology has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center that utilizes a frame-transfer CCD sensor, in conjunction with a pulsed laser and multiplex optical fiber collection, to realize time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of turbulent flames that is free from optical background noise (interference). The technology permits not only shorter temporal optical gating (down

  4. The IAU2000 Standards: The Newly Adopted Time, Coordinates, and Reference Frames.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standish, E. M.

    2003-08-01

    Over the past dozen years or so, the IAU has been deluged with resolutions from Division I (Fundamental Astronomy) regarding dynamics, reference frames, fundamental time-scales, earth orientation, etc. Some of the resolutions are merely cosmetic in nature, detailing the basic foundations which have been used by serious researchers for many years. Some of the other resolutions, however, will have a direct affect upon a number of different fields of study. Sooner or later, these changes will actually be implemented, and they will affect anyone doing precision-type work in astronomy, geophysics, and related fields. As with most changes, there are pros and cons; these will be discussed. On a more practical level, the following questions will be addressed: What major areas of astrometry will be affected? What specific items will change? What does one need to know in order to survive the changes? What does one have to do in order to not be adversely affected? The research described in this publication was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Optical cell tracking analysis using a straight-forward approach to minimize processing time for high frame rate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeto, Wen Jun; Lipke, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-03-01

    Tracking of rolling cells via in vitro experiment is now commonly performed using customized computer programs. In most cases, two critical challenges continue to limit analysis of cell rolling data: long computation times due to the complexity of tracking algorithms and difficulty in accurately correlating a given cell with itself from one frame to the next, which is typically due to errors caused by cells that either come close in proximity to each other or come in contact with each other. In this paper, we have developed a sophisticated, yet simple and highly effective, rolling cell tracking system to address these two critical problems. This optical cell tracking analysis (OCTA) system first employs ImageJ for cell identification in each frame of a cell rolling video. A custom MATLAB code was written to use the geometric and positional information of all cells as the primary parameters for matching each individual cell with itself between consecutive frames and to avoid errors when tracking cells that come within close proximity to one another. Once the cells are matched, rolling velocity can be obtained for further analysis. The use of ImageJ for cell identification eliminates the need for high level MATLAB image processing knowledge. As a result, only fundamental MATLAB syntax is necessary for cell matching. OCTA has been implemented in the tracking of endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) rolling under shear. The processing time needed to obtain tracked cell data from a 2 min ECFC rolling video recorded at 70 frames per second with a total of over 8000 frames is less than 6 min using a computer with an Intel® Core™ i7 CPU 2.80 GHz (8 CPUs). This cell tracking system benefits cell rolling analysis by substantially reducing the time required for post-acquisition data processing of high frame rate video recordings and preventing tracking errors when individual cells come in close proximity to one another.

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS FOR FEEDING HOT MEALS TO THE ARMY IN THE FIELD DURING 1975-1990 TIME FRAME.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An analysis was conducted of a large number of potential systems for feeding hot meals to the Army in the field during the 1975-1990 time frame...system of company level feeding . An analysis of alternative mixed systems (company level and higher) is also made indicating greater potential for food

  7. Frame of Reference Rater Training Issues: Recall, Time and Behavior Observation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roch, Sylvia G.; O'Sullivan, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Graduate students were trained as raters either using frame of reference (FOR, n=220, behavior observation training (BOT, n=21), or performance appraisal (controls, n=21). They rated videotaped lecturers twice. FOR increased number of behaviors recalled; FOR and BOT improved recall quality. FOR improved rating accuracy even after 2 weeks.…

  8. Transformation from proper time on earth to coordinate time in solar system barycentric space-time frame of reference. I. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that in order to obtain accurate computed values of earth-based range and Doppler observables of a deep space probe, an expression is required for the difference between coordinate time (t) in the solar system barycentric space-time frame of reference and proper time (tau) recorded on a fixed atomic clock on earth. This is part 1 of a two-part article which obtains an expression for the coordinate time/proper time difference that can be used in deriving computed values of observations of a spacecraft or celestial body located anywhere in the solar system. The expression can also be used in computing Very Long Baseline Interferometry data types. In part 1, expression for the coordinate time/proper time difference is obtained that is a function of position and velocity vectors of the major celestial bodies of the solar system and the atomic clock on earth which reads proper time. This expression is transformed in part 2 to a function of time and the earth-fixed coordinates of the atomic clock.

  9. MOSFET solid state switching circuit improves the 0 to 99% rise time for framing camera deflection electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, A.T.; Thomas, S.

    1996-09-01

    We have improved the 0 to 99% rise time voltage on our 2 frame deflection plates from 160 to 65 nS with the addition of a peaking circuit that works in conjunction with our primary 2 frame deflection circuitry. Our peaking technique has applications to other HV pulsers including those which must drive 51 ohm loads. Generally, rise time voltages are measured between 10 and 90%. To minimize the camera image blur resulting from the dynamic influence of deflection plate potentials acting on photocathode electrons, it was necessary to design a circuit that would rise from 0 to the 99% voltage level in under 100nS. Once this voltage was reached, it was necessary to stay within 1% of the attained voltage level for a duration of 1 uS. This was accomplished with the use of MOSFET solid state switching.

  10. Environmentally defined frames of reference: their time course and sensitivity to spatial cues and attention.

    PubMed

    Danziger, S; Kingstone, A; Ward, R

    2001-04-01

    In a Simon task the effects of spatial cues and attention on spatial stimulus coding were explored. Participants made speeded responses corresponding to the direction of target arrows that were preceded by peripherally presented cues. Cue validity varied across experiments as did the percentage of trials on which the target appeared peripherally or centrally. The data indicate (a) that targets are coded relative to multiple reference frames, (b) that spatial coding of a target is not affected when attention is shifted to the target, and (c) that an object serves as a referent for spatial coding of other objects even after its spatial code no longer activates responses.

  11. The development of a 7-day community specialist palliative care service.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    The author worked as a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in community palliative care in the Central Lancashire area of England when the CNS service was extended to a 9am-to-5pm 7-day service. A project group was set up to canvas some of the key stakeholders for their views on the extension of the service. The group undertook a literature search, a telephone survey of services in other areas that were providing this level of service, and interviews to ascertain the views of district nurses in the locality of the proposed service extension. The extension of service has long been advocated and was one of the key recommendations in the UK Department of Health's peer-review process. Such an extension was implemented following the research phase and was then evaluated by the project lead and the community services manager. The extension was found to be effective in the ongoing monitoring and support of patients. Anecdotally, the CNS team also felt it had been proactive in preventing unnecessary hospital admissions, although this specific aspect is difficult to quantify. This article looks at how the service was developed, how it has evolved over time, and how it works today. Consideration is also given to benefits and limitations.

  12. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.975 - What happens if the property is not conveyed or disposed of during this time frame?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if the property is not conveyed or disposed of during this time frame? 102-75.975 Section 102-75.975 Public... this time frame? If the property is not transferred to a Federal agency or disposed of during the...

  14. Automating Frame Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Franklin, Lyndsey; Tratz, Stephen C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Mileson, Nicholas D.; Riensche, Roderick M.; McGrath, Liam

    2008-04-01

    Frame Analysis has come to play an increasingly stronger role in the study of social movements in Sociology and Political Science. While significant steps have been made in providing a theory of frames and framing, a systematic characterization of the frame concept is still largely lacking and there are no rec-ognized criteria and methods that can be used to identify and marshal frame evi-dence reliably and in a time and cost effective manner. Consequently, current Frame Analysis work is still too reliant on manual annotation and subjective inter-pretation. The goal of this paper is to present an approach to the representation, acquisition and analysis of frame evidence which leverages Content Analysis, In-formation Extraction and Semantic Search methods to provide a systematic treat-ment of a Frame Analysis and automate frame annotation.

  15. Visually Lossless Data Compression for Real-Time Frame/Pushbroom Space Science Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Venbrux, Jack; Bhatia, Prakash; Miller, Warner H.

    2000-01-01

    A visually lossless data compression technique is currently being developed for space science applications under the requirement of high-speed push-broom scanning. The technique is also applicable to frame based imaging and is error-resilient in that error propagation is contained within a few scan lines. The algorithm is based on a block transform of a hybrid of modulated lapped transform (MLT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT), or a 2-dimensional lapped transform, followed by bit-plane encoding; this combination results in an embedded bit string with exactly the desirable compression rate as desired by the user. The approach requires no unique table to maximize its performance. The compression scheme performs well on a suite of test images typical of images from spacecraft instruments. Flight qualified hardware implementations are in development; a functional chip set is expected by the end of 2001. The chip set is being designed to compress data in excess of 20 Msamples/sec and support quantizations from 2 to 16 bits.

  16. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200b-7 Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  17. Gain versus loss framing in adherence-promoting communication targeting patients with chronic diseases: the moderating effect of individual time perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Villagran, Melinda M; Kreps, Gary L; McHorney, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the joint effect of message framing and time perspective in adherence-promoting communication targeting patients with chronic diseases. Based on previous framing and time perspective research, it was hypothesized that the gain frame would show an advantage over the loss frame among future-oriented patients; for present-oriented patients, it was hypothesized that the framing effect would be relatively indistinct. In total, 1,108 currently nonadherent patients with chronic disease participated in an experiment where they were randomly assigned to either gain- or loss-framed messages addressing key beliefs underlying their nonadherence or a no-message control condition. Intention and attitude regarding future adherence as well as message perceptions were measured after message presentation. Results of this study generally supported the hypotheses. Message topics-whether the messages addressed patients' perceived need for medications or concerns about side effects-did not moderate the effect of framing or the interaction between framing and time perspective. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. Real-Time Frame Selector and its Application to Observations of the Horizontal Velocity Field in the Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitai, Reizaburo; Funakoshi, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Satoru; Ichimoto, Shusaku Sano Kiyoshi

    1997-08-01

    A real-time frame selector (RTFS), a new observational system, was developed at the Domeless Solar Telescope of Hida Observatory, Kyoto University. Our RTFS allows us to automatically select out a video frame with the highest spatial resolution in a series of live video images during a prescribed time span, and stores the selected one in digital format to a hard disk file. We applied the RTFS to observations of solar granulation in the G-band wavelength (lambda 4308 { Angstroms}, passband 20 { Angstroms}) and obtained a time series of data with a step of 15 seconds. By the method of local-correlation tracking, we derived the horizontal velocity field with the granulation pattern as tracers. In a quiet photosphere, we found the so-called mesogranulation flow field, clearly. Supergranular flow patterns were also detected and identified from a comparison with an Hα wing image. On the other hand, in a sunspot area, we found new evidence of horizontal inflow from penumbral areas to umbral areas as well as the presence of another circumferential inflow from the surrounding photosphere to the penumbral outer edge.

  19. Timing Activities at INRIM in the Frame of the Galileo Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    RESEARCH On 1 January 2006, the Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale “Galileo Ferraris” (IEN) and the Istituto di Metrologia Gustavo Colonnetti...Hahn, 2008, “GNSS Interoperability: Offset between reference Time Scales and Timing Biases,” Metrologia , 45, 87-102. [13] R. Zanello, M...transfer to TAI using geodetic receivers,” Metrologia , 40, 184-188. 40th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 656 [17] L. Galleani

  20. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flows in the Hudson River basin, New York, with release-flow data on Rondout and Ashokan reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow at 67 gaging stations and 173 partial-record stations in the Hudson River basin are given in tabular form. Variation of the 7-day, 10-year low flow from point to point in selected reaches, and the corresponding times of travel, are shown graphically for Wawayanda Creek, Wallkill River, Woodbury-Moodna Creek, and the Fishkill Creek basins. The 7-day, 10-year low flow for the Saw Kill basin, and estimates of the 7-day, 10-year low flow of the Roeliff Jansen Kill at Ancram and of Birch Creek at Pine Hill, are given. Summaries of discharge from Rondout and Ashokan Reservoirs, in Ulster County, are also included. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow for gaging stations with 10 years or more of record were determined by log-Pearson Type III computation; those for partial-record stations were developed by correlation of discharge measurements made at the partial-record stations with discharge data from appropriate long-term gaging stations. The variation in low flows from point to point within the selected subbasins were estimated from available data and regional regression formula. Time of travel at these flows in the four subbasins was estimated from available data and Boning's equations.

  1. Framing Health Messages for Adolescents: Should We Use Objective Time Periods, Temporal Benchmarks, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Goudie, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Time perspective is a cognitive-motivational construct, which has been shown to be related to decision-making, motivation and adjustment. The majority of research into time perspective has been conducted in college students and/or general population samples. Focus groups were held as part of a larger investigation into the relationship between…

  2. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  3. Analyzing Drought From Paleo-Reconstructions Of 7-Day Low Flow In The Hudson River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, M. R.; Cook, E.; Gelman, A.; Lall, U.

    2002-12-01

    The annual 7-day low flow in a stream is a measure of the dry season conditions in a stream. Consequently, it is a useful indicator for multi-year droughts. Here, we first present the application of a Generalized Linear Model in a Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling Framework for reconstructing the annual 7-day low flow series at 5 locations in the Hudson River Basin using 11 regional tree ring chronologies. This technique directly provides estimates of the posterior probability distribution of each reconstructed streamflow value, considering model parameter uncertainty. Given these reconstructions, we examine the frequency and recurrence attributes of extreme droughts in the region and their potential connections to known low frequency climate modes.

  4. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) 7-day survival and growth test method.

    PubMed

    Lazorchak, James M; Smith, Mark E

    2007-10-01

    A short-term method was developed in this study for conducting subchronic survival and growth renewal toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Previously published early life-stage methods for various salmonid species involve test durations of 30 to 90 days. This trout method, however, follows a previously published 7-day fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) growth method. The tests performed in this study measured subchronic growth and survival effects using standard reference toxicants (ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, phenol, and zinc sulfate), receiving water, and effluent samples. The test results were compared with performance criteria and results for 7-day survival and growth tests with P. promelas to determine the level of comparability between the two species. The results from tests with both salmonid species indicated that this 7-day survival and growth test method using O. mykiss and S. fontinalis provides reproducible results with various reference toxicant materials and can be used successfully to detect potential toxicity in environmental samples.

  5. Time-Dependent Selection of an Optimal Set of Sources to Define a Stable Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Bail, Karine; Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    Temporal statistical position stability is required for VLBI sources to define a stable Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) and has been studied in many recent papers. This study analyzes the sources from the latest realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) with the Allan variance, in addition to taking into account the apparent linear motions of the sources. Focusing on the 295 defining sources shows how they are a good compromise of different criteria, such as statistical stability and sky distribution, as well as having a sufficient number of sources, despite the fact that the most stable sources of the entire ICRF2 are mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Nevertheless, the selection of a stable set is not unique: studying different solutions (GSF005a and AUG24 from GSFC and OPA from the Paris Observatory) over different time periods (1989.5 to 2009.5 and 1999.5 to 2009.5) leads to selections that can differ in up to 20% of the sources. Observing, recording, and network improvement are some of the causes, showing better stability for the CRF over the last decade than the last twenty years. But this may also be explained by the assumption of stationarity that is not necessarily right for some sources.

  6. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics I. CW Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Tyle; Harter, William

    2015-05-01

    Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. We first ask, ``What is the simplest molecule?'' Hydrogen H2 is the simplest stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-) -pair. An even simpler ``molecule'' or ``radical'' is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-) -pair. To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c = 299,792,458 m/s by proving ``Evenson's Axiom'' named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology.

  7. Molecular evidence from the nuclear genome for the time frame of human evolution.

    PubMed

    Easteal, S; Herbert, G

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary divergence times can be inferred from molecular distances if a molecular clock can be assumed and if the substitution rate can be estimated. We present new evidence from relative rate tests that the rate of substitution at fourfold degenerate sites of nuclear genome-coding DNA is uniform in primate and rodent lineages. We also review recent relative rate test results showing substitution rate uniformity in the nuclear genome of simian primates. DNA distances between a range of mammalian taxa shows that a molecular clock is inconsistent with many assumed divergence times irrespective of the assumed substitution rate. We find that the substitution rate that implies the best compromise fit with divergence times across the range of taxa is 2.0-2.25 x 10(-9). This range of substitution rates implies a divergence time of humans and chimpanzees of 4.0-3.6 million years ago. This postdates the occurrence of Ardipithecus ramidus and the earliest occurrence of Australopithecus afarensis, suggesting that the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees was bipedal and that the trait has been lost in chimpanzees rather than gained in humans.

  8. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  9. An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, Addison

    1990-01-01

    The results of government study of long range liquid hydrogen (LH2) requirements for the time period of 1995 through the year 2005 are presented. To assure an adequate supply of LH2 is available in support of various programs, it is imperative a long range projection of LH2 requirements be developed and maintained. This information is vital in planning for necessary procurement actions and assuring adequate industry lead time to acquiring the necessary production and distribution capabilities. The Advanced Launch System and High-Altitude Long-Endurance programs may represent the predominant government needs for LH2 in the long range. The assembled data clearly indicates a need for KSC (Kennedy Space Center) constant program/project surveillance. Also clear is the need for KSC to monitor industry's plans for LH2 plant production and distribution expansion.

  10. Graphics processing unit accelerated intensity-based optical coherence tomography angiography using differential frames with real-time motion correction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Takahashi, Yuhei; Numazawa, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate intensity-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography using the squared difference of two sequential frames with bulk-tissue-motion (BTM) correction. This motion correction was performed by minimization of the sum of the pixel values using axial- and lateral-pixel-shifted structural OCT images. We extract the BTM-corrected image from a total of 25 calculated OCT angiographic images. Image processing was accelerated by a graphics processing unit (GPU) with many stream processors to optimize the parallel processing procedure. The GPU processing rate was faster than that of a line scan camera (46.9 kHz). Our OCT system provides the means of displaying structural OCT images and BTM-corrected OCT angiographic images in real time.

  11. Measurement of heating laser injection time to imploded core plasma by using x-ray framing camera

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, Mayuko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Sakaiya, Tatsuhiro; Lee, Myongdok; Shigemori, Keisuke; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2008-10-15

    A simultaneous measurement of imploded core plasma and injection time of heating laser is conducted by using an x-ray framing camera (XFC). The experiments are performed using Gekko XII laser system for implosion of the deuterated polystyrene (CD) plastic shell target and Peta Watt (PW) laser system for heating. The time of PW laser injection is observed as the bright zone in the XFC image. The measured x-ray intensity profiles fit the Gaussian profiles well. The calculations of microchannel plate by using dynode model explain these broadened temporal profiles qualitatively. The peak position of fitted x-ray intensity profile is almost in agreement with the time when the high energy x ray is observed by x-ray streak camera. Moreover, the peak position is delayed corresponding to the delayed setting of PW laser injection time. From these results, it is concluded that we can estimate the heating laser injection time with resolution of the order of 10 ps by using XFC.

  12. The 2-MEV model: Constancy of adolescent environmental values within an 8-year time frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, F. X.; Johnson, B.; Buxner, S.; Felix, L.

    2015-08-01

    The 2-MEV model is a widely used tool to monitor children's environmental perception by scoring individual values. Although the scale's validity has been confirmed repeatedly and independently as well as the scale is in usage within more than two dozen language units all over the world, longitudinal properties still need clarification. The purpose of the present study therefore was to validate the 2-MEV scale based on a large data basis of 10,676 children collected over an eight-year period. Cohorts of three different US states contributed to the sample by responding to a paper-and-pencil questionnaire within their pre-test initiatives in the context of field center programs. Since we used only the pre-program 2-MEV scale results (which is before participation in education programs), the data were clearly unspoiled by any follow-up interventions. The purpose of analysis was fourfold: First, to test and confirm the hypothesized factorized structure for the large data set and for the subsample of each of the three states. Second, to analyze the scoring pattern across the eight years' time range for both preservation and utilitarian preferences. Third, to investigate any age effects in the extracted factors. Finally, to extract suitable recommendations for educational implementation efforts.

  13. Different molecular motions in lyophilized protein formulations as determined by laboratory and rotating frame spin-lattice relaxation times.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Sumie; Aso, Yukio; Kojima, Shigeo

    2002-10-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation times in the laboratory and rotating frame (T(1) and T(1rho)) of protons and carbons in lyophilized bovine serum gamma-globulin formulation containing dextran were determined by (1)H solid-state pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution (13)C solid-state NMR. The temperature dependence of T(1) and T(1rho) of dextran protons in the lyophilized formulation suggests that the correlation time, tau(c), of the methylene protons in dextran is approximately 10(-6) s at -100 degrees C and 60% relative humidity, and decreases to 10(-7) s at 0 degrees C. When temperature is increased from 0 degrees C, the increased motion of the methylene groups is reflected in T(1), but is too fast to be observed by changes in T(1rho). Thus, the motion of the methine groups rather than the methylene groups begins to be reflected in T(1rho). The correlation time of the methine protons as determined by T(1rho) was of the same order as that of the methine carbons as determined by T(1rho). As the temperature is increased past the glass/rubber transition temperature, both the methylene and methine motions are greatly enhanced, resulting in much shorter T(1) and T(1rho) relaxation times.

  14. Moving Forward in Space and Time: How Strong is the Conceptual Link between Spatial and Temporal Frames of Reference?

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Rothe-Wulf, Annelie; Hüther, Lisa; Beller, Sieghard

    2012-01-01

    People often use spatial vocabulary to describe temporal relations, and this increasingly has motivated attempts to map spatial frames of reference (FoRs) onto time. Recent research suggested that speech communities, which differ in how they conceptualize space, may also differ in how they conceptualize time and, more specifically, that the preferences for spatial FoRs should carry over to the domain of time. Here, we scrutinize this assumption (a) by reviewing data from recent studies on temporal references, (b) by comparing data we had collected in previous studies on preferences for spatial and temporal FoRs in four languages, (c) by analyzing new data from dynamic spatial tasks that resemble the temporal tasks more closely, and (d) by assessing the co-variation of individual preferences of English speakers across space and time. While the first set of data paints a mixed picture, the latter three do not support the assumption of a close link between referencing preferences across domains. We explore possible reasons for this lack of consistency and discuss implications for research on temporal references. PMID:23162519

  15. Eccentric and concentric muscle performance following 7 days of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.; Roper, Mary L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Mcbrine, John J.; Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle strength occur in response to chronic disuse or insufficient functional loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle performance of the lower extremity and torso prior to and immediately after 7 days of simulated weightlessness (horizontal bed rest). A Biodex was used to determine concentric and eccentric peak torque and angle at peak torque for the back, abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring, soleus, and tibialis anterior. A reference angle of 0 degrees was set at full extension. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

  16. Real-time MRI of the temporomandibular joint at 15 frames per second-A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Sebastian; Gersdorff, Nikolaus; Wassmann, Torsten; Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar; Joseph, Arun A; Buergers, Ralf; Frahm, Jens

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel method for real-time MRI of TMJ function at high temporal resolution and with two different contrasts. Real-time MRI was based on undersampled radial fast low angle shot (FLASH) acquisitions with iterative image reconstruction by regularized nonlinear inversion. Real-time MRI movies with T1 contrast were obtained with use of a radiofrequency-spoiled FLASH sequence, while movies with T2/T1 contrast employed a gradient-refocused FLASH version. TMJ function was characterized in 40 randomly selected volunteers by sequential 20s acquisitions of both the right and left joint during voluntary opening and closing of the mouth (in a medial, central and lateral oblique sagittal section perpendicular to the long axis of the condylar head). All studies were performed on a commercial MRI system at 3T using the standard head coil, while online reconstruction was achieved with a bypass computer fully integrated into the MRI system. As a first result, real-time MRI studies of the right and left TMJ were successfully performed in all 40 subjects (80 joints) within a total examination time per subject of only 15min. Secondly, at an in-plane resolution of 0.75mm and 5mm section thickness, the achieved temporal resolution was 66.7ms per image or 15 frames per second. Thirdly, both T1-weighted and T2/T1-weighted real-time MRI movies provided information about TMJ function such as disc position, condyle mobility and disc-condyle relationship. While T1 contrast offers a better delineation of structures during rapid jaw movements, T2/T1 contrast was rated superior for characterizing the articular disc. In conclusion, the proposed real-time MRI method may become a robust and efficient tool for the clinical assessment of TMJ function.

  17. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis. PMID:28133553

  18. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Christopher; Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis.

  19. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  20. Using expert knowledge and modeling to define mangrove composition, functioning, and threats and estimate time frame for recovery

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Sutherland, William J; Khan, Md Nabiul I; Berger, Uta; Schmitz, Nele; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are threatened worldwide, and their loss or degradation could impact functioning of the ecosystem. Our aim was to investigate three aspects of mangroves at a global scale: (1) their constituents (2) their indispensable ecological functions, and (3) the maintenance of their constituents and functions in degraded mangroves. We focused on answering two questions: “What is a mangrove ecosystem” and “How vulnerable are mangrove ecosystems to different impacts”? We invited 106 mangrove experts globally to participate in a survey based on the Delphi technique and provide inputs on the three aspects. The outputs from the Delphi technique for the third aspect, i.e. maintenance of constituents and functions were incorporated in a modeling approach to simulate the time frame for recovery. Presented here for the first time are the consensus definition of the mangrove ecosystem and the list of mangrove plant species. In this study, experts considered even monospecific (tree) stands to be a mangrove ecosystem as long as there was adequate tidal exchange, propagule dispersal, and faunal interactions. We provide a ranking of the important ecological functions, faunal groups, and impacts on mangroves. Degradation due to development was identified as having the largest impact on mangroves globally in terms of spatial scale, intensity, and time needed for restoration. The results indicate that mangroves are ecologically unique even though they may be species poor (from the vegetation perspective). The consensus list of mangrove species and the ranking of the mangrove ecological functions could be a useful tool for restoration and management of mangroves. While there is ample literature on the destruction of mangroves due to aquaculture in the past decade, this study clearly shows that more attention must go to avoiding and mitigating mangrove loss due to coastal development (such as building of roads, ports, or harbors). PMID:25360265

  1. Using expert knowledge and modeling to define mangrove composition, functioning, and threats and estimate time frame for recovery.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Sutherland, William J; Khan, Md Nabiul I; Berger, Uta; Schmitz, Nele; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Mangroves are threatened worldwide, and their loss or degradation could impact functioning of the ecosystem. Our aim was to investigate three aspects of mangroves at a global scale: (1) their constituents (2) their indispensable ecological functions, and (3) the maintenance of their constituents and functions in degraded mangroves. We focused on answering two questions: "What is a mangrove ecosystem" and "How vulnerable are mangrove ecosystems to different impacts"? We invited 106 mangrove experts globally to participate in a survey based on the Delphi technique and provide inputs on the three aspects. The outputs from the Delphi technique for the third aspect, i.e. maintenance of constituents and functions were incorporated in a modeling approach to simulate the time frame for recovery. Presented here for the first time are the consensus definition of the mangrove ecosystem and the list of mangrove plant species. In this study, experts considered even monospecific (tree) stands to be a mangrove ecosystem as long as there was adequate tidal exchange, propagule dispersal, and faunal interactions. We provide a ranking of the important ecological functions, faunal groups, and impacts on mangroves. Degradation due to development was identified as having the largest impact on mangroves globally in terms of spatial scale, intensity, and time needed for restoration. The results indicate that mangroves are ecologically unique even though they may be species poor (from the vegetation perspective). The consensus list of mangrove species and the ranking of the mangrove ecological functions could be a useful tool for restoration and management of mangroves. While there is ample literature on the destruction of mangroves due to aquaculture in the past decade, this study clearly shows that more attention must go to avoiding and mitigating mangrove loss due to coastal development (such as building of roads, ports, or harbors).

  2. Development of Real-Time Frame Selector 2 and the Characteristic Convective Structure in the Emerging Flux Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozu, Hiromichi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Funakoshi, Yasuhiro

    2005-02-01

    A new image-grabbing system, Real-Time Frame Selector 2 (RTFS2), was developed and installed in the Domeless Solar Telescope at Hida Observatory. The purpose of this system is to acquire high-quality images in ground-based observations. We observed the emerging flux region NOAA 8582 in the G-band wavelengths from 20:59 UT to 23:32 UT on 1999 June 11 with RTFS2. Simultaneous Hα line center and wing wavelength observations with a Lyot filter system showed emerging flux loops and surge activities in this region. We applied a Local Correlation Tracking Method to the G-band data set in order to derive the horizontal convective structure in the upper convective zone. In addition to a meso-scale convective structure, we found divergent-flow structures under emerging flux loops, which were stable during the whole observation period, and located at the middle of the foot points of each flux loop. We suggest that the divergent-flow structure is a newly found characteristic of emerging flux regions.

  3. Multiple frame cluster tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadaleta, Sabino; Klusman, Mike; Poore, Aubrey; Slocumb, Benjamin J.

    2002-08-01

    Tracking large number of closely spaced objects is a challenging problem for any tracking system. In missile defense systems, countermeasures in the form of debris, chaff, spent fuel, and balloons can overwhelm tracking systems that track only individual objects. Thus, tracking these groups or clusters of objects followed by transitions to individual object tracking (if and when individual objects separate from the groups) is a necessary capability for a robust and real-time tracking system. The objectives of this paper are to describe the group tracking problem in the context of multiple frame target tracking and to formulate a general assignment problem for the multiple frame cluster/group tracking problem. The proposed approach forms multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and base individual frame clustering decisions on the information from multiple frames of data in much the same way that MFA or MHT work for individual object tracking. The formulation of the assignment problem for resolved object tracking and candidate clustering methods for use in multiple frame cluster tracking are briefly reviewed. Then, three different formulations are presented for the combination of multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and the multiple frame assignments of clusters between frames.

  4. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…

  5. Effect of frame size and time-on-pasture on steer performance, longissimus muscle fatty acid composition and tenderness in a forage-finishing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 96; BW = 309 + 34 kg; 13.5 mo of age) were used to determine the effects of frame size (medium, MED or small, SM) and time-on-pasture (TOP) on meat composition and palatability in a two-year study. Finishing steers grazed mixed pastures (bluegrass/white clover; April start) a...

  6. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  7. Psychometric properties of the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andy; Taylor, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy; Rowlands, Ann

    2007-12-01

    Few self-report measures of physical activity have been validated in individuals with severe mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 7-day recall measure (7DR: [Blair, S. N. (1984). How to assess exercise habits and physical fitness. In J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weiss, (Eds.), Behavioural health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 424-447). New York: Wiley.]) through comparison with RT3 triaxial accelerometry data. Fourteen individuals took part in the study. Validity was considered by Kendall's tau correlation and (Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical-methods for assessing agreement between 2 methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1(8476), 307-310) limits of agreement and test-retest reliability was measured by ICC. The only significant correlation between measures was total energy expenditure (tau = 0.43). The 7-DR over reported moderate physical activity by 16.9 +/- 52.3 min/day, but under reported vigorous physical activity by -10.4 +/- 24.3 min/day. Test retest ICC was significant for all outcome measures. Overall, the 7-DR was reliable but exhibited questionable validity. The use of self-report questionnaires such as the 7-DR may inaccurately estimate the levels of physical activity in this population, and may not be sensitive to monitoring intervention-related changes in physical activity.

  8. Predictive Factors for Delivery within 7 Days after Successful 48-Hour Treatment of Threatened Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Carolien; Schuit, Ewoud; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.; Duvekot, Hans J. J.; van Eyck, Jim; Kok, Joke H.; Kwee, Anneke; Merién, Ashley E. R.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van Pampus, Mariëlle G.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Porath, Martina M.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Spaanderman, Marc E. A.; Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Willekes, Christine; Lotgering, Fred K.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess which characteristics and results of vaginal examination are predictive for delivery within 7 days, in women with threatened preterm labor after initial treatment. Study Design A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial on maintenance nifedipine includes women who remained undelivered after threatened preterm labor for 48 hours. We developed one model for women with premature prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and one without PPROM. The predictors were identified by backward selection. We assessed calibration and discrimination and used bootstrapping techniques to correct for potential overfitting. Results For women with PPROM (model 1), nulliparity, history of preterm birth, and vaginal bleeding were included in the multivariable analysis. For women without PPROM (model 2), maternal age, vaginal bleeding, cervical length, and fetal fibronectin (fFN) status were in the multivariable analysis. Discriminative capability was moderate to good (c-statistic 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60–0.77 for model 1 and 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84–0.93 for model 2). Conclusion PPROM and vaginal bleeding in the current pregnancy are relevant predictive factors in all women, as are maternal age, cervical length, and fFN in women without PPROM and nulliparity, history of preterm birth in women with PPROM. PMID:26495173

  9. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL.

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  11. Toxicity evaluation of waters from a tributary of the River Po using the 7-Day Ceriodaphnia dubia test.

    PubMed

    Viganò, L; Bassi, A; Garino, A

    1996-12-01

    Seven-day toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were used to assess ambient water toxicity in the River Lambro, a tributary of the River Po, and in the corresponding stretch of the main river located downstream from their confluence. About once a month, toxicity tests were conducted on water samples of the River Lambro, using as dilution water the water of the main river collected upstream from the confluence. With a lower frequency, the downstream stretch of the River Po was tested for ambient toxicity at four sites located at 6, 11, 16, and 21 km from the emission of the tributary. The River Lambro demonstrated variable toxicity in different time periods, although the most frequent effects were sublethal, on both reproduction and growth. Ammonia, nickel, and zinc can be indicated as possible toxicants. Acute toxic effects to C. dubia were observed with spring samples only, when the action of some pesticides, likely insecticides, have to be taken into account. Tests conducted on downstream water gave limited results, seemingly because the dilution capacity of the River Po reduced Lambro toxicity to a level close to and often below the detection limit of the 7-day test. Accordingly, toxic effects at downstream sites could only be observed on the growth of C. dubia, which was found to be the most sensitive endpoint. Fairly good agreement was found between predictions based on toxicity tests of the River Lambro and the effects observed for downstream samples.

  12. High frame-rate real-time x-ray imaging of in situ high-velocity rifle bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aries, Lawrence J.; Miller, Stuart R.; Robertson, Rob; Singh, Bipin; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2016-05-01

    High frame-rate imaging is a valuable tool for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) as well as for ballistic impact studies (terminal ballistics), in-flight projectile imaging, studies of exploding ordnance and characterization of other high-speed phenomena. Current imaging systems exist for these studies, however, none have the ability to do in-barrel characterization (in-bore ballistics) to image kinetics of the moving projectile BEFORE it exits the barrel. The system uses an intensified high-speed CMOS camera coupled to a specially designed scintillator to serve as the X-ray detector. The X-ray source is a sequentially fired portable pulsed unit synchronized with the detector integration window and is able to acquire 3,600 frames per second (fps) with mega-pixel spatial resolution and up to 500,000 fps with reduced pixel resolution. This paper will discuss our results imaging .30 caliber bullets traveling at ~1,000 m/s while still in the barrel. Information on bullet deformation, pitch, yaw and integrity are the main goals of this experimentation. Planned future upgrades for imaging large caliber projectiles will also be discussed.

  13. Identifying Issue Frames in Text

    PubMed Central

    Sagi, Eyal; Diermeier, Daniel; Kaufmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. PMID:23874909

  14. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  15. Suppurative meningitis in a 7-day-old Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) caused by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chiou, Shiow-Her; Chan, Jacky Peng-Wen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the clinical and pathological features of an orphan 7-day-old, male Formosan sambar fawn that was hospitalized for treatment of weakness. The fawn had been deprived of colostrum and developed suppurative meningitis that was attributed to Escherichia coli. PMID:20514257

  16. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity.

