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Sample records for 7-day treatment period

  1. Predictive Factors for Delivery within 7 Days after Successful 48-Hour Treatment of Threatened Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Carolien; Schuit, Ewoud; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.; Duvekot, Hans J. J.; van Eyck, Jim; Kok, Joke H.; Kwee, Anneke; Merién, Ashley E. R.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van Pampus, Mariëlle G.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Porath, Martina M.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Spaanderman, Marc E. A.; Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Willekes, Christine; Lotgering, Fred K.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess which characteristics and results of vaginal examination are predictive for delivery within 7 days, in women with threatened preterm labor after initial treatment. Study Design A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial on maintenance nifedipine includes women who remained undelivered after threatened preterm labor for 48 hours. We developed one model for women with premature prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and one without PPROM. The predictors were identified by backward selection. We assessed calibration and discrimination and used bootstrapping techniques to correct for potential overfitting. Results For women with PPROM (model 1), nulliparity, history of preterm birth, and vaginal bleeding were included in the multivariable analysis. For women without PPROM (model 2), maternal age, vaginal bleeding, cervical length, and fetal fibronectin (fFN) status were in the multivariable analysis. Discriminative capability was moderate to good (c-statistic 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60–0.77 for model 1 and 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84–0.93 for model 2). Conclusion PPROM and vaginal bleeding in the current pregnancy are relevant predictive factors in all women, as are maternal age, cervical length, and fFN in women without PPROM and nulliparity, history of preterm birth in women with PPROM. PMID:26495173

  2. Adherence to 7-day primaquine treatment for the radical cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-06-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  3. Glial growth factor 2 promotes functional recovery with treatment initiated up to 7 days after permanent focal ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Iaci, Jennifer F; Ganguly, Anindita; Finklestein, Seth P; Parry, Tom J; Ren, Jingmei; Saha, Subhash; Sietsma, Dana K; Srinivas, Maya; Vecchione, Andrea M; Caggiano, Anthony O

    2010-12-01

    Neuregulins are a family of growth factors essential for normal cardiac and nervous system development. The EGF-like domain of neuregulins contains the active site which binds and activates signaling cascades through ErbB receptors. A neuregulin-1 gene EGF-like fragment demonstrated neuroprotection in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model and drastically reduced infarct volume (Xu et al., 2004). Here we use a permanent MCAO rat model to initially compare two products of the neuregulin-1 gene and also assess levels of recovery with acute versus delayed time to treatment. In the initial study full-length glial growth factor 2 (GGF2) and an EGF-like domain fragment were compared with acute intravenous delivery. In a second study GGF2 only was delivered starting at 24h, 3 days or 7 days after permanent ischemia was induced. In both studies daily intravenous administration continued for 10 days. Recovery of neurological function was assessed using limb placing and body swing tests. GGF2 had similar functional improvements compared to the EGF-like domain fragment at equimolar doses, and a higher dose of GGF2 demonstrated more robust functional improvements compared to a lower dose. GGF2 improved sensorimotor recovery with all treatment paradigms, even enhancing recovery of function with a delay of 7 days to treatment. Histological assessments did not show any associated reduction in infarct volume at either 48 h or 21 days post-ischemic event. Neurorestorative effects of this kind are of great potential clinical importance, given the difficulty of delivering neuroprotective therapies within a short time after an ischemic event in human patients. If confirmed by additional work including additional data on mechanism(s) of improved outcome with verification in other stroke models, one can make a compelling case to bring GGF2 to clinical trials as a neurorestorative approach to improving outcome following stroke injury. PMID:20691195

  4. Predicting In-Hospital Treatment Failure (≤ 7 days) in Patients with COPD Exacerbation Using Antibiotics and Systemic Steroids.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Ernesto; Torres, Antoni; Huerta, Arturo; Guerrero, Mónica; Gabarrús, Albert; Gimeno, Alexandra; Martinez, Raquel; Soler, Néstor; Fernández, Laia; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Menéndez, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Although pharmacological treatment of COPD exacerbation (COPDE) includes antibiotics and systemic steroids, a proportion of patients show worsening of symptoms during hospitalization that characterize treatment failure. The aim of our study was to determine in-hospital predictors of treatment failure (≤ 7 days). Prospective data on 110 hospitalized COPDE patients, all treated with antibiotics and systemic steroids, were collected; on the seventh day of hospitalization, patients were divided into treatment failure (n = 16) or success (n = 94). Measures of inflammatory serum biomarkers were recorded at admission and at day 3; data on clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and severity, as well data on mortality and readmission, were also recorded. Patients with treatment failure had a worse lung function, with higher serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 8, and IL-10 at admission, and CRP and IL-8 at day 3. Longer length of hospital stay and duration of antibiotic therapy, higher total doses of steroids and prevalence of deaths and readmitted were found in the treatment failure group. In the multivariate analysis, +1 mg/dL of CRP at admission (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.13) and use of penicillins or cephalosporins (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 1.26 to 25.07) were independent variables increasing risk of treatment failure, whereas cough at admission (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.75) reduces risk of failure. In hospitalized COPDE patients CRP at admission and use of specific class of antibiotics predict in-hospital treatment failure, while presence of cough has a protective role. PMID:26451913

  5. Swift Reveals a ~5.7 Day Super-orbital Period in the M31 Globular Cluster X-Ray Binary XB158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29 ± 1 times the orbital period, i.e., ~81 ± 3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ~1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3-10 keV Swift X-Ray Telescope luminosity light curve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65 ± 0.05 days, and a >5σ improvement in χ2 over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods of 5.4-5.8 days were detected at a >3σ level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ~70% longer than the predicted period. The 0.3-10 keV luminosity varied by a factor of ~5, consistent with variations seen in long-term monitoring from Chandra. We conclude that other X-ray binaries exhibiting similar long-term behavior are likely to also be X-ray binaries with low mass ratios and super-orbital periods.

  6. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M⊙, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R⊙, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing 7-Day Triple, 10-Day Sequential, and 7-Day Concomitant Therapies for Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ping-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Wen-Chi; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Yu, Hsien-Chung; Wang, Huay-Min; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chen, Angela

    2014-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, the failure rate of the standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection is increasing. Sequential therapy and concomitant therapy have been recommended to replace standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication in regions with high clarithromycin resistance. The aim of this prospective, randomized, and controlled study was to simultaneously assess the efficacies of 10-day sequential and 7-day concomitant therapies versus a 7-day standard triple therapy for treating H. pylori infection. Consecutive H. pylori-infected subjects were randomly assigned to a 7-day standard triple therapy (pantoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin for 7 days), a 10-day sequential therapy (pantoprazole and amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by pantoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole for a further 5 days), or a 7-day quadruple therapy (pantoprazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and metronidazole for 7 days). H. pylori status was confirmed 6 weeks after therapy. Three hundred seven H. pylori-infected participants were randomized to receive triple (n = 103), sequential (n = 102), or concomitant (n = 102) therapies. The eradication rates by an intention-to-treat analysis in the three treatment groups were 81.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.1% to 89.0%), 89.2% (95% CI, 83.2% to 95.2%), and 94.1% (95% CI, 89.5% to 98.7%). The seven-day concomitant therapy had a higher eradication rate than did the 7-day triple therapy (difference, 12.5%; 95% CI, 3.7% to 21.3%). There were no significant differences in the eradication rates between the sequential and standard triple therapies. All three treatments exhibited similar frequencies of adverse events (8.7%, 8.8%, and 13.7%, respectively) and drug compliance (99.0%, 98.0%, and 100.0%, respectively). In conclusion, the seven-day concomitant therapy is superior to the 7-day standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. Additionally, it is less complex than the 10-day

  8. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention. PMID:26728766

  9. Unstable Angina Treatment in Various Periods of Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshina, S. S.; Tokayeva, L. K.; Afanasiyeva, T. N.; Samsonov, S. N.; Petrova, V. D.; Dolgova, E. M.; Manykina, V. I.; Vodolagina, E. S.

    In 145 patients with unstable angina (UA) there was analized an efficiency of a drug therapy at different types of heliogeophysical activity (HA) during the 23th solar cycle. 83 patients were examined at the period of a lower HA (Kp-index 16,19±0,18), and 62 patients - at the period of a higher HA (Kp-index 17,25±0,21, p<0,05). Baseline severity of patients' condition with UA at the moment of hospitalization at the studied periods did not differ, but the effectiveness of the therapy depended on the period of HA. At the period of a higher HA antianginal effect was stronger than at the lower period of HA (2,27±0,16 points and 1,75±0,12 points, p<0,05), and the need in nitroglycerin on the background of a drug therapy disappeared for 5-7 days quicker than at the period of a lower HA. Maximal hypotensive effect at a higher HA was achieved quicker - on the 3rd day of the treatment, and at a lower HA - only up to hospital discharge (p<0,05). Blood viscosity did not normalize in both of the studied periods, but in small vessels there was noted a decrease of a BV (p<0,05). So, at a higher HA the effectiveness of a drug therapy in patients with UA is higher than at the period of a lower HA.

  10. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  11. 7000 miles and 7 days from the battlefield.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Margaret M

    2010-01-01

    Critically injured combat casualties are rapidly evacuated from the battlefield, and within hours of their injuries they begin a 7000-mile journey home, often arriving in the United States within 7 days. National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, is a major facility for wounded warrior care in the Military Health System. Throughout the facility, the staff from a variety of disciplines and all military services provides care for military personnel with injuries and illnesses, with the goal of optimizing recovery and quality of life. The foundational evidence for select aspects of this care is discussed. Innovations in training and care delivery include the Air Force Nurse Corps' Critical Care Fellowship, the new inpatient Traumatic Brain Injury Unit, and the National Intrepid Center for Excellence for Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health. The future of the Medical Center includes a new name, expanded staff, and newly constructed space by Department of Defense Base Realignment and Closure activities. PMID:20683232

  12. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  13. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Lei, Meiying; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Chuang; Duan, Jiaobo; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT), during a bed rest period (HDT0), and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1-HDT7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment. PMID:26029071

  14. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yang; Lei, Meiying; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Chuang; Duan, Jiaobo; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT), during a bed rest period (HDT0), and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment. PMID:26029071

  15. A Model Humanitarian Cleft Mission: 312 Cleft Surgeries in 7 Days

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Nauman Ahmad; Ishaq, Irfan; Ganatra, Muhammad Ashraf; Mahmood, Farrakh; Kashif, Muhammad; Alam, Iftikhar; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Lo, Lun-Jou; Laub, Donald Rudolph

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are many countries in the world where patients with cleft lip and palate cannot get access to specialized cleft care units. Cleft missions play an important role in providing surgical care to the areas of the world with limited resources. This article presents a model of cleft missions that can be adopted in many countries where expertise is available but resources are limited. Through proper utilization of local human resource, this type of mission can be a cost-effective and robust way of treating patients with cleft in countries with approximately 52% of the world’s population. Methods: We present a case series of patients of one of our cleft missions carried out in Khairpur, Pakistan, in March 2014 over a period of 7 days. Specific details concerning the organization of mission, gathering of patients, preparation for surgery, and carrying out surgical procedures in a safe and swift manner are presented. Results: A total of 312 patients were operated on in 7 days. There were 145 patients with cleft lip and 167 patients with cleft palate. There were 187 male and 125 female patients with mean age of 7 years. Contemporary operative techniques were utilized to repair different types of cleft lip and palate. Of 167 patients, only 16 developed fistula. Conclusion: A locoregional cleft team can be more effective to care for the patients with cleft in countries where surgical and other expertise can be utilized by proper organization of cleft missions on a national level. PMID:25878924

  16. Optimizing the treatment of mood disorders in the perinatal period

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Jones, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal period is a time of high risk for women with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. We discuss treatment considerations for perinatal mood disorders, including unipolar and bipolar depression as well as postpartum psychosis. We further explore the unique issues faced by women and their families across the full trajectory of the perinatal period from preconception planning through pregnancy and following childbirth. Treatment of perinatal mood disorders requires a collaborative care approach between obstetrics practitioners and mental health providers, to ensure that a thoughtful risk : benefit analysis is conducted. It is vital to consider the risks of the underlying illness versus risks of medication exposure during pregnancy or lactation. When considering medication treatment, attention must be paid to prior medication trials that were most efficacious and best tolerated. Lastly, it is important to assess the impact of individual psychosocial stressors and lifestyle factors on treatment response. PMID:26246794

  17. Periodically operated bioreactors for the treatment of soils and leachates

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.; Cassidy, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rate and renders solid-phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. Periodic aeration during solid-phase bioremediation has the potential to lower treatment costs relative to continuous aeration. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by periodic aeration in solid-phase sequencing batch reactors (SP-SBRs) was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty loam contaminated predominantly with the plasticizer bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP) or (DEHP) and a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first experiment evaluated the effect of water content and mixing time during slurrying on subsequent treatment in continuously aerated solid-phase bioreactors. The second experiment compared treatment of slurried soil in SP-SBRs using three different periodic aeration strategies with continuous aeration.

  18. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalli, Y.G.; Martin, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    Chlorine dioxide was injected into the water intakes at two power plants in Illinois and one in Indiana in an effort to eradicate the existing population of zebra mussels and mitigate further settlement in station river water cooling systems. Results of the treatments at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station on the Mississippi River, Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station on the Illinois River, and SI Energy`s Gallagher Station on the Ohio River are reported. Treatments were performed on a turnkey basis, with three treatments performed at Meredosia Station in 1994, six treatments performed at Wood River Station between July 1993 and September 1994, and 2 treatments performed at Gallagher Station in 1994. For each treatment, a contractor installed and operated a portable chlorine dioxide generator, monitored water quality and oxidant levels, and provided and monitored bioboxes containing test mussels. Results of the treatments were very favorable, indicating a good potential for periodic treatments with chlorine dioxide to control zebra mussel infestations in the raw water systems of power plants and other industrial facilities. Some difficulties with the chlorine dioxide generation system and cold temperature effects reduced the treatment effectiveness, particularly the second treatment at Gallagher Station. Average induced mortalities ranged from 70 to 100% at Wood River, 87 to 92% at Meredosia, and 30 to 100% at Gallagher for native mussels. Dechlorination successfully kept total oxidant residual levels at or below 0.05 ppM during all treatments at all stations.

  19. Comparing food intake using the Dietary Risk Assessment with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls and the 7-Day Dietary Recall.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, B; Hurley, T G; Hebert, J R; Ellis, S; Merriam, P A; Luippold, R; Rider, L; Ockene, I S

    1999-11-01

    The Dietary Risk Assessment (DRA) is a brief dietary assessment tool used to identify dietary behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Intended for use by physicians and other nondietitians, the DRA identifies healthful and problematic dietary behaviors and alerts the physician to patients who require further nutrition counseling. To determine the relative validity of this tool, we compared it to the 7-Day Dietary Recall (an instrument developed to assess intake of dietary fat) and to the average of 7 telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls. Forty-two free-living subjects were recruited into the study. The 7-Day Dietary Recall and DRA were administered to each subject twice, at the beginning and the end of the study period, and the 24-hour recalls were conducted during the intervening time period. Correlation coefficients were computed to compare the food scores derived from the 3 assessment methods. Correlations between the DRA and 7-Day Dietary Recall data were moderate (r = .47, on average, for postmeasures); correlations between the DRA and 24-hour recalls were lower. The ability of the DRA to assess dietary fat consumption and ease of administration make it a clinically useful screening instrument for the physician when counseling patients about dietary fat reduction. PMID:10570682

  20. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  1. Evaluation of the 5-day versus a modified 7-day CIDR breeding program in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Mellieon, H I; Pulley, S L; Lamb, G C; Larson, J E; Stevenson, J S

    2012-12-01

    Dairy heifers were used to compared the effects of two timed AI + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocols (5-day vs. a modified 7-day) on: (1) luteal regression to initiate a new ovarian follicular wave; (2) ovarian response to the initial GnRH injection; and (3) pregnancy outcomes. Holstein heifers (N = 543) were assigned randomly to two treatments: (1) 25 mg PGF(2α) (im) and a CIDR insert on Day -7 followed by 100 μg of GnRH (GnRH-1) on Day -5 and 25 mg PGF(2α) (im) at CIDR insert removal (7-day [7D]) on Day 0; or (2) 100 μg GnRH (GnRH-1) and insertion of a CIDR on Day -5 and 25 mg PGF(2α) (im) at CIDR removal (5-day [5D]) on Day 0. Insemination with frozen-thawed conventional or gender-biased semen occurred after detected estrus from Days 0 to 2 or by appointment at 72 h after PGF(2α) when a second 100-μg dose of GnRH was given. Blood was collected on Days -7, -5, 0, and 3 to determine concentrations of progesterone and incidence of luteolysis. Ovaries were scanned on Days -5 and 0. Luteolysis in the 7D treatment by 48 h after the initial PGF(2α) was greater (P < 0.01) than what occurred spontaneously in the 5D treatment (36.2% vs. 19.7%, respectively). Incidence of ovulation after GnRH-1 on Day -5 was greater (P < 0.05) for 7D than for 5D heifers, but the proportion of heifers with an induced CL on Day 0 did not differ between treatments. Heifers inseminated after detected estrus (166/543, 30.6%) on Days 0, 1, and 2 had greater (P < 0.05) pregnancy per AI (P/AI) at 32 days post AI than after timed AI (38.2% vs. 28.3%) on Day 3. Pregnancy P/AI, however, was greater (P < 0.05) for 7D heifers inseminated at estrus (46.5%) than for 7D heifers receiving the timed AI (26.8%) and differed (P < 0.05) from all 5D heifers regardless of insemination time at estrus (30.5%) or at timed AI at 72 h (29.9%). At the Florida location in which conventional and sexed semen were used during two breeding clusters, P/AI using sexed semen (43.9%, N = 56) did not

  2. Comparative efficacy of 3-day and 7-day chemotherapy with twice-daily pivmecillinam in urinary tract infections seen in general practice.

    PubMed

    Richards, H H

    1984-01-01

    In a multi-centre general practice study, 183 females suffering from symptoms of acute urinary tract infection were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg pivmecillinam twice-daily for either 3 or 7 days. The clinical response was equally good in both treatment groups with a mean reduction in symptom scores of 88%. Positive pre-treatment bacteriological cultures were obtained from 48 (36%) of the 134 patients for whom data were complete. Bacteriological cure was achieved in all these patients except for 1 in the 3-day treatment group. Pivmecillinam was well tolerated, with side-effects reported by 7 (7%) patients in the 3-day group and 12 (13%) patients in the 7-day group. One patient in the 3-day group and 2 patients in the 7-day group stopped treatment prematurely due to side-effects. PMID:6499513

  3. Treatment during a vulnerable developmental period rescues a genetic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Marguet, Stephan Lawrence; Le-Schulte, Vu Thao Quyen; Merseburg, Andrea; Neu, Axel; Eichler, Ronny; Jakovcevski, Igor; Ivanov, Anton; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana Livia; Bernard, Christophe; Morellini, Fabio; Isbrandt, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    The nervous system is vulnerable to perturbations during specific developmental periods. Insults during such susceptible time windows can have long-term consequences, including the development of neurological diseases such as epilepsy. Here we report that a pharmacological intervention timed during a vulnerable neonatal period of cortical development prevents pathology in a genetic epilepsy model. By using mice with dysfunctional Kv7 voltage-gated K(+) channels, which are mutated in human neonatal epilepsy syndromes, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide, which was administered during the first two postnatal weeks. In Kv7 current-deficient mice, which normally display epilepsy, hyperactivity and stereotypies as adults, transient bumetanide treatment normalized neonatal in vivo cortical network and hippocampal neuronal activity, prevented structural damage in the hippocampus and restored wild-type adult behavioral phenotypes. Furthermore, bumetanide treatment did not adversely affect control mice. These results suggest that in individuals with disease susceptibility, timing prophylactically safe interventions to specific windows during development may prevent or arrest disease progression. PMID:26594844

  4. Municipal wastewater treatment by a periodic biofilter with granular biomass.

    PubMed

    Di Iaconi, C; Del Moro, G; Lopez, A; De Sanctis, M; Ramadori, R

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports the results obtained during an experimental campaign aimed at transferring aerobic granulation to a demonstrative SBBGR system (i.e., a submerged biofilter that operates in a "fill and draw" mode) for the treatment of municipal wastewater by financial support of the European Commission, within the framework of Life-Environment Programme (PERBIOF Project; www.perbiof-europe.com). The results show that following the generation of granular biomass during the start-up period, the SBBGR was able to remove 80-90% of COD, total suspended solids and ammonia occurring in primary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant even when the minimum hydraulic residence time (i.e., 4 h) was investigated. The process was characterised by a sludge production almost one magnitude order lower than commonly reported for conventional treatment plants. The granular biomass was characterised by a high density (i.e., 150 gTSS/L(biomass)) that allowed a biomass concentration as high as 35 kgTSS/m(3)(bed) to be achieved. Proteobacteria were found as main microbial components of the granular biomass by applying Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). No significant changes in microbial composition were observed during reactor operation. PMID:19092218

  5. Clinical effects of thigh cuffs during a 7-day 6° head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavy-Le Traon, Anne; Maillet, Alain; Vasseur Clausen, Pascale; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Alferova, Irina; Gharib, Claude; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier

    2001-08-01

    Thigh cuffs are used by Russian cosmonauts to limit the fluid shift induced by space flight. A ground simulation using the head-down bed rest (HDBR) model was performed to assess the effects of thigh cuffs on clinical tolerance and orthostatic adaptation. 8 male healthy volunteers (32.4±1.9 years) participated twice in a 7-day HDBR — one time with thigh cuffs (worm daily from 9 am to 7 pm) (TC) and one time without (WTC). Orthostatic tolerance was assessed by a 10 minute stand test and by a LBNP test (5 min at -15, -30, -45 mmHg) before (BDC-1) and at the end of the HDBR period (R+1). Plasma volume was measured before and at the end of HDBR by the Evans blue dye dilution technique. Thigh cuffs limits headache due to fluid shift, as well as the loss in plasma volume (TC: -5.85±0.95%; WTC: -9.09±0.82%, p<0.05). The mean duration of the stand test (R+1) did not differ in the two group (TC 7.1±1.3 min; WTC 7.0±1.0 min). The increase in HR and decrease in diastolic blood pressure were slightly but significantly larger without thigh cuffs. Duration of the LBNP tests did not differ with thigh cuffs. Thigh cuffs limit the symptoms due to fluid shift and the loss in plasma volume. They partly reduced the increase in HR during orthostatic stress but had no effect on duration of orthostatic stress tests.

  6. Clinical efficacy of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 7 days for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Ichihara, Kohji; Hashimoto, Jiro; Kurimura, Yuichiro; Iwasawa, Akihiko; Hayashi, Kenji; Sunaoshi, Kenichi; Takeda, Koichi; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Satoh, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2011-06-01

    To confirm the efficacy of the treatment regimen with oral levofloxacin (LVFX) 500 mg once daily for 7 days for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), we evaluated the microbiological and clinical outcomes of the regimen in those patients. We finally evaluated 53 patients with symptomatic NGU and 5 patients with asymptomatic NGU. As a result of microbiological examinations, 19 of the symptomatic patients were diagnosed as having non-gonococcal chlamydial urethritis (NGCU); 13 had non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis (NGNCU), and 21 had urethritis without any microbial detection. Five of the asymptomatic patients were diagnosed as having NGCU. Microbiological cure was achieved in 91% of the 32 patients with symptomatic NGU and in 80% of the 5 patients with asymptomatic NGCU. Clinical cure was obtained in 92% of the 53 patients with symptomatic NGU. The microbiological eradication rate for Chlamydia trachomatis was 92% in 24 patients. As for other organisms, the microbiological eradication rate for Mycoplasma genitalium was 60% in 5 patients and that for Ureaplasma urealyticum was 100% in 10. The microbiological and clinical efficacy of oral LVFX 500 mg once daily for 7 days for the patients with NGU was the same for the azithromycin (AZM) 1,000 mg single dose that we previously reported. The eradication rates of C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum in the treatment regimen with LVFX 500 mg were high enough in the clinical setting; however, for M. genitalium, the rate was relatively inferior to that with AZM. PMID:21174140

  7. Variations in 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate of type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Verma, Narsingh; Anjum, Baby; Bhardwaj, Kshitij

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Diabetes has profound consequences on the cardiovascular system leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Blood pressure (BP) has a characteristic and reproducible circadian pattern, with high values during the day and low values at night. A 7-day timed analysis of BP through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been used not only to diagnose day and night dipping patterns of blood pressure, but also to measure day-to-day variability and the circadian hyper-amplitude-tension, a condition in which excessive circadian BP amplitude precedes the chronic established hypertension. Our objective was to assess the 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of BP and heart rate in diabetic patients, as it could be helpful in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 50 diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 non-diabetic participants were recruited for the study. General health records were individually maintained, and 7-day/24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor was carried out. Results The rhythmic parameters of systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, double amplitude, acrophase and 3-h fractionated hyperbaric index were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients. A total of 12 participants were diagnosed with circadian hyper-amplitude-tension. These data suggest that diabetic patients have certain variations in the circadian pattern of blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in disturbed vascular events, and thus are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion Seven-day/24-h monitoring might be useful as an early predictive tool in assessing future cardiovascular risk, guiding treatment and management of these patients. PMID:25422775

  8. Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Rao, M S

    2001-07-01

    Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days. These rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (T-Maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. Results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spatial learning performance at both time points of behavioural tests, indicating the memory enhancing property of CTR which implicates a permanent change in the brain of CTR treated rats. PMID:11881569

  9. [Insomnia and its treatment during the postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, D G; Shestokov, I P; Zadorozhnaia, O A; Fridman, M Kh

    1994-01-01

    A total of 108 patients have filled in questionnaires on falling asleep, sleeping, night awakenings and other characteristics. Their answers have been analysed and it was concluded that night sleep of patients especially in the postoperative period was characterized by prolonged period of falling asleep (over 30 min in 50% of patients), reduced duration, in 77% of patients night awakenings have been recorded. The use of analgin (1000 mg) in combination with dimedrol (10 mg), promedol (20 mg) for tramal (100 mg) for normalization of sleep in the postoperative period was of little efficacy. Therapy of night sleep disturbances will improve the patients' condition and enhance the efficacy of management after surgical interventions. PMID:8010509

  10. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Empirical studies have now established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as early as age 3.0. As empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments. Method A comprehensive literature search revealed several small randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapeutic treatments for preschool anxiety and depression. The literature also contains case series of behavioral and psychopharmacologic interventions for specific anxiety disorders. However, to date, no large-scale RCTs of treatment for any anxiety or depressive disorder specifically targeting preschool populations have been published. Results Several age-adapted forms of cognitive behavioral therapy have been developed and preliminarily tested in small RCTs, and appear promising for a variety of forms of preschool anxiety disorders. Notably, these adaptations centrally involve primary caregivers and utilize age-adjusted methodology such as cartoon-based materials and co-constructed drawing or narratives. Modified forms of Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) have been tested and appear promising for both anxiety and depression. While preventive interventions that target parenting have shown significant promise in anxiety, these methods have not been explored in area of early childhood depression. Studies of the impact of parental treatment on infants suggest that direct treatment of the youngest children may be necessary to affect long-term change. Conclusions Recommendations are made for clinical treatment of these disorders where psychotherapy is the first line of intervention. PMID:23582866

  11. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  12. Study on the necessary survey days for energy intake in school children assessed by 7 day survey.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Tanaka, Nobuko; Eguchi, Yoko; Kuno, Kazue; Wakikawa, Noriko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Fukinbara, Mina; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the longer the period of a nutrition survey, the more reliable the results. However, a long survey can impose a burden on subjects and cause the results to become inaccurate. For adults, a 3 non-consecutive day survey is usually recommended; however, for school children, at least in Japan, it has not been determined whether this is necessary. In this study we conducted a survey of 7 days and tried to find the minimum number of days necessary to determine the energy intake. The subjects were about 300 children aged from 6 to 7, 10 to 11 and 13 to 14 years old in a city in the western part of Japan. The weighing method was used for the school lunch and other meals were surveyed by 24-recalling method. For the 6-7 year-old school children, guardians were asked to keep dietary records. The final number of subjects who were able to complete the 7-day survey was 139. Energy intakes for each weekday were not statistically different (p>0.05) and those for each weekend did not differ (p>0.05). Average energy intakes on weekdays were higher than those on weekend days in 10-11 and 13-14 year-old children. The average intakes of energy in 10-11 and 13-14 year-old children were lower than Japanese estimated energy requirements (EER). However, body weight of more than 90% of subjects was within the normal range. The results suggest that a survey of one weekday is reliable for all weekdays and that of one week-end day is reliable for any weekend day and also indicate the necessity of further studies of EER in rapidly growing children. PMID:22449999

  13. Eccentric and concentric muscle performance following 7 days of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.; Roper, Mary L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Mcbrine, John J.; Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle strength occur in response to chronic disuse or insufficient functional loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle performance of the lower extremity and torso prior to and immediately after 7 days of simulated weightlessness (horizontal bed rest). A Biodex was used to determine concentric and eccentric peak torque and angle at peak torque for the back, abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring, soleus, and tibialis anterior. A reference angle of 0 degrees was set at full extension. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

  14. A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day course of doripenem to a 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Gram-negative bacteria. Methods This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing a fixed 7-day course of doripenem one gram as a four-hour infusion every eight hours with a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin one gram as a one-hour infusion every eight hours (April 2008 through June 2011). Results The study was stopped prematurely at the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee that was blinded to treatment arm assignment and performed a scheduled review of data which showed signals that were close to the pre-specified stopping limits. The final analyses included 274 randomized patients. The clinical cure rate at the end of therapy (EOT) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population was numerically lower for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (45.6% versus 56.8%; 95% CI, -26.3% to 3.8%). Similarly, the clinical cure rate at EOT was numerically lower for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP, the most common Gram-negative pathogen, in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (41.2% versus 60.0%; 95% CI, -57.2 to 19.5). All cause 28-day mortality in the MITT group was numerically greater for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (21.5% versus 14.8%; 95% CI, -5.0 to 18.5) and for patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (35.3% versus 0.0%; 95% CI, 12.6 to 58.0). Conclusions Among patients with microbiologically confirmed late-onset VAP, a fixed 7-day course of doripenem was found to have non-significant higher rates of clinical failure and mortality compared to a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin. Consideration should be given to treating patients with VAP for more than seven days to optimize clinical outcome. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00589693

  15. Chronic Alcohol Treatment in Rats Alters Sleep by Fragmenting Periods of Vigilance Cycling in the Light Period with Extended Wakenings

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sanjib; Simasko, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that disturbed sleep produced by chronic alcohol abuse in humans can predict relapse drinking after periods of abstinence. How alcohol produces disturbed sleep remains unknown. In this study we used a novel analysis of sleep to examine the effects of alcohol on sleep patterns in rats. This analysis separates waking into multiple components and defines a period labeled vigilance cycling (VC) in which the rat rapidly cycles through various vigilance states. These VC episodes are separated by long duration wake periods (LDW). We find that 6 weeks of alcohol (6% in a liquid diet) caused fragmentation of extended VC episodes that normally occur in the light period. However, total daily amounts of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS) remained constant. The daily amount of wake, SWS, and REMS remained constant because the alcohol treated rats increased the amount of VC in the dark period, and the sleep nature of VC in the dark period became more intense. In addition, we observed more wake and less REMS early in the light period in alcohol treated rats. All effects completely reversed by day 16 of alcohol withdrawal. Comparison of the effects of chronic alcohol to acute alcohol exposure demonstrated the effects of chronic alcohol are due to adaptation and not the acute presence of alcohol. The effects of chronic alcohol treatment in rats mimic the effects reported in humans (REMS suppression, difficulty falling asleep, and difficulty remaining asleep). PMID:19014977

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  17. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM), and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is needed to examine long

  18. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Coyle, J.; Crone, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes the EPRI report (TR-105202) on the same topic as well as presents changes in current thinking on the suitability (applicability) of chlorine dioxide for fouling control. Chlorine dioxide was tested as a zebra mussel biocide at two steam electric generating stations in Illinois and one in Indiana. The purpose of these studies was to determine the efficacy of chlorine dioxide in killing zebra mussels and to develop site specific treatment programs for the three utilities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Consortium sponsored the testing of this recent use of chlorine dioxide. The raw water system at Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station, on the Illinois River, received applications of chlorine dioxide in April, July, and September 1994. The raw water system at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station, on the Mississippi River, received applications in July 1993, January, April, May, July, and September 1994. The Gallagher Station, on the Ohio River, was treated in July and October 1994. Chlorine dioxide was generated on-site and injected into the water intake structure. Both cooling and service water systems were treated at the facilities. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Skeletal muscle recovery after tenotomy and 7-day delayed muscle length restoration.

