Science.gov

Sample records for 7-day time frame

  1. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Lei, Meiying; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Chuang; Duan, Jiaobo; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT), during a bed rest period (HDT0), and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1-HDT7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment. PMID:26029071

  2. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yang; Lei, Meiying; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Chuang; Duan, Jiaobo; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT), during a bed rest period (HDT0), and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment. PMID:26029071

  3. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A.

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  4. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  5. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  6. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  7. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  8. Time reversibility in the quantum frame

    SciTech Connect

    Masot-Conde, Fátima

    2014-12-04

    Classic Mechanics and Electromagnetism, conventionally taken as time-reversible, share the same concept of motion (either of mass or charge) as the basis of the time reversibility in their own fields. This paper focuses on the relationship between mobile geometry and motion reversibility. The goal is to extrapolate the conclusions to the quantum frame, where matter and radiation behave just as elementary mobiles. The possibility that the asymmetry of Time (Time’s arrow) is an effect of a fundamental quantum asymmetry of elementary particles, turns out to be a consequence of the discussion.

  9. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  10. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  11. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  12. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  13. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  14. Longitudinal rotating frame relaxation time measurements in infarcted mouse myocardium in vivo.

    PubMed

    Musthafa, Haja-Sherief N; Dragneva, Galina; Lottonen, Line; Merentie, Mari; Petrov, Lyubomir; Heikura, Tommi; Ylä-Herttuala, Elias; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Gröhn, Olli; Liimatainen, Timo

    2013-05-01

    Longitudinal relaxation time in the rotating frame (T1ρ) was measured using continuous wave irradiation in normal and infarcted mouse myocardium in vivo. Significant increase in T1ρ was found after 7 days of infarction when compared with reference myocardium or in myocardium before infarction. Cine MRI and histology were performed to verify the severity of infarction. The time course of T1ρ in the infarct fits better with granulation and scar tissue formation than necrosis and edema. The results of the study show that T1ρ could potentially be a noninvasive quantitative marker for tissue remodeling after ischemic damage. PMID:22736543

  15. Reducing video frame rate increases remote optimal focus time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve observers made best optical focus adjustments to a microscope whose high-resolution pattern was video monitored and displayed first on a National Television System Committee (NTSC) analog color monitor and second on a digitally compressed computer monitor screen at frame rates ranging (in six steps) from 1.5 to 30 frames per second (fps). This was done to determine whether reducing the frame rate affects the image focus. Reducing frame rate has been shown to be an effective and acceptable means of reducing transmission bandwidth of dynamic video imagery sent from Space Station Freedom (SSF) to ground scientists. Three responses were recorded per trial: time to complete the focus adjustment, number of changes of focus direction, and subjective rating of final image quality. It was found that: the average time to complete the focus setting increases from 4.5 sec at 30 fps to 7.9 sec at 1.5 fps (statistical probability = 1.2 x 10(exp -7)); there is no significant difference in the number of changes in the direction of focus adjustment across these frame rates; and there is no significant change in subjectively determined final image quality across these frame rates. These data can be used to help pre-plan future remote optical-focus operations on SSF.

  16. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Cone, Jeremy; Rand, David G

    2014-01-01

    What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy). Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect. PMID:25551386

  17. 40 CFR 35.110 - Time frame for EPA action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time frame for EPA action. 35.110 Section 35.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Epa Action on Application § 35.110...

  18. Framing health messages based on anomalies in time preference.

    PubMed

    Ortendahl, Monica; Fries, James F

    2005-08-01

    Time discounting processes and their effects are increasingly taken into account in health-related decisions. Because these effects have a potentially large impact the characteristics of discounting should also be taken into consideration when framing health messages. Research on the relationship between time and health is discussed with a special focus on discounting biases. The criteria for selection of articles were potential practical application when formulating health messages. Time discounting processes vary with individuals and contexts. Therefore, no single model is expected to describe discounting processes completely. Discounting biases appear more prevalent in health decisions than in economic decisions, even when health and monetary outcomes are matched for utility. Research on decision-making under conditions of uncertainty has documented numerous anomalies of expected utility. Analysis on the anomalies related to intertemporal choice and discounted utility (DU) include the magnitude effect, dynamic inconsistency effect, instant endowment, status quo bias, and sequence effect. Discounting biases in the formulation of preventive health messages are important. The desire for behavioral change in these programs would benefit from considering the psychological factor of discounting. Framing health messages in terms of large, important outcomes or long delays should induce lower implicit discount rates. Framing health messages as losses rather than gains, or as involving a series of outcomes rather than individual outcomes, might similarly lower the implicit discount rate used. PMID:16049392

  19. Stability of Gabor Frames Under Small Time Hamiltonian Evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.; Gröchenig, Karlheinz; Romero, José Luis

    2016-05-01

    We consider Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor systems, where the window evolves according to the action of a Schrödinger propagator and the phase-space nodes evolve according to the corresponding Hamiltonian flow. We prove the stability of the frame property for small times and Hamiltonians consisting of a quadratic polynomial plus a potential in the Sjöstrand class with bounded second-order derivatives. This answers a question raised in de Gosson (Appl Comput Harmonic Anal 38(2):196-221, 2015)

  20. Stability of Gabor Frames Under Small Time Hamiltonian Evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.; Gröchenig, Karlheinz; Romero, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    We consider Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor systems, where the window evolves according to the action of a Schrödinger propagator and the phase-space nodes evolve according to the corresponding Hamiltonian flow. We prove the stability of the frame property for small times and Hamiltonians consisting of a quadratic polynomial plus a potential in the Sjöstrand class with bounded second-order derivatives. This answers a question raised in de Gosson (Appl Comput Harmonic Anal 38(2):196-221, 2015)

  1. Realization of fertility intentions by different time frames.

    PubMed

    Dommermuth, Lars; Klobas, Jane; Lappegård, Trude

    2015-06-01

    This paper focuses on the realization of positive fertility intentions with different time frames. The analyses are based on a unique combination of survey data and information from Norwegian administrative registers on childbearing in the years following the complete selected sample. Guided by the theoretical and empirical framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the results suggest that a fertility intention's time frame is relevant for childbearing behaviour, but the patterns are somewhat different for respondents who were childless at the time of the interview compared to those who already had children. Overall, childless were less likely to realize their fertility intentions than parents. Following the TPB, childless may underestimate the difficulty of acting on their intentions and therefore have more difficulty realizing their intentions, versus parents who take into account their ability to manage another child. The results also show that childless with an immediate fertility intention are more likely to succeed than those with a longer-term intention. Likewise, parents with an immediate fertility intention are more likely to realize their intention during the two first years after the interview, but after four years the childbearing rate was higher among those with longer-term fertility intentions. PMID:26047988

  2. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination. 405.950... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14...

  3. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination....

  4. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination....

  5. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination....

  6. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination....

  7. Investigating Two Different Training Time Frames during Ramadan Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Ramin; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Memari, Amir-Hossein; Najafabadi, Mahboubeh Ghayour

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Muslim athletes may continue training and competing while they are fasting. There is a concern about negative effects of fasting on sports performance. This study aimed to investigate the influence of two training time frames on athletes’ body composition and performance during Ramadan fasting. Methods An observational study was conducted and thirty four male volunteer athletes from different sports including volleyball, karate, taekwondo and football were assigned in two groups. The first group included 14 elite athletes who during Ramadan voluntarily participated in training sessions at 1 hour before Iftar (BI) and the second group of 20 elite athletes who during Ramadan participated in training sessions at 3 hours after Iftar (AI). Testing was performed one week before; in the first and fourth weeks of Ramadan and one week after Ramadan. Weights, heights and skinfold thickness were assessed at each time point and body mass index was calculated. Each player was assessed for agility and explosive strength as well. Results The mean weight and body mass index of both groups decreased significantly during Ramadan (P<0.001). Performance variables were not negatively affected by fasting in BI or AI group athletes. Conclusions Weight reduction might come with either BI or AI training schedules in Ramadan. Daytime or evening training did not inversely affect the agility and power performances in a group of elite athletes during Ramadan fasting. PMID:22375240

  8. Data rate management and real time operation: recursive adaptive frame integration of limited data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-08-01

    Recursive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed to support conventional frame integration. The technique uses two thresholds -one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate, and places integration process between those thresholds. This configuration allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single-frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single-frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration. Adding the third threshold may help in managing real time operations. In the paper the Recursive Frame Integration is presented in form of multiple parallel recursive integration. Such an approach can help not only in data rate management but in mitigation of low single frame SNR issue for Recursive Integration as well as in real time operations with frame integration.

  9. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  10. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  11. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  12. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  13. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  14. 21 CFR 814.40 - Time frames for reviewing a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time frames for reviewing a PMA. 814.40 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.40 Time frames for reviewing a PMA. Within 180 days after receipt of an application that is accepted for filing and to...

  15. 21 CFR 814.40 - Time frames for reviewing a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time frames for reviewing a PMA. 814.40 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.40 Time frames for reviewing a PMA. Within 180 days after receipt of an application that is accepted for filing and to...

  16. 21 CFR 814.40 - Time frames for reviewing a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time frames for reviewing a PMA. 814.40 Section 814.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.40 Time frames...

  17. 21 CFR 814.40 - Time frames for reviewing a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time frames for reviewing a PMA. 814.40 Section 814.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.40 Time frames...

  18. 21 CFR 814.40 - Time frames for reviewing a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time frames for reviewing a PMA. 814.40 Section 814.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.40 Time frames...

  19. Ray-casting time-varying volume data sets with frame-to-frame coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tost, Dani; Grau, Sergi; Ferre, Maria; Puig, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the proposal and evaluation of a ray-casting strategy that takes advantage of the spatial and temporal coherence in image-space as well as in object-space in order to speed up rendering. It is based on a double structure: in image-space, a temporal buffer that stores for each pixel the next instant of time in which the pixel must be recomputed, and in object-space a Temporal Run-Length Encoding of the voxel values through time. The algorithm skips empty and unchanged pixels through three different space-leaping strategies. It can compute the images sequentially in time or generate them simultaneously in batch. In addition, it can handle simultaneously several data modalities. Finally, an on-purpose out-of-core strategy is used to handle large datasets. The tests performed on two medical datasets and various phantom datasets show that the proposed strategy significantly speeds-up rendering.

  20. Examining the Variability of Wind Power Output in the Regulation Time Frame: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B. M.; Shedd, S.; Florita, A.

    2012-08-01

    This work examines the distribution of changes in wind power for different time scales in the regulation time frame as well as the correlation of changes in power output for individual wind turbines in a wind plant.

  1. Evaluation of reproductive and economic outcomes of dairy heifers inseminated at induced estrus or at fixed time after a 5-day or 7-day progesterone insert-based ovulation synchronization protocol.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Johnson, C R; Mendonça, L G D; Silva, P R B; Moraes, J G N; Ahmadzadeh, A; Dalton, J C; Chebel, R C

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the reproductive performance and economic outcome of 3 synchronization strategies for first artificial insemination (AI) of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers from 2 herds (site A, California, n=415; site B, Idaho, n=425) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Heifers assigned to the AI on estrus (AIE) treatment received an injection of 25mg of PGF(2α) at enrollment (d 0) and every 11 d thereafter until AI occurred. Heifers assigned to the CIDR5 treatment received a controlled internal drug release insert (CIDR) containing 1.38 g of progesterone, which was removed 5 d later concomitantly with an injection of 25mg of PGF(2α), and received fixed-time AI (TAI) concomitantly with an injection of 100 μg of GnRH 53 to 60 h later. Heifers assigned to the CIDR7 treatment received a CIDR insert, which was removed 7 d later concomitantly with an injection of 25mg of PGF(2α), and received TAI concomitantly with an injection of 100 μg of GnRH 53 to 60 h later. Heifers were observed for estrus and inseminated up to 98 and 73 d after enrollment in sites A and B, respectively. Thereafter, heifers were moved to pens with bulls and considered failure to conceive to AI if still not pregnant at the end of the observation period. Economic outcomes were based on cost of synchronization protocol (CIDR treatment=$11, PGF(2α) or GnRH treatments=$2.5/treatment, estrous detection=$0.80/heifer per day), rearing cost ($2.75/heifer per day), and economic loss if a heifer did not conceive to first AI ($150). Input cost of the reproductive programs=synchronization protocol cost + semen cost + rearing cost + replacement cost. Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) 38 ± 3 d after first AI was greatest for AIE heifers (61.1%) followed by CIDR5 (44.8%) and CIDR7 (35.7%) heifers. Furthermore, P/AI 73 ± 7 d after first AI was greatest for AIE (58.8%) and tended to be greater for CIDR5 (42%) than for CIDR7 (34.1%) heifers. The percentage of heifers that had

  2. Time frames and the distinction between affective and cognitive well-being

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C.; Eid, Michael; Cacioppo, John T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether the empirical differences between affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) might be due to (a) the use of different time frames in measures of AWB and CWB or (b) structural differences. In Study 1, a multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis indicated that levels of different components are more similar but do not converge completely when the same time frame is used. In Study 2, we found that people are more likely to consider global life circumstances (as opposed to specific events and activities) when they evaluate their CWB, regardless of the specific time frame. In both studies, the time frame did not moderate the associations between AWB and CWB and important correlates (personality, life circumstances). PMID:23420604

  3. Transformation from proper time on earth to coordinate time in solar system barycentric space-time frame of reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, T. D.

    1976-01-01

    An expression was derived for the time transformation t - tau, where t is coordinate time in the solar system barycentric space-time frame of reference and tau is proper time obtained from a fixed atomic clock on earth. This transformation is suitable for use in the computation of high-precision earth-based range and Doppler observables of a spacecraft or celestial body located anywhere in the solar system; it can also be used in obtaining computed values of very long baseline interferometry data types. The formulation for computing range and Doppler observables, which is an explicit function of the transformation t - tau, is described briefly.

  4. Resolving Intralocus Sexual Conflict: Genetic Mechanisms and Time Frame

    PubMed Central

    Pischedda, Alison; Rice, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict occurs due to the expression of sexually antagonistic alleles: those that increase fitness when expressed in one sex but decrease fitness when expressed in the other sex. This genetic conflict is expected whenever the sexes are selected toward differing phenotypic optima for a trait that has a positive genetic correlation between the sexes. Here we synthesize recent developments in the areas of genomics, microarray analysis, and developmental and molecular genetics to establish feasible mechanisms by which the intersexual genetic correlation can be reduced, as well as the time course over which conflict resolution is expected to evolve. PMID:20421329

  5. Grooming in mandrills and the time frame of reciprocal partner choice.

    PubMed

    Schino, Gabriele; Pellegrini, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we examined the time frame of reciprocal partner choice in the grooming interactions of captive mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in order to test the hypothesis that the cognitive limitations of primates constrain the occurrence of reciprocation to short time intervals. In contrast to this hypothesis, mandrills groomed preferentially those individuals that groomed them more even when cases of immediate reciprocation were excluded from the analysis. These results show that mandrills were not limited to reciprocating grooming over short time intervals. It is proposed that a system of emotional bookkeeping may support the ability of primates to reciprocate over long time frames. PMID:19492309

  6. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  7. A Possible Approach to Inclusion of Space and Time in Frame Fields of Quantum Representations of Real and Complex Numbers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Benioff, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Tmore » his work is based on the field of reference frames based on quantum representations of real and complex numbers described in other work. Here frame domains are expanded to include space and time lattices. Strings of qukits are described as hybrid systems as they are both mathematical and physical systems. As mathematical systems they represent numbers. As physical systems in each frame the strings have a discrete Schrodinger dynamics on the lattices.he frame field has an iterative structure such that the contents of a stage j frame have images in a stage j - 1 (parent) frame. A discussion of parent frame images includes the proposal that points of stage j frame lattices have images as hybrid systems in parent frames.he resulting association of energy with images of lattice point locations, as hybrid systems states, is discussed. Representations and images of other physical systems in the different frames are also described.« less

  8. Network news coverage of obesity in two time periods: an analysis of issues, sources, and frames.

    PubMed

    Gearhart, Sherice; Craig, Clay; Steed, Chaille

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic plaguing American society. The current study adds to a growing body of framing research as it examines the portrayal of obesity on television network news in two 5-year time periods, 1995-1999 and 2005-2009. Through content analysis of TV news transcripts from three networks (ABC, NBC, and CBS), this study analyzed episodic-thematic frames, issues, and sources. Results revealed the amount of obesity-related news coverage increased along with thematically framed stories. The use of politicians, affected others, supporters, and others as sources increased, but experts and those struggling with obesity remained primary sources. Changes in the proportion of issues discussed revealed significant decreases in the discussion of genetic causes and personal stories. Results reflect the societal impact of obesity and indicate the ways in which obesity is perceived by the public through network news. Findings provide insight for media advocacy opportunities and contribute to research on framing and obesity. PMID:22236324

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing 7-Day Triple, 10-Day Sequential, and 7-Day Concomitant Therapies for Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ping-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Wen-Chi; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Yu, Hsien-Chung; Wang, Huay-Min; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chen, Angela

    2014-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, the failure rate of the standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection is increasing. Sequential therapy and concomitant therapy have been recommended to replace standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication in regions with high clarithromycin resistance. The aim of this prospective, randomized, and controlled study was to simultaneously assess the efficacies of 10-day sequential and 7-day concomitant therapies versus a 7-day standard triple therapy for treating H. pylori infection. Consecutive H. pylori-infected subjects were randomly assigned to a 7-day standard triple therapy (pantoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin for 7 days), a 10-day sequential therapy (pantoprazole and amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by pantoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole for a further 5 days), or a 7-day quadruple therapy (pantoprazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and metronidazole for 7 days). H. pylori status was confirmed 6 weeks after therapy. Three hundred seven H. pylori-infected participants were randomized to receive triple (n = 103), sequential (n = 102), or concomitant (n = 102) therapies. The eradication rates by an intention-to-treat analysis in the three treatment groups were 81.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.1% to 89.0%), 89.2% (95% CI, 83.2% to 95.2%), and 94.1% (95% CI, 89.5% to 98.7%). The seven-day concomitant therapy had a higher eradication rate than did the 7-day triple therapy (difference, 12.5%; 95% CI, 3.7% to 21.3%). There were no significant differences in the eradication rates between the sequential and standard triple therapies. All three treatments exhibited similar frequencies of adverse events (8.7%, 8.8%, and 13.7%, respectively) and drug compliance (99.0%, 98.0%, and 100.0%, respectively). In conclusion, the seven-day concomitant therapy is superior to the 7-day standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. Additionally, it is less complex than the 10-day

  10. A new x-ray framing camera with picoseconds time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Yongsheng; Bai, Yonglin; Liu, Baiyu; Bai, Xiaohong; Qin, Junjun; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Bingli; Peng, Xu; Cao, Weiwei

    2015-10-01

    A new method to get a X-ray framing camera with picoseconds time resolution was proposed based on time amplification. Its principle comes from that we use high voltage electrical pulse to get speed dispersion of the photoelectrons pulse first, and then the photoelectrons pulse will be stretched in axial direction by drift area, at the end the photoelectrons pulse after stretched will be framing imaged by a traditional MCP microchannel plate gated framing camera. A model of the camera was built according to this method. Time amplification of the system is about 30, and image magnification of the system is about 0.4. Parameters for designing the camera system were presented after theoretical deriving and model simulation. At last, theoretical time resolution and spatial resolution of the camera were given.

  11. An LCD driver with on-chip frame buffer and 3 times image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Star; Baudia, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    An LCD Driver with on-chip frame buffer and 3 times image compression codec reaching visually lossless image quality is presented. The frame buffer compression codec can encode and decode up to eight pixels in one clock cycle. Integrating a whole frame buffer with RGB=888 bits into the display driver sharply reduces power dissipated between the IO pad and PCB board at a cost of 50% IC die area increase. The existing working chip (STE2102, a ram-less LCD Driver with die size of 170mm x 12mm) is manufactured by ST Micro 0.18μm high voltage CMOS process. A new chip design with on-chip frame buffer SRAM and 3 times compression codec supporting QVGA (320x240) is completed which reduces the frame buffer SRAM density and area by a factor of ~3.0 times and cuts the power consumption of the on-chip SRAM frame buffer by ~9.0 times of which 3 times is contributed by less capacitive bit line load and another 3 times from data rate reduction from image compression. The compression codec having 25K gates in encoder and 10K in decoder accepts both YUV and RGB color formats. An on-chip color-space-conversion unit converts the decompressed YUV components with 420, 422 and 444 formats to be RGB format before driving out to be displayed. The high image quality is achieved by applying some patented proprietary compression algorithms including accurate prediction in DPCM, a Golomb-Rice like VLC coding with accurate predictive divider and an intelligent bit rate distribution control.

  12. KALREF—A Kalman filter and time series approach to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Abbondanza, Claudio; Altamimi, Zuheir; Chin, T. Mike; Collilieux, Xavier; Gross, Richard S.; Heflin, Michael B.; Jiang, Yan; Parker, Jay W.

    2015-05-01

    The current International Terrestrial Reference Frame is based on a piecewise linear site motion model and realized by reference epoch coordinates and velocities for a global set of stations. Although linear motions due to tectonic plates and glacial isostatic adjustment dominate geodetic signals, at today's millimeter precisions, nonlinear motions due to earthquakes, volcanic activities, ice mass losses, sea level rise, hydrological changes, and other processes become significant. Monitoring these (sometimes rapid) changes desires consistent and precise realization of the terrestrial reference frame (TRF) quasi-instantaneously. Here, we use a Kalman filter and smoother approach to combine time series from four space geodetic techniques to realize an experimental TRF through weekly time series of geocentric coordinates. In addition to secular, periodic, and stochastic components for station coordinates, the Kalman filter state variables also include daily Earth orientation parameters and transformation parameters from input data frames to the combined TRF. Local tie measurements among colocated stations are used at their known or nominal epochs of observation, with comotion constraints applied to almost all colocated stations. The filter/smoother approach unifies different geodetic time series in a single geocentric frame. Fragmented and multitechnique tracking records at colocation sites are bridged together to form longer and coherent motion time series. While the time series approach to TRF reflects the reality of a changing Earth more closely than the linear approximation model, the filter/smoother is computationally powerful and flexible to facilitate incorporation of other data types and more advanced characterization of stochastic behavior of geodetic time series.

  13. 42 CFR 405.1016 - Time frames for deciding an appeal before an ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time frames for deciding an appeal before an ALJ. 405.1016 Section 405.1016 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... § 405.1037 against another party to the hearing, the adjudication periods discussed in paragraphs...

  14. 40 CFR 35.105 - Time frame for submitting an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time frame for submitting an application. 35.105 Section 35.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application §...

  15. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO... life or health or ability to attain, maintain or regain maximum function. If the enrollee has access to... extend the 72-hour time frame by up to 14 calendar days, if the enrollee requests an extension....

  16. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO... life or health or ability to attain, maintain or regain maximum function. If the enrollee has access to... extend the 72-hour time frame by up to 14 calendar days, if the enrollee requests an extension....

  17. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO... life or health or ability to attain, maintain or regain maximum function. If the enrollee has access to... extend the 72-hour time frame by up to 14 calendar days, if the enrollee requests an extension....

  18. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO... life or health or ability to attain, maintain or regain maximum function. If the enrollee has access to... extend the 72-hour time frame by up to 14 calendar days, if the enrollee requests an extension....

  19. LCFM - LIVING COLOR FRAME MAKER: PC GRAPHICS GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.

    1994-01-01

    Computer graphics are often applied for better understanding and interpretation of data under observation. These graphics become more complicated when animation is required during "run-time", as found in many typical modern artificial intelligence and expert systems. Living Color Frame Maker is a solution to many of these real-time graphics problems. Living Color Frame Maker (LCFM) is a graphics generation and management tool for IBM or IBM compatible personal computers. To eliminate graphics programming, the graphic designer can use LCFM to generate computer graphics frames. The graphical frames are then saved as text files, in a readable and disclosed format, which can be easily accessed and manipulated by user programs for a wide range of "real-time" visual information applications. For example, LCFM can be implemented in a frame-based expert system for visual aids in management of systems. For monitoring, diagnosis, and/or controlling purposes, circuit or systems diagrams can be brought to "life" by using designated video colors and intensities to symbolize the status of hardware components (via real-time feedback from sensors). Thus status of the system itself can be displayed. The Living Color Frame Maker is user friendly with graphical interfaces, and provides on-line help instructions. All options are executed using mouse commands and are displayed on a single menu for fast and easy operation. LCFM is written in C++ using the Borland C++ 2.0 compiler for IBM PC series computers and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The program requires a mouse and an EGA/VGA display. A minimum of 77K of RAM is also required for execution. The documentation is provided in electronic form on the distribution medium in WordPerfect format. A sample MS-DOS executable is provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools

  20. Efficient Time Frame Building for Online Data Reconstruction in ALICE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybalchenko, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Winckler, N.

    2015-12-01

    After the Long Shutdown 2 period, the upgraded ALICE detector at the LHC will produce more than a terabyte of data per second. The data, constituted from a continuous un-triggered stream data, have to be distributed from about 250 First Level Processor nodes (FLPs) to about 1500 Event Processing Nodes (EPNs). Each FLP receives a small subset of the detector data that is chopped in sub-time frames. One EPN needs all the fragments from the 250 FLPs to build a full time frame. An algorithm has been implemented on the FLPs with the aim of optimizing the usage of the network connecting the FLPs and EPNs. The algorithm minimizes contention when several FLPs are sending to the same EPN. An adequate traffic shaping is implemented by delaying the sending time of each FLP by a unique offset. The payloads are stored in a buffer large enough to accommodate the delay provoked by the maximum number of FLPs. As the buffers are queued for sending, the FLPs can operate with the highest efficiency. Using the time information embedded in the data any further FLP synchronization can be avoided. Moreover, zero-copy and multipart messages of ZeroMQ are used to create full time frames on the EPNs without the overhead of copying the payloads. The concept and the performance measurement of the implementation on a reference computing cluster are presented.

  1. Analysis of data systems requirements for global crop production forecasting in the 1985 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W.; Larsen, P. A.; Gerstner, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Data systems concepts that would be needed to implement the objective of the global crop production forecasting in an orderly transition from experimental to operational status in the 1985 time frame were examined. Information needs of users were converted into data system requirements, and the influence of these requirements on the formulation of a conceptual data system was analyzed. Any potential problem areas in meeting these data system requirements were identified in an iterative process.

  2. Quantum frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  3. 7000 miles and 7 days from the battlefield.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Margaret M

    2010-01-01

    Critically injured combat casualties are rapidly evacuated from the battlefield, and within hours of their injuries they begin a 7000-mile journey home, often arriving in the United States within 7 days. National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, is a major facility for wounded warrior care in the Military Health System. Throughout the facility, the staff from a variety of disciplines and all military services provides care for military personnel with injuries and illnesses, with the goal of optimizing recovery and quality of life. The foundational evidence for select aspects of this care is discussed. Innovations in training and care delivery include the Air Force Nurse Corps' Critical Care Fellowship, the new inpatient Traumatic Brain Injury Unit, and the National Intrepid Center for Excellence for Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health. The future of the Medical Center includes a new name, expanded staff, and newly constructed space by Department of Defense Base Realignment and Closure activities. PMID:20683232

  4. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  5. Crosstalk in x-ray framing cameras: Effect on voltage, gain, and timing (invited).

    PubMed

    Benedetti, L R; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Brown, C G; Glenn, S M; Heeter, R; Holder, J P; Izumi, N; Khan, S F; Lacaille, G; Simanovskaia, N; Smalyuk, V A; Thomas, R

    2012-10-01

    We present evidence that electromagnetic crosstalk between independent strips in gated x-ray framing cameras can affect relative gains by up to an order of magnitude and gate arrival times up to tens of picoseconds when strip separation times are less then ∼1 ns. Crosstalk is observed by multiple methods, and it is confirmed by direct measurements of voltage on the active surface of the detector and also by indirect voltage monitors in routine operation. The voltage measurements confirm that crosstalk is produced not only in the active regions of the microchannel plate, but also along the entire input path of the voltage pulses. PMID:23126956

  6. Co-Seismic Deformations Impact on Geodetic Time Series and Reference Frame Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metivier, L.; Collilieux, X.; Lercier, D.; Altamimi, Z.; Beauducel, F.

    2014-12-01

    One of the major sources of error in reference frame determination comes from the undetected discontinuities in station position time series, particularly in GNSS data. Until now, discontinuities in station position time series due to large earthquakes were usually detected visually. Based on a geophysical modeling, we develop a method to predict the effect of co-seismic deformations on position series. Investigating a global network of GPS stations, we demonstrate that a systematic global modeling of co-seismic deformations helps greatly to detect discontinuities in GPS coordinate time series. We show that numerous discontinuities induced by earthquakes are too small to be visually detected because of seasonal variations and GPS noise that disturb their identification. However, not taking these discontinuities into account has a large impact on the station velocity estimation, considering today's precision requirements. Beyond time series discontinuities, we also investigate GPS station displacements induced by two decades of accumulated seismicity. We show here that the accumulation of very small co-seismic deformations may explain non-linear behaviors of GPS station position. It raises the unexpected question of the treatment of such station non-linear motions in reference frame elaboration.

  7. SLR Station Recovery, Center of Frame Motion, and Time Varying Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelensky, Nikita P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Melachroinos, Stavros; Wiser Beall, Jennifer; Larson, Jordan D.

    2012-01-01

    Weekly station position estimates, beginning with 1993, are derived from the ITRF2008-based SLR processing of up to four satellites: Lageos 1, Lageos2, Starlette, and Stella. Helmert parameters obtained from c omparison of weekly SLR station positions and the a-priori SLRF2008 station complement are evaluated for geocenter motion and scale. Two me thods for modeling time varying gravity are employed in the SLR satel lite POD processing, with GGM03S serving as the static gravity field. Both methods forward model atmosphere gravity derived from 6-hour ECM WF pressure data. The standard approach applies an annual 20x20 field estimated from 4 years of GRACE data, and the IERS2003 recommended linear rates for C20, C30, C40, C21, and S21. The alternate approach us es a new set of low-order/degree 4x4 coefficients estimated weekly fr om SLR & DORIS processing to 10 satellites from 1993-2012. This exper imental tvg4x4 model has been shown to improve the TOPEX, Jason-1, and Jason-2 altimeter satellite orbits,. In this paper we apply the more detailed time-variable gravity modeling to the SLR satellite POD pro cessing and subsequent reference frame analyses. For this study we will evaluate the orbit differences (periodic and secular) for the satel lites concerned, characterize the impact on the station coordinate solutions, and the impact on reference frame parameters (geocenter and s cale).

  8. Quantum-optical Space-time Wave Frames: When light coordinates itself coherently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, William; Mitchell, Justin

    2006-05-01

    Careful re-examination of details of quantum and classical optical wave interference leads to a more precise and elegant logic for two of the foundations of modern physics, special relativity and quantum theory. This provides a transparent unified development of both subjects together in a few simple logical steps with improved intuition and fewer ``mysteries.'' The first step is an Occam razor reduction of Einstein's axiom to a spectral form based on linear dispersion or, ``All colors go c.'' Then wave nodal planes of interfering CW beams or optical cavity modes provide their own space-time coordinate frames with a reciprocal per-space-time lattice.[1] These clearly display Lorentz-Poincare symmetry and hyperbolic dispersion characteristic of quantum matter with very simple Compton recoil analyses. Accelerated coordinate frames made by cavity chirping are used to relate Compton effects to the relativistic shifts and horizons that are present in an Einstein elevator and shows them to be an elegant result of wave interference. [1] W. G. Harter, J. Mol. Spect. 210, 166 (2001)

  9. Evaluating the Human Damage of Tsunami at Each Time Frame in Aggregate Units Based on GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Akiyama, Y.; Kanasugi, H.; Shibasaki, R.; Kaneda, H.

    2016-06-01

    Assessments of the human damage caused by the tsunami are required in order to consider disaster prevention at such a regional level. Hence, there is an increasing need for the assessments of human damage caused by earthquakes. However, damage assessments in japan currently usually rely on static population distribution data, such as statistical night time population data obtained from national census surveys. Therefore, human damage estimation that take into consideration time frames have not been assessed yet. With these backgrounds, the objectives of this study are: to develop a method for estimating the population distribution of the for each time frame, based on location positioning data observed with mass GPS loggers of mobile phones, to use a evacuation and casualties models for evaluating human damage due to the tsunami, and evaluate each time frame by using the data developed in the first objective, and 3) to discuss the factors which cause the differences in human damage for each time frame. By visualizing the results, we clarified the differences in damage depending on time frame, day and area. As this study enables us to assess damage for any time frame in and high resolution, it will be useful to consider provision for various situations when an earthquake may hit, such as during commuting hours or working hours and week day or holiday.

  10. Dynamics of supersonic microparticle impact on elastomers revealed by real–time multi–frame imaging

    PubMed Central

    Veysset, David; Hsieh, Alex J.; Kooi, Steven; Maznev, Alexei A.; Masser, Kevin A.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding high–velocity microparticle impact is essential for many fields, from space exploration to medicine and biology. Investigations of microscale impact have hitherto been limited to post–mortem analysis of impacted specimens, which does not provide direct information on the impact dynamics. Here we report real–time multi–frame imaging studies of the impact of 7 μm diameter glass spheres traveling at 700–900 m/s on elastomer polymers. With a poly(urethane urea) (PUU) sample, we observe a hyperelastic impact phenomenon not seen on the macroscale: a microsphere undergoes a full conformal penetration into the specimen followed by a rebound which leaves the specimen unscathed. The results challenge the established interpretation of the behaviour of elastomers under high–velocity impact. PMID:27156501

  11. Dynamics of supersonic microparticle impact on elastomers revealed by real–time multi–frame imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veysset, David; Hsieh, Alex J.; Kooi, Steven; Maznev, Alexei A.; Masser, Kevin A.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding high–velocity microparticle impact is essential for many fields, from space exploration to medicine and biology. Investigations of microscale impact have hitherto been limited to post–mortem analysis of impacted specimens, which does not provide direct information on the impact dynamics. Here we report real–time multi–frame imaging studies of the impact of 7 μm diameter glass spheres traveling at 700–900 m/s on elastomer polymers. With a poly(urethane urea) (PUU) sample, we observe a hyperelastic impact phenomenon not seen on the macroscale: a microsphere undergoes a full conformal penetration into the specimen followed by a rebound which leaves the specimen unscathed. The results challenge the established interpretation of the behaviour of elastomers under high–velocity impact.

  12. Dynamics of supersonic microparticle impact on elastomers revealed by real-time multi-frame imaging.

    PubMed

    Veysset, David; Hsieh, Alex J; Kooi, Steven; Maznev, Alexei A; Masser, Kevin A; Nelson, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding high-velocity microparticle impact is essential for many fields, from space exploration to medicine and biology. Investigations of microscale impact have hitherto been limited to post-mortem analysis of impacted specimens, which does not provide direct information on the impact dynamics. Here we report real-time multi-frame imaging studies of the impact of 7 μm diameter glass spheres traveling at 700-900 m/s on elastomer polymers. With a poly(urethane urea) (PUU) sample, we observe a hyperelastic impact phenomenon not seen on the macroscale: a microsphere undergoes a full conformal penetration into the specimen followed by a rebound which leaves the specimen unscathed. The results challenge the established interpretation of the behaviour of elastomers under high-velocity impact. PMID:27156501

  13. Dynamics of high-speed micro-drop impact: numerical simulations and experiments at frame-to-frame times below 100 ns.

    PubMed

    Visser, Claas Willem; Frommhold, Philipp Erhard; Wildeman, Sander; Mettin, Robert; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2015-03-01

    Technologies including (3D-) (bio-)printing, diesel engines, laser-induced forward transfer, and spray cleaning require optimization and therefore understanding of micrometer-sized droplets impacting at velocities beyond 10 m s(-1). However, as yet, this regime has hardly been addressed. Here we present the first time-resolved experimental investigation of microdroplet impact at velocities up to V0 = 50 m s(-1), on hydrophilic and -phobic surfaces at frame rates exceeding 10(7) frames per second. A novel method to determine the 3D-droplet profile at sub-micron resolution at the same frame rates is presented, using the fringe pattern observed from a bottom view. A numerical model, which is validated by the side- and bottom-view measurements, is employed to study the viscous boundary layer inside the droplet and the development of the rim. The spreading dynamics, the maximal spreading diameter, the boundary layer thickness, the rim formation, and the air bubble entrainment are compared to theory and previous experiments. In general, the impact dynamics are equal to millimeter-sized droplet impact for equal Reynolds-, Weber- and Stokes numbers (Re, We, and St, respectively). Using our numerical model, effective scaling laws for the progression of the boundary layer thickness and the rim diameter are provided. The dimensionless boundary layer thickness develops in time (t) according to δBL ~ D0/√Re(t/τ)0.45, and the diameter of the rim develops as DRim ~ D0/√We(t/τ)0.68, with drop diameter D0 and inertial time scale τ = D0/V0. These scalings differ from previously assumed, but never validated, values. Finally, no splash is observed, at variance with many predictions but in agreement with models including the influence of the surrounding gas. This confirms that the ambient gas properties are key ingredients for splash threshold predictions. PMID:25607820

  14. Full-Field Spectroscopy at Megahertz-frame-rates: Application of Coherent Time-Stretch Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Peter Thomas Setsuda

    Outliers or rogue events are found extensively in our world and have incredible effects. Also called rare events, they arise in the distribution of wealth (e.g., Pareto index), finance, network traffic, ocean waves, and e-commerce (selling less of more). Interest in rare optical events exploded after the sighting of optical rogue waves in laboratory experiments at UCLA. Detecting such tail events in fast streams of information necessitates real-time measurements. The Coherent Time-Stretch Transform chirps a pulsed source of radiation so that its temporal envelope matches its spectral profile (analogous to the far field regime of spatial diffraction), and the mapped spectral electric field is slow enough to be captured by a real-time digitizer. Combining this technique with spectral encoding, the time stretch technique has enabled a new class of ultra-high performance spectrometers and cameras (30+ MHz), and analog-to-digital converters that have led to the discovery of optical rogue waves and detection of cancer cells in blood with one in a million sensitivity. Conventionally, the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform maps the spectrum into the temporal electric field, but the time-dilation process along with inherent fiber losses results in reduction of peak power and loss of sensitivity, a problem exacerbated by extremely narrow molecular linewidths. The loss issue notwithstanding, in many cases the requisite dispersive optical device is not available. By extending the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform to the temporal near field, I have demonstrated, for the first time, phase-sensitive absorption spectroscopy of a gaseous sample at millions of frames per second. As the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform may capture both near and far field optical waves, it is a complete spectro-temporal optical characterization tool. This is manifested as an amplitude-dependent chirp, which implies the ability to measure the complex refractive index dispersion at megahertz frame rates. This

  15. Time-resolved measurement technique for pulsed electron beam envelope basing on framing and streaking principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Guo; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Huang; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The time-resolved electron beam envelope parameters, including cross sectional distribution and beam centroid position, are very important for the study of beam transmission characteristics in a magnetic field and for verifying the rationality of the magnetic field parameters employed. One kind of high time-resolved beam envelope measurement system has recently been developed, constituted of a high-speed framing camera and a streak camera. It can obtain three panoramic images of the beam and time continuous information along the given beam profile simultaneously. Recently obtained data has proved that several fast vibrations of the beam envelope along the diameter direction occur during the front and the tail parts of the electron beam. The vibration period is several nanoseconds. The effect of magnetic field on the electron beam is also observed and verified. Beam debugging experiments have proved that the existing beam transmission design is reasonable and viable. This beam envelope measurement system will establish a good foundation for beam physics research. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10675104, 11375162)

  16. Possible overlapping time frames of acquisition and consolidation phases in object memory processes: a pharmacological approach.

    PubMed

    Akkerman, Sven; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) are able to improve object memory by enhancing acquisition processes. On the other hand, only PDE-Is improve consolidation processes. Here we show that the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil also improves memory performance when administered within 2 min after the acquisition trial. Likewise, both PDE5-I and PDE4-I reversed the scopolamine deficit model when administered within 2 min after the learning trial. PDE5-I was effective up to 45 min after the acquisition trial and PDE4-I was effective when administered between 3 and 5.5 h after the acquisition trial. Taken together, our study suggests that acetylcholine, cGMP, and cAMP are all involved in acquisition processes and that cGMP and cAMP are also involved in early and late consolidation processes, respectively. Most important, these pharmacological studies suggest that acquisition processes continue for some time after the learning trial where they share a short common time frame with early consolidation processes. Additional brain concentration measurements of the drugs suggest that these acquisition processes can continue up to 4-6 min after learning. PMID:26670184

  17. AFFECT AND THE FRAMING EFFECT WITHIN INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME: RISK TAKING IN A DYNAMIC INVESTMENT SIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; GOLDFARB, BRENT; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role of affect (pleasant or unpleasant feelings) and decision frames (gains or losses) in risk taking in a 20-day stock investment simulation in which 101 participants rated their current feelings while making investment decisions. As predicted, affect attenuated the relationships between decision frames and risk taking. After experiencing losses, individuals made more risky choices, in keeping with the framing effect. However, this tendency decreased and/or disappeared when loss was simultaneously experienced with either pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Similarly, individuals’ tendency to avoid risk after experiencing gains disappeared or even reversed when they simultaneously experienced pleasant feelings. PMID:26412860

  18. Frame-Transfer Gating Raman Spectroscopy for Time-Resolved Multiscalar Combustion Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Fischer, David G.; Kojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Accurate experimental measurement of spatially and temporally resolved variations in chemical composition (species concentrations) and temperature in turbulent flames is vital for characterizing the complex phenomena occurring in most practical combustion systems. These diagnostic measurements are called multiscalar because they are capable of acquiring multiple scalar quantities simultaneously. Multiscalar diagnostics also play a critical role in the area of computational code validation. In order to improve the design of combustion devices, computational codes for modeling turbulent combustion are often used to speed up and optimize the development process. The experimental validation of these codes is a critical step in accepting their predictions for engine performance in the absence of cost-prohibitive testing. One of the most critical aspects of setting up a time-resolved stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) diagnostic system is the temporal optical gating scheme. A short optical gate is necessary in order for weak SRS signals to be detected with a good signal- to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of strong background optical emissions. This time-synchronized optical gating is a classical problem even to other spectroscopic techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Traditionally, experimenters have had basically two options for gating: (1) an electronic means of gating using an image intensifier before the charge-coupled-device (CCD), or (2) a mechanical optical shutter (a rotary chopper/mechanical shutter combination). A new diagnostic technology has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center that utilizes a frame-transfer CCD sensor, in conjunction with a pulsed laser and multiplex optical fiber collection, to realize time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of turbulent flames that is free from optical background noise (interference). The technology permits not only shorter temporal optical gating (down

  19. The IAU2000 Standards: The Newly Adopted Time, Coordinates, and Reference Frames.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standish, E. M.