  17. Continuous accelerated 7-days-a-week radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Long-term results of Phase III clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof . E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Golen, Maria; Tarnawski, Rafal; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Suwinski, Rafal; Sygula, Mariusz; Wygoda, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To update 5-year results of a previously published study on special 7-days-a-week fractionation continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in Stage T{sub 2-4}N{sub 0-1}M were randomized between two definitive radiation treatments: accelerated fractionation 7 days a week including weekends (CAIR) and conventional 5 days a week (control). Hence the overall treatment time was 2 weeks shorter in CAIR. Results: Five-year local tumor control was 75% in the CAIR group and 33% in the control arm (p < 0.00004). Tumor-cure benefit corresponded with significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with the incidence significantly higher in CAIR patients than in control (respectively, 94% vs. 53%). When 2.0-Gy fractions were used, radiation necrosis developed in 5 patients (22%) in the CAIR group as a consequential late effect (CLE), but when fraction size was reduced to 1.8 Gy no more CLE occurred. Actuarial 5-year morbidity-free survival rate was similar for both treatments. Conclusions: Selected head-and-neck cancer patients could be treated very effectively with 7-days-a-week radiation schedule with no compromise of total dose and with slight 10% reduction of fraction dose (2 Gy-1.8 Gy), which article gives 1 week reduction of overall treatment time compared with standard 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 47-49 days. Although this report is based on the relatively small group of patients, its results have encouraged us to use CAIR fractionation in a standard radiation treatment for moderately advanced head-and-neck cancer patients.

  18. Prediction of glycated hemoglobin levels at 3 months after metabolic surgery based on the 7-day plasma metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Nam; Lee, Yeon Ji; Kang, Ju-Hee; Choi, Ji-Ho; An, Yong Jin; Kang, Sunmi; Lee, Dae Hyun; Suh, Young Ju; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Sunghyouk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients), and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary.

  19. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  20. The framing of drivers' route choices when travel time information is provided under varying degrees of cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Katsikopoulos, K V; Duse-Anthony, Y; Fisher, D L; Duffy, S A

    2000-01-01

    In two experiments, participants chose between staying on a main route with a certain travel time and diverting to an alternative route that could take a range of travel times. In the first experiment, travel time information was displayed on a sheet of paper to participants seated at a desk. In the second experiment, the same information was displayed in a virtual environment through which participants drove. Overall, participants were risk-averse when the average travel time along the alternative route was shorter than the certain travel time of the main route but risk-seeking when the average travel time of the alternative route was longer than the certain travel time along the main route. In the second experiment, in which cognitive load was higher, participants simplified their decision-making strategies. A simple probabilistic model describes the risk-taking behavior and the load effects. Actual or potential applications of this research include the development of efficient travel time information systems for drivers.

  1. 2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. R.; Smith, I. C.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Robertson, G.; Atherton, B. W.; Jones, M. C.; Porter, J. L.

    2008-10-01

    When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151keV (1s2-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing "two-frame" imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181keV Mn 1s2-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1ns gate time

  2. 2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: a progress report.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G R; Smith, I C; Shores, J E; Sinars, D B; Robertson, G; Atherton, B W; Jones, M C; Porter, J L

    2008-10-01

    When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26 MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57 nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151 keV (1s(2)-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1 mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing "two-frame" imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20 ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151 keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3 ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181 keV Mn 1s(2)-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1 ns

  3. Influence of 7 days of hindlimb suspension and intermittent weight support on rat muscle mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierotti, David J.; Roy, Roland R.; Flores, Vinicio; Edgerton, Reggie

    1990-01-01

    The effect of intermittent periods of weight support on a decrease in mass of the soleus (Sol) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles atrophied by hindlimb suspension (HS) was investigated in rats subjected to continuous HS for seven days or an HS plus intermittent (10 min every 6 hrs of slow walking on a treadmill) weight support (HS-WS). After 7 d HS, the Sol weight relative to body weight was 21 and 9 percent lower in Hs and HS-WS, respectively, than in control rats. Maximum tetanic tension/muscle mass ratio was significantly lower in HS than in controls; the HS-WS rats had values similar to controls, whereas the maximum tetanic tension/muscle weight was significantly elevated in HS-WS compared to controls. Contraction times were 25 percent faster in the Sol and unchanged in the MG of HS rats, indicating that a low-force short-duration exercise regime results in a significant functional recovery in the 'slow' Sol, whereas the 'fast' MG is less affected.

  4. Synchronization as a biological, psychological and social mechanism to create common time: A theoretical frame and a single case study.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yan; Pöppel, Ernst; Wang, Lingyan; Lin, Xiaoxiong; Yang, Taoxi; Avram, Mihai; Blautzik, Janusch; Paolini, Marco; Silveira, Sarita; Vedder, Aline; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Zhou, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Synchronizing neural processes, mental activities, and social interactions is considered to be fundamental for the creation of temporal order on the personal and interpersonal level. Several different types of synchronization are distinguished, and for each of them examples are given: self-organized synchronizations on the neural level giving rise to pre-semantically defined time windows of some tens of milliseconds and of approximately 3 s; time windows that are created by synchronizing different neural representations, as for instance in aesthetic appreciations or moral judgments; and synchronization of biological rhythms with geophysical cycles, like the circadian clock with the 24-hr rhythm of day and night. For the latter type of synchronization, an experiment is described that shows the importance of social interactions for sharing or avoiding common time. In a group study with four subjects being completely isolated together for 3 weeks from the external world, social interactions resulted both in intra- and interindividual circadian synchronization and desynchronization. A unique phenomenon in circadian regulation is described, the "beat phenomenon," which has been made visible by the interaction of two circadian rhythms with different frequencies in one body. The separation of the two physiological rhythms was the consequence of social interactions, that is, by the desire of a subject to share and to escape common time during different phases of the long-term experiment. The theoretical arguments on synchronization are summarized with the general statement: "Nothing in cognitive science makes sense except in the light of time windows." The hypothesis is forwarded that time windows that express discrete timing mechanisms in behavioral control and on the level of conscious experiences are the necessary bases to create cognitive order, and it is suggested that time windows are implemented by neural oscillations in different frequency domains.

  5. Studying impacts of strategy choices concerning the Celestial Reference Frame on the estimates of nutation time series during geodesic VLBI Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattano, César; Lambert, Sébastien; Bizouard, Christian; Souchay, Jean

    2015-08-01

    Very Large Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the only technique which permits to determine Earth's precession-nutation at submilliarcsecond accuracy. With its 35 years of observations, at the rate of 2 observing sessions a week during the last decade, it allows to estimate nutation over periods from 14 days to 20 years. But VLBI data analysis is of such a complexity that there are as much different nutation time series that there are analysis center working on it. So, it is worthful to investigate the nature of these differences in relation with the choices in the analysis strategy.Differences between the operationnal nutation time series are considered as composed of a signal and a noise, determined by mean of wavelets and Allan variance analysis. We try to explain them by the choices made on the Celestial Reference Frame. In particulary, the ICRF2 catalog is perturbed by introducting random shifts on all the 3414 sources, and we investigate the consequences on nutation.

  6. 7-day weighed food diaries suggest patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may spontaneously modify their diet to avoid nosebleed precipitants.

    PubMed

    Finnamore, Helen; Silva, B Maneesha; Hickson, B Mary; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L

    2017-03-28

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) poses substantial burdens due to nosebleeds and iron deficiency resulting from recurrent hemorrhagic iron losses. Recent studies by our group found surprising links between HHT nosebleeds and certain food groups. In this letter, we report 7-day weighed food diary assessments of an unselected group of 25 UK patients with HHT whose nosebleeds ranged from mild to severe (median epistaxis severity score 4.66, range 0.89- 9.11). The diaries provide evidence that food items most commonly reported to provoke nosebleeds were ingested by fewer HHT patients, compared to food items less commonly reported to provoke nosebleeds (chi-squared p <0.001).

  7. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi; Murayama, Chieko; Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  8. DARPA 7-Day Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-17

    live fire challenge. ....................................... 54 Figure 62: Schedule for Live Fire Test with B. pseudomallei strain 1028...currently being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of AIDS, hepatitis C and cancer 3 . However, antigen delivery problems have...from Ac-DEX are pH- sensitive and degrade quicker in lysosomal pH (~ 5) compared to physiological pH (7.4). Beyond its performance in vaccine

  9. Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Volume 1: Solar/hydrogen systems for the 1985 - 2000 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Escher, W. J. D.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Opportunities for commercialization of systems capable of producing hydrogen from solar energy were studied. The hydrogen product costs that might be achieved by the four selected candidate systems was compared with the pricing structure and practices of the commodity gas market. Subsequently, product cost and market price match was noted to exist in the small user sector of the hydrogen marketplace. Barriers to and historical time lags in, commercialization of new technologies are reviewed. Recommendations for development and demonstration programs designed to accelerate the commercialization of the candidate systems are presented.

  10. Scaling up the dissemination of evidence-based mental health practice to large systems and long-term time frames.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Sandra G; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2009-05-01

    This Open Forum raises issues related to large-scale dissemination of sustainable evidence-based practices. Current dissemination efforts have been time limited and primarily conducted at volunteer sites with the skills of external expert trainers. The authors describe an effort to implement supported employment at 166 veterans programs in what is hoped to be a permanent addition to mental health services offered by the Department of Veterans Affairs. A two-stage process is described for developing a cadre of internal trainers who can realize the goals of this large-scale dissemination effort. Such strategies appear necessary to fully realize the broad national changes envisioned in the New Freedom Commission report.

  11. Characterization of a 7 day 17 beta-estradiol transdermal delivery system: pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R A; Zegarac, E A; Eldon, M A; Sedman, A J; Forgue, S T

    1996-08-01

    To assess the delivery characteristics of a new 7 day 17 beta-estradiol transdermal delivery system (TDS), estradiol and estrone pharmacokinetics were evaluated following a single 7 d application of one TDS or two TDSs in 24 healthy, postmenopausal women in a nonblind, randomized, two-period crossover study. Serial blood samples and total urine output were collected before (baseline measurement of endogenous hormone) and during TDS application, and for 24 h (urine) or 72 h (blood) following TDS removal. Serum was assayed for estradiol and estrone by a validated radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. The combined amounts of estradiol and its conjugates, and estrone and its conjugates in urine were determined by validated RIA methods. Overall, one or two estradiol TDSs were well tolerated by healthy, postmenopausal female volunteers. Estradiol absorption from the TDS was characterized by a zero-order process and was dose proportional, resulting in average steady-state serum estradiol concentrations of 16 and 33 pg mL-1 above baseline during the 7 d application of one and two TDSs, respectively. Parallel but smaller increases in serum estrone concentrations were observed, resulting in an increase in the serum estradiol/estrone concentration ratio from approximately 0.2 at baseline to median values of 0.64 and 0.88 during application of one and two TDSs, respectively. The 7 day 17 beta-estradiol TDS delivered a nominal estradiol dose of 0.02 mg/24 h during the intended wear period.

  12. The time-frame of acute resistance exercise effects on football skill performance: the impact of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Carlos Barbero, Jose; Tsoukas, Dimitrios; Theodorou, Apostolos Spyridon; Margonis, Konstantinos; Michailidis, Yannis; Avloniti, Alexandra; Theodorou, Anastasios; Kambas, Antonis; Fatouros, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the recovery rate of football skill performance following resistance exercise of moderate or high intensity. Ten elite football players participated in three different trials: control, low-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 8-10 repetitions/set, 65-70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and high-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 4-6 repetitions/set, 85-90% 1RM) in a counterbalanced manner. In each experimental condition, participants were evaluated pre, post, and at 24, 48, 72 h post exercise time points. Football skill performance was assessed through the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test, long passing, dribbling, shooting and heading. Delayed onset muscle soreness, knee joint range of motion, and muscle strength (1RM) in squat were considered as muscle damage markers. Blood samples analysed for creatine kinase activity, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count. Passing and shooting performance declined (P < 0.05) post-exercise following resistance exercise. Strength declined post-exercise following high-intensity resistance exercise. Both trials induced only a mild muscle damage and inflammatory response in an intensity-dependent manner. These results indicate that football skill performance is minimally affected by acute resistance exercise independent of intensity suggesting that elite players may be able to participate in a football practice or match after only 24 h following a strength training session.

  13. Solar/hydrogen systems for the 1985 to 2000 time frame. Volume I. Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Escher, W. J.D.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-01

    The findings of a study of opportunities for commercialization of systems capable of producing hydrogen from solar energy are presented in two volumes. A compendium of monographs by specialists in the fields of solar energy conversion technologies, hydrogen production technologies and related technology descriptions from the general literature comprise Volume II. This data base was used to support an evaluation and selection process that identified four candidate solar/hydrogen systems best suited to commercialization within the next two decades. Volume I first reviews the background of the work and the methods used. Then an evaluation of the hydrogen product costs that might be achieved by the four selected candidate systems (photovoltaic/water electrolysis, thermal-heat engine/water electrolysis, wind energy/water electrolysis, small hydrogen/water electrolysis) is compared with the pricing structure and practices of the commodity gas market. Subsequently, product cost and market price match is noted to exist in the small user sector of the hydrogen marketplace. Barriers to and historical time lags in, commercialization of new technologies are then reviewed. Finally, recommendations for development and demonstration programs designed to accelerate the commercialization of the candidate systems are presented.

  14. Proteomics of Medicago truncatula seed development establishes the time frame of diverse metabolic processes related to reserve accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Karine; Le Signor, Christine; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Thompson, Richard D; Burstin, Judith

    2003-10-01

    We utilized a proteomic approach to investigate seed development in Medicago truncatula, cv Jemalong, line J5 at specific stages of seed filling corresponding to the acquisition of germination capacity and protein deposition. One hundred twenty proteins differing in kinetics of appearance were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. These analyses provided peptide mass fingerprint data that identified 84 of them. Some of these proteins had previously been shown to accumulate during seed development in legumes (e.g. legumins, vicilins, convicilins, and lipoxygenases), confirming the validity of M. truncatula as a model for analysis of legume seed filling. The study also revealed proteins presumably involved in cell division during embryogenesis (beta-tubulin and annexin). Their abundance decreased before the accumulation of the major storage protein families, which itself occurs in a specific temporal order: vicilins (14 d after pollination [DAP]), legumins (16 DAP), and convicilins (18 DAP). Furthermore, the study showed an accumulation of enzymes of carbon metabolism (e.g. sucrose synthase, starch synthase) and of proteins involved in embryonic photosynthesis (e.g. chlorophyll a/b binding), which may play a role in providing cofactors for protein/lipid synthesis or for CO2 refixation during seed filling. Correlated with the reserve deposition phase was the accumulation of proteins associated with cell expansion (actin 7 and reversibly glycosylated polypeptide) and of components of the precursor accumulating vesicles, which give rise to a trypsin inhibitor on maturation. Finally, we revealed a differential accumulation of enzymes involved in methionine metabolism (S-adenosyl-methionine synthetase and S-adenosylhomo-cysteine hydrolase) and propose a role for these enzymes in the transition from a highly active to a quiescent state during seed development.

  15. Optical loop framing

    SciTech Connect

    Kalibjian, R.; Chong, Y.P.; Prono, D.S.; Cavagnolo, H.R.

    1984-06-01

    The ATA provides an electron beam pulse of 70-ns duration at a 1-Hz rate. Our present optical diagnostics technique involve the imaging of the visible light generated by the beam incident onto the plant of a thin sheet of material. It has already been demonstrated that the light generated has a sufficiently fast temporal reponse in performing beam diagnostics. Notwithstanding possible beam emittance degradation due to scattering in the thin sheet, the observation of beam spatial profiles with relatively high efficiencies has provided data complementary to that obtained from beam wall current monitors and from various x-ray probes and other electrical probes. The optical image sensor consists of a gated, intensified television system. The gate pulse of the image intensifier can be appropriately delayed to give frames that are time-positioned from the head to the tail of the beam with a minimum gate time of 5-ns. The spatial correlation of the time frames from pulse to pulse is very good for a stable electron beam; however, when instabilities do occur, it is difficult to properly assess the spatial composition of the head and the tail of the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Multiple gating within a pulse duration becomes desirable but cannot be performed because the recycle time (20-ms) of the TV system is much longer than the beam pulse. For this reason we have developed an optical-loop framing technique that will allow the recording of two frames within one pulse duration with our present gated/intensified TV system.

  16. Molecular mobility of lyophilized poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and methylcellulose as determined by the laboratory and rotating frame spin-lattice relaxation times of 1H and 13C.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Sumie; Aso, Yukio; Kojima, Shigeo

    2003-11-01

    Laboratory- and rotating- frame spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1) and T(1rho)) of (1)H and (13)C in lyophilized poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and methylcellulose (MC) are determined to examine feasibility of using T(1) and T(1rho) as a measure of molecular motions on large time scales related to the storage stability of lyophilized formulations. The T(1rho) of proton and carbon was found to reflect the mobility of PVP and MC backbones, indicating that it is useful as a measure of large-time-scale molecular motions. In contrast to the T(1rho), the T(1) of proton measured in the same temperature range reflected the mobility of PVP and MC side chains. The T(1) of proton may be useful as a measure of local molecular motions on a smaller-time-scale, although the measurement is interfered by moisture under some conditions. The temperature dependence of T(1) and T(1rho) indicated that methylene in the MC molecule had much higher mobility than that in the dextran molecule, also indicated that methylene in the PVP side chain had a higher mobility than that in the MC side chain.

  17. Promotion of Cholera Awareness Among Households of Cholera Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7 Days (CHoBI7) Intervention.

    PubMed

    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Monira, Shirajum; Alam, Munirul; Shaly, Nusrat Jahan; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are highly susceptible to cholera infections for a 7-day period after the presentation of the index patient in the hospital. However, there is no standard of care to prevent cholera transmission in this high-risk population. Furthermore, there is limited information available on awareness of cholera transmission and prevention among cholera patients and their household contacts. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which delivers a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention to household contacts during the time they spend with the admitted cholera patient in the hospital and reinforces these messages through home visits. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 302 intervention cholera patient household members and 302 control cholera patient household members in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the CHoBI7 intervention in increasing awareness of cholera transmission and prevention, and the key times for handwashing with soap. We observed a significant increase in cholera knowledge score in the intervention arm compared with the control arm at both the 1-week follow-up {score coefficient = 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96, 2.71)} and 6 to 12-month follow-up period (score coefficient = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.05, 2.13]). This 1-week hospital- and home-based intervention led to a significant increase in knowledge of cholera transmission and prevention which was sustained 6 to 12 months post-intervention. These findings suggest that the CHoBI7 intervention presents a promising approach to increase cholera awareness among this high-risk population.

  18. A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day course of doripenem to a 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Gram-negative bacteria. Methods This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing a fixed 7-day course of doripenem one gram as a four-hour infusion every eight hours with a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin one gram as a one-hour infusion every eight hours (April 2008 through June 2011). Results The study was stopped prematurely at the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee that was blinded to treatment arm assignment and performed a scheduled review of data which showed signals that were close to the pre-specified stopping limits. The final analyses included 274 randomized patients. The clinical cure rate at the end of therapy (EOT) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population was numerically lower for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (45.6% versus 56.8%; 95% CI, -26.3% to 3.8%). Similarly, the clinical cure rate at EOT was numerically lower for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP, the most common Gram-negative pathogen, in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (41.2% versus 60.0%; 95% CI, -57.2 to 19.5). All cause 28-day mortality in the MITT group was numerically greater for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (21.5% versus 14.8%; 95% CI, -5.0 to 18.5) and for patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (35.3% versus 0.0%; 95% CI, 12.6 to 58.0). Conclusions Among patients with microbiologically confirmed late-onset VAP, a fixed 7-day course of doripenem was found to have non-significant higher rates of clinical failure and mortality compared to a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin. Consideration should be given to treating patients with VAP for more than seven days to optimize clinical outcome. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00589693

  19. Adherence to 7-Day Primaquine Treatment for the Radical Cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-01-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  20. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkies, Krystyna; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of 7-Day Intensive and Standard Weekly Cognitive Therapy for PTSD and Emotion-Focused Supportive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Hackmann, Ann; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Liness, Sheena; Albert, Idit; Deale, Alicia; Stott, Richard; Clark, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are usually delivered once or twice weekly over several months. It is unclear whether they can be successfully delivered over a shorter period of time. This clinical trial had two goals, (1) to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of a 7-day intensive version of cognitive therapy for PTSD, and (2) to investigate whether cognitive therapy has specific treatment effects by comparing intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy with an equally credible alternative treatment. Method Patients with chronic PTSD (N=121) were randomly allocated to 7-day intensive or standard 3-month weekly cognitive therapy for PTSD, 3-month weekly emotion-focused supportive therapy, or a 14-week waitlist condition. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms and diagnosis as assessed by independent assessors and self-report. Secondary outcomes were disability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Measures were taken at initial assessment, 6 weeks and 14 weeks (post-treatment/wait). For groups receiving treatment, measures were also taken at 3 weeks, and follow-ups at 27 and 40 weeks after randomization. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Results At post-treatment/wait assessment, 73%, 77%, 43%, 7% of the intensive cognitive therapy, standard cognitive therapy, supportive therapy, and waitlist groups, respectively, had recovered from PTSD. All treatments were well tolerated and were superior to waitlist on all outcome measures, with the exception of no difference between supportive therapy and waitlist on quality of life. For primary outcomes, disability and general anxiety, intensive and standard cognitive therapy were superior to supportive therapy. Intensive cognitive therapy achieved faster symptom reduction and comparable overall outcomes to standard cognitive therapy. Conclusions Cognitive therapy for PTSD delivered intensively over little more than a week is as effective as cognitive therapy delivered

  2. Effect of burden and origin sites of premature ventricular contractions on left ventricular function by 7-day Holter monitor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Mingfang; Chen, Minglong; Yang, Bing; Wang, Daowu; Kong, Xiangqing; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Gu, Kai; Cao, Kejiang; Liu, Hailei; Jiang, Qi; Shi, Jiaojiao; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have shown that premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) could enlarge the heart, but its risk factors are incompletely understood as a single 24-hour recording cannot reflect the true PVC burden due to day-to-day variability. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of burden and origin sites on left ventricular (LV) function in patients with PVCs by 7-day Holter electrocardiography (ECG). From May 2012 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients with PVCs were recruited from the authors' affiliated hospital. All patients received 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead routing ECG and 7-days Holter ECG. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. A total of 102 participants with PVCs were included in the final analysis. Origin of PVCs from the tricuspid annulus had the highest burden and NT-proBNP level. LV papillary muscle had a higher LV ejection fraction (EF) level and a lower LV end-systolic dimension (ESD) than other PVC foci (P<0.05). The high burden group had a higher LV end-diastolic dimension (EDD) and LVESD but lower LVEF than the other two groups (P<0.05). Female, older age, physical work, and history of PVCs had a significantly positive correlation with symptoms. Male, older age, physical work, and high burden were positive predictors of enlarged LVEDD, LVESD and higher serum NT-proBNP level, but lower LVEF. Seven-day dynamic ECG Holter monitor showed the true PVC burden on patients with PVCs. PVCs with a lower burden or origin from the LV papillary muscle and the fascicle were relatively benign, while PVCs with a higher burden or origin from the tricuspid annulus may lead to cardiac dysfunction. PMID:26668581

  3. Initial characterization results of a 1024x448, 25-μm multi-frame camera with 2ns integration time for the Ultrafast X-ray Imager (UXI) program at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claus, L.; Robertson, G.; Fang, L.; Kay, R.; Kimmel, M. W.; Sanchez, M.; Stahoviak, J. W.; Trotter, D.; Porter, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    The Hippogriff camera developed at Sandia National Laboratories as part of the Ultra-Fast X-ray Imager (UXI) program is a high-speed, multi-frame, time-gated imager for use on a wide variety of High Energy Density (HED) physics experiments on both Sandia's Z-Machine and the National Ignition Facility. The camera is a 1024 x 448 pixel array with 25 μm spatial resolution, containing 2 frames per pixel natively and has achieved 2 ns minimum integration time. It is sensitive to both optical photons as well as soft X-rays up to 6 keV. The Hippogriff camera is the second generation UXI camera that contains circuitry to trade spatial resolution for additional frames of temporal coverage. The user can reduce the row-wise spatial resolution from the native 25 μm to increase the number of frames in a data set to 4 frames at 50 μm or 8 frames at 100 μm spatial resolution. This feature, along with both optical and X-ray sensitivity, facilitates additional experimental flexibility. Minimum signal is 1500 erms and full well is 1.5 million e-.

  4. Numerical investigation on lithium transport in the edge plasma of EAST real-time- Li-injection experiments in the frame of BOUT + +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N. M.; Sun, J. Z.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Sun, Z.; Wang, L.; Hu, J. S.; Wang, D. Z.

    2016-10-01

    Experimental observations on applications of Lithium (Li) have indicated that Li could benefit plasma performance. But all these call for further investigation on lithium transport. A simple model has been developed by reducing Braginskii's equations with assumed quasi-neutral condition for transport of Li species in the edge plasma in the EAST experiments of real-time Li aerosol injection and implemented in the frame of BOUT + + . The simulation results show that Li atoms propagate inwards continuously during the Li injection, and the propagating depth of Li atoms depends on both the local plasma conditions along its path and the Li injection velocity. It is also found that Li ions accumulate rapidly in the edge, and only a small fraction of Li species can transport cross the magnetic field into the core. In the poloidal direction, Li ions drift swiftly downwards along the field lines, and transport much faster at the high field side than at the low field side. The strong interaction between background plasma and Li ions plays a critical role in determining the edge plasma profile. It is found that real-time Li injection raises the plasma density in the pedestal region and reduces the plasma temperature, just as has been observed experimentally National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China No. 2013GB107003, National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 11575039.

  5. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan; Dekkers, Mark; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the Late Neogene, the Black Sea experienced large paleoenvironmental changes, switching between (anoxic) marine conditions when connected to the Mediterranean Sea and (oxic) freshwater conditions at times of isolation. We create a magnetostratigraphic time frame for three sites drilled during Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 42B to the Black Sea (drilled in 1975). At the time, magnetostratigraphic dating was impossible because of the presence of the little understood iron sulfide mineral greigite (in sediments a precursor to pyrite) as magnetic carrier. Our rock-magnetic results indicate that only anoxic conditions result in poor magnetic signal, likely as a result of pyrite formation in the water column rather than in the sediment. The magnetostratigraphic results indicate that Hole 379A, drilled in the basin center, has a continuous sedimentary record dating back to 1.3 Ma. Hole 380/380A is subdivided into three consistent intervals, 0-700 mbsf, 700-860 mbsf and 860-1075 mbsf. The top unit covers the Pleistocene but the magnetostratigraphy is likely compromised by the presence of mass transport deposits. The middle unit spans between 4.3 and 6.1 Ma and records continuous deposition at ~10 cm/kyr. The lower unit lacks the independent age constraints to correlate the obtained magnetostratigraphy. Hole 381 is drilled on the Bosporus slope and as a result, hiatuses are common. A correlation to the nearby Hole 380/380A is proposed, but indicates deposits cannot straightforwardly be traced across the slope. Our improved age model does not support the original interpretation based on these cores of a desiccation of the Black Sea during the Messinian salinity crisis.

  6. Short Time Impulse Response Function (STIRF) for automatic evaluation of the variation of the dynamic parameters of reinforced concrete framed structures during strong earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco

    2015-04-01

    the results provided in this study, the methodology seems to be able to evaluate fast variations (over time) of dynamic parameters of a generic reinforced concrete framed structure. Further analyses are necessary to better calibrate the length of the moving time-window (in order to minimize the spurious frequency within each Interferometric Response Function evaluated on both weak and strong motion phases) and to verify the possibility to use the STIRF to analyse the nonlinear behaviour of general systems. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the project DPC-RELUIS 2014 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and health monitoring''. References R. Ditommaso, F.C. Ponzo (2015). Automatic evaluation of the fundamental frequency variations and related damping factor of reinforced concrete framed structures using the Short Time Impulse Response Function (STIRF). Engineering Structures, 82 (2015), 104-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.10.023.

  7. Rovibrational spectroscopy using a kinetic energy operator in Eckart frame and the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sadri, Keyvan Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Lauvergnat, David; Gatti, Fabien

    2014-09-21

    For computational rovibrational spectroscopy the choice of the frame is critical for an approximate separation of overall rotation from internal motions. To minimize the coupling between internal coordinates and rotation, Eckart proposed a condition [“Some studies concerning rotating axes and polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. 47, 552–558 (1935)] and a frame that fulfills this condition is hence called an Eckart frame. A method is developed to introduce in a systematic way the Eckart frame for the expression of the kinetic energy operator (KEO) in the polyspherical approach. The computed energy levels of a water molecule are compared with those obtained using a KEO in the standard definition of the Body-fixed frame of the polyspherical approach. The KEO in the Eckart frame leads to a faster convergence especially for large J states and vibrationally excited states. To provide an example with more degrees of freedom, rotational states of the vibrational ground state of the trans nitrous acid (HONO) are also investigated.

  8. Impact of intracranial blood-flow redistribution on stroke size during ischemia-reperfusion in 7-day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Philippe; Leger, Pierre-Louis; Deroide, Nicolas; Fau, Sébastien; Baud, Olivier; Pocard, Marc; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Renolleau, Sylvain

    2011-05-15

    We evaluated color-coded pulsed Doppler ultrasound imaging for the assessment of intracranial blood flow in two models of cerebral ischemia in 7-day-old (P7) rats. Blood-flow velocities (BFVs) were measured in the internal carotid arteries and basilar trunk upstream from the circle of Willis, and in the posterior cerebral arteries downstream (1) before, (2) during left middle cerebral artery electrocoagulation and 50 min-transient either one (I/R-1) or both (I/R-2) common carotid (CCA) arteries occlusion, and (3) after release of CCA(s) occlusion. At 48 h after ischemia 41-48% (I/R-1 model) and 24% (I/R-2 model) of rats did not present a lesion. Those rats displayed increased mean BFV in both right internal carotid artery and basilar trunk in I/R-1 model, and increased mean BFV in the basilar trunk (BT) in I/R-2 model. In contrast, no significant changes in mean BFV were observed in lesioned rats. Furthermore, mean BFV in the BT was inversely correlated to the size of the lesion (r² = 0.75, p<0.0001) in the I/R-2 model. Thus, we demonstrated the protective role of collateral support in P7 rodents. Ultrasound imaging can evidence the establishment or not of the cerebral collateral recruitment, leading to the presence or absence of a lesion. This novel approach should greatly help preclinical studies to reduce animal variability.

  9. Growth, reproduction and population growth of Ceriodaphnia cornuta sars and comparison of 7-day fecundity with Ceriodaphnia dubia richard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Dehui

    1989-06-01

    Biology of parthenogenetic females of Ceriodaphnia cornuta Sars was studied under laboratory conditions. The mean length of neonates (first-young instars) of Ceriodaphnia cornuta was found to be 0.27 mm at 25±1°C and that of the first adult instars 0.50 mm. A maximum length of 0.69 mm was attained at the 8th adult instar. The mean longevity was found to be 19.0 days for 3 preadult and 8 adult instars. Sex maturity was reached in 4.26 days. The mean number of young per brood was 6.21. The total production for each adult reached 49.7. The maximum reproduction period occurred during the 4th adult instar. At this age, the animals were 10.25 days old, and had a body length of 0.65 mm. The innate capacity for increase ( r m) was 0.40 per female per day, the net reproduction rate ( R 0) was 33.601 per generation, the mean length of a generation ( T) was 8.786 days, and the finite rate for increase (λ) was 1.492 per female per day. Comparisons using the t-test indicated that the number of eggs produced and number of broods of C. cornuta and C. dubia were not significantly different ( p>0.05) after 7 days.

  10. The effects of modafinil treatment on neuropsychological and attentional bias performance during 7-day inpatient withdrawal from methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Hester, Robert; Lee, Nicole; Pennay, Amy; Nielsen, Suzi; Ferris, Jason

    2010-12-01

    The cognitive benefits of modafinil to patients undergoing 7-day inpatient withdrawal from methamphetamine (MA) dependence were examined as part of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Recent evidence has identified modafinil-related improvements in treatment outcomes for MA-dependent patients; however, the benefits to cognition function, which is critical to treatment success but known to be impaired, has yet to be examined. The first 20 participants recruited to the study were administered either 200 mg of modafinil (once daily) or placebo, and a neuropsychological test battery (including an MA version of the emotional Stroop task) at admission (n = 17) and discharge (n = 14). Follow-up interviews were conducted at 1-month postdischarge (n = 13). After participant withdrawals (3 in each group), treatment was associated with a significant improvement in immediate verbal memory recall and nonsignificant trend toward improvement on executive function and delayed memory tasks. No benefit was seen for measures of verbal learning, visual memory, processing speed, or verbal fluency. All participants showed a significant attentional bias for MA-related stimuli on the emotional Stroop task. The magnitude of bias predicted both retention in treatment and relapse potential at follow-up but was not significantly ameliorated by modafinil treatment. While nonsignificant, the effect sizes of modafinil-related improvements in executive function and memory were consistent with those found in more robustly powered studies of cognitive benefits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, supporting the need for further research.

  11. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Nittby, Henrietta; Brun, Arne; Eberhardt, Jacob; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after

  12. A time stepping coupled finite element-state space modeling environment for synchronous machine performance and design analysis in the ABC frame of reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fang

    This dissertation centers on the development of a modeling environment to predict the performance and operating characteristics of salient-pole synchronous generators. The model basically consists of an algorithm consisting of two sections, a time stepping two-dimensional (2D) magnetostatic field finite element (FE) computation algorithm coupled to a state-space (SS) time-domain model of the winding circuits. Hence the term time stepping Coupled Finite Element-State Space (CFE-SS) modeling environment is adopted for this approach. In the FE section, magnetic vector potential (MVP) based finite element (FE) formulations and computation of two-dimensional (2D) magnetostatic fields are used to get the magnetic field solutions throughout a machine's cross-section at a sequence (samplings) of rotor positions covering a complete (360 deg e) ac cycle. These field solutions yield the winding inductances by means of an energy and current perturbation method. The output of the FE section is the magnetic field solutions and the entire set of phase, field, damper, and sleeve winding inductance profiles versus rotor position, including all space harmonics due to rotor saliency, damper bar slotting, sleeve segmentation, stator slotting, and magnetic saturation. These inductance profiles are decomposed into their harmonic components by Fourier analysis. The magnetic field solutions and resulting winding inductances represent the key input data to the SS portion of the CFE-SS modeling environment. Laminated machine iron core loss calculations, which include the losses in the stator and rotor as well as pole face are subsequently performed using the magnetic field solution data. Conversely, the output of the SS portion is the entire set of phase, field, damper winding (circuit), and sleeve segment currents, which also include all the resulting time harmonics. These winding current results form in turn the key input data to the FE portion of the modeling environment which is

  13. Mitogenetic structure of brown bears (Ursus arctos L.) in northeastern Europe and a new time frame for the formation of European brown bear lineages.