    PubMed

    Abrams, R A; Tsai, A M; Watson, B; Jamali, A; Lieber, R L

    2000-05-01

    Rabbit extensor digitorum longus (EDL) tendons were cut with the muscle active (active tenotomy, AT) or with the EDL at rest (passive tenotomy, PT). One, 7, and 21 days after tenotomy, contractile testing was performed. A second experiment was performed in which EDL tendons underwent PT and, after a 7-day delay, muscle-tendon units were restored to their original length. Maximum isometric tension dropped precipitously 1 day after either AT or PT to approximately 50% of normal and continued to decline by day 7. In contrast to PT, where peak tension (P(0)) decreased further by 21 days, after AT, P(0) partially recovered. Differences in muscle mass, cross-sectional area, fiber type, and sarcomere number did not explain the differential response. One day after length restoration of muscles, P(0) rapidly increased by approximately 40%. These observations have implications for understanding the outcome of muscle-tendon unit injury and surgical repair. PMID:10797393

  20. Changes of human serum proteome profile during 7-day “dry” immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakharukova, N. A.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Grigoriev, A. I.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes of serum proteome profile during 7-day "dry" immersion (DI). The experiment with DI consisted of three series: control group without countermeasures (10 men), with using mechanical stimulation (6 men) and low-frequency myostimulation (5 men) as preventive means. Serum samples were fractionated using ClinProt robot (Bruker Daltonics) on magnetic beads (weak cation exchange magnetic beads—MB WCX) prior to mass-spectral profiling. It was obtained 170 peaks after fractionation of serum samples in each group. On 7th immersion day peak areas of fibrinopeptide A ( m/ z=1206; 1464), angiotensin II ( m/ z=1051), high molecular mass kininogen fragment ( m/ z=2133 Da) and C3-fragment of the complement system ( m/ z=1350 Da) were significantly decreased comparing with pre-experimental values of all experimental series. Peak areas of apolipoprotein C III ( m/ z=9419) and C4a fragment of the complement system ( m/ z=3206 Da) were increased. On 7th day of the recovery peak areas of all changed peaks were not close to pre-experimental values. This fact provided evidence of incomplete recovery of an organism after DI. The depth of the alterations had considerable individual variability. Thereby the detected changes of serum proteome profile in the experiment. They indicated a reorganization of the hormonal, immune systems and lipid metabolism. The use of myostimulation and mechanical stimulation as countermeasures partly compensated adverse effects of 7-day dry immersion on the parameters of coagulation system (fibrinopeptide A) and lipid metabolism (apolipoprotein CIII).

  1. Blood glucose levels within 7 days after birth in preterm infants according to gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Young; Choi, Chang Won; Yang, Sei Won; Kim, Beyong Il; Shin, Choong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated blood glucose levels in preterm babies according to gestational age (GA). Methods Subjects were 141 preterm infants with a GA<34 weeks. Data on blood glucose levels, GA, body weight, glucose infusion rate, and other contributing factors in the first 7 days after birth were analyzed. Hypoglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level of <40 mg/dL up to 24 hours after birth and as <50 mg/dL thereafter. Hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level >180 mg/dL. Results During the 7 days after birth, hypo- and hyperglycemia occurred in 29 (29 of 141, 20.6%) and 42 (42 of 141, 29.8%) neonates, respectively. During the first 2 hours, 18 neonates (12.8%) exhibited hypoglycemia, and only 2 (2 of 141, 1.4%) developed hyperglycemia. From 6 to 24 hours, hypo- and hyperglycemia were observed in 0 and 9 (9 of 141, 6.4%) neonates, respectively. Infants small for their GA (SGA) were at risk for hypoglycemia both within 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 2.718; P=0.045) and during days 2 to 7 (OR, 4.454; P=0.006), and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 3.200; P=0.005). Low 1-minite Apgar score was risk factor for both hypo- and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 0.756; P=0.035 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.789; P=0.016 for hyperglycemia). Both hypo- and hyperglycemia within 24 hours were less common in those who started feeding (OR, 0.294; P=0.013 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.162; P=0.011 for hyperglycemia). Conclusion Careful blood glucose level monitoring is required in preterm infants, especially SGA infants or those with low Apgar score. Early feeding could be beneficial for maintaining euglycemia. PMID:26817008

  2. Continuous accelerated 7-days-a-week radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Long-term results of Phase III clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof . E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Golen, Maria; Tarnawski, Rafal; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Suwinski, Rafal; Sygula, Mariusz; Wygoda, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To update 5-year results of a previously published study on special 7-days-a-week fractionation continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in Stage T{sub 2-4}N{sub 0-1}M were randomized between two definitive radiation treatments: accelerated fractionation 7 days a week including weekends (CAIR) and conventional 5 days a week (control). Hence the overall treatment time was 2 weeks shorter in CAIR. Results: Five-year local tumor control was 75% in the CAIR group and 33% in the control arm (p < 0.00004). Tumor-cure benefit corresponded with significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with the incidence significantly higher in CAIR patients than in control (respectively, 94% vs. 53%). When 2.0-Gy fractions were used, radiation necrosis developed in 5 patients (22%) in the CAIR group as a consequential late effect (CLE), but when fraction size was reduced to 1.8 Gy no more CLE occurred. Actuarial 5-year morbidity-free survival rate was similar for both treatments. Conclusions: Selected head-and-neck cancer patients could be treated very effectively with 7-days-a-week radiation schedule with no compromise of total dose and with slight 10% reduction of fraction dose (2 Gy-1.8 Gy), which article gives 1 week reduction of overall treatment time compared with standard 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 47-49 days. Although this report is based on the relatively small group of patients, its results have encouraged us to use CAIR fractionation in a standard radiation treatment for moderately advanced head-and-neck cancer patients.

  3. A Guide to Administration, Diagnosis, and Treatment for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Gerald; Scovell, Melvin

    Provided are guidelines on administration, diagnosis, and treatment in federally funded EPSDT--Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Programs, a system for providing health care services to Medicaid-eligible children. Detailed in part one are factors involved in developing EPSDT programs. Four chapters consider the need for EPSDT,…

  4. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  5. The development of a 7-day community specialist palliative care service.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    The author worked as a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in community palliative care in the Central Lancashire area of England when the CNS service was extended to a 9am-to-5pm 7-day service. A project group was set up to canvas some of the key stakeholders for their views on the extension of the service. The group undertook a literature search, a telephone survey of services in other areas that were providing this level of service, and interviews to ascertain the views of district nurses in the locality of the proposed service extension. The extension of service has long been advocated and was one of the key recommendations in the UK Department of Health's peer-review process. Such an extension was implemented following the research phase and was then evaluated by the project lead and the community services manager. The extension was found to be effective in the ongoing monitoring and support of patients. Anecdotally, the CNS team also felt it had been proactive in preventing unnecessary hospital admissions, although this specific aspect is difficult to quantify. This article looks at how the service was developed, how it has evolved over time, and how it works today. Consideration is also given to benefits and limitations. PMID:24356506

  6. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL. PMID:25943335

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  8. Efficacy of 7-Day and 14-Day Triple Therapy Regimens for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: A Comparative Study in a Cohort of Romanian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arama, Stefan Sorin; Tiliscan, Catalin; Negoita, Cristina; Croitoru, Alexandru; Arama, Victoria; Mihai, Carmen Marina; Pop, Florinel

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared the eradication rates of of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection by a 7-day and 14-day anti-HP regimen. Materials and Methods. An open, randomized, prospective study was performed to evaluate the response to anti-HP treatment in adult HP-positive patients following a 7-day course (Regimen A) of a proton pump inhibitor in association with clarithromycin and amoxicillin compared to a 14-day course (Regimen B). Gastric biopsies were performed at baseline and two months after anti-HP treatment. Results. Seventy-eight patients aged 18–64 years (28 males, 50 females) diagnosed with HP infection were included. Fifty-two (66.7%) patients received Regimen B and 26 (33.3%) Regimen A. The overall eradication rate was 70.5%. Better treatment response (p < 0.01) was seen in Regimen B (44/52, 84.2% versus 11/26, 42.3%). Significant improvement in histological features was seen in regimen B. There has been significant overall reduction in endoscopic aspects of gastric and duodenal lesions in both regimens. Younger patients ≤35 years had a better response to Regimen B. Better treatment response was seen in women, urban residents, and those with tertiary level of education in both groups. Conclusion. 14-day anti-HP regimen offered a significant better overall eradication of HP in study population. PMID:26858750

  9. Stochastic extinction of tumor cells due to synchronization effect through time periodic treatment in a tumor-immune interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisu, Ryota; Horita, Takehiko

    The response to a time periodic treatment of the immunotherapy in a stochastic model of tumor-immune interaction is numerically investigated. Due to the effect of synchronization among the intrinsic oscillation and the treatment, an enhanced extinction of the tumor cells is observed. It suggests that compared with the static treatment, by controlling the period of the treatment, the time periodic treatment could be an effective way of treatment leading to tumor extinction.

  10. Avoiding the Perfect Storm: The Biologic and Clinical Case for Reevaluating the 7-Day Expectation for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Before Switching Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Kullar, Ravina; McKinnell, James A.; Sakoulas, George

    2014-01-01

    Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia (MRSAB) is associated with poor outcomes and serious complications. The MRSA guidelines define treatment failure and persistent bacteremia as lasting ≥7 days; however, this definition requires reevaluation. Aggressively reducing the bacterial inoculum promptly is critical because factors already in place before clinical presentation are driving resistance to the few antibiotics that are available to treat MRSAB. Alternative approaches to treat MRSAB should be considered within 3–4 days of persistent MRSAB. With rapid molecular diagnostics emerging in clinical microbiology laboratories and biomarkers as a potential for early patient risk stratification, a future shorter threshold may become possible. PMID:25048852

  11. Estimating Monthly, Annual, and Low 7-Day, 10-Year Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Regression equations to estimate monthly, annual, and low 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) streamflows were derived for rivers in Maine. The derived regression equations for estimating mean monthly, mean annual, median monthly, median annual, and low 7Q10 streamflows for ungaged rivers in Maine presented in this report supersede those derived in previous studies. Twenty-six U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on unregulated, rural rivers in Maine with 10 years or more of recorded streamflow were used to develop the regression equations. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to select the explanatory variables (basin and climatic characteristics) that would appear in the final regression equations. OLS regression of all possible subsets was done with 62 explanatory variables for each of 27 response variables. Five explanatory variables were chosen for the final regression equations: drainage basin area, areal fraction of the drainage basin underlain by sand and gravel aquifers, distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid, mean drainage basin annual precipitation, and mean drainage basin winter precipitation (the sum of mean monthly precipitation for December, January, and February). Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to derive the final coefficients and measures of uncertainty for the regression equations. The forms of many of the derived regression equations indicate some physical, mechanistic processes. Drainage basin area is the most statistically important explanatory variable and appears in all derived regression equations. Monthly streamflows are related inversely to the distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid during December, January, February, and March; that is, the closer a river basin is to the coast, the higher monthly streamflows are per unit drainage basin area during the winter. The relation reverses in May when higher streamflows are attributed to basins farther from the coast

  12. Stochastic resonance induced by Lévy noise in a tumor growth model with periodic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Hao, Mengli; Gu, Xudong; Yang, Guidong

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the stochastic resonance phenomenon in a tumor growth model under subthreshold periodic therapy and Lévy noise excitation is investigated. The possible reoccurrence of tumor due to stochastic resonance is discussed. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated numerically to measure the stochastic resonance. It is found that smaller stability index is better for avoiding tumor reappearance. Besides, the effect of the skewness parameter on the tumor regrowth is related to the stability index. Furthermore, increasing the intensity of periodic treatment does not always facilitate tumor therapy. These results are beneficial to the optimization of periodic tumor therapy.

  13. Proliferation enhancement of budding yeast and mammalian cells with periodic oxygen radical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Jun; Murata, Tomiyasu; Hahizume, Hiroshi; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have been intensively studied for biological applications. However, the each effect of species in plasmas to biological tissue has not been clarified yet because various factors exist in the plasmas. Accordingly, we have studied effects of atomic oxygen dose on cell growth such as budding yeast and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts of mammalian cells. Both of cells were suspended with PBS, and treated using oxygen radical source. In order to prevent the radicals from reacting with the ambient air, the treatment region was surrounded by a plastic cover and purged with Ar. The proliferative effect of 15 % was observed at the O3Pj dose of around 1 . 0 ×1017 cm-3 in NIH3T3 cells as well as in yeast cells. Moreover, periodic oxygen treatment enhanced the effect in budding yeast cells. The best interval of periodic oxygen radical treatment was around 2 hours, which is almost the same period as that of their cell cycle. With the optimum interval time, we have investigated the effect of the number of the treatments. As the number of treatments increases, the growth rate of budding yeast cells was gradually enhanced and saturated at thrice treatments. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26286072 and project for promoting Research Center in Meijo University.

  14. 46 CFR 281.4 - Treatment of subsidy during idle status and off-hire period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treatment of subsidy during idle status and off-hire period. 281.4 Section 281.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INFORMATION AND PROCEDURE REQUIRED UNDER LINER...

  15. 46 CFR 281.4 - Treatment of subsidy during idle status and off-hire period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of subsidy during idle status and off-hire period. 281.4 Section 281.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INFORMATION AND PROCEDURE REQUIRED UNDER LINER...

  16. PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero.

    Cherrington JW, Chernoff N.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com

    Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

  17. Spermatozoa isolated from cat testes retain their structural integrity as well as a developmental potential after refrigeration for up to 7 days.

    PubMed

    Buarpung, Sirirak; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Thongkittidilok, Chommanart; Comizzoli, Pierre; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of preservation media for isolated feline testicular spermatozoa as well as the concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on: (1) the membrane (sperm membrane integrity (SMI)) and DNA integrity of spermatozoa; and (2) the developmental potential of spermatozoa after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Isolated cat spermatozoa were stored in HEPES-M199 medium (HM) or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) at 4°C for up to 7 days. Results indicated that HM maintained a better SMI than DPBS throughout the storage periods (P > 0.05). When spermatozoa were stored in HM supplemented with BSA at different concentrations (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), SMI obtained from HM containing 8 and 16 mg/ml BSA was higher than with 4 mg/ml BSA (P 0.05). In summary, cat spermatozoa immediately isolated from testicular tissue can be stored as a suspension in basic buffered medium at 4°C for up to 7 days. BSA supplementation into the medium improves membrane integrity of the spermatozoa during cold storage. Testicular spermatozoa stored in HM containing 16 mg/ml BSA retained full in vitro developmental potential after ICSI, similar to that of fresh controls even though DNA integrity had slightly declined. PMID:24990798

  18. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkies, Krystyna; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  19. Regeneration of Aqueous Periodate Solutions by Ozone Treatment: A Sustainable Approach for Dialdehyde Cellulose Production.

    PubMed

    Koprivica, Slavica; Siller, Martin; Hosoya, Takashi; Roggenstein, Walter; Rosenau, Thomas; Potthast, Antje

    2016-04-21

    A method for easy and fast regeneration of aqueous periodate solutions from dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) production by ozone treatment is presented, along with a direct and reliable simultaneous quantification of iodate and periodate by reversed-phase HPLC. The influence of iodate and ozone concentration, solution pH, and reaction time on the regeneration efficiency was studied, as well as the reaction kinetics. Regeneration of spent periodate solutions by ozone was successfully performed in alkaline medium, which favors the formation of free (.) OH radicals, as supported by the addition of radical scavengers and quantum mechanical calculations. At pH 13 and an ozone concentration of approximately 150 mg L(-1) , periodate was completely regenerated from a 100 mm solution of iodate within 1 h at room temperature. A cyclic process of cellulose oxidation and subsequent regeneration of spent periodate with 90 % efficiency has been developed. So far, commercial applications of DAC have been hampered by difficulties in reusing the costly periodate. This work overcomes this hurdle and presents a highly efficient, clean, and low-cost protocol for the preparation of DAC with integrated periodate recycling, with the possibility of scaling the process up. PMID:26990816

  20. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  1. Creation of liquid-crystal periodic zigzags by surface treatment and thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seong Ho; Gim, Min-Jun; Cha, Yun Jeong; Shin, Tae Joo; Ahn, Hyungju; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2015-11-28

    The orientation control of soft matter to create a large area single domain is one of the most exciting research topics in materials science. Recently, this effort has been extended to fabricate two- or three-dimensional structures for electro-optical applications. Here, we create periodic zigzag structures in liquid crystals (LCs) using a combination of surface treatment and thermal annealing. The LC molecules in the nematic (N) phase were initially guided by the alignment layer of rubbed polymers, which were quenched and subsequently annealed in the smectic A (SmA) phase to create periodic zigzag structures that represent modulated layer structures. Direct investigation of the zigzags was performed using microscopy and diffraction techniques, showing the alternately arranged focal conic domains (FCDs) formed. The resulting macroscopic periodic structures will be of interest in further studies of the physical properties of soft matters. PMID:26355381

  2. Enhancement in dentin collagen’s biological stability after proanthocyanidins treatment in clinically relevant time periods

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Chen, Mingsheng; Yao, Xiaomei; Xu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether proanthocyanidins (PA) is capable of improving dentin collagen’s biological stability through cross-linking within time periods that are clinically relevant. Materials and methods Demineralized dentin collagen slabs were treated with 3.75 wt% PA solution for 10 s, 1 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 360 min, and 720 min, respectively. The resultant cross-linked collagen samples were subject to digestion with 0.1% collagenase at 37 °C for 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h. The percentage of weight loss after digestion was calculated to evaluate PA-treated collagen’s resistance toward enzymatic degradation. Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe evidences of PA-collagen interactions after various periods of PA treatment. Results The collagenase digestion assay suggests that PA treatment as short as 10 s can enhance collagen’s resistance toward enzymatic challenge. The FTIR spectroscopy further verifies that PA is indeed incorporated into collagen regardless of treatment time, possibly via a mechanism involving the chemical interactions between PA and collagen. Significance This study confirmed that PA can effectively cross-link collagen and improve its biological stability in time periods as short as 10 s. The use of PA as a priming agent is therefore clinically feasible and is a promising approach to improving the durability of current dentin bonding systems. PMID:23434233

  3. Influence of 7 days of hindlimb suspension and intermittent weight support on rat muscle mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierotti, David J.; Roy, Roland R.; Flores, Vinicio; Edgerton, Reggie

    1990-01-01

    The effect of intermittent periods of weight support on a decrease in mass of the soleus (Sol) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles atrophied by hindlimb suspension (HS) was investigated in rats subjected to continuous HS for seven days or an HS plus intermittent (10 min every 6 hrs of slow walking on a treadmill) weight support (HS-WS). After 7 d HS, the Sol weight relative to body weight was 21 and 9 percent lower in Hs and HS-WS, respectively, than in control rats. Maximum tetanic tension/muscle mass ratio was significantly lower in HS than in controls; the HS-WS rats had values similar to controls, whereas the maximum tetanic tension/muscle weight was significantly elevated in HS-WS compared to controls. Contraction times were 25 percent faster in the Sol and unchanged in the MG of HS rats, indicating that a low-force short-duration exercise regime results in a significant functional recovery in the 'slow' Sol, whereas the 'fast' MG is less affected.

  4. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal

  5. Formation of nanoporous structures in metallic materials by pulse-periodic laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzin, Serguei P.

    2015-09-01

    A method of the formation of nanoporous structures in metallic materials by pulse-periodic laser treatment was developed. In this study, the multicomponent aluminum-iron brass was considered and the nanoporous structure across the entire cross section of the material with a thickness of 50 μm was formed. The method was implemented using a CO2 laser processing unit. The pulse-periodic laser treatment of the Cu-Zn-Al-Fe alloy with pulse frequency of 5 Hz has led to the formation of nanosized cavities due to accumulation of internal stresses during cyclic heating and cooling at high speeds. It was determined that the pores of a channel type with average widths of 80-100 nm are formed in the central region of the heat-affected zone during laser action with thermocycling. When implementing the chosen conditions of the pulse-periodic laser processing, the localness in depth and area of the physical processes occurring in the heat-affected zone is ensured, while maintaining the original properties of the material and the absence of significant deformations in the rest of the volume. This patented process is perspective for the production not only catalysts for chemical reactions, but for ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes as well.

  6. Transfusion treatment at Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Center during a twelve-year period.

    PubMed

    Sović, Dragica; Dodig, Javorka; Banović, Miroslav; Jularić, Anamarija

    2014-09-01

    Transfusion treatment is administered according to clinical and laboratory results, with ongoing patient assessments. Decisions on necessary measures to prevent any adverse and unexpected events and reactions are made on the basis ofhemovigilance and ongoing gathering and analysis of relevant data. Information about transfusion treatment at the Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Vinogradska site, was retrospectively collected for a period of twelve years (2001-2012). In that period, 14137.25 ± 1693.07 units of all blood products were used, where red blood cells (RBC) accounted for 67.34%, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) for 17.55%, and platelet concentrates (PC) for 14.32%. During the study period, the consumption of RBC was even, of FFP decreased by 45% and of PC increased by 58%. RBC transfusions were received by 10.43% of hospitalized patients, 1.46% of them during surgical procedures. Transfusions of all blood products were received by 14.63% of patients. We found 247 adverse reactions to all blood products. Febrile nonhemolytic and allergic reactions were quite equally represented, 49.5% each. As for other reactions (1%), one transfusion associated circulatory overload and one transfusion related acute lung injury were recorded. There were no fatal post-transfusion reactions. PMID:25509245

  7. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi; Murayama, Chieko; Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  8. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aguado-Gil, L; Irarrazaval-Armendáriz, I; Pretel-Irazabal, M

    2013-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease included in the group of autoinflammatory syndromes. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation in different regions of the body. The main clinical manifestations are myalgia, migratory erythematous rash, periorbital edema, and abdominal pain. The diagnosis is reached using gene analysis and prognosis depends on the appearance of amyloidosis secondary to the recurrent episodes of inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and corticosteroids are the most widely used treatments. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of TRAPS, thanks to a better understanding of its pathogenesis. Dermatologists must be aware that the skin manifestations of TRAPS are particularly important, as they are often diagnostic. PMID:23891452

  9. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment. PMID:26067703

  10. Evaluating the Efficacy of Primary Treatment for Graves' Disease Complicated by Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Rita Yuk-Kwan; Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Chan, Ai Chen; Wong, Kai Pun

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a potentially life-threatening complication of Graves' disease (GD). The present study compared the long-term efficacy of antithyroid drugs (ATD), radioactive iodine (RAI), and surgery in GD/TPP. Methods. Sixteen patients with GD/TPP were followed over a 14-year period. ATD was generally prescribed upfront for 12–18 months before RAI or surgery was considered. Outcomes such as thyrotoxic or TPP relapses were compared between the three modalities. Results. Eight (50.0%) patients had ATD alone, 4 (25.0%) had RAI, and 4 (25.0%) had surgery as primary treatment. Despite being able to withdraw ATD in all 8 patients for 37.5 (22–247) months, all subsequently developed thyrotoxic relapses and 4 (50.0%) had ≥1 TPP relapses. Of the four patients who had RAI, two (50%) developed thyrotoxic relapse after 12 and 29 months, respectively, and two (50.0%) became hypothyroid. The median required RAI dose to render hypothyroidism was 550 (350–700) MBq. Of the 4 patients who underwent surgery, none developed relapses but all became hypothyroid. Conclusion. To minimize future relapses, more definitive primary treatment such as RAI or surgery is preferred over ATD alone. If RAI is chosen over surgery, a higher dose (>550 MBq) is recommended. PMID:25147568

  11. Long-term periodic anthelmintic treatments are associated with increased allergen skin reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Endara, P; Vaca, M; Chico, M E; Erazo, S; Oviedo, G; Quinzo, I; Rodriguez, A; Lovato, R; Moncayo, A-L; Barreto, M L; Rodrigues, L C; Cooper, P J

    2010-01-01

    Background The low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural tropics has been attributed to the protective effects of chronic helminth infections. There is concern that treatment-based control programmes for these parasites may lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Objective We measured the impact of 15–17 years of anthelmintic treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity and allergic symptoms in school-age children. Methods The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity, exercise-induced bronchospasm and allergic symptoms was compared between school-age children living in communities that had received community-based treatments with ivermectin (for onchocerciasis control) for a period of 15–17 years with those living in geographically adjacent communities that had received no ivermectin. Results The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity was double in children living in treated communities compared with those in untreated communities (16.7% vs. 8.7%, adjusted OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.50–2.94, P<0.0001), and the effect was mediated partly by a reduced prevalence of Trichuris trichiura among treated children. Ivermectin treatments were associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms (adjusted OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.05–4.78, P=0.04) but not symptoms of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. The effect on eczema symptoms was not associated with reductions in geohelminth infections. Conclusion Long-term periodic treatments with ivermectin were associated with an increased prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity. There was some evidence that treatment was associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms but not those of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. Cite this as: P. Endara, M. Vaca, M. E. Chico, S. Erazo, G. Oviedo, I. Quinzo, A. Rodriguez R. Lovato, A.-L. Moncayo, M. L. Barreto, L. C. Rodrigues and P. J. Cooper, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2010 (40) 1669–1677. PMID

  12. Treatment of bronchial asthma with low-level laser in attack-free period at children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailioaie, C.; Ailioaie, Laura

    2000-06-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease in both the pediatric and adult populations, characterized by wide variations over short periods of time in resistance to airflow in intrapulmonary airways. A primary goal in the use of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) was the safe, effective and rapid palliation of symptoms owing to tracheal or bronchial obstruction. We have investigated the effects of LLLT comparatively with other modality trials in children's asthma. In the study were included 98 patients aged 10-18 years diagnosed with moderate or severe asthma, in attack- free period. The patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received only laser therapy using extra meridian acupuncture points and scanning technique. Group 2 was treated only with inhaled Serevent 2 X 25 micrometers , two times daily, 3 months. Group 3 was tread with Theophylline retard in dosage of 15-mg/kg/12 h, 3 months. At the end of treatment we remarked a noticeable improvement of the clinical, functional and immunological characteristics at 83 percent of patients in group 1, comparatively with only 70 percent (group 2) and 53 percent (group 3). The LLLT had a very good action on bronchial patency , displayed an immunocorrecting action and is recommended in attack-free periods at children.