    2003-08-01

    Over the past dozen years or so, the IAU has been deluged with resolutions from Division I (Fundamental Astronomy) regarding dynamics, reference frames, fundamental time-scales, earth orientation, etc. Some of the resolutions are merely cosmetic in nature, detailing the basic foundations which have been used by serious researchers for many years. Some of the other resolutions, however, will have a direct affect upon a number of different fields of study. Sooner or later, these changes will actually be implemented, and they will affect anyone doing precision-type work in astronomy, geophysics, and related fields. As with most changes, there are pros and cons; these will be discussed. On a more practical level, the following questions will be addressed: What major areas of astrometry will be affected? What specific items will change? What does one need to know in order to survive the changes? What does one have to do in order to not be adversely affected? The research described in this publication was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. Estimated SLR station position and network frame sensitivity to time-varying gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelensky, Nikita P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Melachroinos, Stavros; Beckley, Brian D.; Beall, Jennifer Wiser; Bordyugov, Oleg

    2014-06-01

    This paper evaluates the sensitivity of ITRF2008-based satellite laser ranging (SLR) station positions estimated weekly using LAGEOS-1/2 data from 1993 to 2012 to non-tidal time-varying gravity (TVG). Two primary methods for modeling TVG from degree-2 are employed. The operational approach applies an annual GRACE-derived field, and IERS recommended linear rates for five coefficients. The experimental approach uses low-order/degree coefficients estimated weekly from SLR and DORIS processing of up to 11 satellites (tvg4x4). This study shows that the LAGEOS-1/2 orbits and the weekly station solutions are sensitive to more detailed modeling of TVG than prescribed in the current IERS standards. Over 1993-2012 tvg4x4 improves SLR residuals by 18 % and shows 10 % RMS improvement in station stability. Tests suggest that the improved stability of the tvg4x4 POD solution frame may help clarify geophysical signals present in the estimated station position time series. The signals include linear and seasonal station motion, and motion of the TRF origin, particularly in Z. The effect on both POD and the station solutions becomes increasingly evident starting in 2006. Over 2008-2012, the tvg4x4 series improves SLR residuals by 29 %. Use of the GRGS RL02 series shows similar improvement in POD. Using tvg4x4, secular changes in the TRF origin Z component double over the last decade and although not conclusive, it is consistent with increased geocenter rate expected due to continental ice melt. The test results indicate that accurate modeling of TVG is necessary for improvement of station position estimation using SLR data.

  1. Optical cell tracking analysis using a straight-forward approach to minimize processing time for high frame rate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeto, Wen Jun; Lipke, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-03-01

    Tracking of rolling cells via in vitro experiment is now commonly performed using customized computer programs. In most cases, two critical challenges continue to limit analysis of cell rolling data: long computation times due to the complexity of tracking algorithms and difficulty in accurately correlating a given cell with itself from one frame to the next, which is typically due to errors caused by cells that either come close in proximity to each other or come in contact with each other. In this paper, we have developed a sophisticated, yet simple and highly effective, rolling cell tracking system to address these two critical problems. This optical cell tracking analysis (OCTA) system first employs ImageJ for cell identification in each frame of a cell rolling video. A custom MATLAB code was written to use the geometric and positional information of all cells as the primary parameters for matching each individual cell with itself between consecutive frames and to avoid errors when tracking cells that come within close proximity to one another. Once the cells are matched, rolling velocity can be obtained for further analysis. The use of ImageJ for cell identification eliminates the need for high level MATLAB image processing knowledge. As a result, only fundamental MATLAB syntax is necessary for cell matching. OCTA has been implemented in the tracking of endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) rolling under shear. The processing time needed to obtain tracked cell data from a 2 min ECFC rolling video recorded at 70 frames per second with a total of over 8000 frames is less than 6 min using a computer with an Intel® Core™ i7 CPU 2.80 GHz (8 CPUs). This cell tracking system benefits cell rolling analysis by substantially reducing the time required for post-acquisition data processing of high frame rate video recordings and preventing tracking errors when individual cells come in close proximity to one another.

  2. Optical cell tracking analysis using a straight-forward approach to minimize processing time for high frame rate data.

    PubMed

    Seeto, Wen Jun; Lipke, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-03-01

    Tracking of rolling cells via in vitro experiment is now commonly performed using customized computer programs. In most cases, two critical challenges continue to limit analysis of cell rolling data: long computation times due to the complexity of tracking algorithms and difficulty in accurately correlating a given cell with itself from one frame to the next, which is typically due to errors caused by cells that either come close in proximity to each other or come in contact with each other. In this paper, we have developed a sophisticated, yet simple and highly effective, rolling cell tracking system to address these two critical problems. This optical cell tracking analysis (OCTA) system first employs ImageJ for cell identification in each frame of a cell rolling video. A custom MATLAB code was written to use the geometric and positional information of all cells as the primary parameters for matching each individual cell with itself between consecutive frames and to avoid errors when tracking cells that come within close proximity to one another. Once the cells are matched, rolling velocity can be obtained for further analysis. The use of ImageJ for cell identification eliminates the need for high level MATLAB image processing knowledge. As a result, only fundamental MATLAB syntax is necessary for cell matching. OCTA has been implemented in the tracking of endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) rolling under shear. The processing time needed to obtain tracked cell data from a 2 min ECFC rolling video recorded at 70 frames per second with a total of over 8000 frames is less than 6 min using a computer with an Intel® Core™ i7 CPU 2.80 GHz (8 CPUs). This cell tracking system benefits cell rolling analysis by substantially reducing the time required for post-acquisition data processing of high frame rate video recordings and preventing tracking errors when individual cells come in close proximity to one another. PMID:27036782

  3. Quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames: Time-dependent rotations and loop prolongations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klink, W. H.; Wickramasekara, S.

    2013-09-01

    This is the fourth in a series of papers on developing a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group to include transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. In previous work, we have shown that there exist representations of the Galilean line group that uphold the non-relativistic equivalence principle as well as representations that violate the equivalence principle. In these previous studies, the focus was on linear accelerations. In this paper, we undertake an extension of the formulation to include rotational accelerations. We show that the incorporation of rotational accelerations requires a class of loop prolongations of the Galilean line group and their unitary cocycle representations. We recover the centrifugal and Coriolis force effects from these loop representations. Loops are more general than groups in that their multiplication law need not be associative. Hence, our broad theoretical claim is that a Galilean quantum theory that holds in arbitrary non-inertial reference frames requires going beyond groups and group representations, the well-established framework for implementing symmetry transformations in quantum mechanics.

  4. Quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames: Time-dependent rotations and loop prolongations

    SciTech Connect

    Klink, W.H.; Wickramasekara, S.

    2013-09-15

    This is the fourth in a series of papers on developing a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group to include transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. In previous work, we have shown that there exist representations of the Galilean line group that uphold the non-relativistic equivalence principle as well as representations that violate the equivalence principle. In these previous studies, the focus was on linear accelerations. In this paper, we undertake an extension of the formulation to include rotational accelerations. We show that the incorporation of rotational accelerations requires a class of loop prolongations of the Galilean line group and their unitary cocycle representations. We recover the centrifugal and Coriolis force effects from these loop representations. Loops are more general than groups in that their multiplication law need not be associative. Hence, our broad theoretical claim is that a Galilean quantum theory that holds in arbitrary non-inertial reference frames requires going beyond groups and group representations, the well-established framework for implementing symmetry transformations in quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: •A formulation of Galilean quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames is presented. •The Galilei group is generalized to infinite dimensional Galilean line group. •Loop prolongations of Galilean line group contain central extensions of Galilei group. •Unitary representations of the loops are constructed. •These representations lead to terms in the Hamiltonian corresponding to fictitious forces, including centrifugal and Coriolis

  5. Time frame generator for x-ray detectors and data acquisition systems for synchrotron radiation applications in molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Khazaie, J.B.; Boulin, C.

    1996-02-01

    The authors present a fully programmable controller module designed to generate the synchronization and control signals required to conduct time-resolved synchrotron radiation experiments to study biological macromolecules. This module is organized around an 8K (24-bit world) fast SRAM that contains the description of up to 4,096 pairs of wait and active time frames to gate the data collection. Most of the control logic is integrated into an Xilinx XC4000 family logic cell array.

  6. Evaluation of the 5-day versus a modified 7-day CIDR breeding program in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Mellieon, H I; Pulley, S L; Lamb, G C; Larson, J E; Stevenson, J S

    2012-12-01

    Dairy heifers were used to compared the effects of two timed AI + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocols (5-day vs. a modified 7-day) on: (1) luteal regression to initiate a new ovarian follicular wave; (2) ovarian response to the initial GnRH injection; and (3) pregnancy outcomes. Holstein heifers (N = 543) were assigned randomly to two treatments: (1) 25 mg PGF(2α) (im) and a CIDR insert on Day -7 followed by 100 μg of GnRH (GnRH-1) on Day -5 and 25 mg PGF(2α) (im) at CIDR insert removal (7-day [7D]) on Day 0; or (2) 100 μg GnRH (GnRH-1) and insertion of a CIDR on Day -5 and 25 mg PGF(2α) (im) at CIDR removal (5-day [5D]) on Day 0. Insemination with frozen-thawed conventional or gender-biased semen occurred after detected estrus from Days 0 to 2 or by appointment at 72 h after PGF(2α) when a second 100-μg dose of GnRH was given. Blood was collected on Days -7, -5, 0, and 3 to determine concentrations of progesterone and incidence of luteolysis. Ovaries were scanned on Days -5 and 0. Luteolysis in the 7D treatment by 48 h after the initial PGF(2α) was greater (P < 0.01) than what occurred spontaneously in the 5D treatment (36.2% vs. 19.7%, respectively). Incidence of ovulation after GnRH-1 on Day -5 was greater (P < 0.05) for 7D than for 5D heifers, but the proportion of heifers with an induced CL on Day 0 did not differ between treatments. Heifers inseminated after detected estrus (166/543, 30.6%) on Days 0, 1, and 2 had greater (P < 0.05) pregnancy per AI (P/AI) at 32 days post AI than after timed AI (38.2% vs. 28.3%) on Day 3. Pregnancy P/AI, however, was greater (P < 0.05) for 7D heifers inseminated at estrus (46.5%) than for 7D heifers receiving the timed AI (26.8%) and differed (P < 0.05) from all 5D heifers regardless of insemination time at estrus (30.5%) or at timed AI at 72 h (29.9%). At the Florida location in which conventional and sexed semen were used during two breeding clusters, P/AI using sexed semen (43.9%, N = 56) did not

  7. MOSFET solid state switching circuit improves the 0 to 99% rise time for framing camera deflection electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, A.T.; Thomas, S.

    1996-09-01

    We have improved the 0 to 99% rise time voltage on our 2 frame deflection plates from 160 to 65 nS with the addition of a peaking circuit that works in conjunction with our primary 2 frame deflection circuitry. Our peaking technique has applications to other HV pulsers including those which must drive 51 ohm loads. Generally, rise time voltages are measured between 10 and 90%. To minimize the camera image blur resulting from the dynamic influence of deflection plate potentials acting on photocathode electrons, it was necessary to design a circuit that would rise from 0 to the 99% voltage level in under 100nS. Once this voltage was reached, it was necessary to stay within 1% of the attained voltage level for a duration of 1 uS. This was accomplished with the use of MOSFET solid state switching.

  8. Comparing food intake using the Dietary Risk Assessment with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls and the 7-Day Dietary Recall.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, B; Hurley, T G; Hebert, J R; Ellis, S; Merriam, P A; Luippold, R; Rider, L; Ockene, I S

    1999-11-01

    The Dietary Risk Assessment (DRA) is a brief dietary assessment tool used to identify dietary behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Intended for use by physicians and other nondietitians, the DRA identifies healthful and problematic dietary behaviors and alerts the physician to patients who require further nutrition counseling. To determine the relative validity of this tool, we compared it to the 7-Day Dietary Recall (an instrument developed to assess intake of dietary fat) and to the average of 7 telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls. Forty-two free-living subjects were recruited into the study. The 7-Day Dietary Recall and DRA were administered to each subject twice, at the beginning and the end of the study period, and the 24-hour recalls were conducted during the intervening time period. Correlation coefficients were computed to compare the food scores derived from the 3 assessment methods. Correlations between the DRA and 7-Day Dietary Recall data were moderate (r = .47, on average, for postmeasures); correlations between the DRA and 24-hour recalls were lower. The ability of the DRA to assess dietary fat consumption and ease of administration make it a clinically useful screening instrument for the physician when counseling patients about dietary fat reduction. PMID:10570682

  9. The development of a 7-day community specialist palliative care service.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    The author worked as a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in community palliative care in the Central Lancashire area of England when the CNS service was extended to a 9am-to-5pm 7-day service. A project group was set up to canvas some of the key stakeholders for their views on the extension of the service. The group undertook a literature search, a telephone survey of services in other areas that were providing this level of service, and interviews to ascertain the views of district nurses in the locality of the proposed service extension. The extension of service has long been advocated and was one of the key recommendations in the UK Department of Health's peer-review process. Such an extension was implemented following the research phase and was then evaluated by the project lead and the community services manager. The extension was found to be effective in the ongoing monitoring and support of patients. Anecdotally, the CNS team also felt it had been proactive in preventing unnecessary hospital admissions, although this specific aspect is difficult to quantify. This article looks at how the service was developed, how it has evolved over time, and how it works today. Consideration is also given to benefits and limitations. PMID:24356506

  10. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  11. Automating Frame Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Franklin, Lyndsey; Tratz, Stephen C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Mileson, Nicholas D.; Riensche, Roderick M.; McGrath, Liam

    2008-04-01

    Frame Analysis has come to play an increasingly stronger role in the study of social movements in Sociology and Political Science. While significant steps have been made in providing a theory of frames and framing, a systematic characterization of the frame concept is still largely lacking and there are no rec-ognized criteria and methods that can be used to identify and marshal frame evi-dence reliably and in a time and cost effective manner. Consequently, current Frame Analysis work is still too reliant on manual annotation and subjective inter-pretation. The goal of this paper is to present an approach to the representation, acquisition and analysis of frame evidence which leverages Content Analysis, In-formation Extraction and Semantic Search methods to provide a systematic treat-ment of a Frame Analysis and automate frame annotation.

  12. Visually Lossless Data Compression for Real-Time Frame/Pushbroom Space Science Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Venbrux, Jack; Bhatia, Prakash; Miller, Warner H.

    2000-01-01

    A visually lossless data compression technique is currently being developed for space science applications under the requirement of high-speed push-broom scanning. The technique is also applicable to frame based imaging and is error-resilient in that error propagation is contained within a few scan lines. The algorithm is based on a block transform of a hybrid of modulated lapped transform (MLT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT), or a 2-dimensional lapped transform, followed by bit-plane encoding; this combination results in an embedded bit string with exactly the desirable compression rate as desired by the user. The approach requires no unique table to maximize its performance. The compression scheme performs well on a suite of test images typical of images from spacecraft instruments. Flight qualified hardware implementations are in development; a functional chip set is expected by the end of 2001. The chip set is being designed to compress data in excess of 20 Msamples/sec and support quantizations from 2 to 16 bits.

  13. Demonstration of 11-ps exposure time of a framing camera using pulse-dilation technology and a magnetic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yanli; Long, Jinghua; Liu, Jinyuan; Cai, Houzhi; Niu, Lihong; Zhang, Dongfang; Ma, Xue; Liu, Dan; Yang, Qinlao; Niu, Hanben

    2015-12-01

    A framing camera with high temporal and spatial resolution is demonstrated using pulse-dilation technology and a magnetic lens. The magnetic field of the magnetic lens is simulated using LORENTZ-3EM software, and the magnetic field distribution on-axis is similar to a Gaussian function. The temporal and spatial resolutions of the instrument are measured using light at the wavelength of 266 nm from a frequency tripled femtosecond laser. The measured exposure time of this camera is ˜11 ps, and the spatial resolution is better than 100 μm.

  14. Clinical effects of thigh cuffs during a 7-day 6° head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavy-Le Traon, Anne; Maillet, Alain; Vasseur Clausen, Pascale; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Alferova, Irina; Gharib, Claude; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier

    2001-08-01

    Thigh cuffs are used by Russian cosmonauts to limit the fluid shift induced by space flight. A ground simulation using the head-down bed rest (HDBR) model was performed to assess the effects of thigh cuffs on clinical tolerance and orthostatic adaptation. 8 male healthy volunteers (32.4±1.9 years) participated twice in a 7-day HDBR — one time with thigh cuffs (worm daily from 9 am to 7 pm) (TC) and one time without (WTC). Orthostatic tolerance was assessed by a 10 minute stand test and by a LBNP test (5 min at -15, -30, -45 mmHg) before (BDC-1) and at the end of the HDBR period (R+1). Plasma volume was measured before and at the end of HDBR by the Evans blue dye dilution technique. Thigh cuffs limits headache due to fluid shift, as well as the loss in plasma volume (TC: -5.85±0.95%; WTC: -9.09±0.82%, p<0.05). The mean duration of the stand test (R+1) did not differ in the two group (TC 7.1±1.3 min; WTC 7.0±1.0 min). The increase in HR and decrease in diastolic blood pressure were slightly but significantly larger without thigh cuffs. Duration of the LBNP tests did not differ with thigh cuffs. Thigh cuffs limit the symptoms due to fluid shift and the loss in plasma volume. They partly reduced the increase in HR during orthostatic stress but had no effect on duration of orthostatic stress tests.

  15. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flows in the Hudson River basin, New York, with release-flow data on Rondout and Ashokan reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow at 67 gaging stations and 173 partial-record stations in the Hudson River basin are given in tabular form. Variation of the 7-day, 10-year low flow from point to point in selected reaches, and the corresponding times of travel, are shown graphically for Wawayanda Creek, Wallkill River, Woodbury-Moodna Creek, and the Fishkill Creek basins. The 7-day, 10-year low flow for the Saw Kill basin, and estimates of the 7-day, 10-year low flow of the Roeliff Jansen Kill at Ancram and of Birch Creek at Pine Hill, are given. Summaries of discharge from Rondout and Ashokan Reservoirs, in Ulster County, are also included. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow for gaging stations with 10 years or more of record were determined by log-Pearson Type III computation; those for partial-record stations were developed by correlation of discharge measurements made at the partial-record stations with discharge data from appropriate long-term gaging stations. The variation in low flows from point to point within the selected subbasins were estimated from available data and regional regression formula. Time of travel at these flows in the four subbasins was estimated from available data and Boning's equations.

  16. "simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics I. Cw Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.

    2014-06-01

    Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. * We first ask, "What is the simplest molecule?" Hydrogen H2 is the simplest, stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-)-pair. An even simpler "molecule" or "radical" is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-)-pair. * To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. * Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c=299,792,458m/s by proving "Evenson's Axiom" named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision-renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology. * The following Talk II applies this approach to relativistic quantum mechanics.

  17. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics I. CW Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Tyle; Harter, William

    2015-05-01

    Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. We first ask, ``What is the simplest molecule?'' Hydrogen H2 is the simplest stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-) -pair. An even simpler ``molecule'' or ``radical'' is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-) -pair. To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c = 299,792,458 m/s by proving ``Evenson's Axiom'' named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology.

  18. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  19. An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, Addison

    1990-01-01

    The results of government study of long range liquid hydrogen (LH2) requirements for the time period of 1995 through the year 2005 are presented. To assure an adequate supply of LH2 is available in support of various programs, it is imperative a long range projection of LH2 requirements be developed and maintained. This information is vital in planning for necessary procurement actions and assuring adequate industry lead time to acquiring the necessary production and distribution capabilities. The Advanced Launch System and High-Altitude Long-Endurance programs may represent the predominant government needs for LH2 in the long range. The assembled data clearly indicates a need for KSC (Kennedy Space Center) constant program/project surveillance. Also clear is the need for KSC to monitor industry's plans for LH2 plant production and distribution expansion.

  20. Time-Dependent Selection of an Optimal Set of Sources to Define a Stable Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Bail, Karine; Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    Temporal statistical position stability is required for VLBI sources to define a stable Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) and has been studied in many recent papers. This study analyzes the sources from the latest realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) with the Allan variance, in addition to taking into account the apparent linear motions of the sources. Focusing on the 295 defining sources shows how they are a good compromise of different criteria, such as statistical stability and sky distribution, as well as having a sufficient number of sources, despite the fact that the most stable sources of the entire ICRF2 are mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Nevertheless, the selection of a stable set is not unique: studying different solutions (GSF005a and AUG24 from GSFC and OPA from the Paris Observatory) over different time periods (1989.5 to 2009.5 and 1999.5 to 2009.5) leads to selections that can differ in up to 20% of the sources. Observing, recording, and network improvement are some of the causes, showing better stability for the CRF over the last decade than the last twenty years. But this may also be explained by the assumption of stationarity that is not necessarily right for some sources.

  1. Variations in 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate of type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Verma, Narsingh; Anjum, Baby; Bhardwaj, Kshitij

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Diabetes has profound consequences on the cardiovascular system leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Blood pressure (BP) has a characteristic and reproducible circadian pattern, with high values during the day and low values at night. A 7-day timed analysis of BP through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been used not only to diagnose day and night dipping patterns of blood pressure, but also to measure day-to-day variability and the circadian hyper-amplitude-tension, a condition in which excessive circadian BP amplitude precedes the chronic established hypertension. Our objective was to assess the 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of BP and heart rate in diabetic patients, as it could be helpful in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 50 diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 non-diabetic participants were recruited for the study. General health records were individually maintained, and 7-day/24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor was carried out. Results The rhythmic parameters of systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, double amplitude, acrophase and 3-h fractionated hyperbaric index were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients. A total of 12 participants were diagnosed with circadian hyper-amplitude-tension. These data suggest that diabetic patients have certain variations in the circadian pattern of blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in disturbed vascular events, and thus are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion Seven-day/24-h monitoring might be useful as an early predictive tool in assessing future cardiovascular risk, guiding treatment and management of these patients. PMID:25422775

  2. Aquarium test evaluation of a pyrotechnic's ability to perform work in microsecond time frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, J. W.; Glancy, B. C.; Liddiard, T. P.; Wilson, W. H.

    1998-07-01

    Pyrotechnic materials can release tremendous thermal energy upon reaction. A pyrotechnic's ability to do work, when mixed with other materials to produce a working fluid at high pressure and temperature, is studied in this work. An experimental technique is used to measure underwater expansion of cylinders containing porous pyrotechnic materials shock compressed by a surrounding annular explosive charge. Expansion velocity enhancement due to reaction in the pyrotechnic core is detected as an increase in outer wall velocity over that obtained with a solid inert core. The outer wall expansion is measured for 180 μs after wall motion begins, so that relatively late-time energy release from the core may be detected.

  3. The 2-MEV model: Constancy of adolescent environmental values within an 8-year time frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, F. X.; Johnson, B.; Buxner, S.; Felix, L.

    2015-08-01

    The 2-MEV model is a widely used tool to monitor children's environmental perception by scoring individual values. Although the scale's validity has been confirmed repeatedly and independently as well as the scale is in usage within more than two dozen language units all over the world, longitudinal properties still need clarification. The purpose of the present study therefore was to validate the 2-MEV scale based on a large data basis of 10,676 children collected over an eight-year period. Cohorts of three different US states contributed to the sample by responding to a paper-and-pencil questionnaire within their pre-test initiatives in the context of field center programs. Since we used only the pre-program 2-MEV scale results (which is before participation in education programs), the data were clearly unspoiled by any follow-up interventions. The purpose of analysis was fourfold: First, to test and confirm the hypothesized factorized structure for the large data set and for the subsample of each of the three states. Second, to analyze the scoring pattern across the eight years' time range for both preservation and utilitarian preferences. Third, to investigate any age effects in the extracted factors. Finally, to extract suitable recommendations for educational implementation efforts.

  4. Nonlinear finite element model updating of an infilled frame based on identified time-varying modal parameters during an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgarieh, Eliyar; Moaveni, Babak; Stavridis, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A model updating methodology is proposed for calibration of nonlinear finite element (FE) models simulating the behavior of real-world complex civil structures subjected to seismic excitations. In the proposed methodology, parameters of hysteretic material models assigned to elements (or substructures) of a nonlinear FE model are updated by minimizing an objective function. The objective function used in this study is the misfit between the experimentally identified time-varying modal parameters of the structure and those of the FE model at selected time instances along the response time history. The time-varying modal parameters are estimated using the deterministic-stochastic subspace identification method which is an input-output system identification approach. The performance of the proposed updating method is evaluated through numerical and experimental applications on a large-scale three-story reinforced concrete frame with masonry infills. The test structure was subjected to seismic base excitations of increasing amplitude at a large outdoor shake-table. A nonlinear FE model of the test structure has been calibrated to match the time-varying modal parameters of the test structure identified from measured data during a seismic base excitation. The accuracy of the proposed nonlinear FE model updating procedure is quantified in numerical and experimental applications using different error metrics. The calibrated models predict the exact simulated response very accurately in the numerical application, while the updated models match the measured response reasonably well in the experimental application.

  5. A magnetostratigraphic time frame for Plio-Pleistocene transgressions in the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Baak, C. G. C.; Vasiliev, I.; Stoica, M.; Kuiper, K. F.; Forte, A. M.; Aliyeva, E.; Krijgsman, W.

    2013-04-01

    The isolation of the Caspian Sea took place in the latest Miocene coinciding with a significant lowering of sea level and the deposition of a massive lowstand deltaic system. This so-called Productive Series is the main reservoir unit of the South Caspian oil-province. The Productive Series is overlain by marine clays from the Akchagylian and Apsheronian regional stages. During the Plio-Pleistocene, the Caspian basin experienced several short periods of intermittent connectivity with other marine basins. This work aims to create integrated, high-resolution, bio-magnetostratigraphic dating of these regional transgressions in key sections of the South Caspian Basin in Azerbaijan. We sample two long sections, the Lokbatan section in the Palaeo-Volga delta and the Xocashen section in the Kura Basin. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are derived from characteristic ostracod species. Rock magnetic analyses combined with thermal demagnetisation data indicate that the magnetic signal is carried dominantly by the iron oxide magnetite in the Productive Series of Lokbatan section and in the Xocashen section. The marine Akchagylian and Apsheronian of Lokbatan are characterised by the iron sulphide greigite, which appears to be of (near-) primary origin. The most logical correlation of the magnetic polarity patterns to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale dates the Akchagylian transgression at ~ 3.2 Ma, a major transgression during the Apsheronian at ~ 2.0 Ma and the Bakunian transgression at 0.85-0.89 Ma. Ostracod assemblages indicate increasing salinities during these transgressions, from fresh water lacustrine to brackish-marine species. This implies that marine connections have been created with an adjacent basin that has a higher salinity, most likely the Black Sea.

  6. Eccentric and concentric muscle performance following 7 days of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.; Roper, Mary L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Mcbrine, John J.; Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle strength occur in response to chronic disuse or insufficient functional loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle performance of the lower extremity and torso prior to and immediately after 7 days of simulated weightlessness (horizontal bed rest). A Biodex was used to determine concentric and eccentric peak torque and angle at peak torque for the back, abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring, soleus, and tibialis anterior. A reference angle of 0 degrees was set at full extension. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

  7. Using expert knowledge and modeling to define mangrove composition, functioning, and threats and estimate time frame for recovery

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Sutherland, William J; Khan, Md Nabiul I; Berger, Uta; Schmitz, Nele; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are threatened worldwide, and their loss or degradation could impact functioning of the ecosystem. Our aim was to investigate three aspects of mangroves at a global scale: (1) their constituents (2) their indispensable ecological functions, and (3) the maintenance of their constituents and functions in degraded mangroves. We focused on answering two questions: “What is a mangrove ecosystem” and “How vulnerable are mangrove ecosystems to different impacts”? We invited 106 mangrove experts globally to participate in a survey based on the Delphi technique and provide inputs on the three aspects. The outputs from the Delphi technique for the third aspect, i.e. maintenance of constituents and functions were incorporated in a modeling approach to simulate the time frame for recovery. Presented here for the first time are the consensus definition of the mangrove ecosystem and the list of mangrove plant species. In this study, experts considered even monospecific (tree) stands to be a mangrove ecosystem as long as there was adequate tidal exchange, propagule dispersal, and faunal interactions. We provide a ranking of the important ecological functions, faunal groups, and impacts on mangroves. Degradation due to development was identified as having the largest impact on mangroves globally in terms of spatial scale, intensity, and time needed for restoration. The results indicate that mangroves are ecologically unique even though they may be species poor (from the vegetation perspective). The consensus list of mangrove species and the ranking of the mangrove ecological functions could be a useful tool for restoration and management of mangroves. While there is ample literature on the destruction of mangroves due to aquaculture in the past decade, this study clearly shows that more attention must go to avoiding and mitigating mangrove loss due to coastal development (such as building of roads, ports, or harbors). PMID:25360265

  8. A Model Humanitarian Cleft Mission: 312 Cleft Surgeries in 7 Days

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Nauman Ahmad; Ishaq, Irfan; Ganatra, Muhammad Ashraf; Mahmood, Farrakh; Kashif, Muhammad; Alam, Iftikhar; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Lo, Lun-Jou; Laub, Donald Rudolph

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are many countries in the world where patients with cleft lip and palate cannot get access to specialized cleft care units. Cleft missions play an important role in providing surgical care to the areas of the world with limited resources. This article presents a model of cleft missions that can be adopted in many countries where expertise is available but resources are limited. Through proper utilization of local human resource, this type of mission can be a cost-effective and robust way of treating patients with cleft in countries with approximately 52% of the world’s population. Methods: We present a case series of patients of one of our cleft missions carried out in Khairpur, Pakistan, in March 2014 over a period of 7 days. Specific details concerning the organization of mission, gathering of patients, preparation for surgery, and carrying out surgical procedures in a safe and swift manner are presented. Results: A total of 312 patients were operated on in 7 days. There were 145 patients with cleft lip and 167 patients with cleft palate. There were 187 male and 125 female patients with mean age of 7 years. Contemporary operative techniques were utilized to repair different types of cleft lip and palate. Of 167 patients, only 16 developed fistula. Conclusion: A locoregional cleft team can be more effective to care for the patients with cleft in countries where surgical and other expertise can be utilized by proper organization of cleft missions on a national level. PMID:25878924

  9. Glial growth factor 2 promotes functional recovery with treatment initiated up to 7 days after permanent focal ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Iaci, Jennifer F; Ganguly, Anindita; Finklestein, Seth P; Parry, Tom J; Ren, Jingmei; Saha, Subhash; Sietsma, Dana K; Srinivas, Maya; Vecchione, Andrea M; Caggiano, Anthony O

    2010-12-01

    Neuregulins are a family of growth factors essential for normal cardiac and nervous system development. The EGF-like domain of neuregulins contains the active site which binds and activates signaling cascades through ErbB receptors. A neuregulin-1 gene EGF-like fragment demonstrated neuroprotection in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model and drastically reduced infarct volume (Xu et al., 2004). Here we use a permanent MCAO rat model to initially compare two products of the neuregulin-1 gene and also assess levels of recovery with acute versus delayed time to treatment. In the initial study full-length glial growth factor 2 (GGF2) and an EGF-like domain fragment were compared with acute intravenous delivery. In a second study GGF2 only was delivered starting at 24h, 3 days or 7 days after permanent ischemia was induced. In both studies daily intravenous administration continued for 10 days. Recovery of neurological function was assessed using limb placing and body swing tests. GGF2 had similar functional improvements compared to the EGF-like domain fragment at equimolar doses, and a higher dose of GGF2 demonstrated more robust functional improvements compared to a lower dose. GGF2 improved sensorimotor recovery with all treatment paradigms, even enhancing recovery of function with a delay of 7 days to treatment. Histological assessments did not show any associated reduction in infarct volume at either 48 h or 21 days post-ischemic event. Neurorestorative effects of this kind are of great potential clinical importance, given the difficulty of delivering neuroprotective therapies within a short time after an ischemic event in human patients. If confirmed by additional work including additional data on mechanism(s) of improved outcome with verification in other stroke models, one can make a compelling case to bring GGF2 to clinical trials as a neurorestorative approach to improving outcome following stroke injury. PMID:20691195

  10. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  11. Physical evaluation of a high-frame-rate extended dynamic range flat panel detector for real-time cone beam computed tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Sarah J.; Chawla, Amarpreet; Samei, Ehsan

    2005-04-01

    The use of flat panel detectors in computed tomography (CT) systems can improve resolution, reduce system cost, and add operational flexibility by combining fluoroscopy and radiography applications within CT systems. However, some prior studies have suggested that flat panel detectors would not perform well in CT applications due to their lack of high dynamic range, lag artifacts, and inadequate frame rate. The purpose of this study was to perform a physical evaluation of a prototype flat panel detector capable of high frame rates and extended dynamic range. The flat panel detector used had a pixel size of 194 microns and a matrix size of 2048x1536. The detector could be configured for several combinations of frame rate and matrix size up to 750 frames per second for a 512x16 matrix size with 4x4 binning. The evaluation was performed in terms of the MTF and DQE as a function of frame rate and exposure at the IEC RQA5 (~75 kVp, 21 mm Al) beam quality. The image lag was evaluated in terms of temporal-frequency dependent transfer function. Offset shift were also evaluated. Preliminary results indicate 0.1 MTF at 0.92 cycles/mm and DQE(0) of approximately 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, and 0.22 at 0.144, 0.065, 0.035, and 0.008 mR per frame exposures. The temporal MTF exhibited a low-frequency drop and a value of 0.5 at the Nyquist frequency. Offset shift was negligible. Considering high frame rate capabilities of the new detector, the results suggest that the detector has potential for use in real-time CT applications including CT angiography.

  12. Skeletal muscle recovery after tenotomy and 7-day delayed muscle length restoration.

    PubMed

    Abrams, R A; Tsai, A M; Watson, B; Jamali, A; Lieber, R L

    2000-05-01

    Rabbit extensor digitorum longus (EDL) tendons were cut with the muscle active (active tenotomy, AT) or with the EDL at rest (passive tenotomy, PT). One, 7, and 21 days after tenotomy, contractile testing was performed. A second experiment was performed in which EDL tendons underwent PT and, after a 7-day delay, muscle-tendon units were restored to their original length. Maximum isometric tension dropped precipitously 1 day after either AT or PT to approximately 50% of normal and continued to decline by day 7. In contrast to PT, where peak tension (P(0)) decreased further by 21 days, after AT, P(0) partially recovered. Differences in muscle mass, cross-sectional area, fiber type, and sarcomere number did not explain the differential response. One day after length restoration of muscles, P(0) rapidly increased by approximately 40%. These observations have implications for understanding the outcome of muscle-tendon unit injury and surgical repair. PMID:10797393

  13. Changes of human serum proteome profile during 7-day “dry” immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakharukova, N. A.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Grigoriev, A. I.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes of serum proteome profile during 7-day "dry" immersion (DI). The experiment with DI consisted of three series: control group without countermeasures (10 men), with using mechanical stimulation (6 men) and low-frequency myostimulation (5 men) as preventive means. Serum samples were fractionated using ClinProt robot (Bruker Daltonics) on magnetic beads (weak cation exchange magnetic beads—MB WCX) prior to mass-spectral profiling. It was obtained 170 peaks after fractionation of serum samples in each group. On 7th immersion day peak areas of fibrinopeptide A ( m/ z=1206; 1464), angiotensin II ( m/ z=1051), high molecular mass kininogen fragment ( m/ z=2133 Da) and C3-fragment of the complement system ( m/ z=1350 Da) were significantly decreased comparing with pre-experimental values of all experimental series. Peak areas of apolipoprotein C III ( m/ z=9419) and C4a fragment of the complement system ( m/ z=3206 Da) were increased. On 7th day of the recovery peak areas of all changed peaks were not close to pre-experimental values. This fact provided evidence of incomplete recovery of an organism after DI. The depth of the alterations had considerable individual variability. Thereby the detected changes of serum proteome profile in the experiment. They indicated a reorganization of the hormonal, immune systems and lipid metabolism. The use of myostimulation and mechanical stimulation as countermeasures partly compensated adverse effects of 7-day dry immersion on the parameters of coagulation system (fibrinopeptide A) and lipid metabolism (apolipoprotein CIII).

  14. Blood glucose levels within 7 days after birth in preterm infants according to gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Young; Choi, Chang Won; Yang, Sei Won; Kim, Beyong Il; Shin, Choong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated blood glucose levels in preterm babies according to gestational age (GA). Methods Subjects were 141 preterm infants with a GA<34 weeks. Data on blood glucose levels, GA, body weight, glucose infusion rate, and other contributing factors in the first 7 days after birth were analyzed. Hypoglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level of <40 mg/dL up to 24 hours after birth and as <50 mg/dL thereafter. Hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level >180 mg/dL. Results During the 7 days after birth, hypo- and hyperglycemia occurred in 29 (29 of 141, 20.6%) and 42 (42 of 141, 29.8%) neonates, respectively. During the first 2 hours, 18 neonates (12.8%) exhibited hypoglycemia, and only 2 (2 of 141, 1.4%) developed hyperglycemia. From 6 to 24 hours, hypo- and hyperglycemia were observed in 0 and 9 (9 of 141, 6.4%) neonates, respectively. Infants small for their GA (SGA) were at risk for hypoglycemia both within 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 2.718; P=0.045) and during days 2 to 7 (OR, 4.454; P=0.006), and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 3.200; P=0.005). Low 1-minite Apgar score was risk factor for both hypo- and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 0.756; P=0.035 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.789; P=0.016 for hyperglycemia). Both hypo- and hyperglycemia within 24 hours were less common in those who started feeding (OR, 0.294; P=0.013 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.162; P=0.011 for hyperglycemia). Conclusion Careful blood glucose level monitoring is required in preterm infants, especially SGA infants or those with low Apgar score. Early feeding could be beneficial for maintaining euglycemia. PMID:26817008

  15. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…

  16. Effect of frame size and time-on-pasture on steer performance, longissimus muscle fatty acid composition and tenderness in a forage-finishing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 96; BW = 309 + 34 kg; 13.5 mo of age) were used to determine the effects of frame size (medium, MED or small, SM) and time-on-pasture (TOP) on meat composition and palatability in a two-year study. Finishing steers grazed mixed pastures (bluegrass/white clover; April start) a...

  17. Real-time look-up table-based color correction for still image stabilization of digital cameras without using frame memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lin-Bo; An, Sang-Woo; Wang, Chang-Shuai; Li, Ying-Chun; Chong, Jong-Wha

    2012-09-01

    Digital cameras usually decrease exposure time to capture motion-blur-free images. However, this operation will generate an under-exposed image with a low-budget complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor (CIS). Conventional color correction algorithms can efficiently correct under-exposed images; however, they are generally not performed in real time and need at least one frame memory if they are implemented by hardware. The authors propose a real-time look-up table-based color correction method that corrects under-exposed images with hardware without using frame memory. The method utilizes histogram matching of two preview images, which are exposed for a long and short time, respectively, to construct an improved look-up table (ILUT) and then corrects the captured under-exposed image in real time. Because the ILUT is calculated in real time before processing the captured image, this method does not require frame memory to buffer image data, and therefore can greatly save the cost of CIS. This method not only supports single image capture, but also bracketing to capture three images at a time. The proposed method was implemented by hardware description language and verified by a field-programmable gate array with a 5 M CIS. Simulations show that the system can perform in real time with a low cost and can correct the color of under-exposed images well.

  18. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  19. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL. PMID:25943335

  20. Predictive Factors for Delivery within 7 Days after Successful 48-Hour Treatment of Threatened Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Carolien; Schuit, Ewoud; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.; Duvekot, Hans J. J.; van Eyck, Jim; Kok, Joke H.; Kwee, Anneke; Merién, Ashley E. R.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van Pampus, Mariëlle G.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Porath, Martina M.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Spaanderman, Marc E. A.; Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Willekes, Christine; Lotgering, Fred K.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess which characteristics and results of vaginal examination are predictive for delivery within 7 days, in women with threatened preterm labor after initial treatment. Study Design A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial on maintenance nifedipine includes women who remained undelivered after threatened preterm labor for 48 hours. We developed one model for women with premature prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and one without PPROM. The predictors were identified by backward selection. We assessed calibration and discrimination and used bootstrapping techniques to correct for potential overfitting. Results For women with PPROM (model 1), nulliparity, history of preterm birth, and vaginal bleeding were included in the multivariable analysis. For women without PPROM (model 2), maternal age, vaginal bleeding, cervical length, and fetal fibronectin (fFN) status were in the multivariable analysis. Discriminative capability was moderate to good (c-statistic 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60–0.77 for model 1 and 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84–0.93 for model 2). Conclusion PPROM and vaginal bleeding in the current pregnancy are relevant predictive factors in all women, as are maternal age, cervical length, and fFN in women without PPROM and nulliparity, history of preterm birth in women with PPROM. PMID:26495173

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  2. Static torsional otolith-cervical-ocular reflex after prolonged exposure to weightlessness and a 7-day immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Makarova, S. M.

    2011-05-01

    To determine the role of the support-proprioceptive factor in the functioning of the vestibular system, in particular the static torsional otolith-cervical-ocular reflex (OCOR), comparative OCOR studies with videooculography recording were performed after a 7-day "dry" horizontal immersion (16 subjects) and after a prolonged (126-195 days) exposure to weightlessness (13 cosmonauts). For the first time, it was demonstrated that minimization of the support and proprioceptive afferentation may result in an inversion or absence of the static torsional OCOR and the development of a positional nystagmus with an inverted reflex. A comparative OCOR data analysis of cosmonauts and immersion subjects has revealed similarity of responses. However, changes in OCOR after immersion were noted in only 60% of the subjects, while after space flight, 90% of cosmonauts showed them. Post-flight changes were more frequent, marked and long-lasting. Statistical analysis has shown that there were significant differences between pre- and post-flight data according to both parametric and non-parametric methods of multiple comparisons, whereas only parametric methods have found significant differences within immersion data.