    PubMed

    Saarma, Urmas; Ho, Simon Y W; Pybus, Oliver G; Kaljuste, Marju; Tumanov, Igor L; Kojola, Ilpo; Vorobiev, Alex A; Markov, Nikolai I; Saveljev, Alexander P; Valdmann, Harri; Lyapunova, Elena A; Abramov, Alexei V; Männil, Peep; Korsten, Marju; Vulla, Egle; Pazetnov, Sergei V; Pazetnov, Valentin S; Putchkovskiy, Stanislav V; Rõkov, Alexander M

    2007-01-01

    We estimated the phylogenetic relationships of brown bear maternal haplotypes from countries of northeastern Europe (Estonia, Finland and European Russia), using sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 231 bears. Twenty-five mtDNA haplotypes were identified. The brown bear population in northeastern Europe can be divided into three haplogroups: one with bears from all three countries, one with bears from Finland and Russia, and the third composed almost exclusively of bears from European Russia. Four haplotypes from Finland and European Russia matched exactly with haplotypes from Slovakia, suggesting the significance of the current territory of Slovakia in ancient demographic processes of brown bears. Based on the results of this study and those from the recent literature, we hypothesize that the West Carpathian Mountains have served either as one of the northernmost refuge areas or as an important movement corridor for brown bears of the Eastern lineage towards northern Europe during or after the last ice age. Bayesian analyses were performed to investigate the temporal framework of brown bear lineages in Europe. The molecular clock was calibrated using Beringian brown bear sequences derived from radiocarbon-dated ancient samples, and the estimated mutation rate was 29.8% (13.3%-47.6%) per million years. The whole European population and Western and Eastern lineages formed about 175,000, 70,000 and 25,000 years before present, respectively. Our approach to estimating the time frame of brown bear evolution demonstrates the importance of using an appropriate mutation rate, and this has implications for other studies of Pleistocene populations.

  14. Methods for Expanding Rotary Wing Aircraft Health and Usage Monitoring Systems to the Rotating Frame through Real-time Rotor Blade Kinematics Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Charles Jefferson

    mechanism, similar to a Stewart Platform. A calibration method for this device is developed and the improved orientation estimation results are shown. The second method is not specific to the fully articulated rotor head mounting geometry of the first method. Rather, it utilizes micro-electromechanical (MEMS) accelerometers and gyroscopes configured to measure the centrifugal acceleration and rotation rate induced through rotor head rotation differentially. By measuring these quantities differentially, other accelerations from the fuselage reference frame are removed from the measurement, resulting in acceleration and rate quantities that are impacted only by the angle of the sensors relative to the plane of rotation. By mounting these sensors strategically and symmetrically about the rotor blade root center of rotation, the orientation of the rotor blade can be estimated in real time.

  15. FRAME: the early days.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Andrew N

    2009-12-01

    The article reviews the early history of FRAME from the perspective of its first "Scientific Administrator". The roles of Mrs Hegarty the founder, and other early contributors to FRAME's development are described. In addition, the article discusses FRAME's strategic approach to the subject and how Mrs Hegarty's background influenced the development of that approach.

  16. [The transdermal 7-day buprenorphine patch--an effective and safe treatment option, if tramadol or tilidate/naloxone is insufficient. Results of a non-interventional study].

    PubMed

    Schutter, U; Ritzdorf, I; Heckes, B

    2010-07-01

    The transdermal 7-day buprenorphine matrix patch provides a constant and user-friendly pain management when chronic musculoskeletal pain requires opioids. This analysis of clinical routine data evaluated the benefit of this treatment for patients previously receiving oral long-term treatment with weak opioids alone. Data of 310 patients previously treated with tramadol or tildate/naloxone and part of a multicentre observational study with 3295 patients were analyzed. In 89.7% of the 310 patients oral treatment with weak opioids was replaced by the 7-day buprenorphine patch due to insufficient analgesia. During treatment with the 7-day buprenorphine patch there was a clinically significant decrease of the mean pain intensity at rest during the day from 5.7 to 2.9, on physical effort during the day from 7.3 to 3.8 and at night from 5.2 to 2.3 (11-point NRS scale, p < or = 0.001). In addition, quality of life aspects such as mobility, self-reliance and quality of sleep improved, which are relevant for individual patient satisfaction with pain management. For patients with previous long-term tramadol or tilidate/naloxone treatment the switch to the 7-day buprenorphine matrix patch proved to be effective and safe for the management of chronic pain. The user-friendly 7-day application interval contributes to improving compliance and a reducing exposure to tablets.

  17. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  18. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  19. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  20. The Frame Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael Todd; Cox, Dana C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore framing, a non-multiplicative technique commonly employed by students as they construct similar shapes. When students frame, they add (or subtract) a "border" of fixed width about a geometric object. Although the approach does not yield similar shapes in general, the mathematical underpinnings of…

  1. That Article: Frame Relay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Compares Frame Relay with digital and analog alternatives for connecting sites on a Wide Area Network. Cost considerations, the concepts on which the technology is based, its carrying capacity, the use of CD-ROM and Graphical User Interface (GUI) on Frame Relay, and engineering bandwidth limitations are covered. (KRN)

  2. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM), and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is needed to examine long

  3. Real-time atomic-resolution imaging of crystal growth process in water by phase modulation atomic force microscopy at one frame per second

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Kazuki; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2013-11-11

    Recent advancement in dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) has enabled its operation in liquid with atomic-scale resolution. However, its imaging speed has often been too slow to visualize atomic-scale dynamic processes. Here, we propose a method for making a significant improvement in the operation speed of dynamic-mode AFM. In this method, we use a wideband and low-latency phase detector with an improved algorithm for the signal complexification. We demonstrate atomic-scale imaging of a calcite crystal growth process in water at one frame per second. The significant improvement in the imaging speed should enable various studies on unexplored atomic-scale interfacial processes.

  4. A RANDOMIZED TREATMENT TRIAL: SINGLE VERSUS 7 DAY DOSE OF METRONIDAZOLE FOR THE TREATMENT OF TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS AMONG HIV-INFECTED WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Kissinger, Patricia; Mena, Leandro; Levison, Judy; Clark, Rebecca A.; Gatski, Megan; Henderson, Harold; Schmidt, Norine; Rosenthal, Susan; Myers, Leann; Martin, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if the metronidazole (MTZ) 2 gm single dose (recommended) is as effective as the 7 day 500 mg BID dose (alternative) for treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV+ women. Methods Phase IV randomized clinical trial; HIV+ women with culture confirmed TV were randomized to treatment arm: MTZ 2 gm single dose or MTZ 500 mg BID 7 day dose. All women were given 2 gm MTZ doses to deliver to their sex partners. Women were re-cultured for TV at a test-of-cure (TOC) visit occurring 6-12 days after treatment completion. TV-negative women at TOC were again re-cultured at a 3 month visit. Repeat TV infection rates were compared between arms. Results 270 HIV+/TV+ women were enrolled (mean age = 40 years, ± 9.4; 92.2% African-American). Treatment arms were similar with respect to age, race, CD4 count, viral load, ART status, site, and loss-to-follow up. Women in the 7 day arm had: lower repeat TV infection rates at TOC [8.5% (11/130) versus 16.8% (21/125) (R.R. 0.50, 95% CI=0.25, 1.00; P<0.05)], and at 3 months [11.0% (8/73) versus 24.1% (19/79) (R.R. 0.46, 95% CI=0.21, 0.98; P=0.03)] compared to the single dose arm. Conclusions The 7 day MTZ dose was more effective than the single dose for the treatment of TV among HIV+ women. PMID:21423852

  5. Randomized masked controlled clinical trial to compare 7-day and 14-day course length of doxycycline in the treatment of Mycoplasma felis infection in shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Kompare, B; Litster, A L; Leutenegger, C M; Weng, H-Y

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and microbial efficacy of a 7-day or a 14-day course of doxycycline for the treatment of Mycoplasma felis-infected cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) assessed using clinical scoring criteria. Cats were randomly allocated to either the Doxy-7 group (N=20; 7-day course of oral doxycyline liquid followed by 7-days placebo); or the Doxy-14 group (N=20; 14-day course of oral doxycycline). There were no significant differences in Mycoplasma load between groups at Day 1 or Day 7 (P>0.05), but at Day 14 mean Mycoplasma load was lower in the Doxy-14 group (P=0.01). Mycoplasma load reduced over Days 1-7 in each group (P<0.01), but only the Doxy-14 group had a significantly reduced Mycoplasma load at Day 14 compared to Day 1 (P<0.01). On Day 14, 11 (55%) cats in the Doxy-7 group and 5 (25%) cats in the Doxy-14 group had positive PCR results for M. felis. There was a statistically significant reduction within each group across the Day 1-7 period for ocular discharge, nasal discharge, demeanor, and food intake scores (P<0.01 for each score category). Nasal discharge scores and sneezing scores were statistically lower in the Doxy-14 group than in the Doxy-7 group on individual days during the Day 8-14 period (P<0.05). We conclude that in M. felis-infected cats with clinical signs of URTD, a 14-day course of oral doxycycline produced superior microbial but not clinical results compared to a 7-day course of treatment.

  6. Frame modal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guyan, R. J.; Heckenlaible, R. N.

    1971-01-01

    Computer model calculates natural frequencies and modal displacements of three-dimensional frame structures, and generates stiffness and mass matrices. Structures may be divided into several substructures prior to calculation of modal characteristics.

  7. Celestial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-03-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  8. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  9. Space-Frame Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The space-frame antenna is a conceptual antenna structure that would be lightweight, deployable from compact stowage, and capable of deforming itself to a size, shape, and orientation required for a specific use. The space-frame antenna would be a trusslike structure consisting mostly of a tetrahedral mesh of nodes connected by variable-length struts. The deformation of the antenna to a desired size, shape, and orientation would be effected through coordinated lengthening and shorting of the struts.

  10. Dark Matter Results from First 98.7 Days of Data from the PandaX-II Experiment.

    PubMed

    Tan, Andi; Xiao, Mengjiao; Cui, Xiangyi; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Fang, Deqing; Fu, Changbo; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gong, Haowei; Guo, Xuyuan; Han, Ke; Hu, Shouyang; Huang, Xingtao; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xinglong; Liang, Hao; Lin, Qing; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ni, Kaixuan; Ren, Xiangxiang; Schubnell, Michael; Shen, Manbin; Shi, Fang; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jimin; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Xiang; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zeng, Xionghui; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Huanqiao; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Xiaopeng

    2016-09-16

    We report the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter search results using the first physics-run data of the PandaX-II 500 kg liquid xenon dual-phase time-projection chamber, operating at the China JinPing underground laboratory. No dark matter candidate is identified above background. In combination with the data set during the commissioning run, with a total exposure of 3.3×10^{4}  kg day, the most stringent limit to the spin-independent interaction between the ordinary and WIMP dark matter is set for a range of dark matter mass between 5 and 1000  GeV/c^{2}. The best upper limit on the scattering cross section is found 2.5×10^{-46}  cm^{2} for the WIMP mass 40  GeV/c^{2} at 90% confidence level.

  11. Recursive frame integration of limited data: RAFAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.; Soli, Robert A.

    2005-08-01

    Real time infrared imaging and tracking usually requires a high probability of target detection along with a low false alarm rate, achievable only with a high "Signal-to-Noise Ratio" (SNR). Frame integration--summing of non-correlated frames--is commonly used to improve the SNR. But conventional frame integration requires significant processing to store full frames and integrate intermediate results, normalize frame data, etc. It may drive acquisition of highly specialized hardware, faster processors, dedicated frame integration circuit cards and extra memory cards. Non-stationary noise, low frequency noise correlation, non-ergodic noise, scene dynamics, or pointing accuracy may also limit performance. Recursive frame integration of limited data--RAFAIL, is proposed as a means to improve frame integration performance and mitigate the issues. The technique applies two thresholds--one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate--and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with optimal noise management, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability.

  12. Effect of variability in the 7-day baseline pain diary on the assay sensitivity of neuropathic pain randomized clinical trials: an ACTTION study.

    PubMed

    Farrar, John T; Troxel, Andrea B; Haynes, Kevin; Gilron, Ian; Kerns, Robert D; Katz, Nathaniel P; Rappaport, Bob A; Rowbotham, Michael C; Tierney, Ann M; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    The degree of variability in the patient baseline 7-day diary of pain ratings has been hypothesized to have a potential effect on the assay sensitivity of randomized clinical trials of pain therapies. To address this issue, we obtained clinical trial data from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership, and harmonized patient level data from 12 clinical trials (4 gabapentin and 8 pregabalin) in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Models were developed using exploratory logistic regression to examine the interaction between available baseline factors and treatment (placebo vs active medication) in predicting patient response to therapy (ie, >30% improvement). Our analysis demonstrated an increased likelihood of response in the placebo-treated group for patients with a higher standard deviation in the baseline 7-day diary without affecting the likelihood of a response in the active medication-treated group, confirming our hypothesis. In addition, there was a small but significant age-by-treatment interaction in the PHN model, and small weight-by-treatment interaction in the DPN model. The patient's sex, baseline pain level, and the study protocol had an effect only on the likelihood of response overall. Our results suggest the possibility that, at least in some disease processes, excluding patients with a highly variable baseline 7-day diary has the potential to improve the assay sensitivity of these analgesic clinical trials, although reductions of external validity must be considered when increasing the homogeneity of the investigated sample.

  13. Informative-frame filtering in endoscopy videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yong Hwan; Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Lee, JeongKyu; Tavanapong, Wallapak; de Groen, Piet C.; Wong, Johnny

    2005-04-01

    Advances in video technology are being incorporated into today"s healthcare practice. For example, colonoscopy is an important screening tool for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy allows for the inspection of the entire colon and provides the ability to perform a number of therapeutic operations during a single procedure. During a colonoscopic procedure, a tiny video camera at the tip of the endoscope generates a video signal of the internal mucosa of the colon. The video data are displayed on a monitor for real-time analysis by the endoscopist. Other endoscopic procedures include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, enteroscopy, bronchoscopy, cystoscopy, and laparoscopy. However, a significant number of out-of-focus frames are included in this type of videos since current endoscopes are equipped with a single, wide-angle lens that cannot be focused. The out-of-focus frames do not hold any useful information. To reduce the burdens of the further processes such as computer-aided image processing or human expert"s examinations, these frames need to be removed. We call an out-of-focus frame as non-informative frame and an in-focus frame as informative frame. We propose a new technique to classify the video frames into two classes, informative and non-informative frames using a combination of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Texture Analysis, and K-Means Clustering. The proposed technique can evaluate the frames without any reference image, and does not need any predefined threshold value. Our experimental studies indicate that it achieves over 96% of four different performance metrics (i.e. precision, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy).

  14. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  15. Frame dragging and superenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Carot, J.

    2007-08-15

    We show that the vorticity appearing in stationary vacuum spacetimes is always related to the existence of a flow of superenergy on the plane orthogonal to the vorticity vector. This result, together with the previously established link between vorticity and superenergy in radiative (Bondi-Sachs) spacetimes, strengthens further the case for this latter quantity as the cause of frame dragging.

  16. Framing for Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.; Hammer, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on students' scientific argumentation has progressed to a recognition of nascent resources: Students can and do argue when they experience the need and possibility of persuading others who may hold competing views. Our purpose in this article is to contribute to this progress by applying the perspective of framing to the…

  17. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  18. The Ecological Crisis of the Aral Sea* Basin in the Frame of a New Time Scale: The ``Anthropo-Geological Scale''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainguet, Monique; Létolle, René

    At the end of the twentieth century technology has enabled humans to modify their environment so that in a limited time scale (one generation or less) they can produce changes that would require several centuries or more for natural processes. Human activities move the same volume of sediments each year as that carried to the sea naturally by rivers. Such accelerated changes affect continental dimensions (1000km or more). In this lies the concept of ``anthropo-geological time scale''.

  19. Spermatozoa isolated from cat testes retain their structural integrity as well as a developmental potential after refrigeration for up to 7 days.

    PubMed

    Buarpung, Sirirak; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Thongkittidilok, Chommanart; Comizzoli, Pierre; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of preservation media for isolated feline testicular spermatozoa as well as the concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on: (1) the membrane (sperm membrane integrity (SMI)) and DNA integrity of spermatozoa; and (2) the developmental potential of spermatozoa after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Isolated cat spermatozoa were stored in HEPES-M199 medium (HM) or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) at 4°C for up to 7 days. Results indicated that HM maintained a better SMI than DPBS throughout the storage periods (P > 0.05). When spermatozoa were stored in HM supplemented with BSA at different concentrations (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), SMI obtained from HM containing 8 and 16 mg/ml BSA was higher than with 4 mg/ml BSA (P 0.05). In summary, cat spermatozoa immediately isolated from testicular tissue can be stored as a suspension in basic buffered medium at 4°C for up to 7 days. BSA supplementation into the medium improves membrane integrity of the spermatozoa during cold storage. Testicular spermatozoa stored in HM containing 16 mg/ml BSA retained full in vitro developmental potential after ICSI, similar to that of fresh controls even though DNA integrity had slightly declined.

  20. Rapid detection of the Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 tcdC gene frame shift mutation at position 117 by real-time PCR and melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolff, D; Brüning, T; Gerritzen, A

    2009-08-01

    The emergence of the hypervirulent strain Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 has increased the necessity for rapid C. difficile typing tests for clinical and epidemiological purposes. We developed a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for the detection of C. difficile. As the target, we chose the tcdC gene, which encodes for a negative regulator in toxin production. A deletion at position 117 of the tcdC gene, which is associated with severe tcdC truncation, is well conserved in all PCR ribotype 027 isolates. Probe sequences of the real-time PCR test were designed to result in distinct melt profiles for sequence variations at positions 117 to 120 of the tcdC gene. The tcdC gene deletion at position 117 was easily detected with real-time PCR and melt curve analysis in all C. difficile ribotype 027 isolates. In five non-027 strains and 46 hospitalised patient samples, melt curve analysis detected no deletion. PCR results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The combination of real-time PCR and melt curve analysis is a rapid and accurate method for the detection of C. difficile DNA and simultaneous screening for the tcdC gene deletion at position 117, which is closely related to the C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 strain.

  1. One frame subnanosecond spectroscopy camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silkis, E. G.; Titov, V. D.; Fel'Dman, G. G.; Zhilkina, V. M.; Petrokovich, O. A.; Syrtsev, V. N.

    1991-04-01

    The recording of ultraweak spectra is presently undertaken by a high-speed multichannel-spectrum camera (HSMSC) with a subnanosec-range time resolution in its photon-counting mode. This HSMSC's photodetector is a one-frame streak tube equipped with a grid shutter which is connected via fiber-optic contact to a linear CCD. The grain furnished by the streak tube on the basis of a microchannel plate is sufficiently high for recording single photoelectron signals. The HSMSC is compact and easy to handle.

  2. Recursive adaptive frame integration limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-05-01

    Recursive Frame Integration Limited was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed for conventional frame integration. The technique applies two thresholds - one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate - and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration Limited is proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration.

  3. QoS-UniFrame: A Petri Net-based Modeling Approach to Assure QoS Requirements of Distributed Real-time and Embedded Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    E. Eiben , R. Hintering, and Z. Michalewicz. Para- meter control in evolutionary algorithms. IEEE Trans. on Evolutionary Computation , 3(2):124–141...first level. Evolutionary algorithms cooperat- ing with a domain-specific scripting language then discard less probable design spaces using statistics...These tech- niques fulfill the collective objectives of pruning and assur- ing the design space at system assembly time. 1. Introduction Distributed

  4. Electrically insulating and sealing frame

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Robin J.

    1983-11-08

    A combination gas seal and electrical insulator having a closed frame shape interconnects a fuel cell stack and a reactant gas plenum of a fuel cell generator. The frame can be of rectangular shape including at least one slidable spline connection in each side to permit expansion or contraction consistent with that of the walls of the gas plenum and fuel cell stack. The slidable spline connections in the frame sides minimizes lateral movement between the frame side members and sealing material interposed between the frame and the fuel cell stack or between the frame and the reactant gas plenum.

  5. Frame for a firearm

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2008-03-04

    A firearm frame which is adapted to be disposed in operative relationship as a component part of a firearm, the firearm having disposed in operative relationships each with one or more of the others, a barrel, a receiver, and at least one firing mechanism; wherein the barrel and receiver form operative parts of a movable assembly and the at least one firing mechanism is disposed in a substantially stationary operative relationship therewith; the firearm frame including at least one elongated support structure discrete from the barrel and receiver, the elongated support structure being adapted to directly support the movable assembly in an operative movable relationship therewith; whereby at least one of the barrel and receiver is in direct contact with and movable on the elongated support structure; and, a firing mechanism support structure connected to the at least one elongated support structure, the firing mechanism support structure being adapted to have the firing mechanism connected thereto; the firearm frame also directly supporting the movable assembly and the firing mechanism in corresponding movable and stationary operative relationships each with the other.

  6. TH-A-9A-05: Initial Setup Accuracy Comparison Between Frame-Based and Frameless Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, T; Sheu, R; Todorov, B; Green, S; Blacksburg, S; Lo, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate initial setup accuracy for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) between Brainlab frame-based and frameless immobilization system, also to discern the magnitude frameless system has on setup parameters. Methods: The correction shifts from the original setup were compared for total 157 SRS cranial treatments (69 frame-based vs. 88 frameless). All treatments were performed on a Novalis linac with ExacTrac positioning system. Localization box with isocenter overlay was used for initial setup and correction shift was determined by ExacTrac 6D auto-fusion to achieve submillimeter accuracy for treatment. For frameless treatments, mean time interval between simulation and treatment was 5.7 days (range 0–13). Pearson Chi-Square was used for univariate analysis. Results: The correctional radial shifts (mean±STD, median) for the frame and frameless system measured by ExacTrac were 1.2±1.2mm, 1.1mm and 3.1±3.3mm, 2.0mm, respectively. Treatments with frameless system had a radial shift >2mm more often than those with frames (51.1% vs. 2.9%; p<.0001). To achieve submillimeter accuracy, 85.5% frame-based treatments did not require shift and only 23.9% frameless treatment could succeed with initial setup. There was no statistical significant system offset observed in any direction for either system. For frameless treatments, those treated ≥ 3 days from simulation had statistically higher rates of radial shifts between 1–2mm and >2mm compared to patients treated in a shorter amount of time from simulation (34.3% and 56.7% vs. 28.6% and 33.3%, respectively; p=0.006). Conclusion: Although image-guided positioning system can also achieve submillimeter accuracy for frameless system, users should be cautious regarding the inherent uncertainty of its capability of immobilization. A proper quality assurance procedure for frameless mask manufacturing and a protocol for intra-fraction imaging verification will be crucial for frameless system. Time interval between

  7. [Effect of mechanic stimulation of foot support zones during 7-day dry immersion on alterations of ocular saccades kinematics associated with immersion].

    PubMed

    Zobova, L N; Miller, N V; Badakva, A M

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the investigation was to evaluate how daily sessions of mechanic stimulation (MS) of foot support zones applied to mitigate the effects of lack of support loading on the postural muscles influence ocular saccades during prolonged support deprivation. According to the experimental protocol, before and immediately after 7-day dry immersion, 4 control and 4 MC human subjects (experimental group) implemented the test of rapid blanking light target appearing on the visual field periphery. Eye motions were detected using infrared images obtained at 200 Hz. Analysis of normalized and consolidated data showed that MC of foot support zones moderated significantly alterations in ocular saccade kinematics associated with support load deprivation confirmed by recruitment of support afferentation in sensory input to mechanisms of ocular saccade generation.

  8. Biodistribution of PLGA and PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles after repeat-dose oral delivery in F344 rats for 7 days

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sara M; Darensbourg, Caleb; Cross, Linda; Stout, Rhett; Coulon, Diana; Astete, Carlos E; Morgan, Timothy; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Aim To quantify in vivo the biodistribution of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles (PLGA/Chi NPs) and assess if the positive charge of chitosan significantly enhances nanoparticle absorption in the GI tract. Material & methods PLGA and PLGA/Chi NPs covalently linked to tetramethylrhodamine-5-isothiocyanate (TRITC) were orally administered to F344 rats for 7 days, and the biodistribution of fluorescent NPs was analyzed in different organs. Results The highest amount of particles (% total dose/g) was detected for both treatments in the spleen, followed by intestine and kidney, and then by liver, lung, heart and brain, with no significant difference between PLGA and PLGA/Chi NPs. Conclusion Only a small percentage of orally delivered NPs was detected in the analyzed organs. The positive charge conferred by chitosan was not sufficient to improve the absorption of the PLGA/Chi NPs over that of PLGA NPs. PMID:25491670

  9. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus confers complete clinical protection in 7 days and partial protection in 4 days: Use in emergency outbreak response.

    PubMed

    Golde, William T; Pacheco, Juan M; Duque, Hernando; Doel, Timothy; Penfold, Barry; Ferman, Geoffrey S; Gregg, Douglas R; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2005-12-30

    Recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) demonstrate that this highly contagious viral infection of cloven hoofed animals continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Debate about the most effective way to respond to outbreaks of FMDV in disease free countries continues to center on the use of vaccines. In this report, we present data showing that a commercially available, standard dose vaccine formulation can fully protect cattle against direct challenge with the virus in as little as 7 days with no carrier transmission to naïve animals. Cattle challenged 4 days after vaccination have reduced disease severity, no detectable virus in blood and little virus shedding from nasal secretions. These significant effects at 4 days post vaccination, confirmed in two separate trials, support the value of using currently available vaccines as a first line of defense against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks.

  10. MedlinePlus FAQ: Framing

    MedlinePlus

    ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/faq/framing.html I'd like to link to MedlinePlus, ... as HealthDay. Our license agreements do not permit framing of their content from our site. For more ...

  11. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2015-04-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  12. Theory, implementation and applications of nonstationary Gabor frames.

    PubMed

    Balazs, P; Dörfler, M; Jaillet, F; Holighaus, N; Velasco, G

    2011-10-15

    Signal analysis with classical Gabor frames leads to a fixed time-frequency resolution over the whole time-frequency plane. To overcome the limitations imposed by this rigidity, we propose an extension of Gabor theory that leads to the construction of frames with time-frequency resolution changing over time or frequency. We describe the construction of the resulting nonstationary Gabor frames and give the explicit formula for the canonical dual frame for a particular case, the painless case. We show that wavelet transforms, constant-Q transforms and more general filter banks may be modeled in the framework of nonstationary Gabor frames. Further, we present the results in the finite-dimensional case, which provides a method for implementing the above-mentioned transforms with perfect reconstruction. Finally, we elaborate on two applications of nonstationary Gabor frames in audio signal processing, namely a method for automatic adaptation to transients and an algorithm for an invertible constant-Q transform.

  13. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan; Dekkers, Mark; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    In 1975, during DSDP Leg 42B to the Black Sea, three sites were drilled with a total of 2318 m cored and a recovery of 55%. While to modern scientific standards this may not be very impressive, these sites still represent the longest available records of sedimentation in the basinal part of the Black Sea. The main stratigraphic objectives of DSDP Leg 42B were to 1) obtain a complete Pleistocene litho- and biostratigraphic section and 2) study interactions between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, focusing on glacio-eustatic sea level change, periods of lacustrine sedimentation, periods of anoxia, and 3) to establish a paleoclimatic record. Major problems establishing a timescale emerged after drilling due to a) the general shortage of definitive paleontological age markers and b) the general lack of agreement on correlation and time zonation of sedimentary units. Magnetostratigraphic dating could have solved these timescale problems but was hindered by the presence of the little understood authigenic iron sulphide mineral greigite (Fe3S4) as main magnetic carrier. In recent years, the understanding of greigite has significantly improved and is considered a reliable magnetic carrier. Especially in the circum-Black Sea region, many Miocene to recent, land-based sections are magnetostratigraphically dated with greigite as magnetic carrier. We therefore resampled the cores of DSDP Leg 42B to see whether after 40 years of storage any of the original signal is preserved. Our results show these cores are still surprisingly useful for magnetostratigraphic dating. Complications arise due to the presence of hiatuses, especially in the near-Bosporus locations. Our age model gives important new insights into the response of the Black Sea to major paleoenvironmental and climatic changes related to the late Miocene Messinian salinity crisis and throughout the Pleistocene. More generally, our results show that for future deep-sea drilling expeditions to the Black Sea, the

  14. The Levels of Visual Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Dimitrova, Daniela V.

    2011-01-01

    While framing research has centered mostly on the evaluations of media texts, visual news discourse has remained relatively unexamined. This study surveys the visual framing techniques and methods employed in previous studies and proposes a four-tiered model of identifying and analyzing visual frames: (1) visuals as denotative systems, (2) visuals…

  15. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  16. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  17. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition.

  18. Time frames for geothermal project development

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, David W.

    2001-04-17

    Geothermal development can generally be broken down into distinct phases: Exploration and Leasing; Project Development And Feasibility Studies; Well Field Development; Project Finance, Construction and Start-up Operations; and Commercial Operations. Each phase represents different levels of cost and risk and different types of management teams that are needed to assess and manage the project and associated risk. Orderly transitions of management at each major phase are needed. Exploration programs are largely science based, the primary focus of the science based investigations should be to: secure the lease position, and develop sufficient information to identify and characterize an economical geothermal resource. Project development specialists build on the exploration data to: pull together a project design, develop a detailed cost estimate; prepare an environmental assessment; and collect all data needed for project financing. Construction specialist build from the development phase to: develop detailed engineering, procure equipment and materials, schedule and manage the facilities construction programs, and start and test the power plant. Operations specialists take over from construction during start-up and are responsible for sustainable and reliable operations of the resource and power generation equipment over the life of the project.

  19. Frame junction vibration transmission with a modified frame deformation model.

    PubMed

    Moore, J A

    1990-12-01

    A previous paper dealt with vibration transmission through junctions of connected frame members where the allowed frame deformations included bending, torsion, and longitudinal motions [J.A. Moore, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2766-2776 (1990)]. In helicopter and aircraft structures the skin panels can constitute a high impedance connection along the length of the frames that effectively prohibits in-plane motion at the elevation of the skin panels. This has the effect of coupling in-plane bending and torsional motions within the frame. This paper discusses the transmission behavior through frame junctions that accounts for the in-plane constraint in idealized form by assuming that the attached skin panels completely prohibit inplane motion in the frames. Also, transverse shear deformation is accounted for in describing the relatively deep web frame constructions common in aircraft structures. Longitudinal motion in the frames is not included in the model. Transmission coefficient predictions again show the importance of out-of-plane bending deformation to the transmission of vibratory energy in an aircraft structure. Comparisons are shown with measured vibration transmission data along the framing in the overhead of a helicopter airframe, with good agreement. The frame junction description has been implemented within a general purpose statistical energy analysis (SEA) computer code in modeling the entire airframe structure including skin panels.

  20. A Virtual Frame System for Stereotactic Radiosurgery Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Eric Purger, David; Tryggestad, Erik; McNutt, Todd; Christodouleas, John; Rigamonti, Daniele; Shokek, Ori; Won Sang; Zhou, Jessica; Lim, Michael; Wong, John; Kleinberg, Larry

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: We describe a computerized (or virtual) model of a stereotactic head frame to enable planning prior to the day of radiosurgery. The location of the virtual frame acts as a guide to frame placement on the day of the procedure. Methods and Materials: The software consists of a triangular mesh representation of the essential frame hardware that can be overlaid with any MR scan of the patient and manipulated in three dimensions. The software calculates regions of the head that will actually be accessible for treatment, subject to the geometric constraints of the Leksell Gamma Knife hardware. DICOM-compliant MR images with virtual fiducial markers overlaid onto the image can then be generated for recognition by the treatment planning system. Results: Retrospective evaluation of the software on 24 previously treated patients shows a mean deviation of the position of the virtual frame from the actual frame position of 1.6 {+-} 1.3 mm. Initial clinical use on five patients indicates an average discrepancy of the virtual frame location and the actual frame location of <1 mm. MR images with virtual fiducial markers can be imported into radiosurgical treatment planning software and used to generate an initial treatment plan. Conclusions: The virtual frame provides a tool for prospective determination of lesion accessibility, optimization of the frame placement, and treatment planning before the day of the procedure. This promises to shorten overall treatment times, improve patient comfort, and reduce the need for repeat treatments due to suboptimally placed frames.

  1. Relativistic effects in local inertial frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Neil; Bertotti, Bruno

    1986-01-01

    The concept of a generalized Fermi frame is introduced with the aim of describing the relativistic effects due to a third, distant body (such as the sun) upon the motion of an earth satellite. This extends Fermi's construction of a local inertial frame to the case in which there are local gravitating masses. This is done in the slow-motion, weak-field approximation by splitting the metric into an external part and a local part; Fermi's construction of local inertial coordinates defined with respect to the external metric is then used to transform the complete metric. The results show that the main relativistic effects on an earth satellite are due to the nonlinear correction in the earth's own Schwarzschild field. There are much smaller relativistic corrections in the tidal field of the sun, and an earth-sun interaction term. The spatial axes of the local frame also undergo geodetic precession. Particular care must be taken with respect to the definition of the time coordinate in the generalized Fermi frame in order that the unit of time be consistent with readings of reasonable physical clocks on earth's surface. Also discussed more rigorously is the generalized Fermi frame for a system of two bodies revolving in circular orbits around a common barycenter.

  2. Fosfomycin in a single dose versus a 7-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Estebanez, A; Pascual, R; Gil, V; Ortiz, F; Santibáñez, M; Pérez Barba, C

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the efficacy of a single dose of 3 g of fosfomycin to that of a 7-day regimen of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A randomised, prospective, interventional, analytical, longitudinal study was undertaken, in which the efficacy of two antibiotic regimens (one short and the other long) in the treatment of pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria is compared. One hundred and nine patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 56 were treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate and 53 with fosfomycin. The two groups were similar in terms of co-morbidity, treatments received during pregnancy, obstetric, gynaecological and surgical history and laboratory data. The efficacy of the two regimens was similar and the eradication rate was over 80% in both groups (P = 0.720) (relative risk [RR] 1.195, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.451-3.165). The number of reinfections was greater in the amoxicillin-clavulanate group (P = 0.045). The secondary effects were lower in the fosfomycin group (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in the number of persistences (P = 0.39), development of symptomatic urinary infections (P = 0.319) or recurrences (P = 0.96). Treatment with a single dose of fosfomycin is as effective as the standard course of treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate and may be preferable due to its simpler administration and the smaller number of reinfections.

  3. [Effect of water-salt dietary supplements on tolerance to head-pelvis acceleration after 7 days of "dry" immersion and during normal motor activity].

    PubMed

    Kokova, N I

    1984-01-01

    The effect of water-salt supplements as an agent increasing human tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration with a slow onset was examined. The test subjects were rotated in a 7.25 m arm centrifuge after 7-day dry immersion or normal motor activity. The water-salt supplements were given at a dose of 0.15 g NaCl and 18 ml water per kg body weight (with the total daily dose consumed in four fractions). During immersion fluid retention was significantly higher than during normal activity (818 +/- 139.7 ml versus 478 +/- 69 ml). Water-salt supplements consumed produced a positive effect on tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration. During centrifugation after water-salt supplementation the physiological responses were less strained. Water-salt supplements taken on the last immersion day increased the tolerance level as compared to the control. The amount of the fluid retained in the body was found to be inversely proportional to the tolerance level. It is concluded that water-salt supplements may be recommended to increase tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration in aerospace medicine.

  4. Semiclassical framed BPS states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory W.; Royston, Andrew B.; Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional {N}=2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L 2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L 2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no-exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no-exotics theorem, concerning the absence of nontrivial SU(2) R representations in the BPS spectrum, implies that the kernel of the Dirac operator is chiral, and further translates into a statement that all L 2 cohomology of the Dolbeault operator is concentrated in the middle degree. Wall crossing formulae lead to detailed predictions for where the Dirac operators fail to be Fredholm and how their kernels jump. We explore these predictions in nontrivial examples. This paper explains the background and arguments behind the results announced in the short note [1].