  13. Comparing different treatment modalities for partial nephrectomies without ischemic period: laser, Hydro-Jet and RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Boeken Kruger, Arto; Klaessens, John; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of partial nefrectomies is usually performed under a warm ischemic period. Recently, various treatment modalities have become available to perform a partial nefrectomy without clamping off the blood circulation. We have studied three devices in laboratory setting, investigating the thermal and high speed imaging techniques in tissue models and consequently, applying the instruments in the clinic during open procedures especially looking at efficacy and blood loss. The continuous wave 2.0 micron laser of 70 W (Revolix, LISA laser) is used as a fiber delivered knife cutting through circulated tissue with controlled hemostasis for vessels up to 3 mm diameter. The 2 μm wavelength effectively vaporizes tissue water and coagulates the smaller vessels. The Hydro-Jet (ERBE, Germany) uses high pressure (20-80 bar) to ejects a water jet of 40 um diameter at high velocity (10-30 m/s). The parenchyma is resected while vessels are preserved. Consequently, the exposed vessels can be coagulated in a controlled way with minimal blood loss. The water jet showed to induce cavitation bubbles that resect the soft tissue from the matrix leaving the elastic microvessels intact. Various systems are based on bipolar RF technology. We are using the Habib device (Rita 1500X RF generator) to create a coagulation zone around the tumor. Subsequently, the tumor can be resected along the coagulation zone with minimal bleeding. The treatment modalities investigated, have their own advantages and, stand-alone or in combination, can facilitate laparoscopic partial nephrectomies without an ischemic period.

  14. Linear-scaling explicitly correlated treatment of solids: Periodic local MP2-F12 method

    SciTech Connect

    Usvyat, Denis

    2013-11-21

    Theory and implementation of the periodic local MP2-F12 method in the 3*A fixed-amplitude ansatz is presented. The method is formulated in the direct space, employing local representation for the occupied, virtual, and auxiliary orbitals in the form of Wannier functions (WFs), projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), and atom-centered Gaussian-type orbitals, respectively. Local approximations are introduced, restricting the list of the explicitly correlated pairs, as well as occupied, virtual, and auxiliary spaces in the strong orthogonality projector to the pair-specific domains on the basis of spatial proximity of respective orbitals. The 4-index two-electron integrals appearing in the formalism are approximated via the direct-space density fitting technique. In this procedure, the fitting orbital spaces are also restricted to local fit-domains surrounding the fitted densities. The formulation of the method and its implementation exploits the translational symmetry and the site-group symmetries of the WFs. Test calculations are performed on LiH crystal. The results show that the periodic LMP2-F12 method substantially accelerates basis set convergence of the total correlation energy, and even more so the correlation energy differences. The resulting energies are quite insensitive to the resolution-of-the-identity domain sizes and the quality of the auxiliary basis sets. The convergence with the orbital domain size is somewhat slower, but still acceptable. Moreover, inclusion of slightly more diffuse functions, than those usually used in the periodic calculations, improves the convergence of the LMP2-F12 correlation energy with respect to both the size of the PAO-domains and the quality of the orbital basis set. At the same time, the essentially diffuse atomic orbitals from standard molecular basis sets, commonly utilized in molecular MP2-F12 calculations, but problematic in the periodic context, are not necessary for LMP2-F12 treatment of crystals.

  15. [Anemia and its treatment with peroral anti-anemia agents in women during the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Mára, M; Eretová, V; Zivný, J; Kvasnicka, J; Umlaufová, A; Márová, E

    1999-06-01

    The prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy and post partum is according to the literature and many years clinical experience high. In the submitted work we investigated the incidence of sideropenic anaemia in women during the first three months after a spontaneous delivery, changes of clinical and laboratory indicators of anaemia during this period and the possible effect exerted by administration of iron and iron plus folic acid resp. Ninety pregnant women in the 35th to 39th week of pregnancy were at random divided into three equally sized groups and the following were assessed: haemogram, indicators of iron reserves, serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin B12, erythropoetin and soluble transferrin receptor, liver tests, total protein + electrophoresis, acute stage proteins. In the first group (T) the women were given, starting on the 4th day after delivery 1 tablet of Tardyferon per day for two months. To the second group (F) for an equal period 1 tablet of Tardyferon Fol per day was administered. Women in the control group (K) had no medication. In the investigation women with medium and severe pregnancy anaemia were not included nor women taking during pregnancy or previously iron preparations or those treated in the past by blood transfusion. After spontaneous delivery (women who had Caesarean section or forceps delivery were eliminated from the study) the women were subjected to the same examinations as before delivery. These examinations were made on the fourth day after delivery and then after monthly intervals for a period of three months. At the same time the subjective condition of the mothers was evaluated after delivery, focused on the development of symptoms typical for anaemia and the possible effect of administered treatment. The investigation was completed by 60 women. During treatment no allergic or other serious side-reactions to the administered drugs calling for discontinuation of treatment were recorded. The results of the investigation

  16. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  17. Treatment, failures and complications of ectopic pregnancy: changes over a 20 year period.

    PubMed

    Landström, G; Thorburn, J; Bryman, I

    1998-01-01

    Data from all 225 women operated on for ectopic pregnancy in 1992-1994 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital were collected and compared with three previous cross-sectional investigations from our hospital (1975-1979, 1981-1982 and 1986-1987) in order to evaluate the extent to which surgical treatment and post-operative complications have changed over a 20 year period. Laparoscopic surgery, which was not possible in the 1970s, was used in almost 85% of the ectopic pregnancies in 1992-1994. Conservative treatment was still the most frequently used technique. The complication rate was 1.2% in 1975-1979 when only laparotomies were carried out. After the introduction of laparoscopic surgery (1986-1987), the complication rate rose significantly (7.3%) and continued to increase even when this procedure was established as routine (14.2% in 1992-1994). Post-operative complications were most frequent after conservative laparoscopic surgery (24.4%) while there were no complications after laparotomies. In spite of increasing complication rates the frequency of patients in pre-shock, as well as the proportion of patients with heavy intra-abdominal bleeding and tubal rupture, decreased over time. PMID:9512258

  18. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Nittby, Henrietta; Brun, Arne; Eberhardt, Jacob; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after

  19. Periodic health examination, 1999 update: 1. Detection, prevention and treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, J D; Feightner, J W; Attia, J; Feldman, W F

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the evidence relating to the effectiveness of methods to prevent and treat obesity, and (2) to provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity in adults aged 18 to 65 years and for the measurement of the body mass index (BMI) as part of a periodic health examination. OPTIONS: In adults with obesity (BMI greater than 27) management options include weight reduction, prevention of further weight gain or no intervention. OUTCOMES: The long-term (more than 2 years) effectiveness of (a) methods to prevent obesity and (b) methods to treat obesity. EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched for articles published from 1966 to April 1998 that related to the prevention and treatment of obesity; additional articles were identified from the bibliographies of review articles and the listings of Current Contents. Selection criteria were used to limit the analysis to prospective studies with at least 2 years' follow-up. BENEFITS, HARM AND COSTS: Health benefits of weight reduction were evaluated in terms of alleviation of symptoms, improved management of obesity-related diseases and a reduction in major clinical outcomes. The health risk of weight-reduction methods were briefly evaluated in terms of increased mortality and morbidity. VALUES: The recommendations of this report reflect the commitment of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care to provide a structured, evidence-based appraisal of whether a manoeuvre should be part of a periodic health examination. RECOMMENDATIONS: (1) Prevention: There is insufficient evidence to recommend in favour of or against community-based obesity prevention programs; however, because of considerable health risks associated with obesity and the limited long-term effectiveness of weight-reduction methods, the prevention of obesity should be a high priority for health care providers (grade C recommendation). (2) Treatment: (a) For obese adults without obesity-related diseases, there is insufficient

  20. Static torsional otolith-cervical-ocular reflex after prolonged exposure to weightlessness and a 7-day immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Makarova, S. M.

    2011-05-01

    To determine the role of the support-proprioceptive factor in the functioning of the vestibular system, in particular the static torsional otolith-cervical-ocular reflex (OCOR), comparative OCOR studies with videooculography recording were performed after a 7-day "dry" horizontal immersion (16 subjects) and after a prolonged (126-195 days) exposure to weightlessness (13 cosmonauts). For the first time, it was demonstrated that minimization of the support and proprioceptive afferentation may result in an inversion or absence of the static torsional OCOR and the development of a positional nystagmus with an inverted reflex. A comparative OCOR data analysis of cosmonauts and immersion subjects has revealed similarity of responses. However, changes in OCOR after immersion were noted in only 60% of the subjects, while after space flight, 90% of cosmonauts showed them. Post-flight changes were more frequent, marked and long-lasting. Statistical analysis has shown that there were significant differences between pre- and post-flight data according to both parametric and non-parametric methods of multiple comparisons, whereas only parametric methods have found significant differences within immersion data.

  1. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO. PMID:26028929

  2. Sleep-stage sequencing of sleep-onset REM periods in MSLT predicts treatment response in patients with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Drakatos, Panagis; Patel, Kishankumar; Thakrar, Chiraag; Williams, Adrian J; Kent, Brian D; Leschziner, Guy D

    2016-04-01

    Current treatment recommendations for narcolepsy suggest that modafinil should be used as a first-line treatment ahead of conventional stimulants or sodium oxybate. In this study, performed in a tertiary sleep disorders centre, treatment responses were examined following these recommendations, and the ability of sleep-stage sequencing of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods in the multiple sleep latency test to predict treatment response. Over a 3.5-year period, 255 patients were retrospectively identified in the authors' database as patients diagnosed with narcolepsy, type 1 (with cataplexy) or type 2 (without) using clinical and polysomnographic criteria. Eligible patients were examined in detail, sleep study data were abstracted and sleep-stage sequencing of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods were analysed. Response to treatment was graded utilizing an internally developed scale. Seventy-five patients were included (39% males). Forty (53%) were diagnosed with type 1 narcolepsy with a mean follow-up of 2.37 ± 1.35 years. Ninety-seven percent of the patients were initially started on modafinil, and overall 59% reported complete response on the last follow-up. Twenty-nine patients (39%) had the sequence of sleep stage 1 or wake to rapid eye movement in all of their sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods, with most of these diagnosed as narcolepsy type 1 (72%). The presence of this specific sleep-stage sequence in all sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods was associated with worse treatment response (P = 0.0023). Sleep-stage sequence analysis of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods in the multiple sleep latency test may aid the prediction of treatment response in narcoleptics and provide a useful prognostic tool in clinical practice, above and beyond their classification as narcolepsy type 1 or 2. PMID:26541241

  3. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  4. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flows in the Hudson River basin, New York, with release-flow data on Rondout and Ashokan reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow at 67 gaging stations and 173 partial-record stations in the Hudson River basin are given in tabular form. Variation of the 7-day, 10-year low flow from point to point in selected reaches, and the corresponding times of travel, are shown graphically for Wawayanda Creek, Wallkill River, Woodbury-Moodna Creek, and the Fishkill Creek basins. The 7-day, 10-year low flow for the Saw Kill basin, and estimates of the 7-day, 10-year low flow of the Roeliff Jansen Kill at Ancram and of Birch Creek at Pine Hill, are given. Summaries of discharge from Rondout and Ashokan Reservoirs, in Ulster County, are also included. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow for gaging stations with 10 years or more of record were determined by log-Pearson Type III computation; those for partial-record stations were developed by correlation of discharge measurements made at the partial-record stations with discharge data from appropriate long-term gaging stations. The variation in low flows from point to point within the selected subbasins were estimated from available data and regional regression formula. Time of travel at these flows in the four subbasins was estimated from available data and Boning's equations.

  5. Use of antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care during a period of economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe antidepressant (AD) use in the treatment of major depressive disorder during a period of economic crisis. Patients and methods This was a retrospective, observational study using population-based databases. Two periods were considered: 1) 2008–2009, precrisis, and 2) 2012–2013, economic crisis. Certain inclusion/exclusion criteria were taken into account for the study (initiation of AD treatment). Patients were followed up for 12 months. The main measures were use (defined daily doses), epidemiologic measures, strategies used and treatment persistence, referrals, and use of resources. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results In the precrisis period, 3,662 patients were enrolled, and 5,722 were enrolled in the period of economic crisis. Average age was 58.8 years and 65.4% were women. Comparing the two periods, major depressive disorder prevalence was 5.4% vs 8.1%, P<0.001. During the period of economic crisis, AD use rose by 35.2% and drug expenditures decreased by 38.7%. Defined daily dose per patient per day was 10.0 mg vs 13.5 mg, respectively, P<0.001. At 12-month follow-up, the majority of patients (60.8%) discontinued the treatment or continued on the same medication as before, and in 23.3% a change of AD was made. Conclusion Primary health care professionals are highly involved in the management of the illness; in addition, during the period of economic crisis, patients with major depressive disorder showed higher rates of prevalence of the illness, with increased use of AD drugs. PMID:26766910

  6. A Guide to Screening for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenburg, William K.; North, A. Frederick, Jr.

    The manual was designed to help public officials, physicians, nurses, and others to plan and implement an Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program under Medicaid. Procedures for carrying out components of an EPSDT program are recommended. Part 1 discusses organization and administration of screening, diagnosis, and…

  7. Improvements Needed to Speed Implementation of Medicaid's Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program...Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Congressman Ralph H. Metcalfe asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to review implementation of the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program administered by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's (HEW's) Social and Rehabilitation Service (SRS). An estimated 10 million children under age 21 are…

  8. EPSDT: Child Health. Child Health Information for Workers in the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manela, Roger; And Others

    One of six information booklets with accompanying training materials for the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, this booklet describes the stages of child growth and development and some of the health problems which EPSDT clients might have. Section I describes tests commonly included in an EPSDT…

  9. A Guide to Dental Care for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Roy L.; Young, Wesley O.

    This guide has been developed to assist administrators, providers of dental care, and others involved in carrying out the dental care provisions of the EPSDT program (Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program). It is intended to assist in the development of programs concerned with the unique characteristics of dental diseases…

  10. Effectiveness of Periodic Treatment of Quercetin against Influenza A Virus H1N1 through Modulation of Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Bipin; Cho, Se-Young; Oh, Kyung-Seo; Kim, Song Hak; Kim, Yeong O; Jeong, Eun-Hye; Nguyen, Thoa Thi; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, In Seon; Kwon, Joseph; Kim, Duwoon

    2016-06-01

    Kimchi, a traditional fermented food regularly consumed in Korea, contains various types of antimicrobial compounds. Among the tested compounds present in common spices used in Kimchi, quercetin showed the highest selectivity index against influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1. In this study, the effect of pretreatment and periodic treatment with quercetin against IAV in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells was observed. Compared to pretreatment, periodic treatment resulted in significantly higher cell viability but lower relative expression of the IAV PA gene and total apoptosis and cell death. To explain the mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of quercetin treatment, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in four samples (mock, quercetin-treated, IAV-infected, and quercetin-treated IAV-infected). Among the 220 proteins, 56 proteins were classified nonhierarchically into three clusters and were differentially modulated by quercetin treatment in IAV-infected cells. Post-translational modifications were identified in 68 proteins. In conclusion, periodic treatment with quercetin is effective in reducing IAV infection, and differentially regulates the expression of key proteins, including heat shock proteins, fibronectin 1, and prohibitin to reduce IAV replication. PMID:27157719

  11. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Azevedo, Bruna Fernades; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  12. Determining factors of observance of antiretroviral treatments in Cameroon during the start-up period (2000-2002)

    PubMed Central

    Commeyras, Christophe; Rey, Jean Loup; Badre-Sentenac, Stéphanie; Essomba-Ntsama, Claudine

    Objective: highlight the socioeconomic and environmental determining factors of long-term observance to antiretroviral treatments in developing countries. Method: The regularity of antiretroviral prescriptions renewal at the central pharmacy of the Yaounde Central Hospital (Cameroon) was measured through analysing the medical and pharmaceutical files of 230 patients over the 21 month start-up period. 99 patients were also interviewed during the last six months. The determining factors were analysed according to various socio-economic criteria, linked with the longitudinal study of treatment observance. Results: The huge price decrease of HIV treatments during the start-up period was conducive to an increase in new treatments by a factor 5.76. In this context of an exploding demand, the paper shows that observance is firstly dependent on quality information about illness and treatment protocols, while longer term adherence is partly dependent on financial capability, and includes the strong influence of living conditions and behaviours. Conclusion: The paper recommends the introduction of free treatment as an objective in national sector policies and the organisation of a long term following-up of patients. In the African context of poverty and actual decentralisation of healthcare, the question of the availability of human resources is profoundly enhanced. PMID:25214897

  13. Effect of fluvoxamine on the pharmokinetics of zolpidem: a two-treatment period study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Popa, Adina; Neag, Maria; Muntean, Dana; Achim, Marcela; Leucuţa, Sorin Emilian

    2012-01-01

    1. Our objective was to evaluate a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine in healthy volunteers. 2. The study consisted of two periods: Period 1 (reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem; and Period 2 (test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and 100 mg fluvoxamine. Between the two periods, the subjects were treated for 6 days with a single daily dose of 100 mg fluvoxamine. 3. Pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem given in each treatment period were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and the data from two periods were compared to determine statistically significant differences. 4. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 56.4 ± 25.6 ng/mL (zolpidem alone) and 67.3 ± 25.8 ng/mL (zolpidem after pretreatment with fluvoxamine). The t(max), times taken to reach C(max), were 0.83 ± 0.44 and 1.26 ± 0.74 h, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) were 200.9 ± 116.8 and 512.0 ± 354.6 ng h/mL, respectively. The half-life of zolpidem was 2.24 ± 0.81 h when given alone and 4.99 ± 2.92 h after pretreatment with fluvoxamine. 5. Fluvoxamine interacts with zolpidem in healthy volunteers and increases its exposure by approximately 150%. The experimental data showed the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine, and suggest that the observed interaction might be clinically significant, but its relevance has to be confirmed. PMID:21985609

  14. Undesirable financial effects of head and neck cancer radiotherapy during the initial treatment period

    PubMed Central

    Egestad, Helen; Nieder, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare cost and reforms are at the forefront of international debates. One of the current discussion themes in oncology is whether and how patients’ life changes due to costs of cancer care. In Norway, the main part of the treatment costs is supported by general taxpayer revenues. Objectives The objective of this study was to clarify whether head and neck cancer patients (n=67) in northern Norway experienced financial health-related quality of life (HRQOL) deterioration due to costs associated with treatment. Design HRQOL was examined by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 in the beginning and in the end of radiation treatment in patients treated at the University Hospital in Northern Norway. Changes in financial HRQOL were calculated and compared by paired sample T-tests. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine correlations among gender, marital status, age and treatment with or without additional chemotherapy and changes in the HRQOL domain of financial difficulties. Results The majority of score results at both time points were in the lower range (mean 15–25), indicating limited financial difficulties. We observed no statistically significant differences by gender, marital status and age. Increasing financial difficulties during treatment were reported by male patients and those younger than 65, that is, patients who were younger than retirement age. The largest effect was seen in singles. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions During the initial phase of the disease trajectory, no significant increase in financial difficulties was found. This is in line with the aims of the Norwegian public healthcare model. However, long-term longitudinal studies should be performed, especially with regard to the trends we observed in single, male and younger patients. PMID:25623815

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  16. CRYSCOR: a program for the post-Hartree-Fock treatment of periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cesare; Schütz, Martin; Casassa, Silvia; Usvyat, Denis; Maschio, Lorenzo; Lorenz, Marco; Erba, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Cryscor is a periodic post-Hartree-Fock program based on local functions in direct space, i.e., Wannier functions and projected atomic orbitals. It uses atom centered Gaussians as basis functions. The Hartree-Fock reference, as well as symmetry information, is provided by the Crystal program. Cryscor presently features an efficient and parallel implementation of periodic local second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), which allows us to study 1D-, 2D- and 3D-periodic systems beyond 1000 basis functions per unit cell. Apart from the correlation energy also the MP2 density matrix, and from that the Compton profile, are available. Very recently, a new module for calculating excitonic band gaps at the uncorrelated Configuration-Interaction-Singles (CIS) level has been added. Other advancements include new extrapolation techniques for calculating surface adsorption on semi-infinite solids. In this paper the diverse features and recent advances of the present Cryscor version are illustrated by exemplary applications to various systems: the adsorption of an argon monolayer on the MgO (100) surface, the rolling energy of a boron nitride nanoscroll, the relative stability of different aluminosilicates, the inclusion energy of methane in methane-ice-clathrates, and the effect of electron correlation on charge and momentum density of α-quartz. Furthermore, we present some first tentative CIS results for excitonic band gaps of simple 3D-crystals, and their dependence on the diffuseness of the basis set. PMID:22334044

  17. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belton, M. J. S.

    1990-07-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  18. Our experiences in surgical treatment of thoracic echinococcosis during the period 1977-1986.

    PubMed

    Gashi, M; Beqiri, S B; Guguli, M; Recica, X; Ahmedi, E

    1988-01-01

    Our experience is based on 147 patients with thoracic echinococcosis (TE) who underwent surgery. Of these, 131 (89.1%) patients had pulmonary TE, 3 (2.1%) had extra-pulmonary TE, and 13 (8.8%) had pulmohepatic TE Ninety-nine (67.3%) patients had uncomplicated TE, and 48 (32.7%) had complicated TE. All patients underwent surgery. In 129 (87.8%) patients, we performed cystectomy with capitonage and in 18 (12.2%) cases we performed a lung resection (lobectomy or segmentectomy). Postoperative complications occurred in 2 (1.4%) patients, and recurrence in 2 (1.4%) patients who previously had complicated TE. On admission, there was no evidence of allergic reactions in patients with complicated TE. The average time of postoperative treatment was 13 days. The results of surgical treatment were excellent. The conclusion reached is that a cystectomy with capitonage is the treatment of choice for pulmonary echinococcosis, while lung resection may be necessary if lung tissue has been destroyed by prolonged compression or infection. PMID:3272249

  19. Theoretical treatment of pulsed Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization: Consideration of a general periodic pulse sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasibulov, E. A.; Kiryutin, A. S.; Yurkovskaya, A. V.; Vieth, H.-M.; Ivanov, K. L.

    2016-05-01

    A general theoretical approach to pulsed Overhauser-type dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is presented. Dynamic nuclear polarization is a powerful method to create non-thermal polarization of nuclear spins, thereby enhancing their nuclear magnetic resonance signals. The theory presented can treat pulsed microwave irradiation of electron paramagnetic resonance transitions for periodic pulse sequences of general composition. Dynamic nuclear polarization enhancement is analyzed in detail as a function of the microwave pulse length for rectangular pulses and pulses with finite rise time. Characteristic oscillations of the DNP enhancement are found when the pulse-length is stepwise increased, originating from coherent motion of the electron spins driven by the pulses. Experimental low-field DNP data are in very good agreement with this theoretical approach.

  20. Current treatment recommendations and considerations for cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Galeotti, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) encompasses a spectrum of three phenotypes of increasing severity. The syndrome is due to dominant mutations in NLRP3, which encodes a key component of the innate immunity that regulates the secretion of IL-1β. CAPS manifests as systemic inflammation, which compromises quality of life and leads to serious complications and handicap. Anti-IL-1 drugs have shown remarkable efficacy in treating CAPS symptoms and have significantly changed patients' lives. They have acceptable safety profiles but do have some differences. We review three drugs that are currently marketed for CAPS, give additional information for the practical use of these drugs, and provide some recommendations for management. PMID:26312542

  1. Dark Period Following UV-C Treatment Enhances Killing of Botrytis cinerea Conidia and Controls Gray Mold of Strawberries.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Takeda, Fumiomi; Glenn, D Michael; Camp, Mary J; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-04-01

    Strawberries are available throughout the year either from production in the field or from high and low tunnel culture. Diversity of production conditions results in new challenges in controlling diseases before and after harvest. Fungicides have traditionally been used to control these diseases; however, their limitations necessitate a search for new approaches. We found that UV-C irradiation of Botrytis cinerea, a major pathogen of strawberry, can effectively kill this fungus if a dark period follows the treatment. The inclusion of a 4-h dark period resulted in almost complete kill of B. cinerea conidia on agar media at a dose of 12.36 J/m2. The UV-C dose did not cause a reduction in photosynthesis in strawberry leaves or discoloration of sepals, even after exposing plants repeatedly (twice a week) for 7 weeks. Although irradiation of dry conidia of B. cinerea with this dose resulted in some survival, the conidia were not infective and not able to cause decay even when inoculated onto a highly susceptible mature apple fruit. Irradiation of strawberry pollen at 12.36 J/m2 did not affect pollen germination, tube growth and length in vitro, or germination and tube growth in the style of hand-pollinated emasculated strawberry flowers. No negative effect of the UV-C treatment was observed on fruit yield and quality in high tunnel culture. In the fruit and flower petal inoculation tests, the UV-C treatment was highly effective in reducing fruit decay and petal infection. This UV-C treatment with an exposure time of 60 s may be useful in controlling gray mold in tunnel production of strawberries and may also have the potential for use in intensive field and indoor production of other fruits and vegetables providing that a 4-h dark period follows the irradiation. PMID:26714103

  2. Experience in the use of Actovegin in the treatment of patients with cognitive disorders in the acute period of stroke.