  3. Estimating Monthly, Annual, and Low 7-Day, 10-Year Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Regression equations to estimate monthly, annual, and low 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) streamflows were derived for rivers in Maine. The derived regression equations for estimating mean monthly, mean annual, median monthly, median annual, and low 7Q10 streamflows for ungaged rivers in Maine presented in this report supersede those derived in previous studies. Twenty-six U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on unregulated, rural rivers in Maine with 10 years or more of recorded streamflow were used to develop the regression equations. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to select the explanatory variables (basin and climatic characteristics) that would appear in the final regression equations. OLS regression of all possible subsets was done with 62 explanatory variables for each of 27 response variables. Five explanatory variables were chosen for the final regression equations: drainage basin area, areal fraction of the drainage basin underlain by sand and gravel aquifers, distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid, mean drainage basin annual precipitation, and mean drainage basin winter precipitation (the sum of mean monthly precipitation for December, January, and February). Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to derive the final coefficients and measures of uncertainty for the regression equations. The forms of many of the derived regression equations indicate some physical, mechanistic processes. Drainage basin area is the most statistically important explanatory variable and appears in all derived regression equations. Monthly streamflows are related inversely to the distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid during December, January, February, and March; that is, the closer a river basin is to the coast, the higher monthly streamflows are per unit drainage basin area during the winter. The relation reverses in May when higher streamflows are attributed to basins farther from the coast

  4. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  5. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity. PMID:2586059

  6. Continuous accelerated 7-days-a-week radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Long-term results of Phase III clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof . E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Golen, Maria; Tarnawski, Rafal; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Suwinski, Rafal; Sygula, Mariusz; Wygoda, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To update 5-year results of a previously published study on special 7-days-a-week fractionation continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in Stage T{sub 2-4}N{sub 0-1}M were randomized between two definitive radiation treatments: accelerated fractionation 7 days a week including weekends (CAIR) and conventional 5 days a week (control). Hence the overall treatment time was 2 weeks shorter in CAIR. Results: Five-year local tumor control was 75% in the CAIR group and 33% in the control arm (p < 0.00004). Tumor-cure benefit corresponded with significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with the incidence significantly higher in CAIR patients than in control (respectively, 94% vs. 53%). When 2.0-Gy fractions were used, radiation necrosis developed in 5 patients (22%) in the CAIR group as a consequential late effect (CLE), but when fraction size was reduced to 1.8 Gy no more CLE occurred. Actuarial 5-year morbidity-free survival rate was similar for both treatments. Conclusions: Selected head-and-neck cancer patients could be treated very effectively with 7-days-a-week radiation schedule with no compromise of total dose and with slight 10% reduction of fraction dose (2 Gy-1.8 Gy), which article gives 1 week reduction of overall treatment time compared with standard 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 47-49 days. Although this report is based on the relatively small group of patients, its results have encouraged us to use CAIR fractionation in a standard radiation treatment for moderately advanced head-and-neck cancer patients.

  7. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  8. 2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. R.; Smith, I. C.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Robertson, G.; Atherton, B. W.; Jones, M. C.; Porter, J. L.

    2008-10-01

    When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151keV (1s2-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing "two-frame" imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181keV Mn 1s2-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1ns gate time

  9. 2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G. R.; Smith, I. C.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Robertson, G.; Atherton, B. W.; Jones, M. C.; Porter, J. L.

    2008-10-15

    When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26 MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57 nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151 keV (1s{sup 2}-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1 mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing 'two-frame' imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20 ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151 keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3 ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181 keV Mn 1s{sup 2}-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast

  10. 2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: a progress report.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G R; Smith, I C; Shores, J E; Sinars, D B; Robertson, G; Atherton, B W; Jones, M C; Porter, J L

    2008-10-01

    When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26 MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57 nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151 keV (1s(2)-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1 mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing "two-frame" imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20 ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151 keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3 ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181 keV Mn 1s(2)-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1 ns

  11. Rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation time imaging by radio-frequency field gradients: visualization of strained crosslinked natural rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumette, H.; Grandclaude, D.; Canet, D.

    2003-08-01

    NMR imaging by radio-frequency field gradients ( B1 gradients) is especially convenient for heterogeneous samples and/or in the case of relatively short transverse relaxation times. The method has been combined with the application of two spin-lock periods of different duration so as to produce rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation time ( T1 ρ) images. In the case of natural rubber samples with different crosslink densities, such images are not only characteristic of the crosslink density but also reveal the way in which the material has been stressed. The strained parts can be visualized either directly or through histograms showing the T1 ρ distribution over the whole sample.

  12. Athletic Classmates, Physical Self-Concept, and Free-Time Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Study of Frame of Reference Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Gerlach, Erin; Ludtke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The systematic analysis of factors that promote or impede physical activity in children is an urgent task for educational researchers. The present study investigated the reciprocal relationship between physical self-concept, teacher-assigned grades in physical education classes, and free-time physical activity, and analyzed positive and negative…

  13. Ultra-fast-framing schlieren system for studies of the time evolution of jets in supersonic crossflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Yakar, A.; Hanson, R. K.

    2002-06-01

    A new ultra-fast camera system is used to study the time evolution of jets in supersonic crossflows via schlieren imaging. The commercial high-speed camera includes eight independent intensified charged couple devices (ICCDs) and is capable of acquiring images at rates up to 100 MHz. A long-duration (up to 200 µs) xenon flashlamp is used as the continuous light source. The exposure times of the ICCDs and the interframing times were designed to achieve schlieren images with high spatial and temporal resolution. Example data are presented for a hydrogen jet injected into a high total enthalpy supersonic crossflow, generated using a short-duration impulse facility (expansion tube). The large-eddy convection characteristics of the jet, its penetration and the unsteady nature of the shock wave around it are analyzed. Temporal correlations, such as the movement of organized (coherent) structures and fluctuations in the bow-shock, are readily perceived by assembling the eight consecutive images as a movie (http://navier.stanford.edu/hanson/propulsion/scramjet/movies/t1179.html).

  14. Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Volume 1: Solar/hydrogen systems for the 1985 - 2000 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Escher, W. J. D.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Opportunities for commercialization of systems capable of producing hydrogen from solar energy were studied. The hydrogen product costs that might be achieved by the four selected candidate systems was compared with the pricing structure and practices of the commodity gas market. Subsequently, product cost and market price match was noted to exist in the small user sector of the hydrogen marketplace. Barriers to and historical time lags in, commercialization of new technologies are reviewed. Recommendations for development and demonstration programs designed to accelerate the commercialization of the candidate systems are presented.

  15. Solar/hydrogen systems for the 1985 to 2000 time frame. Volume I. Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Escher, W. J.D.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-01

    The findings of a study of opportunities for commercialization of systems capable of producing hydrogen from solar energy are presented in two volumes. A compendium of monographs by specialists in the fields of solar energy conversion technologies, hydrogen production technologies and related technology descriptions from the general literature comprise Volume II. This data base was used to support an evaluation and selection process that identified four candidate solar/hydrogen systems best suited to commercialization within the next two decades. Volume I first reviews the background of the work and the methods used. Then an evaluation of the hydrogen product costs that might be achieved by the four selected candidate systems (photovoltaic/water electrolysis, thermal-heat engine/water electrolysis, wind energy/water electrolysis, small hydrogen/water electrolysis) is compared with the pricing structure and practices of the commodity gas market. Subsequently, product cost and market price match is noted to exist in the small user sector of the hydrogen marketplace. Barriers to and historical time lags in, commercialization of new technologies are then reviewed. Finally, recommendations for development and demonstration programs designed to accelerate the commercialization of the candidate systems are presented.

  16. Influence of 7 days of hindlimb suspension and intermittent weight support on rat muscle mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierotti, David J.; Roy, Roland R.; Flores, Vinicio; Edgerton, Reggie

    1990-01-01

    The effect of intermittent periods of weight support on a decrease in mass of the soleus (Sol) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles atrophied by hindlimb suspension (HS) was investigated in rats subjected to continuous HS for seven days or an HS plus intermittent (10 min every 6 hrs of slow walking on a treadmill) weight support (HS-WS). After 7 d HS, the Sol weight relative to body weight was 21 and 9 percent lower in Hs and HS-WS, respectively, than in control rats. Maximum tetanic tension/muscle mass ratio was significantly lower in HS than in controls; the HS-WS rats had values similar to controls, whereas the maximum tetanic tension/muscle weight was significantly elevated in HS-WS compared to controls. Contraction times were 25 percent faster in the Sol and unchanged in the MG of HS rats, indicating that a low-force short-duration exercise regime results in a significant functional recovery in the 'slow' Sol, whereas the 'fast' MG is less affected.

  17. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi; Murayama, Chieko; Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  18. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment. PMID:26067703

  19. Clinical efficacy of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 7 days for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Ichihara, Kohji; Hashimoto, Jiro; Kurimura, Yuichiro; Iwasawa, Akihiko; Hayashi, Kenji; Sunaoshi, Kenichi; Takeda, Koichi; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Satoh, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2011-06-01

    To confirm the efficacy of the treatment regimen with oral levofloxacin (LVFX) 500 mg once daily for 7 days for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), we evaluated the microbiological and clinical outcomes of the regimen in those patients. We finally evaluated 53 patients with symptomatic NGU and 5 patients with asymptomatic NGU. As a result of microbiological examinations, 19 of the symptomatic patients were diagnosed as having non-gonococcal chlamydial urethritis (NGCU); 13 had non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis (NGNCU), and 21 had urethritis without any microbial detection. Five of the asymptomatic patients were diagnosed as having NGCU. Microbiological cure was achieved in 91% of the 32 patients with symptomatic NGU and in 80% of the 5 patients with asymptomatic NGCU. Clinical cure was obtained in 92% of the 53 patients with symptomatic NGU. The microbiological eradication rate for Chlamydia trachomatis was 92% in 24 patients. As for other organisms, the microbiological eradication rate for Mycoplasma genitalium was 60% in 5 patients and that for Ureaplasma urealyticum was 100% in 10. The microbiological and clinical efficacy of oral LVFX 500 mg once daily for 7 days for the patients with NGU was the same for the azithromycin (AZM) 1,000 mg single dose that we previously reported. The eradication rates of C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum in the treatment regimen with LVFX 500 mg were high enough in the clinical setting; however, for M. genitalium, the rate was relatively inferior to that with AZM. PMID:21174140

  20. Thirty Frames per Second

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Analyzing real motion with frame-by-frame precision can be conducted using modestly priced digital-video camcorders. Although well below the 1,000 frames-per-second threshold of high-speed cameras, commercially available camcorders grab 30 frames per second. A replay dissected at this lower frequency is fun to watch, challenges students'…

  1. Classroom Discourse Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.

    An analysis of classroom discourse proposes four frames, modeled as concentric circles. The inner most circle is the lesson frame, removed or sheltered from outside influences and most likely, in a language class, to maintain second-language usage. The next frame from the center is the lesson-support frame, an intermediate layer of classroom…

  2. A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day course of doripenem to a 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Gram-negative bacteria. Methods This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing a fixed 7-day course of doripenem one gram as a four-hour infusion every eight hours with a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin one gram as a one-hour infusion every eight hours (April 2008 through June 2011). Results The study was stopped prematurely at the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee that was blinded to treatment arm assignment and performed a scheduled review of data which showed signals that were close to the pre-specified stopping limits. The final analyses included 274 randomized patients. The clinical cure rate at the end of therapy (EOT) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population was numerically lower for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (45.6% versus 56.8%; 95% CI, -26.3% to 3.8%). Similarly, the clinical cure rate at EOT was numerically lower for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP, the most common Gram-negative pathogen, in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (41.2% versus 60.0%; 95% CI, -57.2 to 19.5). All cause 28-day mortality in the MITT group was numerically greater for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (21.5% versus 14.8%; 95% CI, -5.0 to 18.5) and for patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (35.3% versus 0.0%; 95% CI, 12.6 to 58.0). Conclusions Among patients with microbiologically confirmed late-onset VAP, a fixed 7-day course of doripenem was found to have non-significant higher rates of clinical failure and mortality compared to a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin. Consideration should be given to treating patients with VAP for more than seven days to optimize clinical outcome. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00589693

  3. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkies, Krystyna; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  4. Adherence to 7-day primaquine treatment for the radical cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-06-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  5. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan; Dekkers, Mark; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the Late Neogene, the Black Sea experienced large paleoenvironmental changes, switching between (anoxic) marine conditions when connected to the Mediterranean Sea and (oxic) freshwater conditions at times of isolation. We create a magnetostratigraphic time frame for three sites drilled during Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 42B to the Black Sea (drilled in 1975). At the time, magnetostratigraphic dating was impossible because of the presence of the little understood iron sulfide mineral greigite (in sediments a precursor to pyrite) as magnetic carrier. Our rock-magnetic results indicate that only anoxic conditions result in poor magnetic signal, likely as a result of pyrite formation in the water column rather than in the sediment. The magnetostratigraphic results indicate that Hole 379A, drilled in the basin center, has a continuous sedimentary record dating back to 1.3 Ma. Hole 380/380A is subdivided into three consistent intervals, 0-700 mbsf, 700-860 mbsf and 860-1075 mbsf. The top unit covers the Pleistocene but the magnetostratigraphy is likely compromised by the presence of mass transport deposits. The middle unit spans between 4.3 and 6.1 Ma and records continuous deposition at ~10 cm/kyr. The lower unit lacks the independent age constraints to correlate the obtained magnetostratigraphy. Hole 381 is drilled on the Bosporus slope and as a result, hiatuses are common. A correlation to the nearby Hole 380/380A is proposed, but indicates deposits cannot straightforwardly be traced across the slope. Our improved age model does not support the original interpretation based on these cores of a desiccation of the Black Sea during the Messinian salinity crisis.

  6. Study on the necessary survey days for energy intake in school children assessed by 7 day survey.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Tanaka, Nobuko; Eguchi, Yoko; Kuno, Kazue; Wakikawa, Noriko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Fukinbara, Mina; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the longer the period of a nutrition survey, the more reliable the results. However, a long survey can impose a burden on subjects and cause the results to become inaccurate. For adults, a 3 non-consecutive day survey is usually recommended; however, for school children, at least in Japan, it has not been determined whether this is necessary. In this study we conducted a survey of 7 days and tried to find the minimum number of days necessary to determine the energy intake. The subjects were about 300 children aged from 6 to 7, 10 to 11 and 13 to 14 years old in a city in the western part of Japan. The weighing method was used for the school lunch and other meals were surveyed by 24-recalling method. For the 6-7 year-old school children, guardians were asked to keep dietary records. The final number of subjects who were able to complete the 7-day survey was 139. Energy intakes for each weekday were not statistically different (p>0.05) and those for each weekend did not differ (p>0.05). Average energy intakes on weekdays were higher than those on weekend days in 10-11 and 13-14 year-old children. The average intakes of energy in 10-11 and 13-14 year-old children were lower than Japanese estimated energy requirements (EER). However, body weight of more than 90% of subjects was within the normal range. The results suggest that a survey of one weekday is reliable for all weekdays and that of one week-end day is reliable for any weekend day and also indicate the necessity of further studies of EER in rapidly growing children. PMID:22449999

  7. Short Time Impulse Response Function (STIRF) for automatic evaluation of the variation of the dynamic parameters of reinforced concrete framed structures during strong earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco

    2015-04-01

    the results provided in this study, the methodology seems to be able to evaluate fast variations (over time) of dynamic parameters of a generic reinforced concrete framed structure. Further analyses are necessary to better calibrate the length of the moving time-window (in order to minimize the spurious frequency within each Interferometric Response Function evaluated on both weak and strong motion phases) and to verify the possibility to use the STIRF to analyse the nonlinear behaviour of general systems. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the project DPC-RELUIS 2014 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and health monitoring''. References R. Ditommaso, F.C. Ponzo (2015). Automatic evaluation of the fundamental frequency variations and related damping factor of reinforced concrete framed structures using the Short Time Impulse Response Function (STIRF). Engineering Structures, 82 (2015), 104-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.10.023.

  8. Rovibrational spectroscopy using a kinetic energy operator in Eckart frame and the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sadri, Keyvan Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Lauvergnat, David; Gatti, Fabien

    2014-09-21

    For computational rovibrational spectroscopy the choice of the frame is critical for an approximate separation of overall rotation from internal motions. To minimize the coupling between internal coordinates and rotation, Eckart proposed a condition [“Some studies concerning rotating axes and polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. 47, 552–558 (1935)] and a frame that fulfills this condition is hence called an Eckart frame. A method is developed to introduce in a systematic way the Eckart frame for the expression of the kinetic energy operator (KEO) in the polyspherical approach. The computed energy levels of a water molecule are compared with those obtained using a KEO in the standard definition of the Body-fixed frame of the polyspherical approach. The KEO in the Eckart frame leads to a faster convergence especially for large J states and vibrationally excited states. To provide an example with more degrees of freedom, rotational states of the vibrational ground state of the trans nitrous acid (HONO) are also investigated.

  9. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Stereotactic Body Frame in Reducing Respiratory Intrafractional Organ Motion Using the Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiotherapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Bengua, Gerard; Ishikawa, Masayori; Sutherland, Kenneth; Horita, Kenji; Yamazaki, Rie; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Onimaru, Rikiya; Katoh, Noriwo; Inoue, Tetsuya; Onodera, Shunsuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the stereotactic body frame (SBF), with or without a diaphragm press or a breathing cycle monitoring device (Abches), in controlling the range of lung tumor motion, by tracking the real-time position of fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: The trajectories of gold markers in the lung were tracked with the real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The SBF was used for patient immobilization and the diaphragm press and Abches were used to actively control breathing and for self-controlled respiration, respectively. Tracking was performed in five setups, with and without immobilization and respiration control. The results were evaluated using the effective range, which was defined as the range that includes 95% of all the recorded marker positions in each setup. Results: The SBF, with or without a diaphragm press or Abches, did not yield effective ranges of marker motion which were significantly different from setups that did not use these materials. The differences in the effective marker ranges in the upper lobes for all the patient setups were less than 1mm. Larger effective ranges were obtained for the markers in the middle or lower lobes. Conclusion: The effectiveness of controlling respiratory-induced organ motion by using the SBF+diaphragm press or SBF + Abches patient setups were highly dependent on the individual patient reaction to the use of these materials and the location of the markers. They may be considered for lung tumors in the lower lobes, but are not necessary for tumors in the upper lobes.

  10. A time stepping coupled finite element-state space modeling environment for synchronous machine performance and design analysis in the ABC frame of reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fang

    This dissertation centers on the development of a modeling environment to predict the performance and operating characteristics of salient-pole synchronous generators. The model basically consists of an algorithm consisting of two sections, a time stepping two-dimensional (2D) magnetostatic field finite element (FE) computation algorithm coupled to a state-space (SS) time-domain model of the winding circuits. Hence the term time stepping Coupled Finite Element-State Space (CFE-SS) modeling environment is adopted for this approach. In the FE section, magnetic vector potential (MVP) based finite element (FE) formulations and computation of two-dimensional (2D) magnetostatic fields are used to get the magnetic field solutions throughout a machine's cross-section at a sequence (samplings) of rotor positions covering a complete (360 deg e) ac cycle. These field solutions yield the winding inductances by means of an energy and current perturbation method. The output of the FE section is the magnetic field solutions and the entire set of phase, field, damper, and sleeve winding inductance profiles versus rotor position, including all space harmonics due to rotor saliency, damper bar slotting, sleeve segmentation, stator slotting, and magnetic saturation. These inductance profiles are decomposed into their harmonic components by Fourier analysis. The magnetic field solutions and resulting winding inductances represent the key input data to the SS portion of the CFE-SS modeling environment. Laminated machine iron core loss calculations, which include the losses in the stator and rotor as well as pole face are subsequently performed using the magnetic field solution data. Conversely, the output of the SS portion is the entire set of phase, field, damper winding (circuit), and sleeve segment currents, which also include all the resulting time harmonics. These winding current results form in turn the key input data to the FE portion of the modeling environment which is

  11. Temporal expression of the PGE2 synthetic system in the kidney is associated with the time frame of renal developmental vulnerability to cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Stefanie; Olliges, Anke; Kern, Niklas; Schreiber, Yannik; Narumiya, Shuh; Nüsing, Rolf M

    2012-07-15

    Pharmacological blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) causes impairment of kidney development. The present study was aimed at determining temporal expression pattern and activity of the PGE(2) synthetic pathway during postnatal nephrogenesis in mice and its association to the time window sensitive to COX-2 inhibition. During the first 10 days after birth, we observed transient induction of mRNA and protein for microsomal PGE synthase (mPGES)-1 between postnatal days 4 (P4) and P8, but not for mPGES-2 or cytosolic PGE synthase (cPGES). PGE(2) synthetic activity using arachidonic acid and PGH(2) as substrates and also urinary excretion of PGE(2) were enhanced during this time frame. In parallel to the PGE(2) system, COX-2 but not COX-1 expression was also transiently induced. Studying glomerulogenesis in EP receptor knockout mice revealed a reduction in glomerular size in EP1(-/-), EP2(-/-), and EP4(-/-) mice, supporting the developmental role of PGE(2). The most vulnerable time window to COX-2 inhibition by SC-236 was found closely related to the temporal expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1. The strongest effects of COX-2 inhibition were achieved following 8 days of drug administration. Similar developmental damage was caused by application of rofecoxib, but not by the COX-1-selective inhibitor SC-560. COX-2 inhibition starting after P10 has had no effect on the size of glomeruli or on the relative number of superficial glomeruli; however, growth of the renal cortex was significantly diminished, indicating the requirement of COX-2 activity after P10. Effects of COX-2 inhibition on renal cell differentiation and on renal fibrosis needed a prolonged time of exposition of at least 10 days. In conclusion, temporal expression of the PGE(2) synthetic system coincides with the most vulnerable age interval for the induction of irreversible renal abnormalities. We assume that mPGES-1 is coregulated with COX-2 for PGE(2) synthesis to orchestrate postnatal kidney development and

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  13. TWIG: a model to simulate the gravitropic response of a tree axis in the frame of elasticity and viscoelasticity, at intra-annual time scale.

    PubMed

    Coutand, Catherine; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Jeronimidis, Georges; Destrebecq, Jean-François

    2011-03-21

    Trees are able to maintain or modify the orientation of their axes (trunks or branches) by tropic movements. For axes in which elongation is achieved but cambial growth active, the tropic movements are due to the production of a particular wood, called reaction wood which is prestressed within the growing tree. Several models have been developed to simulate the gravitropic response of axes in trees due to the formation of reaction wood, all within the frame of linear elasticity and considering the wood maturation as instantaneous. The effect viscoelasticity of wood has, to our knowledge, never been considered. The TWIG model presented in this paper aims at simulating the gravitropic movement of a tree axis at the intra-annual scale. In this work we studied both the effect of a non-instantaneous maturation process and of viscoelasticity. For this purpose, we considered the elastic case with maturation considered as an instantaneous process as the reference. The introduction of viscoelasticity in TWIG has been done by coupling TWIG to a model developed for bridges. Indeed from a purely mechanical point of view, bridges and trees are very similar: they are structures which are built in stages, they are made of several materials (composite structures), their materials are prestressed (wood is prestressed during the maturation process as a result of polymerisation of lignin and cellulose to form the secondary cell wall and concrete is prestressed during drying). Simulations gave evidence that the reorientation process of axes can be significantly influenced by the kinetics of maturation. Moreover the model has now to be tested with more experimental data of wood viscoelasticity but it appears that in the range of a relaxation time from 0 to 50 days, viscoelasticity has an important effect on the evolution of tree shape as well as on the values of prestresses. PMID:21187101

  14. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Nittby, Henrietta; Brun, Arne; Eberhardt, Jacob; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after

  15. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  16. Predicting In-Hospital Treatment Failure (≤ 7 days) in Patients with COPD Exacerbation Using Antibiotics and Systemic Steroids.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Ernesto; Torres, Antoni; Huerta, Arturo; Guerrero, Mónica; Gabarrús, Albert; Gimeno, Alexandra; Martinez, Raquel; Soler, Néstor; Fernández, Laia; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Menéndez, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Although pharmacological treatment of COPD exacerbation (COPDE) includes antibiotics and systemic steroids, a proportion of patients show worsening of symptoms during hospitalization that characterize treatment failure. The aim of our study was to determine in-hospital predictors of treatment failure (≤ 7 days). Prospective data on 110 hospitalized COPDE patients, all treated with antibiotics and systemic steroids, were collected; on the seventh day of hospitalization, patients were divided into treatment failure (n = 16) or success (n = 94). Measures of inflammatory serum biomarkers were recorded at admission and at day 3; data on clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and severity, as well data on mortality and readmission, were also recorded. Patients with treatment failure had a worse lung function, with higher serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 8, and IL-10 at admission, and CRP and IL-8 at day 3. Longer length of hospital stay and duration of antibiotic therapy, higher total doses of steroids and prevalence of deaths and readmitted were found in the treatment failure group. In the multivariate analysis, +1 mg/dL of CRP at admission (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.13) and use of penicillins or cephalosporins (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 1.26 to 25.07) were independent variables increasing risk of treatment failure, whereas cough at admission (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.75) reduces risk of failure. In hospitalized COPDE patients CRP at admission and use of specific class of antibiotics predict in-hospital treatment failure, while presence of cough has a protective role. PMID:26451913

  17. Time dependent three-dimensional body frame quantal wave packet treatment of the H + H2 exchange reaction on the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz (LSTH) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Michael; Judson, Richard S.; Kouri, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    The first successful application of the three-dimensional quantum body frame wave packet approach to reactive scattering is reported for the H + H2 exchange reaction on the LSTH potential surface. The method used is based on a procedure for calculating total reaction probabilities from wave packets. It is found that converged, vibrationally resolved reactive probabilities can be calculated with a grid that is not much larger than required for the pure inelastic calculation. Tabular results are presented for several energies.

  18. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  19. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  20. Comparative efficacy of 3-day and 7-day chemotherapy with twice-daily pivmecillinam in urinary tract infections seen in general practice.

    PubMed

    Richards, H H

    1984-01-01

    In a multi-centre general practice study, 183 females suffering from symptoms of acute urinary tract infection were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg pivmecillinam twice-daily for either 3 or 7 days. The clinical response was equally good in both treatment groups with a mean reduction in symptom scores of 88%. Positive pre-treatment bacteriological cultures were obtained from 48 (36%) of the 134 patients for whom data were complete. Bacteriological cure was achieved in all these patients except for 1 in the 3-day treatment group. Pivmecillinam was well tolerated, with side-effects reported by 7 (7%) patients in the 3-day group and 12 (13%) patients in the 7-day group. One patient in the 3-day group and 2 patients in the 7-day group stopped treatment prematurely due to side-effects. PMID:6499513

  1. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  2. Dragging of inertial frames.

    PubMed

    Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2007-09-01

    The origin of inertia has intrigued scientists and philosophers for centuries. Inertial frames of reference permeate our daily life. The inertial and centrifugal forces, such as the pull and push that we feel when our vehicle accelerates, brakes and turns, arise because of changes in velocity relative to uniformly moving inertial frames. A classical interpretation ascribed these forces to acceleration relative to some absolute frame independent of the cosmological matter, whereas an opposite view related them to acceleration relative to all the masses and 'fixed stars' in the Universe. An echo and partial realization of the latter idea can be found in Einstein's general theory of relativity, which predicts that a spinning mass will 'drag' inertial frames along with it. Here I review the recent measurements of frame dragging using satellites orbiting Earth. PMID:17805287

  3. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  4. Complex equiangular tight frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropp, Joel A.

    2005-08-01

    A complex equiangular tight frame (ETF) is a tight frame consisting of N unit vectors in Cd whose absolute inner products are identical. One may view complex ETFs as a natural geometric generalization of an orthonormal basis. Numerical evidence suggests that these objects do not arise for most pairs (d, N). The goal of this paper is to develop conditions on (d, N) under which complex ETFs can exist. In particular, this work concentrates on the class of harmonic ETFs, in which the components of the frame vectors are roots of unity. In this case, it is possible to leverage field theory to obtain stringent restrictions on the possible values for (d, N).

  5. Real-time atomic-resolution imaging of crystal growth process in water by phase modulation atomic force microscopy at one frame per second

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Kazuki; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2013-11-11

    Recent advancement in dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) has enabled its operation in liquid with atomic-scale resolution. However, its imaging speed has often been too slow to visualize atomic-scale dynamic processes. Here, we propose a method for making a significant improvement in the operation speed of dynamic-mode AFM. In this method, we use a wideband and low-latency phase detector with an improved algorithm for the signal complexification. We demonstrate atomic-scale imaging of a calcite crystal growth process in water at one frame per second. The significant improvement in the imaging speed should enable various studies on unexplored atomic-scale interfacial processes.

  6. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  7. Behavior of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A.; Bennett, R.M.; Jamal, B.D.

    1992-09-21

    A review of current analytical methods for infilled frame behavior is conducted. A subset of these methods are applied to experimental results. Parametric studies are used to find the sensitivity of the behavior to various parameters. In-plane loading, out-of-plane inertial loading, out-of-plane interstory drift loading, and combined loadings are examined. Particular reference is made to clay tile infilled frames, and the behavior of clay tile in compression.

  8. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM), and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is needed to examine long

  9. Cytotoxic effects in 3T3-L1 mouse and WI-38 human fibroblasts following 72 hour and 7 day exposures to commercial silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Stępnik, Maciej; Arkusz, Joanna; Smok-Pieniążek, Anna; Bratek-Skicki, Anna; Salvati, Anna; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; De Jong, Wim H.; Rydzyński, Konrad

    2012-08-15

    The potential toxic effects in murine (3T3-L1) and human (WI-38) fibroblast cell lines of commercially available silica nanoparticles (NPs), Ludox CL (nominal size 21 nm) and CL-X (nominal size of 30 nm) were investigated with particular attention to the effect over long exposure times (the tests were run after 72 h exposure up to 7 days). These two formulations differed in physico-chemical properties and showed different stabilities in the cell culture medium used for the experiments. Ludox CL silica NPs were found to be cytotoxic only at the higher concentrations to the WI-38 cells (WST-1 and LDH assays) but not to the 3T3-L1 cells, whereas the Ludox CL-X silica NPs, which were less stable over the 72 h exposure, were cytotoxic to both cell lines in both assays. In the clonogenic assay both silica NPs induced a concentration dependent decrease in the surviving fraction of 3T3-L1 cells, with the Ludox CL-X silica NPs being more cytotoxic. Cell cycle analysis showed a trend indicating alterations in both cell lines at different phases with both silica NPs tested. Buthionine sulfoximine (γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor) combined with Ludox CL-X was found to induce a strong decrease in 3T3-L1 cell viability which was not observed for the WI-38 cell line. This study clearly indicates that longer exposure studies may give important insights on the impact of nanomaterials on cells. However, and especially when investigating nanoparticle effects after such long exposure, it is fundamental to include a detailed physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles and their dispersions over the time scale of the experiment, in order to be able to interpret eventual impacts on cells. -- Highlights: ► Ludox CL silica NPs are cytotoxic to WI-38 fibroblasts but not to 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. ► Ludox CL-X silica NPs are cytotoxic to both cell lines. ► In clonogenic assay both silica NPs induce cytotoxicity, higher for CL-X silica. ► Cell cycle analysis shows

  10. Recursive frame integration of limited data: RAFAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.; Soli, Robert A.

    2005-08-01

    Real time infrared imaging and tracking usually requires a high probability of target detection along with a low false alarm rate, achievable only with a high "Signal-to-Noise Ratio" (SNR). Frame integration--summing of non-correlated frames--is commonly used to improve the SNR. But conventional frame integration requires significant processing to store full frames and integrate intermediate results, normalize frame data, etc. It may drive acquisition of highly specialized hardware, faster processors, dedicated frame integration circuit cards and extra memory cards. Non-stationary noise, low frequency noise correlation, non-ergodic noise, scene dynamics, or pointing accuracy may also limit performance. Recursive frame integration of limited data--RAFAIL, is proposed as a means to improve frame integration performance and mitigate the issues. The technique applies two thresholds--one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate--and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with optimal noise management, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability.

  11. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  12. Target activated frame capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. Marlon; Fitzgerald, James; McCormack, Michael; Steadman, Robert

    2008-04-01

    Over the past decade, technological advances have enabled the use of increasingly intelligent systems for battlefield surveillance. These systems are triggered by a combination of external devices including acoustic and seismic sensors. Such products are mainly used to detect vehicles and personnel. These systems often use infra-red imagery to record environmental information, but Textron Defense Systems' Terrain Commander is one of a small number of systems which analyze these images for the presence of targets. The Terrain Commander combines acoustic, infrared, magnetic, seismic, and visible spectrum sensors to detect nearby targets in military scenarios. When targets are detected by these sensors, the cameras are triggered and images are captured in the infrared and visible spectrum. In this paper we discuss a method through which such systems can perform target tracking in order to record and transmit only the most pertinent surveillance images. This saves bandwidth which is crucial because these systems often use communication systems with throughputs below 2400bps. This method is expected to be executable on low-power processors at frame rates exceeding 10HZ. We accomplish this by applying target activated frame capture algorithms to infra-red video data. The target activated frame capture algorithms combine edge detection and motion detection to determine the best frames to be transmitted to the end user. This keeps power consumption and bandwidth requirements low. Finally, the results of the algorithm are analyzed.

  13. Aluminum space frame technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, S.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the increased application of aluminum to the construction of automobile frames. The topics of the article include a joint venture between Audi and Alcoa, forms in which aluminum is used, new alloys and construction methods, meeting rigidity and safety levels, manufacturing techniques, the use of extrusions, die casting, joining techniques, and pollution control during manufacturing.

  14. Frame dragging and superenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Carot, J.

    2007-08-15

    We show that the vorticity appearing in stationary vacuum spacetimes is always related to the existence of a flow of superenergy on the plane orthogonal to the vorticity vector. This result, together with the previously established link between vorticity and superenergy in radiative (Bondi-Sachs) spacetimes, strengthens further the case for this latter quantity as the cause of frame dragging.

  15. Framing for Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.; Hammer, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on students' scientific argumentation has progressed to a recognition of nascent resources: Students can and do argue when they experience the need and possibility of persuading others who may hold competing views. Our purpose in this article is to contribute to this progress by applying the perspective of framing to the…

  16. Popcorn Story Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    This paper presents "popcorn story frames"--holistic outlines that facilitate comprehension when reading and writing stories, useful for outlining stories read and for creating outlines for original student stories--that are particularly useful for elementary and intermediate school students. "Popcorn" pops in a horizontal manner rather than in a…

  17. Informative-frame filtering in endoscopy videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yong Hwan; Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Lee, JeongKyu; Tavanapong, Wallapak; de Groen, Piet C.; Wong, Johnny

    2005-04-01

    Advances in video technology are being incorporated into today"s healthcare practice. For example, colonoscopy is an important screening tool for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy allows for the inspection of the entire colon and provides the ability to perform a number of therapeutic operations during a single procedure. During a colonoscopic procedure, a tiny video camera at the tip of the endoscope generates a video signal of the internal mucosa of the colon. The video data are displayed on a monitor for real-time analysis by the endoscopist. Other endoscopic procedures include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, enteroscopy, bronchoscopy, cystoscopy, and laparoscopy. However, a significant number of out-of-focus frames are included in this type of videos since current endoscopes are equipped with a single, wide-angle lens that cannot be focused. The out-of-focus frames do not hold any useful information. To reduce the burdens of the further processes such as computer-aided image processing or human expert"s examinations, these frames need to be removed. We call an out-of-focus frame as non-informative frame and an in-focus frame as informative frame. We propose a new technique to classify the video frames into two classes, informative and non-informative frames using a combination of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Texture Analysis, and K-Means Clustering. The proposed technique can evaluate the frames without any reference image, and does not need any predefined threshold value. Our experimental studies indicate that it achieves over 96% of four different performance metrics (i.e. precision, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy).

  18. Rapid detection of the Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 tcdC gene frame shift mutation at position 117 by real-time PCR and melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolff, D; Brüning, T; Gerritzen, A

    2009-08-01

    The emergence of the hypervirulent strain Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 has increased the necessity for rapid C. difficile typing tests for clinical and epidemiological purposes. We developed a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for the detection of C. difficile. As the target, we chose the tcdC gene, which encodes for a negative regulator in toxin production. A deletion at position 117 of the tcdC gene, which is associated with severe tcdC truncation, is well conserved in all PCR ribotype 027 isolates. Probe sequences of the real-time PCR test were designed to result in distinct melt profiles for sequence variations at positions 117 to 120 of the tcdC gene. The tcdC gene deletion at position 117 was easily detected with real-time PCR and melt curve analysis in all C. difficile ribotype 027 isolates. In five non-027 strains and 46 hospitalised patient samples, melt curve analysis detected no deletion. PCR results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The combination of real-time PCR and melt curve analysis is a rapid and accurate method for the detection of C. difficile DNA and simultaneous screening for the tcdC gene deletion at position 117, which is closely related to the C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 strain. PMID:19333630

  19. One-Shot Measurement of Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times in the Off-Resonance Rotating Frame of Reference with Applications to Breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbanks, Ethan Jefferson

    1994-01-01

    Off-resonance spin locking makes use of the novel relaxation time T_{1rho} ^{rm off}, which may be useful in characterizing breast disease. Knowledge of T _{rm 1rho}^{rm off} is essential for optimization of spin -locking imaging methods. The purpose of this work was to develop an optimal imaging technique for in vivo measurement of T_{rm 1rho}^ {rm off}. Measurement of T _{1rho}^{rm off } using conventional methods requires long exam times which are not suitable for patients. Exam time may be shortened by utilizing a one-shot method developed by Look and Locker, making in vivo measurements possible. The imaging method consisted of a 180^circ inversion pulse followed by a series of small-angle alpha pulses to tip a portion of the longitudinal magnetization into the transverse plane for readout. During each relaxation interval (between alpha pulses), a spin-locking pulse was applied off-resonance to achieve T_ {1rho}^{rm off} relaxation. The value of T_{rm 1rho}^{rm off} was then determined using a three-parameter non-linear least-squares fitting procedure. Values of T_ {1rho}^{rm off} were measured for normal and pathologic breast tissues at several resonant offsets. These measurements revealed that image contrast can be manipulated by altering the resonant offset of the spin-locking pulse. Whereas T _1 relaxation times were nearly identical for normal and cancerous tissues, T_{1 rho}^{rm off} relaxation times differed significantly. These results may be useful in improving image contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. Quantitative rotating frame relaxometry methods in MRI.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Irtiza Ali; Sepponen, Raimo

    2016-06-01

    Macromolecular degeneration and biochemical changes in tissue can be quantified using rotating frame relaxometry in MRI. It has been shown in several studies that the rotating frame longitudinal relaxation rate constant (R1ρ ) and the rotating frame transverse relaxation rate constant (R2ρ ) are sensitive biomarkers of phenomena at the cellular level. In this comprehensive review, existing MRI methods for probing the biophysical mechanisms that affect the rotating frame relaxation rates of the tissue (i.e. R1ρ and R2ρ ) are presented. Long acquisition times and high radiofrequency (RF) energy deposition into tissue during the process of spin-locking in rotating frame relaxometry are the major barriers to the establishment of these relaxation contrasts at high magnetic fields. Therefore, clinical applications of R1ρ and R2ρ MRI using on- or off-resonance RF excitation methods remain challenging. Accordingly, this review describes the theoretical and experimental approaches to the design of hard RF pulse cluster- and adiabatic RF pulse-based excitation schemes for accurate and precise measurements of R1ρ and R2ρ . The merits and drawbacks of different MRI acquisition strategies for quantitative relaxation rate measurement in the rotating frame regime are reviewed. In addition, this review summarizes current clinical applications of rotating frame MRI sequences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27100142

  1. Avoiding the Perfect Storm: The Biologic and Clinical Case for Reevaluating the 7-Day Expectation for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Before Switching Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Kullar, Ravina; McKinnell, James A.; Sakoulas, George

    2014-01-01

    Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia (MRSAB) is associated with poor outcomes and serious complications. The MRSA guidelines define treatment failure and persistent bacteremia as lasting ≥7 days; however, this definition requires reevaluation. Aggressively reducing the bacterial inoculum promptly is critical because factors already in place before clinical presentation are driving resistance to the few antibiotics that are available to treat MRSAB. Alternative approaches to treat MRSAB should be considered within 3–4 days of persistent MRSAB. With rapid molecular diagnostics emerging in clinical microbiology laboratories and biomarkers as a potential for early patient risk stratification, a future shorter threshold may become possible. PMID:25048852

  2. Nanosecond frame cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A M; Wilkins, P R

    2001-01-05

    The advent of CCD cameras and computerized data recording has spurred the development of several new cameras and techniques for recording nanosecond images. We have made a side by side comparison of three nanosecond frame cameras, examining them for both performance and operational characteristics. The cameras include; Micro-Channel Plate/CCD, Image Diode/CCD and Image Diode/Film; combinations of gating/data recording. The advantages and disadvantages of each device will be discussed.

  3. Recursive adaptive frame integration limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-05-01

    Recursive Frame Integration Limited was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed for conventional frame integration. The technique applies two thresholds - one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate - and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration Limited is proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration.

  4. Frame for a firearm

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2008-03-04

    A firearm frame which is adapted to be disposed in operative relationship as a component part of a firearm, the firearm having disposed in operative relationships each with one or more of the others, a barrel, a receiver, and at least one firing mechanism; wherein the barrel and receiver form operative parts of a movable assembly and the at least one firing mechanism is disposed in a substantially stationary operative relationship therewith; the firearm frame including at least one elongated support structure discrete from the barrel and receiver, the elongated support structure being adapted to directly support the movable assembly in an operative movable relationship therewith; whereby at least one of the barrel and receiver is in direct contact with and movable on the elongated support structure; and, a firing mechanism support structure connected to the at least one elongated support structure, the firing mechanism support structure being adapted to have the firing mechanism connected thereto; the firearm frame also directly supporting the movable assembly and the firing mechanism in corresponding movable and stationary operative relationships each with the other.

  5. Electrically insulating and sealing frame

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Robin J.

    1983-11-08

    A combination gas seal and electrical insulator having a closed frame shape interconnects a fuel cell stack and a reactant gas plenum of a fuel cell generator. The frame can be of rectangular shape including at least one slidable spline connection in each side to permit expansion or contraction consistent with that of the walls of the gas plenum and fuel cell stack. The slidable spline connections in the frame sides minimizes lateral movement between the frame side members and sealing material interposed between the frame and the fuel cell stack or between the frame and the reactant gas plenum.