  5. Framing the Game: Examining Frame Choice in Bargaining.

    PubMed

    Blount; Larrick

    2000-01-01

    This article introduces the study of frame choice in negotiation. Here, the selection of a procedural frame is treated as a dependent variable-a choice that bargainers make in addition to determining their offers. The empirical focus of the article is on whether, when given a choice between two alternative versions of the ultimatum bargaining game, negotiators choose the description that maximizes their expected payoffs. For example, in one frame-choice task, negotiators assigned to the Player 1 role were asked to select between framing the game as "Player 1 proposes a division and Player 2 accepts or rejects it" or "Player 1 makes a claim from a common pool and Player 2 makes a counterclaim." Past research has shown that the second frame leads to higher expected payoffs for Player 1 than does the first. Across four studies and three established framing effects, it is found that participants consistently fail to select the procedural frames that optimize monetary outcomes. Subsequent analyses suggest that this tendency is due to two factors: (a) nonmonetary motivations, such as fairness and respect, that influence frame-choice preferences and (b) cognitive limitations that inhibit the ability to accurately predict the effect of alternative procedural frames on opponents' responses Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Using Temporal Fill Factor to Reduce Frame Reconstruction Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, James; Balram, Nikhil; Gille, Jennifer; Luszcz, Jeffery

    1997-01-01

    The newer active matrix display technologies such as TFT-LCD, DMD, PDP maintain their pixel values through the entire frame time, presenting a 100% temporal fill factor, in contrast to the duty cycle produced by the phosphor impulse response of the CRT. This sample-and-hold characteristic can be exploited to lower the displayed frame rate without affecting visual quality. The lower frame rate results in significantly lower transmission bandwidth, power, and cost.

  7. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-22

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  8. Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.

  9. Comparison of follicular dynamics and hormone concentrations between the 7-day and 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR program in primiparous beef cows.

    PubMed

    Bridges, G A; Mussard, M L; Helser, L A; Day, M L

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to compare follicular dynamics, preovulatory estradiol concentrations, and progesterone concentrations between the 7-day (7CO, n = 15) and 5-day (5CO, n = 13) CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) program in primiparous suckled beef cows. On Day -7 (7CO) or Day -5 (5CO), GnRH (100 μg) was administered (GnRH-1) and a CIDR was inserted. On Day 0, hour 0, CIDR was removed and cows received PGF2α (25 mg) at hours 0 and 12. Animals were administered GnRH (100 μg, GnRH-2) at either hour 60 (7CO) or 72 (5CO). Follicular growth and ovulation to both GnRH-1 and GnRH-2 were evaluated using ultrasonography. Concentrations of estradiol were determined in blood samples taken at hours 0, 36, 60, and 72 (5CO). Blood samples were collected on Days 5, 8, and 14 for progesterone quantification. Ovulation rate to GnRH-1 did not differ between the 7CO (11/15) and 5CO (8/13) treatments, and for all dependent variables the statistical model included treatment, ovulation to GnRH-1, and their interaction. Diameter (mm) of the ovulatory follicle did not differ between treatments (13.4 ± 0.3) but was greater (P < 0.05) in cows that responded to GnRH-1 (13.8 ± 0.3) than those did not (12.6 ± 0.6). Maximum estradiol concentrations tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in the 5CO (7.3 ± 0.5 pg/mL) than 7CO (6.1 ± 0.7 pg/mL) treatment and tended to be greater (P = 0.08) in cows that responded to GnRH-1 (7.1 ± 0.5 pg/mL) than those did not (5.6 ± 0.9 pg/mL). Three cows in the 7CO treatment failed to develop a CL after GnRH-2. There was a treatment by response to GnRH-1 interaction (P < 0.05) for progesterone concentrations. In cows that did not respond to GnRH-1 in the 7CO treatment, progesterone concentrations were less (P < 0.05) than in those that responded to GnRH-1 in the 7CO treatment and tended (P = 0.09) to be less than in cows in the 5CO treatment that did not respond to GnRH-1. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that failure to

  10. A phase I trial of the selective oral cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor seliciclib (CYC202; R-Roscovitine), administered twice daily for 7 days every 21 days

    PubMed Central

    Benson, C; White, J; Bono, J De; O'Donnell, A; Raynaud, F; Cruickshank, C; McGrath, H; Walton, M; Workman, P; Kaye, S; Cassidy, J; Gianella-Borradori, A; Judson, I; Twelves, C

    2006-01-01

    Seliciclib (CYC202; R-roscovitine) is the first selective, orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 1, 2, 7 and 9 to enter clinical trial. Preclinical studies showed antitumour activity in a broad range of human tumour xenografts. A phase I trial was performed with a 7-day b.i.d. p.o. schedule. Twenty-one patients (median age 62 years, range: 39–73 years) were treated with doses of 100, 200 and 800 b.i.d. Dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 800 mg b.i.d.; grade 3 fatigue, grade 3 skin rash, grade 3 hyponatraemia and grade 4 hypokalaemia. Other toxicities included reversible raised creatinine (grade 2), reversible grade 3 abnormal liver function and grade 2 emesis. An 800 mg portion was investigated further in 12 patients, three of whom had MAG3 renograms. One patient with a rapid increase in creatinine on day 3 had a reversible fall in renal perfusion, with full recovery by day 14, and no changes suggestive of renal tubular damage. Further dose escalation was precluded by hypokalaemia. Seliciclib reached peak plasma concentrations between 1 and 4 h and elimination half-life was 2–5 h. Inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation was not demonstrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. No objective tumour responses were noted, but disease stabilisation was recorded in eight patients; this lasted for a total of six courses (18 weeks) in a patient with ovarian cancer. PMID:17179992

  11. Trichilia monadelpha bark extracts inhibit carrageenan-induced foot-oedema in the 7-day old chick and the oedema associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ainooson, G K; Owusu, G; Woode, E; Ansah, C; Annan, K

    2012-01-01

    Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Meliaceae) bark extract is used in African traditional medicine for the management of various disease conditions including inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. monadelpha using the 7-day old chick-carrageenan footpad oedema (acute inflammation) and the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (chronic inflammation). TWE and TPEE significantly inhibited the chick-carrageenan footpad oedema with maximal inhibitions of 57.79±3.92 and 63.83±12 respectively, but TAE did not. The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of 64.92±2.03 and 71.85±15.34 respectively. Furthermore, all the extracts and the reference anti-inflammatory agents (diclofenac, dexamethasone, methotrexate) inhibited the inflammatory oedema associated with adjuvant arthritis with maximal inhibitions of 64.41±5.56, 57.04±8.57, 62.18±2.56%, for TWE, TAE and TPEE respectively and 80.28±5.79, 85.75±2.96, 74.68±3.03% for diclofenac, dexamethasone and methotrexate respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant bark confirmed the presence of a large array of plant constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids, all of which may be potential sources of phyto-antiinflammatory agents. In conclusion, our work suggests that T. monadelpha is a potential source of antiinflammatory agents.

  12. Concentrations of dapivirine in the rhesus macaque and rabbit following once daily intravaginal administration of a gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Jeremy P; Thake, Daryl C; Lewis, Mark G; Ferkany, John W; Romano, Joseph W; Mitchnick, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    Dapivirine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being developed as a topical microbicide for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The distribution of radioactivity and drug in plasma and in vaginal, cervical, and draining lymph node tissues was investigated after daily application of a vaginal gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine to rhesus macaques. This was preceded by a preliminary study with rabbits. Following the intravaginal administration of [14C]dapivirine ( approximately 0.1 mg/ml [15 microCi/ml]) to rabbits (0.5 ml/day) and macaques (1 ml/day) for 7 days, the dapivirine levels associated with vaginal and cervical tissue samples 1 h after the final dose were high (quantities of microg/g of tissue) and remained detectable at 24 h (mean, >or=2.5 ng/g in rabbits) and 48 h (mean, >80 ng/g in macaques). Radioactivity levels were low in the plasma and very low or unquantifiable in the draining lymph nodes of the macaques. Microautoradiography identified drug-related material (DRM) on the surfaces of the vaginal and cervical tissues of the rabbits and macaques. Although DRM was primarily associated with the outermost layer of shedding cells in rabbits, two animals showed some evidence of small quantities in the mucosal epithelium of the cervix. In macaques, DRM was seen within the keratinized layer of the vaginal epithelium and and was found to extend into the superficial cellular layers, and in at least one animal it appeared to be present in the deepest (germinal) layer of the epithelium and in submucosal tissues. The persistence of biologically significant concentrations of dapivirine in vaginal and cervical tissues for >24 h supports the development of dapivirine as a microbicide for once daily application.

  13. Backreaction of frame dragging

    SciTech Connect

    Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Rebelo, Carmen; Warnick, Claude M.

    2009-10-15

    The backreaction on black holes due to dragging heavy, rather than test, objects is discussed. As a case study, a five-dimensional regular black Saturn system where the central black hole has vanishing intrinsic angular momentum, J{sup BH}=0, is considered. It is shown that there is a correlation between the sign of two response functions. One is interpreted as a moment of inertia of the black ring in the black Saturn system. The other measures the variation of the black ring horizon angular velocity with the central black hole mass, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. The two different phases defined by these response functions collapse, for small central black hole mass, to the thin and fat ring phases. In the fat phase, the zero area limit of the black Saturn ring has reduced spin j{sup 2}>1, which is related to the behavior of the ring angular velocity. Using the 'gravitomagnetic clock effect', for which a universality property is exhibited, it is shown that frame dragging measured by an asymptotic observer decreases, in both phases, when the central black hole mass increases, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. A close parallelism between the results for the fat phase and those obtained recently for the double Kerr solution is drawn, considering also a regular black Saturn system with J{sup BH}{ne}0.

  14. [The framing effect: medical implications].

    PubMed

    Mazzocco, Ketti; Cherubini, Paolo; Rumiati, Rino

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, many studies explored how the way information is presented modifies choices. This sort of effect, referred to as "framing effects", typically consists of the inversion of choices when presenting structurally identical decision problems in different ways. It is a common assumption that physicians are unaffected (or less affected) by the surface description of a decision problem, because they are formally trained in medical decision making. However, several studies showed that framing effects occur even in the medical field. The complexity and variability of these effects are remarkable, making it necessary to distinguish among different framing effects, depending on whether the effect is obtained by modifying adjectives (attribute framing), goals of a behavior (goal framing), or the probability of an outcome (risky choice framing). A further reason for the high variability of the framing effects seems to be the domain of the decision problem, with different effects occurring in prevention decisions, disease-detection decisions, and treatment decisions. The present work reviews the studies on framing effects, in order to summarize them and clarify their possible role in medical decision making.

  15. Putting a Frame on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Robin R.; Berube, William B.; Perry, Suzanne M.; Stader, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Teachers are learning more about the theories that support conceptual frameworks as a learning tool. A literature review revealed that frame theory is an accepted principle used to describe how the brain organizes experiences and new information. Frame theory supports the understanding that individuals can organize their thoughts to better…

  16. FRAMES and Other IEM Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation package is developed that describes the FRAMES software technology system. The philosophy of FRAMES is discussed; its components and editors are reviewed; its relationship to integrated environmental modeling technologies; such as D4EM and SuperMUSE, are described;...

  17. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  18. Eckart frames for planar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hua

    2003-04-01

    Explicit analytic expressions of Eckart frames for planar molecules in Radau, Jacobi and bond coordinates have been presented. The orientation of the frame axis system with respect to the molecular plane at equilibrium is specified by an angle θ1e.

  19. Stress Analysis of Circular Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahlbusch, H; Wegner, W

    1941-01-01

    The stresses in circular frames of constant bending stiffnesses, as encountered in thin-wall shells, are investigated from the point of view of finite depth of sectional area of frame. The solution is carried out for four fundamental load conditions. The method is illustrated on a worked out example.

  20. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Azevedo, Bruna Fernades; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  1. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S.; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K. M.; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A.; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Mahmud, Md. Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J.; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Bradley Sack, R.; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention. PMID:26728766

  2. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention.

  3. Framed School--Frame Factors, Frames and the Dynamics of Social Interaction in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to show how the Goffman frame perspective can be used in an analysis of school and education and how it can be combined, in such analysis, with the frame factor perspective. The latter emphasizes factors that are determined outside the teaching process, while the former stresses how actors organize their experiences and define…

  4. Preferred Frame Effects in Relativistic Binary Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, M.; Wex, N.

    2008-03-01

    We summarize our recently presented consistent, theory-independent methodology to measure preferred-frame effects (PFEs) in binary pulsars that exhibit a high rate of periastron advance. In these systems the existence of a preferred frame for gravity leads to an observable characteristic signature in the timing data. A newly developed PFE timing model can be used to either measure or constrain the parameters related to a violation of the local Lorentz invariance of gravity in the strong internal fields of neutron stars. In particular, in the presence of PFEs we expect a set of the new timing parameters to have a unique relationship that can be measured and tested incontrovertibly. A combination of several suitable systems in a PFE antenna array provides full sensitivity to possible violations of local Lorentz invariance in strong gravitational fields in all directions of the sky.

  5. Asteroid Ida - Five Frame Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the asteroid 243 Ida is a mosaic of five image frames acquired by the Galileo spacecraft's solid-state imaging system at ranges of 3,057 to 3,821 kilometers (1,900 to 2,375 miles) on August 28, 1993, about 3-1/2 minutes before the spacecraft made its closest approach to the asteroid. Galileo flew about 2,400 kilometers (1,500 miles) from Ida at a relative velocity of 12.4 km/sec (28,000 mph). Asteroid and spacecraft were 441 million kilometers (274 million miles) from the Sun. Ida is the second asteroid ever encountered by a spacecraft. It appears to be about 52 kilometers (32 miles) in length, more than twice as large as Gaspra, the first asteroid observed by Galileo in October 1991. Ida is an irregularly shaped asteroid placed by scientists in the S class (believed to be like stony or stony iron meteorites). It is a member of the Koronis family, presumed fragments left from the breakup of a precursor asteroid in a catastrophic collision. This view shows numerous craters, including many degraded craters larger than any seen on Gaspra. The extensive cratering seems to dispel theories about Ida's surface being geologically youthful. This view also seems to rule out the idea that Ida is a double body. The south pole is believed to be in the darkside near the middle of the asteroid. The camera's clear filter was used to produce this extremely sharp picture. Spatial resolution is 31 to 38 meters (roughly 100 feet) per pixel. A 30-frame mosaic was taken to assure capturing Ida; its position was somewhat uncertain before the Galileo encounter. Galileo shuttered and recorded a total of 150 images in order to capture Ida 21 different times during a five hour period (about one rotation of the asteroid). Color filters were used at many of these times to allow reconstruction of color images. Playback to Earth of the remaining images is planned for April through June 1994. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995

  6. Framing Obesity: How News Frames Shape Attributions and Behavioral Responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Krakow, Melinda; John, Kevin K; Liu, Miao; Weaver, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Based on a public health model of obesity, this study set out to examine whether a news article reporting the obesity issue in a societal versus individual frame would increase perceptions of societal responsibilities for the obesity problem and motivate responsibility-taking behaviors. Responsibility-taking behaviors were examined at 3 levels: personal, interpersonal, and societal. Data from a Web-based experiment revealed significant framing effects on behaviors via causal and treatment responsibility attributions. The societal frame increased societal causal and treatment attribution, which led to greater likelihoods of interpersonal and social responsibility-taking behaviors as well as personal behaviors. Our findings suggest that news framing can be an effective venue for raising awareness of obesity as a societal issue and mobilizing collective efforts.

  7. Living Color Frame System: PC graphics tool for data visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.

    1993-01-01

    Living Color Frame System (LCFS) is a personal computer software tool for generating real-time graphics applications. It is highly applicable for a wide range of data visualization in virtual environment applications. Engineers often use computer graphics to enhance the interpretation of data under observation. These graphics become more complicated when 'run time' animations are required, such as found in many typical modern artificial intelligence and expert systems. Living Color Frame System solves many of these real-time graphics problems.

  8. Framing as a Theory of Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    1999-01-01

    Systematizes the fragmented approaches to framing in political communication and integrates them into a comprehensive model. Classifies previous approaches to framing research along two dimensions: media frames versus audience frames; and the way frames are operationalized (independent variable or dependent variable). Identifies four key processes…

  9. Vibrations of elastically restrained frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarracín, Carlos Marcelo; Grossi, Ricardo Oscar

    2005-07-01

    This paper deals with the determination of eigenfrequencies of a frame which consists of a beam supported by a column and is submitted to intermediate elastic constraints. The ends of the frame are elastically restrained against rotation and translation. The individual members of the frame are assumed to be governed by the transverse and axial vibration theory of an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The boundary and eigenvalue problem which governs the dynamical behavior of the frame structure is derived using the techniques of calculus of variations. Exact values of eigenfrequencies are determined by the application of the separation of variables method. Also, results are obtained by the use of the finite element method. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are presented for a wide range of values of the restraint parameters. Several particular cases are presented and some of these have been compared with those available in the literature.

  10. Multi-Frame Object Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    was originally developed by Intel, but is now sup- ported by Willow Garage and Itseez [13]. The library includes many applications including facial...apply two- dimensional features to each frame of a multi-frame sample in the same locations and sum the results, as shown in the following equation and...Dataset We created a synthetic dataset that depicts a circular object undergoing a diagonal back-and- forth motion. 200 sequences, each spanning three

  11. Frame Indifferent (Truly Covariant) Formulation of Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov, Christo

    2010-10-01

    The Electromagnetic field is considered from the point of view of mechanics of continuum. It is shown that Maxwell's equations are mathematically strict corollaries form the equation of motions of an elastic incompressible liquid. If the concept of frame-indifference (material invariance) is applied to the model of elastic liquid, then the partial time derivatives have to be replaced by the convective time derivative in the momentum equations, and by the Oldroyd upper-convected derivative in the constitutive relation. The convective/convected terms involve the velocity at a point of the field, and as a result, when deriving the Maxwell form of the equations, one arrives at equations which contain both the terms of Maxwell's equation and the so-called laws of motional EMF: Faraday's, Oersted--Ampere's, and the Lorentz-force law. Thus a unification of the electromagnetism is achieved. Since the new model is frame indifferent, it is truly covariant in the sense that the governing system is invariant when changing to a coordinate frame that can accelerate or even deform in time.

  12. Modeling laser-plasma acceleration in the laboratory frame

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    A simulation of laser-plasma acceleration in the laboratory frame. Both the laser and the wakefield buckets must be resolved over the entire domain of the plasma, requiring many cells and many time steps. While researchers often use a simulation window that moves with the pulse, this reduces only the multitude of cells, not the multitude of time steps. For an artistic impression of how to solve the simulation by using the boosted-frame method, watch the video "Modeling laser-plasma acceleration in the wakefield frame."

  13. Clinical bioequivalence of a dose of clopidogrel Leti Cravid tablets 75 mg versus clopidogrel Sanofi Plavix tablets 75 mg administered on a daily dose for 7 days on healthy volunteers: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Aixa; Octavio, José; González, María Y; Contreras, Jesús; Méndez, Gisela; Portillo, Milagros; Valero, Zuleima

    2010-01-01

    Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention procedures, as in patients with coronary disease, should receive treatment indefinitely with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel. New brands of clopidogrel have been developed at lower costs, for helping to avoid premature suspension of antiplatelet therapy, as Cravid Leti Laboratories clopidogrel. Its effectiveness and safety must be compared with Plavix international standard. A prospective, comparative, cross-over, and randomized study was conducted in healthy volunteers. Each group received 1 tablet of Clopidogrel Leti or Clopidogrel Sanofi, 75 mg in a single dose daily for 7 days, followed by 7-day washout period before administration of second treatment. Platelet aggregation was measured at the start of each period and at 7 days of treatment through optical aggregometry, using an optical aggregometer 490-2D Chrono-Log, with a self-calibration system working with platelet-rich plasma with readings 0%-100% of light transmission. An important decrease of platelet aggregation was observed in both groups at 7 days of treatment of more than 50%, independent of adenosine diphosphate reactive (Helena and Chrono-Log) used for aggregation (P < 0.05). The relationship between the mean and 90% confidence interval ratio obtained with the 2 different adenosine diphosphate brands were between 80% and 125%, therefore, it can be considered that both brands are bioequivalent and perfectly exchangeable.

  14. Egocentric and allocentric reference frames for catching a falling object.

    PubMed

    Le Séac'h, Anne Brec'hed; Senot, Patrice; McIntyre, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    When programming movement, one must account for gravitational acceleration. This is particularly important when catching a falling object because the task requires a precise estimate of time-to-contact. Knowledge of gravity's effects is intimately linked to our definition of 'up' and 'down'. Both directions can be described in an allocentric reference frame, based on visual and/or gravitational cues, or in an egocentric reference frame in which the body axis is taken as vertical. To test which frame humans use to predict gravity's effect, we asked participants to intercept virtual balls approaching from above or below with artificially controlled acceleration that could be congruent or not with gravity. To dissociate between these frames, subjects were seated upright (trunk parallel to gravity) or lying down (body axis orthogonal to the gravitational axis). We report data in line with the use of an allocentric reference frame and discuss its relevance depending on available gravity-related cues.

  15. Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Kenneth J.

    2008-07-01

    A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because it is derived from Hamilton’s manifestly covariant scalar action principle. A distinction is made between manifest frame dragging such as that in the Kerr metric, and hidden frame dragging that can be made manifest by a coordinate transformation such as that applied to the Robertson-Walker metric in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 a zone of repulsive gravity is found in the extreme Kerr metric. Section 4 treats frame dragging in special relativity as a manifestation of the equivalence principle in accelerated frames. It answers a question posed by Bell about how the Lorentz contraction can break a thread connecting two uniformly accelerated rocket ships. In Sect. 5 the form of the Hamiltonian facilitates the definition of gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric potentials.

  16. Framing and Frame Shifting in a Higher Education Merger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, David

    2003-01-01

    Late in 1996, Kalgoorlie College and the Western Australian School of Mines in Western Australia were merged to form an expanded campus of Curtin University, based in the state capital city of Perth. This paper uses a frame analytical approach to examining how differing and competing interpretations and commitments affected how the merger was…

  17. 49 CFR 393.201 - Frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frames. 393.201 Section 393.201 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.201 Frames. (a) The frame or chassis of each commercial motor vehicle shall not be cracked, loose, sagging...

  18. 49 CFR 393.201 - Frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frames. 393.201 Section 393.201 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.201 Frames. (a) The frame or chassis of each commercial motor vehicle shall not be cracked, loose, sagging...

  19. Examining the Linkage Between FRAMES and GMS

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.

    2006-02-13

    Because GMS provides so many features, of which some are also addressed by FRAMES, it could represent a platform to link to FRAMES, or FRAMES could represent a platform to link to GMS. The focus of this summary is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the potential linkage direction and provide recommendations for the linkage between FRAMES and GMS.

  20. X-Ray Backscatter Machine Support Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    This summer at Kennedy Space Center, I spent 10 weeks as an intern working at the Prototype Development Lab. During this time I learned about the design and machining done here at NASA. I became familiar with the process from where a design begins in Pro/Engineer and finishes at the hands of the machinists. As an intern I was given various small jobs to do and then one project of my own. My personal project was a job for the Applied Physics Lab; in their work they use an X-Ray Backscatter machine. Previously it was resting atop a temporary frame that limited the use of the machine. My job was to design a frame for the machine to rest upon that would allow a full range of sample sizes. The frame was required to support the machine and provide a strain relief for the cords attached to the machine as it moved in the x and y directions. Calculations also had to be done to be sure the design would be able to withstand any loads or outside sources of stress. After the calculations proved the design to be ready to withstand the requirements, the parts were ordered or fabricated, as required. This helped me understand the full process of jobs sent to the Prototype Development Lab.

  1. Gaining perspective: the effects of message frame on viewer attention to and recall of osteoporosis prevention print advertisements.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Deborah A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2013-11-01

    This study examined how framed messages affect viewer attention to and cognitive processing of osteoporosis prevention print ads. Attention was measured with eye tracking technology. Cognitive processing was assessed through masked recall. A total of 60 college-aged women viewed 12 gain-framed, 12 loss-framed, and 12 neutral-framed ads. Number of fixations, dwell time, and recall of gain-framed osteoporosis prevention ads were higher than loss-framed or neutral-framed ads, p < .01. Message recall was positively correlated with the number of fixations and dwell time for the gain-framed and neutral-framed messages, p < .01. These findings provide preliminary insight into potential mechanisms underlying message framing effects.

  2. SEOS frame camera applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A research and development satellite is discussed which will provide opportunities for observation of transient phenomena that fall within the fixed viewing circle of the spacecraft. The evaluation of possible applications for frame cameras, for SEOS, are studied. The computed lens characteristics for each camera are listed.

  3. Space-Frame Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The space-frame lunar lander was originally intended to (1) land on rough lunar terrain, (2) deform itself to conform to the terrain so as to be able to remain there in a stable position and orientation, and (3) if required, further deform itself to perform various functions. In principle, the space-frame lunar lander could be used in the same way on Earth, as might be required, for example, to place meteorological sensors or a radio-communication relay station on an otherwise inaccessible mountain peak. the space-frame lunar lander would include a truss-like structure consisting mostly of a tetrahedral mesh of nodes connected by variable-length struts, the lengths of which would be altered in coordination to impart the desired overall size and shape to the structure. Thrusters (that is, small rocket engines), propellant tanks, a control system, and instrumentation would be mounted in and on the structure (see figure). Once it had landed and deformed itself to the terrain through coordinated variations in the lengths of the struts, the structure could be further deformed into another space-frame structure

  4. Handedness differences in information framing.

    PubMed

    Jasper, John D; Fournier, Candice; Christman, Stephen D

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has shown that strength of handedness predicts differences in sensory illusions, Stroop interference, episodic memory, and beliefs about body image. Recent evidence also suggests handedness differences in the susceptibility to common decision biases such as anchoring and sunk cost. The present paper extends this line of work to attribute framing effects. Sixty-three undergraduates were asked to advise a friend concerning the use of a safe allergy medication during pregnancy. A third of the participants received negatively-framed information concerning the fetal risk of the drug (1-3% chance of having a malformed child); another third received positively-framed information (97-99% chance of having a normal child); and the final third received no counseling information and served as the control. Results indicated that, as predicted, inconsistent (mixed)-handers were more responsive than consistent (strong)-handers to information changes and readily update their beliefs. Although not significant, the data also suggested that only inconsistent handers were affected by information framing. Theoretical implications as well as ongoing work in holistic versus analytic processing, contextual sensitivity, and brain asymmetry will be discussed.

  5. Gold plating on spectacle frames.

    PubMed

    Kenny, I; Mitchell, J W; Walsh, G

    1997-05-01

    An investigation was carried out into the thickness and standard of application of the plating and lacquer coatings applied to three metal spectacle frames. All conform to BS 6625 (1991) for plating thickness, but there was considerable variation in regularity and porosity.

  6. Newton-Cartan Gravity in Noninertial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Leo; St. Germaine-Fuller, James; Wickramasekara, Sujeev

    2015-03-01

    We study Newton-Cartan gravity under transformations into all noninertial, nonrelativistic reference frames. These transformations form an infinite dimensional Lie group, called the Galilean line group, which contains as a subgroup the Galilei group. The fictitious forces of noninertial reference frames are encoded in the Cartan connection transformed under the Galilean line group. These fictitious forces, which are coordinate effects, do not contribute to the Ricci tensor. Only the 00-component of the Ricci tensor is non-zero and equals (4 π times) the matter density in all reference frames. While the Ricci field equation and Gauss' law are fulfilled by the physical matter density in inertial and linearly accelerating reference frames, in rotating reference frames Gauss' law holds for an effective mass density that differs from the physical matter density. This effective density has its origin in the simulated magnetic field of rotating frames, highlighting a striking difference between linearly and rotationally accelerating frames. The equations governing the simulated fields have the same form as Maxwell's equations, a surprising result given that these equations obey special relativity (and U (1) -gauge symmetry), rather than Galilean symmetry. This work was supported in part by the HHMI Undergraduate Science Education Award 52006298 and the Grinnell College Academic Affairs' CSFS and MAP programs.

  7. Error framing effects on performance: cognitive, motivational, and affective pathways.

    PubMed

    Steele-Johnson, Debra; Kalinoski, Zachary T

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine whether positive error framing, that is, making errors salient and cuing individuals to see errors as useful, can benefit learning when task exploration is constrained. Recent research has demonstrated the benefits of a newer approach to training, that is, error management training, that includes the opportunity to actively explore the task and framing errors as beneficial to learning complex tasks (Keith & Frese, 2008). Other research has highlighted the important role of errors in on-the-job learning in complex domains (Hutchins, 1995). Participants (N = 168) from a large undergraduate university performed a class scheduling task. Results provided support for a hypothesized path model in which error framing influenced cognitive, motivational, and affective factors which in turn differentially affected performance quantity and quality. Within this model, error framing had significant direct effects on metacognition and self-efficacy. Our results suggest that positive error framing can have beneficial effects even when tasks cannot be structured to support extensive exploration. Whereas future research can expand our understanding of error framing effects on outcomes, results from the current study suggest that positive error framing can facilitate learning from errors in real-time performance of tasks.

  8. Performance-based plastic design method for steel concentric braced frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banihashemi, M. R.; Mirzagoltabar, A. R.; Tavakoli, H. R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a performance-based plastic design (PBPD) methodology for the design of steel concentric braced frames. The design base shear is obtained based on energy-work balance equation using pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism. To achieve the intended yield mechanism and behavior, plastic design is applied to detail the frame members. For validity, three baseline frames (3, 6, 9-story) are designed according to AISC (Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, 2005) seismic provisions (baseline frames). Then, the frames are redesigned based on the PBPD method. These frames are subjected to extensive nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses. The results show that the PBPD frames meet all the intended performance objectives in terms of yield mechanisms and target drifts, whereas the baseline frames show very poor response due to premature brace fractures leading to unacceptably large drifts and instability.

  9. Framing of task performance strategies: effects on performance in a multiattribute dynamic decision making environment.

    PubMed

    Nygren, T E

    1997-09-01

    It is well documented that the way a static choice task is "framed" can dramatically alter choice behavior, often leading to observable preference reversals. This framing effect appears to result from perceived changes in the nature or location of a person's initial reference point, but it is not clear how framing effects might generalize to performance on dynamic decision making tasks that are characterized by high workload, time constraints, risk, or stress. A study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that framing can introduce affective components to the decision making process and can influence, either favorably (positive frame) or adversely (negative frame), the implementation and use of decision making strategies in dynamic high-workload environments. Results indicated that negative frame participants were significantly impaired in developing and employing a simple optimal decision strategy relative to a positive frame group. Discussion focuses on implications of these results for models of dynamic decision making.

  10. Nine Frames as Jupiter Turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This sequence of nine true-color, narrow-angle images shows the varying appearance of Jupiter as it rotated through more than a complete 360-degree turn. The smallest features seen in this sequence are no bigger than about 380 kilometers (about 236 miles). Rotating more than twice as fast as Earth, Jupiter completes one rotation in about 10 hours. These images were taken on Oct. 22 and 23, 2000. From image to image (proceeding left to right across each row and then down to the next row), cloud features on Jupiter move from left to right before disappearing over the edge onto the nightside of the planet. The most obvious Jovian feature is the Great Red Spot, which can be seen moving onto the dayside in the third frame (below and to the left of the center of the planet). In the fourth frame, taken about 1 hour and 40 minutes later, the Great Red Spot has been carried by the planet's rotation to the east and does not appear again until the final frame, which was taken one complete rotation after the third frame.

    Unlike weather systems on Earth, which change markedly from day to day, large cloud systems in Jupiter's colder, thicker atmosphere are long-lived, so the two frames taken one rotation apart have a very similar appearance. However, when this sequence of images is eventually animated, strong winds blowing eastward at some latitudes and westward at other latitudes will be readily apparent. The results of such differential motions can be seen even in the still frames shown here. For example, the clouds of the Great Red Spot rotate counterclockwise. The strong westward winds northeast of the Great Red Spot are deflected around the spot and form a wake of turbulent clouds downstream (visible in the fourth image), just as a rock in a rapidly flowing river deflects the fluid around it.

    The equatorial zone on Jupiter is currently bright white, indicating the presence of clouds much like cirrus clouds on Earth, but made of ammonia instead of water ice. This

  11. A guide frame for the Taylor Spatial Frame.

    PubMed

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios D; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Kanellopoulos, Nikolaos D; Magnissalis, Evangellos A; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2009-08-01

    The Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) is a versatile multiplanar external fixator that combines ease of application with computer accuracy to effectively reduce fractures and correct all aspects of deformity in reconstructive orthopaedic surgery. However, postapplication adjustments depend on adequate anteroposterior and lateral radiographic measurements to yield the most accurate output from the program. These radiographs need to be taken in an orthogonal plane to the reference ring. We describe a noninvasive technique using a specifically designed radiolucent frame that can be attached to the TSF to guide the surgeon and radiologist in obtaining lateral and anteroposterior radiographs, with the reference ring perfectly orthogonal in single exposures for each radiographic view. By using this guiding frame, reproducible and consistent x-rays oriented orthogonally to the reference ring at different points in the correction may be achieved, thus eliminating the need for repeat radiographs and radiation exposure for patients, radiologists, and surgeons. In this manner, the mounting parameters and the orientation of the bony deformity will be consistent. This should lead to enhanced accuracy of the TSF correction.

  12. Coincidence ion imaging with a fast frame camera

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Cudry, Fadia; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Fan, Lin; Li, Wen

    2014-12-15

    A new time- and position-sensitive particle detection system based on a fast frame CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductors) camera is developed for coincidence ion imaging. The system is composed of four major components: a conventional microchannel plate/phosphor screen ion imager, a fast frame CMOS camera, a single anode photomultiplier tube (PMT), and a high-speed digitizer. The system collects the positional information of ions from a fast frame camera through real-time centroiding while the arrival times are obtained from the timing signal of a PMT processed by a high-speed digitizer. Multi-hit capability is achieved by correlating the intensity of ion spots on each camera frame with the peak heights on the corresponding time-of-flight spectrum of a PMT. Efficient computer algorithms are developed to process camera frames and digitizer traces in real-time at 1 kHz laser repetition rate. We demonstrate the capability of this system by detecting a momentum-matched co-fragments pair (methyl and iodine cations) produced from strong field dissociative double ionization of methyl iodide.

  13. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  14. Lattice QCD in rotating frames.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata; Hirono, Yuji

    2013-08-23

    We formulate lattice QCD in rotating frames to study the physics of QCD matter under rotation. We construct the lattice QCD action with the rotational metric and apply it to the Monte Carlo simulation. As the first application, we calculate the angular momenta of gluons and quarks in the rotating QCD vacuum. This new framework is useful to analyze various rotation-related phenomena in QCD.

  15. Memory-based frame synchronizer. [for digital communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A frame synchronizer for use in digital communications systems wherein data formats can be easily and dynamically changed is described. The use of memory array elements provide increased flexibility in format selection and sync word selection in addition to real time reconfiguration ability. The frame synchronizer comprises a serial-to-parallel converter which converts a serial input data stream to a constantly changing parallel data output. This parallel data output is supplied to programmable sync word recognizers each consisting of a multiplexer and a random access memory (RAM). The multiplexer is connected to both the parallel data output and an address bus which may be connected to a microprocessor or computer for purposes of programming the sync word recognizer. The RAM is used as an associative memory or decorder and is programmed to identify a specific sync word. Additional programmable RAMs are used as counter decoders to define word bit length, frame word length, and paragraph frame length.