    PubMed

    Derev'yannykh, E A; Bel'skaya, G N; Knoll, E A; Krylova, L G; Popov, D V

    2008-10-01

    Forty-three patients with mild-moderate ischemic stroke were studied in the acute period and were divided into two groups. The experimental group consisted of 32 patients who were given Actovegin; the reference group consisted of 11 patients who were given piracetam. Patients were investigated before treatment and at 10 and 30 days; investigations included examination, points assessments of neurological disorders using the original Gusev-Skvortsova scale, neuropsychological tests using the MMSE scale, rheoencephalography, and electroencephalography. Analysis of changes in clinical features in patients treated with Actovegin during the acute period showed that Actovegin had clear positive effects both on general cerebral and on focal neurological symptoms. By the end of treatment, the extent of recovery of impaired functions, assessed in terms of total ischemic points and cognitive functions, was significantly greater in patients treated with Actovegin than in patients given piracetam. These data lead to the conclusion that Actovegin is effective in the treatment of patients with ischemic stroke. PMID:18802768

  3. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Agayev, Ayaz; Aydin, Ali Emin; Rozanes, Izzet

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  4. Meaning of leprosy for people who have experienced treatment during the sulfonic and multidrug therapy periods 1

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Karen da Silva; Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Santana, Fabiana Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Marlene Fagundes Carvalho; Marciano, Franciele Maia; Matumoto, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze the meanings of leprosy for people treated during the sulfonic and multidrug therapy periods. Method: qualitative nature study based on the Vigotski's historical-cultural approach, which guided the production and analysis of data. It included eight respondents who have had leprosy and were submitted to sulfonic and multidrug therapy treatments. The participants are also members of the Movement for Reintegration of People Affected by Leprosy. Results: the meanings were organized into three meaning cores: spots on the body: something is out of order; leprosy or hanseniasis? and leprosy from the inclusion in the Movement for Reintegration of People Affected by Leprosy. Conclusion: the meanings of leprosy for people submitted to both regimens point to a complex construction thereof, indicating differences and similarities in both treatments. Health professionals may contribute to the change of the meanings, since these are socially constructed and the changes are continuous. PMID:26444163

  5. Conservative treatment of intraosseous hemangiomas in the mandible: case report with a 17-year follow-up period.

    PubMed

    Frizzera, Fausto; Beccalli, Ivette; Maia, Rosa Maria Lourenço Carlos; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Zanetti, Liliane Scheidegger da Silva; de Barros, Liliana Pimenta Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Intraosseous hemangiomas in the jaws are rare lesions and may lead to several complications. The authors present a case of a 12-year-old girl with a radiolucent periapical lesion between tooth 35 and 36 where nocturnal exsanguinating bleeding started to occur from periodontal sulcus during orthodontic treatment. Diagnosis of an intraosseous hemangioma in the mandible was based on positive needle aspiration for blood, computed tomography and arteriography. At first the family chose to only follow-up the lesion but episodes of nocturnal hemorrhage were becoming more frequent and a treatment was requested. Embolization and dental extraction were performed in order to treat the lesion. After a follow-up period of 17 years no more cases of hemorrhage occurred and lesion regressed. PMID:25307825

  6. [Complex pathogenetic treatment schemes of vascular dyscirculatory disorders in the remote period after exposure to low dose radiation].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Complex studies including modern methods of investigation of structures and functions of nervous system: electroencephalograsphy (EEG), coherent analysis, neuropsychological study and methods of neuroimaging were performed in 517 participants in liquidation of consequences of the accident (LCA) at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986-1987. Dyscirculatory metabolic encephalopathy was revealed to be the main pathology with the etiological mechanism based on dyscirculatorhypoxic and metabolic disorders. Complexity of the revealed symptoms testified to an early organism aging in remote periods after exposure to low dose radiation. Pathogenetic schemes were developed for treatment of dyscirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators, which include drugs improving blood supply, antiaggregants, antioxidants and metabolites of the brains in various combinations. Taking into consideration that early appearance of vascular dyscirculatory disorders observed in liquidators is the sign of early aging of the organism, geroprotectors were added to treatment schemes. PMID:25507773

  7. [Complex pathogenetic treatment schemes of vascular dyscirculatory disorders in the remote period after exposure to low dose radiation].

    PubMed

    Holodova, N B; Zhavoronkova, L A; Ryzhov, B N

    2013-01-01

    Complex studies including modern methods of investigation of structures and functions of nervous system: electroencephalograsphy (EEG), coherent analysis, neuropsychological study and methods of neuroimaging were performed in 517 participants in liquidation of consequences of the accident (LCA) at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986-1987. Dyscirculatory metabolic encephalopathy was revealed to be the main pathology with the etiological mechanism based on dyscirculatorhypoxic and metabolic disorders. Complexity of the revealed symptoms testified to an early organism aging in remote periods after exposure to low dose radiation. Pathogenetic schemes were developed for treatment of dyscirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators, which include drugs improving blood supply, antiaggregants, antioxidants and metabolites of the brains in various combinations. Taking into consideration that early appearance of vascular dyscirculatory disorders observed in liquidators is the sign of early aging of the organism, geroprotectors were added to treatment schemes. PMID:25434175

  8. The optimal period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation of porcine oocytes during maturation culture

    PubMed Central

    MORITA, Yasuhiro; TANIGUCHI, Masayasu; TANIHARA, Fuminori; ITO, Aya; NAMULA, Zhao; DO, Lanh Thi Kim; TAKAGI, Mitsuhiro; TAKEMOTO, Tatsuya; OTOI, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    The changes triggered by sperm-induced activation of oocytes, which are required for normal oocyte development, can be mediated by other agents, thereby inducing the parthenogenesis. In this study, we exposed porcine oocytes to 1 mM Ca-EDTA, a metal-ion chelator, at various intervals during 48 hr of in vitro maturation to determine the optimum period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation. When the oocytes were cultured with or without Ca-EDTA from 36 hr (post-12), 24 hr (post-24), 12 hr (post-36) and 0 hr (post-48) after the start of maturation culture, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the post-24, post-36 and post-48 groups (3.3%, 4.0% and 2.6%, respectively) than those in the control group without treatment (0%). Furthermore, when the oocytes were cultured with Ca-EDTA for 0 hr (control), 12 hr (pre-12), 24 hr (pre-24), 36 hr (pre-36) and 48 hr (pre-48) from the start of maturation culture, the oocytes formed blastocysts only in the pre-36 and pre-48 groups (0.4% or 0.8%, respectively). Pronuclei (<66.7%) were observed only when the periods of Ca-EDTA treatment were more than 12 hr during maturation culture. In the control group, no pronuclei were detected. Our findings demonstrate that porcine immature oocytes can be parthenogenetically activated by Ca-EDTA treatment for at least 24 hr to 36 hr during maturation culture, leading to pronucleus formation followed by the formation of blastocysts. PMID:26947170

  9. 36 CFR 223.81 - Shorter advertising periods in emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the spread of insects, the approving officer may authorize shortening the formal advertising period to not less than 7 days. In other emergency situations, or for timber sold under 36 CFR 223.2...

  10. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  11. [Treatment of recurrent furunculosis].

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Esther A N; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Stijnis, C Kees

    2013-01-01

    The management of recurrent furunculosis is difficult, and often disappointing. We present the case of a 23-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent furunculosis. The furunculosis persisted after treatment with mupirocin nasal ointment, chlorhexidine soap and instructions for washing clothes, towels and bed sheets for a period of 7 days. Treatment with low-dose clindamycin for three months ultimately proved successful. We propose a structural approach for recurrent furunculosis in which extensive history-taking is followed by appropriate tests. Before prescribing an oral antibiotic (preferably low-dose clindamycin or a macrolide for 3 months), the patient should use an antimicrobial nasal ointment and soap and follow hygienic instructions as mentioned above. Members of the household who also have signs of the infection should be treated. Hygienic education is an essential component of treatment. We believe that this approach will lead to a treatment that is more effective and efficient. PMID:23369819

  12. [Establishment of the intestinal microflora and regulation of bacterial translocation after caffeine citrate treatment during postnatal period in rat].

    PubMed

    Moumen Chentouf, W; Tir Touil Meddah, A; Léké, A; Mullié, C; Krim, G; Canarelli, J-P; Meddah, B

    2012-10-01

    To relieve respiratory problems such as apnea in newborns, caffeine citrate is the drug of choice because of its good tolerance and therapeutic index. However, its impact on the intestinal microbial ecosystem and on bacterial translocation in the neonatal period remains insufficiently investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine citrate on the establishment of the intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation in rats from birth to the 30th day of life. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 14 animals, each subdivided into a control group receiving a placebo (12mL tap water/kg/day) and another treated with caffeine citrate (12mg/kg/day). The animals were nursed by their mothers and weighed daily. A group of 14 rats was killed at birth and after 10, 20, or 30 days of life. Organs in which translocation was assessed (liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys) and various fragments of intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) were surgically removed. The bacteriological analysis performed involved enumeration of the total microflora, staphylococci, enterobacteria, and lactobacilli. From the 10th day, caffeine was shown to significantly decrease the weight of treated animals as compared with controls (P<0.05). However, caffeine treatment did not drastically alter the kinetics of establishment of the intestinal microflora as only enterobacteria were found to be significantly lower in any intestinal segment of the treated group (P<0.05). Moreover, from the 20th day of life, caffeine citrate significantly downregulated bacterial translocation of both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (P<0.05). This preliminary study on the effects of treatment with caffeine citrate may open opportunities in clinical pediatrics; the treatment will remain partially effective in preventing bacterial translocation in the neonatal period. PMID:22920890

  13. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity. PMID:2586059

  14. PERIOD2 variants are associated with abdominal obesity, psycho-behavioral factors, and attrition in the dietary treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Corbalán-Tutau, M Dolores; Madrid, Juan A; Baraza, Juan C; Parnell, Laurence D; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovas, Jose M

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to test for association between polymorphisms in the circadian clock-related gene PERIOD2 (PER2) and attrition in patients prone to withdrawal from a behavioral weight-reduction program based on the Mediterranean diet. A total of 454 overweight/obese participants (women=380, men=74), aged 20 to 65 years, who attended outpatient clinics specializing in obesity between January and December 2008, were studied. Anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary-intake variables were analyzed. Effectiveness of the program was assessed, and a questionnaire of barriers to weight loss was considered. Multivariate analysis and logistic regression models were performed. Results indicate that PER2 polymorphisms rs2304672C>G and rs4663302C>T were associated with abdominal obesity (P<0.05). Participants who withdrew from treatment were significantly more obese and had more barriers to lose weight (P<0.05). They also displayed a lower likelihood of planning eating in advance and experiencing stress with dieting than those who completed treatment. Frequency of rs4663307 minor allele was significantly greater in withdrawers than in those who successfully completed treatment (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that rs2304672 C>G minor allele carriers had a greater probability of dropping out, displaying extreme snacking, experiencing stress with dieting, eating when bored, and skipping breakfast than noncarriers. PER2 is implicated in attrition in weight-loss treatment and may modulate eating-behavior-related phenotypes. These findings could represent a step toward personalized health care and nutrition based on a combination of genotyping and psycho-behavioral characterization. PMID:20497782

  15. Planetary populations in the mass-period diagram: A statistical treatment of exoplanet formation and the role of planet traps

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E. E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca

    2013-11-20

    The rapid growth of observed exoplanets has revealed the existence of several distinct planetary populations in the mass-period diagram. Two of the most surprising are (1) the concentration of gas giants around 1 AU and (2) the accumulation of a large number of low-mass planets with tight orbits, also known as super-Earths and hot Neptunes. We have recently shown that protoplanetary disks have multiple planet traps that are characterized by orbital radii in the disks and halt rapid type I planetary migration. By coupling planet traps with the standard core accretion scenario, we showed that one can account for the positions of planets in the mass-period diagram. In this paper, we demonstrate quantitatively that most gas giants formed at planet traps tend to end up around 1 AU, with most of these being contributed by dead zones and ice lines. We also show that a large fraction of super-Earths and hot Neptunes are formed as 'failed' cores of gas giants—this population being constituted by comparable contributions from dead zone and heat transition traps. Our results are based on the evolution of forming planets in an ensemble of disks where we vary only the lifetimes of disks and their mass accretion rates onto the host star. We show that a statistical treatment of the evolution of a large population of planetary cores caught in planet traps accounts for the existence of three distinct exoplanetary populations—the hot Jupiters, the more massive planets around r = 1 AU, and the short-period super-Earths and hot Neptunes. There are very few populations that feed into the large orbital radii characteristic of the imaged Jovian planet, which agrees with recent surveys. Finally, we find that low-mass planets in tight orbits become the dominant planetary population for low-mass stars (M {sub *} ≤ 0.7 M {sub ☉}).

  16. Healing of 400 intra-alveolar root fractures. 2. Effect of treatment factors such as treatment delay, repositioning, splinting type and period and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, J O; Andreasen, F M; Mejàre, I; Cvek, M

    2004-08-01

    This is the second part of a retrospective study of 400 root-fractured permanent incisors. In this article, the effect of various treatment procedures is analyzed. Treatment delay, i.e. treatment later than 24 h after injury, did not change the root fracture healing pattern, healing with hard tissue between fragments (HH1), interposition of bone and/or periodontal ligament (PDL) or pulp necrosis (NEC). When initial displacement did not exceed 1 mm, optimal repositioning appeared to significantly enhance both the likelihood of pulpal healing and hard tissue repair (HH1). Significant differences in healing were found among the different splinting techniques. The lowest frequency of healing was found with cap splints and the highest with fiberglass or Kevlar splints. The latter splinting procedure showed almost the same healing result as non-splinting. Comparison between non-splinting and splinting for non-displaced teeth was found to reveal no benefit from splinting. With respect to root fractures with displacement, too few cases were available for analysis. No beneficial effect of splinting periods greater than 4 weeks could be demonstrated. The administration of antibiotics had the paradoxical effect of promoting both HH1 and NEC. No explanation could be found. It was concluded that, optimal repositioning seems to favor healing. Furthermore, the chosen splinting method appears to be related to healing of root fractures, with a preference to pulp healing and healing fusion of fragments to a certain flexibility of the splint and possibly also non-traumatogenic splint application. Splinting for more than 4 weeks was not found to influence the healing pattern. A certain treatment delay (a few days) appears not to result in inferior healing. The role of antibiotics upon fracture healing is questionable. PMID:15245519

  17. FTY720 Treatment in the Convalescence Period Improves Functional Recovery and Reduces Reactive Astrogliosis in Photothrombotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Brunkhorst, Robert; Kanaan, Nathalie; Koch, Alexander; Ferreirós, Nerea; Mirceska, Ana; Zeiner, Pia; Mittelbronn, Michel; Derouiche, Amin; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Foerch, Christian; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

    2013-01-01

    Background The Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway is known to influence pathophysiological processes within the brain and the synthetic S1P analog FTY720 has been shown to provide neuroprotection in experimental models of acute stroke. However, the effects of a manipulation of S1P signaling at later time points after experimental stroke have not yet been investigated. We examined whether a relatively late initiation of a FTY720 treatment has a positive effect on long-term neurological outcome with a focus on reactive astrogliosis, synapses and neurotrophic factors. Methods We induced photothrombotic stroke (PT) in adult C57BL/6J mice and allowed them to recover for three days. Starting on post-stroke day 3, mice were treated with FTY720 (1 mg/kg b.i.d.) for 5 days. Behavioral outcome was observed until day 31 after photothrombosis and periinfarct cortical tissue was analyzed using tandem mass-spectrometry, TaqMan®analysis and immunofluorescence. Results FTY720 treatment results in a significantly better functional outcome persisting up to day 31 after PT. This is accompanied by a significant decrease in reactive astrogliosis and larger post-synaptic densities as well as changes in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor α (VEGF α). Within the periinfarct cortex, S1P is significantly increased compared to healthy brain tissue. Conclusion Besides its known neuroprotective effects in the acute phase of experimental stroke, the initiation of FTY720 treatment in the convalescence period has a positive impact on long-term functional outcome, probably mediated through reduced astrogliosis, a modulation in synaptic morphology and an increased expression of neurotrophic factors. PMID:23936150

  18. Persistent HIV-related stigma in rural Uganda during a period of increasing HIV incidence despite treatment expansion

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Brian T.; Weiser, Sheri D.; Boum, Yap; Siedner, Mark J.; Mocello, A. Rain; Haberer, Jessica E.; Hunt, Peter W.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Bangsberg, David R.; Tsai, Alexander C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Program implementers have argued that the increasing availability of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) will reduce the stigma of HIV. We analyzed data from Uganda to assess how HIV-related stigma has changed during a period of ART expansion. Design Serial cross-sectional surveys. Methods We analyzed data from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) study during 2007-2012 to estimate trends in internalized stigma among people living with HIV (PLHIV) at the time of treatment initiation. We analyzed data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 2006 and 2011 to estimate trends in stigmatizing attitudes and anticipated stigma in the general population. We fitted regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, with year of data collection as the primary explanatory variable. Results We estimated an upward trend in internalized stigma among PLHIV presenting for treatment initiation (adjusted b=0.18; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.30). In the general population, the odds of reporting anticipated stigma were greater in 2011 compared to 2006 (adjusted OR=1.80; 95% CI, 1.51 to 2.13), despite an apparent decline in stigmatizing attitudes (adjusted OR=0.62; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.74). Conclusions Internalized stigma has increased over time among PLHIV in the setting of worsening anticipated stigma in the general population. Further study is needed to better understand the reasons for increasing HIV-related stigma in Uganda and its impact on HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25268886

  19. Estimation of minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge for selected stream sites, and associated low-flow water-quality data, southeast Texas, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Texas that provides discharge data used for water-management decisions and various other purposes. Operating stations at all locations where discharge data are needed is not feasible, but the statistical characteristics of the network station data can be used to estimate discharge characteristics at ungaged sites. Regionalization techniques such as regression analyses relate discharge-frequency characteristics to selected physical and climatic characteristics of drainage basins. A particular discharge-frequency characteristic that can be regionalized is the minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge1 (7Q2). In Texas, the 7Q2 is used at stream sites to analyze permit applications for water allocation, water-supply planning, aquatic maintenance (instream flow) requirements, and waste-load allocation for point and nonpoint source discharges.

  20. Methodological challenges in monitoring new treatments for rare diseases: lessons from the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome registry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS) are a group of rare hereditary autoinflammatory diseases and encompass Familial Cold Autoinflammatory Syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells Syndrome (MWS), and Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID). Canakinumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against IL-1 beta and approved for CAPS patients but requires post-approval monitoring due to low and short exposures during the licensing process. Creative approaches to observational methodology are needed, harnessing novel registry strategies to ensure Health Care Provider reporting and patient monitoring. Methods A web-based registry was set up to collect information on long-term safety and effectiveness of canakinumab for CAPS. Results Starting in November 2009, this registry enrolled 241 patients in 43 centers and 13 countries by December 31, 2012. One-third of the enrolled population was aged < 18; the overall population is evenly divided by gender. Enrolment is ongoing for children. Conclusions Innovative therapies in orphan diseases require post-approval structures to enable in depth understanding of safety and natural history of disease. The rarity and distribution of such diseases and unpredictability of treatment require innovative methods for enrolment and follow-up. Broad international practice-based recruitment and web-based data collection are practical. PMID:24016338

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on onion sprouting. I.--Influence of dose rate and post-harvest period of treatment.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, W A; Donini, B

    1976-01-01

    Onions of "Dorata di Parma" variety were exposed to 10 Krads of Co60 gamma irradiation in 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 minutes in December, 1975 and then stored in the cold storage (10 +/- 1 degree C; R.H. 65-70%) and at the room temperature (15-20 degrees C; R.H. 40-70%) for 3 months, to study the influence of dose-rate and post-harvest period of treatment. Average number of buds sprouted in each onion bulb under cold storage condition ranged from 2-3, while this number was found to increase to 3-4 under ambient storage conditions. Although no effect of either irradiation or dose rate was observed when onions were irradiated after the break of their dormancy, however, a significant slowing down effect of irradiation could be observed as far as the rate of growth of sprouts was concerned. Weight loss was also reduced significantly in the irradiated onions as compared with controls. PMID:1037423

  2. 39 CFR 121.2 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 121.2 Section 121.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS... territories of Guam or the U.S. Virgin Islands, have a service standard of 7 days. Effective Date Note: At...

  3. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  4. Incidence and Predictors of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Septic Shock Patients in a Medical ICU: Data from 7-Day Holter ECG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Guenancia, Charles; Binquet, Christine; Laurent, Gabriel; Vinault, Sandrine; Bruyère, Rémi; Prin, Sébastien; Pavon, Arnaud; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Quenot, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated incidence, risk factors for new-onset atrial fibrillation (NAF), and prognostic impact during septic shock in medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Methods Prospective, observational study in a university hospital. Consecutive patients from 03/2011 to 05/2013 with septic shock were eligible. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, history of AF, transfer with prior septic shock. Included patients were equipped with long-duration (7 days) Holter ECG monitoring. NAF was defined as an AF episode lasting >30 seconds. Patient characteristics, infection criteria, cardiovascular parameters, severity of illness, support therapies were recorded. Results Among 66 patients, 29(44%) developed NAF; 10 (34%) would not have been diagnosed without Holter ECG monitoring. NAF patients were older, with more markers of heart failure (troponin and NT-pro-BNP), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), longer QRS duration and more nonsustained supra ventricular arrhythmias (<30s) on day 1 than patients who maintained sinus rhythm. By multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.06; p = 0.01) and LVEF<45% (OR: 13.01, p = 0.03) were associated with NAF. NAF did not predict 28 or 90 day mortality. Conclusions NAF is common, especially in older patients, and is associated with low ejection fraction. We did not find NAF to be independently associated with higher mortality. PMID:25965915

  5. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CONTINUOUS BACTERIAL TREATMENTS OVER A TWO-WEEK PERIOD ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2001-07-17

    These experiments indicated that in waters at 23 C the window of opportunity to kill zebra mussels with bacterial strain CL0145A is limited to the first two days of treatment. Treatments beyond two days will not increase mortality.

  6. Changes in fecal microbiota and metabolomics in a child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) responding to two treatment periods with exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN).

    PubMed

    Berntson, Lillemor; Agback, Peter; Dicksved, Johan

    2016-06-01

    The microbiome and immune system of the digestive tract are highly important in both health and disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a common anti-inflammatory treatment in children with Crohn's disease in the European countries, and the mechanism is most likely linked to changes in the intestinal microbiome. In the present study, EEN was given in two treatment periods several months apart to a patient with very severe, disabling juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), with a remarkable clinical response as the result. The aim of the present study was to study how the EEN treatment influenced the microbiome and metabolome of this patient. Fecal samples from before, during, and between treatments with EEN were studied. The microbiome was analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons using Illumina MiSeq, and the metabolome was analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance. The microbiome changed markedly from treatment with EEN, with a strong reduction of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Metabolic profiles showed clear differences before, during, and between treatment with EEN, where butyrate, propionate, and acetate followed a cyclic pattern with the lowest levels at the end of each treatment period. This patient with JIA showed remarkable clinical improvement after EEN treatment, and we found corresponding changes in both the fecal microbiome and the metabolome. Further studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological role of the intestinal canal in children with JIA. PMID:27021336

  7. Renewable Energy in Water and Wastewater Treatment Applications; Period of Performance: April 1, 2001--September 1, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Argaw, N.

    2003-06-01

    This guidebook will help readers understand where and how renewable energy technologies can be used for water and wastewater treatment applications. It is specifically designed for rural and small urban center water supply and wastewater treatment applications. This guidebook also provides basic information for selecting water resources and for various kinds of commercially available water supply and wastewater treatment technologies and power sources currently in the market.

  8. High-dose glycine treatment of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder in a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, W Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L; Fawwaz, Rashid A; Challop, Roger S

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  9. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  10. Cytotoxic effects in 3T3-L1 mouse and WI-38 human fibroblasts following 72 hour and 7 day exposures to commercial silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Stępnik, Maciej; Arkusz, Joanna; Smok-Pieniążek, Anna; Bratek-Skicki, Anna; Salvati, Anna; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; De Jong, Wim H.; Rydzyński, Konrad

    2012-08-15

    The potential toxic effects in murine (3T3-L1) and human (WI-38) fibroblast cell lines of commercially available silica nanoparticles (NPs), Ludox CL (nominal size 21 nm) and CL-X (nominal size of 30 nm) were investigated with particular attention to the effect over long exposure times (the tests were run after 72 h exposure up to 7 days). These two formulations differed in physico-chemical properties and showed different stabilities in the cell culture medium used for the experiments. Ludox CL silica NPs were found to be cytotoxic only at the higher concentrations to the WI-38 cells (WST-1 and LDH assays) but not to the 3T3-L1 cells, whereas the Ludox CL-X silica NPs, which were less stable over the 72 h exposure, were cytotoxic to both cell lines in both assays. In the clonogenic assay both silica NPs induced a concentration dependent decrease in the surviving fraction of 3T3-L1 cells, with the Ludox CL-X silica NPs being more cytotoxic. Cell cycle analysis showed a trend indicating alterations in both cell lines at different phases with both silica NPs tested. Buthionine sulfoximine (γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor) combined with Ludox CL-X was found to induce a strong decrease in 3T3-L1 cell viability which was not observed for the WI-38 cell line. This study clearly indicates that longer exposure studies may give important insights on the impact of nanomaterials on cells. However, and especially when investigating nanoparticle effects after such long exposure, it is fundamental to include a detailed physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles and their dispersions over the time scale of the experiment, in order to be able to interpret eventual impacts on cells. -- Highlights: ► Ludox CL silica NPs are cytotoxic to WI-38 fibroblasts but not to 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. ► Ludox CL-X silica NPs are cytotoxic to both cell lines. ► In clonogenic assay both silica NPs induce cytotoxicity, higher for CL-X silica. ► Cell cycle analysis shows

  11. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., assume that X is a regulated investment company that computes its income on a calendar year basis, and that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency... period of 1988. X has no post-October currency loss and no post-October capital loss for 1988, and...

  12. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  13. Clinical presentation, risk factors and treatment outcomes of first allograft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty in early and late postoperative period

    PubMed Central

    Perera, C; Jhanji, V; Lamoureux, E; Pollock, G; Favilla, I; Vajpayee, R B

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Corneal graft rejection is the most common reason for the failure of an allograft corneal transplant. We undertook this study to identify and compare risk factors and treatment outcomes for early and late corneal graft rejections after optical penetrating keratoplasty. Methods A retrospective case file analysis of 880 primary penetrating keratoplasties was performed at a tertiary ophthalmic care centre. Patients were divided into early rejectors (rejection episode within 6 months postoperatively) and late rejectors (rejection episode after 6 months postoperatively). Main parameters evaluated were demographics, preoperative diagnosis and clinical signs, donor tissue details, surgical technique, details of rejection episode, treatment, and outcome information. Results A total of 156 patients with rejection episodes were identified. Of these, 42 (26.9%) patients experienced early rejection episodes and 114 (73.1%) patients experienced late rejection episodes. Preoperative donor and recipient characteristics, surgical technique, and clinical presentation of graft rejection were found to be similar between both groups after a Bonferroni correction was applied (P>0.005). Treatment outcomes of graft rejections were not significantly different (P=0.46) between early and late rejectors, with 83% of patients responding to rejection treatment (80% early rejectors; 85% late rejectors). Conclusion Patients with early and late graft rejection have similar characteristics and both groups respond to treatment equally. PMID:22344190

  14. Beneficial effects of a neurotrophic peptidergic mixture persist for a prolonged period following treatment interruption in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rockenstein, Edward; Ubhi, Kiren; Pham, Emiley; Michael, Sarah; Doppler, Edith; Novak, Philipp; Inglis, Chandra; Mante, Michael; Adame, Anthony; Alvarez, X Anton; Moessler, Herbert; Masliah, Eliezer

    2011-11-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by the loss of neurotrophic factors, and experimental therapeutical approaches to AD have investigated the efficacy of replacing or augmenting neurotrophic factor activity. Cerebrolysin, a peptide mixture with neurotrophic-like effects, has been shown to improve cognition in patients with AD and to reduce synaptic and behavioral deficits in transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, it is unclear how long-lasting the beneficial effects of Cerebrolysin are and whether or not behavioral and neuropathological alterations will reappear following treatment interruption. The objective of the present study was to investigate the consequences of interrupting Cerebrolysin treatment (washout effect) 3 and 6 months after the completion of a 3-month treatment period in APP tg mice. We demonstrate that, in APP tg mice, Cerebrolysin-induced amelioration of memory deficits in the water maze and reduction of neurodegenerative pathology persist for 3 months after treatment interruption; however, these effects dissipate 6 months following treatment termination. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the decrease in neocortical and hippocampal amyloid plaque load observed in Cerebrolysin-treated APP tg mice immediately after treatment was no longer apparent at 3 months after treatment interruption, indicating that the beneficial effects of Cerebrolysin at this time point were independent of its effect on amyloid-β deposition. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the effects of Cerebrolysin persist for a significant period of time following treatment termination and suggest that this prolonged effect may involve the neurotrophic factor-like activity of Cerebrolysin. PMID:21793038

  15. Effect of short-term treatment with meloxicam and pimobendan on the renal function in healthy beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Fusellier, M; Desfontis, J-C; Le Roux, A; Madec, S; Gautier, F; Thuleau, A; Gogny, M

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the renal function in clinically normal dogs receiving meloxicam and pimobendan alone or in combination. Ten adult female beagle dogs were administered the treatment for 7 days in a randomized crossover trial (control/meloxicam/pimobendan/meloxicam and pimobendan). Renal function was assessed by blood urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations and by glomerular filtration rate, measured by means of renal scintigraphy [renal uptake of (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (DTPA)] and plasma clearance of (99m)Tc-DTPA. As compared with the control group, renal uptake and plasma clearance of (99m)Tc-DTPA were not significantly modified after a 7-day period of treatment with meloxicam or pimobendan alone, or meloxicam and pimobendan in combination. Furthermore, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and chloride levels in the serum of the dogs during the 7-day period treatment were not significantly modified in relation to the treatments. It was therefore concluded that meloxicam and pimobendan alone or in combination did not alter renal function in healthy dogs. PMID:18307507

  16. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-11 Treatment of certain losses attributable to... year, any item that must be marked to market for purposes of section 4982 on October 31 as if it were the last day of the regulated investment company's taxable year must also be marked to market...

  17. Does Clinical Treatment with Phenylbutazone and Meloxicam in the Pre-ovulatory Period Influence the Ovulation Rate in Mares?