  6. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  7. Vibration of x-braced portal frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. H.; Wang, P. Y.; Lin, Y. W.

    1987-09-01

    Both free and forced vibrations of elastic X-braced portal frames are investigated. Solutions of the Euler-Bernoulli equation for the transverse vibration coupled with the axial vibration are used. The first five natural frequencies, with the angle of inclination, α, of the bracing bars ranging from 15° to 75°, with different slenderness ratios, R, of the columns, and different stiffness of the floor beam and crossing bars, are presented along with two sets of the natural modes of the frames with α = 45°. For the forced vibration, the dynamic responses of the frames with a concentrated horizontal time dependent force acting at a top joint are studied. The responses of the frames with α = 45° are analyzed in detail.

  8. Efficacy of 7-Day and 14-Day Triple Therapy Regimens for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: A Comparative Study in a Cohort of Romanian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arama, Stefan Sorin; Tiliscan, Catalin; Negoita, Cristina; Croitoru, Alexandru; Arama, Victoria; Mihai, Carmen Marina; Pop, Florinel

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared the eradication rates of of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection by a 7-day and 14-day anti-HP regimen. Materials and Methods. An open, randomized, prospective study was performed to evaluate the response to anti-HP treatment in adult HP-positive patients following a 7-day course (Regimen A) of a proton pump inhibitor in association with clarithromycin and amoxicillin compared to a 14-day course (Regimen B). Gastric biopsies were performed at baseline and two months after anti-HP treatment. Results. Seventy-eight patients aged 18–64 years (28 males, 50 females) diagnosed with HP infection were included. Fifty-two (66.7%) patients received Regimen B and 26 (33.3%) Regimen A. The overall eradication rate was 70.5%. Better treatment response (p < 0.01) was seen in Regimen B (44/52, 84.2% versus 11/26, 42.3%). Significant improvement in histological features was seen in regimen B. There has been significant overall reduction in endoscopic aspects of gastric and duodenal lesions in both regimens. Younger patients ≤35 years had a better response to Regimen B. Better treatment response was seen in women, urban residents, and those with tertiary level of education in both groups. Conclusion. 14-day anti-HP regimen offered a significant better overall eradication of HP in study population. PMID:26858750

  9. Spermatozoa isolated from cat testes retain their structural integrity as well as a developmental potential after refrigeration for up to 7 days.

    PubMed

    Buarpung, Sirirak; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Thongkittidilok, Chommanart; Comizzoli, Pierre; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of preservation media for isolated feline testicular spermatozoa as well as the concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on: (1) the membrane (sperm membrane integrity (SMI)) and DNA integrity of spermatozoa; and (2) the developmental potential of spermatozoa after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Isolated cat spermatozoa were stored in HEPES-M199 medium (HM) or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) at 4°C for up to 7 days. Results indicated that HM maintained a better SMI than DPBS throughout the storage periods (P > 0.05). When spermatozoa were stored in HM supplemented with BSA at different concentrations (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), SMI obtained from HM containing 8 and 16 mg/ml BSA was higher than with 4 mg/ml BSA (P 0.05). In summary, cat spermatozoa immediately isolated from testicular tissue can be stored as a suspension in basic buffered medium at 4°C for up to 7 days. BSA supplementation into the medium improves membrane integrity of the spermatozoa during cold storage. Testicular spermatozoa stored in HM containing 16 mg/ml BSA retained full in vitro developmental potential after ICSI, similar to that of fresh controls even though DNA integrity had slightly declined. PMID:24990798

  10. TH-A-9A-05: Initial Setup Accuracy Comparison Between Frame-Based and Frameless Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, T; Sheu, R; Todorov, B; Green, S; Blacksburg, S; Lo, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate initial setup accuracy for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) between Brainlab frame-based and frameless immobilization system, also to discern the magnitude frameless system has on setup parameters. Methods: The correction shifts from the original setup were compared for total 157 SRS cranial treatments (69 frame-based vs. 88 frameless). All treatments were performed on a Novalis linac with ExacTrac positioning system. Localization box with isocenter overlay was used for initial setup and correction shift was determined by ExacTrac 6D auto-fusion to achieve submillimeter accuracy for treatment. For frameless treatments, mean time interval between simulation and treatment was 5.7 days (range 0–13). Pearson Chi-Square was used for univariate analysis. Results: The correctional radial shifts (mean±STD, median) for the frame and frameless system measured by ExacTrac were 1.2±1.2mm, 1.1mm and 3.1±3.3mm, 2.0mm, respectively. Treatments with frameless system had a radial shift >2mm more often than those with frames (51.1% vs. 2.9%; p<.0001). To achieve submillimeter accuracy, 85.5% frame-based treatments did not require shift and only 23.9% frameless treatment could succeed with initial setup. There was no statistical significant system offset observed in any direction for either system. For frameless treatments, those treated ≥ 3 days from simulation had statistically higher rates of radial shifts between 1–2mm and >2mm compared to patients treated in a shorter amount of time from simulation (34.3% and 56.7% vs. 28.6% and 33.3%, respectively; p=0.006). Conclusion: Although image-guided positioning system can also achieve submillimeter accuracy for frameless system, users should be cautious regarding the inherent uncertainty of its capability of immobilization. A proper quality assurance procedure for frameless mask manufacturing and a protocol for intra-fraction imaging verification will be crucial for frameless system. Time interval between

  11. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-04-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  12. Transitions in students' epistemic framing along two axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, Paul W.; Martinuk, Mathew Sandy; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-06-01

    We use epistemological framing to interpret participants’ behavior during group problem-solving sessions in an intermediate mechanics course. We are interested in how students frame discussion and in how the groups shift discussion framings. Our analysis includes two framing axes, expansive vs narrow and serious vs silly, which together incorporate and extend prior work on how students frame discussions in physics education research. We present markers for where discussion falls on these axes. We support our conclusions with both microanalytic excerpts of discussion and overall analysis of 75 hours of video-based data. We find that the group spends most of its time in more serious framings, and slightly more than half of its time in more narrow ones. The teaching assistant is the participant who initiates the largest number of frame shifts, and her shifts include bids to all quadrants in the expansive or narrow and serious or silly plane.

  13. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan; Dekkers, Mark; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    In 1975, during DSDP Leg 42B to the Black Sea, three sites were drilled with a total of 2318 m cored and a recovery of 55%. While to modern scientific standards this may not be very impressive, these sites still represent the longest available records of sedimentation in the basinal part of the Black Sea. The main stratigraphic objectives of DSDP Leg 42B were to 1) obtain a complete Pleistocene litho- and biostratigraphic section and 2) study interactions between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, focusing on glacio-eustatic sea level change, periods of lacustrine sedimentation, periods of anoxia, and 3) to establish a paleoclimatic record. Major problems establishing a timescale emerged after drilling due to a) the general shortage of definitive paleontological age markers and b) the general lack of agreement on correlation and time zonation of sedimentary units. Magnetostratigraphic dating could have solved these timescale problems but was hindered by the presence of the little understood authigenic iron sulphide mineral greigite (Fe3S4) as main magnetic carrier. In recent years, the understanding of greigite has significantly improved and is considered a reliable magnetic carrier. Especially in the circum-Black Sea region, many Miocene to recent, land-based sections are magnetostratigraphically dated with greigite as magnetic carrier. We therefore resampled the cores of DSDP Leg 42B to see whether after 40 years of storage any of the original signal is preserved. Our results show these cores are still surprisingly useful for magnetostratigraphic dating. Complications arise due to the presence of hiatuses, especially in the near-Bosporus locations. Our age model gives important new insights into the response of the Black Sea to major paleoenvironmental and climatic changes related to the late Miocene Messinian salinity crisis and throughout the Pleistocene. More generally, our results show that for future deep-sea drilling expeditions to the Black Sea, the

  14. Greigite-based magnetostratigraphic framework for the Late Miocene to recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea: A new time frame for old cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baak, C. V.; Vasiliev, I.; Grothe, A.; Kuiper, K.; Raffi, I.; Krijgsman, W.

    2014-12-01

    In 1975, DSDP Leg 42B to the Black Sea, three sites were drilled with a total of 2318 m cored and a recovery of 55%. While to modern standards this may not be very impressive, these sites still represent the best record of sedimentation in the basinal part of the Black Sea. The main stratigraphic objectives of DSDP Leg 42B were to 1) obtain a complete Pleistocene litho- and biostratigraphic section and 2) study interactions between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, focusing on glacio-eustatic sea level change, periods of lacustrine sedimentation, periods of stagnation, and to establish a paleoclimatic record. Major problems establishing a timescale emerged after drilling due to a) the general shortage of definitive paleontological age markers and b) the general lack of agreement on correlation and time zonation of sedimentary units. Magnetostratigraphic dating could have solved these timescale problems but was hindered by the presence of the little understood authigenic iron sulphide mineral greigite (Fe3S4) as main magnetic carrier. In recent years, the understanding of greigite has significantly improved and is considered a reliable magnetic carrier. Especially in the circum-Black Sea region, many Miocene to recent, land-based sections are magnetostratigraphically dated with greigite as magnetic carrier. We therefore resample the cores of DSDP Leg 42B to see whether after 40 years of storage any of the original signal is preserved. Our results show these cores are surprisingly useful for magnetostratigraphic dating. We create an integrated bio-magnetostratigraphic framework for the sites of Leg 42B, focusing on the Latest Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene. Ar/Ar dating of an ash-layer at site 380A gives additional age constraints. Our age model gives important new insights into the response of the Black Sea to major paleoenvironmental and climatic changes like e.g. the Messinian salinity crisis, the mid-Pliocene warm period and Pleistocene glaciations on the

  15. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  16. Rest frame of bubble nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Kanno, Sugumi; Tanaka, Takahiro E-mail: sugumi@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum bubbles nucleate at rest with a certain critical size and subsequently expand. But what selects the rest frame of nucleation? This question has been recently addressed in [1] in the context of Schwinger pair production in 1+1 dimensions, by using a model detector in order to probe the nucleated pairs. The analysis in [1] showed that, for a constant external electric field, the adiabatic ''in'' vacuum of charged particles is Lorentz invariant, (and in this) case pairs tend to nucleate preferentially at rest with respect to the detector. Here, we sharpen this picture by showing that the typical relative velocity between the frame of nucleation and that of the detector is at most of order Δv ∼ S{sub E}{sup −1/3} << 1. Here, S{sub E} >> 1 is the action of the instanton describing pair creation. The bound Δv coincides with the minimum uncertainty in the velocity of a non-relativistic charged particle embedded in a constant electric field. A velocity of order Δv is reached after a time interval of order Δt ∼ S{sub E}{sup −1/3}r{sub 0} << r{sub 0} past the turning point in the semiclassical trajectory, where r{sub 0} is the size of the instanton. If the interaction takes place in the vicinity of the turning point, the semiclassical description of collision does not apply. Nonetheless, we find that even in this case there is still a strong asymmetry in the momentum transferred from the nucleated particles to the detector, in the direction of expansion after the turning point. We conclude that the correlation between the rest frame of nucleation and that of the detector is exceedingly sharp.

  17. The Levels of Visual Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Dimitrova, Daniela V.

    2011-01-01

    While framing research has centered mostly on the evaluations of media texts, visual news discourse has remained relatively unexamined. This study surveys the visual framing techniques and methods employed in previous studies and proposes a four-tiered model of identifying and analyzing visual frames: (1) visuals as denotative systems, (2) visuals…

  18. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  19. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  20. Frame architecture for video servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatramani, Chitra; Kienzle, Martin G.

    1999-11-01

    Video is inherently frame-oriented and most applications such as commercial video processing require to manipulate video in terms of frames. However, typical video servers treat videos as byte streams and perform random access based on approximate byte offsets to be supplied by the client. They do not provide frame or timecode oriented API which is essential for many applications. This paper describes a frame-oriented architecture for video servers. It also describes the implementation in the context of IBM's VideoCharger server. The later part of the paper describes an application that uses the frame architecture and provides fast and slow-motion scanning capabilities to the server.

  1. Estimation of minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge for selected stream sites, and associated low-flow water-quality data, southeast Texas, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Texas that provides discharge data used for water-management decisions and various other purposes. Operating stations at all locations where discharge data are needed is not feasible, but the statistical characteristics of the network station data can be used to estimate discharge characteristics at ungaged sites. Regionalization techniques such as regression analyses relate discharge-frequency characteristics to selected physical and climatic characteristics of drainage basins. A particular discharge-frequency characteristic that can be regionalized is the minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge1 (7Q2). In Texas, the 7Q2 is used at stream sites to analyze permit applications for water allocation, water-supply planning, aquatic maintenance (instream flow) requirements, and waste-load allocation for point and nonpoint source discharges.

  2. Intelligence's likelihood and evolutionary time frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogonovich, Marc

    2011-04-01

    This paper outlines hypotheses relevant to the evolution of intelligent life and encephalization in the Phanerozoic. If general principles are inferable from patterns of Earth life, implications could be drawn for astrobiology. Many of the outlined hypotheses, relevant data, and associated evolutionary and ecological theory are not frequently cited in astrobiological journals. Thus opportunity exists to evaluate reviewed hypotheses with an astrobiological perspective. A quantitative method is presented for testing one of the reviewed hypotheses (hypothesis i; the diffusion hypothesis). Questions are presented throughout, which illustrate that the question of intelligent life's likelihood can be expressed as multiple, broadly ranging, more tractable questions.

  3. Time frames for geothermal project development

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, David W.

    2001-04-17

    Geothermal development can generally be broken down into distinct phases: Exploration and Leasing; Project Development And Feasibility Studies; Well Field Development; Project Finance, Construction and Start-up Operations; and Commercial Operations. Each phase represents different levels of cost and risk and different types of management teams that are needed to assess and manage the project and associated risk. Orderly transitions of management at each major phase are needed. Exploration programs are largely science based, the primary focus of the science based investigations should be to: secure the lease position, and develop sufficient information to identify and characterize an economical geothermal resource. Project development specialists build on the exploration data to: pull together a project design, develop a detailed cost estimate; prepare an environmental assessment; and collect all data needed for project financing. Construction specialist build from the development phase to: develop detailed engineering, procure equipment and materials, schedule and manage the facilities construction programs, and start and test the power plant. Operations specialists take over from construction during start-up and are responsible for sustainable and reliable operations of the resource and power generation equipment over the life of the project.

  4. Scarcity frames value.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anuj K; Shafir, Eldar; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2015-04-01

    Economic models of decision making assume that people have a stable way of thinking about value. In contrast, psychology has shown that people's preferences are often malleable and influenced by normatively irrelevant contextual features. Whereas economics derives its predictions from the assumption that people navigate a world of scarce resources, recent psychological work has shown that people often do not attend to scarcity. In this article, we show that when scarcity does influence cognition, it renders people less susceptible to classic context effects. Under conditions of scarcity, people focus on pressing needs and recognize the trade-offs that must be made against those needs. Those trade-offs frame perception more consistently than irrelevant contextual cues, which exert less influence. The results suggest that scarcity can align certain behaviors more closely with traditional economic predictions. PMID:25676256

  5. Semiclassical framed BPS states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory W.; Royston, Andrew B.; Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional {N}=2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L 2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L 2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no-exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no-exotics theorem, concerning the absence of nontrivial SU(2) R representations in the BPS spectrum, implies that the kernel of the Dirac operator is chiral, and further translates into a statement that all L 2 cohomology of the Dolbeault operator is concentrated in the middle degree. Wall crossing formulae lead to detailed predictions for where the Dirac operators fail to be Fredholm and how their kernels jump. We explore these predictions in nontrivial examples. This paper explains the background and arguments behind the results announced in the short note [1].

  6. Three-Corner Hat for the assessment of the uncertainty of non-linear residuals of space-geodetic time series in the context of terrestrial reference frame analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, C.; Altamimi, Z.; Chin, T. M.; Gross, R. S.; Heflin, M. B.; Parker, J. W.; Wu, X.

    2015-04-01

    We discuss the application of the Three-Corner Hat (TCH) to time series of space-geodetic station position residuals with the purpose of characterizing the uncertainties of GPS, VLBI, SLR, DORIS for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) determination. Adopting simulations, we show that, in the absence of time-correlated errors, TCH is able to fully recover the nominal uncertainties of groups of observations whose intrinsic precisions are remarkably dissimilar to one another, as is the case for the space-geodetic techniques. When time-correlated errors are predominant, as it happens with GPS, TCH is affected by the increased variance of the observations and its estimates are positively biased. TCH applied to 16 ITRF co-located sites confirms that GPS, albeit affected by time-correlated errors, is the most precise of the space-geodetic techniques. GPS median uncertainties are 1.1, 1.2 and 2.8 mm, for the north, east and height component, respectively. VLBI performs particularly well in the horizontal component, the median uncertainties being mm. The height component is times larger than the GPS one. SLR and DORIS median uncertainties exceed by far the 7 mm level on all of the three components. Comparing TCH results with station position repeatabilities, we find that the two metrics are in striking agreement for VLBI and DORIS, but not for SLR and GPS. The inconsistencies between TCH and station repeatabilities for co-located GPS and SLR point to the presence of either specific station-dependent biases or low-quality co-locations. Scaling factors derived adopting the ratio between TCH and median formal errors on the positions suggest the station position covariances have to be up-scaled for VLBI, SLR, DORIS and down-scaled for GPS.

  7. Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.

  8. Backreaction of frame dragging

    SciTech Connect

    Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Rebelo, Carmen; Warnick, Claude M.

    2009-10-15

    The backreaction on black holes due to dragging heavy, rather than test, objects is discussed. As a case study, a five-dimensional regular black Saturn system where the central black hole has vanishing intrinsic angular momentum, J{sup BH}=0, is considered. It is shown that there is a correlation between the sign of two response functions. One is interpreted as a moment of inertia of the black ring in the black Saturn system. The other measures the variation of the black ring horizon angular velocity with the central black hole mass, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. The two different phases defined by these response functions collapse, for small central black hole mass, to the thin and fat ring phases. In the fat phase, the zero area limit of the black Saturn ring has reduced spin j{sup 2}>1, which is related to the behavior of the ring angular velocity. Using the 'gravitomagnetic clock effect', for which a universality property is exhibited, it is shown that frame dragging measured by an asymptotic observer decreases, in both phases, when the central black hole mass increases, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. A close parallelism between the results for the fat phase and those obtained recently for the double Kerr solution is drawn, considering also a regular black Saturn system with J{sup BH}{ne}0.

  9. Optical characterization of frame grabbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, A. M.; Rubiño, M.

    2013-04-01

    Today, video cameras connected to frame grabbers are used in many applications such as traffic control, surveillance, medical systems or machine vision. In this work, we present an optical characterization of frame grabbers in terms of their spatial-frequency responses. This characterization is based on the modulation transfer function (MTF) determination from speckle patterns using a low-cost experimental setup. We have characterized and compared three different frame grabbers. The three frame grabbers produce an amplification (boost) in the horizontal MTF in different spatial-frequency ranges and having different maximum amplification values.

  10. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-01

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  11. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-22

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  12. Using Temporal Fill Factor to Reduce Frame Reconstruction Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, James; Balram, Nikhil; Gille, Jennifer; Luszcz, Jeffery

    1997-01-01

    The newer active matrix display technologies such as TFT-LCD, DMD, PDP maintain their pixel values through the entire frame time, presenting a 100% temporal fill factor, in contrast to the duty cycle produced by the phosphor impulse response of the CRT. This sample-and-hold characteristic can be exploited to lower the displayed frame rate without affecting visual quality. The lower frame rate results in significantly lower transmission bandwidth, power, and cost.

  13. Incidence and Predictors of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Septic Shock Patients in a Medical ICU: Data from 7-Day Holter ECG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Guenancia, Charles; Binquet, Christine; Laurent, Gabriel; Vinault, Sandrine; Bruyère, Rémi; Prin, Sébastien; Pavon, Arnaud; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Quenot, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated incidence, risk factors for new-onset atrial fibrillation (NAF), and prognostic impact during septic shock in medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Methods Prospective, observational study in a university hospital. Consecutive patients from 03/2011 to 05/2013 with septic shock were eligible. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, history of AF, transfer with prior septic shock. Included patients were equipped with long-duration (7 days) Holter ECG monitoring. NAF was defined as an AF episode lasting >30 seconds. Patient characteristics, infection criteria, cardiovascular parameters, severity of illness, support therapies were recorded. Results Among 66 patients, 29(44%) developed NAF; 10 (34%) would not have been diagnosed without Holter ECG monitoring. NAF patients were older, with more markers of heart failure (troponin and NT-pro-BNP), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), longer QRS duration and more nonsustained supra ventricular arrhythmias (<30s) on day 1 than patients who maintained sinus rhythm. By multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.06; p = 0.01) and LVEF<45% (OR: 13.01, p = 0.03) were associated with NAF. NAF did not predict 28 or 90 day mortality. Conclusions NAF is common, especially in older patients, and is associated with low ejection fraction. We did not find NAF to be independently associated with higher mortality. PMID:25965915

  14. Advanced Wall Framing; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Advanced framing techniques for home construction have been researched extensively and proven effective. Both builders and home owners can benefit from advanced framing. Advanced framing techniques create a structurally sound home that has lower material and labor costs than a conventionally framed house. This fact sheet describes advanced framing techniques, design considerations, and framing.

  15. FRAMES and Other IEM Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation package is developed that describes the FRAMES software technology system. The philosophy of FRAMES is discussed; its components and editors are reviewed; its relationship to integrated environmental modeling technologies; such as D4EM and SuperMUSE, are described;...

  16. Theory, implementation and applications of nonstationary Gabor frames

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, P.; Dörfler, M.; Jaillet, F.; Holighaus, N.; Velasco, G.

    2011-01-01

    Signal analysis with classical Gabor frames leads to a fixed time–frequency resolution over the whole time–frequency plane. To overcome the limitations imposed by this rigidity, we propose an extension of Gabor theory that leads to the construction of frames with time–frequency resolution changing over time or frequency. We describe the construction of the resulting nonstationary Gabor frames and give the explicit formula for the canonical dual frame for a particular case, the painless case. We show that wavelet transforms, constant-Q transforms and more general filter banks may be modeled in the framework of nonstationary Gabor frames. Further, we present the results in the finite-dimensional case, which provides a method for implementing the above-mentioned transforms with perfect reconstruction. Finally, we elaborate on two applications of nonstationary Gabor frames in audio signal processing, namely a method for automatic adaptation to transients and an algorithm for an invertible constant-Q transform. PMID:22267893

  17. Shadowgraph illumination techniques for framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R.M.; Flurer, R.L.; Frogget, B.C.; Sorenson, D.S.; Holmes, V.H.; Obst, A.W.

    1997-12-31

    Many pulse power applications in use at the Pegasus facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory require specialized imaging techniques. Due to the short event duration times, visible images are recorded by high-speed electronic framing cameras. Framing cameras provide the advantages of high speed movies of back light experiments. These high-speed framing cameras require bright illumination sources to record images with 10 ns integration times. High-power lasers offer sufficient light for back illuminating the target assemblies; however, laser speckle noise lowers the contrast in the image. Laser speckle noise also limits the effective resolution. This discussion focuses on the use of telescopes to collect images 50 feet away. Both light field and dark field illumination techniques are compared. By adding relay lenses between the assembly target and the telescope, a high-resolution magnified image can be recorded. For dark field illumination, these relay lenses can be used to separate the object field from the illumination laser. The illumination laser can be made to focus onto the opaque secondary of a Schmidt telescope. Thus, the telescope only collects scattered light from the target assembly. This dark field illumination eliminates the laser speckle noise and allows high-resolution images to be recorded. Using the secondary of the telescope to block the illumination laser makes dark field illumination an ideal choice for the framing camera.

  18. Shadowgraph illumination techniques for framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R.M.; Flurer, R.L.; Frogget, B.C.; Sorenson, D.S.; Holmes, V.H.; Obst, A.W.

    1997-06-01

    Many pulse power applications in use at the Pegasus facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory require specialized imaging techniques. Due to the short event duration times, visible images are recorded by high speed electronic framing cameras. Framing cameras provide the advantages of high speed movies of back light experiments. These high speed framing cameras require bright illumination sources to record images with 10 ns integration times. High power lasers offer sufficient light for back illuminating the target assemblies; however, laser speckle noise lowers the contrast in the image. Laser speckle noise also limits the effective resolution. This discussion focuses on the use of telescopes to collect images 50 feet away. Both light field and dark field illumination techniques are compared. By adding relay lenses between the assembly target and the telescope, a high resolution magnified image can be recorded. For dark field illumination, these relay lenses can be used to separate the object field from the illumination laser. The illumination laser can be made to focus onto the opaque secondary of a Schmidt telescope. Thus, the telescope only collects scattered light from the target assembly. This dark field illumination eliminates the laser speckle noise and allows high resolution images to be recorded. Using the secondary of the telescope to block the illumination laser makes dark field illumination an ideal choice for the framing camera.

  19. Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B.; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants’ cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants’ navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656

  20. Framed School--Frame Factors, Frames and the Dynamics of Social Interaction in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to show how the Goffman frame perspective can be used in an analysis of school and education and how it can be combined, in such analysis, with the frame factor perspective. The latter emphasizes factors that are determined outside the teaching process, while the former stresses how actors organize their experiences and define…

  1. Framing Obesity: How News Frames Shape Attributions and Behavioral Responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Krakow, Melinda; John, Kevin K; Liu, Miao; Weaver, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Based on a public health model of obesity, this study set out to examine whether a news article reporting the obesity issue in a societal versus individual frame would increase perceptions of societal responsibilities for the obesity problem and motivate responsibility-taking behaviors. Responsibility-taking behaviors were examined at 3 levels: personal, interpersonal, and societal. Data from a Web-based experiment revealed significant framing effects on behaviors via causal and treatment responsibility attributions. The societal frame increased societal causal and treatment attribution, which led to greater likelihoods of interpersonal and social responsibility-taking behaviors as well as personal behaviors. Our findings suggest that news framing can be an effective venue for raising awareness of obesity as a societal issue and mobilizing collective efforts. PMID:26375052

  2. Living Color Frame System: PC graphics tool for data visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.

    1993-01-01

    Living Color Frame System (LCFS) is a personal computer software tool for generating real-time graphics applications. It is highly applicable for a wide range of data visualization in virtual environment applications. Engineers often use computer graphics to enhance the interpretation of data under observation. These graphics become more complicated when 'run time' animations are required, such as found in many typical modern artificial intelligence and expert systems. Living Color Frame System solves many of these real-time graphics problems.

  3. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system? PMID:24354803

  4. Ties Between Celestial And Planetary Reference Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents new determination of relative orientation (or frame tie) between reference frame of extra-galactic radio sources and reference frame of planetary ephemeris. Method employed for improved frame-tie estimate relies on ability to measure orientation of Earth with respect to inertial reference frame. Improves orbit determination for interplanetary spacecraft.

  5. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention. PMID:26728766

  6. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Azevedo, Bruna Fernades; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  7. GAOUA realizations of the Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Ya.; Bolotin, S.; Kur'yanova, A.

    2005-09-01

    Short overview of the activity of the Main Astronomical observatory of National Academy of Science of Ukraine for maintenance and extension of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is presented. Special attention is paid on the time stabilities of positions of radio sources (RS) and on the selection of a subset of RS to be used for maintenance of the ICRF. It is shown that seven RS qualified by the IERS as defining sources are unstable.

  8. High frame rate fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agronskaia, A. V.; Tertoolen, L.; Gerritsen, H. C.

    2003-07-01

    A fast time-domain based fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscope is presented that can operate at frame rates of hundreds of frames per second. A beam splitter in the detection path of a wide-field fluorescence microscope divides the fluorescence in two parts. One part is optically delayed with respect to the other. Both parts are viewed with a single time-gated intensified CCD camera with a gate width of 5 ns. The fluorescence lifetime image is obtained from the ratio of these two images. The fluorescence lifetime resolution of the FLIM microscope is verified both with dye solutions and fluorescent latex beads. The fluorescence lifetimes obtained from the reference specimens are in good agreement with values obtained from time correlated single photon counting measurements on the same specimens. The acquisition speed of the FLIM system is evaluated with a measurement of the calcium fluxes in neonatal rat myocytes stained with the calcium probe Oregon Green 488-Bapta. Fluorescence lifetime images of the calcium fluxes related to the beating of the myocytes are acquired with frame rates of up to 100 Hz.

  9. Modeling laser-plasma acceleration in the laboratory frame

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    A simulation of laser-plasma acceleration in the laboratory frame. Both the laser and the wakefield buckets must be resolved over the entire domain of the plasma, requiring many cells and many time steps. While researchers often use a simulation window that moves with the pulse, this reduces only the multitude of cells, not the multitude of time steps. For an artistic impression of how to solve the simulation by using the boosted-frame method, watch the video "Modeling laser-plasma acceleration in the wakefield frame."

  10. Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Kenneth J.

    2008-07-01

    A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because it is derived from Hamilton’s manifestly covariant scalar action principle. A distinction is made between manifest frame dragging such as that in the Kerr metric, and hidden frame dragging that can be made manifest by a coordinate transformation such as that applied to the Robertson-Walker metric in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 a zone of repulsive gravity is found in the extreme Kerr metric. Section 4 treats frame dragging in special relativity as a manifestation of the equivalence principle in accelerated frames. It answers a question posed by Bell about how the Lorentz contraction can break a thread connecting two uniformly accelerated rocket ships. In Sect. 5 the form of the Hamiltonian facilitates the definition of gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric potentials.

  11. Four-frame gated optical imager with 120-ps resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Phillion, D.W.; Campbell, E.M.

    1988-04-01

    In this paper we describe the operation and applications of a framing camera capable of four separate two-dimensional images with each frame having a 120-ps gate width. Fast gating of a single frame is accomplished by using a wafer image intensifier tube in which the cathode is capacitively coupled to an external electrode placed outside of the photocathode of the tube. This electrode is then pulsed relative to the microchannel plate by a narrow (120 ps), high-voltage pulse. Multiple frames are obtained by using multiple gated tubes which share a single bias supply and pulser with relative gate times selected by the cable lengths between the tubes and the pulser. A beamsplitter system has been constructed which produces a separate image for each tube from a single scene. Applications of the framing camera to inertial confinement fusion experiments are discussed.

  12. Egocentric and allocentric reference frames for catching a falling object.

    PubMed

    Le Séac'h, Anne Brec'hed; Senot, Patrice; McIntyre, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    When programming movement, one must account for gravitational acceleration. This is particularly important when catching a falling object because the task requires a precise estimate of time-to-contact. Knowledge of gravity's effects is intimately linked to our definition of 'up' and 'down'. Both directions can be described in an allocentric reference frame, based on visual and/or gravitational cues, or in an egocentric reference frame in which the body axis is taken as vertical. To test which frame humans use to predict gravity's effect, we asked participants to intercept virtual balls approaching from above or below with artificially controlled acceleration that could be congruent or not with gravity. To dissociate between these frames, subjects were seated upright (trunk parallel to gravity) or lying down (body axis orthogonal to the gravitational axis). We report data in line with the use of an allocentric reference frame and discuss its relevance depending on available gravity-related cues. PMID:20024651

  13. Relativistic stellar stability: Preferred-frame effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.

    1973-01-01

    Possible preferred-frame effects on stellar stability were examined and no new instabilities were found. In particular, it is shown that: (1) Although terms linear in the preferred-frame velocity w (time-odd terms, analogous to viscosity and energy generation) change the shapes of the normal modes, their symmetry properties prevent them from changing the characteristic frequencies. Thus, no new vibrational or secular instabilities can occur. (2) Terms quadratic in w do not change either the shapes of the normal modes or the characteristic frequencies for radial pulsations. Thus, they have no influence on radial stability. (3) Terms quadratic in w do change both the normal modes and the characteristic frequencies of nonradial pulsations; but in the limit of a neutral mode these changes vanish. Hence, there is no modification of the criterion for convective stability, i.e., the standard Schwarzschild criterion remains valid.

  14. Improving Resolution in Fast Rotating-Frame Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, F.; Robert, H.; Pusiol, D.

    2001-07-01

    The rapid rotating-frame technique allows significant reduction in data-acquisition time compared with the two-dimensional method by stroboscopic observation of the nuclear magnetization during its evolution in the rotating frame. A onefold reduction in the dimensionality of the original rotating-frame experiment is achieved by using a train of strong radiofrequency pulses separated by short acquisition windows. The penalty for shortening experimental time is a reduction in spectral resolution compared with the two-dimensional method due to relaxation of transverse magnetization components during the observation windows. A variant of the rapid-rotating frame technique for improving spectral resolution based on undersampling and self-phase encoding is presented. An M-fold resolution improvement requires M experiments, thus, making possible a tradeoff between spectral resolution and experimental time. The technique was applied for spatial localization of quadrupole nuclei in powder solids, and resolution improvement is demonstrated on one- and two-dimensional NQR images.

  15. Modeling laser-plasma acceleration in the wakefield frame

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    A simulation of laser-plasma acceleration in the boosted frame of the wake, moving at near lightspeed. Space has contracted and time has stretched, separating events in time. Relatively few time steps are needed to model them, requiring less computer time.

  16. SEOS frame camera applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A research and development satellite is discussed which will provide opportunities for observation of transient phenomena that fall within the fixed viewing circle of the spacecraft. The evaluation of possible applications for frame cameras, for SEOS, are studied. The computed lens characteristics for each camera are listed.

  17. Plasma physics in noninertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Thyagaraja, A.; McClements, K. G.

    2009-09-15

    Equations describing the nonrelativistic motion of a charged particle in an arbitrary noninertial reference frame are derived from the relativistically invariant form of the particle action. It is shown that the equations of motion can be written in the same form in inertial and noninertial frames, with the effective electric and magnetic fields in the latter modified by inertial effects associated with centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations. These modifications depend on the particle charge-to-mass ratio, and also the vorticity, specific kinetic energy, and compressibility of the frame flow. The Newton-Lorentz, Vlasov, and Fokker-Planck equations in such a frame are derived. Reduced models such as gyrokinetic, drift-kinetic, and fluid equations are then derivable from these equations in the appropriate limits, using standard averaging procedures. The results are applied to tokamak plasmas rotating about the machine symmetry axis with a nonrelativistic but otherwise arbitrary toroidal flow velocity. Astrophysical applications of the analysis are also possible since the power of the action principle is such that it can be used to describe relativistic flows in curved spacetime.

  18. Space-Frame Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The space-frame lunar lander was originally intended to (1) land on rough lunar terrain, (2) deform itself to conform to the terrain so as to be able to remain there in a stable position and orientation, and (3) if required, further deform itself to perform various functions. In principle, the space-frame lunar lander could be used in the same way on Earth, as might be required, for example, to place meteorological sensors or a radio-communication relay station on an otherwise inaccessible mountain peak. the space-frame lunar lander would include a truss-like structure consisting mostly of a tetrahedral mesh of nodes connected by variable-length struts, the lengths of which would be altered in coordination to impart the desired overall size and shape to the structure. Thrusters (that is, small rocket engines), propellant tanks, a control system, and instrumentation would be mounted in and on the structure (see figure). Once it had landed and deformed itself to the terrain through coordinated variations in the lengths of the struts, the structure could be further deformed into another space-frame structure

  19. Epistemic Frames for Epistemic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, develops the concept of "epistemic frames" as a mechanism through which students can use experiences in video games, computer games, and other interactive learning environments to help them deal more effectively with situations outside of the original context of learning. Building on ideas of "islands of expertise" [Crowley, K., &…

  20. Examining the Linkage Between FRAMES and GMS

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.

    2006-02-13

    Because GMS provides so many features, of which some are also addressed by FRAMES, it could represent a platform to link to FRAMES, or FRAMES could represent a platform to link to GMS. The focus of this summary is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the potential linkage direction and provide recommendations for the linkage between FRAMES and GMS.

  1. X-Ray Backscatter Machine Support Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    This summer at Kennedy Space Center, I spent 10 weeks as an intern working at the Prototype Development Lab. During this time I learned about the design and machining done here at NASA. I became familiar with the process from where a design begins in Pro/Engineer and finishes at the hands of the machinists. As an intern I was given various small jobs to do and then one project of my own. My personal project was a job for the Applied Physics Lab; in their work they use an X-Ray Backscatter machine. Previously it was resting atop a temporary frame that limited the use of the machine. My job was to design a frame for the machine to rest upon that would allow a full range of sample sizes. The frame was required to support the machine and provide a strain relief for the cords attached to the machine as it moved in the x and y directions. Calculations also had to be done to be sure the design would be able to withstand any loads or outside sources of stress. After the calculations proved the design to be ready to withstand the requirements, the parts were ordered or fabricated, as required. This helped me understand the full process of jobs sent to the Prototype Development Lab.

  2. Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

  3. Performance Comparison of Binary Search Tree and Framed ALOHA Algorithms for RFID Anti-Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Tzu

    Binary search tree and framed ALOHA algorithms are commonly adopted to solve the anti-collision problem in RFID systems. In this letter, the read efficiency of these two anti-collision algorithms is compared through computer simulations. Simulation results indicate the framed ALOHA algorithm requires less total read time than the binary search tree algorithm. The initial frame length strongly affects the uplink throughput for the framed ALOHA algorithm.

  4. Nine Frames as Jupiter Turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This sequence of nine true-color, narrow-angle images shows the varying appearance of Jupiter as it rotated through more than a complete 360-degree turn. The smallest features seen in this sequence are no bigger than about 380 kilometers (about 236 miles). Rotating more than twice as fast as Earth, Jupiter completes one rotation in about 10 hours. These images were taken on Oct. 22 and 23, 2000. From image to image (proceeding left to right across each row and then down to the next row), cloud features on Jupiter move from left to right before disappearing over the edge onto the nightside of the planet. The most obvious Jovian feature is the Great Red Spot, which can be seen moving onto the dayside in the third frame (below and to the left of the center of the planet). In the fourth frame, taken about 1 hour and 40 minutes later, the Great Red Spot has been carried by the planet's rotation to the east and does not appear again until the final frame, which was taken one complete rotation after the third frame.

    Unlike weather systems on Earth, which change markedly from day to day, large cloud systems in Jupiter's colder, thicker atmosphere are long-lived, so the two frames taken one rotation apart have a very similar appearance. However, when this sequence of images is eventually animated, strong winds blowing eastward at some latitudes and westward at other latitudes will be readily apparent. The results of such differential motions can be seen even in the still frames shown here. For example, the clouds of the Great Red Spot rotate counterclockwise. The strong westward winds northeast of the Great Red Spot are deflected around the spot and form a wake of turbulent clouds downstream (visible in the fourth image), just as a rock in a rapidly flowing river deflects the fluid around it.

    The equatorial zone on Jupiter is currently bright white, indicating the presence of clouds much like cirrus clouds on Earth, but made of ammonia instead of water ice. This

  5. Coincidence electron/ion imaging with a fast frame camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander; Fan, Lin

    2015-05-01

    A new time- and position- sensitive particle detection system based on a fast frame CMOS camera is developed for coincidence electron/ion imaging. The system is composed of three major components: a conventional microchannel plate (MCP)/phosphor screen electron/ion imager, a fast frame CMOS camera and a high-speed digitizer. The system collects the positional information of ions/electrons from a fast frame camera through real-time centroiding while the arrival times are obtained from the timing signal of MCPs processed by a high-speed digitizer. Multi-hit capability is achieved by correlating the intensity of electron/ion spots on each camera frame with the peak heights on the corresponding time-of-flight spectrum. Efficient computer algorithms are developed to process camera frames and digitizer traces in real-time at 1 kHz laser repetition rate. We demonstrate the capability of this system by detecting a momentum-matched co-fragments pair (methyl and iodine cations) produced from strong field dissociative double ionization of methyl iodide. We further show that a time resolution of 30 ps can be achieved when measuring electron TOF spectrum and this enables the new system to achieve a good energy resolution along the TOF axis.

  6. Gaining perspective: the effects of message frame on viewer attention to and recall of osteoporosis prevention print advertisements.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Deborah A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2013-11-01

    This study examined how framed messages affect viewer attention to and cognitive processing of osteoporosis prevention print ads. Attention was measured with eye tracking technology. Cognitive processing was assessed through masked recall. A total of 60 college-aged women viewed 12 gain-framed, 12 loss-framed, and 12 neutral-framed ads. Number of fixations, dwell time, and recall of gain-framed osteoporosis prevention ads were higher than loss-framed or neutral-framed ads, p < .01. Message recall was positively correlated with the number of fixations and dwell time for the gain-framed and neutral-framed messages, p < .01. These findings provide preliminary insight into potential mechanisms underlying message framing effects. PMID:23188916

  7. Newton-Cartan Gravity in Noninertial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Leo; St. Germaine-Fuller, James; Wickramasekara, Sujeev

    2015-03-01

    We study Newton-Cartan gravity under transformations into all noninertial, nonrelativistic reference frames. These transformations form an infinite dimensional Lie group, called the Galilean line group, which contains as a subgroup the Galilei group. The fictitious forces of noninertial reference frames are encoded in the Cartan connection transformed under the Galilean line group. These fictitious forces, which are coordinate effects, do not contribute to the Ricci tensor. Only the 00-component of the Ricci tensor is non-zero and equals (4 π times) the matter density in all reference frames. While the Ricci field equation and Gauss' law are fulfilled by the physical matter density in inertial and linearly accelerating reference frames, in rotating reference frames Gauss' law holds for an effective mass density that differs from the physical matter density. This effective density has its origin in the simulated magnetic field of rotating frames, highlighting a striking difference between linearly and rotationally accelerating frames. The equations governing the simulated fields have the same form as Maxwell's equations, a surprising result given that these equations obey special relativity (and U (1) -gauge symmetry), rather than Galilean symmetry. This work was supported in part by the HHMI Undergraduate Science Education Award 52006298 and the Grinnell College Academic Affairs' CSFS and MAP programs.