  16. The Theoretical Highest Frame Rate of Silicon Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Etoh, Takeharu Goji; Nguyen, Anh Quang; Kamakura, Yoshinari; Shimonomura, Kazuhiro; Le, Thi Yen; Mori, Nobuya

    2017-01-01

    The frame rate of the digital high-speed video camera was 2000 frames per second (fps) in 1989, and has been exponentially increasing. A simulation study showed that a silicon image sensor made with a 130 nm process technology can achieve about 1010 fps. The frame rate seems to approach the upper bound. Rayleigh proposed an expression on the theoretical spatial resolution limit when the resolution of lenses approached the limit. In this paper, the temporal resolution limit of silicon image sensors was theoretically analyzed. It is revealed that the limit is mainly governed by mixing of charges with different travel times caused by the distribution of penetration depth of light. The derived expression of the limit is extremely simple, yet accurate. For example, the limit for green light of 550 nm incident to silicon image sensors at 300 K is 11.1 picoseconds. Therefore, the theoretical highest frame rate is 90.1 Gfps (about 1011 fps). PMID:28264527

  17. SWIFT REVEALS A ∼5.7 DAY SUPER-ORBITAL PERIOD IN THE M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTER X-RAY BINARY XB158

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29 ± 1 times the orbital period, i.e., ∼81 ± 3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ∼1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3-10 keV Swift X-Ray Telescope luminosity light curve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65 ± 0.05 days, and a >5σ improvement in χ{sup 2} over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods of 5.4-5.8 days were detected at a >3σ level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ∼70% longer than the predicted period. The 0.3-10 keV luminosity varied by a factor of ∼5, consistent with variations seen in long-term monitoring from Chandra. We conclude that other X-ray binaries exhibiting similar long-term behavior are likely to also be X-ray binaries with low mass ratios and super-orbital periods.

  18. Monolithic LTCC seal frame and lid

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Daniel S.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Stockdale, Dave; Duncan, James Brent; Riggs, Bristen

    2016-06-21

    A method for forming a monolithic seal frame and lid for use with a substrate and electronic circuitry comprises the steps of forming a mandrel from a ceramic and glass based material, forming a seal frame and lid block from a ceramic and glass based material, creating a seal frame and lid by forming a compartment and a plurality of sidewalls in the seal frame and lid block, placing the seal frame and lid on the mandrel such that the mandrel fits within the compartment, and cofiring the seal frame and lid block.

  19. Image denoising using a tight frame.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lixin; Papadakis, Manos; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Kouri, Donald; Hoffman, David

    2006-05-01

    We present a general mathematical theory for lifting frames that allows us to modify existing filters to construct new ones that form Parseval frames. We apply our theory to design nonseparable Parseval frames from separable (tensor) products of a piecewise linear spline tight frame. These new frame systems incorporate the weighted average operator, the Sobel operator, and the Laplacian operator in directions that are integer multiples of 45 degrees. A new image denoising algorithm is then proposed, tailored to the specific properties of these new frame filters. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm on a diverse set of images with very encouraging results.

  20. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 10(exp 6) m_v < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk.

  1. Enhancement Strategies for Frame-To Uas Stereo Visual Odometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, J.; Rodehorst, V.

    2016-06-01

    Autonomous navigation of indoor unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) requires accurate pose estimations usually obtained from indirect measurements. Navigation based on inertial measurement units (IMU) is known to be affected by high drift rates. The incorporation of cameras provides complementary information due to the different underlying measurement principle. The scale ambiguity problem for monocular cameras is avoided when a light-weight stereo camera setup is used. However, also frame-to-frame stereo visual odometry (VO) approaches are known to accumulate pose estimation errors over time. Several valuable real-time capable techniques for outlier detection and drift reduction in frame-to-frame VO, for example robust relative orientation estimation using random sample consensus (RANSAC) and bundle adjustment, are available. This study addresses the problem of choosing appropriate VO components. We propose a frame-to-frame stereo VO method based on carefully selected components and parameters. This method is evaluated regarding the impact and value of different outlier detection and drift-reduction strategies, for example keyframe selection and sparse bundle adjustment (SBA), using reference benchmark data as well as own real stereo data. The experimental results demonstrate that our VO method is able to estimate quite accurate trajectories. Feature bucketing and keyframe selection are simple but effective strategies which further improve the VO results. Furthermore, introducing the stereo baseline constraint in pose graph optimization (PGO) leads to significant improvements.

  2. Multiple-frame IR photo-recorder KIT-3M

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, E; Wilkins, P; Nebeker, N; Murugov, V; Kravchenko, A; Lasarchuk, V; Litvin, D; Mis'ko, V; Petrov, S; Senik, A; Sheremetiev, Y

    2006-05-15

    This paper reports the experimental results of a high-speed multi-frame infrared camera which has been developed in Sarov at VNIIEF. Earlier [1] we discussed the possibility of creation of the multi-frame infrared radiation photo-recorder with framing frequency about 1 MHz. The basis of the photo-recorder is a semiconductor ionization camera [2, 3], which converts IR radiation of spectral range 1-10 micrometers into a visible image. Several sequential thermal images are registered by using the IR converter in conjunction with a multi-frame electron-optical camera. In the present report we discuss the performance characteristics of a prototype commercial 9-frame high-speed IR photo-recorder. The image converter records infrared images of thermal fields corresponding to temperatures ranging from 300 C to 2000 C with an exposure time of 1-20 {micro}s at a frame frequency up to 500 KHz. The IR-photo-recorder camera is useful for recording the time evolution of thermal fields in fast processes such as gas dynamics, ballistics, pulsed welding, thermal processing, automotive industry, aircraft construction, in pulsed-power electric experiments, and for the measurement of spatial mode characteristics of IR-laser radiation.

  3. Mars Science Laboratory Frame Manager for Centralized Frame Tree Database and Target Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Leger, Chris; Peters, Stephen; Carsten, Joseph; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The FM (Frame Manager) flight software module is responsible for maintaining the frame tree database containing coordinate transforms between frames. The frame tree is a proper tree structure of directed links, consisting of surface and rover subtrees. Actual frame transforms are updated by their owner. FM updates site and saved frames for the surface tree. As the rover drives to a new area, a new site frame with an incremented site index can be created. Several clients including ARM and RSM (Remote Sensing Mast) update their related rover frames that they own. Through the onboard centralized FM frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames. Important applications include target image pointing for RSM-mounted cameras and frame-referenced arm moves. The use of frame tree eliminates cumbersome, error-prone calculations of coordinate entries for commands and thus simplifies flight operations significantly.

  4. Advanced High-Speed Framing Camera Development for Fast, Visible Imaging Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Lewis, Stuart Baker, Brian Cox, Abel Diaz, David Glass, Matthew Martin

    2011-05-11

    The advances in high-voltage switching developed in this project allow a camera user to rapidly vary the number of output frames from 1 to 25. A high-voltage, variable-amplitude pulse train shifts the deflection location to the new frame location during the interlude between frames, making multiple frame counts and locations possible. The final deflection circuit deflects to five different frame positions per axis, including the center position, making for a total of 25 frames. To create the preset voltages, electronically adjustable {+-}500 V power supplies were chosen. Digital-to-analog converters provide digital control of the supplies. The power supplies are clamped to {+-}400 V so as not to exceed the voltage ratings of the transistors. A field-programmable gated array (FPGA) receives the trigger signal and calculates the combination of plate voltages for each frame. The interframe time and number of frames are specified by the user, but are limited by the camera electronics. The variable-frame circuit shifts the plate voltages of the first frame to those of the second frame during the user-specified interframe time. Designed around an electrostatic image tube, a framing camera images the light present during each frame (at the photocathode) onto the tube’s phosphor. The phosphor persistence allows the camera to display multiple frames on the phosphor at one time. During this persistence, a CCD camera is triggered and the analog image is collected digitally. The tube functions by converting photons to electrons at the negatively charged photocathode. The electrons move quickly toward the more positive charge of the phosphor. Two sets of deflection plates skew the electron’s path in horizontal and vertical (x axis and y axis, respectively) directions. Hence, each frame’s electrons bombard the phosphor surface at a controlled location defined by the voltages on the deflection plates. To prevent the phosphor from being exposed between frames, the image tube

  5. Implicit media frames: automated analysis of public debate on artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Hellsten, Iina; Dawson, James; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-09-01

    The framing of issues in the mass media plays a crucial role in the public understanding of science and technology. This article contributes to research concerned with the analysis of media frames over time by making an analytical distinction between implicit and explicit media frames, and by introducing an automated method for the analysis of implicit frames. In particular, we apply a semantic maps method to a case study on the newspaper debate about artificial sweeteners, published in the New York Times between 1980 and 2006. Our results show that the analysis of semantic changes enables us to filter out the dynamics of implicit frames, and to detect emerging metaphors in public debates. Theoretically, we discuss the relation between implicit frames in public debates and the codification of meaning and information in scientific discourses, and suggest further avenues for research interested in the automated analysis of frame changes and trends in public debates.

  6. Framing effects on metacognitive monitoring and control

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Bridgid

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments explored the contribution of framing effects on metamemory judgments. In Experiment 1, participants studied word pairs. After each presentation, they made an immediate judgment of learning (JOL), framed in terms of either remembering or forgetting. In the remember frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would remember each pair on the upcoming test. In the forget frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would forget each pair. Confidence differed as a result of the frame. Forget frame JOLs, equated to the remember frame JOL scale by a 1-judgment conversion, were lower and demonstrated a smaller overconfidence bias than did remember frame JOLs. When judgments were made at a delay, framing effects did not occur. In Experiment 2, people chose to restudy more items when choices were made within a forget frame. In Experiment 3, people studied Spanish–English vocabulary pairs ranging in difficulty. The framing effect was replicated with judgments and choices. Moreover, forget frame participants included more easy and medium items to restudy. These results demonstrated the important consequences of framing effects on assessment and control of study. PMID:18604963

  7. Fabric panel clean change-out frame

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ronald M.

    1995-01-31

    A fabric panel clean change-out frame, for use on a containment structure having rigid walls, is formed of a compression frame and a closure panel. The frame is formed of elongated spacers, each carrying a plurality of closely spaced flat springs, and each having a hooked lip extending on the side of the spring facing the spacer. The closure panel is includes a perimeter frame formed of flexible, wedge-shaped frame members that are receivable under the springs to deflect the hooked lips. A groove on the flexible frame members engages the hooked lips and locks the frame members in place under the springs. A flexible fabric panel is connected to the flexible frame members and closes its center.

  8. 100-ps framing-camera tube.

    PubMed

    Kalibjian, R

    1978-07-01

    The optoelectronic framing-camera tube described is capable of recording two-dimensional image frames with high spatial resolution in the <100-ps range. Framing is performed by streaking a two-dimensional electron image across narrow slits. The resulting dissected electron line images from the slits are restored into framed images by a restorer deflector operating synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen equals the number of dissecting slits in the tube. Performance has been demonstrated in a prototype tube by recording 135-ps-duration framed images of 2.5-mm patterns at the cathode. The limitation in the framing speed is in the external drivers for the deflectors and not in the tube design characteristics. Faster frame speeds in the <100-ps range can be obtained by use of faster deflection drivers.

  9. Pushover Analysis of GFRP Pultruded Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalegno, C.; Russo, S.

    2015-11-01

    Results of a pushover analysis of GFRP pultruded frames aimed at the evaluation of their overall ductility are presented. It is assumed that the dissipation capacity of the frame structures is concentrated in joints due to their nonlinear behavior induced by progressive damage, while a brittle-elastic behavior is assumed for frame members. A two-storey one-bay GFRP pultruded frame is considered for a case study in which the column-base and beam-column joints are modeled with nonlinear rotational springs with different moment-rotation laws derived from experimental results available in the literature. For comparison, frames with hinged connections and moment-resisting frames are also analyzed. Finally, the results obtained are compared with those for a similar steel frame. The final results bear witness, in particular, to the absence of a significant ductility of pultruded frames and the relevant influence of the characteristics of bracings on their structural response.

  10. Estimation and Analysis of Parameters for Reference Frame Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. G.; Gao, Y. P.; Tong, M. L.; Zhao, C. S.; Gao, F.

    2016-07-01

    Based on the estimation method of parameters for reference frame transformation, the parameters used for transformation between different modern DE (Develop-ment Ephemeris) ephemeris pairs are derived using the data of heliocentric coordinates of Earth-Moon barycenter from DE ephemeris pairs, and the transformation parameters between DE ephemeris dynamic reference frame and ICRF (International Celestial Reference Frame) are estimated by using the timing data and VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) observation results of millisecond pulsars. The estimated parameters for the reference frame transformation include three rotational angles of rotational matrix and their derivatives of time. The reference epoch of estimated parameters for the reference frame transformation is MJD51545, that is J2000.0. Our results show that the absolute maximum value of rotational angles for the transformation of DE200 to DE405 ephemeris is 13 mas, and its derivative of time is -0.0007 mas/d. No absolute value of rotational angles is larger than 0.1 mas for the transformation of DE414 to DE421 ephemeris. The absolute maximum value of rotational angles of rotation matrix for the transformation of DE421 ephemeris to ICRF is 3 mas, and the time derivatives of three rotational angles are also necessarily included.

  11. Structural Health Monitoring of Frame Structures Using Piezo-Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, R.; Bhalla, S.; Gupta, A.

    2008-07-01

    Monitoring of civil structures is crucial for their proper functioning. Any crack in a structure changes its static and dynamic behaviours. To detect the damage/crack at the initiating time itself is challenging task in modern time. This paper describes an experimental study to extract the dynamic characteristics of a frame structure using piezo-electric ceramic (PZT) transducers. Tests are conducted on steel frame to extract the natural frequencies and the experimental mode shapes. Free vibration response is first acquired in the time domain and then transformed into frequency domain using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) analyser. Only single PZT patch is sufficient to extract the first nine modes shape of the steel frame .By using numerical model, mode shapes are extracted corresponding to each identified natural frequency. After determining natural frequencies and experimental mode shape, damages can be located by method of Naidu and Soh (2004). This approach can be used for damage/crack detection at very earlier stage.

  12. A Frame Analysis of Barth's "Menelaiad".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, C. Janene

    Frame analysis is an approach to social situations that can be applied profitably to literature and performance. A frame is the reality status of a situation; keys are the characteristics that define a frame. Most literary works are keying on real life frameworks. Literary works that are based on other literary works, such as parodies, are…

  13. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  14. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  15. Popcorn Story Frames from a Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    Popcorn story frames from a multicultural perspective are holistic outlines that in the reading/writing process facilitate comprehension for all cultures learning to read and write stories. Popcorn story frames are structured and modeled in a horizontal fashion just like popcorn pops in a horizontal fashion. The frames are designed for learners…

  16. Simultaneous message framing and error detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, A. H., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Circuitry simultaneously inserts message framing information and detects noise errors in binary code data transmissions. Separate message groups are framed without requiring both framing bits and error-checking bits, and predetermined message sequence are separated from other message sequences without being hampered by intervening noise.

  17. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  18. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

  19. Non-Syntactic Antecedents and Frame Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensler, Orin

    A polemic is made for frame semantics and the linguistic phenomenon of anaphoric reference without noun phrase (NP) antecedent is examined within this frame. Non-syntactic anaphora is that which does not point out into the real world but rather points back into the discourse in a frame which has been built up between the speaker and hearer in a…

  20. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience. PMID:27034630

  1. Algebraic and geometric spread in finite frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Emily J.

    2015-08-01

    When searching for finite unit norm tight frames (FUNTFs) of M vectors in FN which yield robust representations, one is concerned with finding frames consisting of frame vectors which are in some sense as spread apart as possible. Algebraic spread and geometric spread are the two most commonly used measures of spread. A frame with optimal algebraic spread is called full spark and is such that any subcollection of N frame vectors is a basis for FN. A Grassmannian frame is a FUNTF which satisfies the Grassmannian packing problem; that is, the frame vectors are optimally geometrically spread given fixed M and N. A particular example of a Grassmannian frame is an equiangular frame, which is such that the absolute value of all inner products of distinct vectors is equal. The relationship between these two types of optimal spread is complicated. The folk knowledge for many years was that equiangular frames were full spark; however, this is now known not to hold for an infinite class of equiangular frames. The exact relationship between these types of spread will be further explored in this talk, as well as Plücker coordinates and coherence, which are measures of how much a frame misses being optimally algebraically or geometrically spread.

  2. 7 day chronic ceriodaphnia toxicity test -- reproductive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent causes death (acute toxicity) or reduction in the reproduction of the test organisms (chronic toxicity) during a seven day period. A series of dilutions of the effluent are set to determine how much the effluent must be diluted before toxic effects are no longer noted. Acute toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly more organisms die in the effluent dilutions than in the control treatment, and, if significantly more die, how much the effluent must be diluted so as to kill only 50% of the test organisms (the LC50). Chronic toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly fewer young are produced by test organisms exposed to the effluent dilutions. Results indicate the lowest effluent concentration which shows a toxic effect (the LOEC) and the highest effluent concentration which does not demonstrate an effect (NOEC).

  3. Framing Effects: Dynamics and Task Domains

    PubMed

    Wang

    1996-11-01

    The author examines the mechanisms and dynamics of framing effects in risky choices across three distinct task domains (i.e., life-death, public property, and personal money). The choice outcomes of the problems presented in each of the three task domains had a binary structure of a sure thing vs a gamble of equal expected value; the outcomes differed in their framing conditions and the expected values, raging from 6000, 600, 60, to 6, numerically. It was hypothesized that subjects would become more risk seeking, if the sure outcome was below their aspiration level (the minimum requirement). As predicted, more subjects preferred the gamble when facing the life-death choice problems than facing the counterpart problems presented in the other two task domains. Subjects' risk preference varied categorically along the group size dimension in the life-death domain but changed more linearly over the expected value dimension in the monetary domain. Framing effects were observed in 7 of 13 pairs of problems, showing a positive frame-risk aversion and negative frame-risk seeking relationship. In addition, two types of framing effects were theoretically defined and empirically identified. A bidirectional framing effect involves a reversal in risk preference, and occurs when a decision maker's risk preference is ambiguous or weak. Four bidirectional effects were observed; in each case a majority of subjects preferred the sure outcome under a positive frame but the gamble under a negative frame. In contrast, a unidirectional framing effect refers to a preference shift due to the framing of choice outcomes: A majority of subjects preferred one choice outcome (either the sure thing or the gamble) under both framing conditions, with positive frame augmented the preference for the sure thing and negative frame augmented the preference for the gamble. These findings revealed some dynamic regularities of framing effects and posed implications for developing predictive and testable

  4. Polarization rotation, reference frames, and Mach's principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodutch, Aharon; Terno, Daniel R.

    2011-12-01

    Polarization of light rotates in a gravitational field. The accrued phase is operationally meaningful only with respect to a local polarization basis. In stationary space-times, we construct local reference frames that allow us to isolate the Machian gravimagnetic effect from the geodetic (mass) contribution to the rotation. The Machian effect is supplemented by the geometric term that arises from the choice of standard polarizations. The phase accrued along a close trajectory is gauge-independent and is zero in the Schwarzschild space-time. The geometric term may give a dominant contribution to the phase. We calculate polarization rotation for several trajectories and find it to be more significant than is usually believed, pointing to its possible role as a future gravity probe.

  5. Nicotine dependence as a moderator of a quitline-based message framing intervention.

    PubMed

    Fucito, Lisa M; Latimer, Amy E; Carlin-Menter, Shannon; Salovey, Peter; Cummings, K Michael; Makuch, Robert W; Toll, Benjamin A

    2011-04-01

    High nicotine dependence is a reliable predictor of difficulty quitting smoking and remaining smoke-free. Evidence also suggests that the effectiveness of various smoking cessation treatments may vary by nicotine dependence level. Nicotine dependence, as assessed by Heaviness of Smoking Index baseline total scores, was evaluated as a potential moderator of a message-framing intervention provided through the New York State Smokers' Quitline (free telephone based service). Smokers were exposed to either gain-framed (n=810) or standard-care (n=1222) counseling and printed materials. Those smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day and medically eligible were also offered a free 2-week supply of nicotine patches, gum, or lozenge. Smokers were contacted for follow-up interviews at 3 months by an independent survey group. There was no interaction of nicotine dependence scores and message condition on the likelihood of achieving 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at the 3-month follow-up contact. Among continuing smokers at the 3-month follow-up, smokers who reported higher nicotine dependence scores were more likely to report smoking more cigarettes per day and this effect was greater in response to standard-care messages than gain-framed messages. Smokers with higher dependence scores who received standard-care messages also were less likely to report use of nicotine medications compared with less dependent smokers, while there was no difference in those who received gain-framed messages. These findings lend support to prior research demonstrating nicotine dependence heterogeneity in response to message framing interventions and suggest that gain-framed messages may result in less variable smoking outcomes than standard-care messages.

  6. Nicotine Dependence as a Moderator of a Quitline-Based Message Framing Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fucito, Lisa M.; Latimer, Amy E.; Carlin-Menter, Shannon; Salovey, Peter; Cummings, K. Michael; Makuch, Robert W.; Toll, Benjamin A.

    2010-01-01

    High nicotine dependence is a reliable predictor of difficulty quitting smoking and remaining smoke-free. Evidence also suggests that the effectiveness of various smoking cessation treatments may vary by nicotine dependence level. Nicotine dependence, as assessed by Heaviness of Smoking Index baseline total scores, was evaluated as a potential moderator of a message-framing intervention provided through the New York State Smokers’ Quitline (free telephone based service). Smokers were exposed to either gain-framed (n = 810) or standard-care (n = 1222) counseling and printed materials. Those smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day and medically eligible were also offered a free 2-week supply of nicotine patches, gum, or lozenge. Smokers were contacted for follow-up interviews at 3-months by an independent survey group. There was no interaction of nicotine dependence scores and message condition on the likelihood of achieving 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at the 3-month follow-up contact. Among continuing smokers at the 3-month follow-up, smokers who reported higher nicotine dependence scores were more likely to report smoking more cigarettes per day and this effect was greater in response to standard-care messages than gain-framed messages. Smokers with higher dependence scores who received standard-care messages also were less likely to report use of nicotine medications compared with less dependent smokers, while there was no difference in those who received gain-framed messages. These findings lend support to prior research demonstrating nicotine dependence heterogeneity in response to message framing interventions and suggest that gain-framed messages may result in less variable smoking outcomes than standard-care messages. PMID:21036492

  7. Rotating frame RF current density imaging.

    PubMed

    Scott, G C; Joy, M L; Armstrong, R L; Henkelman, R M

    1995-03-01

    RF current density imaging (RF-CDI) is a new MRI technique for imaging the Larmor frequency current density parallel to B0 in electrolytic media. To extend the use of RF-CDI to biological tissue for generating conductivity contrast, the sensitivity must be increased and the data requirements reduced. A rotating frame approach, in which a large B1 field is applied simultaneously as a rotary echo with RF current, is proposed to meet these requirements. Rotating frame magnetic fields are encoded in the phase of an MRI image. Trials have now been performed with this sequence in a three-compartment cylindrical phantom containing doped water or mineral oil for detecting displacement, conduction and fringe field currents. In a postmortem rat study, 85.56 MHz RF currents injected by implanted electrodes created tissue dependent contrast because of the electrical properties of tissue. A sensitivity and artifact analysis was also performed. The sensitivity of this method is determined by the maximum RF pulse duration. SAR limits pose an upper bound on this time and B1, whereas the avoidance of phase artifacts imposes a lower bound on B1.

  8. Framing Climate Change to Account for Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassol, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Belief, trust and values are important but generally overlooked in efforts to communicate climate change. Because climate change has often been framed too narrowly as an environmental issue, it has failed to engage segments of the public for whom environmentalism is not an important value. Worse, for some of these people, environmentalism and the policies that accompany it may be seen as a threat to their core values, such as the importance of personal freedoms and the free market. Climate science educators can improve this situation by more appropriately framing climate change as an issue affecting the economy and our most basic human needs: food, water, shelter, security, health, jobs, and the safety of our families. Further, because people trust and listen to those with whom they share cultural values, climate change educators can stress the kinds of values their audiences share. They can also enlist the support of opinion leaders known for holding these values. In addition, incorporating messages about solutions to climate change and their many benefits to economic prosperity, human health, and other values is an important component of meeting this challenge. We must also recognize that local impacts are of greater concern to most people than changes that feel distant in place and time. Different audiences have different concerns, and effective educators will learn what their audiences care about and tailor their messages accordingly.

  9. Spin transport in non-inertial frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, B.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of acceleration and rotation on spintronic applications is theoretically investigated. In our formulation, considering a Dirac particle in a non-inertial frame, different spin related aspects are studied. The spin current appearing due to the inertial spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is enhanced by the interband mixing of the conduction and valence band states. Importantly, one can achieve a large spin current through the k → . p → method in this non-inertial frame. Furthermore, apart from the inertial SOC term due to acceleration, for a particular choice of the rotation frequency, a new kind of SOC term can be obtained from the spin rotation coupling (SRC). This new kind of SOC is of Dresselhaus type and controllable through the rotation frequency. In the field of spintronic applications, utilizing the inertial SOC and SRC induced SOC term, theoretical proposals for the inertial spin filter, inertial spin galvanic effect are demonstrated. Finally, one can tune the spin relaxation time in semiconductors by tuning the non-inertial parameters.

  10. Message framing in social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.

  11. "Think" versus "feel" framing effects in persuasion.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Nicole D; Tormala, Zakary L

    2010-04-01

    Three studies explored think ("I think . . . ") versus feel ("I feel . . . ") message framing effects on persuasion.The authors propose a matching hypothesis, suggesting that think framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is cognitively oriented, whereas feel framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is affectively oriented. Study 1 presented cognitively and affectively oriented individuals with a think- or feel-framed message. Study 2 primed cognitive or affective orientation and then presented a think- or feel-framed message. Study 3 presented male and female participants with an advertisement containing think- or feel-framed arguments. Results indicated that think (feel) framing was more persuasive when the target attitude or recipient was cognitively (affectively) oriented. Moreover, Study 2 demonstrated that this matching effect was mediated by processing fluency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  12. Nonlinear pushover analysis of infilled concrete frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao Hsun; Tuan, Yungting Alex; Hsu, Ruo Yun

    2006-12-01

    Six reinforced concrete frames with or without masonry infills were constructed and tested under horizontal cyclic loads. All six frames had identical details in which the transverse reinforcement in columns was provided by rectangular hoops that did not meet current ACI specifications for ductile frames. For comparison purposes, the columns in three of these frames were jacketed by carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer (CFRP) sheets to avoid possible shear failure. A nonlinear pushover analysis, in which the force-deformation relationships of individual elements were developed based on ACI 318, FEMA 356, and Chen’s model, was carried out for these frames and compared to test results. Both the failure mechanisms and impact of infills on the behaviors of these frames were examined in the study. Conclusions from the present analysis provide structural engineers with valuable information for evaluation and design of infilled concrete frame building structures.

  13. Adding HDLC Framing to CCSDS Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Current Space IP missions use High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) framing to provide standard serial link interfaces over a space link. HDLC is the standard framing technique used by all routers over clock and data serial lines and is also the basic framing used in all Frame Relay services which are widely deployed in national and international communication networks. In late 2003 a presentation was made to CCSDS committees to initiate discussion on including HDLC in the CCSDS recommendations for space systems. This presentation will summarize the differences between variable length HDLC frames and fixed length CCSDS frames. It will also discuss where and how HDLC framing would fit into the overall CCSDS structures.

  14. Numeracy and framing bias in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunmi; Wong, John B; Mendiratta, Anil; Heiman, Gary A; Hamberger, Marla J

    2011-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy are frequently confronted with complex treatment decisions. Communicating treatment risks is often difficult because patients may have difficulty with basic statistical concepts (i.e., low numeracy) or might misconceive the statistical information based on the way information is presented, a phenomenon known as "framing bias." We assessed numeracy and framing bias in 95 adults with chronic epilepsy and explored cognitive correlates of framing bias. Compared with normal controls, patients with epilepsy had significantly poorer performance on the Numeracy scale (P=0.02), despite a higher level of education than normal controls (P<0.001). Compared with patients with higher numeracy, patients with lower numeracy were significantly more likely to exhibit framing bias. Abstract problem solving performance correlated with the degree of framing bias (r=0.631, P<0.0001), suggesting a relationship between aspects of executive functioning and framing bias. Poor numeracy and susceptibility framing bias place patients with epilepsy at risk for uninformed decisions.

  15. Framing matters: Effects of framing on older adults' exploratory decision-making.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jessica A; Blanco, Nathaniel J; Maddox, W Todd

    2017-02-01

    We examined framing effects on exploratory decision-making. In Experiment 1 we tested older and younger adults in two decision-making tasks separated by one week, finding that older adults' decision-making performance was preserved when maximizing gains, but it declined when minimizing losses. Computational modeling indicates that younger adults in both conditions, and older adults in gains maximization, utilized a decreasing threshold strategy (which is optimal), but older adults in losses were better fit by a fixed-probability model of exploration. In Experiment 2 we examined within-subject behavior in older and younger adults in the same exploratory decision-making task, but without a time separation between tasks. We replicated the older adult disadvantage in loss minimization from Experiment 1 and found that the older adult deficit was significantly reduced when the loss-minimization task immediately followed the gains-maximization task. We conclude that older adults' performance in exploratory decision-making is hindered when framed as loss minimization, but that this deficit is attenuated when older adults can first develop a strategy in a gains-framed task. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Relation of the frame in a portable rod-and-frame apparatus to judgements of perceived verticality.

    PubMed

    Blowers, G H

    1977-02-01

    To assess the effect of the frame on the mean error in the portable rod-and-frame 18 subjects were tested once with frame present and once without it. 11 frame-dependent subjects produced smaller mean error without the frame; 7 frame-independent subjects were not significantly affected by removal of the frame. Nyborg's statistical method of differentiating frame-dependent and frame-independent subjects appears validated.

  17. Embracing the Long View: A Funder's Perspective on Strategic Frame Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Jane; McPhail, Curt

    2009-01-01

    This interview between a member of the FrameWorks staff and a long-time funder of FrameWorks research and field building highlights the critical role that communications can play in maximizing philanthropy's long-term impact in the social sector, even--or perhaps especially--in times of economic scarcity and retrenchment. The interview captures…

  18. Moving frames and prolongation algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1982-01-01

    Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.

  19. Parallel integrated frame synchronizer chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder Singh (Inventor); Solomon, Jeffrey Michael (Inventor); Bennett, Toby Dennis (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A parallel integrated frame synchronizer which implements a sequential pipeline process wherein serial data in the form of telemetry data or weather satellite data enters the synchronizer by means of a front-end subsystem and passes to a parallel correlator subsystem or a weather satellite data processing subsystem. When in a CCSDS mode, data from the parallel correlator subsystem passes through a window subsystem, then to a data alignment subsystem and then to a bit transition density (BTD)/cyclical redundancy check (CRC) decoding subsystem. Data from the BTD/CRC decoding subsystem or data from the weather satellite data processing subsystem is then fed to an output subsystem where it is output from a data output port.

  20. A new frame-based registration algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, C. H.; Whalen, R. T.; Beaupre, G. S.; Sumanaweera, T. S.; Yen, S. Y.; Napel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for frame registration. Our algorithm requires only that the frame be comprised of straight rods, as opposed to the N structures or an accurate frame model required by existing algorithms. The algorithm utilizes the full 3D information in the frame as well as a least squares weighting scheme to achieve highly accurate registration. We use simulated CT data to assess the accuracy of our algorithm. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to two commonly used algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable to the best existing techniques with knowledge of the exact mathematical frame model. For CT data corrupted with an unknown in-plane rotation or translation, the proposed technique is also comparable to the best existing techniques. However, in situations where there is a discrepancy of more than 2 mm (0.7% of the frame dimension) between the frame and the mathematical model, the proposed technique is significantly better (p < or = 0.05) than the existing techniques. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any existing frame without modification. It provides better registration accuracy and is robust against model mis-match. It allows greater flexibility on the frame structure. Lastly, it reduces the frame construction cost as adherence to a concise model is not required.

  1. Dynamic frame selection for in vivo ultrasound temperature estimation during radiofrequency ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Matthew J.; Varghese, Tomy

    2010-08-01

    Minimally invasive therapies such as radiofrequency ablation have been developed to treat cancers of the liver, prostate and kidney without invasive surgery. Prior work has demonstrated that ultrasound echo shifts due to temperature changes can be utilized to track the temperature distribution in real time. In this paper, a motion compensation algorithm is evaluated to reduce the impact of cardiac and respiratory motion on ultrasound-based temperature tracking methods. The algorithm dynamically selects the next suitable frame given a start frame (selected during the exhale or expiration phase where extraneous motion is reduced), enabling optimization of the computational time in addition to reducing displacement noise artifacts incurred with the estimation of smaller frame-to-frame displacements at the full frame rate. A region of interest that does not undergo ablation is selected in the first frame and the algorithm searches through subsequent frames to find a similarly located region of interest in subsequent frames, with a high value of the mean normalized cross-correlation coefficient value. In conjunction with dynamic frame selection, two different two-dimensional displacement estimation algorithms namely a block matching and multilevel cross-correlation are compared. The multi-level cross-correlation method incorporates tracking of the lateral tissue expansion in addition to the axial deformation to improve the estimation performance. Our results demonstrate the ability of the proposed motion compensation using dynamic frame selection in conjunction with the two-dimensional multilevel cross-correlation to track the temperature distribution.

  2. HIGH SPEED KERR CELL FRAMING CAMERA

    DOEpatents

    Goss, W.C.; Gilley, L.F.

    1964-01-01

    The present invention relates to a high speed camera utilizing a Kerr cell shutter and a novel optical delay system having no moving parts. The camera can selectively photograph at least 6 frames within 9 x 10/sup -8/ seconds during any such time interval of an occurring event. The invention utilizes particularly an optical system which views and transmits 6 images of an event to a multi-channeled optical delay relay system. The delay relay system has optical paths of successively increased length in whole multiples of the first channel optical path length, into which optical paths the 6 images are transmitted. The successively delayed images are accepted from the exit of the delay relay system by an optical image focusing means, which in turn directs the images into a Kerr cell shutter disposed to intercept the image paths. A camera is disposed to simultaneously view and record the 6 images during a single exposure of the Kerr cell shutter. (AEC)

  3. Single-Frame Cinema. Three Dimensional Computer-Generated Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheetham, Edward Joseph, II

    This master's thesis provides a description of the proposed art form called single-frame cinema, which is a category of computer imagery that takes the temporal polarities of photography and cinema and unites them into a single visual vignette of time. Following introductory comments, individual chapters discuss (1) the essential physical…

  4. 2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION, SHIPLOADER SIDE. WEST WALL. MARINE LEG ADDED SOME TIME BETWEEN 1907-1919. METAL PASSENGER ELEVATOR SHAFT ADDED IN EARLY 1970S. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  5. Interactive wire-frame ship hullform generation and display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. E.; Garbini, J. L.; Ishimaru, J.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive automated procedure to generate a wire frame graphic image of a ship hullform, which uses a digitizing tablet in conjunction with the hullform lines drawing, was developed. The geometric image created is displayed on an Evans & Sutherland PS-300 graphics terminal for real time interactive viewing or is output as hard copy on an inexpensive dot matrix printer.

  6. FRAMES User Defined Body Burden Concentration File Module Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pelton, Mitchell A.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Eslinger, Melany A.; Gelston, Gariann M.