    PubMed

    Lima, A G; Costa, L C B; Alvarenga, M A; Martins, C B

    2015-10-01

    The presence of anovulatory haemorrhagic follicles during the oestrous cycle of mares causes financial impacts, slowing conception and increasing the number of services per pregnancy. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as meloxicam and phenylbutazone are used in the treatment of several disorders in mares, and these drugs can impair the formation of prostaglandins (PGs) and consequently interfere with reproductive activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment with NSAIDs on the development of pre-ovulatory follicles in mares. In total, 11 mares were studied over three consecutive oestrous cycles, and gynaecological and ultrasound examinations were performed every 12 h. When 32-mm-diameter follicles were detected, 1 mg of deslorelin was administered to induce ovulation. The first cycle was used as a control, and the mares received only a dose of deslorelin. In the subsequent cycles, in addition to receiving the same dose of deslorelin, each mare was treated with NSAIDs. In the second cycle, 4.4 mg/kg of phenylbutazone was administered, and in the third cycle, 0.6 mg/kg of meloxicam was administered once a day until ovulation or the beginning of follicular haemorrhage. All of the mares ovulated between 36 and 48 h after the induction in the control cycle. In the meloxicam cycle, 10 mares (92%) did not ovulate, while in the phenylbutazone cycle, nine mares (83%) did not ovulate. In both treatments, intrafollicular hyperechoic spots indicative of haemorrhagic follicles were observed on ultrasound. Thus, our results suggested that treatment with meloxicam and phenylbutazone at therapeutic doses induced intrafollicular haemorrhage and luteinization of anovulatory follicles. PMID:26280558

  18. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Strabismus Treatment in Third Cranial Nerve Palsy during a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Abbas; Borhani, Morteza; Tavakoli, Mehdi; Salehirad, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the demographics and management outcomes of strabismus surgery in patients with third cranial nerve palsy. Methods: This retrospective study includes subjects with third cranial nerve palsy. We evaluated age, sex, laterality, severity of involvement, etiology, frequency of clinical findings, and types and results of treatments. Results: 52 patients including 29 male and 23 female subjects with mean age of 21.1±15.5 years were studied between January 1999 and January 2009. Etiologies of third nerve palsy included congenital in 16 (30.8%), trauma in 26 (50%) and other causes in 10 (19.2%) patients. In 24 patients (46.2%), the palsy was complete. The most common type of strabismus was exotropia associated with hypotropia (40%). Medical treatment was used in 25 (48%) and surgical treatment in 46 (88.4%) subjects. One time strabismus surgery was performed in 30 (65.2%), 2 times in 11 (24%) and 3 times in 5 (10.8%) subjects. The most common operation was large horizontal recession and resection in 78.2% of cases. Mean horizontal deviation in primary position was 66±29 prism diopters (PD) before surgery decreasing to 21±19, 13±12 and 6±8 PD after first, second and third surgery, respectively. Corresponding figures for mean vertical deviation were 13±15, 7±12, 4±6 and 1±2 PD, respectively. Abnormal head posture was 10-30° in 11 (21.1%) cases before treatment which completely resolved after surgery. Conclusion: Surgical management of strabismus in patients with third nerve palsy is difficult and challenging, however the majority of patients achieve ideal results with appropriate and stepwise surgical plans. PMID:25667737

  19. Time Trends of Cannabis Use Among Treatment-seeking Individuals at Government De-addiction Centers Across India Over a Period of 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mishra, Ashwani; Sethi, Hem; Singh, Shalini; Khandelwal, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. The National Survey in India conducted in the year 2004 also reported it to be the most commonly used illicit substance in the country. Furthermore, it was reported to be the second most commonly used psychoactive substance by the treatment seekers at de-addiction centers in the country. Objectives: To assess time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years. Materials and Methods: The study utilized data collected through Drug Abuse Monitoring System across India. The data of treatment seekers from de-addiction centers established under the Drug De-addiction Program, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and supported by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India (122 in number) across the country were analyzed. Results: A total of 107,469 individuals sought treatment from government de-addiction centers over the 7 years (2007–2013) period. With the exception of an aberration for the year 2012, there has been a steady decline in the proportion of treatment seekers who are not current cannabis users. A significantly greater proportion (Chi-square: 586.30, df: 1, P < 0.001) of individuals with current cannabis use alone or along with tobacco (20.4%) tend to have a co-morbid psychiatric disorder as compared to treatment seekers with current use of substances other than cannabis (6.1%). Conclusions: It is important to focus on cannabis in clinical service delivery and research in the country.

  20. Pediatric follicular mucinosis: presentation, histopathology, molecular genetics, treatment, and outcomes over an 11-year period at the Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Griffin, John; Nguyen, Nicholas; Davis, Dawn Marie R; Gibson, Lawrence E

    2013-01-01

    Follicular mucinosis (FM) and folliculotropic mycosis fungoides (MF) are rare in children, and data regarding long-term outcomes are limited. We sought to describe clinical and histopathologic findings of children with FM with and without MF, as well as treatments administered and clinical outcomes. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients younger than 22 years (at time of diagnosis) with a biopsy demonstrating FM who were seen in the Dermatology Department at the Mayo Clinic from September 1, 1999, to September 1, 2010. Eleven patients (six male, five female) ages 11 to 19 years at the time of diagnosis met the inclusion criteria. Follow-up data were available for 10 patients, with a mean duration of 4.9 years. The head, neck, and extremities were the most common sites of involvement, and lesions were follicular-based papules (18%), scaly alopecic patches and plaques (45%), or a combination of the two (36%). Overall, three patients were confirmed to have MF. T-cell receptor gene rearrangement demonstrated clonality in two cases and was equivocal in one case. Treatments included topical corticosteroids, topical retinoids, oral minocycline, and, in patients with MF, ultraviolet light and topical bexarotene. Lesions resolved completely in seven patients, partially in one, and not at all in two (no follow-up data on one patient). Of the three patients with MF, two had complete resolution, and one has intermittent flares. To our knowledge, no patients developed other lymphoproliferative disorders. FM in children is rare. A histopathologic diagnosis of FM does not equate to folliculotropic MF in all cases. Most patients responded to treatment with topical steroids, topical retinoids, or phototherapy. In our series of patients, the disease ran a benign course. PMID:23278316

  1. Consistent treatment of charged systems within periodic boundary conditions: The Projector Augmented-Wave and pseudopotential methods revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocombette, Jean-Paul; Bruneval, Fabien; Gonze, Xavier; Dorado, Boris; Torrent, Marc; Jollet, Francois

    2014-03-01

    The ab initio calculation of charged defect properties in solids is not straightforward because of the delicate interplay between the long-range Coulomb interaction and the periodic boundary conditions. We derive the Projector Augmented-Wave (PAW) energy and hamiltonian with a special care on the potentials from Coulomb interaction. By explicitly treating the background compensation charge, we find a new term in the total energy of charged cells and in the potential. We show that this background term is needed to accurately reproduce all-electron calculations of the formation energy of a charged defect. In particular, the previous PAW expressions were spuriously sensitive to the pseudization conditions and this artifact is removed by the background term. This PAW derivation also provides insights into the norm-conserving pseudopotential framework. We propose then an alternative definition for the total energy of charged cells and for the potential within this framework.

  2. The value of herbal medicines in the treatment of acute non-purulent rhinosinusitis. Results of a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tesche, Stefan; Metternich, Frank; Sonnemann, Uwe; Engelke, Jan-Christian; Dethlefsen, Uwe

    2008-11-01

    In a prospective, randomised, double-blinded controlled study, we compared the efficacy and safety of two different treatment options with the herbal medicines cineole and a combination of five different components for acute viral rhinosinusitis. One hundred and fifty patients with acute and viral rhinosinusitis (75 patients in each treatment group) were enrolled. The diagnosis rhinosinusitis was made according to a defined symptoms-sum-score which was based on rhinoscopic and clinical signs which are characteristic for rhinosinusitis. The primary endpoint was the amelioration of the symptoms-sum-score, which includes all relevant characteristics for rhinosinusitis as headache on bending, frontal headache, sensitivity of pressure points of trigeminal nerve, impairment of general condition, nasal obstruction, rhino-secretion, secretion quantity, secretion viscosity and fever in a treatment period of 7 days. The mean reduction of the symptoms-sum-score after 4 days was 6.7 (+/-3.4) and after 7 days 11.0 (+/-3.3) in the cineole group and 3.6 (+/-2.8) after 4 days and 8.0 (+/-3.0) after 7 days in the control group. The differences between both groups were clinically relevant and statistically significant after 4 and 7 days (P < 0.0001). This result is validated by the amelioration of the secondary endpoints headache on bending, frontal headache, sensitivity of pressure points of trigeminal nerve, impairment of general condition, nasal obstruction and rhino-secretion. These findings correlate with the statistically significant difference of the estimation of B-scan ultrasonography. It is safe to use both medications for 7 days in patients with acute viral rhinosinusitis. Treatment with cineole is clinically relevant and statistically significant, more effective in comparison to the alternative herbal preparation with five different components. PMID:18437408

  3. Cardiac Atrial Circadian Rhythms in PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE and per1:luc Mice: Amplitude and Phase Responses to Glucocorticoid Signaling and Medium Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Yang; Li, Lei; Duffield, Giles E.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in cardiac function are apparent in e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, and acute adverse cardiac events. A circadian clock in heart tissue has been identified, but entrainment pathways of this clock are still unclear. We cultured tissues of mice carrying bioluminescence reporters of the core clock genes, period 1 or 2 (per1luc or PER2LUC) and compared in vitro responses of atrium to treatment with medium and a synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone [DEX]) to that of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and liver. We observed that PER2LUC, but not per1luc is rhythmic in atrial tissue, while both per1luc and PER2LUC exhibit rhythmicity in other cultured tissues. In contrast to the SCN and liver, both per1luc and PER2LUC bioluminescence amplitudes were increased in response to DEX treatment, and the PER2LUC amplitude response was dependent on the time of treatment. Large phase-shift responses to both medium and DEX treatments were observed in the atrium, and phase responses to medium treatment were not attributed to serum content but the treatment procedure itself. The phase-response curves of atrium to both DEX and medium treatments were found to be different to the liver. Moreover, the time of day of the culturing procedure itself influenced the phase of the circadian clock in each of the cultured tissues, but the magnitude of this response was uniquely large in atrial tissue. The current data describe novel entrainment signals for the atrial circadian clock and specifically highlight entrainment by mechanical treatment, an intriguing observation considering the mechanical nature of cardiac tissue. PMID:23110090

  4. Consistent treatment of charged systems within periodic boundary conditions: The projector augmented-wave and pseudopotential methods revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneval, Fabien; Crocombette, Jean-Paul; Gonze, Xavier; Dorado, Boris; Torrent, Marc; Jollet, François

    2014-01-01

    The ab initio calculation of charged defect properties in solids is not straightforward because of the delicate interplay between the long-range Coulomb interaction and the periodic boundary conditions. We derive the projector augmented-wave (PAW) energy and Hamiltonian with special care taken on the potentials from the Coulomb interaction. By explicitly treating the background compensation charge, we find additional terms in the total energy of the charged cells and in the potential. We show that these background terms are needed to accurately reproduce all-electron calculations of the formation energy of a charged defect. In particular, the previous PAW expressions were spuriously sensitive to the pseudization conditions and this artifact is removed by the background term. This PAW derivation also provides insights into the norm-conserving pseudopotential framework. We propose then an alternative definition for the total energy of charged cells and for the Kohn-Sham potential within this framework that better approximates the all-electron results.

  5. Adiabatic properties of pulsating DA white dwarfs. I - The treatment of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency and the region of period formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brassard, P.; Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.; Kawaler, S. D.; Tassoul, M.

    1991-01-01

    The fundamental issue of the region of period formaton in a degenerate star is examined, with special attention given to the treatment of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. It is shown that, in order to obtain reliable numerical results in degenerate stellar models, the Brunt-Vaisala frequency must be appropriately transformed, because it is defined in terms of a difference between two numbers which become nearly equal in highly degenerate matter, causing serious numerical problems and systematic errors. An alternative expression is derived, which is valid for multicomponent nonideal partially degenerate and partially ionized plasmas such as those encountered in white dwarf envelopes. This expression is used to compute the period structure of the same white dwarf considered by Pesnell (1987). It is shown that the implicit numerical differencing used in the Lagrangian pulsation code of Pesnell leads to very serious difficulties when used with models of degenerate stars.

  6. Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections in the Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia Through an One-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Gkini, Maria-Angeliki; Kouskoukis, Alexandros-Efstratios; Tripsianis, Gregory; Rigopoulos, Dimitris; Kouskoukis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is defined as an autologous concentration of plasma with a greater count of platelets than that of whole blood. Its action depends on the released growth factors from platelets. It has been investigated and used in numerous fields of medicine. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PRP injections in the scalp of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 20 patients, 18 males and 2 females, with androgenetic alopecia were enrolled in the study. PRP was prepared using a single spin method (Regenlab SA). Upon activation, it was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp. Three treatment sessions were performed with an interval of 21 days and a booster session at 6 months following the onset of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19.0 (IBM, NY, USA). Results: Hair loss reduced and at 3 months it reached normal levels. Hair density reached a peak at 3 months (170.70 ± 37.81, P < 0.001). At 6 months and at 1 year, it was significantly increased, 156.25 ± 37.75 (P < 0.001) and 153.70 ± 39.92 (P < 0.001) respectively, comparing to baseline. Patients were satisfied with a mean result rating of 7.1 on a scale of 1-10. No remarkable adverse effects were noted. Conclusions: Our data suggest that PRP injections may have a positive therapeutic effect on male and female pattern hair loss without remarkable major side effects. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy. PMID:25722600

  7. Single-blind, randomized controlled trial of effectiveness of Naikan therapy as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia over a one-year follow-up period

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Hong; LI, Chenhu; ZHAO, Liyu; ZHAN, Guilai

    2015-01-01

    Background Current treatments for schizophrenia are often only partially effective. Aims Assess the possible benefit of using adjunctive Naikan therapy, a cognitive approach based on self-reflection that originated in Japan for the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods After resolution of acute psychotic symptoms, 235 psychiatric inpatients with schizophrenia who had a middle school education or higher were randomly assigned to a control group (n=112) that received routine medication and inpatient rehabilitative treatment or an intervention group (n=123) that also received adjunctive Naikan therapy for 2 hours daily, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. The patients were then discharged and followed up for 12 months. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP), and Insight and Attitude Questionnaire (ITAQ) were used to assess patients at enrollment, after the 1-month intervention, and after the 12-month follow-up. Evaluators were blind to the group assignment of patients. Results Only 13 (10.6%) of the intervention group participants relapsed over the 12-month follow-up, but 23 (20.5%) control group participants relapsed (X2=4.50, p=0.034). Using a modified intention-to-treat analysis and a repeated measure analysis of variance, the PANSS, PSP, and ITAQ total scores all showed significantly greater improvement over the 12-month follow-up in the Naikan group than in the control group. The drop in mean chlorpromazine-equivalent dosage from enrollment to the end of follow-up was significantly different in the intervention group but not in the control group, though the change in dosage over time between groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions This study provides robust support for the effectiveness of Naikan therapy as an adjunctive treatment during the recovery period of schizophrenia. Compared to treatment as usually, adjunctive Naikan therapy can sustain the improvement in psychotic symptoms achieved during acute

  8. Bacteriological and cytological findings during the late puerperal period after two different treatments of retained placenta followed by acute puerperal metritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two acute puerperal metritis (APM) treatment protocols on uterine condition during the late puerperal period (5th to 7th week). Late gestation healthy cows (n = 21) were divided randomly in three equal groups. Parturitions were induced. Treatments of APM were started on the third day postpartum (PP). Group A was treated with an oxytocin analogue carbetocin for three days and intrauterine administration of cephapirin between days 15 and 17. Group B was given intramuscular injection of ceftiofur for five days followed by two injections of prostaglandin F2α, at an interval of 12 h, on the eighth day PP. Group C served as the control group with no treatment. Body temperature was recorded daily for 14 days PP. Uterine biopsies for bacteriology, and uterobrush samples for cytology, were taken once a week from the 5th to 7th week postpartum. No differences were found in body temperature on day 14 PP, presence of bacteriological infections and disappearance of uterine inflammatory signs diagnosed by cytological examination between experimental groups. PMID:20550666

  9. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  10. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  11. [Experience with the use of Chronicin foam and Masticort PS in the nonselective treatment of milk cows during the dry period].

    PubMed

    Vasil', M; Federic, F; Zieliński, J

    1984-06-01

    The effect of the non-selective treatment of dairy cows with antibiotics (Chronicin foam--Galena, and Masticort PS--Poland) and the effect of teat disinfection (Jodonal A--Lachema) at the last milking in lactation was studied as exerted on the reduction in the occurrence of infection processes in mammary gland after calving. The trials were performed with 180 cows in three groups of 60 animals. At the last milking the mammary secretion of each cow was sampled for bacteriological examination. Two cow groups were treated at the same time. The occurrence of infection processes in the mammary gland in the period after calving can be characterized as follows: a) in the period after calving the control group had an increased proportion of cows with an infection process in their udders (from 58.3% at the end of lactation to 68.3% in the period of 14 days following calving); b) in the group treated with Chronicin foam the infection was reduced by 3/5, i. e. from 71.7% of cows infected at the start of drying off to 28.3% with infection process after calving; c) in the group treated with Masticort PS the infection after calving was reduced by 3/4 as compared with the infection at the onset of drying off, i. e. from 80% to 20%. In the control group 20% of the cows recovered spontaneously. The preparation Chronicin foam showed 79.1% therapeutic effectiveness. Therapy with Masticort PS was successful in 81.3% of the animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6433531

  12. Reduced gastric acid production in burn shock period and its significance in the prevention and treatment of acute gastric mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Yang, Zhong-Cheng; Li, Ao; Cheng, De-Chang

    2000-02-01

    AIM:To investigate the changes of gastric acid production and its mechanism in shock period of severe burn in rats.METHODS:A rat model with 30% TBSA full thickness burn injury was employed and the gastric acid production,together with gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and energy charge (EC) were measured serially within 48h postburn.RESULTS:The gastric acid production in the acute shock period was markedly inhibited after severe burn injury.At the 3rd h postburn,the gastric juice volume, total acidity and acid output were already significantly decreased (P < 0.01 =, and reached the lowest point, 0.63mL/L ± 0.20mL/L, 10.81mmol/L ± 2.58mmol/L and 2.23mmol/h ± 0.73mmol/h respectively, at the 12th h postburn. Although restored to some degree 24h after thermal injury, the variables above were still statistically lower, compared with those of control animals at the 48th h postburn. The GMBF and EC were also significantly reduced after severe burns, consistent with the trend of gastric acid production changes.CONCLUSION:Gastric acid production, as well as GMBF and EC was predominantly decreased in the early postburn stage, suggesting that gastric mucosal ischemia and hypoxia with resultant disturbance in energy metabolism, but not gastric acid proper, might be the decisive factor in the pathogenesis of AGML after thermal injury, and that the preventive use of anti-acid drugs during burn shock period was unreasonable in some respects. Therefore, taking effective measures to improve gastric mucosal blood perfusion as early as possible postburn might be more preferable for the AGML prevention and treatment. PMID:11819529

  13. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by abnormal conditions such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Unless one of these potentially serious conditions is present, the treatment for painful periods is pain relief. If a ...

  14. Kerathocyst Odontogenic Tumor: Importance of Selection the Best Treatment Modality and A Periodical Follow-up to Prevent from Recurrence: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Jafaripozve, Nasim; Jafaripozve, Shahram; Khorasgani, Masoud Ataie

    2013-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a relatively common oral and maxillofacial lesion with specific characteristics such us rapid growth, extension into the surrounding tissues and high rates of recurrence. Various treatment modalities have been reported. Due to the very thin and friable lining characteristic of the tumor, enucleation can be difficult undertaken and for this reason it is associated with the highest recurrence rates. A 22-year-old male referred to our clinic due to a slight expansion in the right mandible from 2 years ago. He has a history of occurrence of KCOT in this region that was treated surgically by enucleation and curettage 5 years ago. Cone beam computed tomography showed a multilocular radiolucent lesion that extended from the angle of the mandible to the symphysis. Incisional biopsy showed a KCOT recurrence that surgically treated with resection of the right mandible by continuity preservation. Selection of the best treatment modality and also a periodical lifelong follow-up is very important to reduce the rate of recurrence and morbidity of the patient. PMID:24049625

  15. A Randomized, Double Blind, Two Period, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial of a Sustained-Release Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Fatigue in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Escalante, Carmen P.; Meyers, Christina; Reuben, James M.; Wang, Xuemei; Qiao, Wei; Manzullo, Ellen; Alvarez, Ricardo H.; Morrow, Phuong Khanh; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.; Wang, Xin Shelley; Mendoza, Tito; Liu, Wenli; Holmes, Holly; Hwang, Jessica; Pisters, Katherine; Overman, Michael; Cleeland, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate versus placebo for cancer-related fatigue reduction. Other objectives were to analyze cytokine levels and to determine the effects of methylphenidate on other symptoms, cognitive function, work yield, and patients’ perceptions, and preferences. Methods Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive methylphenidate-placebo or placebo-methylphenidate for 4 weeks. Patients crossed over after 2 weeks. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and McNemar tests were used to assess continuous and categorical variables. The primary efficacy end point was change in the level of worst fatigue on the Brief Fatigue Inventory at the end of each 2-week period. Results The mean baseline Brief Fatigue Inventory was moderate (5.7). Methylphenidate treatment did not affect patients’ worst level of fatigue or other symptoms. Results from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Digit Symbol Test and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test with Brief Fatigue Inventory interference questions and Brief Fatigue Inventory activity questions showed significant improvement in the methylphenidate-treated patients’ verbal learning, memory, visual perception, analysis, and scanning speed. Patients treated with methylphenidate missed significantly fewer work hours owing to health reasons and worked significantly more hours. After 4 weeks, 64% of patients reported that methylphenidate improved their cancer-related fatigue, and 58% wanted to continue treatment. Significant difference in IL-6R (positive), IL-10 (negative) and TNFα (positive) was noted between the methylphenidate and the placebo group. Discussion Low-dose methylphenidate did not improve cancer-related fatigue. Patients taking methylphenidate had better cognition and were able to work more hours. Patients tolerated methylphenidate well, and a majority felt better and wanted to continue treatment. PMID:24445757

  16. Donepezil Treatment Restores the Ability of Estradiol to Enhance Cognitive Performance in Aged Rats: Evidence for the Cholinergic Basis of the Critical Period Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, R.B.; Mauk, R.; Nelson, D.; Johnson, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the ability of estradiol to enhance cognitive performance diminishes with age and/or time following loss of ovarian function. We hypothesize that this is due, in part, to a decrease in basal forebrain cholinergic function. This study tested whether donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, could restore estradiol effects on cognitive performance in aged rats that had been ovariectomized as young adults. Rats were ovariectomized at 3 months of age, and then trained on a delayed matching to position (DMP) T-maze task, followed by a configural association (CA) operant condition task, beginning at 12–17 or 22–27 months of age. Three weeks prior to testing, rats started to receive either donepezil or vehicle. After one week, half of each group also began receiving estradiol. Acclimation and testing began seven days later and treatment continued throughout testing. Estradiol alone significantly enhanced DMP acquisition in middle-aged rats, but not in aged rats. Donepezil alone had no effect on DMP acquisition in either age group; however, donepezil treatment restored the ability of estradiol to enhance DMP acquisition in aged rats. This effect was due largely to a reduction in the predisposition to adopt a persistent turn strategy during acquisition. These same treatments did not affect acquisition of the CA task in middle-aged rats, but did have small but significant effects on response time in aged rats. The data are consistent with the idea that estrogen effects on cognitive performance are task specific, and that deficits in basal forebrain cholinergic function are responsible for the loss of estradiol effect on DMP acquisition in aged ovariectomized rats. In addition, the data suggest that enhancing cholinergic function pharmacologically can restore the ability of estradiol to enhance acquisition of the DMP task in very old rats following long periods of hormone deprivation. Whether donepezil has similar restorative effects on other

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from pigs during metaphylactic trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole treatment and in the post-exposure period.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Justyna; Bok, Ewa; Stosik, Michał; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance in commensal E. coli from pigs was tested in this study. E. coli was derived from three groups of piglets in successive stages of metaphylactic therapy and from two groups of sows 10 and 18 weeks after the treatment. MIC values of TMP and SMX were determined for a total of 352 strains. The presence of resistance genes (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA17, sul1, sul2, sul3) and class 1 and 2 integron-associated dfrA gene cassettes was tested. Resistance to TMP was very high during the administration of the antimicrobial (from 97 to 100%) and amounted to 86% and 69% in the post-exposure period; MIC > 32 mg/L. The isolates from all groups of pigs were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, with MIC > 1028 mg/L. The dfrA1 and sul1 genes (as part of integrons) dominated in E. coli from piglets, but the dfrA12 and sul1 genes were prevalent in E. coli from sows. Coexistence of the different dfrA genes was detected in 71 isolates from all groups of swine. Transcription analysis revealed that most of these genes were not transcribed, particularly gene cassettes of class 1 integrons. The research revealed a high level of resistance associated with the metaphylactic treatment, persistence and circulation of resistance in bacterial populations. Diverse genetic background with multiple and not transcribed resistance genes was observed. PMID:25689993

  18. Reproductive performance of ewes grazing lucerne during different periods around mating.

    PubMed

    Robertson, S M; Clayton, E H; Friend, M A

    2015-11-01

    High intake of lucerne pastures or feeding of other high quality diets during early pregnancy may increase embryo mortality, negating any benefit of improved nutrition on ovulation rate in ewes. This study was conducted to determine whether grazing ewes on lucerne (Medicago sativa) pastures for 7 days prior to and throughout joining would result in greater foetal numbers than if ewes were removed 7 days after the commencement of joining, or if ewes grazed senescent pasture throughout the joining period. Merino ewes (300) were allocated to two replicates of three treatments, grazing pastures between Days -7 and 36 of an unsynchronised, natural autumn joining. Grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining resulted in 30% more (P<0.05) foetuses per ewe than grazing senescent pasture (1.60±0.07 and 1.31±0.07, respectively), and 19% more lambs marked per ewe joined. Extending grazing of lucerne past Day 7 of joining did not result in additional foetuses per ewe (1.61±0.06) in comparison with only grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining. Greater than 80% of ewes mated during the first 14 days of joining, and the proportions of ewes returning to oestrus and re-mating (0.18±0.022) and of non-pregnant (0.09±0.017) ewes were similar (P>0.05) among all treatment groups, suggesting no differences between treatments in embryo mortality. Grazing naturally cycling ewes on lucerne prior to and during joinings in autumn is recommended as a means to increase the number of lambs born, although additional gains may not be obtained by grazing past day seven of joining. PMID:26454684

  19. A multicenter, open-label extension study of velaglucerase alfa in Japanese patients with Gaucher disease: Results after a cumulative treatment period of 24months.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akemi; Matsubayashi, Tomoko; Murayama, Kei; Hongo, Teruaki; Lee, Hak-Myung; Mellgard, Björn

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with exogenous glucocerebrosidase is indicated to treat symptomatic Gaucher disease (GD), a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. ERT with velaglucerase alfa, which is produced in a human cell line using gene activation technology, was studied in a 12-month phase III trial in Japanese patients with type 1 or 3 GD who were switched from imiglucerase ERT (n=6); the current, open-label, 12-month extension study was designed to assess longer-term safety and efficacy. Two adult and three pediatric patients (aged <18years) were enrolled into the extension study. Every-other-week intravenous infusions were administered for 63-78weeks at average doses between 51.5 and 60.7units/kg. Three non-serious adverse events were considered related to velaglucerase alfa treatment, but no patient discontinued from the study. Six serious but non-drug-related adverse events were reported. No patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Hemoglobin concentrations, platelet counts, and liver and spleen volumes (normalized to body weight) in these patients were generally stable over a cumulative 24-month period from the baseline of the parent trial. The data suggest that velaglucerase alfa was well tolerated and maintained clinical stability in Japanese GD patients over 2years after switching from imiglucerase. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01842841. PMID:27241455

  20. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  1. Reliability of a Personality Test for Narcotic Addicts in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Elisabeth; Goldstein, Marvin

    1977-01-01

    The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) was used to determine retest reliability (7-day interval) and motivational distortion for a sample of narcotic addicts (N=141) legally committed to treatment and tested by staff for routine diagnostic purposes. (Author)

  2. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  3. Surgical treatment of 137 cases with chronic subdural hematoma at the university clinical center of Kosovo during the period 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Mekaj, Agon Y.; Morina, Arsim A.; Mekaj, Ymer H.; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Miftari, Ermira I.; Duci, Shkelzen B.; Hamza, Astrit R.; Gashi, Musli M.; Xhelaj, Mentor R.; Kelmendi, Fatos M.; Morina, Qamile Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is frequent pathology in neurosurgical practice. The aim of this study is to present the first series of patients with CSDH, who got surgically treated in Clinic of Neurosurgery, University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study that included 137 patients with CSDH who had been treated during the period 2008–2012. The data were collected and analyzed from the archives and protocols of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Patients were analyzed in many aspects such as age, gender, etiological factors, clinical features, localization, diagnoses, methods of surgical interventions, recurrences and mortality of patients. Results: From 137 patients with CSDH, 106 (77.3%) were males and 31 (22.7%) females. Average age of patients was 62.85 years. Analyzed according to the decades, the highest number of causes with CSDH was between 70 and 79 years (46%). The head trauma has been responsible for CSDH in 88 patients (64.3%), while the main symptom was headache (92 patients or 67.1%). One burr-hole trepanation with closed drainage system has been used in majority of cases (in 101 patients or 73.7%). The recurrence of CSDH was 6.5%, whereas mortality 2.9%. Conclusion: CSDH is more common in elderly patients. The male-female ratio is 3.4:1. Like other authors we also think that treatment with one burr-hole and drainage is a method of choice, because of its simplicity and safety. PMID:25883478

  4. Long period preservation of marine products using electrostatic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Takamasa; Yaegashi, Taro; Yamada, Kazuki; Ito, Takanori; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Aisawa, Sumio; Takaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Shigeyoshi; Syuto, Bunei

    2016-07-01

    The effect of an AC electric field on the freshness of marine products was experimentally investigated. An AC voltage of 10 kV with 50 Hz in frequency was generated with a transformer and applied to a plane electrode set in an incubator. The biological material was the gonad of purple sea urchin. The AC electric field with 50 Hz in frequency was applied to the gonad at ‑1 °C for 7 days. Freshness was evaluated by measuring protein release and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. The results showed that the protein release and LDH activity in the gonad were suppressed by applying the AC electric field, compared with that without the AC electric field. Moreover, the gonad was treated with the AC electric field at ‑5 °C for 3 days and then preserved at 0 °C for 1 day without the field. This electrical field treatment of the gonad prolonged the freshness date for more than 10 days under 4 °C preservation condition. In addition, the permeability of the cell membrane was suppressed by applying the AC electric field. Concerning the relationship between permeability and AC electric field, the conformational change of bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by the AC electric field was evaluated on the basis of UV absorption spectra. The results revealed that the secondary and/or higher-order structure gradually changes with preservation period. The conformational change of the BSA molecule was induced by applying the AC electric field.