  8. DRIFT: an analysis of outcome framing in intertemporal choice.

    PubMed

    Read, Daniel; Frederick, Shane; Scholten, Marc

    2013-03-01

    People prefer to receive good outcomes immediately rather than wait, and they must be compensated for waiting. But what influences their decision about how much compensation is required for a given wait? To give a partial answer to this question, we develop the DRIFT model, a heuristic description of how framing influences intertemporal choice. We describe 4 experiments showing the implications of this model. In the experiments, we vary how the difference between a smaller sooner outcome and a larger later outcome is framed-either as total interest earned, as an interest rate, or as total amount earned (the conventional frame in studies of intertemporal choice)-and whether the larger later outcome is described as resulting from the investment of the smaller sooner one. These alternate frames have several effects. First, the investment language increases patience. Second, the explicit provision of the (otherwise implicit) experimental interest rate sharply reduces the magnitude effect. Correspondingly, we find that interest frames increase patience when the rewards are small, but they decrease patience when they are large. Third, the interest-rate frame induces somewhat greater discounting for longer time periods and, thus, reverses the common finding of "hyperbolic" discounting. Thus, many of the "stylized facts" implied by studies involving choices between a smaller sooner and a larger later amount are eliminated or reverse under alternate outcome frames. PMID:22866891

  9. Lattice QCD in rotating frames.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata; Hirono, Yuji

    2013-08-23

    We formulate lattice QCD in rotating frames to study the physics of QCD matter under rotation. We construct the lattice QCD action with the rotational metric and apply it to the Monte Carlo simulation. As the first application, we calculate the angular momenta of gluons and quarks in the rotating QCD vacuum. This new framework is useful to analyze various rotation-related phenomena in QCD. PMID:24010426

  10. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  11. A-frame model for metaphor

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, W.

    1982-01-01

    While literal language is successfully being subjected to automatic analysis, metaphors remain intractable. Using Minsky's frame theory the metaphoric process is viewed as a copying of stereotypic terminal clusters from the frames of the 1 degrees and 2 degrees terms of the metaphor. Stereotypic values from the two original frames share equal status in this new frame, while non-stereotypic values from the two will be kept separate for possible use in metaphoric extension. The a-frame analysis is illustrated by application to non-literary novel metaphors. Frames provide the quantity of information needed for interpretation. Certain frame values are marked as stereotypic. Creativity is realized by the construction of a new a-frame, and the tension is realized by the presence in a single a-frame of both shared stereotypic and discrete non-stereotypic values. 10 references.

  12. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, N.; Bryson, S.; Caldwell, D. A.; Clarke, B.; Haas, M. R.; Jenkins, J.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Quintana, E.; Van Cleve, J.; Kepler Team

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 106 mv < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  13. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 10(exp 6) m_v < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk.

  14. Framed Morse functions on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtseva, Elena A; Permyakov, Dmitrii A

    2010-06-09

    Let M be a smooth, compact, not necessarily orientable surface with (maybe empty) boundary, and let F be the space of Morse functions on M that are constant on each component of the boundary and have no critical points at the boundary. The notion of framing is defined for a Morse function f element of F. In the case of an orientable surface M this is a closed 1-form {alpha} on M with punctures at the critical points of local minimum and maximum of f such that in a neighbourhood of each critical point the pair (f,{alpha}) has a canonical form in a suitable local coordinate chart and the 2-form df and {alpha} does not vanish on M punctured at the critical points and defines there a positive orientation. Each Morse function on M is shown to have a framing, and the space F endowed with the C{sup {infinity}-}topology is homotopy equivalent to the space F of framed Morse functions. The results obtained make it possible to reduce the problem of describing the homotopy type of F to the simpler problem of finding the homotopy type of F. As a solution of the latter, an analogue of the parametric h-principle is stated for the space F. Bibliography: 41 titles.

  15. Coincidence ion imaging with a fast frame camera

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Cudry, Fadia; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Fan, Lin; Li, Wen

    2014-12-15

    A new time- and position-sensitive particle detection system based on a fast frame CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductors) camera is developed for coincidence ion imaging. The system is composed of four major components: a conventional microchannel plate/phosphor screen ion imager, a fast frame CMOS camera, a single anode photomultiplier tube (PMT), and a high-speed digitizer. The system collects the positional information of ions from a fast frame camera through real-time centroiding while the arrival times are obtained from the timing signal of a PMT processed by a high-speed digitizer. Multi-hit capability is achieved by correlating the intensity of ion spots on each camera frame with the peak heights on the corresponding time-of-flight spectrum of a PMT. Efficient computer algorithms are developed to process camera frames and digitizer traces in real-time at 1 kHz laser repetition rate. We demonstrate the capability of this system by detecting a momentum-matched co-fragments pair (methyl and iodine cations) produced from strong field dissociative double ionization of methyl iodide.

  16. Reciprocal Relativity of Noninertial Frames and the Quaplectic Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Stephen G.

    2006-04-01

    Newtonian mechanics has the concept of an absolute inertial rest frame. Special relativity eliminates the absolute rest frame but continues to require the absolute inertial frame. General relativity solves this for gravity by requiring particles to have locally inertial frames on a curved position-time manifold. The problem of the absolute inertial frame for other forces remains. We look again at the transformations of frames on an extended phase space with position, time, energy and momentum degrees of freedom. Under nonrelativistic assumptions, there is an invariant symplectic metric and a line element dt^2. Under special relativistic assumptions the symplectic metric continues to be invariant but the line elements are now -dt^2+dq^2/c^2 and dp^2-de^2/c^2. Max Born conjectured that the line element should be generalized to the pseudo- orthogonal metric -dt^2+dq^2/c^2+ (1/b^2)(dp^2-de^2/c^2). The group leaving these two metrics invariant is the pseudo-unitary group of transformations between noninertial frames. We show that these transformations eliminate the need for an absolute inertial frame by making forces relative and bounded by b and so embodies a relativity that is 'reciprocal' in the sense of Born. The inhomogeneous version of this group is naturally the semidirect product of the pseudo-unitary group with the nonabelian Heisenberg group. This is the quaplectic group. The Heisenberg group itself is the semidirect product of two translation groups. This provides the noncommutative properties of position and momentum and also time and energy that are required for the quantum mechanics that results from considering the unitary representations of the quaplectic group.

  17. Performance-based plastic design method for steel concentric braced frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banihashemi, M. R.; Mirzagoltabar, A. R.; Tavakoli, H. R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a performance-based plastic design (PBPD) methodology for the design of steel concentric braced frames. The design base shear is obtained based on energy-work balance equation using pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism. To achieve the intended yield mechanism and behavior, plastic design is applied to detail the frame members. For validity, three baseline frames (3, 6, 9-story) are designed according to AISC (Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, 2005) seismic provisions (baseline frames). Then, the frames are redesigned based on the PBPD method. These frames are subjected to extensive nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses. The results show that the PBPD frames meet all the intended performance objectives in terms of yield mechanisms and target drifts, whereas the baseline frames show very poor response due to premature brace fractures leading to unacceptably large drifts and instability.

  18. Monolithic LTCC seal frame and lid

    DOEpatents

    Krueger, Daniel S.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Stockdale, Dave; Duncan, James Brent; Riggs, Bristen

    2016-06-21

    A method for forming a monolithic seal frame and lid for use with a substrate and electronic circuitry comprises the steps of forming a mandrel from a ceramic and glass based material, forming a seal frame and lid block from a ceramic and glass based material, creating a seal frame and lid by forming a compartment and a plurality of sidewalls in the seal frame and lid block, placing the seal frame and lid on the mandrel such that the mandrel fits within the compartment, and cofiring the seal frame and lid block.

  19. Framing and global health governance: key findings.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Colin; Lee, Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread agreement that collective action to address shared health challenges across countries is desirable and necessary, the realm of global health governance has remained highly problematic. A key reason for this is the manner in which health issues are presented ('framed'). Because multiple frames are operating simultaneously, confusion and a range of competing policy recommendations and priorities result. Drawing on the previous articles published in this Special Supplement, these key findings explore how health issues are framed, what makes a framing successful, what frames are used for and what effects framing has. PMID:23088193

  20. Optimization of post ablative I-131 scintigraphy: Comparison of 2 day vs. 7 day post therapy study in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC)

    SciTech Connect

    Khfan, S.; Waxman, A.; Nagaraj, N.

    1994-05-01

    Whole body scintigraphy is recommended following ablative I-131 therapy to assess residual iodine-avid tissue, including metastasis in patients with DTC. Some controversy exists regarding the optimum time for performing the post-ablative study. A study performed as early as 2 days post-therapy would be desirable since patients could be scanned prior to discharge from the hospital.

  1. Mars Science Laboratory Frame Manager for Centralized Frame Tree Database and Target Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Leger, Chris; Peters, Stephen; Carsten, Joseph; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The FM (Frame Manager) flight software module is responsible for maintaining the frame tree database containing coordinate transforms between frames. The frame tree is a proper tree structure of directed links, consisting of surface and rover subtrees. Actual frame transforms are updated by their owner. FM updates site and saved frames for the surface tree. As the rover drives to a new area, a new site frame with an incremented site index can be created. Several clients including ARM and RSM (Remote Sensing Mast) update their related rover frames that they own. Through the onboard centralized FM frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames. Important applications include target image pointing for RSM-mounted cameras and frame-referenced arm moves. The use of frame tree eliminates cumbersome, error-prone calculations of coordinate entries for commands and thus simplifies flight operations significantly.

  2. Memory-based frame synchronizer. [for digital communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A frame synchronizer for use in digital communications systems wherein data formats can be easily and dynamically changed is described. The use of memory array elements provide increased flexibility in format selection and sync word selection in addition to real time reconfiguration ability. The frame synchronizer comprises a serial-to-parallel converter which converts a serial input data stream to a constantly changing parallel data output. This parallel data output is supplied to programmable sync word recognizers each consisting of a multiplexer and a random access memory (RAM). The multiplexer is connected to both the parallel data output and an address bus which may be connected to a microprocessor or computer for purposes of programming the sync word recognizer. The RAM is used as an associative memory or decorder and is programmed to identify a specific sync word. Additional programmable RAMs are used as counter decoders to define word bit length, frame word length, and paragraph frame length.

  3. Multiple-frame IR photo-recorder KIT-3M

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, E; Wilkins, P; Nebeker, N; Murugov, V; Kravchenko, A; Lasarchuk, V; Litvin, D; Mis'ko, V; Petrov, S; Senik, A; Sheremetiev, Y

    2006-05-15

    This paper reports the experimental results of a high-speed multi-frame infrared camera which has been developed in Sarov at VNIIEF. Earlier [1] we discussed the possibility of creation of the multi-frame infrared radiation photo-recorder with framing frequency about 1 MHz. The basis of the photo-recorder is a semiconductor ionization camera [2, 3], which converts IR radiation of spectral range 1-10 micrometers into a visible image. Several sequential thermal images are registered by using the IR converter in conjunction with a multi-frame electron-optical camera. In the present report we discuss the performance characteristics of a prototype commercial 9-frame high-speed IR photo-recorder. The image converter records infrared images of thermal fields corresponding to temperatures ranging from 300 C to 2000 C with an exposure time of 1-20 {micro}s at a frame frequency up to 500 KHz. The IR-photo-recorder camera is useful for recording the time evolution of thermal fields in fast processes such as gas dynamics, ballistics, pulsed welding, thermal processing, automotive industry, aircraft construction, in pulsed-power electric experiments, and for the measurement of spatial mode characteristics of IR-laser radiation.

  4. Enhancement Strategies for Frame-To Uas Stereo Visual Odometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, J.; Rodehorst, V.

    2016-06-01

    Autonomous navigation of indoor unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) requires accurate pose estimations usually obtained from indirect measurements. Navigation based on inertial measurement units (IMU) is known to be affected by high drift rates. The incorporation of cameras provides complementary information due to the different underlying measurement principle. The scale ambiguity problem for monocular cameras is avoided when a light-weight stereo camera setup is used. However, also frame-to-frame stereo visual odometry (VO) approaches are known to accumulate pose estimation errors over time. Several valuable real-time capable techniques for outlier detection and drift reduction in frame-to-frame VO, for example robust relative orientation estimation using random sample consensus (RANSAC) and bundle adjustment, are available. This study addresses the problem of choosing appropriate VO components. We propose a frame-to-frame stereo VO method based on carefully selected components and parameters. This method is evaluated regarding the impact and value of different outlier detection and drift-reduction strategies, for example keyframe selection and sparse bundle adjustment (SBA), using reference benchmark data as well as own real stereo data. The experimental results demonstrate that our VO method is able to estimate quite accurate trajectories. Feature bucketing and keyframe selection are simple but effective strategies which further improve the VO results. Furthermore, introducing the stereo baseline constraint in pose graph optimization (PGO) leads to significant improvements.

  5. Framing effects on metacognitive monitoring and control

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Bridgid

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments explored the contribution of framing effects on metamemory judgments. In Experiment 1, participants studied word pairs. After each presentation, they made an immediate judgment of learning (JOL), framed in terms of either remembering or forgetting. In the remember frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would remember each pair on the upcoming test. In the forget frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would forget each pair. Confidence differed as a result of the frame. Forget frame JOLs, equated to the remember frame JOL scale by a 1-judgment conversion, were lower and demonstrated a smaller overconfidence bias than did remember frame JOLs. When judgments were made at a delay, framing effects did not occur. In Experiment 2, people chose to restudy more items when choices were made within a forget frame. In Experiment 3, people studied Spanish–English vocabulary pairs ranging in difficulty. The framing effect was replicated with judgments and choices. Moreover, forget frame participants included more easy and medium items to restudy. These results demonstrated the important consequences of framing effects on assessment and control of study. PMID:18604963

  6. Advanced High-Speed Framing Camera Development for Fast, Visible Imaging Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Lewis, Stuart Baker, Brian Cox, Abel Diaz, David Glass, Matthew Martin

    2011-05-11

    The advances in high-voltage switching developed in this project allow a camera user to rapidly vary the number of output frames from 1 to 25. A high-voltage, variable-amplitude pulse train shifts the deflection location to the new frame location during the interlude between frames, making multiple frame counts and locations possible. The final deflection circuit deflects to five different frame positions per axis, including the center position, making for a total of 25 frames. To create the preset voltages, electronically adjustable {+-}500 V power supplies were chosen. Digital-to-analog converters provide digital control of the supplies. The power supplies are clamped to {+-}400 V so as not to exceed the voltage ratings of the transistors. A field-programmable gated array (FPGA) receives the trigger signal and calculates the combination of plate voltages for each frame. The interframe time and number of frames are specified by the user, but are limited by the camera electronics. The variable-frame circuit shifts the plate voltages of the first frame to those of the second frame during the user-specified interframe time. Designed around an electrostatic image tube, a framing camera images the light present during each frame (at the photocathode) onto the tube’s phosphor. The phosphor persistence allows the camera to display multiple frames on the phosphor at one time. During this persistence, a CCD camera is triggered and the analog image is collected digitally. The tube functions by converting photons to electrons at the negatively charged photocathode. The electrons move quickly toward the more positive charge of the phosphor. Two sets of deflection plates skew the electron’s path in horizontal and vertical (x axis and y axis, respectively) directions. Hence, each frame’s electrons bombard the phosphor surface at a controlled location defined by the voltages on the deflection plates. To prevent the phosphor from being exposed between frames, the image tube

  7. Fabric panel clean change-out frame

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ronald M.

    1995-01-31

    A fabric panel clean change-out frame, for use on a containment structure having rigid walls, is formed of a compression frame and a closure panel. The frame is formed of elongated spacers, each carrying a plurality of closely spaced flat springs, and each having a hooked lip extending on the side of the spring facing the spacer. The closure panel is includes a perimeter frame formed of flexible, wedge-shaped frame members that are receivable under the springs to deflect the hooked lips. A groove on the flexible frame members engages the hooked lips and locks the frame members in place under the springs. A flexible fabric panel is connected to the flexible frame members and closes its center.

  8. Reference frames and reference networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The summary of research activities concerning reference frames and reference networks performed in Poland in a period of 2011-2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on implementation of IUGG2011 and IAU2012 resolutions on reference systems, implementation of the ETRS89 in Poland, operational work of permanent IGS/ EUREF stations in Poland, operational work of ILRS laser ranging station in Poland, active GNSS station networks in Poland, maintenance of vertical control in Poland, maintenance and modernization of gravity control, and maintenance of magnetic control in Poland. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.

  9. Entangled light in moving frames

    SciTech Connect

    Gingrich, Robert M.; Bergou, Attila J.; Adami, Christoph

    2003-10-01

    We calculate the entanglement between a pair of polarization-entangled photon beams as a function of the reference frame, in a fully relativistic framework. We find the transformation law for helicity basis states and show that, while it is frequency independent, a Lorentz transformation on a momentum-helicity eigenstate produces a momentum-dependent phase. This phase leads to changes in the reduced polarization density matrix, such that entanglement is either decreased or increased, depending on the boost direction, the rapidity, and the spread of the beam.

  10. Four-frame gated optical imager with 120-ps resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Phillion, D.W.; Campbell, E.M.

    1987-08-11

    In this paper we describe a framing camera capable of four separate two-dimensional images with each frame having a 120-ps gate width. The time separation between frames can be selected arbitrarily. Fast gating of a single frame is accomplished by using a standard wafer image intensifier tube in which the cathode is capacitively coupled to a conducting mesh placed over the input window of the tube. The mesh is then pulsed relative to the microchannel plate by a narrow (120 ps), high-voltage pulse. The transmission of the tube as a function of time has been verified using a laser-diode pulser and is approximately Gaussian with a FWHM of 120 ps. Multiple frames are obtained using multiple gated tubes which can then share a single bias supply and pulser with relative gate times selected by the cable lengths between the tubes and the pulser. A beamsplitter system has been constructed which produces a separate image for each tube from a single scene. In the present system, the tubes use S-20 photocathodes with an 18 mm diameter and quartz input windows. Spatial resolution is unchanged between d.c. and fast gated operations and has been measured to 10 lp/mm. Applications to time-dependent behavior in laser-produced plasmas will be presented. 7 figs.

  11. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience. PMID:27034630

  12. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  13. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  16. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  18. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

  19. Non-Syntactic Antecedents and Frame Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensler, Orin

    A polemic is made for frame semantics and the linguistic phenomenon of anaphoric reference without noun phrase (NP) antecedent is examined within this frame. Non-syntactic anaphora is that which does not point out into the real world but rather points back into the discourse in a frame which has been built up between the speaker and hearer in a…

  20. Simultaneous message framing and error detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, A. H., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Circuitry simultaneously inserts message framing information and detects noise errors in binary code data transmissions. Separate message groups are framed without requiring both framing bits and error-checking bits, and predetermined message sequence are separated from other message sequences without being hampered by intervening noise.

  1. Popcorn Story Frames from a Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    Popcorn story frames from a multicultural perspective are holistic outlines that in the reading/writing process facilitate comprehension for all cultures learning to read and write stories. Popcorn story frames are structured and modeled in a horizontal fashion just like popcorn pops in a horizontal fashion. The frames are designed for learners…

  2. Informative frame detection from wireless capsule video endoscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashar, Md. Khayrul; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mekada, Yoshito

    2008-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a new clinical technology permitting the visualization of the small bowel, the most difficult segment of the digestive tract. The major drawback of this technology is the high amount of time for video diagnosis. In this study, we propose a method for informative frame detection by isolating useless frames that are substantially covered by turbid fluids or their contamination with other materials, e.g., faecal, semi-processed or unabsorbed foods etc. Such materials and fluids present a wide range of colors, from brown to yellow, and/or bubble-like texture patterns. The detection scheme, therefore, consists of two stages: highly contaminated non-bubbled (HCN) frame detection and significantly bubbled (SB) frame detection. Local color moments in the Ohta color space are used to characterize HCN frames, which are isolated by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in Stage-1. The rest of the frames go to the Stage-2, where Laguerre gauss Circular Harmonic Functions (LG-CHFs) extract the characteristics of the bubble-structures in a multi-resolution framework. An automatic segmentation method is designed to extract the bubbled regions based on local absolute energies of the CHF responses, derived from the grayscale version of the original color image. Final detection of the informative frames is obtained by using threshold operation on the extracted regions. An experiment with 20,558 frames from the three videos shows the excellent average detection accuracy (96.75%) by the proposed method, when compared with the Gabor based- (74.29%) and discrete wavelet based features (62.21%).

  3. Swift Reveals a ~5.7 Day Super-orbital Period in the M31 Globular Cluster X-Ray Binary XB158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29 ± 1 times the orbital period, i.e., ~81 ± 3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ~1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3-10 keV Swift X-Ray Telescope luminosity light curve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65 ± 0.05 days, and a >5σ improvement in χ2 over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods of 5.4-5.8 days were detected at a >3σ level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ~70% longer than the predicted period. The 0.3-10 keV luminosity varied by a factor of ~5, consistent with variations seen in long-term monitoring from Chandra. We conclude that other X-ray binaries exhibiting similar long-term behavior are likely to also be X-ray binaries with low mass ratios and super-orbital periods.

  4. Framing Climate Change to Account for Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassol, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Belief, trust and values are important but generally overlooked in efforts to communicate climate change. Because climate change has often been framed too narrowly as an environmental issue, it has failed to engage segments of the public for whom environmentalism is not an important value. Worse, for some of these people, environmentalism and the policies that accompany it may be seen as a threat to their core values, such as the importance of personal freedoms and the free market. Climate science educators can improve this situation by more appropriately framing climate change as an issue affecting the economy and our most basic human needs: food, water, shelter, security, health, jobs, and the safety of our families. Further, because people trust and listen to those with whom they share cultural values, climate change educators can stress the kinds of values their audiences share. They can also enlist the support of opinion leaders known for holding these values. In addition, incorporating messages about solutions to climate change and their many benefits to economic prosperity, human health, and other values is an important component of meeting this challenge. We must also recognize that local impacts are of greater concern to most people than changes that feel distant in place and time. Different audiences have different concerns, and effective educators will learn what their audiences care about and tailor their messages accordingly.

  5. Frame by Frame II: A Filmography of the African American Image, 1978-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotman, Phyllis R.; Gibson, Gloria J.

    A reference guide on African American film professionals, this book is a companion volume to the earlier "Frame by Frame I." It focuses on giving credit to African Americans who have contributed their talents to a film industry that has scarcely recognized their contributions, building on the aforementioned "Frame by Frame I," which included…

  6. Adding HDLC Framing to CCSDS Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Current Space IP missions use High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) framing to provide standard serial link interfaces over a space link. HDLC is the standard framing technique used by all routers over clock and data serial lines and is also the basic framing used in all Frame Relay services which are widely deployed in national and international communication networks. In late 2003 a presentation was made to CCSDS committees to initiate discussion on including HDLC in the CCSDS recommendations for space systems. This presentation will summarize the differences between variable length HDLC frames and fixed length CCSDS frames. It will also discuss where and how HDLC framing would fit into the overall CCSDS structures.

  7. Technological Frame Incongruence, Diffusion, and Noncompliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobreperez, Polly

    The technological frames of reference strand of social shaping of technology theory is used to overlay the issues arising from a case study looking at noncompliance with information systems. A recent review of the theory suggests that although frame content is often addressed, frame structure, the process of framing, and the characteristics and outcomes of frames are largely overlooked. This paper attempts to address this shortfall by applying the indicators identified by case study research to the frames of different groups and using them to highlight differing perceptions and attitudes. In this way, the author suggests that issues surrounding noncompliance should not be dismissed as resistance but instead should be further studied by managers and developers, leading to accommodation of differing views. Further examination of frame incongruence reveals dependence on inefficient or ineffective organizational situations and thus these indicators can be useful in future studies to identify and address procedural, acceptance and cultural issues leading to acts of noncompliance.

  8. A multi-frame, megahertz CCD imager

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jacob A; Balzer, Stephen J; Watson, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    A high-efficiency, high-speed imager has been fabricated capable of framing rates of 2 MHz. This device utilizes a 512 x 512 pixel charge coupled device (CCD) with a 25cmZ active area, and incorporates an electronic shutter technology designed for back-illuminated CCD's, making this the largest and fastest back-illuminated CCD in the world. Characterizing an imager capable of this frame rate presents unique challenges. High speed LED drivers and intense radioactive sources are needed to perform basic measurements. We investigate properties normally associated with single-frame CCD's such as read noise, gain, full-well capacity, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), sensitivity, and linearity. In addition, we investigate several properties associated with the imager's multi-frame operation such as transient frame response and frame-to-frame isolation while contrasting our measurement techniques and results with more conventional devices.

  9. A multi-frame, megahertz CCd imager

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jacob; Balzer, Stephen; Watson, Scott; Reich, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To record high-speed, explosively driven, events, a high efficiency, high speed, imager has been fabricated which is capable of framing rates of 2 MHz. This device utilizes a 512 x 512 pixel charge coupled device (CCD) with a 25cm{sup 2} active area, and incorporates an electronic shutter technology designed for back-illuminated CCD's, making this the largest and fastest back-illuminated CCD in the world. Characterizing an imager capable of this frame rate presents unique challenges. High speed LED drivers and intense radioactive sources are needed to perform the most basic measurements. We investigate properties normally associated with single-frame CCD's such as read noise, full-well capacity, sensitivity, signal to noise ratio, linearity and dynamic range. In addition, we investigate several properties associated with the imager's multi-frame operation such as transient frame response and frame-to-frame isolation while contrasting our measurement techniques and results with more conventional devices.

  10. Parallel integrated frame synchronizer chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder Singh (Inventor); Solomon, Jeffrey Michael (Inventor); Bennett, Toby Dennis (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A parallel integrated frame synchronizer which implements a sequential pipeline process wherein serial data in the form of telemetry data or weather satellite data enters the synchronizer by means of a front-end subsystem and passes to a parallel correlator subsystem or a weather satellite data processing subsystem. When in a CCSDS mode, data from the parallel correlator subsystem passes through a window subsystem, then to a data alignment subsystem and then to a bit transition density (BTD)/cyclical redundancy check (CRC) decoding subsystem. Data from the BTD/CRC decoding subsystem or data from the weather satellite data processing subsystem is then fed to an output subsystem where it is output from a data output port.

  11. Quantum decoherence in noninertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang

    2010-09-01

    Quantum decoherence, which appears when a system interacts with its environment in an irreversible way, plays a fundamental role in the description of quantum-to-classical transitions and has been successfully applied in some important experiments. Here, we study the decoherence in noninertial frames. It is shown that the decoherence and loss of the entanglement generated by the Unruh effect will influence each other remarkably. It is interesting to note that, in the case of the total system under decoherence, the sudden death of entanglement may appear for any acceleration. However, in the case of only Rob’s qubit undergoing decoherence, sudden death may only occur when the acceleration parameter is greater than a “critical point.”

  12. Moving frames and prolongation algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1982-01-01

    Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.

  13. Quantum decoherence in noninertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jieci; Jing Jiliang

    2010-09-15

    Quantum decoherence, which appears when a system interacts with its environment in an irreversible way, plays a fundamental role in the description of quantum-to-classical transitions and has been successfully applied in some important experiments. Here, we study the decoherence in noninertial frames. It is shown that the decoherence and loss of the entanglement generated by the Unruh effect will influence each other remarkably. It is interesting to note that, in the case of the total system under decoherence, the sudden death of entanglement may appear for any acceleration. However, in the case of only Rob's qubit undergoing decoherence, sudden death may only occur when the acceleration parameter is greater than a 'critical point'.

  14. Development and Performance of Bechtel Nevada's Nine-Frame Camera System

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Baker; M. J. Griffith; J. L. Tybo

    2002-07-01

    Bechtel Nevada, Los Alamos Operations, has developed a high-speed, nine-frame camera system that records a sequence from a changing or dynamic scene. The system incorporates an electrostatic image tube with custom gating and deflection electrodes. The framing tube is shuttered with high-speed gating electronics, yielding frame rates of up to 5MHz. Dynamic scenes are lens-coupled to the camera, which contains a single photocathode gated on and off to control each exposure time. Deflection plates and drive electronics move the frames to different locations on the framing tube output. A single charge-coupled device (CCD) camera then records the phosphor image of all nine frames. This paper discusses setup techniques to optimize system performance. It examines two alternate philosophies for system configuration and respective performance results. We also present performance metrics for system evaluation, experimental results, and applications to four-frame cameras.

  15. A new frame-based registration algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yan, C H; Whalen, R T; Beaupre, G S; Sumanaweera, T S; Yen, S Y; Napel, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for frame registration. Our algorithm requires only that the frame be comprised of straight rods, as opposed to the N structures or an accurate frame model required by existing algorithms. The algorithm utilizes the full 3D information in the frame as well as a least squares weighting scheme to achieve highly accurate registration. We use simulated CT data to assess the accuracy of our algorithm. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to two commonly used algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable to the best existing techniques with knowledge of the exact mathematical frame model. For CT data corrupted with an unknown in-plane rotation or translation, the proposed technique is also comparable to the best existing techniques. However, in situations where there is a discrepancy of more than 2 mm (0.7% of the frame dimension) between the frame and the mathematical model, the proposed technique is significantly better (p < or = 0.05) than the existing techniques. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any existing frame without modification. It provides better registration accuracy and is robust against model mis-match. It allows greater flexibility on the frame structure. Lastly, it reduces the frame construction cost as adherence to a concise model is not required. PMID:9472834

  16. A new frame-based registration algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, C. H.; Whalen, R. T.; Beaupre, G. S.; Sumanaweera, T. S.; Yen, S. Y.; Napel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for frame registration. Our algorithm requires only that the frame be comprised of straight rods, as opposed to the N structures or an accurate frame model required by existing algorithms. The algorithm utilizes the full 3D information in the frame as well as a least squares weighting scheme to achieve highly accurate registration. We use simulated CT data to assess the accuracy of our algorithm. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to two commonly used algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable to the best existing techniques with knowledge of the exact mathematical frame model. For CT data corrupted with an unknown in-plane rotation or translation, the proposed technique is also comparable to the best existing techniques. However, in situations where there is a discrepancy of more than 2 mm (0.7% of the frame dimension) between the frame and the mathematical model, the proposed technique is significantly better (p < or = 0.05) than the existing techniques. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any existing frame without modification. It provides better registration accuracy and is robust against model mis-match. It allows greater flexibility on the frame structure. Lastly, it reduces the frame construction cost as adherence to a concise model is not required.

  17. HIGH SPEED KERR CELL FRAMING CAMERA

    DOEpatents

    Goss, W.C.; Gilley, L.F.

    1964-01-01

    The present invention relates to a high speed camera utilizing a Kerr cell shutter and a novel optical delay system having no moving parts. The camera can selectively photograph at least 6 frames within 9 x 10/sup -8/ seconds during any such time interval of an occurring event. The invention utilizes particularly an optical system which views and transmits 6 images of an event to a multi-channeled optical delay relay system. The delay relay system has optical paths of successively increased length in whole multiples of the first channel optical path length, into which optical paths the 6 images are transmitted. The successively delayed images are accepted from the exit of the delay relay system by an optical image focusing means, which in turn directs the images into a Kerr cell shutter disposed to intercept the image paths. A camera is disposed to simultaneously view and record the 6 images during a single exposure of the Kerr cell shutter. (AEC)

  18. Automatic detection of informative frames from wireless capsule endoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Bashar, M K; Kitasaka, T; Suenaga, Y; Mekada, Y; Mori, K

    2010-06-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a new clinical technology permitting visualization of the small bowel, the most difficult segment of the digestive tract. The major drawback of this technology is the excessive amount of time required for video diagnosis. We therefore propose a method for generating smaller videos by detecting informative frames from original WCE videos. This method isolates useless frames that are highly contaminated by turbid fluids, faecal materials and/or residual foods. These materials and fluids are presented in a wide range of colors, from brown to yellow, and/or have bubble-like texture patterns. The detection scheme therefore consists of two steps: isolating (Step-1) highly contaminated non-bubbled (HCN) frames and (Step-2) significantly bubbled (SB) frames. Two color representations, viz., local color moments in Ohta space and the HSV color histogram, are attempted to characterize HCN frames, which are isolated by a support vector machine (SVM) classifier in Step-1. The rest of the frames go to Step-2, where a Gauss Laguerre transform (GLT) based multiresolution texture feature is used to characterize the bubble structures in WCE frames. GLT uses Laguerre Gauss circular harmonic functions (LG-CHFs) to decompose WCE images into multiresolution components. An automatic method of segmentation was designed to extract bubbled regions from grayscale versions of the color images based on the local absolute energies of their CHF responses. The final informative frames were detected by using a threshold on the segmented regions. An automatic procedure for selecting features based on analyzing the consistency of the energy-contrast map is also proposed. Three experiments, two of which use 14,841 and 37,100 frames from three videos and the rest uses 66,582 frames from six videos, were conducted for justifying the proposed method. The two combinations of the proposed color and texture features showed excellent average detection accuracies (86

  19. Embracing the Long View: A Funder's Perspective on Strategic Frame Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Jane; McPhail, Curt

    2009-01-01

    This interview between a member of the FrameWorks staff and a long-time funder of FrameWorks research and field building highlights the critical role that communications can play in maximizing philanthropy's long-term impact in the social sector, even--or perhaps especially--in times of economic scarcity and retrenchment. The interview captures…

  20. Pseudo-entanglement evaluated in noninertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Rahimi, Robabeh

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > We study pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. > We examine different measures of entanglement and nonclassical correlation for the state. > We find the threshold for entanglement is changed in noninertial frames. > We also describe the behavior of local unitary classes of states in noninertial frames. - Abstract: We study quantum discord, in addition to entanglement, of bipartite pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement degrades from its maximum value in a stationary frame to a minimum value in an infinite accelerating frame. There is a critical region found in which, for particular cases, entanglement of states vanishes for certain accelerations. The quantum discord of pseudo-entanglement decreases by increasing the acceleration. Also, for a physically inaccessible region, entanglement and nonclassical correlation are evaluated and shown to match the corresponding values of the physically accessible region for an infinite acceleration.

  1. Dynamic frame selection for in vivo ultrasound temperature estimation during radiofrequency ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Matthew J.; Varghese, Tomy

    2010-08-01

    Minimally invasive therapies such as radiofrequency ablation have been developed to treat cancers of the liver, prostate and kidney without invasive surgery. Prior work has demonstrated that ultrasound echo shifts due to temperature changes can be utilized to track the temperature distribution in real time. In this paper, a motion compensation algorithm is evaluated to reduce the impact of cardiac and respiratory motion on ultrasound-based temperature tracking methods. The algorithm dynamically selects the next suitable frame given a start frame (selected during the exhale or expiration phase where extraneous motion is reduced), enabling optimization of the computational time in addition to reducing displacement noise artifacts incurred with the estimation of smaller frame-to-frame displacements at the full frame rate. A region of interest that does not undergo ablation is selected in the first frame and the algorithm searches through subsequent frames to find a similarly located region of interest in subsequent frames, with a high value of the mean normalized cross-correlation coefficient value. In conjunction with dynamic frame selection, two different two-dimensional displacement estimation algorithms namely a block matching and multilevel cross-correlation are compared. The multi-level cross-correlation method incorporates tracking of the lateral tissue expansion in addition to the axial deformation to improve the estimation performance. Our results demonstrate the ability of the proposed motion compensation using dynamic frame selection in conjunction with the two-dimensional multilevel cross-correlation to track the temperature distribution.

  2. Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.

  3. The time frame of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 gene to disappear in nasopharyngeal swabs after initiation of primary radiotherapy is an independently significant prognostic factor predicting local control for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.-Y.; Chang, K.-P.; Hsieh, M.-S.; Ueng, S.-H.; Hao, S.-P.; Tseng, C.-K.; Pai, P.-C.; Chang, F.-T.; Tsai, M.-H.; Tsang, N.-M. . E-mail: rt3126@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: The presence of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene in nasopharyngeal swabs indicates the presence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mucosal tumor cells. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the time taken for LMP-1 to disappear after initiation of primary radiotherapy (RT) was inversely associated with NPC local control. Methods and Materials: During July 1999 and October 2002, there were 127 nondisseminated NPC patients receiving serial examinations of nasopharyngeal swabbing with detection of LMP-1 during the RT course. The time for LMP-1 regression was defined as the number of days after initiation of RT for LMP-1 results to turn negative. The primary outcome was local control, which was represented by freedom from local recurrence. Results: The time for LMP-1 regression showed a statistically significant influence on NPC local control both univariately (p < 0.0001) and multivariately (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, the administration of chemotherapy conferred a significantly more favorable local control (p = 0.03). Advanced T status ({>=} T2b), overall treatment time of external photon radiotherapy longer than 55 days, and older age showed trends toward being poor prognosticators. The time for LMP-1 regression was very heterogeneous. According to the quartiles of the time for LMP-1 regression, we defined the pattern of LMP-1 regression as late regression if it required 40 days or more. Kaplan-Meier plots indicated that the patients with late regression had a significantly worse local control than those with intermediate or early regression (p 0.0129). Conclusion: Among the potential prognostic factors examined in this study, the time for LMP-1 regression was the most independently significant factor that was inversely associated with NPC local control.

  4. FRAMES User Defined Body Burden Concentration File Module Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pelton, Mitchell A.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Eslinger, Melany A.; Gelston, Gariann M.

    2001-06-01

    The Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) Body Burden Concentration File (BBF) contains time-varying, instantaneous, constituent concentrations for body burden by contaminant. This report contains the requirements for this file and will be used by software engineers and testers to ensure that the file inputs properly.

  5. Vectorial harmonics: from link of frames to stellar kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuksto, A. K.; Vityazev, V. V.

    2006-10-01

    In astrometry, the vectorial spherical functions were used for the first time for determination of the orientation and spin between the FK5 and HIPPARCOS reference frames. The present paper is devoted to elaboration of this approach to the kinematical analysis of the proper motions.

  6. 2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION, SHIPLOADER SIDE. WEST WALL. MARINE LEG ADDED SOME TIME BETWEEN 1907-1919. METAL PASSENGER ELEVATOR SHAFT ADDED IN EARLY 1970S. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  7. Interactive wire-frame ship hullform generation and display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. E.; Garbini, J. L.; Ishimaru, J.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive automated procedure to generate a wire frame graphic image of a ship hullform, which uses a digitizing tablet in conjunction with the hullform lines drawing, was developed. The geometric image created is displayed on an Evans & Sutherland PS-300 graphics terminal for real time interactive viewing or is output as hard copy on an inexpensive dot matrix printer.

  8. Frame-based cranial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hochfeld, Mascha; Lamecker, Hans; Thomale, Ulrich-W; Schulz, Matthias; Zachow, Stefan; Haberl, Hannes

    2014-03-01

    The authors report on the first experiences with the prototype of a surgical tool for cranial remodeling. The device enables the surgeon to transfer statistical information, represented in a model, into the disfigured bone. The model is derived from a currently evolving databank of normal head shapes. Ultimately, the databank will provide a set of standard models covering the statistical range of normal head shapes, thus providing the required template for any standard remodeling procedure as well as customized models for intended overcorrection. To date, this technique has been used in the surgical treatment of 14 infants (age range 6-12 months) with craniosynostosis. In all 14 cases, the designated esthetic result, embodied by the selected model, has been achieved, without morbidity or mortality. Frame-based reconstruction provides the required tools to precisely realize the surgical reproduction of the model shape. It enables the establishment of a self-referring system, feeding back postoperative growth patterns, recorded by 3D follow-up, into the model design. PMID:24437987

  9. Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christopher; Vissasenor, John

    2009-01-01

    A method of pilotless frame synchronization has been devised for low- density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In pilotless frame synchronization , there are no pilot symbols; instead, the offset is estimated by ex ploiting selected aspects of the structure of the code. The advantag e of pilotless frame synchronization is that the bandwidth of the sig nal is reduced by an amount associated with elimination of the pilot symbols. The disadvantage is an increase in the amount of receiver data processing needed for frame synchronization.

  10. Composite curved frames for helicopter fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.; Lowry, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analysis and testing of composite curved frames. A major frame was selected from the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter and designed as a composite structure. The curved beam effects were expected to increase flange axial stresses and induce transverse bending. A NASTRAN finite element analysis was conducted and the results were used in the design of composite curved frame specimens. Three specimens were fabricated and five static tests were conducted. The NASTRAN analysis and test results are compared for axial, transverse, and Web strains. Results show the curved beam effects are closely predicted by a NASTRAN analysis and the effects increase with loading on the composite frames.

  11. Pyramidal space frame and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Ryan Michael; White, David; Farr, Jr, Adrian Lawrence

    2016-07-19

    A space frame having a high torsional strength comprising a first square bipyramid and two planar structures extending outward from an apex of the first square bipyramid to form a "V" shape is disclosed. Some embodiments comprise a plurality of edge-sharing square bipyramids configured linearly, where the two planar structures contact apexes of all the square bipyramids. A plurality of bridging struts, apex struts, corner struts and optional internal bracing struts increase the strength and rigidity of the space frame. In an embodiment, the space frame supports a solar reflector, such as a parabolic solar reflector. Methods of fabricating and using the space frames are also disclosed.

  12. Implementation of a frame-based representation in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assal, Hisham; Myers, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge representation is one of the major concerns in expert systems. The representation of domain-specific knowledge should agree with the nature of the domain entities and their use in the real world. For example, architectural applications deal with objects and entities such as spaces, walls, and windows. A natural way of representing these architectural entities is provided by frames. This research explores the potential of using the expert system shell CLIPS, developed by NASA, to implement a frame-based representation that can accommodate architectural knowledge. These frames are similar but quite different from the 'template' construct in version 4.3 of CLIPS. Templates support only the grouping of related information and the assignment of default values to template fields. In addition to these features frames provide other capabilities including definition of classes, inheritance between classes and subclasses, relation of objects of different classes with 'has-a', association of methods (demons) of different types (standard and user-defined) to fields (slots), and creation of new fields at run-time. This frame-based representation is implemented completely in CLIPS. No change to the source code is necessary.