    2001-06-01

    The Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) Body Burden Concentration File (BBF) contains time-varying, instantaneous, constituent concentrations for body burden by contaminant. This report contains the requirements for this file and will be used by software engineers and testers to ensure that the file inputs properly.

  7. Framing effects: behavioral dynamics and neural basis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongming; Wang, X T; Zhu, Liqi

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the neural basis of framing effects using life-death decision problems framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large group and small group contexts. Using functional MRI we found differential brain activations to the verbal and social cues embedded in the choice problems. In large group contexts, framing effects were significant where participants were more risk seeking under the negative (loss) framing than under the positive (gain) framing. This behavioral difference in risk preference was mainly regulated by the activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, including the homologue of the Broca's area. In contrast, framing effects diminished in small group contexts while the insula and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere were distinctively activated, suggesting an important role of emotion in switching choice preference from an indecisive mode to a more consistent risk-taking inclination, governed by a kith-and-kin decision rationality.

  8. Do framing effects reveal irrational choice?

    PubMed

    Mandel, David R

    2014-06-01

    Framing effects have long been viewed as compelling evidence of irrationality in human decision making, yet that view rests on the questionable assumption that numeric quantifiers used to convey the expected values of choice options are uniformly interpreted as exact values. Two experiments show that when the exactness of such quantifiers is made explicit by the experimenter, framing effects vanish. However, when the same quantifiers are given a lower bound (at least) meaning, the typical framing effect is found. A 3rd experiment confirmed that most people spontaneously interpret the quantifiers in standard framing tests as lower bounded and that their interpretations strongly moderate the framing effect. Notably, in each experiment, a significant majority of participants made rational choices, either choosing the option that maximized expected value (i.e., lives saved) or choosing consistently across frames when the options were of equal expected value.

  9. Frame synchronization of satellite based on AIS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexiang; Zhao, Dawei

    2016-10-01

    Frame synchronization play a very important role in coding of AIS. There are much arithmetic like maximum-likelihood, correlation and so on. But most of those cannot achieve good performance with large frequency offset. As satellite-based AIS system exist larger time delay and Doppler frequency offset, this paper propose arithmetic of frame synchronization. It is based on folding auto-correlation, where the top half and second half of training sequence have largest correlation after it is modulated by GMSK. Simulation experiments indicate that this arithmetic has good anti-frequency-offset performance.

  10. Reference frames in virtual spatial navigation are viewpoint dependent

    PubMed Central

    Török, Ágoston; Nguyen, T. Peter; Kolozsvári, Orsolya; Buchanan, Robert J.; Nadasdy, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Spatial navigation in the mammalian brain relies on a cognitive map of the environment. Such cognitive maps enable us, for example, to take the optimal route from a given location to a known target. The formation of these maps is naturally influenced by our perception of the environment, meaning it is dependent on factors such as our viewpoint and choice of reference frame. Yet, it is unknown how these factors influence the construction of cognitive maps. Here, we evaluated how various combinations of viewpoints and reference frames affect subjects' performance when they navigated in a bounded virtual environment without landmarks. We measured both their path length and time efficiency and found that (1) ground perspective was associated with egocentric frame of reference, (2) aerial perspective was associated with allocentric frame of reference, (3) there was no appreciable performance difference between first and third person egocentric viewing positions and (4) while none of these effects were dependent on gender, males tended to perform better in general. Our study provides evidence that there are inherent associations between visual perspectives and cognitive reference frames. This result has implications about the mechanisms of path integration in the human brain and may also inspire designs of virtual reality applications. Lastly, we demonstrated the effective use of a tablet PC and spatial navigation tasks for studying spatial and cognitive aspects of human memory. PMID:25249956

  11. Seismic response of reinforced concrete frames at different damage levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-González, Merangeli; Vidot-Vega, Aidcer L.

    2017-03-01

    Performance-based seismic engineering is focused on the definition of limit states to represent different levels of damage, which can be described by material strains, drifts, displacements or even changes in dissipating properties and stiffness of the structure. This study presents a research plan to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) moment resistant frames at different performance levels established by the ASCE 41-06 seismic rehabilitation code. Sixteen RC plane moment frames with different span-to-depth ratios and three 3D RC frames were analyzed to evaluate their seismic behavior at different damage levels established by the ASCE 41-06. For each span-to-depth ratio, four different beam longitudinal reinforcement steel ratios were used that varied from 0.85 to 2.5% for the 2D frames. Nonlinear time history analyses of the frames were performed using scaled ground motions. The impact of different span-to-depth and reinforcement ratios on the damage levels was evaluated. Material strains, rotations and seismic hysteretic energy changes at different damage levels were studied.

  12. Implementation of a frame-based representation in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assal, Hisham; Myers, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge representation is one of the major concerns in expert systems. The representation of domain-specific knowledge should agree with the nature of the domain entities and their use in the real world. For example, architectural applications deal with objects and entities such as spaces, walls, and windows. A natural way of representing these architectural entities is provided by frames. This research explores the potential of using the expert system shell CLIPS, developed by NASA, to implement a frame-based representation that can accommodate architectural knowledge. These frames are similar but quite different from the 'template' construct in version 4.3 of CLIPS. Templates support only the grouping of related information and the assignment of default values to template fields. In addition to these features frames provide other capabilities including definition of classes, inheritance between classes and subclasses, relation of objects of different classes with 'has-a', association of methods (demons) of different types (standard and user-defined) to fields (slots), and creation of new fields at run-time. This frame-based representation is implemented completely in CLIPS. No change to the source code is necessary.

  13. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin 1 g once daily for 3 days in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: an open-label randomised comparison with amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Paris, R; Confalonieri, M; Dal Negro, R; Ligia, G P; Mos, L; Todisco, T; Rastelli, V; Perna, G; Cepparulo, M

    2008-02-01

    This randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study was designed to demonstrate that a 3-day course of oral azithromycin 1 g once daily was at least as effective as a standard 7-day course of oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily in the treatment of outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (Fine class I and II). In total, 267 patients with clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia were randomly assigned to receive either the azithromycin (n=136) or the amoxicillin-clavulanate (n=131) regimen. At screening, 60/136 (58.8%) and 61/131 (62.9%) respectively had at least one pathogen identified by sputum culture, PCR, or serology. The primary endpoint was the clinical response in the intent-to-treat population at the end of therapy (day 8 to 12). Clinical success rates were 126/136 (92.6%) for azithromycin and 122/131 (93.1%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate (treatment difference: - 0.48%; 95% confidence interval: - 5.66%; 4.69%). Clinical and radiological success rates at follow-up (day 22-26) were consistent with the end of therapy results, no patient reporting clinical relapse. Bacteriological success rates at the end of therapy were 32/35 (91.4%) for azithromycin and 30/33 (90.9%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate (treatment difference: 0.52%; 95% confidence interval - 10.81%; 11.85%). Both treatment regimens were well tolerated: the overall incidence of adverse events was 34/136 (25.0%) for azithromycin and 22/132 (16.7%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate. In both treatment groups, the most commonly reported events were gastrointestinal symptoms. Azithromycin 1g once daily for 3 days is at least as effective as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days in the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

  14. Deriving a unique reference frame for GPS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, Rajendra P.; Wu, Sien-Chong

    1988-01-01

    Two strategies for deriving a unique reference frame for GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements are discussed. The first strategy utilizes the precise relative positions which have been predetermined by VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) to fix the frame orientation and the absolute scaling, while the offset from the geocenter is determined from GPS measurements. Three different cases are presented under this strategy. The second strategy establishes a reference frame by holding only the longitudinal of one of the tracking sites fixed. The absolute scaling is determined by the adopted gravitational constant (GM) of the earth; and the latitude is inferred from the time signature of the earth's rotation in the GPS measurements. The coordinate system thus defined will be a geocentric earth fixed coordinate system. A covariance analysis shows that geometric positioning to an accuracy of a few centimeters can be achieved with just one day of precise GPS pseudorange and carrier phase data.

  15. Gabor frame sets of invariance: a Hamiltonian approach to Gabor frame deformations.

    PubMed

    Faulhuber, Markus

    In this work we study families of pairs of window functions and lattices which lead to Gabor frames which all possess the same frame bounds. To be more precise, for every generalized Gaussian g, we will construct an uncountable family of lattices [Formula: see text] such that each pairing of g with some [Formula: see text] yields a Gabor frame, and all pairings yield the same frame bounds. On the other hand, for each lattice we will find a countable family of generalized Gaussians [Formula: see text] such that each pairing leaves the frame bounds invariant. Therefore, we are tempted to speak about Gabor Frame Sets of Invariance.

  16. The time frame of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 gene to disappear in nasopharyngeal swabs after initiation of primary radiotherapy is an independently significant prognostic factor predicting local control for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.-Y.; Chang, K.-P.; Hsieh, M.-S.; Ueng, S.-H.; Hao, S.-P.; Tseng, C.-K.; Pai, P.-C.; Chang, F.-T.; Tsai, M.-H.; Tsang, N.-M. . E-mail: rt3126@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: The presence of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene in nasopharyngeal swabs indicates the presence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mucosal tumor cells. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the time taken for LMP-1 to disappear after initiation of primary radiotherapy (RT) was inversely associated with NPC local control. Methods and Materials: During July 1999 and October 2002, there were 127 nondisseminated NPC patients receiving serial examinations of nasopharyngeal swabbing with detection of LMP-1 during the RT course. The time for LMP-1 regression was defined as the number of days after initiation of RT for LMP-1 results to turn negative. The primary outcome was local control, which was represented by freedom from local recurrence. Results: The time for LMP-1 regression showed a statistically significant influence on NPC local control both univariately (p < 0.0001) and multivariately (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, the administration of chemotherapy conferred a significantly more favorable local control (p = 0.03). Advanced T status ({>=} T2b), overall treatment time of external photon radiotherapy longer than 55 days, and older age showed trends toward being poor prognosticators. The time for LMP-1 regression was very heterogeneous. According to the quartiles of the time for LMP-1 regression, we defined the pattern of LMP-1 regression as late regression if it required 40 days or more. Kaplan-Meier plots indicated that the patients with late regression had a significantly worse local control than those with intermediate or early regression (p 0.0129). Conclusion: Among the potential prognostic factors examined in this study, the time for LMP-1 regression was the most independently significant factor that was inversely associated with NPC local control.

  17. Pyramidal space frame and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Ryan Michael; White, David; Farr, Jr, Adrian Lawrence

    2016-07-19

    A space frame having a high torsional strength comprising a first square bipyramid and two planar structures extending outward from an apex of the first square bipyramid to form a "V" shape is disclosed. Some embodiments comprise a plurality of edge-sharing square bipyramids configured linearly, where the two planar structures contact apexes of all the square bipyramids. A plurality of bridging struts, apex struts, corner struts and optional internal bracing struts increase the strength and rigidity of the space frame. In an embodiment, the space frame supports a solar reflector, such as a parabolic solar reflector. Methods of fabricating and using the space frames are also disclosed.

  18. Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christopher; Vissasenor, John

    2009-01-01

    A method of pilotless frame synchronization has been devised for low- density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In pilotless frame synchronization , there are no pilot symbols; instead, the offset is estimated by ex ploiting selected aspects of the structure of the code. The advantag e of pilotless frame synchronization is that the bandwidth of the sig nal is reduced by an amount associated with elimination of the pilot symbols. The disadvantage is an increase in the amount of receiver data processing needed for frame synchronization.

  19. Improved frame synchronization schemes for INMARSAT-B/M SCPC and TDM channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Si-Ming; Hanson, Randy L.; Madill, Donald H.; Chapman, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes faster, more robust, frame synchronization schemes for various Inmarsat-B and Inmarsat-M communication and signalling channels. Equations are developed which permit frame synchronization strategies of the type specified by Inmarsat to be evaluated in terms of average true lock time, average false maintenance time, and average search time. Evaluation of the currently specified framing schemes shows that a significant performance improvement is obtained by optimizing the threshold parameters of the scheme. The optimization seeks a compromise between the conflicting requirements of maximizing true lock time and minimizing search time.

  20. High frame rate retrospectively triggered Cine MRI for assessment of murine diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Coolen, Bram F; Abdurrachim, Desiree; Motaal, Abdallah G; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2013-03-01

    To assess left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in mice with Cine MRI, a high frame rate (>60 frames per cardiac cycle) is required. For conventional electrocardiography-triggered Cine MRI, the frame rate is inversely proportional to the pulse repetition time (TR). However, TR cannot be lowered at will to increase the frame rate because of gradient hardware, spatial resolution, and signal-to-noise limitations. To overcome these limitations associated with electrocardiography-triggered Cine MRI, in this paper, we introduce a retrospectively triggered Cine MRI protocol capable of producing high-resolution high frame rate Cine MRI of the mouse heart for addressing left ventricular diastolic function. Simulations were performed to investigate the influence of MRI sequence parameters and the k-space filling trajectory in relation to the desired number of frames per cardiac cycle. An optimized protocol was applied in vivo and compared with electrocardiography-triggered Cine for which a high-frame rate could only be achieved by several interleaved acquisitions. Retrospective high frame rate Cine MRI proved superior to the interleaved electrocardiography-triggered protocols. High spatial-resolution Cine movies with frames rates up to 80 frames per cardiac cycle were obtained in 25 min. Analysis of left ventricular filling rate curves allowed accurate determination of early and late filling rates and revealed subtle impairments in left ventricular diastolic function of diabetic mice in comparison with nondiabetic mice.

  1. Network-based H.264/AVC whole frame loss visibility model and frame dropping methods.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yueh-Lun; Lin, Ting-Lan; Cosman, Pamela C

    2012-08-01

    We examine the visual effect of whole frame loss by different decoders. Whole frame losses are introduced in H.264/AVC compressed videos which are then decoded by two different decoders with different common concealment effects: frame copy and frame interpolation. The videos are seen by human observers who respond to each glitch they spot. We found that about 39% of whole frame losses of B frames are not observed by any of the subjects, and over 58% of the B frame losses are observed by 20% or fewer of the subjects. Using simple predictive features which can be calculated inside a network node with no access to the original video and no pixel level reconstruction of the frame, we developed models which can predict the visibility of whole B frame losses. The models are then used in a router to predict the visual impact of a frame loss and perform intelligent frame dropping to relieve network congestion. Dropping frames based on their visual scores proves superior to random dropping of B frames.

  2. Distraction osteogenesis for tibial nonunion with bone loss using combined Ilizarov and Taylor spatial frames versus a conventional circular frame.

    PubMed

    Abuomira, Ibrahim Elsayed Abdellatif; Sala, Francesco; Elbatrawy, Yasser; Lovisetti, Giovanni; Alati, Salvatore; Capitani, Dario

    2016-11-01

    This retrospective review assesses 55 tibial nonunions with bone loss to compare union achieved with combined Ilizarov and Taylor spatial frames (I-TSF) versus a conventional circular frame with the standard Ilizarov procedure. Seventeen (31 %) of the 55 nonunions were infected. Thirty patients treated with I-TSF were compared with 25 patients treated with a conventional circular frame. In the I-TSF group, an average of 7.6 cm of bone was resected and the lengthening index (treatment time in months divided by lengthening amount in centimeters) was 1.97. In the conventional circular frame group, a mean of 6.5 cm was resected and the lengthening index was 2.1. Consolidation at the docking site and at the regenerate bone occurred in 49 (89 %) of 55 cases after the first procedure. No statistically significant difference was shown between the two groups. Superiority of one modality of treatment over the other cannot be concluded from our data. Application of combined Ilizarov and Taylor spatial frames for bone transport is useful for treatment of tibial nonunion with bone loss. Level of evidence Case series, Level III.

  3. 12 CFR 308.526 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.526 Computation of time. (a) In... business day. (b) When the period of time allowed is less than 7 days, intermediate Saturdays, Sundays,...

  4. Gabor frames for classification of paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation episodes.

    PubMed

    Ortigosa, Nuria; Galbis, Antonio; Fernández, Carmen; Cano, Óscar

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new classification method for early differentiation of paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation episodes, i.e. those which spontaneously or with external intervention will return to sinus rhythm within 7 days of onset from the ones where the arrhythmia is sustained for more than 7 days. Today, clinicians provide patients classification once the course of the arrhythmia has been disclosed. This classification problem is dealt with in this study. We study a sparse representation of surface electrocardiogram signals by means of Gabor frames and afterwards we apply a linear discriminant analysis. Thus, we provide an early discrimination, obtaining promising performances on a heterogeneous cohort of patients in terms of pharmacological treatment and state of progression of the arrhythmia: 95% sensitivity, 82% specificity, 89% accuracy. In this manner, the proposed method can help clinicians to choose the most appropriate treatment using the electrocardiogram, which is a widely available and non-invasive technique. This early differentiation is clinically highly significant in order to choose optimal patients who may undergo catheter ablation with higher success rates.

  5. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-07-25

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level.

  6. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level. PMID:25059843

  7. Effect of framing on adolescents' decision making.

    PubMed

    Chien, Y C; Lin, C; Worthley, J

    1996-12-01

    92 young adolescents were tested using Tversky and Kahneman's (1981) decision problems for framing effects. A notable number of young adolescents tested were not influenced by the context of the decision problems, thus they selected the same response option for positively and negatively framed problems. Parallel information was not available in Tversky and Kahneman's study for adults because they used a between-subjects design. However, for present adolescents who selected different response options for different framing problems, the response pattern exhibited by them resembled the general pattern exhibited by the adults tested in Tversky and Kahneman's study-negative frames led them to accept risk to avoid certain loss; positive frames prevented them from risking what they were certain to gain. Boys and girls were similar in their susceptibility to framing effects as were honors students in mathematics as compared to nonhonors students. Although the positive vs negative framing only influenced some of the young adolescents tested in this study, because the influence was consistent, researchers and educators interested in adolescents' decisions involving risky choices might use framing principles to design and assess cognitive interventions for high-risk behaviors among young adolescents.

  8. A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nausieda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…

  9. Framing Behaviours in Novice Interaction Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz, Nicole; Sharp, Helen; Woodroffe, Mark; Blyth, Richard; Rajah, Dino; Ranganai, Turugare

    2015-01-01

    Framing design problems and solutions has been recognised in design studies as a central designerly activity. Some recent findings with expert designers relate framing practices to problem-solution co-evolution and analogy use, two further widely recognised design strategies. We wanted to understand if interaction design novices also use…

  10. Simple circuit positions film frames in projector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, R. H.

    1965-01-01

    Individual frames on a photographic film strip in a projector are automatically positioned by a simple circuit. The circuit uses a photodiode that senses frame registry position and a relay that stops the film-advance motor to suspend the film at point of registry.

  11. Framing in the Field: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Strategic Frame Analysis can inform the daily practice of policy advocates by bringing an evidence-based communications approach to their work. This case study of FrameWorks' decade-long association with the national Kids Count Network shares stories from advocates who are transforming their communications strategies, resulting in more effective…

  12. Teaching the Dynamics of Framing Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinke, Eike Mark

    2012-01-01

    Framing theory is one of the most thriving and complex fields of communication theory, and as such it has grown to be an integral part of many political communication, public opinion, and communication theory courses. Part of the complexity stems from scholars' efforts to develop accounts of framing processes that are closer to the "real world" of…

  13. A Relational Frame Theory Account of Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardaga, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The current paper proposes a Relational Frame Theory (RFT, Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001a) conceptualization of empathy and perspective taking that follows previous literature outlining a relationship between those phenomena and general functioning. Deictic framing, a relational operant investigated by RFT researchers, constitutes the…

  14. Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, N. ); Shahid-Saless, B. )

    1990-08-15

    In metric theories of gravity the principle of general covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. In this paper it is shown that in an appropriately chosen coordinate system, geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, spinning mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect without invoking spatial curvature. The origin of this reference frame moves around the source but the frame axes point in fixed directions. The drag can be interpreted to arise from the orbital angular momentum of the source around the origin of the reference frame. In this reference frame the effects of geodetic precession and Lense-Thirring drag due to intrinsic angular momentum of the source have the same origin, namely, gravitomagnetism.

  15. Multipliers for continuous frames in Hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazs, P.; Bayer, D.; Rahimi, A.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we examine the general theory of continuous frame multipliers in Hilbert space. These operators are a generalization of the widely used notion of (discrete) frame multipliers. Well-known examples include anti-Wick operators, STFT multipliers or Calderón-Toeplitz operators. Due to the possible peculiarities of the underlying measure spaces, continuous frames do not behave quite as their discrete counterparts. Nonetheless, many results similar to the discrete case are proven for continuous frame multipliers as well, for instance compactness and Schatten-class properties. Furthermore, the concepts of controlled and weighted frames are transferred to the continuous setting. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.

  16. Integrated seat frame and back support

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Leo

    1999-01-01

    An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.

  17. How Does Expansive Framing Promote Transfer? Several Proposed Explanations and a Research Agenda for Investigating Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Randi A.; Lam, Diane P.; Meyer, Xenia S.; Nix, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    When contexts are framed expansively, students are positioned as actively contributing to larger conversations that extend across time, places, and people. A set of recent studies provides empirical evidence that the expansive framing of contexts can foster transfer. In this article, we present five potentially complementary explanations for how…

  18. From Game Protection to Wildlife Management: Frame Shifts, Organizational Development, and Field Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brulle, Robert J.; Benford, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    One enduring question in social movements research is the relationship between cultural representations and organizational structure. In this article, we examine the development of different discursive frames over time, and how such frame shifts affect movement structure and practices. This approach seeks to illuminate the dialectical interplay…

  19. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    review shows that the current knowledge gives the basis for improving the calculation procedures in the calculation standards. At the same time it is room for improvement within some areas, e.g. to fully understand the natural convection effects inside irregular vertical frame cavities (jambs) and ventilated frame cavities.

  20. Note: Non-gain microchannel plate gated framing camera

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Houzhi; Peng Xiang; Liu Jinyuan; Niu Lihong; Peng Wenda; Niu Hanben; Long Jinghua

    2011-05-15

    An x-ray framing camera using a non-gain microchannel plate (MCP) is reported in this article. The advantage of the non-gain MCP is the less transit time spread. The non-gain MCP gated framing camera has four microstrip line cathodes with 6 mm in width. The time domain reflectometry curves of the four microstrip lines are measured, which show that the characteristic impedance of each microstrip line is about 17 {Omega}. While the photocathode is driven by the gating electrical pulse with width of 125 ps and amplitude of -1.48 kV with -400 V bias, the measured exposure time of this camera is about 72 ps.

  1. Note: Non-gain microchannel plate gated framing camera.

    PubMed

    Cai, Houzhi; Liu, Jinyuan; Peng, Xiang; Niu, Lihong; Peng, Wenda; Niu, Hanben; Long, Jinghua

    2011-05-01

    An x-ray framing camera using a non-gain microchannel plate (MCP) is reported in this article. The advantage of the non-gain MCP is the less transit time spread. The non-gain MCP gated framing camera has four microstrip line cathodes with 6 mm in width. The time domain reflectometry curves of the four microstrip lines are measured, which show that the characteristic impedance of each microstrip line is about 17 Ω. While the photocathode is driven by the gating electrical pulse with width of 125 ps and amplitude of -1.48 kV with -400 V bias, the measured exposure time of this camera is about 72 ps.

  2. Toward the greening of nuclear energy: A content analysis of nuclear energy frames from 1991 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Sonya R.

    Framing theory has emerged as one of the predominant theories employed in mass communications research in the 21st century. Frames are identified as interpretive packages for content where some issue attributes are highlighted over other attributes. While framing effects studies appear plentiful, longitudinal studies assessing trends in dominant framing packages and story elements for an issue appear to be less understood. Through content analysis, this study examines dominant frame packages, story elements, headline tone, story tone, stereotypes, and source attribution for nuclear energy from 1991-2008 in the New York Times, USA Today, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post. Unlike many content analysis studies, this study compares intercoder reliability among three indices---percentage agreement, proportional reduction of loss and Scott's Pi. The newspapers represented in this study possess a commonality in the types of dominant frames packages employed. Significant dominant frame packages among the four newspapers include human/health, proliferation, procedural, and marketplace. While the procedural frame package was more likely to appear prior to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the proliferation frame packaged was more likely to appear after the Kyoto Protol. Over time, the sustainable frame package demonstrated increased significance. This study is part of the growing literature regarding the function of frames over time.

  3. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M⊙, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R⊙, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  4. Effects of Temporal Framing on Response to Antismoking Messages: The Mediating Role of Perceived Relevance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Peterson, Emily

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the effect of temporal framing on young adult smokers' response to antismoking communication messages. In two studies using largely identical designs, young adult smokers recruited from a large university (n = 52) and Amazon Mechanical Turk (n = 210) were exposed to either no messages or messages featuring different temporal frames. Analysis of the combined data (N = 262) showed that framing the health consequences of smoking in a proximal (vs. distal) time frame led to greater perceived message relevance, less use of heuristic processing, greater use of systematic processing, greater positive affect, and more intense fear. Mediation analysis showed that perceived relevance was a significant mediator of the effect of temporal framing on message processing and emotional responses. In separate analysis of the Amazon Mechanical Turk data, the proximal frame also showed a consistent pattern of stronger impact on behavioral intentions compared to the distal frame, but the difference was only significant on the measure of intending to try to quit. Overall, findings of this study suggest that using proximal (vs. distal) frames may enhance receptivity to antismoking messages among young adult smokers, although the behavioral impact of this framing strategy still awaits further research.

  5. Finding the frame shift: digit loss, developmental variability, and the origin of the avian hand.

    PubMed

    Bever, Gabe S; Gauthier, Jacques A; Wagner, Günter P

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the tridactyl hand of crown birds from the pentadactyl hand of those early theropod dinosaurs lying along the avian stem has become a classic, but at times seemingly intractable, historical problem. The point in question is whether the fingers of crown birds represent digits 1-3 as predicted by generalized trends in the fossil record; or digits 2-4, as evidenced by the topology of the embryonic mesenchymal condensations from which the digits develop. The frame shift hypothesis attempted to resolve this paradox by making these signals congruent by means of a homeotic transformation in digital identity, but recently the paleontological support for this hypothesis was questioned. Here, we reassess the frame shift from a paleontological perspective by addressing what predictions a frame shift makes for skeletal morphology, whether the frame shift remains a viable explanation of the known fossil data, and where on the theropod tree the frame shift most likely occurred. Our results indicate that the frame shift remains viable, and based on the inferred pattern of digit loss, the frame shift likely occurred at a deeper position in theropod phylogeny than previously proposed. A new evolutionary model of the frame shift is described in which the early history of the frame-shifted hand is marked by an extended zone of developmental polymorphism. This model provides a new conceptual framework for the role of developmental variability in communicating broad evolutionary patterns on a taxonomically inclusive phylogenetic tree.

  6. Automatic method for synchronizing workpiece frames in twin-robot nondestructive testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zongxing; Xu, Chunguang; Pan, Qinxue; Meng, Fanwu; Li, Xinliang

    2015-07-01

    The workpiece frames relative to each robot base frame should be known in advance for the proper operation of twin-robot nondestructive testing system. However, when two robots are separated from the workpieces, the twin robots cannot reach the same point to complete the process of workpiece frame positioning. Thus, a new method is proposed to solve the problem of coincidence between workpiece frames. Transformation between two robot base frames is initiated by measuring the coordinate values of three non-collinear calibration points. The relationship between the workpiece frame and that of the slave robot base frame is then determined according to the known transformation of two robot base frames, as well as the relationship between the workpiece frame and that of the master robot base frame. Only one robot is required to actually measure the coordinate values of the calibration points on the workpiece. This requirement is beneficial when one of the robots cannot reach and measure the calibration points. The coordinate values of the calibration points are derived by driving the robot hand to the points and recording the values of top center point(TCP) coordinates. The translation and rotation matrices relate either the two robot base frames or the workpiece and master robot. The coordinated are solved using the measured values of the calibration points according to the Cartesian transformation principle. An optimal method is developed based on exponential mapping of Lie algebra to ensure that the rotation matrix is orthogonal. Experimental results show that this method involves fewer steps, offers significant advantages in terms of operation and time-saving. A method used to synchronize workpiece frames in twin-robot system automatically is presented.

  7. Wavelet frames and admissibility in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Führ, Hartmut

    1996-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the relations between discrete and continuous wavelet transforms on k-dimensional Euclidean space. We start with the construction of continuous wavelet transforms with the help of square-integrable representations of certain semidirect products, thereby generalizing results of Bernier and Taylor. We then turn to frames of L2(Rk) and to the question, when the functions occurring in a given frame are admissible for a given continuous wavelet transform. For certain frames we give a characterization which generalizes a result of Daubechies to higher dimensions.

  8. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.; Lloyd, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

  9. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  10. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for space frame synthesis based on the application of a full gamut of approximation concepts is presented. It is found that with the thoughtful selection of design space, objective function approximation, constraint approximation and mathematical programming problem formulation options it is possible to obtain near minimum mass designs for a significant class of space frame structural systems while requiring fewer than 10 structural analyses. Example problems are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for frame structures subjected to multiple static loading conditions with limits on structural stiffness and strength.

  11. Modeling laser wakefield accelerators in a Lorentz boosted frame

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.

    2010-09-15

    Modeling of laser-plasma wakefield accelerators in an optimal frame of reference [1] is shown to produce orders of magnitude speed-up of calculations from first principles. Obtaining these speedups requires mitigation of a high frequency instability that otherwise limits effectiveness in addition to solutions for handling data input and output in a relativistically boosted frame of reference. The observed high-frequency instability is mitigated using methods including an electromagnetic solver with tunable coefficients, its extension to accomodate Perfectly Matched Layers and Friedman's damping algorithms, as well as an efficient large bandwidth digital filter. It is shown that choosing theframe of the wake as the frame of reference allows for higher levels of filtering and damping than is possible in other frames for the same accuracy. Detailed testing also revealed serendipitously the existence of a singular time step at which the instability level is minimized, independently of numerical dispersion, thus indicating that the observed instability may not be due primarily to Numerical Cerenkov as has been conjectured. The techniques developed for Cerenkov mitigation prove nonetheless to be very efficient at controlling the instability. Using these techniques, agreement at the percentage level is demonstrated between simulations using different frames of reference, with speedups reaching two orders of magnitude for a 0.1 GeV class stages. The method then allows direct and efficient full-scale modeling of deeply depleted laser-plasma stages of 10 GeV-1 TeV for the first time, verifying the scaling of plasma accelerators to very high energies. Over 4, 5 and 6 orders of magnitude speedup is achieved for the modeling of 10 GeV, 100 GeV and 1 TeV class stages, respectively.

  12. Seismic response control of frame structure braced with SMA tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shi; Song, Gangbing; Huo, Linsheng; Gu, Haichang

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents studies of seismic response control of a frame structure braced with SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) tendons through both numerical and experimental approaches. Based on the Brinson one-dimensional constitutive law for SMAs, a two-story frame structure braced diagonally with SMA tendons is used as an example to simulate numerically the vibration control process. By considering the temperature, different initial states and thermal properties of the SMA tendon, and the variable intensity and frequency of earthquake input, the parameters of the system were analyzed during the numerically simulation. The time histories of the displacement and hysteretic loops of the SMA tendons were simulated under earthquake ground motion by using finite element method (FEM). To validate the efficiency of the simulation, a shaking table test for the frame structure was conducted. Both numerical simulation and experimental results show that the actively controlled martensite SMA tendons can effectively suppress the vibration of the multi-story frame structure during an earthquake.

  13. Spatial priming in ecologically relevant reference frames.

    PubMed

    Tower-Richardi, Sarah M; Leber, Andrew B; Golomb, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have observed many phenomena demonstrating how the visual system exploits spatial regularities in the environment in order to benefit behavior. In this paper, we question whether spatial priming can be considered one such phenomenon. Spatial priming is defined as a response time facilitation to a visual search target when its spatial position has been repeated in recent trials (Maljkovic & Nakayama, 1996, Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 977-991). Does this priming serve a behaviorally adaptive role or is it merely a byproduct of ongoing visual processing? Critically, an adaptive priming mechanism must actively transform visual inputs from native retinotopic (eye-centered) coordinates into ecologically relevant coordinates, e.g., spatiotopic (world-centered) and/or object-centered. In Experiment 1, we tested this hypothesis by having participants move their eyes between trials, which dissociated retinotopic and spatiotopic frames of reference. Results showed only weak retinotopic priming, but robust spatiotopic priming. The second experiment again had participants move their eyes between trials but also manipulated the placement of a grouped array of display objects from trial to trial. This allowed us to measure not just retinotopic and spatiotopic priming, but object-centered priming as well. Results from this experiment did not yield retinotopic priming but showed robust spatiotopic and object-centered priming. These findings demonstrate that spatial priming operates within ecologically relevant coordinate systems, and the findings support the notion that spatial priming serves an adaptive role in human behavior.

  14. Framing effect following bilateral amygdala lesion.

    PubMed

    Talmi, Deborah; Hurlemann, René; Patin, Alexandra; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-05-01

    A paradigmatic example of an emotional bias in decision making is the framing effect, where the manner in which a choice is posed--as a potential loss or a potential gain--systematically biases an ensuing decision. Two fMRI studies have shown that the activation in the amygdala is modulated by the framing effect. Here, contrary to an expectation based on these studies, we show that two patients with Urbach-Wiethe (UW) disease, a rare condition associated with congenital, complete bilateral amygdala degeneration, exhibit an intact framing effect. However, choice preference in these patients did show a qualitatively distinct pattern compared to controls evident in an increased propensity to gamble, indicating that loss of amygdala function does exert an overall influence on risk-taking. These findings suggest either that amygdala does contribute to decision making but does not play a causal role in framing, or that UW is not a pure lesion model of amygdala function.

  15. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by a patient to correct refractive errors. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  16. Atwood's Machine: Experiments in an Accelerating Frame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Chia Teck; Hong, Chia Yee

    1999-01-01

    Experiments in an accelerating frame are hard to perform. Illustrates how simple computer software allows sufficiently rapid and accurate measurements to be made on an arrangement of weights and pulleys known as Atwood's machine. (Author/CCM)

  17. Frame-layer rate control algorithm for H.264 based on improved frame MAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ziguan; Liu, Ningzhong

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we present an improved frame layer rate control algorithm for H.264/AVC video coding standard. An important step in many existing rate control algorithms is to determine the target bits for each P frame. In the standard rate control scheme of H.264, the target bit number is a weighted combination of remaining bits and bits calculated from buffer regulation. The problem is that the remaining bits are allocated to all non-coded frames equally. This will cause non-uniform image quality over a video sequence. To overcome this disadvantage, first we define frame complexity ratio (FC ratio) as a measure for global frame encoding complexity and then allocate initial target bit according to its FC ratio. We define FC ratio as a weighted combination of motion complexity and texture complexity which can predict current frame complexity more accurately using the statistics of previously encoded frame and the texture information of current frame. Experiment results show that our improved algorithm can acquire more accurate quantization parameter (QP) for each P frame through the quadratic rate-distortion (R-D) model, achieve an average PSNR gain of about 0.28 dB and meanwhile effectively alleviate the buffer's fluctuating range and frame PSNR variation.

  18. Design of Visco-Elastic Dampers for RC Frame for Site-Specific Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamatchi, P.; Rama Raju, K.; Ravisankar, K.; Iyer, Nagesh R.