  5. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  6. Anorectal Complications During Neutropenic Period in Patients with Hematologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Solmaz, Soner; Korur, Aslı; Gereklioğlu, Çiğdem; Asma, Süheyl; Büyükkurt, Nurhilal; Kasar, Mutlu; Yeral, Mahmut; Kozanoğlu, İlknur; Boğa, Can; Ozdoğu, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background Neutropenic patients are susceptible to any anorectal disease, and symptomatic anorectal disease afflicts 2–32% of oncology patients. Perianal infections are the most feared complication, considering the lack of natural defense against infectious microorganisms. When septic complications develop, the anorectal disease is potentially fatal, especially in neutropenic patients in whom mortality rates range between 11–57%. Although anorectal diseases are a frequent complication with potentially fatal outcomes among patients with hematologic diseases, sufficient data are not available in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anorectal complications developing during the neutropenic period in patients with hematologic diseases. Methods A total of 79 patients whose neutropenic period (absolute neutrophil count <500/mcL) continued for 7 days, or longer were included in the study. Results A total of 34 patients out of 79 (43%) were detected to develop anorectal complications, of them 6 (7.6%) developed an anorectal infection. The patients were characterized according to the hematological disease and its status (active or not), the type of treatment and the presence of a history of an anorectal pathology before the onset of the hematologic disease. Nineteen (24.1%) patients had the history of anorectal disturbances before diagnosis of the hematologic disease, and recurrence of an anorectal pathology was found in 14 out of 19 patients(73.7%). In addition, the overall mortality rate was higher among the patients who developed anorectal complications compared to another group (41.2% vs. 22.2%, p=0.059). Conclusion Anorectal pathology is a common complication with high recurrence rate in neutropenic patients. Perianal infections are important as they can cause life-threatening outcomes although they are relatively rare among all anorectal complications. Therefore perianal signs and symptoms should be meticulously evaluated concerning early

  7. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  8. Period Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Check with a doctor to find out about pain relievers and other treatments that can reduce cramps. If you get them, don't let cramps sneak up on you! It's best to start taking pain relievers slightly in advance of the cramps. Your mom ...

  9. Evaluation of reproductive and economic outcomes of dairy heifers inseminated at induced estrus or at fixed time after a 5-day or 7-day progesterone insert-based ovulation synchronization protocol.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Johnson, C R; Mendonça, L G D; Silva, P R B; Moraes, J G N; Ahmadzadeh, A; Dalton, J C; Chebel, R C

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the reproductive performance and economic outcome of 3 synchronization strategies for first artificial insemination (AI) of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers from 2 herds (site A, California, n=415; site B, Idaho, n=425) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Heifers assigned to the AI on estrus (AIE) treatment received an injection of 25mg of PGF(2α) at enrollment (d 0) and every 11 d thereafter until AI occurred. Heifers assigned to the CIDR5 treatment received a controlled internal drug release insert (CIDR) containing 1.38 g of progesterone, which was removed 5 d later concomitantly with an injection of 25mg of PGF(2α), and received fixed-time AI (TAI) concomitantly with an injection of 100 μg of GnRH 53 to 60 h later. Heifers assigned to the CIDR7 treatment received a CIDR insert, which was removed 7 d later concomitantly with an injection of 25mg of PGF(2α), and received TAI concomitantly with an injection of 100 μg of GnRH 53 to 60 h later. Heifers were observed for estrus and inseminated up to 98 and 73 d after enrollment in sites A and B, respectively. Thereafter, heifers were moved to pens with bulls and considered failure to conceive to AI if still not pregnant at the end of the observation period. Economic outcomes were based on cost of synchronization protocol (CIDR treatment=$11, PGF(2α) or GnRH treatments=$2.5/treatment, estrous detection=$0.80/heifer per day), rearing cost ($2.75/heifer per day), and economic loss if a heifer did not conceive to first AI ($150). Input cost of the reproductive programs=synchronization protocol cost + semen cost + rearing cost + replacement cost. Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) 38 ± 3 d after first AI was greatest for AIE heifers (61.1%) followed by CIDR5 (44.8%) and CIDR7 (35.7%) heifers. Furthermore, P/AI 73 ± 7 d after first AI was greatest for AIE (58.8%) and tended to be greater for CIDR5 (42%) than for CIDR7 (34.1%) heifers. The percentage of heifers that had

  10. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... or check their website. Prescription Assistance Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Benefit Medicare pays for prescription medications ... you during the Annual Open Enrollment Period. Part D Low-Income Subsidy (LIS) If you have Medicare ...

  11. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  12. Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  13. [Modern aspects of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema treatment].

    PubMed

    Neroev, V V

    2012-01-01

    Main reasons of eyesight deterioration in diabetic patients are diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular oedema (DMO). International multicenter studies have shown that retinal laser coagulation in the event of DMO decreases the risk of eyesight loss in 50%, though only in 16% patients it was also possible to improve their eyesight. Use of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor--Ranibizumab--have opened a new era in DMA treatment. It's efficacy and safety have been proven in several international studies. This article contains our own data upon the use of Lucentis in patients with DMO. Intravitreal Luzentis injections and subsequent retinal lasercoagulation in the macular zone were performed on 43 eyes; follow up period--6 months. Additional injections were required in 19 cases, average amount of injections--1,4. Mean corrected visual acuity before the treatment was 0,37 +/- 0,06, after 7 days, 1, 3 and 6 months. - respectively 0,41 +/- 0,06, 0,49 +/- 0,06, 0,51 +/- 0,07 and 0,52 +/- 0,07(p<0,05). Mean retina thickness in central zone was 428 +/- 125 mkm before treatment, 391 +/- 24 mkm 7 days after the last injection 349 +/- 23, 313 +/- 21 and 308 +/- 20 mkm (p<0,05) after 1, 3 and 6 months. In addition to that Luzentis use in preoperative period in patients with non-complicated proliferative DR allowed to decrease the risk of hemorrhagic complications. Thereby, intravitreal injections of Luzentis improve functional result of treatment of patients with DMO, increase efficacy and safety of surgical interventions in patients with complicated forms of proliferating DR. PMID:22550713

  14. Lipid Metabolism Disorders, Lymphocytes Cells Death, and Renal Toxicity Induced by Very Low Levels of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisin B1 Alone or in Combination Following 7 Days Oral Administration to Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kouadio, J. H.; Moukha, S.; Brou, K.; Gnakri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Scope: In our previous study focused on in vitro interactive effect of Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), we reported that these toxins tested at low level and in association could lead to additive or synergistic cytotoxic effect. The aim of the present study is to confirm those findings by in vivo study. Materials and Methods: Swiss mice were orally administered with low doses of DON (45 μg/kg bw/day), FB1 (110 μg/kg bw/day), and their mixture (DON + FB1) for 7 days. Results: As results, no death or abnormal symptoms were observed in all groups. The significant of loss of weight was observed in females group treated with FB1 and its association with DON. Serum chemistry examinations revealed that disorders in lipid metabolism, renal filtration perturb and a rhabdomyolysis. DON has been found as particular inducer of kidney cell deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation and blood lymphocytes cell death as measured by lymphocytes DNA fragmentation. Female mice were more sensitive and the mixture of DON and FB1 led to additive or more than additive effect particularly for their target kidney which showed different pattern of toxicity. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) o both DON and FB1 should be low than 45 μg/kg bw/day and 110 μg/kg bw/day, respectively in mice. PMID:24403731

  15. Postnatal development and neoplastic disease pattern in NMRI mice after combined treatment with ethylnitrosourea and X-irradiation on different days of the fetal period.

    PubMed

    Wiggenhauser, A; Schmahl, W

    1987-06-01

    Mice were X-irradiated on day 14, 15 or 16 of gestation with 1.0 Gy. This did not result in an increased tumour frequency in the offspring until 12 months. Mice treated with ethylnitrosourea (ENU) (45 mg/kg) on these gestation days developed a significantly increased tumour frequency in the lungs and liver, and in the ovaries after treatment on day 15 of gestation. Additionally this experiment was the first to show that ENU treatment on gestation day 14, 15 or 16 results in haemangiosarcomas of the subcutis at a low incidence (2.0, 2.4, 2.6 per cent). After combined treatment with these two agents in the sequence X+ENU and an interval of 4 h, a significantly increased incidence rate of animals with tumours was observed in the offspring treated on gestation day 14 or 16. Moreover, the treatment on gestation day 16 exhibited the highest tumour frequency per examined animal (5.7) of all treatment groups. This result is due to a relatively uniform increase of all tumor types. Within this pattern, the frequency of liver tumours was most marked. The diagnosed liver tumours were significantly augmented after X+ENU treatment on day 16. In the reverse sequence (ENU+X), the total tumour outcome was not significantly altered compared with the effects of ENU alone. However, detailed analysis also showed a significant augmentation of the liver tumour frequency with treatment on day 15. PMID:3496295

  16. Early antipsychotic treatment in childhood/adolescent period has long-term effects on depressive-like, anxiety-like and locomotor behaviours in adult rats.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Michael; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-02-01

    Childhood/adolescent antipsychotic drug (APD) use is exponentially increasing worldwide, despite limited knowledge of the long-term effects of early APD treatment. Whilst investigations have found that early treatment has resulted in some alterations to dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission systems (essential to APD efficacy), there have only been limited studies into potential long-term behavioural changes. This study, using an animal model for childhood/adolescent APD treatment, investigated the long-term effects of aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone on adult behaviours of male and female rats. Open-field/holeboard, elevated plus maze (EPM), social interaction and forced swim (FS) tests were then conducted in adult rats. Our results indicated that in the male cohort, early risperidone and olanzapine treatment elicited long-term hyper-locomotor effects (open-field/holeboard and FS tests), whilst a decrease in depressive-like behaviour (in FS test) was observed in response to olanzapine treatment. Furthermore, anxiolytic-like behaviours were found following testing in the open-field/holeboard and EPM in response to all three drug treatments. Effects in the female cohort, however, were to a far lesser extent, with behavioural attributes indicative of an increased depressive-like behaviour and hypo-locomotor activity exhibited in the FS test following early risperidone and olanzapine treatment. These results suggest that various APDs have different long-term effects on the behaviours of adult rats. PMID:26577063

  17. Treatment of Oral Candidiasis Using Photodithazine®- Mediated Photodynamic Therapy In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    G. Basso, Fernanda; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the treatment of oral candidiasis in a murine model using Photodithazine® (PDZ). This model of oral candidiasis was developed to allow the monitoring of the infection and the establishment of the aPDT treatment. Six-week-old female mice were immunosuppressed and inoculated with C. albicans to induce oral candidiasis. PDZ-mediated aPDT and nystatin treatment were carried out for 5 consecutive days with one application per day. The macroscopic evaluation of oral lesions was performed. After each treatment, the tongue was swabbed to recover C. albicans cells. Viable colonies were quantified and the number of CFU/ml determined. The animals were sacrificed 24 hours and 7 days after treatment and the tongues were surgically removed for histological analysis and analysis of inflammatory cytokines expression (IL-1, TNF-α and IL-6) by RT-qPCR. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. PDZ-mediated aPDT was as effective as Nystatin (NYS group) in the inactivation of C. albicans, reducing 3 and 3.2 logs10 respectively, 24 h after treatment (p<0.05). Animals underwent PDZ-mediated aPDT showed complete remission of oral lesions, while animals treated with NYS presented partial remission of oral lesions in both periods assessed. Histological evaluation revealed mild inflammatory infiltrate in the groups treated with aPDT and NYS in both periods assessed. The aPDT induced the TNF-α expression when compared with the control (P-L-) (p<0.05), 24 h and 7 days after treatment. In summary, the murine model developed here was able to mimic the infection and PDZ-mediated aPDT was effective to treat mice with oral candidiasis. PMID:27253525

  18. Mortality by treatment in patients ≥80 years of age with gastroesophageal cancer seen in a 20-year period at a single medical center

    PubMed Central

    Mason, James; Maldonado, Yolanda Munoz; Wong, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The treatment approach to patients 80 years of age and older with gastroesophageal cancer at Baylor Scott and White in Temple, Texas, has historically favored conservative measures in the form of palliation and observation. To evaluate this trend in practice, the administered treatments and subsequent patient outcomes of this group were retrospectively reviewed. The study group included all patients 80 years of age and older with a diagnosis of gastroesophageal cancer seen at our facility between 1991 and 2010. Of the 117 cases, 49% received none of the available treatment modalities. The median overall survival (OS) of patients who received treatment, however, was significantly longer than the OS of those who did not, regardless of modality. Specifically, surgical intervention offered an almost double median OS compared with no therapy (6.8 vs. 3.9 months, respectively; P = 0.02); chemotherapy, an almost 4-fold OS benefit (14.8 vs. 3.9 months; P = 0.03); and radiation therapy, a >3-fold OS benefit (11.1 vs. 3.5 months; P = 0.04). These results further substantiate chronological age as an inaccurate predictor of treatment benefit, and age alone should not dictate the administration or withholding of available treatment options. PMID:26130872

  19. Naltrexone treatment produces dose-related effects on food and water intake but daily alcohol consumption is not affected.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Jorge; Barrios De Tomasi, Eliana

    2008-08-01

    There is evidence that naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, affects alcohol and food consumption. Though food intake is inherently involved when naltrexone effects on alcohol consumption have been studied, the differential effect of this opioid antagonist on both food and alcohol intake has not yet been reported. The present study analyzed the effect of a single daily dose of naltrexone on alcohol, food and water intake when these substances were available on a continuous basis. Wistar male rats were treated with s.c. injections of either naltrexone (2 or 10 mg/kg/day/rat) or a saline solution, 0.2 ml/day/rat for 7 days. This period was followed by a lapse of 7 days with no treatment (PT period), and this sequence of naltrexone or saline treatment followed by a period without treatment was repeated four times. Neither 2 mg/kg nor 10 mg/kg of naltrexone affected alcohol consumption, though the higher dose of naltrexone (10 mg/kg) increased food intake with respect to both the PT periods and the saline group and decreased water consumption with respect to the corresponding PT periods. Naltrexone at 2 mg/kg produced a decrease in food intake but only with respect to the PT periods. These results suggest that the effects of a single dose of naltrexone on alcohol consumption may not be evident when 24-h access to alcohol is assessed; however, naltrexone may produce different dose-related effects on food and water intake, suggesting that they may be mediated by distinct opioid system mechanisms. PMID:18681987

  20. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks. PMID:26192355

  1. Anaerobic treatment of tequila vinasses under seasonal operating conditions: start-up, normal operation and restart-up after a long stop and starvation period.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Jáuregui, J A; Méndez-Acosta, H O; González-Álvarez, V; Snell-Castro, R; Alcaraz-González, V; Godon, J J

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the performance of an anaerobic fixed-film bioreactor under seasonal operating conditions prevailing in medium and small size Tequila factories: start-up, normal operation and particularly, during the restart-up after a long stop and starvation period. The proposed start-up procedure attained a stable biofilm in a rather short period (28 days) despite unbalanced COD/N/P ratio and the use of non-acclimated inoculum. The bioreactor was restarted-up after being shut down for 6 months during which the inoculum starved. Even when biofilm detachment and bioreactor clogging were detected at the very beginning of restart-up, results show that the bioreactor performed better as higher COD removal and methane yield were attained. CE-SSCP and Q-PCR analyses, conducted on the biofilm prokaryotic communities for each operating condition, confirmed that the high COD removal results after the bioreactor clogging and the severe starvation period were mainly due to the stable archaeal and resilient bacterial populations. PMID:24785790

  2. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  3. Orbital Period Investigations of Two W UMa-type Binaries: AH Aur and V728 Her

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Hu, Ke

    2016-04-01

    The orbital period changes of two W UMa-type binaries, AH Aur and V728 Her, are investigated based on all available times of the light minimum taken from the databases and literature. It is revealed that the orbital period of AH Aur shows a long-term decrease at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=-2.491× {10}-7 days yr-1. For V728 Her, we find that the orbital period exhibits a secular increase at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=3.793× {10}-7 days yr-1. The secular period changes suggest that AH Aur and V728 Her are undergoing rapid mass transfer between the primary star and the secondary companion.

  4. Efficacy of laser stimulation of the lacrimal gland and collagen punctual occlusion in the treatment of dry-eye syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switka-Wieclawska, Iwona; Kecik, Tadeusz; Ciszewska, Joanna

    1997-10-01

    In this study we would like to monitor the tear secretion during a 7 day period of temporary intracanalicular occlusion and laser stimulation of lacrimal gland in a small group of female suffering of dry eye syndrome.

  5. Growth hormone treatment of adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period: results of a survey among adult and paediatric endocrinologists from Italy. Endorsed by SIEDP/ISPED, AME, SIE, SIMA.

    PubMed

    Aimaretti, G; Attanasio, R; Cannavò, S; Nicoletti, M C; Castello, R; Di Somma, C; Garofalo, P; Iughetti, L; Loche, S; Maghnie, M; Mazzanti, L; Saggese, G; Salerno, M; Tonini, G; Toscano, V; Zucchini, S; Cappa, M

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period is a controversial issue. This paper is a contribution from the Italian community of paediatric and adult endocrinologists surveyed in a Delphi panel. The Delphi method is a structured communication technique, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method that relies on a panel of experts. The experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. There was substantial agreement on the definition of the problems associated with the diagnosis and treatment of adolescents with GHD in the transition period, as well as on the identification of the controversial issues which need further studies. There is general consensus on the need of re-testing all isolated idiopathic GHD after at least 30-day withdrawn from treatment, while in patients with multiple pituitary deficiency and low IGF-I levels there is generally no need to re-test. In patients with permanent or confirmed GHD, a starting low rhGH dose (0.01-0.03 mg per day) to be adjusted according to IGF-I concentrations is also widely accepted. For those continuing treatment, the optimal therapeutic schedule to obtain full somatic maturation, normalization of body composition and bone density, cardiovascular function and Quality of Life, need to be evaluated. PMID:25362629

  6. Treatment of rats with an anti-(+)-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody shortens the duration of action of repeated (+)-methamphetamine challenges over a one month period

    PubMed Central

    Hambuchen, Michael D.; Rüedi-Bettschen, Daniela; Williams, D. Keith; Hendrickson, Howard; Owens, S. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed clinical scenarios of continuing monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment for (+)-methamphetamine (METH) addiction, and the implications of missing or discontinuing this therapy. We hypothesized that chronic anti-METH mAb7F9 (METH KD = 9 nM) treatment of rats could significantly decrease METH-induced behaviors; even with repeated METH challenges, use of METH doses in excess of mAb binding sites, and after discontinuing mAb treatment which results in a 10-fold reduction in mAb7F9 serum concentrations. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=6/group) were treated with i.v. saline or a loading dose of mAb7F9 to achieve instant steady-state conditions followed by two weekly (141 mg/kg) doses ending on day 14. METH (0.56 mg/kg) was administered four hours and three days after each saline or mAb7F9 treatment, and on day 21. This produced locomotion and rearing behavior that lasted about 120 min in control rats. In mAb7F9 treated rats, METH-induced distance traveled was significantly reduced from 60–120 min (P<0.05) on days 0–21 and rearing was significantly reduced from 60–120 min on days 0–17. METH serum concentrations determined 5 hrs after METH dosing was significantly increased in mAb7F9-treated rats after all METH challenges. On days 24 and 28 (the final day), the rats were administered a 3-fold higher METH dose (1.68 mg/kg). MAb7F9 treated rats showed a substantially earlier termination of the METH-induced locomotion on both days, even though the METH dose exceeded mAb7F9’s binding capacity. METH brain concentrations determined 5 hrs after METH on day 28 were also significantly decreased in mAb7F9-treated rats. In conclusion, over one month, mAb7F9 significantly and continuously bound METH and reduced METH-induced locomotor effects even after discontinuation of mAb treatment and challenge with higher METH doses. PMID:25252196

  7. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of isolated rectal endometriosis: long term complication of incomplete treatment for pelvic endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Jae-Young; You, Seul Ki; Kwon, Yong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman visited our hospital with cyclic hematochezia for four months. The patient had the history of laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy because of severe dysmenorrhea two years ago at another tertiary hospital. According to the medical records, the past surgical treatment was incomplete excision of pelvic endometriotic lesions, especially in rectal serosal lesions. A colonoscopy and abdominopelvic computed tomography showed an isolated tumor mimicking neoplasm, in which a biopsy under colonoscopy was performed and the lesion was endometriosis pathologically. Laparoscopic anterior resection (LAR) was performed. There were no complications during intraoperative and postoperative period and the patient was discharged 7 days after the LAR. It is important for reducing of long-term complication like rectal endometriosis that complete and safe excision of pelvic endometriosis with expert surgical strategy. PMID:27375735

  8. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of isolated rectal endometriosis: long term complication of incomplete treatment for pelvic endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Kwack, Jae-Young; You, Seul Ki; Kwon, Yong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman visited our hospital with cyclic hematochezia for four months. The patient had the history of laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy because of severe dysmenorrhea two years ago at another tertiary hospital. According to the medical records, the past surgical treatment was incomplete excision of pelvic endometriotic lesions, especially in rectal serosal lesions. A colonoscopy and abdominopelvic computed tomography showed an isolated tumor mimicking neoplasm, in which a biopsy under colonoscopy was performed and the lesion was endometriosis pathologically. Laparoscopic anterior resection (LAR) was performed. There were no complications during intraoperative and postoperative period and the patient was discharged 7 days after the LAR. It is important for reducing of long-term complication like rectal endometriosis that complete and safe excision of pelvic endometriosis with expert surgical strategy. PMID:27375735

  9. Impact of progesterone and estradiol treatment before the onset of the breeding period on reproductive performance of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Nasser, L F T; Penteado, L; Prestes, R; Marques, M O; Freitas, B G; Monteiro, B M; Ferreira, R M; Gimenes, L U; Baruselli, P S

    2015-09-01

    The present aimed to develop a hormonal therapy based on the insertion of a progesterone (P4) insert (PI) during 10 d plus an estradiol injection (E2) at PI removal before the onset of breeding of beef heifers. In Exp. 1, the plasma P4 profile of prepubertal heifers showed that the insertion of a PI or 24 d previously used P4 insert (UPI) sustained plasma P4 above 1 ng/mL for at least the first 7 d of the treatment. In Exp. 2 there was no positive effect of additional estradiol benzoate (EB) administered at the insertion of UPI on the proportion of heifers with a corpus luteum (CL/Treated) 30 d after UPI removal [UPI + EB = 85.3%(a) (n = 134); EB + UPI + EB = 80.8%(a) (n = 125)]; however, both were greater (P < 0.0001) than the Control group [60.3%(b) (n = 129)]. In Exp. 3, a positive effect (P=0.01) of UPI treatment and both E2 supplementations [EB and estradiol cypionate (EC); P = 0.10] at the UPI removal was observed on CL/Treated [Control = 42.5%(b) (n = 94); UPI = 58.5%(a) (n= 130); UPI + EB = 64.0%(a) (n = 128); UPI + EC = 67.2%(a) (n = 128)]. However, greater pregnancy per treated heifer (P/Treated) following artificial insemination (AI) upon estrus detection was achieved when EC was applied [Control = 20.2%(b); UPI = 29.2%(ab); UPI + EB = 26.6%(b); UPI + EC = 36.7%(a)]. In Exp. 4, the treatment prior to the timed AI (TAI) tended to improve pregnancy per TAI [P/AI; Control 43.6% (n = 298) vs. UPI+EC 51.9% (n = 342); P = 0.08], but increased P/Treated [26.5% vs. 43.3%; P < 0.001]. Thus, UPI + EC treatment were efficient in increasing the CL/Treated, tended to improve the P/AI and consequently enhanced P/Treated of zebu beef heifers. PMID:26169688

  10. Period of dominance of the ovulatory follicle influences embryo quality in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Ronaldo L A; Rutigliano, Heloísa M; Chebel, Ricardo C; Santos, José E P

    2009-05-01

    Length of dominance of the ovulatory follicle and exposure to oestradiol (OE(2)) during proestrus can affect fertility. Lactating cows had their oestrous cycle pre-synchronized and were subjected to one of the four synchronization treatments. Cows in the oestrus detection (OD) treatment received GnRH on day 6 of the oestrous cycle, PGF(2alpha) 7 days later, and were inseminated at detected oestrus. The remaining cows were subjected to the Ovsynch (OVS) protocol (day 0 GnRH, day 7 PGF(2alpha), day 9 GnRH, and timed artificial insemination (AI) 12 h later) starting on day 3 (OVS3) or day 6 (OVS6 and OVS6E) of the oestrous cycle. Cows in the OVS6E treatment received an injection of 0.5 mg oestradiol cypionate 36 h before AI. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography and blood was sampled for progesterone and OE(2) concentrations. Uteri were flushed 6 days after AI and recovered embryos-oocytes evaluated. Diameter of the ovulatory follicle at AI differed (P<0.01) among treatments, and it was the largest for OVS3 cows, which also had extended (P<0.01) length of follicular dominance. During proestrus, OD and OVS6E cows had increased (P<0.01) OE(2) concentrations. Fertilization was not altered by treatments, and maximum fertilization was achieved when the number of accessory spermatozoa was >7. Proportions of viable embryos in relation to embryos and embryos-oocytes recovered were smaller for OVS3 cows (P<0.01) than the other treatments, and embryos from OVS3 cows also had fewer (P<0.01) blastomeres and tended (P=0.09) to have a lower proportion of live blastomeres. Extending the period of follicle dominance did not alter fertilization but reduced (P<0.001) embryo quality. Embryo quality was compromised even when the dominance of the ovulatory follicle was extended by only 1.5 days. PMID:19204087

  11. Radiation-Free Weekend Rescued! Continuous Accelerated Irradiation of 7-Days per Week Is Equal to Accelerated Fractionation With Concomitant Boost of 7 Fractions in 5-Days per Week: Report on Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof; Hutnik, Marcin; Wygoda, Andrzej; Golen, Maria; Pilecki, Boleslaw; Przeorek, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Lukaszczyk-Widel, Beata; Heyda, Alicja; Suwinski, Rafal; Tarnawski, Rafal; Maciejewski, Boguslaw

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term results of randomized trial comparing 2 accelerated fractionations of definitive radiation therapy assessing the need to irradiate during weekend in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 345 patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, and oro- or hypo-pharynx, stage T2-4N0-1M0, were randomized to receive continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR: once per day, 7 days per week) or concomitant accelerated boost (CB: once per day, 3 days per week, and twice per day, 2 days per week). Total dose ranged from 66.6-72 Gy, dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy, number of fractions ranged from 37-40 fractions, and overall treatment time ranged from 37-40 days. Results: No differences for all trial end-points were noted. At 5 and 10 years, the actuarial rates of local-regional control were 63% and 60% for CAIR vs 65% and 60% for CB, and the corresponding overall survival were 40% and 25% vs 44% and 25%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with an incidence of 89% in CAIR and 86% in CB patients. The 5-year rate of grade 3-4 late radiation morbidity was 6% for both regimens. Conclusions: Results of this trial indicate that the effects of accelerated fractionation can be achieve by delivering twice-per-day irradiation on weekday(s). This trial has also confirmed that an accelerated, 6-weeks schedule is a reasonable option for patients with intermediate-stage head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma because of the associated high cure rate and minimal severe late toxicity.