  13. Reference frames in virtual spatial navigation are viewpoint dependent

    PubMed Central

    Török, Ágoston; Nguyen, T. Peter; Kolozsvári, Orsolya; Buchanan, Robert J.; Nadasdy, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Spatial navigation in the mammalian brain relies on a cognitive map of the environment. Such cognitive maps enable us, for example, to take the optimal route from a given location to a known target. The formation of these maps is naturally influenced by our perception of the environment, meaning it is dependent on factors such as our viewpoint and choice of reference frame. Yet, it is unknown how these factors influence the construction of cognitive maps. Here, we evaluated how various combinations of viewpoints and reference frames affect subjects' performance when they navigated in a bounded virtual environment without landmarks. We measured both their path length and time efficiency and found that (1) ground perspective was associated with egocentric frame of reference, (2) aerial perspective was associated with allocentric frame of reference, (3) there was no appreciable performance difference between first and third person egocentric viewing positions and (4) while none of these effects were dependent on gender, males tended to perform better in general. Our study provides evidence that there are inherent associations between visual perspectives and cognitive reference frames. This result has implications about the mechanisms of path integration in the human brain and may also inspire designs of virtual reality applications. Lastly, we demonstrated the effective use of a tablet PC and spatial navigation tasks for studying spatial and cognitive aspects of human memory. PMID:25249956

  14. Media framing of complex issues: The case of endangered languages.

    PubMed

    Rivenburgh, Nancy K

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates how media frame a global trend that is complex in nature, emergent in terms of scientific understanding, and has public policy implications: the rapid disappearance of languages. It analyzes how English-language media from 15 western, industrialized countries frame the causes and implications of endangered languages over 35 years (1971-2006) - a time period notable for growing, interdisciplinary concerns over the potential negative impacts of losing the world's linguistic diversity. The results reveal a media discourse characterized by three complementary frames that are sympathetic to the plight of endangered languages, but that present the problem, its cause, and societal implications in a logical structure that would promote public complacency. PMID:23885053

  15. Network-based H.264/AVC whole frame loss visibility model and frame dropping methods.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yueh-Lun; Lin, Ting-Lan; Cosman, Pamela C

    2012-08-01

    We examine the visual effect of whole frame loss by different decoders. Whole frame losses are introduced in H.264/AVC compressed videos which are then decoded by two different decoders with different common concealment effects: frame copy and frame interpolation. The videos are seen by human observers who respond to each glitch they spot. We found that about 39% of whole frame losses of B frames are not observed by any of the subjects, and over 58% of the B frame losses are observed by 20% or fewer of the subjects. Using simple predictive features which can be calculated inside a network node with no access to the original video and no pixel level reconstruction of the frame, we developed models which can predict the visibility of whole B frame losses. The models are then used in a router to predict the visual impact of a frame loss and perform intelligent frame dropping to relieve network congestion. Dropping frames based on their visual scores proves superior to random dropping of B frames. PMID:22453638

  16. Modeling laser wakefield accelerators in a Lorentz boosted frame

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grotec, D. P.

    2010-06-15

    Modeling of laser-plasma wakefield accelerators in an optimal frame of reference is shown to produce orders of magnitude speed-up of calculations from first principles. Obtaining these speedups requires mitigation of a high-frequency instability that otherwise limits effectiveness in addition to solutions for handling data input and output in a relativistically boosted frame of reference. The observed high-frequency instability is mitigated using methods including an electromagnetic solver with tunable coefficients, its extension to accomodate Perfectly Matched Layers and Friedman's damping algorithms, as well as an efficient large bandwidth digital filter. It is shown that choosing the frame of the wake as the frame of reference allows for higher levels of filtering and damping than is possible in other frames for the same accuracy. Detailed testing also revealed serendipitously the existence of a singular time step at which the instability level is minimized, independently of numerical dispersion, thus indicating that the observed instability may not be due primarily to Numerical Cerenkov as has been conjectured. The techniques developed for Cerenkov mitigation prove nonetheless to be very efficient at controlling the instability. Using these techniques, agreement at the percentage level is demonstrated between simulations using different frames of reference, with speedups reaching two orders of magnitude for a 0.1 GeV class stages. The method then allows direct and efficient full-scale modeling of deeply depleted laser-plasma stages of 10 GeV-1 TeV for the first time, verifying the scaling of plasma accelerators to very high energies. Over 4, 5 and 6 orders of magnitude speedup is achieved for the modeling of 10 GeV, 100 GeV and 1 TeV class stages, respectively.

  17. Improved frame synchronization schemes for INMARSAT-B/M SCPC and TDM channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Si-Ming; Hanson, Randy L.; Madill, Donald H.; Chapman, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes faster, more robust, frame synchronization schemes for various Inmarsat-B and Inmarsat-M communication and signalling channels. Equations are developed which permit frame synchronization strategies of the type specified by Inmarsat to be evaluated in terms of average true lock time, average false maintenance time, and average search time. Evaluation of the currently specified framing schemes shows that a significant performance improvement is obtained by optimizing the threshold parameters of the scheme. The optimization seeks a compromise between the conflicting requirements of maximizing true lock time and minimizing search time.

  18. Research on frame capture of high speed and image storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Dong; Ju, Huo

    2007-01-01

    Conflicts among high speed, large amount of data rate and long time to record are still problems in the field of frame grabbing. It has been settled partly and temporarily by the development of raid technology. A frame grabbing system with the characteristic of high speed and large storage is generated using raid technology and Fibre Channels. It is able to keep recording frames at a high speed for a long time without reducing resolution. The system has been set up successfully whose recording and displaying process can be generally controlled. Problems that show stable live video in real time while recording have been solved. The composition of hardware in this system is given out in the paper. The principle how it works is described. For the purpose of recording at a high speed without dropping frames and to insure the imaging quality while synchronized with outer signals that generated from an outer circuit, several synchronizing ways are discussed and compared. The most suitable way is chosen through analyzing theoretically and tested out by experiment.

  19. A Relational Frame Theory Account of Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardaga, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The current paper proposes a Relational Frame Theory (RFT, Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001a) conceptualization of empathy and perspective taking that follows previous literature outlining a relationship between those phenomena and general functioning. Deictic framing, a relational operant investigated by RFT researchers, constitutes the…

  20. Framing in the Field: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Strategic Frame Analysis can inform the daily practice of policy advocates by bringing an evidence-based communications approach to their work. This case study of FrameWorks' decade-long association with the national Kids Count Network shares stories from advocates who are transforming their communications strategies, resulting in more effective…

  1. Dynamics of the Frame in Visual Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbener, Gerald F.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Forty-four college students rated six framed, black-and-white single object pictures to determine if the framing of an object or the field surrounding it gives it more meaning. Based on factor analysis of the results, recommendations are made for future research. (JEG)

  2. Frame Dominance in Infants with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hapsburg, Deborah; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: According to the frames then content (f/c) hypothesis (P. F. MacNeilage & B. L. Davis, 1990), the internal structure of syllables with consonant plus vowel structure (CV) during canonical babbling is determined primarily by production system properties related to rhythmic mandibular oscillations ("motor frames"). The purpose of this study…

  3. Teaching the Dynamics of Framing Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinke, Eike Mark

    2012-01-01

    Framing theory is one of the most thriving and complex fields of communication theory, and as such it has grown to be an integral part of many political communication, public opinion, and communication theory courses. Part of the complexity stems from scholars' efforts to develop accounts of framing processes that are closer to the "real world" of…

  4. Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…

  5. A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nausieda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…

  6. The vista paradox: Framing or contrast?

    PubMed

    Daum, S Oliver; Both, Bernhard S; Bertamini, Marco; Hecht, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    The vista paradox is the illusion in which an object seen through a window appears to shrink in apparent size (and appears farther away) as the observer approaches the window. Paradoxically, the distal object appears smaller as its visual angle increases. We investigated the effect in four experiments varying object size, distance, point of fixation, and texture of the frame and of the object. In the first experiment, we tried to confirm the illusion and to test the robustness of the phenomenon. In the second experiment, we manipulated where subjects fixated (on the frame or on the object) as well as the texture of the object and the frame. Fixation was essential for the illusion: fixating the frame led to an apparent shrinking of the object, whereas fixation on the object did not. Texture of the frame intensified the apparent shrinking of the object. In a third experiment, we separated the point of fixation from the frame in a between-subjects design. Finally, in Experiment 4, we showed that the paradox does not require a frame, but it requires a fixation on a location different from the object. That is, the window or frame is dispensable for the vista paradox, but fixation is critical. PMID:26280259

  7. The Conversational Frame in Public Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James; Pearce, W. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Explores the diverse forms and motives of the conversational frame in public address. Argues that, by framing their remarks and transactions with their listeners as conversational, orators may attempt to reconstruct or seem to reconstruct speaker-audience relationships and to position themselves and their audiences within networks of reciprocal…

  8. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  9. Anomalies, equivalence and renormalization of cosmological frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Valea, Mario

    2016-05-01

    We study the question of whether two frames of a given physical theory are equivalent or not in the presence of quantum corrections. By using field theory arguments, we claim that equivalence is broken in the presence of anomalous symmetries in one of the frames. This is particularized to the case of the relation between the Einstein and Jordan frames in scalar-tensor theories used to describe early Universe dynamics. Although in this case a regularization that cancels the anomaly exists, the renormalized theory always develops a nonvanishing contribution to the S matrix that is present only in the Jordan frame, promoting the different frames to different physical theories that must be UV completed in a different way.

  10. Integrated seat frame and back support

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Leo

    1999-01-01

    An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.

  11. Strategy and Issue Frames in Election Campaign Coverage: A Social Cognitive Account of Framing Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, June Woong

    1997-01-01

    Examines how news frames in campaign coverage affect an individual's interpretation of campaigns. Conceptualizes framing effects in terms of a construction of a mental model and emphasizes how news interpretation is influenced by news texts and by interpreter's social knowledge. Explores message structures of the strategy and issue frames, and…

  12. A Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA Algorithm Using Collision Factor for RFID Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Sik; Kim, Sangkyung

    In RFID systems, collision resolution is a significant issue in fast tag identification. This letter presents a dynamic frame-slotted ALOHA algorithm that uses a collision factor (DFSA-CF). This method enables fast tag identification by estimating the next frame size with the collision factor in the current frame. Simulation results show that the proposed method reduces slot times Required for RFID identification. When the number of tags is larger than the frame size, the efficiency of the proposed method is greater than those of conventional algorithms.

  13. Adaptation of hidden Markov models for recognizing speech of reduced frame rate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lee-Min; Jean, Fu-Rong

    2013-12-01

    The frame rate of the observation sequence in distributed speech recognition applications may be reduced to suit a resource-limited front-end device. In order to use models trained using full-frame-rate data in the recognition of reduced frame-rate (RFR) data, we propose a method for adapting the transition probabilities of hidden Markov models (HMMs) to match the frame rate of the observation. Experiments on the recognition of clean and noisy connected digits are conducted to evaluate the proposed method. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively compensate for the frame-rate mismatch between the training and the test data. Using our adapted model to recognize the RFR speech data, one can significantly reduce the computation time and achieve the same level of accuracy as that of a method, which restores the frame rate using data interpolation. PMID:23757520

  14. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level. PMID:25059843

  15. Flat-field and Dark Frame Corrections for IRIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, S. H.; Jaeggli, S. A.; Bush, R. I.; Boerner, P.; Wuelser, J.; Tarbell, T. D.; Lites, B. W.; De Pontieu, B.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss the development of flat-field and dark frame corrections for Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) data. Flat-fields for IRIS were taken prior to launch using a lamp filtered to NUV wavelengths; following launch the Sun itself was used as a flat-field source. The solar flat-field for the slit-jaw imagers is constructed using the Chae method, which extracts the moving object and fixed gain patterns from a set of dithered images. The spectrographic flat-fields are produced by significantly defocusing the telescope and averaging many images in a scan to remove solar structure, so that the average spectral profile can be removed. A given dark frame consists of pedestal and dark current components. In IRIS, both are temperature dependent, though they respond to different measured temperatures; the dark current is also exposure time dependent. Each CCD readout port has a slightly different temperature and exposure time response. We have analyzed a series of dark frames over an IRIS orbit to calibrate for these effects. We plan to continue to monitor the flat-field and dark frames regularly for any changes.

  16. Molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions Molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchese, Robert R.; Stolow, Albert

    2012-10-01

    Angle-resolved photoelectron measurements in molecular ionization continue to grow in importance due to their sensitivity to molecular dynamics combined with their avoidance of deleterious averaging over molecular orientation. This special issue contains only regularly refereed articles and provides an account of current experimental and theoretical studies of such molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions (MFPADs). Recent experimental activity in this field has been stimulated by advances in light sources such as x-ray free electron lasers, attosecond XUV laser pulses and phase-stable ultrashort strong laser fields. This effort is further amplified by recent developments in coincidence detection and molecular-frame alignment/orientation techniques. Beyond perturbative light-matter interactions, strong field processes such as tunnel ionization, above threshold ionization and rescattering phenomena such as high harmonic generation and laser-induced electron diffraction are beginning to probe molecular-frame photoelectron-molecule scattering dynamics. Theoretical developments are playing an equally important role in furthering molecular-frame photoelectron science. This issue contains several purely theoretical papers that aim to provide insight into possible schemes for using MFPADs in the study of molecular dynamics. Because the details of the electron-molecule scattering dynamics are important to the interpretation of experimental data, significant progress is made by a close collaboration between theory and experiment. There are a number of such contributions in this issue that combine theory and experiment to obtain a detailed understanding of the observed processes. One recurring theme is the use of measured MFPADs as probes of the molecular state and to uncover information about the dynamics of molecular systems. Contributions in this issue consider using MFPADs to investigate molecular geometry or the rotational, vibrational or electronic state of a

  17. Reference Frames and Coordinate Transformations for Advanced Post-Newtonian Theory of the Lunar Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yi; Kopeikin, S.

    2009-05-01

    We construct a set of reference frames for description of the orbital and rotational motion of the Moon. We use a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two parameters of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism and utilize the concepts of the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat. The primary reference frame has the origin at the solar-system barycentric (SSB) frame and spatial axes are going to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to distant quasars. The secondary reference frame has the origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is local with its spatial axes spreading out to the orbits of Venus and Mars and not rotating dynamically in the sense that both the Coriolis and centripetal forces acting on a free-falling test particle, moving with respect to the EMB frame, are excluded. Two other local frames, the geocentric (GRS) and the selenocentric (SRS) frames, have the origin at the center of mass of the Earth and Moon respectively. They are both introduced in order to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion, observer on the Earth, and a retro-reflector on the Moon to the observable quantities which are the proper time and the laser-ranging distance. We solve the gravity field equations and find the metric tensor and the scalar field in all frames. We also derive the post-Newtonian coordinate transformations between the frames and analyze the residual gauge freedom imposed by the scalar-tensor theory on the coordinate transformations.

  18. From Game Protection to Wildlife Management: Frame Shifts, Organizational Development, and Field Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brulle, Robert J.; Benford, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    One enduring question in social movements research is the relationship between cultural representations and organizational structure. In this article, we examine the development of different discursive frames over time, and how such frame shifts affect movement structure and practices. This approach seeks to illuminate the dialectical interplay…

  19. How Does Expansive Framing Promote Transfer? Several Proposed Explanations and a Research Agenda for Investigating Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Randi A.; Lam, Diane P.; Meyer, Xenia S.; Nix, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    When contexts are framed expansively, students are positioned as actively contributing to larger conversations that extend across time, places, and people. A set of recent studies provides empirical evidence that the expansive framing of contexts can foster transfer. In this article, we present five potentially complementary explanations for how…

  20. Io Plume Monitoring (frames 1-36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A sequence of full disk Io images was taken prior to Galileo's second encounter with Ganymede. The purpose of these observations was to view all longitudes of Io and search for active volcanic plumes. The images were taken at intervals of approximately one hour corresponding to Io longitude increments of about ten degrees. Because both the spacecraft and Io were traveling around Jupiter the lighting conditions on Io (e.g. the phase of Io) changed dramatically during the sequence. These images were registered at a common scale and processed to produce a time-lapse 'movie' of Io. This movie combines all of the plume monitoring frames obtained by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The most prominent volcanic plume seen in this movie is Prometheus (latitude 1.6 south, longitude 153 west). The plume becomes visible as it moves into daylight, crosses the center of the disk, and is seen in profile against the dark of space at the edge of Io. This plume was first seen by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1979 and is believed to be a geyser-like eruption of sulfur dioxide snow and gas. Although details of the region around Prometheus have changed in the seventeen years since Voyager's visit, the shape and height of the plume have not changed significantly. It is possible that this geyser has been erupting nearly continuously over this time. Galileo's primary 24 month mission includes eleven orbits around Jupiter and will provide observations of Jupiter, its moons and its magnetosphere.

    North is to the top of all frames. The smallest features which can be discerned range from 13 to 31 kilometers across. The images were obtained between the 2nd and the 6th of September, 1996.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are

  1. Note: Non-gain microchannel plate gated framing camera

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Houzhi; Peng Xiang; Liu Jinyuan; Niu Lihong; Peng Wenda; Niu Hanben; Long Jinghua

    2011-05-15

    An x-ray framing camera using a non-gain microchannel plate (MCP) is reported in this article. The advantage of the non-gain MCP is the less transit time spread. The non-gain MCP gated framing camera has four microstrip line cathodes with 6 mm in width. The time domain reflectometry curves of the four microstrip lines are measured, which show that the characteristic impedance of each microstrip line is about 17 {Omega}. While the photocathode is driven by the gating electrical pulse with width of 125 ps and amplitude of -1.48 kV with -400 V bias, the measured exposure time of this camera is about 72 ps.

  2. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  3. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.; Lloyd, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

  4. Wavelet frames and admissibility in higher dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehr, H.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the relations between discrete and continuous wavelet transforms on {ital k}-dimensional Euclidean space. We start with the construction of continuous wavelet transforms with the help of square-integrable representations of certain semidirect products, thereby generalizing results of Bernier and Taylor. We then turn to frames of L{sup 2}({bold R}{sup {ital k}}) and to the question, when the functions occurring in a given frame are admissible for a given continuous wavelet transform. For certain frames we give a characterization which generalizes a result of Daubechies to higher dimensions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for space frame synthesis based on the application of a full gamut of approximation concepts is presented. It is found that with the thoughtful selection of design space, objective function approximation, constraint approximation and mathematical programming problem formulation options it is possible to obtain near minimum mass designs for a significant class of space frame structural systems while requiring fewer than 10 structural analyses. Example problems are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for frame structures subjected to multiple static loading conditions with limits on structural stiffness and strength.

  6. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    review shows that the current knowledge gives the basis for improving the calculation procedures in the calculation standards. At the same time it is room for improvement within some areas, e.g. to fully understand the natural convection effects inside irregular vertical frame cavities (jambs) and ventilated frame cavities.

  7. Modeling laser wakefield accelerators in a Lorentz boosted frame

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.

    2010-09-15

    Modeling of laser-plasma wakefield accelerators in an optimal frame of reference [1] is shown to produce orders of magnitude speed-up of calculations from first principles. Obtaining these speedups requires mitigation of a high frequency instability that otherwise limits effectiveness in addition to solutions for handling data input and output in a relativistically boosted frame of reference. The observed high-frequency instability is mitigated using methods including an electromagnetic solver with tunable coefficients, its extension to accomodate Perfectly Matched Layers and Friedman's damping algorithms, as well as an efficient large bandwidth digital filter. It is shown that choosing theframe of the wake as the frame of reference allows for higher levels of filtering and damping than is possible in other frames for the same accuracy. Detailed testing also revealed serendipitously the existence of a singular time step at which the instability level is minimized, independently of numerical dispersion, thus indicating that the observed instability may not be due primarily to Numerical Cerenkov as has been conjectured. The techniques developed for Cerenkov mitigation prove nonetheless to be very efficient at controlling the instability. Using these techniques, agreement at the percentage level is demonstrated between simulations using different frames of reference, with speedups reaching two orders of magnitude for a 0.1 GeV class stages. The method then allows direct and efficient full-scale modeling of deeply depleted laser-plasma stages of 10 GeV-1 TeV for the first time, verifying the scaling of plasma accelerators to very high energies. Over 4, 5 and 6 orders of magnitude speedup is achieved for the modeling of 10 GeV, 100 GeV and 1 TeV class stages, respectively.

  8. Terrestrial Coordinate Systems and Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A terrestrial reference system (TRS) is a spatial reference system corotating with the Earth in its DIURNAL MOTION in space. In such a system, the positions of points anchored on the Earth's solid surface have coordinates which have only small variations with time, as a result of geophysical effects (tectonic or tidal deformations; see TECTONICS, EARTH'S INTERIOR, TIDES). A terrestrial reference ...

  9. Toward the greening of nuclear energy: A content analysis of nuclear energy frames from 1991 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Sonya R.

    Framing theory has emerged as one of the predominant theories employed in mass communications research in the 21st century. Frames are identified as interpretive packages for content where some issue attributes are highlighted over other attributes. While framing effects studies appear plentiful, longitudinal studies assessing trends in dominant framing packages and story elements for an issue appear to be less understood. Through content analysis, this study examines dominant frame packages, story elements, headline tone, story tone, stereotypes, and source attribution for nuclear energy from 1991-2008 in the New York Times, USA Today, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post. Unlike many content analysis studies, this study compares intercoder reliability among three indices---percentage agreement, proportional reduction of loss and Scott's Pi. The newspapers represented in this study possess a commonality in the types of dominant frames packages employed. Significant dominant frame packages among the four newspapers include human/health, proliferation, procedural, and marketplace. While the procedural frame package was more likely to appear prior to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the proliferation frame packaged was more likely to appear after the Kyoto Protol. Over time, the sustainable frame package demonstrated increased significance. This study is part of the growing literature regarding the function of frames over time.

  10. Deriving a geocentric reference frame for satellite positioning and navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, R. P.; Wu, S.-C.

    1988-01-01

    With the advent of Earth-orbiting geodetic satellites, nongeocentric datums or reference frames have become things of the past. Accurate geocentric three-dimensional positioning is now possible and is of great importance for various geodetic and oceanographic applications. While relative positioning accuracy of a few centimeters has become a reality using very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), the uncertainty in the offset of the adopted coordinate system origin from the geocenter is still believed to be on the order of 1 meter. Satellite laser ranging (SLR), however, is capable of determining this offset to better than 10 cm, but this is possible only after years of measurements. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements provide a powerful tool for an accurate determination of this origin offset. Two strategies are discussed. The first strategy utilizes the precise relative positions that were predetermined by VLBI to fix the frame orientation and the absolute scaling, while the offset from the geocenter is determined from GPS measurements. Three different cases are presented under this strategy. The reference frame thus adopted will be consistent with the VLBI coordinate system. The second strategy establishes a reference frame by holding only the longitude of one of the tracking sites fixed. The absolute scaling is determined by the adopted gravitational constant (GM) of the Earth; and the latitude is inferred from the time signature of the Earth rotation in the GPS measurements. The coordinate system thus defined will be a geocentric Earth-fixed coordinate system.

  11. Automatic method for synchronizing workpiece frames in twin-robot nondestructive testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zongxing; Xu, Chunguang; Pan, Qinxue; Meng, Fanwu; Li, Xinliang

    2015-07-01

    The workpiece frames relative to each robot base frame should be known in advance for the proper operation of twin-robot nondestructive testing system. However, when two robots are separated from the workpieces, the twin robots cannot reach the same point to complete the process of workpiece frame positioning. Thus, a new method is proposed to solve the problem of coincidence between workpiece frames. Transformation between two robot base frames is initiated by measuring the coordinate values of three non-collinear calibration points. The relationship between the workpiece frame and that of the slave robot base frame is then determined according to the known transformation of two robot base frames, as well as the relationship between the workpiece frame and that of the master robot base frame. Only one robot is required to actually measure the coordinate values of the calibration points on the workpiece. This requirement is beneficial when one of the robots cannot reach and measure the calibration points. The coordinate values of the calibration points are derived by driving the robot hand to the points and recording the values of top center point(TCP) coordinates. The translation and rotation matrices relate either the two robot base frames or the workpiece and master robot. The coordinated are solved using the measured values of the calibration points according to the Cartesian transformation principle. An optimal method is developed based on exponential mapping of Lie algebra to ensure that the rotation matrix is orthogonal. Experimental results show that this method involves fewer steps, offers significant advantages in terms of operation and time-saving. A method used to synchronize workpiece frames in twin-robot system automatically is presented.

  12. Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Frank B.

    1987-01-01

    This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.

  13. Independent Study Unit on Accelerated Reference Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poultney, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a list of topics, research areas, references, and laboratory equipment which is prepared to facilitate general-science students' understanding of physics aspects in accelerated reference frames after their study of circular motion and Galilean relativity in mechanics. (CC)

  14. Moving Frames for Heart Fiber Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Piuze, Emmanuel; Sporring, Jon; Siddiqi, Kaleem

    2015-01-01

    The method of moving frames provides powerful geometrical tools for the analysis of smoothly varying frame fields. However, in the face of missing measurements, a reconstruction problem arises, one that is largely unexplored for 3D frame fields. Here we consider the particular example of reconstructing impaired cardiac diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data. We combine moving frame analysis with a diffusion inpainting scheme that incorporates rule-based priors. In contrast to previous reconstruction methods, this new approach uses comprehensive differential descriptors for cardiac fibers, and is able to fully recover their orientation. We demonstrate the superior performance of this approach in terms of error of fit when compared to alternate methods. We anticipate that these tools could find application in clinical settings, where damaged heart tissue needs to be replaced or repaired, and for generating dense fiber volumes in electromechanical modelling of the heart. PMID:26221700

  15. Toward a generalized plate motion reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, T. W.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.; Conrad, C. P.

    2015-05-01

    An absolute plate motion (APM) model is required to address issues such as the thermochemical evolution of Earth's mantle. All APM models have to rely on indirect inferences, including those based on hot spots and seismic anisotropy, each with their own set of uncertainties. Here, we explore a seafloor spreading-aligned reference frame. We show that this reference frame fits azimuthal seismic anisotropy in the uppermost mantle very well. The corresponding Euler pole is close to those of hot spot reference frames, ridge motion minimizing models, and geodynamic estimates of net rotation and predicts clear trench motion patterns. We conclude that a net rotation pole guided by the spreading-aligned model (at 64°E, 61°S, with moderate rotation of ˜ 0.2 … 0.3°/Myr) could indeed represent a standard, comprehensive reference frame for present-day plate motions with respect to the deep mantle.

  16. Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Neil; Shahid-Saless, Bahman

    1989-01-01

    In General Relativity, the Principle of General Covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. Here, it is shown that the geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, nonrotating mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect, in an appropriately chosen coordinate frame whose origin falls freely along with the gyroscope and whose spatial coordinate axes point in fixed directions.

  17. Celestial Reference Frames at Multiple Radio Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    In 1997 the IAU adopted the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) built from S/X VLBI data. In response to IAU resolutions encouraging the extension of the ICRF to additional frequency bands, VLBI frames have been made at 24, 32, and 43 gigahertz. Meanwhile, the 8.4 gigahertz work has been greatly improved with the 2009 release of the ICRF-2. This paper discusses the motivations for extending the ICRF to these higher radio bands. Results to date will be summarized including evidence that the high frequency frames are rapidly approaching the accuracy of the 8.4 gigahertz ICRF-2. We discuss current limiting errors and prospects for the future accuracy of radio reference frames. We note that comparison of multiple radio frames is characterizing the frequency dependent systematic noise floor from extended source morphology and core shift. Finally, given Gaia's potential for high accuracy optical astrometry, we have simulated the precision of a radio-optical frame tie to be approximately10-15 microarcseconds ((1-sigma) (1-standard deviation), per component).

  18. Tracking in high-frame-rate imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shih-Ying; Wang, Shun-Li; Li, Pai-Chi

    2010-01-01

    Speckle tracking has been used for motion estimation in ultrasound imaging. Unlike conventional Doppler techniques, which are angle-dependent, speckle tracking can be utilized to estimate velocity vectors. However, the accuracy of speckle-tracking methods is limited by speckle decorrelation, which is related to the displacement between two consecutive images, and, hence, combining high-frame-rate imaging and speckle tracking could potentially increase the accuracy of motion estimation. However, the lack of transmit focusing may also affect the tracking results and the high computational requirement may be problematic. This study therefore assessed the performance of high-frame-rate speckle tracking and compared it with conventional focusing. The effects of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bulk motion, and velocity gradients were investigated in both experiments and simulations. The results show that high-frame-rate speckle tracking can achieve high accuracy if the SNR is sufficiently high. In addition, its computational complexity is acceptable because smaller search windows can be used due to the displacements between frames generally being smaller during high-frame-rate imaging. Speckle decor-relation resulting from velocity gradients within a sample volume is also not as significant during high-frame-rate imaging. PMID:20690428

  19. Capsule endoscopy capture rate: Has 4 frames-per-second any impact over 2 frames-per-second?

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Urien, Ignacio; Carretero, Cristina; Borobio, Erika; Borda, Ana; Estevez, Emilio; Galter, Sara; Gonzalez-Suarez, Begoña; Gonzalez, Benito; Lujan, Marisol; Martinez, Jose Luis; Martínez, Vanessa; Menchén, Pedro; Navajas, Javier; Pons, Vicente; Prieto, Cesar; Valle, Julio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the current capsule and a new prototype at 2 and 4 frames-per-second, respectively, in terms of clinical and therapeutic impact. METHODS: One hundred patients with an indication for capsule endoscopy were included in the study. All procedures were performed with the new device (SB24). After an exhaustive evaluation of the SB24 videos, they were then converted to “SB2-like” videos for their evaluation. Findings, frames per finding, and clinical and therapeutic impact derived from video visualization were analyzed. Kappa index for interobserver agreement and χ2 and Student’s t tests for qualitative/quantitative variables, respectively, were used. Values of P under 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Eighty-nine out of 100 cases included in the study were ultimately included in the analysis. The SB24 videos detected the anatomical landmarks (Z-line and duodenal papilla) and lesions in more patients than the “SB2-like” videos. On the other hand, the SB24 videos detected more frames per landmark/lesion than the “SB2-like” videos. However, these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Both clinical and therapeutic impacts were similar between SB24 and “SB2-like” videos (K = 0.954). The time spent by readers was significantly higher for SB24 videos visualization (P < 0.05) than for “SB2-like” videos when all images captured by the capsule were considered. However, these differences become non-significant if we only take into account small bowel images (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: More frames-per-second detect more landmarks, lesions, and frames per landmark/lesion, but is time consuming and has a very low impact on clinical and therapeutic management. PMID:25339834

  20. Earth - South America (first frame of Earth Spin Movie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by Galileo at about 6:10 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.3 million miles from the planet during the first of two Earth flybys on its way to Jupiter. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. South America is near the center of the picture, and the white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Atlantic, lower right. This is the first frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500- frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  1. Framing Hip Hop: New Methodologies for New Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the central impulse behind early advocacy for ethnographic approaches to hip hop--that critics should try as much as possible to limit their own certainties around what hip hop can and might mean. While ethnographic approaches can engender the kinds of personal dislocations that allow for this negotiation, they do not…

  2. 40 CFR 35.110 - Time frame for EPA action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., conditionally approve, or disapprove it within 60 days of receipt. This period may be extended by mutual agreement between EPA and the applicant. The Regional Administrator will award the funds for approved or conditionally approved applications when the funds are available....

  3. Reference frames, gauge transformations and gravitomagnetism in the post-Newtonian theory of the lunar motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yi; Kopeikin, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    We construct a set of reference frames for description of the orbital and rotational motion of the Moon. We use a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two parameters of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism and utilize the concepts of the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat. The primary reference frame has the origin at the solar-system barycenter (SSB) and spatial axes are going to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to distant quasars. The secondary reference frame has the origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is local with its spatial axes spreading out to the orbits of Venus and Mars and not rotating dynamically in the sense that both the Coriolis and centripetal forces acting on a free-falling test particle, moving with respect to the EMB frame, are excluded. Two other local frames, the geocentric (GRF) and the selenocentric (SRF) frames, have the origin at the center of mass of the Earth and Moon respectively. They are both introduced in order to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion, observer on the Earth, and a retro-reflector on the Moon to the observable quantities which are the proper time and the laser-ranging distance. We solve the gravity field equations and find the metric tensor and the scalar field in all frames. We also derive the post-Newtonian coordinate transformations between the frames and analyze the residual gauge freedom of the solutions of the field equations. We discuss the gravitomagnetic effects in the barycentric equations of the motion of the Moon and argue that they are beyond the current accuracy of lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations.

  4. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  5. Non-inertial Frames in Special and General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusanna, Luca

    A theory of global non-inertial frames in special relativity is developed by taking into account relativistic metrology and by avoiding the coordinate singularities of the rotating disk and of Fermi coordinates. Then this theory is used in general relativity for the treatment of globally hyperbolic, asymptotically Minkowskian space-times solution of Einstein's equations. Also some comments on the problem of dark matter, connecting it to the relativistic metrology used in astrophysics, are made.

  6. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M⊙, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R⊙, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  7. Lipid Metabolism Disorders, Lymphocytes Cells Death, and Renal Toxicity Induced by Very Low Levels of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisin B1 Alone or in Combination Following 7 Days Oral Administration to Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kouadio, J. H.; Moukha, S.; Brou, K.; Gnakri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Scope: In our previous study focused on in vitro interactive effect of Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), we reported that these toxins tested at low level and in association could lead to additive or synergistic cytotoxic effect. The aim of the present study is to confirm those findings by in vivo study. Materials and Methods: Swiss mice were orally administered with low doses of DON (45 μg/kg bw/day), FB1 (110 μg/kg bw/day), and their mixture (DON + FB1) for 7 days. Results: As results, no death or abnormal symptoms were observed in all groups. The significant of loss of weight was observed in females group treated with FB1 and its association with DON. Serum chemistry examinations revealed that disorders in lipid metabolism, renal filtration perturb and a rhabdomyolysis. DON has been found as particular inducer of kidney cell deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation and blood lymphocytes cell death as measured by lymphocytes DNA fragmentation. Female mice were more sensitive and the mixture of DON and FB1 led to additive or more than additive effect particularly for their target kidney which showed different pattern of toxicity. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) o both DON and FB1 should be low than 45 μg/kg bw/day and 110 μg/kg bw/day, respectively in mice. PMID:24403731

  8. Representation of the inverse of a frame multiplier☆

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, P.; Stoeva, D.T.

    2015-01-01

    Certain mathematical objects appear in a lot of scientific disciplines, like physics, signal processing and, naturally, mathematics. In a general setting they can be described as frame multipliers, consisting of analysis, multiplication by a fixed sequence (called the symbol), and synthesis. In this paper we show a surprising result about the inverse of such operators, if any, as well as new results about a core concept of frame theory, dual frames. We show that for semi-normalized symbols, the inverse of any invertible frame multiplier can always be represented as a frame multiplier with the reciprocal symbol and dual frames of the given ones. Furthermore, one of those dual frames is uniquely determined and the other one can be arbitrarily chosen. We investigate sufficient conditions for the special case, when both dual frames can be chosen to be the canonical duals. In connection to the above, we show that the set of dual frames determines a frame uniquely. Furthermore, for a given frame, the union of all coefficients of its dual frames is dense in ℓ2. We also introduce a class of frames (called pseudo-coherent frames), which includes Gabor frames and coherent frames, and investigate invertible pseudo-coherent frame multipliers, allowing a classification for frame-type operators for these frames. Finally, we give a numerical example for the invertibility of multipliers in the Gabor case. PMID:25843976

  9. Locking Corners Speed Solar-Array Frame Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olah, S.; Sampson, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Mitered corners of solar-array frames joined together by single angle brace and two springs. Locking corner braces and mating frame members pushed together by hand or assembled automatically. Fastening system used to assemble window screens and picture frames.

  10. A genetic scale of reading frame coding.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J

    2014-08-21

    The reading frame coding (RFC) of codes (sets) of trinucleotides is a genetic concept which has been largely ignored during the last 50 years. A first objective is the definition of a new and simple statistical parameter PrRFC for analysing the probability (efficiency) of reading frame coding (RFC) of any trinucleotide code. A second objective is to reveal different classes and subclasses of trinucleotide codes involved in reading frame coding: the circular codes of 20 trinucleotides and the bijective genetic codes of 20 trinucleotides coding the 20 amino acids. This approach allows us to propose a genetic scale of reading frame coding which ranges from 1/3 with the random codes (RFC probability identical in the three frames) to 1 with the comma-free circular codes (RFC probability maximal in the reading frame and null in the two shifted frames). This genetic scale shows, in particular, the reading frame coding probabilities of the 12,964,440 circular codes (PrRFC=83.2% in average), the 216 C(3) self-complementary circular codes (PrRFC=84.1% in average) including the code X identified in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes (PrRFC=81.3%) and the 339,738,624 bijective genetic codes (PrRFC=61.5% in average) including the 52 codes without permuted trinucleotides (PrRFC=66.0% in average). Otherwise, the reading frame coding probabilities of each trinucleotide code coding an amino acid with the universal genetic code are also determined. The four amino acids Gly, Lys, Phe and Pro are coded by codes (not circular) with RFC probabilities equal to 2/3, 1/2, 1/2 and 2/3, respectively. The amino acid Leu is coded by a circular code (not comma-free) with a RFC probability equal to 18/19. The 15 other amino acids are coded by comma-free circular codes, i.e. with RFC probabilities equal to 1. The identification of coding properties in some classes of trinucleotide codes studied here may bring new insights in the origin and evolution of the genetic code. PMID:24698943

  11. MRI Contrasts in High Rank Rotating Frames

    PubMed Central

    Liimatainen, Timo; Hakkarainen, Hanne; Mangia, Silvia; Huttunen, Janne M.J.; Storino, Christine; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Sorce, Dennis; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom

    2014-01-01

    Purpose MRI relaxation measurements are performed in the presence of a fictitious magnetic field in the recently described technique known as RAFF (Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field). This method operates in the 2nd rotating frame (rank n = 2) by utilizing a non-adiabatic sweep of the radiofrequency effective field to generate the fictitious magnetic field. In the present study, the RAFF method is extended for generating MRI contrasts in rotating frames of ranks 1 ≤ n ≤ 5. The developed method is entitled RAFF in rotating frame of rank n (RAFFn). Methods RAFFn pulses were designed to generate fictitious fields that allow locking of magnetization in rotating frames of rank n. Contrast generated with RAFFn was studied using Bloch-McConnell formalism together with experiments on human and rat brains. Results Tolerance to B0 and B1 inhomogeneities and reduced specific absorption rate with increasing n in RAFFn were demonstrated. Simulations of exchange-induced relaxations revealed enhanced sensitivity of RAFFn to slow exchange. Consistent with such feature, an increased grey/white matter contrast was observed in human and rat brain as n increased. Conclusion RAFFn is a robust and safe rotating frame relaxation method to access slow molecular motions in vivo. PMID:24523028

  12. Human action classification using adaptive key frame interval for feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lertniphonphan, Kanokphan; Aramvith, Supavadee; Chalidabhongse, Thanarat H.

    2016-01-01

    Human action classification based on the adaptive key frame interval (AKFI) feature extraction is presented. Since human movement periods are different, the action intervals that contain the intensive and compact motion information are considered in this work. We specify AKFI by analyzing an amount of motion through time. The key frame is defined to be the local minimum interframe motion, which is computed by using frame differencing between consecutive frames. Once key frames are detected, the features within a segmented period are encoded by adaptive motion history image and key pose history image. The action representation consists of the local orientation histogram of the features during AKFI. The experimental results on Weizmann dataset, KTH dataset, and UT Interaction dataset demonstrate that the features can effectively classify action and can classify irregular cases of walking compared to other well-known algorithms.

  13. Four-frame gated optical imager with 120-ps resolution (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Phillion, D.W.; Campbell, E.M.

    1988-08-01

    In this article we describe the operation and applications of a framing camera capable of four separate two-dimensional images with each frame having a 120-ps gate width. Fast gating of a single frame is accomplished by using a wafer image intensifier tube in which the cathode is capacitively coupled to an external electrode placed outside of the photocathode of the tube. This electrode is then pulsed relative to the microchannel plate by a narrow (120-ps), high-voltage pulse. Multiple frames are obtained by using multiple gated tubes which share a single bias supply and pulser with relative gate times selected by the cable lengths between the tubes and the pulser. A beam-splitter system has been constructed which produces a separate image for each tube from a single scene. Applications of the framing camera to inertial confinement fusion experiments are discussed.

  14. ML Frame Synchronization for OFDM Systems Using a Known Pilot and Cyclic Prefixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Heon

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a popular air interface technology that is adopted as a standard modulation scheme for 4G communication systems owing to its excellent spectral efficiency. For OFDM systems, synchronization problems have received much attention along with peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction. In addition to frequency offset estimation, frame synchronization is a challenging problem that must be solved to achieve optimal system performance. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) frame synchronizer for OFDM systems. The synchronizer exploits a synchronization word and cyclic prefixes together to improve the synchronization performance. Numerical results show that the performance of the proposed frame synchronizer is better than that of conventional schemes. The proposed synchronizer can be used as a reference for evaluating the performance of other suboptimal frame synchronizers. We also modify the proposed frame synchronizer to reduce the implementation complexity and propose a near-ML synchronizer for time-varying fading channels.

  15. Study of frame tie between planetary ephemerids and ICRF with millisecond and young pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingbo; Hobbs, George; Coles, William

    2016-07-01

    The positions of pulsar can be measured by pulsar timing technology and VLBI astrometry with high precision. They can be used to tie between referece frame based on solar system ephemerids and distant quasars with high accuracy. In this paper, we have collect the pulsar positions with VLBI measurement and obtain the pulsar timing position form Nanshan and Parkes data archive. We derive the rotation matrix between JPL DE and ICRF reference frame.

  16. Reciprocal relativity of noninertial frames: quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Stephen G.

    2007-04-01

    Noninertial transformations on time-position-momentum-energy space {t, q, p, e} with invariant Born-Green metric ds^{2}=-d t^{2}+\\frac{1}{c^{2}}\\,d q^{2}+\\frac{1}{b^{2}} \\big(d p^{2}-\\frac{1}{c^{2}}\\,d e^{2}\\big) and the symplectic metric -de ∧ dt + dp ∧ dq are studied. This {\\cal U}1,3) group of transformations contains the Lorentz group as the inertial special case and, in the limit of small forces and velocities, reduces to the expected Hamilton transformations leaving invariant the symplectic metric and the nonrelativistic line element ds2 = -dt2. The {\\cal U}( 1,3) transformations bound relative velocities by c and relative forces by b. Spacetime is no longer an invariant subspace but is relative to noninertial observer frames. In the limit of b → ∞, spacetime is invariant. Born was lead to the metric by a concept of reciprocity between position and momentum degrees of freedom and for this reason we call this reciprocal relativity. For large b, such effects will almost certainly only manifest in a quantum regime. Wigner showed that special relativistic quantum mechanics follows from the projective representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. Projective representations of a Lie group are equivalent to the unitary representations of its central extension. The same method of projective representations for the inhomogeneous {\\cal U}( 1,3) group is used to define the quantum theory in the noninertial case. The central extension of the inhomogeneous {\\cal U}( 1,3) group is the cover of the quaplectic group {\\cal Q}( 1,3) ={\\cal U}( 1,3) \\otimes _{s}{\\cal H}(4) . {\\cal H}( 4) is the Weyl-Heisenberg group. The {\\cal H}( 4) group, and the associated Heisenberg commutation relations central to quantum mechanics, results directly from requiring projective representations. A set of second-order wave equations result from the representations of the Casimir operators.