    2016-12-01

    Number of Reinforced Concrete (RC) framed buildings have got damaged at Ahmedabad city, India located at about 240 km away from epicenter during January 2001, 7.6 moment magnitude (Mw) Bhuj earthquake. In the present study, two dimensional nonlinear time history dynamic analyses of a typical 13 storey frame assumed to be located at Ahmedabad is carried out with the rock level and surface level site-specific ground motion for scenario earthquake of Mw 7.6 from Bhuj. Artificial ground motions are generated using extended finite source stochastic model with seismological parameters reported in literature for 2001 Bhuj earthquake. Surface level ground motions are obtained for a typical soil profile of 100 m depth reported in literature through one dimensional equivalent linear wave propagation analyses. From the analyses, failure of frame is observed for surface level ground motions which indicates that, in addition to the in-adequacy of the cross sections and reinforcement of the RC members of the frame chosen, the rich energy content of the surface level ground motion near the fundamental time period of the frame has also contributed for the failure of frame. As a part of retrofitting measure, five Visco-elastic Dampers (VED) in chevron bracing are added to frame. For the frame considered in the present study, provision of VED is found to be effective to mitigate damage for the soil site considered.

  19. Earth - South America (first frame of Earth Spin Movie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by Galileo at about 6:10 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.3 million miles from the planet during the first of two Earth flybys on its way to Jupiter. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. South America is near the center of the picture, and the white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Atlantic, lower right. This is the first frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500- frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  20. Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Neil; Shahid-Saless, Bahman

    1989-01-01

    In General Relativity, the Principle of General Covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. Here, it is shown that the geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, nonrotating mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect, in an appropriately chosen coordinate frame whose origin falls freely along with the gyroscope and whose spatial coordinate axes point in fixed directions.

  1. Frame-Guided Assembly of Amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuanchen; Liu, Dongsheng

    2015-12-07

    Frame-guided assembly, a recently discovered strategy for amphiphilic assembly, is discussed as a strategy for constructing vesicle assemblies with programmed geometries and dimensions under identical surrounding conditions. The strategy is inspired by the cytoskeletal-membrane protein-lipid bilayer structure and shows great potential in the understanding and controlling of the amphiphilic assembly process. Both the principles and basic requirements are discussed, along with recently reported examples. The prospects and potential investigations of frame-guided assembly are also proposed.

  2. Detection of Cardiac Quiescence from B-Mode Echocardiography Using a Correlation-Based Frame-to-Frame Deviation Measure

    PubMed Central

    Mcclellan, James H.; Ravichandran, Lakshminarayan; Tridandapani, Srini

    2013-01-01

    Two novel methods for detecting cardiac quiescent phases from B-mode echocardiography using a correlation-based frame-to-frame deviation measure were developed. Accurate knowledge of cardiac quiescence is crucial to the performance of many imaging modalities, including computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). Synchronous electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography data were obtained from 10 healthy human subjects (four male, six female, 23–45 years) and the interventricular septum (IVS) was observed using the apical four-chamber echocardiographic view. The velocity of the IVS was derived from active contour tracking and verified using tissue Doppler imaging echocardiography methods. In turn, the frame-to-frame deviation methods for identifying quiescence of the IVS were verified using active contour tracking. The timing of the diastolic quiescent phase was found to exhibit both inter- and intra-subject variability, suggesting that the current method of CTCA gating based on the ECG is suboptimal and that gating based on signals derived from cardiac motion are likely more accurate in predicting quiescence for cardiac imaging. Two robust and efficient methods for identifying cardiac quiescent phases from B-mode echocardiographic data were developed and verified. The methods presented in this paper will be used to develop new CTCA gating techniques and quantify the resulting potential improvement in CTCA image quality. PMID:26609501

  3. Test Frame for Gravity Offload Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Alexander R.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in space telescope and aperture technology have created a need to launch larger structures into space. Traditional truss structures will be too heavy and bulky to be effectively used in the next generation of space-based structures. Large deployable structures are a possible solution. By packaging deployable trusses, the cargo volume of these large structures greatly decreases. The ultimate goal is to three dimensionally measure a boom's deployment in simulated microgravity. This project outlines the construction of the test frame that supports a gravity offload system. The test frame is stable enough to hold the gravity offload system and does not interfere with deployment of, or vibrations in, the deployable test boom. The natural frequencies and stability of the frame were engineered in FEMAP. The test frame was developed to have natural frequencies that would not match the first two modes of the deployable beam. The frame was then modeled in Solidworks and constructed. The test frame constructed is a stable base to perform studies on deployable structures.

  4. Celestial Reference Frames at Multiple Radio Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    In 1997 the IAU adopted the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) built from S/X VLBI data. In response to IAU resolutions encouraging the extension of the ICRF to additional frequency bands, VLBI frames have been made at 24, 32, and 43 gigahertz. Meanwhile, the 8.4 gigahertz work has been greatly improved with the 2009 release of the ICRF-2. This paper discusses the motivations for extending the ICRF to these higher radio bands. Results to date will be summarized including evidence that the high frequency frames are rapidly approaching the accuracy of the 8.4 gigahertz ICRF-2. We discuss current limiting errors and prospects for the future accuracy of radio reference frames. We note that comparison of multiple radio frames is characterizing the frequency dependent systematic noise floor from extended source morphology and core shift. Finally, given Gaia's potential for high accuracy optical astrometry, we have simulated the precision of a radio-optical frame tie to be approximately10-15 microarcseconds ((1-sigma) (1-standard deviation), per component).

  5. Line defects and (framed) BPS quivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirafici, Michele

    2013-11-01

    The BPS spectrum of certain = 2 supersymmetric field theories can be determined algebraically by studying the representation theory of BPS quivers. We introduce methods based on BPS quivers to study line defects. The presence of a line defect opens up a new BPS sector: framed BPS states can be bound to the defect. The defect can be geometrically described in terms of laminations on a curve. To a lamination we associate certain elements of the Leavitt path algebra of the BPS quiver and use them to compute the framed BPS spectrum. We also provide an alternative characterization of line defects by introducing framed BPS quivers. Using the theory of (quantum) cluster algebras, we derive an algorithm to compute the framed BPS spectra of new defects from known ones. Line defects are generated from a framed BPS quiver by applying certain sequences of mutation operations. Framed BPS quivers also behave nicely under a set of "cut and join" rules, which can be used to study how = 2 systems with defects couple to produce more complicated ones. We illustrate our formalism with several examples.

  6. Terrestrial Coordinate Systems and Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A terrestrial reference system (TRS) is a spatial reference system corotating with the Earth in its DIURNAL MOTION in space. In such a system, the positions of points anchored on the Earth's solid surface have coordinates which have only small variations with time, as a result of geophysical effects (tectonic or tidal deformations; see TECTONICS, EARTH'S INTERIOR, TIDES). A terrestrial reference ...

  7. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  8. Time Frames for Determining of Applicability to NSR

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Framing Hip Hop: New Methodologies for New Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the central impulse behind early advocacy for ethnographic approaches to hip hop--that critics should try as much as possible to limit their own certainties around what hip hop can and might mean. While ethnographic approaches can engender the kinds of personal dislocations that allow for this negotiation, they do not…

  10. Representation of the inverse of a frame multiplier.

    PubMed

    Balazs, P; Stoeva, D T

    2015-02-15

    Certain mathematical objects appear in a lot of scientific disciplines, like physics, signal processing and, naturally, mathematics. In a general setting they can be described as frame multipliers, consisting of analysis, multiplication by a fixed sequence (called the symbol), and synthesis. In this paper we show a surprising result about the inverse of such operators, if any, as well as new results about a core concept of frame theory, dual frames. We show that for semi-normalized symbols, the inverse of any invertible frame multiplier can always be represented as a frame multiplier with the reciprocal symbol and dual frames of the given ones. Furthermore, one of those dual frames is uniquely determined and the other one can be arbitrarily chosen. We investigate sufficient conditions for the special case, when both dual frames can be chosen to be the canonical duals. In connection to the above, we show that the set of dual frames determines a frame uniquely. Furthermore, for a given frame, the union of all coefficients of its dual frames is dense in [Formula: see text]. We also introduce a class of frames (called pseudo-coherent frames), which includes Gabor frames and coherent frames, and investigate invertible pseudo-coherent frame multipliers, allowing a classification for frame-type operators for these frames. Finally, we give a numerical example for the invertibility of multipliers in the Gabor case.

  11. Representation of the inverse of a frame multiplier☆

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, P.; Stoeva, D.T.

    2015-01-01

    Certain mathematical objects appear in a lot of scientific disciplines, like physics, signal processing and, naturally, mathematics. In a general setting they can be described as frame multipliers, consisting of analysis, multiplication by a fixed sequence (called the symbol), and synthesis. In this paper we show a surprising result about the inverse of such operators, if any, as well as new results about a core concept of frame theory, dual frames. We show that for semi-normalized symbols, the inverse of any invertible frame multiplier can always be represented as a frame multiplier with the reciprocal symbol and dual frames of the given ones. Furthermore, one of those dual frames is uniquely determined and the other one can be arbitrarily chosen. We investigate sufficient conditions for the special case, when both dual frames can be chosen to be the canonical duals. In connection to the above, we show that the set of dual frames determines a frame uniquely. Furthermore, for a given frame, the union of all coefficients of its dual frames is dense in ℓ2. We also introduce a class of frames (called pseudo-coherent frames), which includes Gabor frames and coherent frames, and investigate invertible pseudo-coherent frame multipliers, allowing a classification for frame-type operators for these frames. Finally, we give a numerical example for the invertibility of multipliers in the Gabor case. PMID:25843976

  12. Repeated 7-Day Treatment with the 5-HT2C Agonist Lorcaserin or the 5-HT2A Antagonist Pimavanserin Alone or in Combination Fails to Reduce Cocaine vs Food Choice in Male Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Negus, S Stevens

    2017-04-01

    Cocaine use disorder is a global public health problem for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies. Emerging preclinical evidence has implicated both serotonin (5-HT) 2C and 2A receptors as potential mechanisms for mediating serotonergic attenuation of cocaine abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects. Therefore, the present study aim was to determine whether repeated 7-day treatment with the 5-HT2C agonist lorcaserin (0.1-1.0 mg/kg per day, intramuscular; 0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h, intravenous) or the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin (0.32-10 mg/kg per day, intramuscular) attenuated cocaine reinforcement under a concurrent 'choice' schedule of cocaine and food availability in rhesus monkeys. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine vs food choice. Repeated pimavanserin (3.2 mg/kg per day) treatments significantly increased small unit cocaine dose choice. Larger lorcaserin (1.0 mg/kg per day and 0.1 mg/kg/h) and pimavanserin (10 mg/kg per day) doses primarily decreased rates of operant behavior. Coadministration of ineffective lorcaserin (0.1 mg/kg per day) and pimavanserin (0.32 mg/kg per day) doses also failed to significantly alter cocaine choice. These results suggest that neither 5-HT2C receptor activation nor 5-HT2A receptor blockade are sufficient to produce a therapeutic-like decrease in cocaine choice and a complementary increase in food choice. Overall, these results do not support the clinical utility of 5-HT2C agonists and 5-HT2A inverse agonists/antagonists alone or in combination as candidate anti-cocaine use disorder pharmacotherapies.

  13. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks.

  14. Effects of message framing on self-report and accelerometer-assessed physical activity across age and gender groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Fung, Helene H

    2014-02-01

    This study compared message-framing effects on physical activity (PA) across age and gender groups. Participants included 111 younger and 100 older adults (68% were women), randomly assigned to read gain-framed or loss-framed PA messages in promotion pamphlets, and who wore accelerometers for the following 14 days. Using regression analyses controlling for demographic and health factors, we found significant age-by-gender-by-framing interactions predicting self-report (B = -4.39, p = .01) and accelerometer-assessed PA (B = -2.44, p = .02) during the follow-up period. Gain-framed messages were more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting PA behaviors only among older men. We speculated that the age-related positivity effect, as well as the age and gender differences in issue involvement, explained the group differences in framing. In addition, more time availability and higher self-efficacy among older men might have contributed to the results.

  15. Locking Corners Speed Solar-Array Frame Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olah, S.; Sampson, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Mitered corners of solar-array frames joined together by single angle brace and two springs. Locking corner braces and mating frame members pushed together by hand or assembled automatically. Fastening system used to assemble window screens and picture frames.

  16. I spy with my little eye: cognitive processing of framed physical activity messages.

    PubMed

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Castelhano, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose was to examine the relative cognitive processing of gain-framed versus loss-framed physical activity messages following exposure to health risk information. Guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model, the secondary purpose was to examine the relation between dwell time, message recall, and message-relevant thoughts, as well as perceived risk, personal relevance, and fear arousal. Baseline measures of perceived risk for inactivity-related disease and health problems were administered to 77 undergraduate students. Participants read population-specific health risk information while wearing a head-mounted eye tracker, which measured dwell time on message content. Perceived risk was then reassessed. Next, participants read PA messages while the eye tracker measured dwell time on message content. Immediately following message exposure, recall, thought-listing, fear arousal, and personal relevance were measured. Dwell time on gain-framed messages was significantly greater than loss-framed messages. However, message recall and thought-listing did not differ by message frame. Dwell time was not significantly related to recall or thought-listing. Consistent with the Extended Parallel Process Model, fear arousal was significantly related to recall, thought-listing, and personal relevance. In conclusion, gain-framed messages may evoke greater dwell time than loss-famed messages. However, dwell time alone may be insufficient for evoking further cognitive processing.

  17. ML Frame Synchronization for OFDM Systems Using a Known Pilot and Cyclic Prefixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Heon

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a popular air interface technology that is adopted as a standard modulation scheme for 4G communication systems owing to its excellent spectral efficiency. For OFDM systems, synchronization problems have received much attention along with peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction. In addition to frequency offset estimation, frame synchronization is a challenging problem that must be solved to achieve optimal system performance. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) frame synchronizer for OFDM systems. The synchronizer exploits a synchronization word and cyclic prefixes together to improve the synchronization performance. Numerical results show that the performance of the proposed frame synchronizer is better than that of conventional schemes. The proposed synchronizer can be used as a reference for evaluating the performance of other suboptimal frame synchronizers. We also modify the proposed frame synchronizer to reduce the implementation complexity and propose a near-ML synchronizer for time-varying fading channels.

  18. Identical algorithm of radiative transfer across ultrarelativistic shock in different inertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Ayako; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Nagakura, Hiroki; Ito, Hirotaka; Yamada, Shoichi

    2015-12-01

    Some high-energy photons are thought to be produced by the inverse Compton scattering process in ultrarelativistic flows, and the high-energy component of spectra in gamma-ray bursts can be interpreted by the process. To examine numerically the trajectory of photons traveling in relativistic jets in detail, a coupled computation method of radiative transport with relativistic hydrodynamics is required. We have developed a three-dimensional code of radiative transport on a background with a relativistic flow using Monte Carlo method. Radiative transfer simulations have been implemented in different inertial frames which are described as a shock rest frame or shock moving frames, and obtained results are compared in the shock rest frame to identify a consistent transformation among different frames. Optical depth τ for every directions agrees among each frame if a time duration of the computation is small enough to resolve photon path close to a shock front with almost the speed of light. Although the obtained results of the direction distribution and the spectrum of the escaped photons from the computational domain in each frame show discrepancies due to different flow velocities, they are identical after Lorentz transforming to the shock rest frame. We found the second peak of energy in the high-energy side of the spectra if the simulation condition is determined to allow the scattering process in the upstream side of the shock, and this peak is formed by the inverse Compton scattering process.

  19. Parallel Key Frame Extraction for Surveillance Video Service in a Smart City

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hai; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Qin; Deng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance video service (SVS) is one of the most important services provided in a smart city. It is very important for the utilization of SVS to provide design efficient surveillance video analysis techniques. Key frame extraction is a simple yet effective technique to achieve this goal. In surveillance video applications, key frames are typically used to summarize important video content. It is very important and essential to extract key frames accurately and efficiently. A novel approach is proposed to extract key frames from traffic surveillance videos based on GPU (graphics processing units) to ensure high efficiency and accuracy. For the determination of key frames, motion is a more salient feature in presenting actions or events, especially in surveillance videos. The motion feature is extracted in GPU to reduce running time. It is also smoothed to reduce noise, and the frames with local maxima of motion information are selected as the final key frames. The experimental results show that this approach can extract key frames more accurately and efficiently compared with several other methods. PMID:26284923

  20. Parallel Key Frame Extraction for Surveillance Video Service in a Smart City.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ran; Yao, Chuanwei; Jin, Hai; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Qin; Deng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance video service (SVS) is one of the most important services provided in a smart city. It is very important for the utilization of SVS to provide design efficient surveillance video analysis techniques. Key frame extraction is a simple yet effective technique to achieve this goal. In surveillance video applications, key frames are typically used to summarize important video content. It is very important and essential to extract key frames accurately and efficiently. A novel approach is proposed to extract key frames from traffic surveillance videos based on GPU (graphics processing units) to ensure high efficiency and accuracy. For the determination of key frames, motion is a more salient feature in presenting actions or events, especially in surveillance videos. The motion feature is extracted in GPU to reduce running time. It is also smoothed to reduce noise, and the frames with local maxima of motion information are selected as the final key frames. The experimental results show that this approach can extract key frames more accurately and efficiently compared with several other methods.

  1. A genetic scale of reading frame coding.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J

    2014-08-21

    The reading frame coding (RFC) of codes (sets) of trinucleotides is a genetic concept which has been largely ignored during the last 50 years. A first objective is the definition of a new and simple statistical parameter PrRFC for analysing the probability (efficiency) of reading frame coding (RFC) of any trinucleotide code. A second objective is to reveal different classes and subclasses of trinucleotide codes involved in reading frame coding: the circular codes of 20 trinucleotides and the bijective genetic codes of 20 trinucleotides coding the 20 amino acids. This approach allows us to propose a genetic scale of reading frame coding which ranges from 1/3 with the random codes (RFC probability identical in the three frames) to 1 with the comma-free circular codes (RFC probability maximal in the reading frame and null in the two shifted frames). This genetic scale shows, in particular, the reading frame coding probabilities of the 12,964,440 circular codes (PrRFC=83.2% in average), the 216 C(3) self-complementary circular codes (PrRFC=84.1% in average) including the code X identified in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes (PrRFC=81.3%) and the 339,738,624 bijective genetic codes (PrRFC=61.5% in average) including the 52 codes without permuted trinucleotides (PrRFC=66.0% in average). Otherwise, the reading frame coding probabilities of each trinucleotide code coding an amino acid with the universal genetic code are also determined. The four amino acids Gly, Lys, Phe and Pro are coded by codes (not circular) with RFC probabilities equal to 2/3, 1/2, 1/2 and 2/3, respectively. The amino acid Leu is coded by a circular code (not comma-free) with a RFC probability equal to 18/19. The 15 other amino acids are coded by comma-free circular codes, i.e. with RFC probabilities equal to 1. The identification of coding properties in some classes of trinucleotide codes studied here may bring new insights in the origin and evolution of the genetic code.

  2. Dynamic Study of Bicycle Frame Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, M. S. M.; Nazri, N. A.; Zahari, S. N.; Abdullah, N. A. Z.; Priyandoko, G.

    2016-11-01

    Bicycle frames have to bear variety of loads and it is needed to ensure the frame can withstand dynamic loads to move. This paper focusing on dynamic study for bicycle frame structure with a purpose to avoid the problem regarding loads on the structure and to ensure the structure is safe when multiple loads are applied on it. The main objectives of dynamic study are to find the modal properties using two method; finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental modal analysis (EMA). The correlation between two studies will be obtained using percentage error. Firstly, 3D model of mountain bike frame structure has been draw using computer-aided design (CAD) software and normal mode analysis using MSC Nastran Patran was executed for numerical method meanwhile modal testing using impact hammer was performed for experimental counterpart. From the correlation result, it show that percentage error between FEA and EMA were below 10% due to noise, imperfect experiment setup during perform EMA and imperfect modeling of mountain bike frame structure in CAD software. Small percentage error differences makes both of the method can be applied to obtain the dynamic characteristic of structure. It is essential to determine whether the structure is safe or not. In conclusion, model updating method is required to reduce more percentage error between two results.

  3. Optimum detailed design of reinforced concrete frames using genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraj, V.; Ramasamy, J. V.

    2007-06-01

    This article presents the application of the genetic algorithm to the optimum detailed design of reinforced concrete frames based on Indian Standard specifications. The objective function is the total cost of the frame which includes the cost of concrete, formwork and reinforcing steel for individual members of the frame. In order for the optimum design to be directly constructible without any further modifications, aspects such as available standard reinforcement bar diameters, spacing requirements of reinforcing bars, modular sizes of members, architectural requirements on member sizes and other practical requirements in addition to relevant codal provisions are incorporated into the optimum design model. The produced optimum design satisfies the strength, serviceability, ductility, durability and other constraints related to good design and detailing practice. The detailing of reinforcements in the beam members is carried out as a sub-level optimization problem. This strategy helps to reduce the size of the optimization problem and saves computational time. The proposed method is demonstrated through several example problems and the optimum results obtained are compared with those in the available literature. It is concluded that the proposed optimum design model can be adopted in design offices as it yields rational, reliable, economical, time-saving and practical designs.

  4. High frame rate CCD camera with fast optical shutter

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Turko, B.T.

    1998-09-01

    A high frame rate CCD camera coupled with a fast optical shutter has been designed for high repetition rate imaging applications. The design uses state-of-the-art microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPII) technology fostered/developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to support nuclear, military, and medical research requiring high-speed imagery. Key design features include asynchronous resetting of the camera to acquire random transient images, patented real-time analog signal processing with 10-bit digitization at 40--75 MHz pixel rates, synchronized shutter exposures as short as 200pS, sustained continuous readout of 512 x 512 pixels per frame at 1--5Hz rates via parallel multiport (16-port CCD) data transfer. Salient characterization/performance test data for the prototype camera are presented, temporally and spatially resolved images obtained from range-gated LADAR field testing are included, an alternative system configuration using several cameras sequenced to deliver discrete numbers of consecutive frames at effective burst rates up to 5GHz (accomplished by time-phasing of consecutive MCPII shutter gates without overlap) is discussed. Potential applications including dynamic radiography and optical correlation will be presented.

  5. Neutrino Interaction with Background Matter in a Noninertial Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    We study Dirac neutrinos propagating in rotating background matter. First we derive the Dirac equation for a single massive neutrino in the noninertial frame, where matter is at rest. This equation is written in the effective curved space-time corresponding to the corotating frame. We find the exact solution of the Dirac equation. The neutrino energy levels for ultrarelativistic particles are obtained. Then we discuss several neutrino mass eigenstates, with a nonzero mixing between them, interacting with rotating background matter. We derive the effective Schrödinger equation governing neutrino flavor oscillations in rotating matter. The new resonance condition for neutrino oscillations is obtained. We also examine the correction to the resonance condition caused by the matter rotation.

  6. Global reference frame: Intercomparison of results (SLR, VLBI and GPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo; Watkins, Michael M.; Heflin, M.

    1994-01-01

    The terrestrial reference frame (TRF) is realized by a set of positions and velocities derived from a combination of the three space geodetic techniques, SLR, VLBI and GPS. The standard International TRF is constructed by the International Earth Rotation Service in such a way that it is stable with time and the addition of new data. An adopted model for overall plate motion, NUVEL-1 NNR, defines the conceptual reference frame in which all the plates are moving. In addition to the measurements made between reference points within the space geodetic instruments, it is essential to have accurate, documented eccentricity measurements from the instrument reference points to ground monuments. Proper local surveys between the set of ground monuments at a site are also critical for the use of the space geodetic results. Eccentricities and local surveys are, in fact, the most common and vexing sources of error in the use of the TRF for such activities as collocation and intercomparison.

  7. Framed 4-graphs: Euler tours, Gauss circuits and rotating circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yutko, Denis P

    2011-09-30

    We consider connected finite 4-valent graphs with the structure of opposite edges at each vertex (framed 4-graphs). For any of such graphs there exist Euler tours, in travelling along which at each vertex we turn from an edge to a nonopposite one (rotating circuits); and at the same time, it is not true that for any such graph there exists an Euler tour passing from an edge to the opposite one at each vertex (a Gauss circuit). The main result of the work is an explicit formula connecting the adjacency matrices of the Gauss circuit and an arbitrary Euler tour. This formula immediately gives us a criterion for the existence of a Gauss circuit on a given framed 4-graph. It turns out that the results are also valid for all symmetric matrices (not just for matrices realisable by a chord diagram). Bibliography: 24 titles.

  8. Microlens frames for laser diode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Skidmore, Jay A.; Freitas, Barry L.

    1999-01-01

    Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter.

  9. Microlens frames for laser diode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Skidmore, J.A.; Freitas, B.L.

    1999-07-13

    Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter. 12 figs.

  10. Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor frames: First steps

    PubMed Central

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2015-01-01

    Gabor frames can advantageously be redefined using the Heisenberg–Weyl operators familiar from harmonic analysis and quantum mechanics. Not only does this redefinition allow us to recover in a very simple way known results of symplectic covariance, but it immediately leads to the consideration of a general deformation scheme by Hamiltonian isotopies (i.e. arbitrary paths of non-linear symplectic mappings passing through the identity). We will study in some detail an associated weak notion of Hamiltonian deformation of Gabor frames, using ideas from semiclassical physics involving coherent states and Gaussian approximations. We will thereafter discuss possible applications and extensions of our method, which can be viewed – as the title suggests – as the very first steps towards a general deformation theory for Gabor frames. PMID:25892903

  11. Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor frames: First steps.

    PubMed

    de Gosson, Maurice A

    2015-03-01

    Gabor frames can advantageously be redefined using the Heisenberg-Weyl operators familiar from harmonic analysis and quantum mechanics. Not only does this redefinition allow us to recover in a very simple way known results of symplectic covariance, but it immediately leads to the consideration of a general deformation scheme by Hamiltonian isotopies (i.e. arbitrary paths of non-linear symplectic mappings passing through the identity). We will study in some detail an associated weak notion of Hamiltonian deformation of Gabor frames, using ideas from semiclassical physics involving coherent states and Gaussian approximations. We will thereafter discuss possible applications and extensions of our method, which can be viewed - as the title suggests - as the very first steps towards a general deformation theory for Gabor frames.

  12. All Frames Are Not Created Equal: A Typology and Critical Analysis of Framing Effects.

    PubMed

    Levin; Schneider; Gaeth

    1998-11-01

    Accentuate the positive or accentuate the negative? The literature has been mixed as to how the alternative framing of information in positive or negative terms affects judgments and decisions. We argue that this is because different studies have employed different operational definitions of framing and thus have tapped different underlying processes. We develop a typology to distinguish between three different kinds of valence framing effects. First we discuss the standard risky choice framing effect introduced by Tversky and Kahneman (1981) to illustrate how valence affects willingness to take a risk. Then we discuss attribute framing, which affects the evaluation of object or event characteristics, and goal framing, which affects the persuasiveness of a communication. We describe the distinctions, provide a number of examples of each type, and discuss likely theoretical mechanisms underlying each type of framing effect. Our typology helps explain and resolve apparent confusions in the literature, ties together studies with common underlying mechanisms, and serves as a guide to future research and theory development. We conclude that a broader perspective, focused on the cognitive and motivational consequences of valence-based encoding, opens the door to a deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of framing effects. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  13. Strategic Framing Study Circles: Toward a Gold Standard of Framing Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article explains how communities of practice have been developed as part of FrameWorks' field-building efforts. Strategic Framing Study Circles, as they are known, have been conducted with four statewide coalitions, one group of national organizations, and an emerging regional coalition. The goal of each community of practice is to build…

  14. All framing effects are not created equal: Low convergent validity between two classic measurements of framing.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-07-20

    Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect.

  15. All framing effects are not created equal: Low convergent validity between two classic measurements of framing

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect. PMID:27436680

  16. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Frames 2.0 Pest Integration (F2PEST)

    SciTech Connect

    Castleton, Karl J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2009-06-17

    The implementation of the FRAMES 2.0 F2PEST module is described, including requirements, design, and specifications of the software. This module integrates the PEST parameter estimation software within the FRAMES 2.0 environmental modeling framework. A test case is presented.

  17. BioFrameNet: A FrameNet Extension to the Domain of Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbey, Andrew Eric

    2009-01-01

    In this study I introduce BioFrameNet, an extension of the Berkeley FrameNet lexical database to the domain of molecular biology. I examine the syntactic and semantic combinatorial possibilities exhibited in the lexical items used in this domain in order to get a better understanding of the grammatical properties of the language used in scientific…

  18. On the Use of Framed Knowledge in Language Comprehension.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    along , is simp ly this: statements from the story are “understood ” by linking them to one or more marchin g frame statements. So we tinderstand the lin...particular examp le , early in the event of painting , should we learn of (LIQUID—IN INSTRUMENT PAINT) it would be impor tan t to realize that this...of time . The most immediate problem is that at the present time , when we learn that Jack washed the brush , Ms. Mal aprop infers (NOT (STICKY-ON

  19. Dynamic response of a frame with SMA bracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuangshuang; Rajapakse, R. K. N. D.

    2003-08-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic response of a frame structure with pre-strained SMA bracing elements. The constitutive model proposed by Brinson is used to simulate the axial response of SMA bracing elements. A non-linear transient finite element model incorporated with Newmark's time integration scheme is used to analyze the dynamic response of a structure. The time histories of displacements and hysteresis loops of SMA tendons are computed under harmonic loading. The effect of forcing amplitude and initial pre-strains of SMA tendons on transient dynamic response of a structure is discussed. The suitability of pseudoelastic SMA for energy dissipation is briefly discussed.

  20. Role of accentuation in the selection/rejection task framing effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Proctor, Robert W

    2017-04-01

    Procedure invariance is a basic assumption of rational theories of choice, however, it has been shown to be violated: Different response modes, or task frames, sometimes reveal opposite preferences. The current study focused on selection and rejection task frames, involving a unique type of problem with enriched and impoverished options, which has previously led to conflicting findings and theoretical explanations: the compatibility hypothesis (Shafir, 1993) and the accentuation hypothesis (Wedell, 1997). We examined the role of task frame by distinguishing these 2 hypotheses and evaluating the information-processing basis of the choices. Experiments conducted online (Experiments 1 and 3) and in-lab (Experiment 4 with eye-tracking technique) revealed a difference between the 2 task frames in the choice data (i.e., the task-framing effect) as a function of the relative attractiveness of the options. Also, this task-framing effect was not influenced by imposed time constraints (Experiments 5 and 6) and was similarly evident with a more direct measure for the option attractiveness (obtained in Experiment 7). Experiment 2, conducted in a lab setting with verbal-protocol requirements, yielded no task-framing effect, suggesting that a requirement to verbalize reasons for choice minimizes accentuation. With this exception, the choice data are in agreement with the accentuation hypothesis, and the combined findings in choice, decision time, task confusion, and eye-tracking data provide evidence of a basis in cognitive effort rather than motivation, as Wedell proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Notes for Brazil sampling frame evaluation trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Hicks, D. R. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Field notes describing a trip conducted in Brazil are presented. This trip was conducted for the purpose of evaluating a sample frame developed using LANDSAT full frame images by the USDA Economic and Statistics Service for the eventual purpose of cropland production estimation with LANDSAT by the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting Project of the AgRISTARS program. Six areas were analyzed on the basis of land use, crop land in corn and soybean, field size and soil type. The analysis indicated generally successful use of LANDSAT images for purposes of remote large area land use stratification.

  2. Ray Effect Mitigation Through Reference Frame Rotation

    DOE PAGES

    Tencer, John

    2016-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is a popular and versatile technique for solving the radiative transport equation, a major drawback of which is the presence of ray effects. Mitigation of ray effects can yield significantly more accurate results and enhanced numerical stability for combined mode codes. Moreover, when ray effects are present, the solution is seen to be highly dependent upon the relative orientation of the geometry and the global reference frame. It is an undesirable property. A novel ray effect mitigation technique of averaging the computed solution for various reference frame orientations is proposed.

  3. Hypervelocity impact studies using a rotating mirror framing laser shadowgraph camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Vance C.; Crews, Jeanne Lee

    1988-01-01

    The need to study the effects of the impact of micrometeorites and orbital debris on various space-based systems has brought together the technologies of several companies and individuals in order to provide a successful instrumentation package. A light gas gun was employed to accelerate small projectiles to speeds in excess of 7 km/sec. Their impact on various targets is being studied with the help of a specially designed continuous-access rotating-mirror framing camera. The camera provides 80 frames of data at up to 1 x 10 to the 6th frames/sec with exposure times of 20 nsec.

  4. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender frames shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. (b) Height difference....

  5. Transitions in Students' Epistemic Framing along Two Axes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Paul W.; Martinuk, Mathew Sandy; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    We use epistemological framing to interpret participants' behavior during group problem-solving sessions in an intermediate mechanics course. We are interested in how students frame discussion and in how the groups shift discussion framings. Our analysis includes two framing axes, expansive vs narrow and serious vs silly, which together…

  6. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender frames shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. (b) Height difference....

  7. Effects of Problem Frame and Gender on Principals' Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul M.; Fagley, Nancy S.; Casella, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates people's decisions can sometimes be influenced by seemingly trivial differences in the "framing" (i.e., wording) of alternative options. The tendency to prefer risk averse options when framed positively and risky options when framed negatively is known as the framing effect. The current study examined the susceptibility of…

  8. Section BB Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging Knees at Hatch; Elevation A-A Hull Framing; Section at Hatch Frame 36, Starboard Looking Aft; Midship Section Frame 37, Port Looking Aft - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  9. Remarks on Viewing Situation in a Rotating Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Representations of centrifugal forces are derived in a variety of rotating frames. Although the rotating angle of a point mass relative to an inertial frame is often confused with the rotating angle of a rotating frame relative to the inertial frame, they should be differentiated. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

  10. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance and inspection. Frames, decks, plates, tailpieces, pedestals, and braces shall be maintained in a safe and... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section...

  11. Homopolar artificial gravity generator based on frame-dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajmar, M.

    2010-05-01

    Space exploration is linked in many ways to the generation and challenges of artificial gravity. Space stations and drag-free satellite platforms are used to provide microgravity environments for scientific experiments. On the other hand, microgravity or reduced gravity environments such as on Moon and Mars are known to put limits for long-term human presence. Large centrifuges in space may provide Earth-like gravity environments during long-term travels, however, such technology certainly has its limits to provide similar environments for human outposts on other moons and planets. One can imagine a different technology using a prediction out of Einstein's general relativity theory which is called frame-dragging. In principle, frame-dragging might be used to generate artificial gravitational fields similar to electric fields generated by time-varying or moving magnetic fields. We will show that it is also possible to generate constant artificial gravitational fields that could provide microgravity or artificial gravity environments. Although such technology is possible in principle, the field strengths calculated from Einstein's theory are too small to be useful so far. However, recently detected anomalies around low-temperature spinning matter as well as fly-by anomalies point to possible enhancement mechanisms that might make an artificial gravity generator based on frame-dragging a reality in the future.

  12. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  13. Report of the panel on earth rotation and reference frames, section 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.; Dickman, Steven R.; Eubanks, Marshall T.; Feissel, Martine; Herring, Thomas A.; Mueller, Ivan I.; Rosen, Richard D.; Schutz, Robert E.; Wahr, John M.; Wilson, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    Objectives and requirements for Earth rotation and reference frame studies in the 1990s are discussed. The objectives are to observe and understand interactions of air and water with the rotational dynamics of the Earth, the effects of the Earth's crust and mantle on the dynamics and excitation of Earth rotation variations over time scales of hours to centuries, and the effects of the Earth's core on the rotational dynamics and the excitation of Earth rotation variations over time scales of a year or longer. Another objective is to establish, refine and maintain terrestrial and celestrial reference frames. Requirements include improvements in observations and analysis, improvements in celestial and terrestrial reference frames and reference frame connections, and improved observations of crustal motion and mass redistribution on the Earth.