  12. Randomized, Double-Blind, Split-Face Study to Compare the Irritation Potential of Two Topical Acne Formulations Over a 21-Day Treatment Period.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H; Bhatt, Varsha; Martin, Gina; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2016-02-01

    The use of fixed combinations in acne vulgaris (acne) is very common, however comparative clinical trial data are limited. Cutaneous tolerability can influence patient compliance, and concerns about skin irritation with topical acne treatments have lead to a number of comparative split-face studies.
    Recently, a new fixed combination product was introduced (clin 1.0%-BP 3.75% gel) that was shown to be effective in reducing both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions in moderate to severe acne. Here, we assess the tolerability of clin 1.0%-BP 3.75% gel compared with adap 0.1%-BP 2.5% gel in healthy volunteers with no apparent facial redness or dryness over 21-days, using a split-face methodology.
    Especially over the first two weeks of treatment, clin 1.0%-BP 3.75% gel was more tolerable than adap 0.1%-BP 2.5% gel, with statistically significant differences in cumulative change from baseline starting as early as day 8 (dryness) and day 9 (erythema), and composite index on days 8-12 and 16. Transepidermal water loss was less with clin 1.0%-BP 3.75% gel, although the difference was not statistically significant.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(2):178-182. PMID:26885785

  13. Constructed wetlands for combined sewer overflow treatment in a Mediterranean country, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Amaral, R; Ferreira, F; Galvão, A; Matos, J S

    2013-01-01

    The use of constructed wetlands as a valuable and attractive method for combined sewer overflow (CSO) treatment has been demonstrated in several studies. In Portugal, a Mediterranean country having usually a long dry period, there are still no applications of this technology. The purpose of this research is to gather information and know-how required for the design and management of this type of infrastructure. A pilot-scale experimental setup for CSO treatment was installed and evaluated in situ, in terms of organic matter, total suspended solids and microorganism removal with emphasis on the results of the start-up. After 1 day of retention average removal efficiencies of 73-79% and 82-89% were obtained in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS), respectively. During the remaining retention time a slower removal was observed. After 7 days, the COD removal efficiencies reached 86-91% and the TSS removal efficiencies reached 93-97%. On average, after 1 day, reductions of 1.2-2.0 log and 1.9-2.4 log, respectively, for total coliforms and Enterococcus were observed. For a retention time of 7 days these reductions attained 4.0-4.9 log and 4.4-5.3 log, respectively. PMID:23787312

  14. Age dependent efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator treatment: observations in 450 patients over an 11 year period

    PubMed Central

    Trappe, H.; Pfitzner, P.; Achtelik, M.; Fieguth, H.

    1997-01-01

    Objective—To determine whether implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) treatment is beneficial in elderly patients with life threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias.
Design—Since January 1984, ICDs were implanted in 450 patients to evaluate surgical risk, complications and mean survival in relation to patient age; 81 patients (18%) were ⩽ 50 years at the time of ICD implant, 254 patients (56%) were between 51 and 64 years, and the remaining 115 (26%) were ⩾ 65 years. Epicardial lead systems were implanted in 209 patients (46%), while transvenous lead systems were implanted in 241 (54%).
Results—13 patients (3%) died perioperatively, more often after epicardial (11 of 209 patients, 5%) than after transvenous ICD implantation (one of 241 patients, < 1%) (p < 0.05). During a mean (SD) follow up of 28 (24) months (range < 1 to 114 months), 90 patients (20%) died. Of these, nine (2%) died from sudden arrhythmic death; five (1%) died suddenly, probably as a result of non-arrhythmic causes; 55 (12%) died from other cardiac causes (congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction); and 21 (5%) died from non-cardiac causes. The three, five, and seven year survival for arrhythmic mortality was 95% in patients ⩽ 50 years compared with a three year survival of 93% and a five and seven year survival of 91% in patients of 51 to 64 years, and a three, five, and seven year survival of 99% in patients ⩾ 65 years. 362 patients (80%) received ICD discharges (21 (43) shocks per patient), with a similar incidence among all three patient groups (⩽ 50 years, 80%; 51 to 64 years, 81%; ⩾ 65 years, 79%). The time interval between ICD implant and the first ICD treatment was shorter in patients ⩾ 65 years (8 (8) months) than in patients between 51 and 64 years (11 (14) months) or ⩽ 50 years (11 (11) months) (p < 0.05). Survival time following first appropriate shock was 30 (24) months in patients ⩽ 50 years, 30 (26

  15. Shedding of cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli in pigs from conventional farms after early treatment with antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Cameron-Veas, Karla; Moreno, Miguel A; Fraile, Lorenzo; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the dynamics of cephalosporin resistant (CR) E. coli populations during the life cycle of pigs treated early in life with ceftiofur or tulathromycin. The study was conducted at eight conventional pig farms; four for each treatment with ceftiofur or tulathromycin. At each farm, 70 7-day-old piglets were divided into two groups: a control group (n = 30) and a treatment group (n = 40). Faecal samples were collected on day 0 and on days 2, 7 and 180 post-treatment. Sows were also sampled on day 0. CR E. coli were selected on MacConkey agar with ceftriaxone. On five farms, 7-day-old piglets excreted CR E. coli before treatment associated with the presence of CR E. coli in sows. The occurrence of CR E. coli positive animals decreased with increasing piglet age. The remaining three farms tested negative for CR E. coli during the study period. Results demonstrated great variability in the frequency of CR E. coli positive animals between farms, independent of treatment. Treatment with ceftiofur resulted in a transitory increase in the counts of CR E. coli after 48 h. However, other risk factors including the presence of CR E. coli in sows and animal age were more important than antimicrobial treatment. Accordingly, intervention strategies targeting sows would likely have a beneficial effect in reducing the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in primary pig production. PMID:27053016

  16. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) for treatment of uterine leiomyomas: 750 myomas were treated by LITT and the results over a five-year period are analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Roxana

    1997-05-01

    Approximately 750 leiomyomas of 250 symptomatic patients were treated by LITT over a five-year period. Only 12% were lost to follow-up. Most were treated by a combination of the KTP/YAG laser, rarely by one or the other alone, and a few with the diode laser. The fiber optic was inserted 2 cm apart and, depending on the size of the tumor, 480 - 20,000 Joules were required. Most were treated laparoscopically but very large myomas were treated percutaneously under ultrasound control. Symptoms were nearly always relieved and the six failures were found to be due to unrecognized adenomyosis and other associated pathology. Half the patients complaining of infertility became pregnant and, in those whose only pathology had been leiomyomas it approached 90%. Vaginal delivery was not found to be contraindicated. Finally, oestrogen receptors and epidermal growth factor were found to be destroyed. It is concluded that LITT enables leiomyomas of all sizes and locations to be treated by a minimally invasive method with preservation of the uterus.

  17. The classical electrostatic periodic table, capacitance of few electron dielectric spheres and a novel treatment of one- and two-electron finite quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafave, Tim, Jr.

    The centerpiece of this dissertation is the discovery of the classical electrostatic periodic table of elements through non-linear ground state energies coincident with atomic shell-filling resulting from symmetry properties of discrete electrons constrained by a spherically-symmetric system. The time-independent electrostatic equilibrium configuration of few electrons confined to a large classical dielectric sphere is obtained by minimization of the total interaction energy. The interactions model yields more than twice the energy predicted by the classical Gauss model. Each N-electron system is proposed as a unique phase characterized by its symmetry properties. A new mono-phasic capacitance definition of dielectric spheres is derived from the fundamental relation Q=CV. Large differences from the Gauss model are obtained for few-electron systems, but convergence is found in the metallic limit. Of particular significance is the means by which symmetry-dependent properties of atomic-scale devices may be exploited by controlling the internal architecture of charge distributions. This work will be useful to modeling of many-electron chemical and biological systems, such as macromolecules, owing largely to symmetry differences between the Gauss model and the interactions model. The foundation upon which all Nature rests is the symmetry of fundamental particles.

  18. Should home-based HIV testing and counseling services be offered periodically in programs of ARV treatment as prevention? A case study in Likoma (Malawi)

    PubMed Central

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Mkandawire, James; Reniers, Georges; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    To reduce HIV incidence, prevention programs centered on the use of antiretrovirals require scaling-up HIV testing and counseling (HTC). Home-based HTC services (HBHTC) increase HTC coverage, but HBHTC has only been evaluated during one-off campaigns. Two years after an initial HBHTC campaign (“round 1”), we conducted another HBHTC campaign (“round 2”) in Likoma (Malawi). HBHTC participation increased during round 2 among women (from 74% to 83%, p<0.01). New HBHTC clients were recruited, especially at ages 25 and older. Only 6.9% of women but 15.9% of men remained unreached by HBHTC after round 2. HIV prevalence during round 2 was low among clients who were HIV-negative during round 1 (0.7%), but high among women who first tested during round 2 (42.8%). The costs per newly diagnosed infection increased significantly during round 2. Periodically conducting HBHTC campaigns can further increase HTC, but supplementary interventions to enroll individuals not reached by HBHTC are needed. PMID:23180155

  19. [Vestibular symptoms and ENG findings during periods of convalescence after endolymphatic sac drainage and steroid-instillation surgery (EDSS)].

    PubMed

    Kitahara, T; Takeda, N; Mishiro, Y; Kondoh, K; Murata, J; Okumura, S; Kubo, T

    2000-12-01

    Understanding the appearance of vestibular symptoms during periods of convalescence after surgery for the treatment of Meniere's disease is important for determining when a patient can return to work as well as the long-term results of the operation. We have treated 20 cases of intractable Meniere's disease with endolymphatic sac drainage & steroid-instillation surgery (EDSS) [Kitahara T, et al., Ann Otol Rhlnol Laryngol in press, 2000] and observed the subjective symptoms and objective vestibular findings using electronystagmogram (ENG) during the subsequent period of convalescence. The average postoperative durations of subjective static and evoked vestibular symptoms were 1.7 and 6.7 days, respectively. Those of spontaneous, positional and positioning nystagmus observed using ENG were 1.2, 2.0 and 7.9 days, respectively. In cases with a long history of Meniere's disease, postoperative static vestibular sensation and positional nystagmus lasted significantly longer than in cases with short histories. In cases with poorly developed temporal bony pneumatization in the area behind the posterior semicircular canal, postoperative evoked vestibular sensations and positioning nystagmus lasted significantly longer than in cases with well developed temporal bony pneumatization. Vestibular symptoms resulting from direct invasion during EDSS were considered to be slighter than those resulting from vestibular neurectomy or gentamicin treatment and almost the same as those resulting from endolymphatic sac surgery. PMID:11197811

  20. [Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection].

    PubMed

    Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it's giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms. PMID:26960050

  1. Randomized Trial of Periodic Presumptive Treatment With High-Dose Intravaginal Metronidazole and Miconazole to Prevent Vaginal Infections in HIV-negative Women

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, R. Scott; Balkus, Jennifer E.; Lee, Jeannette; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua; Schwebke, Jane; Bragg, Vivian; Lensing, Shelly; Kavak, Lale

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vaginal infections are common, frequently recur, and may increase women's risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We tested the efficacy of a novel regimen to prevent recurrent vaginal infections. Methods. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative women 18–45 years old with 1 or more vaginal infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), or Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), were randomly assigned to receive vaginal suppositories containing metronidazole 750 mg plus miconazole 200 mg or matching placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months. Primary endpoints, evaluated every 2 months, were BV (Gram stain) and VVC (positive wet mount and culture). Results. Participants (N = 234) were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 118) or placebo (N = 116) arm. Two hundred seventeen (93%) women completed an end-of-study evaluation. The intervention reduced the proportion of visits with BV compared to placebo (21.2% vs 32.5%; relative risk [RR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] .48–.87). In contrast, the proportion of visits with VVC was similar in the intervention (10.4%) versus placebo (11.3%) arms (RR 0.92, 95% CI .62–1.37). Conclusions. Monthly treatment with intravaginal metronidazole plus miconazole reduced the proportion of visits with BV during 12 months of follow-up. Further study will be important to determine whether this intervention can reduce women's risk of STIs. PMID:25526757

  2. Aitchbone hanging and ageing period are additive factors influencing pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Channon, H A; Taverner, M R; D'Souza, D N; Warner, R D

    2014-01-01

    The effects of abattoir, carcase weight (60 or 80 kg HCW), hanging method (Achilles or aitchbone) and ageing period (2 or 7 day post-slaughter) on eating quality attributes of pork were investigated in this 3×2×2×2 factorial study. A total of 144 Large White×Landrace female pigs were slaughtered at one of three abattoirs and sides hung from either the Achilles tendon or the aitchbone. After 24 h chilling, loin (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) and topside (M. semimembranosus) muscles were individually vacuum packaged and aged for 2 or 7 days post-slaughter. Consumers (n=852) evaluated eating quality. Neither abattoir nor carcase weight influenced tenderness, flavour or overall liking of pork. Improvements in tenderness, flavour and overall liking were found due to aitchbone hanging (P<0.001) and ageing (P<0.001) for 7 days compared with Achilles-hung carcases and pork aged for 2 days, respectively. This study demonstrated that aitchbone hanging and 7 day ageing can improve eating quality, but these effects were additive as the interaction term was not significant. PMID:24013699

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life and Cognitive Functioning at On- and Off-Treatment Periods in Children Aged between 6-13 Years Old with Brain Tumors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    An, Kyung Jin; Sung, Ki Woong; Kim, Ji-Hae

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our study aimed to examine the relationship between intelligence and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children (6-13 years old) diagnosed as having a brain tumor. Materials and Methods We administered a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, version 4.0 (PedsQL), the Korean version of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, and the Korean Version of the Parenting Sense of Competence (K-PSOC) scale before or after initial radiotherapy (T1) and after treatment termination (T2). In total, 13 patients completed both the T1 and T2 interviews. Results Scores significantly declined between T1 and T2 on the full-scale intelligence quotients (FIQ), verbal intelligence quotients (VIQ), performance intelligence quotients (PIQ), similarity and coding tests, as well as the K-PSOC, which measures parental anxiety. FIQ scores at T1 were correlated with the self-reported PedsQL total scores (r=0.739) and the parent proxy-report PedsQL scores for school functioning (r=0.706) at T2. Also, the FIQ scores at T2 were correlated with the self-reported PedsQL total scores (r=0.748) and scores for physical health (r=0.728) at T2. Conclusion The cognitive ability and intelligence level of the patients significantly declined between on and off treatment periods, and higher intelligence functioning at both on and off treatment was correlated with long-term higher HRQOL. Further investigations that monitor intelligence, HRQOL and parenting stress over a longer period, using a greater number of participants, are needed. PMID:23364961

  4. Results of a Multinational Study Suggest the Need for Rapid Diagnosis and Early Antiviral Treatment at the Onset of Herpetic Meningoencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Cag, Yasemin; Ozturk-Engin, Derya; Defres, Sylviane; Kaya, Selcuk; Larsen, Lykke; Poljak, Mario; Barsic, Bruno; Argemi, Xavier; Sørensen, Signe Maj; Bohr, Anne Lisbeth; Tattevin, Pierre; Gunst, Jesper Damsgaard; Baštáková, Lenka; Jereb, Matjaž; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Karabay, Oguz; Pekok, Abdullah Umut; Sipahi, Oguz Resat; Chehri, Mahtab; Beraud, Guillaume; Shehata, Ghaydaa; Del Vecchio, Rosa Fontana; Maresca, Mauro; Karsen, Hasan; Sengoz, Gonul; Sunbul, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Gulden; Yilmaz, Hava; Sharif-Yakan, Ahmad; Kanj, Souha Shararah; Parlak, Emine; Pehlivanoglu, Filiz; Korkmaz, Fatime; Komur, Suheyla; Kose, Sukran; Ulug, Mehmet; Bolukcu, Sibel; Coskuner, Seher Ayten; Ince, Nevin; Akkoyunlu, Yasemin; Halac, Gulistan; Sahin-Horasan, Elif; Tireli, Hulya; Kilicoglu, Gamze; Al-Mahdawi, Akram; Nemli, Salih Atakan; Inan, Asuman; Senbayrak, Seniha; Stahl, Jean Paul; Vahaboglu, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Data in the literature regarding the factors that predict unfavorable outcomes in adult herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME) cases are scarce. We conducted a multicenter study in order to provide insights into the predictors of HME outcomes, with special emphasis on the use and timing of antiviral treatment. Samples from 501 patients with molecular confirmation from cerebrospinal fluid were included from 35 referral centers in 10 countries. Four hundred thirty-eight patients were found to be eligible for the analysis. Overall, 232 (52.9%) patients experienced unfavorable outcomes, 44 died, and 188 survived, with sequelae. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.05), Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.93), and symptomatic periods of 2 to 7 days (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.79) and >7 days (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.72 to 8.15) until the commencement of treatment predicted unfavorable outcomes. The outcome in HME patients is related to a combination of therapeutic and host factors. This study suggests that rapid diagnosis and early administration of antiviral treatment in HME patients are keys to a favorable outcome. PMID:25779579

  5. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  6. CO2 surgical laser in the treatment of some types of pathology of pets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Christian; Pinna, Stefania; Venturini, Antonio; Rossi, Giacomo; Fortuna, Damiano

    2002-10-01

    We have treated with CO2 laser surgery 40 cases which contemplated: stomatitis and other oral pathologies, anorectal, cutaneous, subcutaneous lesions, and other ophthalmic ones. The parameters employed to evaluate surgical treatment success were: histological analyses, time of healing process and incidence (per cent) of relapses. During the T/3 period (45 days) all cases of feline stomatitis relapsed. The 83% of pets that suffered of anorectal pathologies healed up to 21 days and no relapse was observed in T/4 period (180 days). The cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules vaporization caused lesions that healed during 7 days (T/1) and no relapse was observed after laser treatment. In cutaneous chronic ulcers and in reptilian abscesses we had the lesions reparation by second intention healing in T/3. A case of feline oral squamocellular carcinoma relapsed in T/3 after laser treatment. The results showed three different level of utility: indispensable, useful but unnecessary, inefficacious. The CO2 laser application resulted the best treatment for anorectal pathologies, cutaneous ulcerations and reptilian abscesses. The laser surgery was only useful but unnecessary in treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous neoformations and also in oral and peri-ophthalmic pathologies. Finally, the laser application appeared inefficacious in squamocellular carcinoma and in chronic phlogosis of feline oral cavity.

  7. Dynamics of nitrifying bacterial communities in the Seine river and estuary as affected by changes in the treatment of Paris wastewater : a comparison of 2001-2003 vs 2012-2013 periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissa Grouz, Najla; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Mercier, Benjamin; Martinez, Anun

    2014-05-01

    The major branch of the Seine river from the confluence with the Marne river to the entrance of the estuary is deeply affected by the release of wastewater from the huge Paris agglomeration. In the first years of 2000, the largest part of the effluents were still discharged at the Seine-Aval (Achères) treatment plant with only a standard, low residence time, activated sludge treatment, thus releasing a high ammonium load. NH4 concentration as high as 7 mgN/l were frequently observed downstream from Paris agglomeration. Cébron et al. (2003, 2005) and Garnier et al. 2007 described in details how this massive reduced nitrogen concentrations triggered the growth of nitrifying bacteria, already present in the upstream Seine and Marne rivers, but also brought in large amount by the effluents of the wastewater treatment plant themselves. The decrease of ammonium concentration was slow, however, and was only completed 200 km downstream, in the upper estuarine area, where it causes a severe oxygen deficiency. Since 2007, important changes occurred in the treatment of nitrogen in the Parisian wastewater purification plants. In 2007, the Seine-Aval plant treated up to 90% of the ammonium contained in wastewater through nitrification, and 30% of the total supply of nitrates is treated by denitrification. These modifications have of course favorably affected the water quality of the Seine river: ammonium concentrations are reduced by a factor of 5 and the area of oxygen depletion in the upstream estuary is no more observed. However, nitrites, still released in the effluents, are a matter of concern for the water quality of the Seine downstream from Paris. Using measurements of potential microbial activities carried out with the same experimental protocol for the 2000-2003 and 2012-2013 periods, we here examine and model the dynamics of ammonium oxidizing and nitrite oxidizing microbial populations before and after the implementation of nitrification treatment of Paris

  8. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fosmidomycin monotherapy and combination therapy with clindamycin in the treatment of multidrug resistant falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Karbwang, Juntra; Chauemung, Anurak; Hutchinson, David

    2007-01-01

    Background The study investigated the pharmacokinetics of fosmidomycin when given alone and in combination with clindamycin in patients with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Methods A total of 15 and 18 patients with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria who fulfilled the enrollment criteria were recruited from out-patient department of Mae Sot Hospital, Tak Province, Thailand. Patients were treated with monotherapy with fosmidomycin at the dose of 1,200 mg every 8 hours for 7 days (n = 15) or combination therapy with fosmidomycin (900 mg every 12 hours for 7 days) and clindamycin (600 mg every 12 hours for 7 days) (n = 18). Blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic investigations of clindamycin and/or fosmidomycin and 24-hour urine samples were collected during dosing period. Efficacy assessments included clinical and parasitological evaluation. Safety and tolerability were assessed based on clinical and laboratory investigations. Results Both mono- and combination therapy regimens of fosmidomycin were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. Combination therapy with fosmidomycin and clindamycin was proven highly effective with 100% cure rate, whereas cure rate of monotherapy was 22% (28-day follow up). Pharmacokientics of fosmidomycin following mono- and combination therapy were similar except Vz/F and CL/F, which were significantly smaller in the combination regimen. Plasma concentration-time profiles of both fosmidomycin and clindamycin were best fit with a one-compartment open model with first-order absorption and elimination and with absorption lag time. Steady-state plasma concentrations of fosmidomycin and clindamycin were attained at about the second or third dose. There was no evidence of dose accumulation during multiple dosing. Urinary recovery of fosmidomycin was 18.7 and 20% following mono- and combination therapy, respectively. Conclusion Pharmacokinetic dose optimization of fosmidomycin-clindamycin combination therapy

  9. The Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder in Adults—An Update for 2012: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Kristo, David A.; Bista, Sabin R.; Rowley, James A.; Zak, Rochelle S.; Casey, Kenneth R.; Lamm, Carin I.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Rosenberg, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed to update the previous AASM practice parameters on the treatments, both dopaminergic and other, of RLS and PLMD. A considerable amount of literature has been published since these previous reviews were performed, necessitating an update of the corresponding practice parameters. Therapies with a STANDARD level of recommendation include pramipexole and ropinirole. Therapies with a GUIDELINE level of recommendation include levodopa with dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, opioids, gabapentin enacarbil, and cabergoline (which has additional caveats for use). Therapies with an OPTION level of recommendation include carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin, clonidine, and for patients with low ferritin levels, iron supplementation. The committee recommends a STANDARD AGAINST the use of pergolide because of the risks of heart valve damage. Therapies for RLS secondary to ESRD, neuropathy, and superficial venous insufficiency are discussed. Lastly, therapies for PLMD are reviewed. However, it should be mentioned that because PLMD therapy typically mimics RLS therapy, the primary focus of this review is therapy for idiopathic RLS. Citation: Aurora RN; Kristo DA; Bista SR; Rowley JA: Zak RS; Casey KR; Lamm CI; Tracy SL; Rosenberg RS. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults—an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1039-1062. PMID:22851801

  10. Effects of chronic treatment with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist on peripheral concentrations of FSH and LH, and ovarian function in heifers.

    PubMed

    Gong, J G; Bramley, T A; Gutierrez, C G; Peters, A R; Webb, R

    1995-11-01

    The effect of chronic treatment with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) on ovarian function in cattle was investigated by injecting heifers i.m. twice a day with saline, 5 micrograms GnRHa (Buserelin) or 10 micrograms GnRHa (n = 7) for 21 days. Blood samples were taken twice a day during the treatment period, and then three times a day for 7 days and once daily for a further 4 days. Frequent samples were also collected on day 1, day 10 and day 21 of treatment. The ovaries of all heifers were examined daily using real-time ultrasonography throughout the experimental period. No significant differences in the response were observed between two doses of GnRHa. The first GnRHa injection produced a large LH and FSH surge and this acute response was still present by day 21 of treatment, but both the magnitude and duration of response were significantly attenuated (P < 0.01). After an initial increase, LH returned to the basal concentration, which was maintained until the termination of treatment, when concentrations increased significantly, with a preovulatory surge occurring approximately 6 days later. Peripheral FSH concentrations during the oestrous cycle in control animals displayed a pattern of three waves, each of which closely preceded a wave of follicular development. Concentrations of FSH in GnRHa-treated heifers showed a normal pattern for the first wave after the start of treatment. During the next wave, concentrations increased and remained at the peak values until about 4 days after the end of treatment. An additional ovulation was induced in 11 of 14 GnRHa-treated heifers within 2-3 days of the start of treatment, and a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum progesterone concentrations was detected 2 days later. All GnRHa-treated heifers then showed a normal follicular wave, with the development and regression of a dominant follicle. The dominant follicles from the next wave grew to only 7-9 mm in diameter and remained at this size until the

  11. Serum lipids and proteins during treatment with a new oral contraceptive combination containing desogestrel.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, I M; Bergink, E W; Holma, P; Hulkko, S; Makkonen, M; Pyörälä, T; Castrén, O

    1983-12-01

    The present study was carried out to measure lipid and protein levels in serum of healthy women during treatment with a new oral contraceptive combination containing 0.075 mg desogestrel (Org 2969, 17 alpha-ethinyl-18-methyl-11-methylene-4-estren-17-ol) plus 0.050 mg ethinyloestradiol per tablet. All 30 volunteers took 1 tablet daily for 21 consecutive days, followed by a tablet-free period of 7 days. Treatment lasted 3 months. At the end of treatment serum total cholesterol had increased by 0.26 mmol/l (5.0%), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 0.22 mmol/l (15.2%) and triglycerides by 0.43 mmol/l (50%); the calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol had decreased by 0.16 mmol/l (4.9%). All lipid concentrations had returned to initial levels 2 months after treatment stopped. After 3 months treatment serum ceruloplasmin, cortisol-binding globulin capacity, sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity and thyroxine-binding globulin had significantly increased by 85.2, 133, 206 and 101%, respectively. All protein levels returned to normal 2 months after treatment stopped. The relationship between serum lipids and hormone-binding proteins has been discussed, as well as the significance of the high-density lipoprotein level with regard to contraceptive treatment. PMID:6232161

  12. Microcystin release and Microcystis cell damage mechanism by alum treatment with long-term and large dose as in-lake treatment.

    PubMed

    Han, Jisun; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2016-05-11

    Most of our previous studies reported aluminum causes no cell damage or lysis, and no subsequent toxin release in conventional treatment of drinking water or in the laboratory, on the contrary, we investigated the effect of long-term and large-dose alum treatment, because the environmental conditions in lakes and treatment plants are widely different. The microcosm experiments were designed to simulate the effect of adding alum under the similar conditions of common lakes and reservoirs, and the bottle experiments were conducted to examine the budget or dynamics of microcystin after adding alum. In precipitate analyses, we also confirm the release and dynamics of microcystin and the damage mechanisms of Microcystis cells under alum treatment. In microcosms treated with alum alone, the extracellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR) concentration increased to approximately 82% in 7 days. Similar results were obtained in bottle experiments. By plotting the concentration of released microcystin over time, we inferred that the extracellular MC-LR concentration exponentially rose toward an asymptotic maximum. Moreover, in scanning electron microscope images, some cells exhibited torn membranes with miniscule traces of aluminum hydroxide coating. We conclude that alum treatment, particularly at maximum dosage administered over long periods, seriously damages Microcystis cells and induces microcystin release. Therefore, long-term application of large alum doses is not recommended as an in-lake treatment. PMID:26865010

  13. Enhancement of Amygdaloid Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Fresh Leaf Juice of Centella asiatica (Linn) During Growth Spurt Period in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Muddanna Rao, S.; Gurumadhva Rao, S.