  17. High frame rate CCD camera with fast optical shutter

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Turko, B.T.

    1998-09-01

    A high frame rate CCD camera coupled with a fast optical shutter has been designed for high repetition rate imaging applications. The design uses state-of-the-art microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPII) technology fostered/developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to support nuclear, military, and medical research requiring high-speed imagery. Key design features include asynchronous resetting of the camera to acquire random transient images, patented real-time analog signal processing with 10-bit digitization at 40--75 MHz pixel rates, synchronized shutter exposures as short as 200pS, sustained continuous readout of 512 x 512 pixels per frame at 1--5Hz rates via parallel multiport (16-port CCD) data transfer. Salient characterization/performance test data for the prototype camera are presented, temporally and spatially resolved images obtained from range-gated LADAR field testing are included, an alternative system configuration using several cameras sequenced to deliver discrete numbers of consecutive frames at effective burst rates up to 5GHz (accomplished by time-phasing of consecutive MCPII shutter gates without overlap) is discussed. Potential applications including dynamic radiography and optical correlation will be presented.

  18. Framed 4-graphs: Euler tours, Gauss circuits and rotating circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yutko, Denis P

    2011-09-30

    We consider connected finite 4-valent graphs with the structure of opposite edges at each vertex (framed 4-graphs). For any of such graphs there exist Euler tours, in travelling along which at each vertex we turn from an edge to a nonopposite one (rotating circuits); and at the same time, it is not true that for any such graph there exists an Euler tour passing from an edge to the opposite one at each vertex (a Gauss circuit). The main result of the work is an explicit formula connecting the adjacency matrices of the Gauss circuit and an arbitrary Euler tour. This formula immediately gives us a criterion for the existence of a Gauss circuit on a given framed 4-graph. It turns out that the results are also valid for all symmetric matrices (not just for matrices realisable by a chord diagram). Bibliography: 24 titles.

  19. Framed 4-graphs: Euler tours, Gauss circuits and rotating circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'yutko, Denis P.

    2011-09-01

    We consider connected finite 4-valent graphs with the structure of opposite edges at each vertex (framed 4-graphs). For any of such graphs there exist Euler tours, in travelling along which at each vertex we turn from an edge to a nonopposite one (rotating circuits); and at the same time, it is not true that for any such graph there exists an Euler tour passing from an edge to the opposite one at each vertex (a Gauss circuit). The main result of the work is an explicit formula connecting the adjacency matrices of the Gauss circuit and an arbitrary Euler tour. This formula immediately gives us a criterion for the existence of a Gauss circuit on a given framed 4-graph. It turns out that the results are also valid for all symmetric matrices (not just for matrices realisable by a chord diagram). Bibliography: 24 titles.

  20. Ultra-fast high-resolution hybrid and monolithic CMOS imagers in multi-frame radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Douence, Vincent; Bai, Yibin; Nedrow, Paul; Mariam, Fesseha; Merrill, Frank; Morris, Christopher L.; Saunders, Andy

    2014-09-01

    A new burst-mode, 10-frame, hybrid Si-sensor/CMOS-ROIC FPA chip has been recently fabricated at Teledyne Imaging Sensors. The intended primary use of the sensor is in the multi-frame 800 MeV proton radiography at LANL. The basic part of the hybrid is a large (48×49 mm2) stitched CMOS chip of 1100×1100 pixel count, with a minimum shutter speed of 50 ns. The performance parameters of this chip are compared to the first generation 3-frame 0.5-Mpixel custom hybrid imager. The 3-frame cameras have been in continuous use for many years, in a variety of static and dynamic experiments at LANSCE. The cameras can operate with a per-frame adjustable integration time of ~ 120ns-to- 1s, and inter-frame time of 250ns to 2s. Given the 80 ms total readout time, the original and the new imagers can be externally synchronized to 0.1-to-5 Hz, 50-ns wide proton beam pulses, and record up to ~1000-frame radiographic movies typ. of 3-to-30 minute duration. The performance of the global electronic shutter is discussed and compared to that of a high-resolution commercial front-illuminated monolithic CMOS imager.

  1. Microlens frames for laser diode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Skidmore, J.A.; Freitas, B.L.

    1999-07-13

    Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter. 12 figs.

  2. Microlens frames for laser diode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Skidmore, Jay A.; Freitas, Barry L.

    1999-01-01

    Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter.

  3. Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor frames: First steps

    PubMed Central

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2015-01-01

    Gabor frames can advantageously be redefined using the Heisenberg–Weyl operators familiar from harmonic analysis and quantum mechanics. Not only does this redefinition allow us to recover in a very simple way known results of symplectic covariance, but it immediately leads to the consideration of a general deformation scheme by Hamiltonian isotopies (i.e. arbitrary paths of non-linear symplectic mappings passing through the identity). We will study in some detail an associated weak notion of Hamiltonian deformation of Gabor frames, using ideas from semiclassical physics involving coherent states and Gaussian approximations. We will thereafter discuss possible applications and extensions of our method, which can be viewed – as the title suggests – as the very first steps towards a general deformation theory for Gabor frames. PMID:25892903

  4. Framing global health: the governance challenge.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Colin; Kamradt-Scott, Adam; Lee, Kelley; Reubi, David; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Rushton, Simon; Williams, Owain David; Woodling, Marie

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of global health comes governance challenges which are equally global in nature. This article identifies some of the initial limitations in analyses of global health governance (GHG) before discussing the focus of this special supplement: the framing of global health issues and the manner in which this impacts upon GHG. Whilst not denying the importance of material factors (such as resources and institutional competencies), the article identifies how issues can be framed in different ways, thereby creating particular pathways of response which in turn affect the potential for and nature of GHG. It also identifies and discusses the key frames operating in global health: evidence-based medicine, human rights, security, economics and development. PMID:23113870

  5. Identical algorithm of radiative transfer across ultrarelativistic shock in different inertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Ayako; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Nagakura, Hiroki; Ito, Hirotaka; Yamada, Shoichi

    2015-12-01

    Some high-energy photons are thought to be produced by the inverse Compton scattering process in ultrarelativistic flows, and the high-energy component of spectra in gamma-ray bursts can be interpreted by the process. To examine numerically the trajectory of photons traveling in relativistic jets in detail, a coupled computation method of radiative transport with relativistic hydrodynamics is required. We have developed a three-dimensional code of radiative transport on a background with a relativistic flow using Monte Carlo method. Radiative transfer simulations have been implemented in different inertial frames which are described as a shock rest frame or shock moving frames, and obtained results are compared in the shock rest frame to identify a consistent transformation among different frames. Optical depth τ for every directions agrees among each frame if a time duration of the computation is small enough to resolve photon path close to a shock front with almost the speed of light. Although the obtained results of the direction distribution and the spectrum of the escaped photons from the computational domain in each frame show discrepancies due to different flow velocities, they are identical after Lorentz transforming to the shock rest frame. We found the second peak of energy in the high-energy side of the spectra if the simulation condition is determined to allow the scattering process in the upstream side of the shock, and this peak is formed by the inverse Compton scattering process.

  6. Parallel Key Frame Extraction for Surveillance Video Service in a Smart City

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hai; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Qin; Deng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance video service (SVS) is one of the most important services provided in a smart city. It is very important for the utilization of SVS to provide design efficient surveillance video analysis techniques. Key frame extraction is a simple yet effective technique to achieve this goal. In surveillance video applications, key frames are typically used to summarize important video content. It is very important and essential to extract key frames accurately and efficiently. A novel approach is proposed to extract key frames from traffic surveillance videos based on GPU (graphics processing units) to ensure high efficiency and accuracy. For the determination of key frames, motion is a more salient feature in presenting actions or events, especially in surveillance videos. The motion feature is extracted in GPU to reduce running time. It is also smoothed to reduce noise, and the frames with local maxima of motion information are selected as the final key frames. The experimental results show that this approach can extract key frames more accurately and efficiently compared with several other methods. PMID:26284923

  7. Parallel Key Frame Extraction for Surveillance Video Service in a Smart City.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ran; Yao, Chuanwei; Jin, Hai; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Qin; Deng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance video service (SVS) is one of the most important services provided in a smart city. It is very important for the utilization of SVS to provide design efficient surveillance video analysis techniques. Key frame extraction is a simple yet effective technique to achieve this goal. In surveillance video applications, key frames are typically used to summarize important video content. It is very important and essential to extract key frames accurately and efficiently. A novel approach is proposed to extract key frames from traffic surveillance videos based on GPU (graphics processing units) to ensure high efficiency and accuracy. For the determination of key frames, motion is a more salient feature in presenting actions or events, especially in surveillance videos. The motion feature is extracted in GPU to reduce running time. It is also smoothed to reduce noise, and the frames with local maxima of motion information are selected as the final key frames. The experimental results show that this approach can extract key frames more accurately and efficiently compared with several other methods. PMID:26284923

  8. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks. PMID:26192355

  9. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Frames 2.0 Pest Integration (F2PEST)

    SciTech Connect

    Castleton, Karl J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2009-06-17

    The implementation of the FRAMES 2.0 F2PEST module is described, including requirements, design, and specifications of the software. This module integrates the PEST parameter estimation software within the FRAMES 2.0 environmental modeling framework. A test case is presented.

  10. Strategic Framing Study Circles: Toward a Gold Standard of Framing Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article explains how communities of practice have been developed as part of FrameWorks' field-building efforts. Strategic Framing Study Circles, as they are known, have been conducted with four statewide coalitions, one group of national organizations, and an emerging regional coalition. The goal of each community of practice is to build…

  11. BioFrameNet: A FrameNet Extension to the Domain of Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbey, Andrew Eric

    2009-01-01

    In this study I introduce BioFrameNet, an extension of the Berkeley FrameNet lexical database to the domain of molecular biology. I examine the syntactic and semantic combinatorial possibilities exhibited in the lexical items used in this domain in order to get a better understanding of the grammatical properties of the language used in scientific…

  12. All framing effects are not created equal: Low convergent validity between two classic measurements of framing.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect. PMID:27436680

  13. All framing effects are not created equal: Low convergent validity between two classic measurements of framing

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect. PMID:27436680

  14. An Investigation On The Problems Of The Intermittent High-Speed Camera Of 360 Frames/S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihong, Rong

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses several problems on the JX-300 intermittent synchronous high-speed camera developed by the Institue of Optics and Electronics (10E), Academia Sinica in 1985. It is shown that when a framing rate is no more than 120 frames/s, a relatively high reliability is obtained resulting from low acceleration of the moving elements, weak intermittent pulldown strength, low frequency vibration, etc. At the time when a framing rate increases to over 200 frames/s, the photographic resolving power, as well as the film running reliability reduce due to the dramatic increase in vibration and pulldown strenth, which is similar to that in the stationary photography. It is getting worse when the framing rate is up to 300 frames/s. Therefore, deliberating on the choice of a claw mechanism having a framing rate of over 300 frames/s and conducting a series of technical measures are particularly important for a camera to obtain a sharp object image securely, otherwise it can hardly reach the framing rate of 300 frames/s for an intermittent camera. Even if this framing rate is attained, the image quality is also deformed and the mechanism would be rapidly worn off from high vibration.

  15. Framing the Future. Re-framing the Future: A Report on the Long-Term Impacts of Framing the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John

    Australia's Framing the Future (FTF) project was designed to develop a model of staff development to support implementation of the National Training Framework (NTF). A survey of FTF project managers found these long-term impacts: implementation of training packages and other aspects of NTF, new forms of collaboration between industry and training…

  16. Magnetization patterns of permalloy square frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Mei-Feng; Wei, Zung-Hang; Chang, Ching-Ray; Wu, J. C.; Hsieh, W. Z.; Usov, Nickolai A.; Lai, Jun-Yang; Yao, Y. D.

    2003-05-01

    Four different magnetization configurations of micron- and submicron-sized permalloy square frames are investigated by numerical simulations and experiments. Beside the pure conventional 90° Neel type wall with zero net magnetic pole, we also obtain numerically another high energy domain wall with positive or negative net magnetic poles in the corner. These three kinds of domain walls constitute four different patterns in square frames. We compare the magnetic pole density distributions derived from the spin configurations of simulation results with the images taken by magnetic force microscopy, and find reasonable agreement between them.

  17. Notes for Brazil sampling frame evaluation trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Hicks, D. R. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Field notes describing a trip conducted in Brazil are presented. This trip was conducted for the purpose of evaluating a sample frame developed using LANDSAT full frame images by the USDA Economic and Statistics Service for the eventual purpose of cropland production estimation with LANDSAT by the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting Project of the AgRISTARS program. Six areas were analyzed on the basis of land use, crop land in corn and soybean, field size and soil type. The analysis indicated generally successful use of LANDSAT images for purposes of remote large area land use stratification.

  18. Ray Effect Mitigation Through Reference Frame Rotation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tencer, John

    2016-06-14

    The discrete ordinates method is a popular and versatile technique for solving the radiative transport equation, a major drawback of which is the presence of ray effects. Mitigation of ray effects can yield significantly more accurate results and enhanced numerical stability for combined mode codes. Moreover, when ray effects are present, the solution is seen to be highly dependent upon the relative orientation of the geometry and the global reference frame. It is an undesirable property. A novel ray effect mitigation technique of averaging the computed solution for various reference frame orientations is proposed.

  19. Effectiveness of cigarette warning labels: examining the impact of graphics, message framing, and temporal framing.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Yang, Bo; Iles, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cigarette warning labels, with a specific focus on the impact of graphics, message framing (gain vs. loss), and temporal framing (present-oriented vs. future-oriented) among nonsmokers in the United States. A controlled experiment (N = 253) revealed that graphic warning labels were perceived as more effective, stronger in argument strength, and were generally liked more compared to text-only labels. In addition, loss-framed labels, compared to their gain-framed counterparts, were rated higher in perceived effectiveness, argument strength, and liking. No significant difference was observed between the present- and future-oriented frames on any of the dependent variables. Implications of the findings for antismoking communication efforts are discussed. PMID:24628288

  20. Multiple reference frames in haptic spatial processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volčič, R.

    2008-08-01

    The present thesis focused on haptic spatial processing. In particular, our interest was directed to the perception of spatial relations with the main focus on the perception of orientation. To this end, we studied haptic perception in different tasks, either in isolation or in combination with vision. The parallelity task, where participants have to match the orientations of two spatially separated bars, was used in its two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, respectively. The influence of non-informative vision and visual interference on performance in the parallelity task was studied in Chapter 4. A different task, the mental rotation task, was introduced in a purely haptic study in Chapter 5 and in a visuo-haptic cross-modal study in Chapter 6. The interaction of multiple reference frames and their influence on haptic spatial processing were the common denominators of these studies. In this thesis we approached the problems of which reference frames play the major role in haptic spatial processing and how the relative roles of distinct reference frames change depending on the available information and the constraints imposed by different tasks. We found that the influence of a reference frame centered on the hand was the major cause of the deviations from veridicality observed in both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional studies. The results were described by a weighted average model, in which the hand-centered egocentric reference frame is supposed to have a biasing influence on the allocentric reference frame. Performance in haptic spatial processing has been shown to depend also on sources of information or processing that are not strictly connected to the task at hand. When non-informative vision was provided, a beneficial effect was observed in the haptic performance. This improvement was interpreted as a shift from the egocentric to the allocentric reference frame. Moreover, interfering visual information presented

  1. Framing the Future: Workbased Learning Facilitation Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Melbourne.

    This resource provides tips to assist facilitators as they work with Australia's Framing the Future project teams. The 16 tips are about group selection; how to prepare for input; participant roles; how to use participants and observers; scribes and recorders; some ideas for launches and fun; praise! praise! praise!; making facilitation the key to…

  2. Construction Cluster Volume I [Wood Structural Framing].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the first of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. It focuses on wood structural framing and contains 20 units: (1) occupational information; (2) blueprint reading; (3) using leveling instruments and laying out building lines; (4)…

  3. Building Trades. Block III. Floor Framing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This document contains three units of a course on floor framing to be used as part of a building trades program. Each unit consists, first, of an informational lesson, with complete lesson plan for the teacher's use. Included in each lesson plan are the lesson aim; lists of teaching aids, materials, references, and prerequisites for students;…

  4. FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Doc Lew

    Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an…

  5. Framing Learning Conditions in Geography Excursions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonasson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and frame some learning conditions involved in the practice of geographical excursions. The empirical material from this study comes from several excursions made by students in human geography and an ethnomethodological approach through participant observation is used. The study is informed by theories from…

  6. Cultural Framing: Foreign Correspondents and Their Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starck, Kenneth; Villanueva, Estela

    With the notion of cultural framing as a theoretical backdrop, a study examined the role of culture in the work of foreign correspondents. The aim was to explore cultural aspects of international news reporting that may suggest avenues for more systematic inquiry into the role of culture in the work of the foreign correspondent. Of 75 examined…

  7. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  8. Defining Enrollment Management: The Political Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the elements of Bolman and Deal's (1991) political frame, which are widely discussed and written about among enrollment managers. Whether it is under the guise of managing change, getting things done, understanding institutional politics, or soliciting campus-wide involvement, the issues are often thorny and leave many…

  9. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  10. The framing effect and skin conductance responses

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa. PMID:26300747

  11. Cognitive Style, Creativity Framing and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how individuals with different cognitive styles respond to choices involving framing effects. The results suggest that cognitive style as defined by Kirton (1976) is far more complex than previous studies indicate. Kirton characterises "Innovators" as rule breakers and "Adaptors" as conformists. The most important finding…

  12. The Frame Game: A Flexible Conversation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Carl

    The Frame Game is a second language conversation activity that allows instructors to determine the content. The activity provides a structure for communication between students and adapts easily to almost any topic. The basic version of the game has been adapted from a management training activity, and is presented along with several variations…

  13. Leaders as Linchpins for Framing Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Community college leaders serve as linchpins for framing meaning on campus. The current pressures on institutions (given declining financial resources, demands for accountability, changing faculty ranks, and societal need for new knowledge) require presidents to juggle multiple priorities while presenting a cohesive message to campus constituents.…

  14. On Translators' Cultural Frame of Functionist Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Zhiyi

    2009-01-01

    A deep cognition with translators' cultural frame of functionist reference can help instructors and teachers adjust and extend patterns and schemes of translation and generate the optimal classroom conditions for acquisition of the target language. The author of the paper, in the perspectives of motivational, cognitive and communicative…

  15. Boy Trouble: Rhetorical Framing of Boys' Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Jordan J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines discourse in the United States used to socially construct an "underachieving boys" moral panic. Employing discourse analysis I examine the adversarial rhetoric of claims-makers and the frames they deploy to undermine alternative and conflicting accounts (of females as disadvantaged) and to forestall any challenges to the…

  16. Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theakston, Anna L.; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __"want"__, __"see"__, and __"get"__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and…

  17. Emergent Bilinguals: Framing Students as Statistical Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Jill; Menken, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant youth who are designated as English language learners in American schools--whom we refer to as "emergent bilinguals"--are increasingly framed by numerical calculations. Utilizing the notion of assemblage from actor-network theory (ANT), we trace how emergent bilinguals are discursively constructed by officials, administrators,…

  18. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-12-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference"1,2 effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating—all with respect to the Earth frame. The film is a classic for good reason, but today it does have a couple of drawbacks: 1) The film by nature only accommodates passive learning. It does not give students the opportunity to try any of the experiments themselves. 2) The dated style of the 50-year-old film can distract students from the physics content. I present here a simple setup that can recreate many of the movies demonstrations in the classroom. The demonstrations can be used to supplement the movie or in its place, if desired. All of the materials except perhaps the inexpensive web camera should likely be available already in most teaching laboratories. Unlike previously described activities, these experiments do not require travel to another location3 or an involved setup.4,5

  19. Section BB Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging Knees at Hatch; Elevation A-A Hull Framing; Section at Hatch Frame 36, Starboard Looking Aft; Midship Section Frame 37, Port Looking Aft - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  1. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  2. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  3. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  4. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  5. Transitions in Students' Epistemic Framing along Two Axes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Paul W.; Martinuk, Mathew Sandy; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    We use epistemological framing to interpret participants' behavior during group problem-solving sessions in an intermediate mechanics course. We are interested in how students frame discussion and in how the groups shift discussion framings. Our analysis includes two framing axes, expansive vs narrow and serious vs silly, which together…

  6. Effects of Problem Frame and Gender on Principals' Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul M.; Fagley, Nancy S.; Casella, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates people's decisions can sometimes be influenced by seemingly trivial differences in the "framing" (i.e., wording) of alternative options. The tendency to prefer risk averse options when framed positively and risky options when framed negatively is known as the framing effect. The current study examined the susceptibility of…

  7. Remarks on Viewing Situation in a Rotating Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Representations of centrifugal forces are derived in a variety of rotating frames. Although the rotating angle of a point mass relative to an inertial frame is often confused with the rotating angle of a rotating frame relative to the inertial frame, they should be differentiated. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

  8. Homopolar artificial gravity generator based on frame-dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajmar, M.

    2010-05-01

    Space exploration is linked in many ways to the generation and challenges of artificial gravity. Space stations and drag-free satellite platforms are used to provide microgravity environments for scientific experiments. On the other hand, microgravity or reduced gravity environments such as on Moon and Mars are known to put limits for long-term human presence. Large centrifuges in space may provide Earth-like gravity environments during long-term travels, however, such technology certainly has its limits to provide similar environments for human outposts on other moons and planets. One can imagine a different technology using a prediction out of Einstein's general relativity theory which is called frame-dragging. In principle, frame-dragging might be used to generate artificial gravitational fields similar to electric fields generated by time-varying or moving magnetic fields. We will show that it is also possible to generate constant artificial gravitational fields that could provide microgravity or artificial gravity environments. Although such technology is possible in principle, the field strengths calculated from Einstein's theory are too small to be useful so far. However, recently detected anomalies around low-temperature spinning matter as well as fly-by anomalies point to possible enhancement mechanisms that might make an artificial gravity generator based on frame-dragging a reality in the future.

  9. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  10. An Adaptive RFID Anti-Collision Algorithm Based on Dynamic Framed ALOHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Cho, Hyeonwoo; Kim, Sang Woo

    The collision of ID signals from a large number of colocated passive RFID tags is a serious problem; to realize a practical RFID systems we need an effective anti-collision algorithm. This letter presents an adaptive algorithm to minimize the total time slots and the number of rounds required for identifying the tags within the RFID reader's interrogation zone. The proposed algorithm is based on the framed ALOHA protocol, and the frame size is adaptively updated each round. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm is more efficient than the conventional algorithms based on the framed ALOHA.

  11. Hypervelocity impact studies using a rotating mirror framing laser shadowgraph camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Vance C.; Crews, Jeanne Lee

    1988-01-01

    The need to study the effects of the impact of micrometeorites and orbital debris on various space-based systems has brought together the technologies of several companies and individuals in order to provide a successful instrumentation package. A light gas gun was employed to accelerate small projectiles to speeds in excess of 7 km/sec. Their impact on various targets is being studied with the help of a specially designed continuous-access rotating-mirror framing camera. The camera provides 80 frames of data at up to 1 x 10 to the 6th frames/sec with exposure times of 20 nsec.

  12. RC Infilled Frame-RC Plane Frame Interactions for Seismic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulselvan, Suyamburaja; Subramanian, K.; Perumal Pillai, E. B.; Santhakumar, A. R.

    Experimental investigation was planned and conducted to study the influence of brick masonry infill in a reinforced cement concrete frame. The analytical methods available needs validation by comparison with experimental results and more accurate methods of analysis like finite element analysis has to be used for the above purpose. In this study, RC frame with middle bay brick infilled representing a five-stories, three bay building in quarter-scale has been taken for experimental investigation and the available methods of theoretical analysis and finite element analysis using ANSYS software for the frames have been carried out. Until the cracks developed in infills, the contribution of the infill to both lateral stiffness and strength was very significant. The change in lateral stiffness, strength, ductility and natural period of the framed structure due to the presence of infills change the behaviour of the building under seismic action. The object of this study was to investigate the behaviour of such infilled frames under seismic loads. For this purpose, five stories, three bay frames with central portion infilled with brick were tested under static cyclic loading simulating seismic action. Analytical works was done to understand the stiffness, strength and behaviour of these types of frames.

  13. High frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    SciTech Connect

    King, N.S.P.; Cverna, F.H.; Albright, K.L.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E.; Flynn, M.J.; Tashman, S.

    1994-09-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100-microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  14. High-frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Nicholas S. P.; Cverna, Frank H.; Albright, Kevin L.; Jaramillo, Steven A.; Yates, George J.; McDonald, Thomas E.; Flynn, Michael J.; Tashman, Scott

    1994-10-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100 microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  15. Transformative Relation of Kinematical Descriptive Quantities Defined by Different Spatial Referential Frame, Its Property and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ji

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative transformations between corresponding kinetic quantities defined by any two spatial referential frames, whose relative kinematics relations (purely rotational and translational movement) are known, are presented based on necessarily descriptive definitions of the fundamental concepts (instant, time, spatial referential frame that distinguishes from Maths. Coordination, physical point) had being clarified by directly empirical observation with artificially descriptive purpose. Inductive investigation of the transformation reveals that all physical quantities such as charge, temperature, time, volume, length, temporal rate of the quantities and relations like temporal relation between signal source and observer as such are independent to spatial frames transformation except above kinematical quantities transformations, kinematics related dynamics such as Newton ’ s second law existing only in inertial frames and exchange of kinetic energy of mass being valid only in a selected inertial frame. From above bas is, we demonstrate a series of inferences and applications such as phase velocity of light being direct respect to medium (including vacuum) rather than to the frame, using spatial referential frame to describe any measurable field (electric field, magnetic field, gravitational field) and the field ’ s variation; and have tables to contrast and evaluate all aspects of those hypotheses related with spacetime such as distorted spacetime around massive stellar, four dimension spacetime, gravitational time dilation and non - Euclid geometry with new one. The demonstration strongly suggests all the hypotheses are invalid in capable tested concepts ’ meaning and relations. The conventional work on frame transformation and its property, hypothesized by Voigt, Heaviside, Lorentz, Poincare and Einstein a century ago with some mathematical speculation lacking rigorous definition of the fundamental concepts such as instant, time, spatial reference

  16. Disentangling the External Reference Frames Relevant to Tactile Localization

    PubMed Central

    Backhaus, Jenny; Röder, Brigitte; Badde, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Different reference frames appear to be relevant for tactile spatial coding. When participants give temporal order judgments (TOJ) of two tactile stimuli, one on each hand, performance declines when the hands are crossed. This effect is attributed to a conflict between anatomical and external location codes: hand crossing places the anatomically right hand into the left side of external space. However, hand crossing alone does not specify the anchor of the external reference frame, such as gaze, trunk, or the stimulated limb. Experiments that used explicit localization responses, such as pointing to tactile stimuli rather than crossing manipulations, have consistently implicated gaze-centered coding for touch. To test whether crossing effects can be explained by gaze-centered coding alone, participants made TOJ while the position of the hands was manipulated relative to gaze and trunk. The two hands either lay on different sides of space relative to gaze or trunk, or they both lay on one side of the respective space. In the latter posture, one hand was on its "regular side of space" despite hand crossing, thus reducing overall conflict between anatomical and external codes. TOJ crossing effects were significantly reduced when the hands were both located on the same side of space relative to gaze, indicating gaze-centered coding. Evidence for trunk-centered coding was tentative, with an effect in reaction time but not in accuracy. These results link paradigms that use explicit localization and TOJ, and corroborate the relevance of gaze-related coding for touch. Yet, gaze and trunk-centered coding did not account for the total size of crossing effects, suggesting that tactile localization relies on additional, possibly limb-centered, reference frames. Thus, tactile location appears to be estimated by integrating multiple anatomical and external reference frames. PMID:27391805

  17. Disentangling the External Reference Frames Relevant to Tactile Localization.

    PubMed

    Heed, Tobias; Backhaus, Jenny; Röder, Brigitte; Badde, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Different reference frames appear to be relevant for tactile spatial coding. When participants give temporal order judgments (TOJ) of two tactile stimuli, one on each hand, performance declines when the hands are crossed. This effect is attributed to a conflict between anatomical and external location codes: hand crossing places the anatomically right hand into the left side of external space. However, hand crossing alone does not specify the anchor of the external reference frame, such as gaze, trunk, or the stimulated limb. Experiments that used explicit localization responses, such as pointing to tactile stimuli rather than crossing manipulations, have consistently implicated gaze-centered coding for touch. To test whether crossing effects can be explained by gaze-centered coding alone, participants made TOJ while the position of the hands was manipulated relative to gaze and trunk. The two hands either lay on different sides of space relative to gaze or trunk, or they both lay on one side of the respective space. In the latter posture, one hand was on its "regular side of space" despite hand crossing, thus reducing overall conflict between anatomical and external codes. TOJ crossing effects were significantly reduced when the hands were both located on the same side of space relative to gaze, indicating gaze-centered coding. Evidence for trunk-centered coding was tentative, with an effect in reaction time but not in accuracy. These results link paradigms that use explicit localization and TOJ, and corroborate the relevance of gaze-related coding for touch. Yet, gaze and trunk-centered coding did not account for the total size of crossing effects, suggesting that tactile localization relies on additional, possibly limb-centered, reference frames. Thus, tactile location appears to be estimated by integrating multiple anatomical and external reference frames. PMID:27391805

  18. SNR improvement for hyperspectral application using frame and pixel binning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Sami Ur; Kumar, Ankush; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging spectrometer systems are increasingly being used in the field of remote sensing for variety of civilian and military applications. The ability of such instruments in discriminating finer spectral features along with improved spatial and radiometric performance have made such instruments a powerful tool in the field of remote sensing. Design and development of spaceborne hyper spectral imaging spectrometers poses lot of technological challenges in terms of optics, dispersion element, detectors, electronics and mechanical systems. The main factors that define the type of detectors are the spectral region, SNR, dynamic range, pixel size, number of pixels, frame rate, operating temperature etc. Detectors with higher quantum efficiency and higher well depth are the preferred choice for such applications. CCD based Si detectors serves the requirement of high well depth for VNIR band spectrometers but suffers from smear. Smear can be controlled by using CMOS detectors. Si CMOS detectors with large format arrays are available. These detectors generally have smaller pitch and low well depth. Binning technique can be used with available CMOS detectors to meet the large swath, higher resolution and high SNR requirements. Availability of larger dwell time of satellite can be used to bin multiple frames to increase the signal collection even with lesser well depth detectors and ultimately increase the SNR. Lab measurements reveal that SNR improvement by frame binning is more in comparison to pixel binning. Effect of pixel binning as compared to the frame binning will be discussed and degradation of SNR as compared to theoretical value for pixel binning will be analyzed.

  19. Elliptically framed tip-tilt mirror optimized for stellar tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, James H.; Penado, F. E.; Petak, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We compare a design innovation of an elliptically framed tip-tilt optical tracker with an existing circularly framed tracker for the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer. The tracker stabilizes a 12.5 cm stellar beam on a target hundreds of meters away and requires an increase in operational frequency. We reduced mass and size by integrating an elliptical mirror as one of the rotating components, which eliminated a rotating frame. We used the same materials as the existing tracker; however, light-weighted both the aluminum frame and Zerodur® mirror. We generated a computer-aided design model, converted it into a finite element model and performed modal analysis on two load cases. In load case 1, we tied down three points on the bottom surface of the tracker corresponding to the tie-down points of the comparison tracker. This reveals a first mode (lowest) frequency of 140 Hz, a factor of two over the baseline tracker's first mode frequency of 67 Hz. In load case 2, we constrained four additional points inboard of the corners of the tracker base, for a total of seven tie-downs, simulating a firmly bolted and secured mount. The first mode of vibration for this case is 211 Hz, an increase over load case 1 by a factor of 1.5 and more than three times the fundamental frequency of the existing tracker. We conclude that these geometrical changes with the additional tie-down bolts are a viable solution path forward to improve steering speed and recommend a continuation with this effort.

  20. Impacts of GNSS position offsets on global frame stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Jake; Ray, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Positional offsets appear in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) time series for a variety of reasons. Antenna or radome changes are the most common cause for these discontinuities. Many others are from earthquakes, receiver changes, and different anthropogenic modifications at or near the stations. Some jumps appear for unknown or undocumented reasons. The accurate determination of station velocities, and therefore geophysical parameters and terrestrial reference frames, requires that positional offsets be correctly found and compensated. Williams (2003) found that undetected offsets introduce a random walk error component in individual station time series. The topic of detecting positional offsets has received considerable attention in recent years (e.g., Detection of Offsets in GPS Experiment; DOGEx), and most research groups using GNSS have adopted a combination of manual and automated methods for finding them. The removal of a positional offset is usually handled by estimating the average station position on both sides of the discontinuity, assuming a constant, continuous velocity. This is sufficient in the absence of time-correlated errors. However, GNSS time series contain systematic and power-law errors (white to random walk noise). In this paper, we aim to evaluate the impact to both individual station results and the overall stability of the global reference frame from adding increasing numbers of positional discontinuities. We use the International GNSS Service (IGS) weekly SINEX files, and iteratively insert positional offset parameters at the midpoint of each data segment. Each iteration includes a restacking of the modified SINEX files using the CATREF software from Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) to estimate: regularized station positions, secular velocities, Earth orientation parameters, Helmert frame alignment parameters, and the empirical shifts across all positional discontinuities. A comparison of the

  1. MRI rotating frame relaxation measurements for articular cartilage assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ellermann, Jutta; Ling, Wen; Nissi, Mikko J.; Arendt, Elizabeth; Carlson, Cathy S.; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom; Mangia, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we introduced two MRI rotating frame relaxation methods, namely adiabatic T1ρ and Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field (RAFF), along with an inversion-prepared Magnetization Transfer (MT) protocol for assessment of articular cartilage. Given the inherent sensitivity of rotating frame relaxation methods to slow molecular motions that are relevant in cartilage, we hypothesized that adiabatic T1ρ and RAFF would have higher sensitivity to articular cartilage degradation as compared to laboratory frame T2 and MT. To test this hypothesis, a proteoglycan depletion model was used. Relaxation time measurements were performed at 0 and 48 hours in ten bovine patellar specimens, 5 of which were treated with trypsin and 5 untreated controls were stored under identical conditions in isotonic saline for 48 hours. Relaxation times measured at 48 hours were longer than those measured at 0 hours in both groups. The changes in T2 and MT relaxation times after 48 hours were approximately 3 times larger in the trypsin treated specimens as compared to the untreated group, whereas increases of adiabatic T1ρ and RAFF were 4 to 5 fold larger. Overall, these findings demonstrate a higher sensitivity of adiabatic T1ρ and RAFF to the trypsin-induced changes in bovine patellar cartilage as compared to the commonly used T2 and MT. Since adiabatic T1ρ and RAFF are advantageous for human applications as compared to standard continuous-wave T1ρ methods, adiabatic T1ρ and RAFF are promising tools for assessing cartilage degradation in clinical settings. PMID:23993794

  2. Report of the panel on earth rotation and reference frames, section 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.; Dickman, Steven R.; Eubanks, Marshall T.; Feissel, Martine; Herring, Thomas A.; Mueller, Ivan I.; Rosen, Richard D.; Schutz, Robert E.; Wahr, John M.; Wilson, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    Objectives and requirements for Earth rotation and reference frame studies in the 1990s are discussed. The objectives are to observe and understand interactions of air and water with the rotational dynamics of the Earth, the effects of the Earth's crust and mantle on the dynamics and excitation of Earth rotation variations over time scales of hours to centuries, and the effects of the Earth's core on the rotational dynamics and the excitation of Earth rotation variations over time scales of a year or longer. Another objective is to establish, refine and maintain terrestrial and celestrial reference frames. Requirements include improvements in observations and analysis, improvements in celestial and terrestrial reference frames and reference frame connections, and improved observations of crustal motion and mass redistribution on the Earth.

  3. Torque or no torque? Simple charged particle motion observed in different inertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    In a given inertial frame, a charged particle initially at rest moves in the central electric field caused by a fixed charge at the origin. The particle has no initial angular momentum and experiences no torque. However, in an inertial frame moving with a nonvanishing velocity with respect to the first, the charged particle's motion is subject to the Lorentz force with both electric and magnetic fields produced by the "fixed" charge, which is now in uniform motion. The charged particle experiences a torque from the magnetic part of the force; its nonvanishing angular momentum changes in time. This puzzle is analyzed in detail from different reference frames. The chief characteristic of the motion, independent of the choice of the inertial frame, is the constancy in time of the orientation of the relative coordinate r as the particle moves with respect to the fixed (or uniformly moving) charge.

  4. High frame-rate, large field wavefront sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Avicola, K.; Salmon, J.T.; Brase, J.; Waltjen, K.; Presta, R. ); Balch, K.S. )

    1992-03-01

    A two-stage intensified 192 {times} 239 pixel imager developed by Eastman Kodak for motion analysis was used to construct a 1 kHz frame-rate Hartmann wavefront sensor. The sensor uses a monolithic array of lenslets with a focal length that is adjusted by an index fluid between the convex surface and an optical flat. The accuracy of the calculated centroid position, which is related to wavefront measurement accuracy, was obtained as a function of spot power and spot size. The sensor was then dynamically tested at a 1 kHz frame-rate with a 9 {times} 9 lenslet array and a fast steering mirror, which swept a plane wavefront across the wavefront sensor. An 8 cm diameter subaperture will provide a return signal (589 nm) level of about 1000 photons/ms using the AVLIS 1 kW laser (stretched pulse) as guide star source, which is sufficient to yield a wavefront measurement of better than {gamma}/10 rms. If an area of 6 {times} 6 pixels per Hartmann spot were allocated, this wavefront sensor could support a 32 {times} 32, or 1024, element deformable mirror.

  5. Looking for systematic error in scale from terrestrial reference frames derived from DORIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, L.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2005-01-01

    The long-term stability of the scale of Terrestrial Reference Frames is directly linked with station height determination and is critical for several scientific studies, such as global mean sea level rise or ocean circulation with consequences on global warming studies. In recent International Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions, the DORIS technique was not sonsidered able to provide any useful information on scale. We have analyzed three different DORIS time series of coordinates performed independently using different software packages.

  6. The task of the relativistic oscillator in a non-inertial frame of reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepelkin, E. E.; Sadovnikov, B. I.; Inozemtseva, N. G.

    2016-09-01

    The relativistic theory is one of the most difficult parts of theoretical physics to understand by high school students and scientists alike. In this paper, the important aspects from this theory are considered. The case of the non-inertial reference frame in which the space–time interval was presented for the Lorentz-like transformations, and the condition by which the transition to the inertial reference frame takes place, is shown.

  7. Comparisons of 2D IR measured spectral diffusion in rotating frames using pulse shaping and in the stationary frame using the standard method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthick Kumar, S. K.; Tamimi, A.; Fayer, M. D.

    2012-11-01

    Multidimensional visible spectroscopy using pulse shaping to produce pulses with stable controllable phases and delays has emerged as an elegant tool to acquire electronic spectra faster and with greatly reduced instrumental and data processing errors. Recent migration of this approach using acousto-optic modulator (AOM) pulse shaping to the mid-infrared region has proved useful for acquiring two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectra. The measurement of spectral diffusion in 2D IR experiments hinges on obtaining accurate 2D line shapes. To date, pulse shaping 2D IR has not been used to study the time-dependent spectral diffusion of a vibrational chromophore. Here we compare the spectral diffusion data obtained from a standard non-collinear 2D IR spectrometer using delay lines to the data obtained from an AOM pulse shaper based 2D IR spectrometer. The pulse shaping experiments are performed in stationary, partially rotating, and fully rotating reference frames and are the first in the infrared to produce 2D spectra collected in a fully rotating frame using a phase controlled pulse sequence. Rotating frame experiments provide a dramatic reduction in the number of time points that must be measured to obtain a 2D IR spectrum, with the fully rotating frame giving the greatest reduction. Experiments were conducted on the transition metal carbonyl complex tricarbonylchloro(1,10-phenanthroline)rhenium(I) in chloroform. The time dependent data obtained from the different techniques and with different reference frames are shown to be in agreement.

  8. Names in frames: infants interpret words in sentence frames faster than words in isolation

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

    2011-01-01

    In child-directed speech (CDS), adults often use utterances with very few words; many include short, frequently used sentence frames, while others consist of a single word in isolation. Do such features of CDS provide perceptual advantages for the child? Based on descriptive analyses of parental speech, some researchers argue that isolated words should help infants in word recognition by facilitating segmentation, while others predict no advantage. To address this question directly, we used online measures of speech processing in a looking-while-listening procedure. In two experiments, 18-month-olds were presented with familiar object names in isolation and in a sentence frame. Infants were 120 ms slower to interpret target words in isolation than when the same words were preceded by a familiar carrier phrase, suggesting that the sentence frame facilitated word recognition. Familiar frames may enable the infant to ‘listen ahead’ more efficiently for the focused word at the end of the sentence. PMID:16669790

  9. On the Assessment of Global Terrestrial Reference Frame Temporal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Koenig, Rolf; Zhu, Shengyuan

    2015-04-01

    Global Terrestrial Reference Frames (GTRFs) as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) provide reliable 4-D position information (3-D coordinates and their evolution through time). The given 3-D velocities play a significant role in precise position acquisition and are estimated from long term coordinate time series from the space-geodetic techniques DORIS, GNSS, SLR, and VLBI. GTRFs temporal evolution is directly connected with their internal stability: The more intense and inhomogeneous velocity field, the less stable TRF is derived. The assessment of the quality of the GTRF is mainly realized by comparing it to each individual technique's reference frame. E.g the comparison of GTRFs to SLR-only based TRF gives the sense of the ITRF stability with respect to the Geocenter and scale and their associated rates respectively. In addition, the comparison of ITRF to the VLBI-only based TRF can be used for the scale validation. However, till now there is not any specified methodology for the total assessment (in terms of origin, orientation and scale respectively) of the temporal evolution and GTRFs associated accuracy. We present a new alternative diagnostic tool for the assessment of GTRFs temporal evolution based on the well-known time-dependent Helmert type transformation formula (three shifts, three rotations and scale rates respectively). The advantage of the new methodology relies on the fact that it uses the full velocity field of the TRF and therefore all points not just the ones common to different techniques. It also examines simultaneously rates of origin, orientation and scale. The methodology is presented and implemented to the two existing GTRFs on the market (ITRF and DTRF which is computed from DGFI) , the results are discussed. The results also allow to compare directly each GTRF dynamic behavior. Furthermore, the correlations of the estimated parameters can also provide useful information to the proposed GTRFs assessment scheme.