  14. The framing effect and skin conductance responses.

    PubMed

    Ring, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa.

  15. Frame Field Singularity Correction for Automatic Hexahedralization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tengfei; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yuanzhen; Tong, Yiying; Bao, Hujun

    2014-08-01

    We present an automatic hexahedralization tool, based on a systematic treatment that removes some of the singularities that would lead to degenerate volumetric parameterization. Such singularities could be abundant in automatically generated frame fields guiding the interior and boundary layouts of the hexahedra in an all hexahedral mesh. We first give the mathematical definitions of the inadmissible singularities prevalent in frame fields, including newly introduced surface singularity types. We then give a practical framework for adjusting singularity graphs by automatically modifying the rotational transition of frames between charts (cells of a tetrahedral mesh for the volume) to resolve the issues detected in the internal and boundary singularity graph. After applying an additional re-smoothing of the frame field with the modified transition conditions, we cut the volume into a topologically trivial domain, with the original topology encoded by the self-intersections of the boundary of the domain, and solve a mixed integer problem on this domain for a global parameterization. Finally, a properly connected hexahedral mesh is constructed from the integer isosurfaces of (u,v,w) in the parameterization. We demonstrate the applicability of the method on complex shapes, and discuss its limitations.

  16. Four questions for passive frame theory.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-01-01

    Four questions are raised about the passive frame theory of Morsella et al.: (1) What is the relation of the theory to the response-selection-bottleneck view of attention? (2) Does the theory accommodate the contents of consciousness? (3) What about animals without skeletal muscles? (4) How do the contents of consciousness change with the development of automaticity?

  17. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  18. Fermionic entanglement ambiguity in noninertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Montero, Miguel; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo

    2011-06-15

    We analyze an ambiguity in previous works on entanglement of fermionic fields in noninertial frames. This ambiguity, related to the anticommutation properties of field operators, leads to nonunique results when computing entanglement measures for the same state. We show that the ambiguity disappears when we introduce detectors, which are in any case necessary as a means to probe the field entanglement.

  19. Leaders as Linchpins for Framing Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Community college leaders serve as linchpins for framing meaning on campus. The current pressures on institutions (given declining financial resources, demands for accountability, changing faculty ranks, and societal need for new knowledge) require presidents to juggle multiple priorities while presenting a cohesive message to campus constituents.…

  20. FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Doc Lew

    Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an…

  1. Hoisting frame facilitates handling of large objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colpean, K. V.; Holcomb, D. F.

    1968-01-01

    Hoisting frame can be used with a standard 5-ton forklift to handle the large spreader bars, or other bulky pieces of equipment, much faster and more efficiently than with a boom or gantry crane. In addition forklifts of this type are more readily available.

  2. Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theakston, Anna L.; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __"want"__, __"see"__, and __"get"__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and…

  3. Cultural Framing: Foreign Correspondents and Their Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starck, Kenneth; Villanueva, Estela

    With the notion of cultural framing as a theoretical backdrop, a study examined the role of culture in the work of foreign correspondents. The aim was to explore cultural aspects of international news reporting that may suggest avenues for more systematic inquiry into the role of culture in the work of the foreign correspondent. Of 75 examined…

  4. Framing Learning Conditions in Geography Excursions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonasson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and frame some learning conditions involved in the practice of geographical excursions. The empirical material from this study comes from several excursions made by students in human geography and an ethnomethodological approach through participant observation is used. The study is informed by theories from…

  5. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  6. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-12-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference"1,2 effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating—all with respect to the Earth frame. The film is a classic for good reason, but today it does have a couple of drawbacks: 1) The film by nature only accommodates passive learning. It does not give students the opportunity to try any of the experiments themselves. 2) The dated style of the 50-year-old film can distract students from the physics content. I present here a simple setup that can recreate many of the movies demonstrations in the classroom. The demonstrations can be used to supplement the movie or in its place, if desired. All of the materials except perhaps the inexpensive web camera should likely be available already in most teaching laboratories. Unlike previously described activities, these experiments do not require travel to another location3 or an involved setup.4,5

  7. Cognitive Style, Creativity Framing and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how individuals with different cognitive styles respond to choices involving framing effects. The results suggest that cognitive style as defined by Kirton (1976) is far more complex than previous studies indicate. Kirton characterises "Innovators" as rule breakers and "Adaptors" as conformists. The most…

  8. Emergent Bilinguals: Framing Students as Statistical Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Jill; Menken, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant youth who are designated as English language learners in American schools--whom we refer to as "emergent bilinguals"--are increasingly framed by numerical calculations. Utilizing the notion of assemblage from actor-network theory (ANT), we trace how emergent bilinguals are discursively constructed by officials, administrators,…

  9. Construction Cluster Volume I [Wood Structural Framing].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the first of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. It focuses on wood structural framing and contains 20 units: (1) occupational information; (2) blueprint reading; (3) using leveling instruments and laying out building lines; (4)…

  10. The framing effect and skin conductance responses

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa. PMID:26300747

  11. Building Trades. Block III. Floor Framing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This document contains three units of a course on floor framing to be used as part of a building trades program. Each unit consists, first, of an informational lesson, with complete lesson plan for the teacher's use. Included in each lesson plan are the lesson aim; lists of teaching aids, materials, references, and prerequisites for students;…

  12. SNR improvement for hyperspectral application using frame and pixel binning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Sami Ur; Kumar, Ankush; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging spectrometer systems are increasingly being used in the field of remote sensing for variety of civilian and military applications. The ability of such instruments in discriminating finer spectral features along with improved spatial and radiometric performance have made such instruments a powerful tool in the field of remote sensing. Design and development of spaceborne hyper spectral imaging spectrometers poses lot of technological challenges in terms of optics, dispersion element, detectors, electronics and mechanical systems. The main factors that define the type of detectors are the spectral region, SNR, dynamic range, pixel size, number of pixels, frame rate, operating temperature etc. Detectors with higher quantum efficiency and higher well depth are the preferred choice for such applications. CCD based Si detectors serves the requirement of high well depth for VNIR band spectrometers but suffers from smear. Smear can be controlled by using CMOS detectors. Si CMOS detectors with large format arrays are available. These detectors generally have smaller pitch and low well depth. Binning technique can be used with available CMOS detectors to meet the large swath, higher resolution and high SNR requirements. Availability of larger dwell time of satellite can be used to bin multiple frames to increase the signal collection even with lesser well depth detectors and ultimately increase the SNR. Lab measurements reveal that SNR improvement by frame binning is more in comparison to pixel binning. Effect of pixel binning as compared to the frame binning will be discussed and degradation of SNR as compared to theoretical value for pixel binning will be analyzed.

  13. Disentangling the External Reference Frames Relevant to Tactile Localization

    PubMed Central

    Backhaus, Jenny; Röder, Brigitte; Badde, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Different reference frames appear to be relevant for tactile spatial coding. When participants give temporal order judgments (TOJ) of two tactile stimuli, one on each hand, performance declines when the hands are crossed. This effect is attributed to a conflict between anatomical and external location codes: hand crossing places the anatomically right hand into the left side of external space. However, hand crossing alone does not specify the anchor of the external reference frame, such as gaze, trunk, or the stimulated limb. Experiments that used explicit localization responses, such as pointing to tactile stimuli rather than crossing manipulations, have consistently implicated gaze-centered coding for touch. To test whether crossing effects can be explained by gaze-centered coding alone, participants made TOJ while the position of the hands was manipulated relative to gaze and trunk. The two hands either lay on different sides of space relative to gaze or trunk, or they both lay on one side of the respective space. In the latter posture, one hand was on its "regular side of space" despite hand crossing, thus reducing overall conflict between anatomical and external codes. TOJ crossing effects were significantly reduced when the hands were both located on the same side of space relative to gaze, indicating gaze-centered coding. Evidence for trunk-centered coding was tentative, with an effect in reaction time but not in accuracy. These results link paradigms that use explicit localization and TOJ, and corroborate the relevance of gaze-related coding for touch. Yet, gaze and trunk-centered coding did not account for the total size of crossing effects, suggesting that tactile localization relies on additional, possibly limb-centered, reference frames. Thus, tactile location appears to be estimated by integrating multiple anatomical and external reference frames. PMID:27391805

  14. Elliptically framed tip-tilt mirror optimized for stellar tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, James H.; Penado, F. E.; Petak, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We compare a design innovation of an elliptically framed tip-tilt optical tracker with an existing circularly framed tracker for the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer. The tracker stabilizes a 12.5 cm stellar beam on a target hundreds of meters away and requires an increase in operational frequency. We reduced mass and size by integrating an elliptical mirror as one of the rotating components, which eliminated a rotating frame. We used the same materials as the existing tracker; however, light-weighted both the aluminum frame and Zerodur® mirror. We generated a computer-aided design model, converted it into a finite element model and performed modal analysis on two load cases. In load case 1, we tied down three points on the bottom surface of the tracker corresponding to the tie-down points of the comparison tracker. This reveals a first mode (lowest) frequency of 140 Hz, a factor of two over the baseline tracker's first mode frequency of 67 Hz. In load case 2, we constrained four additional points inboard of the corners of the tracker base, for a total of seven tie-downs, simulating a firmly bolted and secured mount. The first mode of vibration for this case is 211 Hz, an increase over load case 1 by a factor of 1.5 and more than three times the fundamental frequency of the existing tracker. We conclude that these geometrical changes with the additional tie-down bolts are a viable solution path forward to improve steering speed and recommend a continuation with this effort.

  15. Framing Autism: A Content Analysis of Five Major News Frames in U.S.-Based Newspapers.

    PubMed

    Wendorf Muhamad, Jessica; Yang, Fan

    2017-03-01

    The portrayal of child autism-related news stories has become a serious issue in the United States, yet few studies address this from media framing perspective. To fill this gap in the literature, this study examined the applicability of a media framing scale (Semetko & Valkenburg, 2000) for the deductive examination of autism-related news stories in U.S.-based newspapers. Under the theoretical framework of framing theory, a content analysis of news stories (N = 413) was conducted to investigate the presence of the five news frames using an established questionnaire. Differentiating between local and national news outlets, the following five news frames were measured: (a) attribution of responsibility, (b) human interest, (c) conflict, (d) morality, and (e) economic consequences. Findings revealed that news stories about autism most frequently fell within the human interest frame. Furthermore, the study shed light on how local and national newspapers might differ in framing autism-related news pieces and in their placement of the autism-related story within the newspaper (e.g., front page section, community section).

  16. Emphasizing the losses or the gains: Comparing situational and individual moderators of framed messages to promote fruit and vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Cristina A; Alvarez, Maria-João; Lima, Maria Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Health messages are a commonly used way to promote changes in dietary habits but their efficacy could be enhanced by strategies such as the way in which the presented arguments are framed. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of framed messages (gain vs. loss) on behavioural intention and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, comparing predictions based on prominent theoretical perspectives on message framing (function of the health behaviour and recipients' motivational orientation) and by further exploring the role of baseline intentions as a potential moderator of the framing effects. Undergraduate students (N = 180) completed the three assessment points in time. At baseline, individual moderators (motivational orientation and intentions) and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed. One week later, participants were randomly assigned to the loss or gain-framed message and indicated their intentions for FV intake the following week. A week later, FV intake over the previous week was assessed. The gain-frame was not conducive, per se, to higher intentions or behaviour. Having intention as the outcome, only baseline intentions moderated the effects of message frame. When considering FV intake as the outcome, both motivational orientation and baseline intentions moderated the effects of message frame, with the loss-frame promoting higher FV intake among individuals who were prevention-oriented and had higher baseline intentions. Findings suggest that the success of framed messages for FV intake depends upon the recipient's characteristics, such as motivational orientation, baseline intentions, and cultural background, with implications for health communication interventions.

  17. Impacts of GNSS position offsets on global frame stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Jake; Ray, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Positional offsets appear in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) time series for a variety of reasons. Antenna or radome changes are the most common cause for these discontinuities. Many others are from earthquakes, receiver changes, and different anthropogenic modifications at or near the stations. Some jumps appear for unknown or undocumented reasons. The accurate determination of station velocities, and therefore geophysical parameters and terrestrial reference frames, requires that positional offsets be correctly found and compensated. Williams (2003) found that undetected offsets introduce a random walk error component in individual station time series. The topic of detecting positional offsets has received considerable attention in recent years (e.g., Detection of Offsets in GPS Experiment; DOGEx), and most research groups using GNSS have adopted a combination of manual and automated methods for finding them. The removal of a positional offset is usually handled by estimating the average station position on both sides of the discontinuity, assuming a constant, continuous velocity. This is sufficient in the absence of time-correlated errors. However, GNSS time series contain systematic and power-law errors (white to random walk noise). In this paper, we aim to evaluate the impact to both individual station results and the overall stability of the global reference frame from adding increasing numbers of positional discontinuities. We use the International GNSS Service (IGS) weekly SINEX files, and iteratively insert positional offset parameters at the midpoint of each data segment. Each iteration includes a restacking of the modified SINEX files using the CATREF software from Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) to estimate: regularized station positions, secular velocities, Earth orientation parameters, Helmert frame alignment parameters, and the empirical shifts across all positional discontinuities. A comparison of the

  18. High frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    SciTech Connect

    King, N.S.P.; Cverna, F.H.; Albright, K.L.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E.; Flynn, M.J.; Tashman, S.

    1994-09-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100-microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  19. The task of the relativistic oscillator in a non-inertial frame of reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepelkin, E. E.; Sadovnikov, B. I.; Inozemtseva, N. G.

    2016-09-01

    The relativistic theory is one of the most difficult parts of theoretical physics to understand by high school students and scientists alike. In this paper, the important aspects from this theory are considered. The case of the non-inertial reference frame in which the space-time interval was presented for the Lorentz-like transformations, and the condition by which the transition to the inertial reference frame takes place, is shown.

  20. Looking for systematic error in scale from terrestrial reference frames derived from DORIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, L.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2005-01-01

    The long-term stability of the scale of Terrestrial Reference Frames is directly linked with station height determination and is critical for several scientific studies, such as global mean sea level rise or ocean circulation with consequences on global warming studies. In recent International Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions, the DORIS technique was not sonsidered able to provide any useful information on scale. We have analyzed three different DORIS time series of coordinates performed independently using different software packages.

  1. FULL ELECTROMAGNETIC FEL SIMULATION VIA THE LORENTZ-BOOSTED FRAME TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, William; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2010-08-16

    Numerical electromagnetic simulation of some systems containing charged particles with highly relativistic directed motion can by speeded up by orders of magnitude by choice of the proper Lorentz-boosted frame. A particularly good application for calculation in a boosted frame isthat of short wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) where a high energy electron beam with small fractional energy spread interacts with a static magnetic undulator. In the optimal boost frame (i.e., the ponderomotive rest frame), the red-shifted FEL radiation and blue-shifted undulator field have identical wavelengths and the number of required longitudinal grid cells and time-steps for fully electromagnetic simulation (relative to the laboratory frame) decrease by factors of gamma^2 each. In theory, boosted frame EM codes permit direct study of FEL problems for which the eikonal approximation for propagation of the radiation field and wiggler-period-averaging for the particle-field interaction may be suspect. We have adapted the WARP code to apply this method to several electromagnetic FEL problems including spontaneous emission, strong exponential gain in a seeded, single pass amplifier configuration, and emission from e-beams in undulators with multiple harmonic components. WARP has a standard relativistic macroparticle mover and a fully 3-D electromagnetic field solver. We discuss our boosted frame results and compare with those obtained using the ?standard? eikonal FEL simulation approach.

  2. Comparison between Frame-Constrained Fix-Pixel-Value and Frame-Free Spiking-Dynamic-Pixel ConvNets for Visual Processing.

    PubMed

    Farabet, Clément; Paz, Rafael; Pérez-Carrasco, Jose; Zamarreño-Ramos, Carlos; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Lecun, Yann; Culurciello, Eugenio; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe

    2012-01-01

    Most scene segmentation and categorization architectures for the extraction of features in images and patches make exhaustive use of 2D convolution operations for template matching, template search, and denoising. Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) are one example of such architectures that can implement general-purpose bio-inspired vision systems. In standard digital computers 2D convolutions are usually expensive in terms of resource consumption and impose severe limitations for efficient real-time applications. Nevertheless, neuro-cortex inspired solutions, like dedicated Frame-Based or Frame-Free Spiking ConvNet Convolution Processors, are advancing real-time visual processing. These two approaches share the neural inspiration, but each of them solves the problem in different ways. Frame-Based ConvNets process frame by frame video information in a very robust and fast way that requires to use and share the available hardware resources (such as: multipliers, adders). Hardware resources are fixed- and time-multiplexed by fetching data in and out. Thus memory bandwidth and size is important for good performance. On the other hand, spike-based convolution processors are a frame-free alternative that is able to perform convolution of a spike-based source of visual information with very low latency, which makes ideal for very high-speed applications. However, hardware resources need to be available all the time and cannot be time-multiplexed. Thus, hardware should be modular, reconfigurable, and expansible. Hardware implementations in both VLSI custom integrated circuits (digital and analog) and FPGA have been already used to demonstrate the performance of these systems. In this paper we present a comparison study of these two neuro-inspired solutions. A brief description of both systems is presented and also discussions about their differences, pros and cons.

  3. Comparison between Frame-Constrained Fix-Pixel-Value and Frame-Free Spiking-Dynamic-Pixel ConvNets for Visual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Farabet, Clément; Paz, Rafael; Pérez-Carrasco, Jose; Zamarreño-Ramos, Carlos; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; LeCun, Yann; Culurciello, Eugenio; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe

    2012-01-01

    Most scene segmentation and categorization architectures for the extraction of features in images and patches make exhaustive use of 2D convolution operations for template matching, template search, and denoising. Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) are one example of such architectures that can implement general-purpose bio-inspired vision systems. In standard digital computers 2D convolutions are usually expensive in terms of resource consumption and impose severe limitations for efficient real-time applications. Nevertheless, neuro-cortex inspired solutions, like dedicated Frame-Based or Frame-Free Spiking ConvNet Convolution Processors, are advancing real-time visual processing. These two approaches share the neural inspiration, but each of them solves the problem in different ways. Frame-Based ConvNets process frame by frame video information in a very robust and fast way that requires to use and share the available hardware resources (such as: multipliers, adders). Hardware resources are fixed- and time-multiplexed by fetching data in and out. Thus memory bandwidth and size is important for good performance. On the other hand, spike-based convolution processors are a frame-free alternative that is able to perform convolution of a spike-based source of visual information with very low latency, which makes ideal for very high-speed applications. However, hardware resources need to be available all the time and cannot be time-multiplexed. Thus, hardware should be modular, reconfigurable, and expansible. Hardware implementations in both VLSI custom integrated circuits (digital and analog) and FPGA have been already used to demonstrate the performance of these systems. In this paper we present a comparison study of these two neuro-inspired solutions. A brief description of both systems is presented and also discussions about their differences, pros and cons. PMID:22518097

  4. The Past Tense and Temporal Verb Meanings in a Contextual Frame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkel, Eli

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes essays and responses to cloze passages by second language learners to determine how speakers of various backgrounds establish a past-time discourse frame. Argues that speakers of Chinese, Korean, Indonesian, and Japanese may conceptualize time domains differently from English speakers and that students must learn that objective time and…

  5. On the Assessment of Global Terrestrial Reference Frame Temporal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Koenig, Rolf; Zhu, Shengyuan

    2015-04-01

    Global Terrestrial Reference Frames (GTRFs) as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) provide reliable 4-D position information (3-D coordinates and their evolution through time). The given 3-D velocities play a significant role in precise position acquisition and are estimated from long term coordinate time series from the space-geodetic techniques DORIS, GNSS, SLR, and VLBI. GTRFs temporal evolution is directly connected with their internal stability: The more intense and inhomogeneous velocity field, the less stable TRF is derived. The assessment of the quality of the GTRF is mainly realized by comparing it to each individual technique's reference frame. E.g the comparison of GTRFs to SLR-only based TRF gives the sense of the ITRF stability with respect to the Geocenter and scale and their associated rates respectively. In addition, the comparison of ITRF to the VLBI-only based TRF can be used for the scale validation. However, till now there is not any specified methodology for the total assessment (in terms of origin, orientation and scale respectively) of the temporal evolution and GTRFs associated accuracy. We present a new alternative diagnostic tool for the assessment of GTRFs temporal evolution based on the well-known time-dependent Helmert type transformation formula (three shifts, three rotations and scale rates respectively). The advantage of the new methodology relies on the fact that it uses the full velocity field of the TRF and therefore all points not just the ones common to different techniques. It also examines simultaneously rates of origin, orientation and scale. The methodology is presented and implemented to the two existing GTRFs on the market (ITRF and DTRF which is computed from DGFI) , the results are discussed. The results also allow to compare directly each GTRF dynamic behavior. Furthermore, the correlations of the estimated parameters can also provide useful information to the proposed GTRFs assessment scheme.

  6. A miniture spectrometer using color CCD and frame calculus technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Wei; Zhang, Guoping; Chen, Minghong; Liu, Minmin

    2005-01-01

    A design of spectrometer is presented, which uses a holographic grating and a two-dimensional color CCD camera connected with PC via video format port. And in the image post-procession, a real-time frame calculus technique and a non-linear filter were applied to provider higher image quality and better resistant to background noise. With improved designed zoom mechanics, the device has a wide resolution dynamic range and high frequency, since it can gather more spectrum information than linear black-white CCD. The spectrum analysis experiments for water quality detection indicate that the device can meet variant requirements of analysis at low cost.

  7. Concurrent use of somatotopic and external reference frames in a tactile mislocalization task.

    PubMed

    Tamè, Luigi; Wühle, Anja; Petri, Caroline D; Pavani, Francesco; Braun, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Localizing tactile stimuli on our body requires sensory information to be represented in multiple frames of reference along the sensory pathways. These reference frames include the representation of sensory information in skin coordinates, in which the spatial relationship of skin regions is maintained. The organization of the primary somatosensory cortex matches such somatotopic reference frame. In contrast, higher-order representations are based on external coordinates, in which body posture and gaze direction are taken into account in order to localise touch in other meaningful ways according to task demands. Dominance of one representation or the other, or the use of multiple representations with different weights, is thought to depend on contextual factors of cognitive and/or sensory origins. However, it is unclear under which situations a reference frame takes over another or when different reference frames are jointly used at the same time. The study of tactile mislocalizations at the fingers has shown a key role of the somatotopic frame of reference, both when touches are delivered unilaterally to a single hand, and when they are delivered bilaterally to both hands. Here, we took advantage of a well-established tactile mislocalization paradigm to investigate whether the reference frame used to integrate bilateral tactile stimuli can change as a function of the spatial relationship between the two hands. Specifically, supra-threshold interference stimuli were applied to the index or little fingers of the left hand 200ms prior to the application of a test stimulus on a finger of the right hand. Crucially, different hands postures were adopted (uncrossed or crossed). Results show that introducing a change in hand-posture triggered the concurrent use of somatotopic and external reference frames when processing bilateral touch at the fingers. This demonstrates that both somatotopic and external reference frames can be concurrently used to localise tactile

  8. Towards ICRF3:preparing the VLBI frame for future synergy with the Gaia frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlot, Patrick; Bourda, Géraldine

    2012-08-01

    The European space astrometric mission Gaia to be launched in 2013 will produce a QSO - based celestial reference frame with unprecedented position accuracy and sky density. By the end of the decade, two highly - accurate reference frames will thus cohabit, the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) derived from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data and the Gaia optical frame, both with individual source position accuracies below 100 microarcseconds. For consistency be tween optical and radio positions, it will be fundamental to align the two frames with the highest possible accuracy. This is important not only for continuity of celestial frames but also to exploit at best their synergies for astrophysics. The latter includes probing the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) jets properties and the physics of these objects by comparing the spatial location of the optical and radio emission re gions. The alignment between the VLBI and Gaia frames requires a large number of sources common to the two frames, i.e. radio - loud QSOs with position accurately known from both VLBI and Gaia. This implies that the sources must be brighter than magnitude 18 (so that their Gaia positions may be derived with the highest accuracy) and have compact VLBI structure on milliarcsecond scales (for highly - accurate VLBI positions). In this paper, we review the current source potential for this alignment based on the ICRF2 and an ongoing dedicated VLBI project aimed at finding additional weaker extragalactic radio sources for this purpose. We also stress that these sources must be monitored during the mission (especially their VLBI position stability and structure) in order to control their relevance for the alignment, and present the observations we envision to this end in the framework of the IVS and other VLBI networks.

  9. Radiation-Free Weekend Rescued! Continuous Accelerated Irradiation of 7-Days per Week Is Equal to Accelerated Fractionation With Concomitant Boost of 7 Fractions in 5-Days per Week: Report on Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof; Hutnik, Marcin; Wygoda, Andrzej; Golen, Maria; Pilecki, Boleslaw; Przeorek, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Lukaszczyk-Widel, Beata; Heyda, Alicja; Suwinski, Rafal; Tarnawski, Rafal; Maciejewski, Boguslaw

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term results of randomized trial comparing 2 accelerated fractionations of definitive radiation therapy assessing the need to irradiate during weekend in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 345 patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, and oro- or hypo-pharynx, stage T2-4N0-1M0, were randomized to receive continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR: once per day, 7 days per week) or concomitant accelerated boost (CB: once per day, 3 days per week, and twice per day, 2 days per week). Total dose ranged from 66.6-72 Gy, dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy, number of fractions ranged from 37-40 fractions, and overall treatment time ranged from 37-40 days. Results: No differences for all trial end-points were noted. At 5 and 10 years, the actuarial rates of local-regional control were 63% and 60% for CAIR vs 65% and 60% for CB, and the corresponding overall survival were 40% and 25% vs 44% and 25%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with an incidence of 89% in CAIR and 86% in CB patients. The 5-year rate of grade 3-4 late radiation morbidity was 6% for both regimens. Conclusions: Results of this trial indicate that the effects of accelerated fractionation can be achieve by delivering twice-per-day irradiation on weekday(s). This trial has also confirmed that an accelerated, 6-weeks schedule is a reasonable option for patients with intermediate-stage head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma because of the associated high cure rate and minimal severe late toxicity.

  10. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Murch, Kevin B; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2014-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions.

  11. When message-frame fits salient cultural-frame, messages feel more persuasive.

    PubMed

    Uskul, Ayse K; Oyserman, Daphna

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a message about health risks of caffeine consumption among individuals prescreened to be regular caffeine consumers. After being primed for individualism, European Americans who read a health message that focused on the personal self were more likely to accept the message-they found it more persuasive, believed they were more at risk and engaged in more message-congruent behaviour. These effects were also found among Asian Americans who were primed for collectivism and who read a health message that focused on relational obligations. The findings point to the importance of investigating the role of situational cues in persuasive effects of health messages and suggest that matching content to primed frame consistent with the chronic frame may be a way to know what to match messages to.

  12. Composite lightweight non-metallic vehicle frame

    SciTech Connect

    Pabst, R.D.

    1986-03-04

    A non-metallic ladder type automotive frame is described having beam elements formed of composite plastic materials. The frame consists of: paired opposed elongate lateral beams interconnected by plural cross beams, each of the beams and cross beams having, a rigid lower density core formed by foaming plastic material in a peripheral mold to create a structure having closed cells and a graduated density that is greatest at the periphery of the core, and a higher density peripheral skin formed of polymeric matrix material adhered to the core and embedding reinforcing fiber in the form of woven cloth, plural layers of the cloth, covering the peripheral surfaces of the beams and additional layers of the cloth covering top and bottom portions of the beams, and means of releasably fastening automotive components to at least some of the beams.

  13. URAT and the celestial reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    The US Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) survey begun in April 2012 and the Northern Hemisphere program will be completed in 2015. Positions of over 228 million stars in the about R = 3 to 19 mag range were published with the URAT1 catalog release (CDS I/329) and positional accuracy near 10 mas per coordinate for mid-range magnitude objects.URAT directly observes Hipparcos stars as well as counterparts of extragalactic ICRF2 sources. The status of the current celestial reference frame is investigated with URAT data. The accuracy of Hipparcos positions at URAT epoch is analyzed. Radio-optical position differences are investigated for possible astrophysical offsets which would affect the Gaia to radio reference frame alignment accuracy.

  14. Frames of reference in spatial language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Shusterman, Anna; Li, Peggy

    2016-08-01

    Languages differ in how they encode spatial frames of reference. It is unknown how children acquire the particular frame-of-reference terms in their language (e.g., left/right, north/south). The present paper uses a word-learning paradigm to investigate 4-year-old English-speaking children's acquisition of such terms. In Part I, with five experiments, we contrasted children's acquisition of novel word pairs meaning left-right and north-south to examine their initial hypotheses and the relative ease of learning the meanings of these terms. Children interpreted ambiguous spatial terms as having environment-based meanings akin to north and south, and they readily learned and generalized north-south meanings. These studies provide the first direct evidence that children invoke geocentric representations in spatial language acquisition. However, the studies leave unanswered how children ultimately acquire "left" and "right." In Part II, with three more experiments, we investigated why children struggle to master body-based frame-of-reference words. Children successfully learned "left" and "right" when the novel words were systematically introduced on their own bodies and extended these words to novel (intrinsic and relative) uses; however, they had difficulty learning to talk about the left and right sides of a doll. This difficulty was paralleled in identifying the left and right sides of the doll in a non-linguistic memory task. In contrast, children had no difficulties learning to label the front and back sides of a doll. These studies begin to paint a detailed account of the acquisition of spatial terms in English, and provide insights into the origins of diverse spatial reference frames in the world's languages.

  15. High-frame-rate, motion-compensated 25.4 megapixel image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamasz, Stacy R.; Farrier, Michael G.; Ma, Shing-Fat F.; Sabila, Robert W.; Chamberlain, Savvas G.

    1994-05-01

    The applicability of large-area full-frame CCD image sensor technology to large optical format aerial reconnaissance applications has been recently demonstrated. The requirements of low-contrast, high-resolution imaging at high frame rates have generated the need for a manufacturable, multitap, small-pitch, wafer-scale CCD image sensor technology. The added requirement of incorporation of electronic motion compensation at the focal plane has generated the need for multisegmented full-frame area array architectures. Characterization results from the newly developed 5040 X 5040 element, eight-tap, full-frame image sensor with multisegmentation for electronic motion compensation are discussed. Experimental determination of resistive-capacitive time constants for metal strapped vertical clock busses on wafer-scale sensors is discussed.

  16. Dynamics of students’ epistemological framing in group problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hai D.; Chari, Deepa N.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have investigated students’ epistemological framing when solving physics problems. Framing supports students’ problem solving as they decide what knowledge to employ and the necessary steps to solve the problem. Students may frame the same problem differently and take alternative paths to a correct solution. When students work in group settings, they share and discuss their framing to decide how to proceed in problem solving as a whole group. In this study, we investigate how groups of students negotiate their framing and frame shifts in group problem solving.

  17. James Frame's The Philosophy of Insanity (1860).

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jonathan; Philo, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Our aim in presenting this Classic Text is to foster wider analytical attention to a fascinating commentary on insanity by a former inmate of Glasgow Royal Asylum, Gartnavel, James Frame. Despite limited coverage in existing literature, his text (and other writings) have been surprisingly neglected by modern scholars. Frame's Philosophy presents a vivid, affecting, often destigmatizing account of the insane and their institutional provision in Scotland. Derived from extensive first-hand experience, Frame's chronicle eloquently and graphically delineates his own illness and the roles and perspectives of many other actors, from clinicians and managers to patients and relations. It is also valuable as a subjective, but heavily mediated, kaleidoscopic view of old and new theories concerning mental afflictions, offering many insights about the medico-moral ethos and milieu of the mid-Victorian Scottish asylum. Alternating as consolatory and admonitory illness biography, insanity treatise, mental health self-help guide, and asylum reform and promotion manual, it demands scrutiny for both its more progressive views and its more compromised and prejudicial attitudes.

  18. Frame Synchronization Without Attached Sync Markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to synchronize codeword frames without making use of attached synchronization markers (ASMs). Instead, the synchronizer identifies the code structure present in the received symbols, by operating the decoder for a handful of iterations at each possible symbol offset and forming an appropriate metric. This method is computationally more complex and doesn't perform as well as frame synchronizers that utilize an ASM; nevertheless, the new synchronizer acquires frame synchronization in about two seconds when using a 600 kbps software decoder, and would take about 15 milliseconds on prototype hardware. It also eliminates the need for the ASMs, which is an attractive feature for short uplink codes whose coding gain would be diminished by the overheard of ASM bits. The lack of ASMs also would simplify clock distribution for the AR4JA low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and adds a small amount to the coding gain as well (up to 0.2 dB).

  19. Message framing, it does a body good: effects of message framing and motivational orientation on young women's calcium consumption.

    PubMed

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Melissa A

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effects of gain-framed versus loss-framed messages and motivational orientation on calcium consumption. After completing a motivational orientation scale (behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system), undergraduate women (N = 141) were randomly assigned to read a gain-framed or loss-framed pamphlet promoting calcium consumption. Calcium consumption was assessed 1 month later. For calcium supplement behavior, a gain-framed advantage was observed for behavioral activation system-oriented individuals, whereas a loss-framed advantage was observed for behavioral inhibition system-oriented individuals. For dietary calcium intake, a gain-framed advantage was observed among behavioral activation system-oriented individuals; however, no framing effect emerged for behavioral inhibition system-oriented individuals. The success of framed messages depends on the message recipient's motivational orientation.

  20. Improved quality of intrafraction kilovoltage images by triggered readout of unexposed frames

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Jonassen, Johnny; Jensen, Carsten; Schmidt, Mai Lykkegaard

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The gantry-mounted kilovoltage (kV) imager of modern linear accelerators can be used for real-time tumor localization during radiation treatment delivery. However, the kV image quality often suffers from cross-scatter from the megavoltage (MV) treatment beam. This study investigates readout of unexposed kV frames as a means to improve the kV image quality in a series of experiments and a theoretical model of the observed image quality improvements. Methods: A series of fluoroscopic images were acquired of a solid water phantom with an embedded gold marker and an air cavity with and without simultaneous radiation of the phantom with a 6 MV beam delivered perpendicular to the kV beam with 300 and 600 monitor units per minute (MU/min). An in-house built device triggered readout of zero, one, or multiple unexposed frames between the kV exposures. The unexposed frames contained part of the MV scatter, consequently reducing the amount of MV scatter accumulated in the exposed frames. The image quality with and without unexposed frame readout was quantified as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold marker and air cavity for a range of imaging frequencies from 1 to 15 Hz. To gain more insight into the observed CNR changes, the image lag of the kV imager was measured and used as input in a simple model that describes the CNR with unexposed frame readout in terms of the contrast, kV noise, and MV noise measured without readout of unexposed frames. Results: Without readout of unexposed kV frames, the quality of intratreatment kV images decreased dramatically with reduced kV frequencies due to MV scatter. The gold marker was only visible for imaging frequencies ≥3 Hz at 300 MU/min and ≥5 Hz for 600 MU/min. Visibility of the air cavity required even higher imaging frequencies. Readout of multiple unexposed frames ensured visibility of both structures at all imaging frequencies and a CNR that was independent of the kV frame rate. The image lag was 12.2%, 2