  10. Frame rate of motion picture and its influence on speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazono, Kaoru

    1996-03-01

    The preservation of QoS for multimedia traffic through a data network is a difficult problem. We focus our attention on video frame rate and study its influence on speech perception. When sound and picture are discrepant (e.g., acoustic `ba' combined with visual `ga'), subjects perceive a different sound (such as `da'). This phenomenon is known as the McGurk effect. In this paper, the influence of degraded video frame rate on speech perception was studied. It was shown that when frame rate decreases, correct hearing is improved for discrepant stimuli and is degraded for congruent (voice and picture are the same) stimuli. Furthermore, we studied the case where lip closure was always captured by the synchronization of sampling time and lip position. In this case, frame rate has little effect on mishearing for congruent stimuli. For discrepant stimuli, mishearing is decreased with degraded frame rate. These results indicate that stiff motion of lips resulting from low frame rate cannot give enough labial information for speech perception. In addition, the effect of delaying the picture to correct for low frame rate was studied. The results, however, were not as definitive as expected because of compound effects related to the synchronization of sound and picture.

  11. FULL ELECTROMAGNETIC FEL SIMULATION VIA THE LORENTZ-BOOSTED FRAME TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, William; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2010-08-16

    Numerical electromagnetic simulation of some systems containing charged particles with highly relativistic directed motion can by speeded up by orders of magnitude by choice of the proper Lorentz-boosted frame. A particularly good application for calculation in a boosted frame isthat of short wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) where a high energy electron beam with small fractional energy spread interacts with a static magnetic undulator. In the optimal boost frame (i.e., the ponderomotive rest frame), the red-shifted FEL radiation and blue-shifted undulator field have identical wavelengths and the number of required longitudinal grid cells and time-steps for fully electromagnetic simulation (relative to the laboratory frame) decrease by factors of gamma^2 each. In theory, boosted frame EM codes permit direct study of FEL problems for which the eikonal approximation for propagation of the radiation field and wiggler-period-averaging for the particle-field interaction may be suspect. We have adapted the WARP code to apply this method to several electromagnetic FEL problems including spontaneous emission, strong exponential gain in a seeded, single pass amplifier configuration, and emission from e-beams in undulators with multiple harmonic components. WARP has a standard relativistic macroparticle mover and a fully 3-D electromagnetic field solver. We discuss our boosted frame results and compare with those obtained using the ?standard? eikonal FEL simulation approach.

  12. Comparison between Frame-Constrained Fix-Pixel-Value and Frame-Free Spiking-Dynamic-Pixel ConvNets for Visual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Farabet, Clément; Paz, Rafael; Pérez-Carrasco, Jose; Zamarreño-Ramos, Carlos; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; LeCun, Yann; Culurciello, Eugenio; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe

    2012-01-01

    Most scene segmentation and categorization architectures for the extraction of features in images and patches make exhaustive use of 2D convolution operations for template matching, template search, and denoising. Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) are one example of such architectures that can implement general-purpose bio-inspired vision systems. In standard digital computers 2D convolutions are usually expensive in terms of resource consumption and impose severe limitations for efficient real-time applications. Nevertheless, neuro-cortex inspired solutions, like dedicated Frame-Based or Frame-Free Spiking ConvNet Convolution Processors, are advancing real-time visual processing. These two approaches share the neural inspiration, but each of them solves the problem in different ways. Frame-Based ConvNets process frame by frame video information in a very robust and fast way that requires to use and share the available hardware resources (such as: multipliers, adders). Hardware resources are fixed- and time-multiplexed by fetching data in and out. Thus memory bandwidth and size is important for good performance. On the other hand, spike-based convolution processors are a frame-free alternative that is able to perform convolution of a spike-based source of visual information with very low latency, which makes ideal for very high-speed applications. However, hardware resources need to be available all the time and cannot be time-multiplexed. Thus, hardware should be modular, reconfigurable, and expansible. Hardware implementations in both VLSI custom integrated circuits (digital and analog) and FPGA have been already used to demonstrate the performance of these systems. In this paper we present a comparison study of these two neuro-inspired solutions. A brief description of both systems is presented and also discussions about their differences, pros and cons. PMID:22518097

  13. Comparison between Frame-Constrained Fix-Pixel-Value and Frame-Free Spiking-Dynamic-Pixel ConvNets for Visual Processing.

    PubMed

    Farabet, Clément; Paz, Rafael; Pérez-Carrasco, Jose; Zamarreño-Ramos, Carlos; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Lecun, Yann; Culurciello, Eugenio; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe

    2012-01-01

    Most scene segmentation and categorization architectures for the extraction of features in images and patches make exhaustive use of 2D convolution operations for template matching, template search, and denoising. Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) are one example of such architectures that can implement general-purpose bio-inspired vision systems. In standard digital computers 2D convolutions are usually expensive in terms of resource consumption and impose severe limitations for efficient real-time applications. Nevertheless, neuro-cortex inspired solutions, like dedicated Frame-Based or Frame-Free Spiking ConvNet Convolution Processors, are advancing real-time visual processing. These two approaches share the neural inspiration, but each of them solves the problem in different ways. Frame-Based ConvNets process frame by frame video information in a very robust and fast way that requires to use and share the available hardware resources (such as: multipliers, adders). Hardware resources are fixed- and time-multiplexed by fetching data in and out. Thus memory bandwidth and size is important for good performance. On the other hand, spike-based convolution processors are a frame-free alternative that is able to perform convolution of a spike-based source of visual information with very low latency, which makes ideal for very high-speed applications. However, hardware resources need to be available all the time and cannot be time-multiplexed. Thus, hardware should be modular, reconfigurable, and expansible. Hardware implementations in both VLSI custom integrated circuits (digital and analog) and FPGA have been already used to demonstrate the performance of these systems. In this paper we present a comparison study of these two neuro-inspired solutions. A brief description of both systems is presented and also discussions about their differences, pros and cons. PMID:22518097

  14. Reference Frames in Earth Rotation Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrándiz, José M.; Belda, Santiago; Heinkelmann, Robert; Getino, Juan; Schuh, Harald; Escapa, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the determination of the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) and the different Terrestrial Reference Frames (TRF) are not independent. The available theories of Earth rotation aims at providing the orientation of a certain reference system linked somehow to the Earth with respect to a given celestial system, considered as inertial. In the past years a considerable effort has been dedicated to the improvement of the TRF realizations, following the lines set up in the 1980's. However, the reference systems used in the derivation of the theories have been rather considered as something fully established, not deserving a special attention. In this contribution we review the definitions of the frames used in the main theoretical approaches, focusing on those used in the construction of IAU2000, and the extent to which their underlying hypotheses hold. The results are useful to determine the level of consistency of the predicted and determined EOP.

  15. URAT and the celestial reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    The US Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) survey begun in April 2012 and the Northern Hemisphere program will be completed in 2015. Positions of over 228 million stars in the about R = 3 to 19 mag range were published with the URAT1 catalog release (CDS I/329) and positional accuracy near 10 mas per coordinate for mid-range magnitude objects.URAT directly observes Hipparcos stars as well as counterparts of extragalactic ICRF2 sources. The status of the current celestial reference frame is investigated with URAT data. The accuracy of Hipparcos positions at URAT epoch is analyzed. Radio-optical position differences are investigated for possible astrophysical offsets which would affect the Gaia to radio reference frame alignment accuracy.

  16. Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames.

    PubMed

    Theakston, Anna L; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V M; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __want__, __see__, and __get__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and creativity of use in these slots. We do so using a rigorously controlled sample of child speech and child directed speech from three English-speaking children between the ages of 2-3 years and their caregivers. We find different levels of creativity and flexibility between the adult and child samples for some measures, for some slots, and for some developmental periods. We discuss these differences in the context of verb frame semantics, conventionality versus creativity and child errors, and draw some tentative conclusions regarding developmental changes in children's early grammatical representations. PMID:25604137

  17. Heteronuclear decoupling by multiple rotating frame technique

    PubMed Central

    Arthanari, Haribabu; Wagner, Gerhard; Khaneja, Navin

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the multiple rotating frame technique for designing modulated rf fields, that perform broadband heteronuclear decoupling in solution NMR spectroscopy. The decoupling method presented here is understood by performing a sequence of coordinate transformations, each of which demodulates a component of the rf field to a static component, that progressively averages the chemical shift and the dipolar interaction. We show that by increasing the number of modulations in the decoupling field, the ratio of dispersion in the chemical shift to the strength of the static component of the rf field is successively reduced in the progressive frames. The known decoupling methods like continuous wave decoupling, TPPM, etc., can be viewed as special cases of this method and their performance improves by adding additional modulations in the decoupling field. The technique is also expected to find use in design of broadband excitation, inversion and mixing sequences and broadband experiments in solid state NMR. PMID:21227724

  18. Composite lightweight non-metallic vehicle frame

    SciTech Connect

    Pabst, R.D.

    1986-03-04

    A non-metallic ladder type automotive frame is described having beam elements formed of composite plastic materials. The frame consists of: paired opposed elongate lateral beams interconnected by plural cross beams, each of the beams and cross beams having, a rigid lower density core formed by foaming plastic material in a peripheral mold to create a structure having closed cells and a graduated density that is greatest at the periphery of the core, and a higher density peripheral skin formed of polymeric matrix material adhered to the core and embedding reinforcing fiber in the form of woven cloth, plural layers of the cloth, covering the peripheral surfaces of the beams and additional layers of the cloth covering top and bottom portions of the beams, and means of releasably fastening automotive components to at least some of the beams.

  19. Spline Curves, Wire Frames and Bvalue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L.; Munchmeyer, F.

    1985-01-01

    The methods that were developed for wire-frame design are described. The principal tools for control of a curve during interactive design are mathematical ducks. The simplest of these devices is an analog of the draftsman's lead weight that he uses to control a mechanical spline also create Ducks for controlling differential and integral properties of curves were created. Other methods presented include: constructing the end of a Bezier polygon to gain quick and reasonably confident control of the end tangent vector, end curvature and end torsion; keeping the magnitude of unwanted curvature oscillations within tolerance; constructing the railroad curves that appear in many engineering design problems; and controlling the frame to minimize errors at mesh points and to optimize the shapes of the curve elements.

  20. Stability study of realization of the celestial reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Bolotin, S. L.; Kur'yanova, A. N.

    2004-09-01

    We present a short overview of the activity of the IERS as well as the Main Astronomical Observatory (MAO) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for maintenance and extention of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). Special attention is given to the time stabilities of positions of radio sources (RS) and to the selection of a subset of RS to be used for maintenance of the ICRF. It is shown that seven RS qualified by the IERS as defining sources are unstable.

  1. Determination of a geocentric coordinate frame for GPS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.; Malla, R. P.

    1988-01-01

    Two strategies for determining the offset from the geocenter for GPS measurements are considered. In the first strategy, VLBI-determined relative positions are used to fix the frame orientation and the absolute scaling, while the geocenter offset is determined from GPS measurements. In the second strategy, the absolute scaling is determined by the adopted gravitational constant of earth and the adjusted periods of GPS orbits, with the latitude being obtained from the time signature of earth rotation in the GPS measurements. The results indicate that geocentric positioning to an accuracy of a few centimeters can be achieved with just one day of precise GPS pseudorange and carrier phase data.

  2. Tunneling Spectroscopy by Level Matching in the Spin Rotating Frame.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Changho

    _{rm Z}=2omega_{ rm T}, which indicate that two methyl groups simultaneously undergo a symmetry breaking transition, were observed in the Theta=54.7^circ tilted rotating frame. The dependencies of level -matching transitions on Zeeman-tunneling mixing time, tilt angle and temperature are reported. By adding a train of C pulses, "comb-C", to the ABC sequence it is possible to monitor consecutive polarization transfers from tunneling to Zeeman states, leading to a saturation of tunneling states. The dependence of the saturation rate on the Zeeman splitting also yields a resonance peak at the effective magnetic field which satisfies a level-matching condition. The experimental results for propionic acid are reported. The ABC method is used to study the torsion-torsion interaction of methyl groups with low hindering potential as well. The model compound is acetylacetone which has tunneling frequencies in the GHz range. In the rotating -frame level-matching experiment transitions between methyl states, which are split due to the methyl-methyl torsional interaction, are observed. The level matching resonances detected at Delta=nomega_{ rm T}, n=1/4, 1/3, 1/2 and 1, are interpreted in terms of three-weakly-coupled -methyl groups. hDelta is the torsion -torsion E state splitting which was found to be 27.2 +/- 0.5 G. Dependencies of these level matching transition peaks on the main field strength, mixing time and temperature are also reported. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  3. Key frames extraction in athletic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa; Russo, Stefano

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we present an effective framework for features extraction from an athletic sport sequence. We analyze both forward and backward motion vectors from MPEG 2 video sequences for camera movements detection. Features like the beginning and the end of the race and the type of competition are strictly connected to the camera motion. Our algorithm is able to extract the frame number of the investigated feature with very high accuracy.

  4. Frames of reference in spatial language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Shusterman, Anna; Li, Peggy

    2016-08-01

    Languages differ in how they encode spatial frames of reference. It is unknown how children acquire the particular frame-of-reference terms in their language (e.g., left/right, north/south). The present paper uses a word-learning paradigm to investigate 4-year-old English-speaking children's acquisition of such terms. In Part I, with five experiments, we contrasted children's acquisition of novel word pairs meaning left-right and north-south to examine their initial hypotheses and the relative ease of learning the meanings of these terms. Children interpreted ambiguous spatial terms as having environment-based meanings akin to north and south, and they readily learned and generalized north-south meanings. These studies provide the first direct evidence that children invoke geocentric representations in spatial language acquisition. However, the studies leave unanswered how children ultimately acquire "left" and "right." In Part II, with three more experiments, we investigated why children struggle to master body-based frame-of-reference words. Children successfully learned "left" and "right" when the novel words were systematically introduced on their own bodies and extended these words to novel (intrinsic and relative) uses; however, they had difficulty learning to talk about the left and right sides of a doll. This difficulty was paralleled in identifying the left and right sides of the doll in a non-linguistic memory task. In contrast, children had no difficulties learning to label the front and back sides of a doll. These studies begin to paint a detailed account of the acquisition of spatial terms in English, and provide insights into the origins of diverse spatial reference frames in the world's languages. PMID:27423134

  5. Flexibly weighted integration of tactile reference frames.

    PubMed

    Badde, Stephanie; Röder, Brigitte; Heed, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the location of a tactile stimulus, the brain seems to integrate different types of spatial information such as skin-based, anatomical coordinates and external, spatiotopic coordinates. The aim of the present study was to test whether the use of these coordinates is fixed, or whether they are weighted according to the task context. Participants made judgments about two tactile stimuli with different vibration characteristics, one applied to each hand. First, they always performed temporal order judgments (TOJ) of the tactile stimuli with respect to the stimulated hands that were either crossed or uncrossed. The resulting crossing effect, that is, impaired performance in crossed compared to uncrossed conditions, was used as a measure of reference frame weighting and was compared across conditions. Second, in dual judgment conditions participants subsequently made judgments about the stimulus vibration characteristics, either with respect to spatial location or with respect to temporal order. Responses in the spatial secondary task either accented anatomical (Experiment 1) or external (Experiment 2) coding. A TOJ crossing effect emerged in all conditions, and secondary tasks did not affect primary task performance in the uncrossed posture. Yet, the spatial secondary task resulted in improved crossed hands performance in the primary task, but only if the secondary judgment stressed the anatomical reference frame (Experiment 1), rather than the external reference frames (Experiment 2). Like the anatomically coded spatial secondary task, the temporal secondary task improved crossed hand performance of the primary task. The differential influence of the varying secondary tasks implies that integration weights assigned to the anatomical and external reference frames are not fixed. Rather, they are flexibly adjusted to the context, presumably through top-down modulation. PMID:25447059

  6. Reference frame requirements and the MERIT campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.; Zhu, S. Y.; Bock, Y.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is given of how satellite, lunar laser, and very long base interferometry stations available during the MERIT Campaign in 1983/84 can contribute to the detection of short periodic variations in the rotational parameters of the earth, as well as the determination of the differences between the various Conventional Terrestrial and Inertial Reference Frames inherent in the above systems. Specific observational requirements are given both by objective and by country.

  7. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Murch, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. PMID:23988759

  8. Inertial nonvacuum states viewed from the Rindler frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T.

    2015-02-01

    The appearance of the inertial vacuum state in Rindler frame has been extensively studied in the literature, both from the point of view of quantum field theory developed using Rindler foliation and using the response of an Unruh-Dewitt detector. In comparison, less attention has been devoted to the study of inertial nonvacuum states when viewed from the Rindler frame. We provide a comprehensive study of this issue in this paper. We first present a general formalism describing the characterization of arbitrary inertial state (i) when described using an arbitrary foliation and (ii) using the response of an Unruh-DeWitt detector moving along an arbitrary trajectory. This allows us to calculate the mean number of particles in an arbitrary inertial state, when the QFT is described using an arbitrary foliation of spacetime or when the state is probed by a detector moving along an arbitrary trajectory. We use this formalism to explicitly compute the results for the Rindler frame and uniformly accelerated detectors. Any arbitrary inertial state will always have a thermal component in the Rindler frame with additional contributions arising from the nonvacuum nature. We classify the nature of the additional contributions in terms of functions characterizing the inertial state. We establish that for all physically well-behaved normalizable inertial states, the correction terms decrease rapidly with the energy of the Rindler mode so that the high frequency limit is dominated by the thermal noise in any normalizable inertial state. However, inertial states which are not strictly normalizable like, for example, the one-particle state with definite momentum, lead to a constant contribution at all high frequencies in the Rindler frame. We show that a similar behavior arises in the response of the Unruh-DeWitt detector as well. In the case of the detector response, we provide a physical interpretation for the constant contribution at high frequencies in terms of total detection

  9. Frame Synchronization Without Attached Sync Markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to synchronize codeword frames without making use of attached synchronization markers (ASMs). Instead, the synchronizer identifies the code structure present in the received symbols, by operating the decoder for a handful of iterations at each possible symbol offset and forming an appropriate metric. This method is computationally more complex and doesn't perform as well as frame synchronizers that utilize an ASM; nevertheless, the new synchronizer acquires frame synchronization in about two seconds when using a 600 kbps software decoder, and would take about 15 milliseconds on prototype hardware. It also eliminates the need for the ASMs, which is an attractive feature for short uplink codes whose coding gain would be diminished by the overheard of ASM bits. The lack of ASMs also would simplify clock distribution for the AR4JA low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and adds a small amount to the coding gain as well (up to 0.2 dB).

  10. Simulation of a fast framing staring sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, K.J.; Wickstrom, R.D.

    1998-04-01

    A sensor system simulation has been developed which aids in the evaluation of a proposed fast framing staring sensor as it will perform in its operational environment. Beginning with a high resolution input image, a sequence of frames at the target sensor resolution are produced using the assumed platform motion and the contribution of various noise sources as input data. The resulting frame sequence can then be used to help define system requirements, to aid algorithm development, and to predict system performance. In order to assess the performance of a sensor system, the radiance measured by the system is modeled using a variety of scenarios. For performance prediction, the modeling effort is directed toward providing the ability to determine the minimum Noise Equivalent Target (NET) intensities for each band of the sensor system. The NET is calculated at the entrance pupil of the instrument in such a way that the results can be applied to a variety of point source targets and collection conditions. The intent is to facilitate further study within the user community as new mission areas and/or targets of interest develop that are not addressed explicitly during sensor conceptual design.

  11. Determining the locations of the various CIRC recording format information blocks (user data blocks, C2 and C1 words and EFM frames) on a recorded compact disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Dennis G.

    1993-01-01

    Just prior to its being EFM modulated (i.e., converted to eight-to-fourteen channel data by the EFM encoder) and written to a Compact Disc (CD), information that passes through the CIRC Block Encoder is grouped into 33-byte blocks referred to as EFM frames. Twenty four of the bytes that make up a given EFM frame are user data that was input into the CIRC encoder at various (different) times, 4 of the bytes of this same EFM frame were created by the C2 ECC encoder (each at a different time), and another 4 were created by the C1 ECC encoder (again, each at a different time). The one remaining byte of the given EFM frame, which is known as the EFM frame C&D (for Control & Display) byte, carries information that identifies which portion of the current disc program track the given EFM frame belongs to and also specifies the location of the given EFM frame on the disc (in terms of a time stamp that has a resolution of l/75th second, or 98 EFM frames). (Note: since the program track and time information is stored as a 98-byte word, a logical group consisting of 98 consecutive EFM frames must be read, and their respective C&D bytes must be catenated and decoded, before the program track identification and time position information that pertains to the entire block of 98 EFM frames can be obtained.) The C&D byte is put at the start (0th byte) of an EFM frame in real time; its placement completes the construction of the EFM frame - it is assigned just before the EFM frame enters the EFM encoder. Four distinct blocks of data are referred to: 24-byte User Input Data Blocks; 28-byte C2 words; 32-byte C1 words; and 33-byte EFM frames.

  12. Celestial reference frames and the gauge freedom in the post-Newtonian mechanics of the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Xie, Yi

    2010-11-01

    We introduce the Jacobi coordinates adopted to the advanced theoretical analysis of the relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Earth-Moon system. Theoretical derivation utilizes the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 2000. The resolutions assume that the Solar System is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat at infinity and the primary reference frame covers the entire space-time, has its origin at the Solar System barycenter (SSB) with spatial axes stretching up to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to a set of distant quasars that are assumed to be at rest on the sky forming the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The second reference frame has its origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is locally inertial and is not rotating dynamically in the sense that equation of motion of a test particle moving with respect to the EMB frame, does not contain the Coriolis and centripetal forces. Two other local frames—geocentric and selenocentric—have their origins at the center of mass of Earth and Moon respectively and do not rotate dynamically. Each local frame is subject to the geodetic precession both with respect to other local frames and with respect to the ICRF because of their relative motion with respect to each other. Theoretical advantage of the dynamically non-rotating local frames is in a more simple mathematical description of the metric tensor and relative equations of motion of the Moon with respect to Earth. Each local frame can be converted to kinematically non-rotating one after alignment with the axes of ICRF by applying the matrix of the relativistic precession as recommended by the IAU resolutions. The set of one global and three local frames is introduced in order to decouple physical effects of gravity from the gauge-dependent effects in the equations of relative motion of the Moon with respect to Earth.

  13. Celestial reference frame RSC (GAOUA) 98 C 01.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotaj, O. A.; Tel'Nyuk-Adamchuk, V. V.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    The celestial reference frame RSC (GAOUA) 98 C 01 was constructed by applying the Kiev arc method to five initial frames submitted to the IERS during 1997. The frame comprises positions of 631 radio sources. The frame axes are aligned to those of the ICRF with an accuracy of 0.02 mas using all 212 defining common radio sources. The internal standard errors of right ascension and declination for the defining sources are equal to 0.11 and 0.13 mas, respectively. Results of intercomparison between the ICRF, five initial frames, and the compiled frame are discussed.

  14. Post-Newtonian Reference Frames for Advanced Theory of the Lunar Motion and a New Generation of Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yi; Kopeikin, Sergei

    2010-08-01

    We overview a set of post-Newtonian reference frames for a comprehensive study of the orbital dynamics and rotational motion of Moon and Earth by means of lunar laser ranging (LLR). We employ a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two post-Newtonian parameters, and , and utilize the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat at infinity. The primary reference frame covers the entire space-time, has its origin at the solar-system barycenter (SSB) and spatial axes stretching up to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to a set of distant quasars that are forming the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The secondary reference frame has its origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is locally-inertial and is not rotating dynamically in the sense that equation of motion of a test particle moving with respect to the EMB frame, does not contain the Coriolis and centripetal forces. Two other local frames geocentric (GRF) and selenocentric (SRF) have their origins at the center of mass of Earth and Moon respectively and do not rotate dynamically. Each local frame is subject to the geodetic precession both with respect to other local frames and with respect to the ICRF because of their relative motion with respect to each other. Theoretical advantage of the dynamically non-rotating local frames is in a more simple mathematical description. Each local frame can be aligned with the axes of ICRF after applying the matrix of the relativistic precession. The set of one global and three local frames is introduced in order to fully decouple the relative motion of Moon with respect to Earth from the orbital motion of the Earth-Moon barycenter as well as to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion, an observer on Earth, and a retro-reflector on Moon to directly measurable

  15. Radiation-Free Weekend Rescued! Continuous Accelerated Irradiation of 7-Days per Week Is Equal to Accelerated Fractionation With Concomitant Boost of 7 Fractions in 5-Days per Week: Report on Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof; Hutnik, Marcin; Wygoda, Andrzej; Golen, Maria; Pilecki, Boleslaw; Przeorek, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Lukaszczyk-Widel, Beata; Heyda, Alicja; Suwinski, Rafal; Tarnawski, Rafal; Maciejewski, Boguslaw

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term results of randomized trial comparing 2 accelerated fractionations of definitive radiation therapy assessing the need to irradiate during weekend in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 345 patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, and oro- or hypo-pharynx, stage T2-4N0-1M0, were randomized to receive continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR: once per day, 7 days per week) or concomitant accelerated boost (CB: once per day, 3 days per week, and twice per day, 2 days per week). Total dose ranged from 66.6-72 Gy, dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy, number of fractions ranged from 37-40 fractions, and overall treatment time ranged from 37-40 days. Results: No differences for all trial end-points were noted. At 5 and 10 years, the actuarial rates of local-regional control were 63% and 60% for CAIR vs 65% and 60% for CB, and the corresponding overall survival were 40% and 25% vs 44% and 25%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with an incidence of 89% in CAIR and 86% in CB patients. The 5-year rate of grade 3-4 late radiation morbidity was 6% for both regimens. Conclusions: Results of this trial indicate that the effects of accelerated fractionation can be achieve by delivering twice-per-day irradiation on weekday(s). This trial has also confirmed that an accelerated, 6-weeks schedule is a reasonable option for patients with intermediate-stage head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma because of the associated high cure rate and minimal severe late toxicity.

  16. Framing the ecosystem concept through a longitudinal study of developments in science and policy.

    PubMed

    Aggestam, Filip

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how scientific literature and policy documents frame the ecosystem concept and how these frames have shaped scientific dialogue and policy making over time. This was achieved by developing a frame typology, as a basis for organizing relevant value expressions, to assess how different frames have altered perspectives of the ecosystem concept. The frame typology and analysis is based on a semi-grounded and longitudinal document analysis of scientific literature and policy documents using the ecosystem concept. Despite changing discourses and public priorities (e.g., cultural constructs of biodiversity) both science and policy documents are characterized by stable value systems that have not changed substantially since the 1930s. These value systems were defined based on ethical principles that delineate 6 core frames: humans first, dual systems, eco-science, eco-holism, animals first, and multicentrism. Specific crises (e.g., climate change) and cross-disciplinary uptake and re-uptake of, for example, the ecosystem services concept, have brought new perspectives to the forefront of public discourse. These developments triggered changes in the core frames that, rather than being value based, are based on how the ecosystem is conceptualized under fixed value systems and over time. Fourteen subframes were developed to reflect these longitudinal changes. There are as such clear framing effects in both scientific literature and in policy. Ecosystem research is for instance often characterized by unstated value judgments even though the scientific community does not make these explicit. In contrast, policy documents are characterized by clear value expressions but are principally management driven and human centered. PMID:25926058

  17. Improved quality of intrafraction kilovoltage images by triggered readout of unexposed frames

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Jonassen, Johnny; Jensen, Carsten; Schmidt, Mai Lykkegaard

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The gantry-mounted kilovoltage (kV) imager of modern linear accelerators can be used for real-time tumor localization during radiation treatment delivery. However, the kV image quality often suffers from cross-scatter from the megavoltage (MV) treatment beam. This study investigates readout of unexposed kV frames as a means to improve the kV image quality in a series of experiments and a theoretical model of the observed image quality improvements. Methods: A series of fluoroscopic images were acquired of a solid water phantom with an embedded gold marker and an air cavity with and without simultaneous radiation of the phantom with a 6 MV beam delivered perpendicular to the kV beam with 300 and 600 monitor units per minute (MU/min). An in-house built device triggered readout of zero, one, or multiple unexposed frames between the kV exposures. The unexposed frames contained part of the MV scatter, consequently reducing the amount of MV scatter accumulated in the exposed frames. The image quality with and without unexposed frame readout was quantified as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold marker and air cavity for a range of imaging frequencies from 1 to 15 Hz. To gain more insight into the observed CNR changes, the image lag of the kV imager was measured and used as input in a simple model that describes the CNR with unexposed frame readout in terms of the contrast, kV noise, and MV noise measured without readout of unexposed frames. Results: Without readout of unexposed kV frames, the quality of intratreatment kV images decreased dramatically with reduced kV frequencies due to MV scatter. The gold marker was only visible for imaging frequencies ≥3 Hz at 300 MU/min and ≥5 Hz for 600 MU/min. Visibility of the air cavity required even higher imaging frequencies. Readout of multiple unexposed frames ensured visibility of both structures at all imaging frequencies and a CNR that was independent of the kV frame rate. The image lag was 12.2%, 2

  18. Impacts of GNSS position offsets on global frame stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, J.; Ray, J.

    2016-01-01

    While it has been known for some time that offsets in the time-series of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position estimates degrade station velocity determinations, the magnitude of the effect has not been clear. Using products of the International GNSS Service (IGS), we assess the impact empirically by injecting progressively larger numbers of artificial offsets and solving for a series of long-term secular GNSS frames. Our results show that the stability of the IGS global frame datum is fairly robust, with significant effects at the formal error level only for the Rx (and Y-pole) and Rz rotational orientations. On the other hand, station velocity estimates are more seriously affected, especially the vertical component. For the typical IGS station, the mean vertical rate uncertainty is already limited to 0.34 mm yr-1 for the current set of position discontinuities. If the number of breaks doubles, which might occur using newer detection schemes, then that uncertainty will worsen by ˜40 per cent to 0.48 mm yr-1. This error source is generally a more important component of realistic velocity uncertainties than any other, including accounting for temporal correlations in the GNSS data. The only way to improve future GNSS velocity estimates is to severely limit manmade displacements at the tracking stations.

  19. Design of a composite monocoque frame racing wheelchair.

    PubMed

    MacLeish, M S; Cooper, R A; Harralson, J; Ster, J F

    1993-01-01

    Design of present-day racing wheelchairs developed out of necessity and common sense. The chairs first used in racing were everyday chairs; through years of trial and modification the racing chairs of today evolved. Very little advanced engineering has been applied to the design of racing chairs. The Finite Element Analysis model executed on a computer provided insight into structural problem areas in the design of unibody frame racing chairs. Slight modifications to the model can be used to investigate new shapes, loads, or materials without investing large amounts of time and money. Wind tunnel testing with scale models provided perspectives on different improvements to reduce drag. Shape improvements may play an important role in reducing the racer's time during competition. Shape may help to decrease drag for the user in either the upright or down position. Considering that the frontal area increases around 30% in the up position with current strut and chassis frames, monocoque shapes should excel. Finite element analysis and air drag analysis are important to the design of a composite racing wheelchair. Composite materials may promote more efficient and ergonomic racing wheelchairs. PMID:8035352

  20. On the errors and stability of reference frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubanov, V. S.; Kurdubov, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    The distribution of systematic errors in the coordinates of 1217 extragalactic radio sources included in the latest version of the ICRF2 (International Celestial Reference Frame) reference catalog has been mapped for the first time by processing VLBI observations from international astrometric and geodetic programs spanning the period 1980-2012. These errors are shown to reach ±1.0 mas (milliarcseconds). However, for a sample of 752 sources observed more than 100 times, these errors do not exceed ±0.2 mas, suggesting that ICRF2 is inhomogeneous. In addition, the individual stability of dozens of extragalactic radio sources and ground-based stations included in the latest version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, ITRF2005, has been investigated. Significant linear trends and anomalous shifts reaching ±20 µas (microarcseconds) have been detected for many of the sources. Significant systematic shifts have also been found for some of the reference stations. The results obtained stimulate a search for new methods of analyzing VLBI observations and ways of their global adjustment that would provide greater homogeneity and stability of the ICRF and ITRF. This is needed both to increase the accuracy of determining the astrometric, geodetic, and geodynamic parameters derived from these observations and to facilitate their physical interpretation. The work has been performed with the QUASAR multifunction software package developed at the Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

  1. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging using clinical ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a potential hybrid imaging modality which is gaining attention in the field of medical imaging. Typically a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tissue and generate photoacoustic signals. But, they are not suitable for clinical applications owing to their high cost, large size. Also, their low pulse repetition rate (PRR) of few tens of hertz prevents them from being used in real-time PAT. So, there is a growing need for an imaging system capable of real-time imaging for various clinical applications. In this work, we are using a nanosecond pulsed laser diode as an excitation source and a clinical ultrasound imaging system to obtain the photoacoustic imaging. The excitation laser is ~803 nm in wavelength with energy of ~1.4 mJ per pulse. So far, the reported frame rate for photoacoustic imaging is only a few hundred Hertz. We have demonstrated up to 7000 frames per second framerate in photoacoustic imaging (B-mode) and measured the flow rate of fast moving obje ct. Phantom experiments were performed to test the fast imaging capability and measure the flow rate of ink solution inside a tube. This fast photoacoustic imaging can be used for various clinical applications including cardiac related problems, where the blood flow rate is quite high, or other dynamic studies.

  2. Test verification and design of the bicycle frame parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long; Xiang, Zhongxia; Luo, Huan; Tian, Guan

    2015-07-01

    Research on design of bicycles is concentrated on mechanism and auto appearance design, however few on matches between the bike and the rider. Since unreasonable human-bike relationship leads to both riders' worn-out joints and muscle injuries, the design of bicycles should focus on the matching. In order to find the best position of human-bike system, simulation experiments on riding comfort under different riding postures are done with the lifemode software employed to facilitate the cycling process as well as to obtain the best position and the size function of it. With BP neural network and GA, analyzing simulation data, conducting regression analysis of parameters on different heights and bike frames, the equation of best position of human-bike system is gained at last. In addition, after selecting testers, customized bikes based on testers' height dimensions are produced according to the size function. By analyzing and comparing the experimental data that are collected from testers when riding common bicycles and customized bicycles, it is concluded that customized bicycles are four times even six times as comfortable as common ones. The equation of best position of human-bike system is applied to improve bikes' function, and the new direction on future design of bicycle frame parameters is presented.

  3. 57. VIEW WEST, DETAIL OF CANTILEVER SPAN SHOWING OVERHANG FRAMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. VIEW WEST, DETAIL OF CANTILEVER SPAN SHOWING OVERHANG FRAMING AND UNDERSIDE FRAMING - Route 1 Extension, Southbound Viaduct, Spanning Conrail Yards, Wilson Avenue, Delancy Street, & South Street on Routes 1 & 9 Southbound, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  4. Section BB, Section DD, Plan AA, Plan CC, Typical Framing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B, Section D-D, Plan A-A, Plan C-C, Typical Framing Detail of Upper Stringers, Typical Framing Detail of Lower Stringers - Covered Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River, Orford, Grafton County, NH

  5. Frame structure for a four-wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, I.

    1986-09-30

    A frame is described for a four-wheel drive vehicle of the type where the rider straddles the vehicle, comprising a front axle support structure extending transversely of the vehicle; an upper frame structure including two downtubes extending upwardly, rearwardly and inwardly from the axle support structure and two main body tubes extending rearwardly from the downtubes; a lower frame structure extending rearwardly from the axle support structure, the lower frame structure including two lower frame tubes mutually spaced and extending rearwardly from the axle support structure. The lower frame structure is laterally inward of the downtubes at the axle support structure and laterally outward of the main body tubes; and each of the downtubes, main body tubes and lower frame tubes being formed from a continuous tube, the main body tube and the lower frame tube forming a continuous U-bend at the rear of the vehicle.

  6. Detail of framing and planking near midship section showing old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of framing and planking near midship section showing old frames and planks with bulwark timbers above. - Schooner ERNESTINA, New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park State Pier, New Bedford, Bristol County, MA

  7. Temporal Consequences, Message Framing, and Consideration of Future Consequences: Persuasion Effects on Adult Fruit Intake Intention and Resolve.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Budding, Jeen

    2016-08-01

    Message framing is a persuasive strategy that has seen mixed evidence for promoting fruit intake intentions, potentially because framed messages for fruit intake have not (a) explicitly compared short-term consequences versus long-term consequences, (b) considered individual-level differences in time perspective, and (c) used alternative measures of fruit intake intentions. In the present online study, the effects of persuasive messages created from temporal context (short term vs. long term) and message frame (gain framed vs. loss framed) were investigated on fruit intake intentions and resolve among a sample of Dutch adults who were categorized as either present oriented or future oriented. For intention and resolve, results showed a significant Type of Frame × Type of Temporal Context interaction, such that gain-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with long-term consequences and loss-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with short-term consequences. The effect sizes for these differences were similar for resolve and intention, but only differences for intentions were significant. No other effects were found. These results demonstrate that message framing theory may usefully consider the inclusion of temporal context of outcomes and alternative motivation measures to maximize their persuasive effects. PMID:27442225

  8. Lung tissue classification using wavelet frames.

    PubMed

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Sage, Daniel; Hidki, Asmâa; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Unser, Michael; Müller, Henning

    2007-01-01

    We describe a texture classification system that identifies lung tissue patterns from high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of patients affected with interstitial lung diseases (ILD). This pattern recognition task is part of an image-based diagnostic aid system for ILDs. Five lung tissue patterns (healthy, emphysema, ground glass, fibrosis and microdules) selected from a multimedia database are classified using the overcomplete discrete wavelet frame decompostion combined with grey-level histogram features. The overall multiclass accuracy reaches 92.5% of correct matches while combining the two types of features, which are found to be complementary. PMID:18003452

  9. Propagating torsion in the Einstein frame

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawski, Nikodem J.

    2006-11-15

    The Einstein-Cartan-Saa theory of torsion modifies the spacetime volume element so that it is compatible with the connection. The condition of connection compatibility gives constraints on torsion, which are also necessary for the consistence of torsion, minimal coupling, and electromagnetic gauge invariance. To solve the problem of positivity of energy associated with the torsionic scalar, we reformulate this theory in the Einstein conformal frame. In the presence of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the Hojman-Rosenbaum-Ryan-Shepley theory of propagating torsion with a different factor in the torsionic kinetic term.

  10. Anticipating change, sparking innovation: framing the future.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Donna J; Finnegan, John R; Spencer, Harrison C

    2015-03-01

    As the 100th anniversary of the 1915 Welch-Rose report approaches, the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH) has been pursuing two initiatives to spark innovation in academic partnerships for enhancing population health: (1) Framing the Future: The Second 100 Years of Education for Public Health and (2) Reconnecting Public Health and Care Delivery to Improve the Health of Populations. We describe how ASPPH-member schools and programs accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health, along with their extraordinarily diverse array of partners, are working to improve education that better prepares health professionals to meet 21st-century population health needs. PMID:25706017

  11. Uniform lateral load capacity of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-11-11

    Three tests were conducted on 2.4 meter by 2.4 meter steel frames infilled with structural clay tile to determine the behavior and capacity when subjected to uniform lateral loads. An air bag was used to apply the out-of-plane loads. The walls were subjected to increasing load-unload cycles until virtual destruction of the infill. Cracking in the mortar joints occurred early in the tests, and then the primary load resisting mechanism was arching of the infilled panel. Typically, vertical arching occurred until failure of the top and bottom course tiles. Following failure of these courses, horizontal arching developed enabling the walls to maintain stability.

  12. The celestial reference frame defined by VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Shaffer, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    VLBI currently produces the most accurate positions of celestial objects. From 1979 to 1987, 114 extragalactic radio sources have been observed with dual-frequency Mark III VLBI as part of the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project and the NGS POLARIS/IRIS program. The formal statistical errors of conventional celestial coordinates are as small as 0.3 milliarcseconds. The fundamental quantity measured by VLBI is the arc length between radio sources. Thus, it is suggested that VLBI be used to establish a coordinate reference frame based solely on radio positions, and that this system not necessarily be coupled to right ascension and declination.

  13. Finite Frames and Graph Theoretic Uncertainty Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Paul J.

    The subject of analytical uncertainty principles is an important field within harmonic analysis, quantum physics, and electrical engineering. We explore uncertainty principles in the context of the graph Fourier transform, and we prove additive results analogous to the multiplicative version of the classical uncertainty principle. We establish additive uncertainty principles for finite Parseval frames. Lastly, we examine the feasibility region of simultaneous values of the norms of a graph differential operator acting on a function f ∈ l2(G) and its graph Fourier transform.

  14. Russia's energy policy: A framing comment

    SciTech Connect

    Aslund, A.

    2006-05-15

    A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

  15. (Pseudo)issue of the conformal frame revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Faraoni, Valerio; Nadeau, Shahn

    2007-01-15

    The issue of the equivalence between Jordan and Einstein conformal frames in scalar-tensor gravity is revisited, with the emphasis on implementing running units in the latter. The lack of affine parametrization for timelike worldlines and the cosmological constant problem in the Einstein frame are clarified, and a paradox in the literature about cosmological singularities appearing only in one frame is solved. While, classically, the two conformal frames are physically equivalent, they seem to be inequivalent at the quantum level.

  16. Framed X-Ray Imaging of Cryogenic Target Implosion Cores on Omega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Goncharov, V. N.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-11-01

    Cryogenic DT target implosions being performed on the OMEGA Laser System are now being diagnosed by two high-speed x-ray framing cameras (~ 30-ps frame times) able to time- and space-resolve the evolving high-pressure stagnating plasma core. One high-speed framing camera is coupled to a pinhole array and is able to image the core emission every 15 ps with ~ 16- μm spatial resolution. It can accurately measure the time of x-ray emission peak and duration. The other framing camera is coupled to a novel 16-image Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB)-type x-ray optic providing ~ 7- μm spatial resolution and can also sample the emission with images spaced in time by as little as ~ 15 ps. The core emission size determined from the framed KB images at the peak of stagnation allows for inferences of core pressure when combined with measurements of the ion temperature, burnwidth, and neutron yield. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  17. Learning as Issue Framing in Agricultural Innovation Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisenkopfs, Talis; Kunda, Ilona; Šumane, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Networks are increasingly viewed as entities of learning and innovation in agriculture. In this article we explore learning as issue framing in two agricultural innovation networks. Design/methodology/approach: We combine frame analysis and social learning theories to analyse the processes and factors contributing to frame convergence and…

  18. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  19. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  20. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...