    2009-01-01

    Centella asiatica (CeA) is a creeping herb, growing in moist places in India and other Asian Countries. Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternate system of medicine in India, uses leaves of CeA for memory enhancement. Here, we have investigated the role of CeA fresh leaf juice treatment during growth spurt period of rats on dendritic morphology of amygdaloid neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. The present study was conducted on neonatal rat pups. The rat pups (7-days-old) were fed with 2, 4 and 6 ml/kg body of fresh leaf juice of CeA for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were killed, brains removed and amygdaloid neurons impregnated with Silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and intersections (a measure dendritic length) quantified. These data were compared with those of age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic length (intersections) and dendritic branching points along the length of dendrites of the amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 4 and 6 ml/kg body weight/day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks). We conclude that constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf juice has neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence it can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and other neurodegenerative and memory disorders. PMID:18955230

  14. Treatment of Giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Petri, William A

    2005-02-01

    Tinidazole is the first-line drug treatment of giardiasis, as it requires only a single dose to cure infection in most individuals. The related drug metronidazole is as effective, but it requires 5 to 7 days of three times a day therapy. Nitazoxanide appears in limited studies to be as effective as tinidazole or metronidazole, and it does not have the bitter taste of nitroimidazoles. A good alternate for use during pregnancy is paromomycin. Cure of infection varies between 60% and 100% with one course of treatment. Less effective and/or less well-tolerated drugs for the treatment of giardiasis include albendazole, quinacrine, and furazolidone; the use of these agents should be reserved for giardiasis refractory to treatment with the first-line agents. PMID:15625030

  15. Rotation periods of open-cluster stars, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Dasgupta, Amil; Backman, Dana E.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.; Baker, Shawn W.; Marschall, Laurence A.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Kuijken, Konrad; Stauffer, John R.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results from a photometric monitoring program of 15 open cluster stars and one weak-lined T Tauri star during late 1993/early 1994. Several show rotators which are members of the Alpha Persei, Pleiades, and Hyades open clusters have been monitored and period estimates derived. Using all available Pleiades stars with photometric periods together with current X-ray flux measurements, we illustrate the X-ray activity/rotation relation among Pleiades late-G/K dwarfs. The data show a clear break in the rotation-activity relation around P approximately 6-7 days -- in general accordance with previous results using more heterogeneous samples of G/K stars.

  16. Long-Period Tidal Variations in the Length of Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.

    2014-01-01

    A new model of long-period tidal variations in length of day is developed. The model comprises 80 spectral lines with periods between 18.6 years and 4.7 days, and it consistently includes effects of mantle anelasticity and dynamic ocean tides for all lines. The anelastic properties followWahr and Bergen; experimental confirmation for their results now exists at the fortnightly period, but there remains uncertainty when extrapolating to the longest periods. The ocean modeling builds on recent work with the fortnightly constituent, which suggests that oceanic tidal angular momentum can be reliably predicted at these periods without data assimilation. This is a critical property when modeling most long-period tides, for which little observational data exist. Dynamic ocean effects are quite pronounced at shortest periods as out-of-phase rotation components become nearly as large as in-phase components. The model is tested against a 20 year time series of space geodetic measurements of length of day. The current international standard model is shown to leave significant residual tidal energy, and the new model is found to mostly eliminate that energy, with especially large variance reduction for constituents Sa, Ssa, Mf, and Mt.

  17. Topical capsaicin—a novel and effective treatment for idiopathic intractable pruritus ani: a randomised, placebo controlled, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Lysy, J; Sistiery-Ittah, M; Israelit, Y; Shmueli, A; Strauss-Liviatan, N; Mindrul, V; Keret, D; Goldin, E

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Pruritus ani is a common and embarrassing proctological condition which can be very difficult to treat. We report the results of a double blind placebo controlled study of treatment with capsaicin. Methods: Firstly, a pilot open study was carried out on five patients to establish which of two doses was the most acceptable by comparing effectiveness and side effects. Secondly, a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study of topical capsaicin was performed. This study involved two four week treatment phases separated by a one week washout phase. Forty four patients were randomised to receive locally either active capsaicin (0.006%) or placebo (menthol 1%) ointment over a four week period (22 patients per group). After four weeks of treatment and a one week washout period, the placebo group began to receive capsaicin while the treated group received placebo (menthol 1%) for another four weeks. At the end of the controlled study, responders from both groups continued with capsaicin treatment in an open labelled manner. Results: Thirty one of 44 patients experienced relief during capsaicin treatment periods and did not respond to menthol; all patients not responding to capsaicin also failed on menthol (p<0.0001). In 13 patients, treatment with capsaicin was unsuccessful: eight patients did not respond to capsaicin treatment, one responded equally to capsaicin and placebo, and four others dropped out because of side effects. During the follow up period (mean 10.9 (SD 5.8) months), 29 “responders” needed a mean application of capsaicin every day (1.6 (SD 1.2); range 0.5–7 days) to remain symptom free (or nearly symptom free). Conclusion: Capsaicin is a new, safe, and highly effective treatment for severe intractable idiopathic pruritus ani. PMID:12912865

  18. Diagnosis and Percutaneous Treatment of Soft-Tissue Hydatid Cysts

    SciTech Connect

    Akhan, Okan Gumus, Burcak; Akinci, Devrim; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Ozmen, Mustafa

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate and discuss the radiological features of four patients with muscular hydatid disease and to evaluate the results of percutaneous treatment in these patients. Four patients (three female and one male) with six muscular hydatid cysts underwent percutaneous treatment and were followed up. The mean age of patients was 35 years (range: 12-60 years). Type I (n = 2), type II (n = 1), and type III (n = 3) hydatid cysts were observed in the thigh (n = 3) and gluteal (n = 1) region on radiologic examination. All interventions were performed under sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. According to the type of the cyst, the procedure was carried out by either a 'catheterization technique with hypertonic saline and alcohol' or a 'modified catheterization technique.' The mean cathaterization time was 13.7 days, ranging from 1 to 54 days. The dimensions of the residual cavity were noted at every sonographic control, and an average of 96.1% volume reduction was obtained in six cysts of four patients. No sign of viability was observed during the follow-up period. Cavity infection and cellulitis were observed as complications, which resolved after medical therapy. Percutaneous treatment is a safe and effective procedure in patients with soft-tissue hydatid cysts and should be considered as a serious alternative to surgery.

  19. Assessing the temporal stability of surface functional groups introduced by plasma treatments on the outer shells of carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Merenda, Andrea; Ligneris, Elise des; Sears, Kallista; Chaffraix, Thomas; Magniez, Kevin; Cornu, David; Schütz, Jürg A.; Dumée, Ludovic F.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma treatments are emerging as superior efficiency treatment for high surface to volume ratio materials to tune functional group densities and alter crystallinity due to their ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale. The purpose of this study is to assess for the first time the long term stability of surface functional groups introduced across the surface of carbon nanotube materials for a series of oxidative, reductive and neutral plasma treatment conditions. Both plasma duration dose matrix based exposures and time decay experiments, whereby the surface energy of the materials was evaluated periodically over a one-month period, were carried out. Although only few morphological changes across the graphitic planes of the carbon nanotubes were found under the uniform plasma treatment conditions, the time dependence of pertinent work functions, supported by Raman analysis, suggested that the density of polar groups decreased non-linearly over time prior to reaching saturation from 7 days post treatment. This work provides critical considerations on the understanding of the stability of functional groups introduced across high specific surface area nano-materials used for the design of nano-composites, adsorptive or separation systems, or sensing materials and where interfacial interactions are key to the final materials performance. PMID:27507621

  20. Assessing the temporal stability of surface functional groups introduced by plasma treatments on the outer shells of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merenda, Andrea; Ligneris, Elise Des; Sears, Kallista; Chaffraix, Thomas; Magniez, Kevin; Cornu, David; Schütz, Jürg A.; Dumée, Ludovic F.

    2016-08-01

    Plasma treatments are emerging as superior efficiency treatment for high surface to volume ratio materials to tune functional group densities and alter crystallinity due to their ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale. The purpose of this study is to assess for the first time the long term stability of surface functional groups introduced across the surface of carbon nanotube materials for a series of oxidative, reductive and neutral plasma treatment conditions. Both plasma duration dose matrix based exposures and time decay experiments, whereby the surface energy of the materials was evaluated periodically over a one-month period, were carried out. Although only few morphological changes across the graphitic planes of the carbon nanotubes were found under the uniform plasma treatment conditions, the time dependence of pertinent work functions, supported by Raman analysis, suggested that the density of polar groups decreased non-linearly over time prior to reaching saturation from 7 days post treatment. This work provides critical considerations on the understanding of the stability of functional groups introduced across high specific surface area nano-materials used for the design of nano-composites, adsorptive or separation systems, or sensing materials and where interfacial interactions are key to the final materials performance.

  1. Assessing the temporal stability of surface functional groups introduced by plasma treatments on the outer shells of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Merenda, Andrea; Ligneris, Elise des; Sears, Kallista; Chaffraix, Thomas; Magniez, Kevin; Cornu, David; Schütz, Jürg A; Dumée, Ludovic F

    2016-01-01

    Plasma treatments are emerging as superior efficiency treatment for high surface to volume ratio materials to tune functional group densities and alter crystallinity due to their ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale. The purpose of this study is to assess for the first time the long term stability of surface functional groups introduced across the surface of carbon nanotube materials for a series of oxidative, reductive and neutral plasma treatment conditions. Both plasma duration dose matrix based exposures and time decay experiments, whereby the surface energy of the materials was evaluated periodically over a one-month period, were carried out. Although only few morphological changes across the graphitic planes of the carbon nanotubes were found under the uniform plasma treatment conditions, the time dependence of pertinent work functions, supported by Raman analysis, suggested that the density of polar groups decreased non-linearly over time prior to reaching saturation from 7 days post treatment. This work provides critical considerations on the understanding of the stability of functional groups introduced across high specific surface area nano-materials used for the design of nano-composites, adsorptive or separation systems, or sensing materials and where interfacial interactions are key to the final materials performance. PMID:27507621

  2. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (spray or pan dried) and with the lot number or production code number. (b) The minimum requirements for heat treatment of spray or pan dried albumen shall be as follows: (1) Spray dried albumen shall be... less than 7 days and until it is salmonella negative. (2) Pan dried albumen shall be heated...

  3. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (spray or pan dried) and with the lot number or production code number. (b) The minimum requirements for heat treatment of spray or pan dried albumen shall be as follows: (1) Spray dried albumen shall be... less than 7 days and until it is salmonella negative. (2) Pan dried albumen shall be heated...

  4. Efficacy of sucralfate for the treatment of post-tonsillectomy symptoms.

    PubMed

    Siupsinskiene, Nora; Žekonienė, Jurgita; Padervinskis, Evaldas; Žekonis, Gediminas; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2015-02-01

    Pain after tonsillectomy remains the main issue of postoperative morbidity and the search for an effective post-tonsillectomy analgesic is of increasing relevance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical sucralfate during an early post-tonsillectomy period. Fifty patients of both genders from 6 to 58 years submitted to tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were randomly included into either a sucralfate treatment group (N = 25) or into a control group (N = 25). Patients of the sucralfate group received topical sucralfate four times a day for 7 days. No topical treatment was applied to patients of the control group. A systemic analgesic was standardized. Post-tonsillectomy symptoms, including throat pain, odynophagia and otalgia, were evaluated during the period of seven postoperative days. Secondary outcomes were analgesic use, well being in general, return to regular daily activities, secondary hemorrhage and side effects of sucralfate. This study revealed that during the period of the second to seventh postoperative days average throat pain scores of the sucralfate using patients were significantly lower than those of the control group patients (p < 0.05); the same could be applied to odynophagia scores during the period of all seven postoperative days (p < 0.01) and otalgia scores from the 4th postoperative day (p < 0.05). The sucralfate group patients also had a significantly smaller need for analgesics, better scores of well being in general and early return to regular daily activities with no side effects of the treatment. Topical sucralfate could be recommended for the everyday clinical practice as a safe, adjuvant medicine of treatment during the period of the first post-tonsillectomy week. PMID:24691853

  5. CCD Photometric Study and Period Investigation of AH Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu; Yu, Yun-Xia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present new CCD photometric observations of AH Tauri in the R band observed in 2006 at the Yunnan Observatory. Two new times of light minima were derived from these observations. We modeled the light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney program. The results show that the variations of the light curves can be expained by a cool spot on the primary star. The fill-out factor is about 6.6%, indicating that AH Tauri is a shallow-contact system. The mass ratio was determined to be about 0.505. In addition, the orbital period variations of AH Tauri were investigated based on all of the photoelectric and CCD light minimum times, including our two new data. It was found that the orbital period exhibits a possible periodic variation with a period of {P}{mod}=54.62\\(+/- 0.20) years and a secular period decrease of {dP}/{dt}=-(1.823+/- 0.215)× {10}-7 {days} {{yr}}-1. Since AH Tauri is an overcontact solar-like system, we discuss three mechanisms of the mass transfer, the light-time effect of the third body, and magnetic activity responsible for the orbital period changes.

  6. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  7. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  8. Effectiveness of quinine monotherapy for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Lambaréné, Gabon.

    PubMed

    Adegnika, Ayôla A; Breitling, Lutz Ph; Agnandji, Selidji T; Chai, Sanders K; Schütte, Daniela; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Schwarz, Norbert G; Grobusch, Martin P; Missinou, Michel A; Ramharter, Michael; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G

    2005-08-01

    Pregnant women participating in a longitudinal immuno-epidemiologic survey in Lambaréné, Gabon, and presenting with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at monthly blood smear examinations were offered treatment with oral 7-day quinine monotherapy according to national health guidelines. A total of 50 pregnant women were offered 7-day oral quinine sulfate 10 mg/kg thrice daily. Clinical examinations and laboratory tests were performed on Days 28 and 56 to assess the effectiveness of this standard regimen. By Day 28, the effectiveness of the 7-day quinine regimen was 60% (95% confidence interval: 46-72%). We conclude that a 7-day course of quinine has a poor effectiveness and that alternative treatment regimens for malaria in pregnant women should be assessed. PMID:16103585

  9. The first orbital parameters and period variation of the short-period eclipsing binary AQ Boo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Liyun; Pi, Qingfeng; Han, Xianming L.; Zhang, Xiliang; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei; Li, TongAn

    2016-10-01

    We obtained the first VRI CCD light curves of the short-period contact eclipsing binary AQ Boo, which was observed on March 22 and April 19 in 2014 at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, and on January 20, 21 and February 28 in 2015 at Kunming station of Yunnan Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Using our six newly obtained minima and the minima that other authors obtained previously, we revised the ephemeris of AQ Boo. By fitting the O-C (observed minus calculated) values of the minima, the orbital period of AQ Boo shows a decreasing tendency P˙ = - 1.47(0.17) ×10-7 days/year. We interpret the phenomenon by mass transfer from the secondary (more massive) component to the primary (less massive) one. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we also derived the photometric orbital parameters of AQ Boo for the first time. We conclude that AQ Boo is a near contact binary with a low contact factor of 14.43%, and will become an over-contact system as the mass transfer continues.

  10. Comparison of Rifaximin and Lactulose for the Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Yong-Han; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Song, Kun Hoon; Kim, Myoung Hwan; Moon, Byung Soo; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Lee, Se Joon; Park, Hyo Jin; Lee, Dong Ki; Chon, Chae Yoon; Lee, Sang In; Moon, Young Myoung

    2005-01-01

    Rifaximin has been reported to be effective for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in Europe. However, it is unknown whether Rifaximin is effective for the treatment of HE in Koreans, therefore we conducted a open-label prospective randomized study to evaluate the efficacy of rifaximin versus lactulose in Korean patients. Fifty-four patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy were enrolled. Thirty-two patients were randomized to receive rifaximin and 22 to receive lactulose both over a 7-day periods. Before and at the end of treatment, gradation of blood ammonia, flapping tremor, mental status, number connection test (NCT) were performed and estimation of HE indexes determined. Both rifaximin and lactulose were effective in the majority of patients (84.4% and 95.4%, respectively, p=0.315). Blood NH3, flapping tremor, mental status, and NCT was significantly improved by rifaximin and lactulose, and the posttreatment levels of these measures were similar for the rifaximin and lactulose-treated groups, as was the HE index (rifaximin group (10.0→4.2, p=0.000); lactulose group (11.3→5.0, p=0.000)). One patient treated with rifaximin complained of abdominal pain, which was easily controlled. There was no episode of renal function impairment in either treatment group. Rifaximin proved to be as safe and as effective as lactulose for the treatment of Korean patients with hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:15988813

  11. Effects of Using Pozzolan and Portland Cement in the Treatment of Dispersive Clay

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, A. H.; Selamat, M. R.; Moayedi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Use of dispersive clay as construction material requires treatment such as by chemical addition. Treatments to dispersive clay using pozzolan and Portland cement, singly and simultaneously, were carried out in this study. When used alone, the optimum amount of pozzolan required to treat a fully dispersive clay sample was 5%, but the curing time to reduce dispersion potential, from 100% to 30% or less, was 3 month long. On the other hand, also when used alone, a 3% cement content was capable of reducing dispersion potential to almost zero percent in only 7 days; and a 2% cement content was capable of achieving similar result in 14 days. However, treatment by cement alone is costly and could jeopardize the long term performance. Thus, a combined 5% pozzolan and 1.5% cement content was found capable of reducing dispersion potential from 100% to zero percent in 14 days. The results indicate that although simultaneous treatment with pozzolan and cement would extend the required curing time in comparison to treatment by cement alone of a higher content, the task could still be carried out in a reasonable period of curing time while avoiding the drawbacks of using either pozzolan or cement alone. PMID:23864828

  12. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  13. Functional treatment versus plaster for simple elbow dislocations (FuncSiE): a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elbow dislocations can be classified as simple or complex. Simple dislocations are characterized by the absence of fractures, while complex dislocations are associated with fractures. After reduction of a simple dislocation, treatment options include immobilization in a static plaster for different periods of time or so-called functional treatment. Functional treatment is characterized by early active motion within the limits of pain with or without the use of a sling or hinged brace. Theoretically, functional treatment should prevent stiffness without introducing increased joint instability. The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to compare early functional treatment versus plaster immobilization following simple dislocations of the elbow. Methods/Design The design of the study will be a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 100 patients who have sustained a simple elbow dislocation. After reduction of the dislocation, patients are randomized between a pressure bandage for 5-7 days and early functional treatment or a plaster in 90 degrees flexion, neutral position for pro-supination for a period of three weeks. In the functional group, treatment is started with early active motion within the limits of pain. Function, pain, and radiographic recovery will be evaluated at regular intervals over the subsequent 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score. The secondary outcome measures are the Mayo Elbow Performance Index, Oxford elbow score, pain level at both sides, range of motion of the elbow joint at both sides, rate of secondary interventions and complication rates in both groups (secondary dislocation, instability, relaxation), health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 and EuroQol-5D), radiographic appearance of the elbow joint (degenerative changes and heterotopic ossifications), costs, and cost-effectiveness. Discussion The successful completion of this trial will

  14. Magnetic activity and orbital period variation of the short-period eclipsing binary DV Psc

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, Qing-feng; Zhang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Xi-liang

    2014-03-01

    We present six new BVR{sub c}I{sub c} CCD light curves of a short-period RS CVn binary DV Psc obtained in 2010-2012. The light curve distortions change on both short and long timescales, which is explained by two starspots on the primary component. Moreover, five new flare events were detected and the flare ratio of DV Psc is about 0.082 flares per hour. There is a possible relation between the phases (longitude) of the flares and starspots for all of the available data of late-type binaries, which implies a correlation of the stellar activity of the spots and flares. The cyclic oscillation, with a period of 4.9 ± 0.4 yr, may result from the magnetic activity cycle, identified by the variability of Max. I-Max. II. Until now, there were no spectroscopic studies of chromospheric activity indicators of the H{sub β} and H{sub γ} lines for DV Psc. Our observations of these indicators show that DV Psc is active, with excess emissions. The updated O – C diagram with an observing time span of about 15 yr shows an upward parabola, which indicates a secular increase in the orbital period of DV Psc. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = 2.0×10{sup –7} days yr{sup –1}, which might be explained by the angular momentum exchanges or mass transfer from the secondary to primary component.

  15. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment induces follicular growth and ovulation in seasonally anestrous mares.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L

    1987-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse infusion to stimulate follicular development and induce ovulation in seasonally anestrous standardbred mares. Seventeen mares were selected for use in this experiment, on the basis of a previous normal reproductive history, and were housed under a photoperiod of 8L:16D beginning one week prior to the start of the experiment (second week in January). Mares were infused with 20 micrograms (n = 7) or 2 micrograms (n = 6) GnRH/h, or were subjected to photoperiod treatment only (controls, n = 4). Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone did not vary, and neither significant follicular development nor ovulation was observed in any control mare throughout the experimental period (greater than 60 days). By contrast, both groups of GnRH-treated mares showed elevated serum concentrations of LH and FSH within one day after the start of infusion. Mares infused with 20 micrograms GnRH/h had at least one follicle greater than or equal to 25 mm in 7.4 +/- 1.3 (mean +/- SEM) days following the start of infusion, and ovulated in 12.0 +/- 0.7 days. In the 2-microgram-GnRH/h treatment group, a 25-mm follicle was detected in 5.7 +/- 0.7 days, and ovulation occurred after 10.0 +/- 0.3 days of infusion. Ovulation in every instance was followed by a functional luteal phase, as indicated by the profiles of progesterone secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3113502

  16. CCD photometric study and period investigation of V508 Oph

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiao, Ting-Yu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, new CCD photometric observations of V508 Oph obtained in 2009 and 2010 at the Xinglong Observatory are presented. From the new observations, six new times of minimum light were derived. The light curves were analyzed by using the 2003 version of the Wilson–Devinney program. It is found that the asymmetric light curves can be modeled by a hot spot on the secondary component. The degree of overcontact is 15.4%, implying that the system is a shallow-contact binary. Combining the new times of minimum light with the photoelectric and CCD data compiled from the database, we investigate its orbital period. The results show that the orbital period may be undergoing multiple changes: a long-term decrease at a rate of dP/dt=−(1.502±0.063)×10{sup −7} days year{sup −1}, and a small periodic variation with a period of 24.27(±0.34) years. Since V508 Oph is an overcontact system and both components are late-type stars, we discuss the possible connection between the mass transfer, magnetic activity, the third body, and the orbital period changes.

  17. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... applicable at each stage of the recipient's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age at... screening services specified under paragraph (b) of this section....

  18. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... applicable at each stage of the beneficiary's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age at... screening services specified under paragraph (b) of this section....

  19. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... applicable at each stage of the beneficiary's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age at... screening services specified under paragraph (b) of this section....

  20. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... applicable at each stage of the recipient's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age at... screening services specified under paragraph (b) of this section....

  1. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... applicable at each stage of the beneficiary's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age at... screening services specified under paragraph (b) of this section....

  2. Effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine versus food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Negus, S Stevens; Poklis, Justin L; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    One complicating factor in cocaine addiction may be concurrent exposure and potential dependence on nicotine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine versus food choice in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). For comparison, we also determined effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on cocaine versus food choice during continuous saline and nicotine treatment. Rhesus monkeys (N = 3) responded under a concurrent schedule of food pellet (1 g) and intravenous cocaine (0-0.1 mg/kg/injection) availability. Saline and ascending nicotine doses (0.1-1.0 mg/kg/hr, intravenous) were continuously infused for 7-day treatment periods and separated by 24-hr saline treatment periods. Acute effects of mecamylamine (0.32-1.8 mg/kg, intramuscular, 15 min pretreatment) were determined during continuous saline and 0.32-mg/kg/hr nicotine treatments. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice. Nicotine treatment did not alter cocaine versus food choice. In contrast, preference of 0.032 mg/kg/injection cocaine was attenuated 24 hr following termination of 0.32-mg/kg/hr nicotine treatment, despite no somatic abstinence signs being observed. Acute mecamylamine enhanced cocaine choice during saline treatment and mainly suppressed rates of behavior during nicotine treatment. Overall, continuous nicotine exposure, up to 1 mg/kg/hr, does not enhance cocaine choice and does not produce nicotine dependence, as demonstrated by the lack of abstinence signs. PMID:26098473

  3. Automated Periodical Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, David

    1985-01-01

    Describes public library reference service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select references, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…

  4. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  5. Wavelet periodicity detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, John J.; Pfander, Goetz E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of time series with respect to certain known periodicities. In particular, we shall present a fast method aimed at detecting periodic behavior inherent in noise data. The method is composed of three steps: (1) Non-noisy data are analyzed through spectral and wavelet methods to extract specific periodic patterns of interest. (2) Using these patterns, we construct an optimal piecewise constant wavelet designed to detect the underlying periodicities. (3) We introduce a fast discretized version of the continuous wavelet transform, as well as waveletgram averaging techniques, to detect occurrence and period of these periodicities. The algorithm is formulated to provide real time implementation. Our procedure is generally applicable to detect locally periodic components in signals s which can be modeled as s(t) equals A(t)F(h(t)) + N(t) for t in I, where F is a periodic signal, A is a non-negative slowly varying function, and h is strictly increasing with h' slowly varying, N denotes background activity. For example, the method can be applied in the context of epileptic seizure detection. In this case, we try to detect seizure periodics in EEG and ECoG data. In the case of ECoG data, N is essentially 1/f noise. In the case of EEG data and for t in I,N includes noise due to cranial geometry and densities. In both cases N also includes standard low frequency rhythms. Periodicity detection has other applications including ocean wave prediction, cockpit motion sickness prediction, and minefield detection.

  6. Effects of gaseous atmosphere and antioxidants on the development and cryotolerance of bovine embryos at different periods of in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália Alves de Souza; Leão, Beatriz Caetano da Silva; Nogueira, Ériklis; Accorsi, Mônica Ferreira; Mingoti, Gisele Zoccal

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of antioxidant supplementation and O2 tension on embryo development, cryotolerance and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The antioxidant supplementation consisted of 0.6 mM cysteine (CYST); 0.6 mM cysteine + 100 μM cysteamine (C+C); 100 IU catalase (CAT) or 100 μM β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) for 3 or 7 days of in vitro culture (IVC). Two O2 tensions (20% O2 [5% CO2 in air] or 7% O2, 5% CO2 and 88% N2 [gaseous mixture]) were examined. After 7 days of antioxidant supplementation, the blastocyst frequencies were adversely affected (P < 0.05) by CYST (11.2%) and C+C (1.44%), as well as by low O2 tension (17.2% and 11.11% for 20% and 7% O2, respectively) compared with the control (26.6%). The blastocyst re-expansion rates were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments (range, 66-100%). After 3 days of antioxidant supplementation, the blastocyst frequencies were not affected (P > 0.05) by any of the antioxidants (range, 43.6-48.5%), but they were reduced by low O2 tension (P < 0.05) (52.1% and 38.4% for 20% and 7% O2, respectively). The intracellular ROS levels, demonstrated as arbitrary fluorescence units, were not affected (P > 0.05) by antioxidant treatment (range, 0.78 to 0.95) or by O2 tension (0.86 and 0.88 for 20% and 7% O2, respectively). The re-expansion rates were not affected (P > 0.05) by any of the treatments (range, 63.6-93.3%). In conclusion, intracellular antioxidant supplementation and low O2 tension throughout the entire IVC period were deleterious to embryo development. However, antioxidant supplementation up to day 3 of IVC did not affect the blastocyst frequencies or intracellular ROS levels. PMID:24040954

  7. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  8. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  9. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be due to this condition include: Kidney stones (a side effect of acetazolamide) Irregular heartbeat during ... 2016:chap 99. Read More Breathing difficulty Carbohydrates Kidney stones Potassium test Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis Weakness Update Date ...

  10. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  11. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  12. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  13. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  14. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  15. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  16. Solid tumor models for the assessment of different treatment modalities. XXII. The alternate utilization of radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, W.B.; Hopkins, H.A.; Carter, W.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Major increases in the time between administration of two modalities, radiation and cyclophosphamide (CP), from 1 to 7 days and in the overall time of delivery of 3 courses of combined therapy from 24 to 35 days were carried out in rats with hepatoma 3924A without major loss of therapeutic effectiveness. Cure rates of 50% or greater could be maintained even though treatment was given over much longer time periods. The radiation was given as hyperfractionated, split-course schedules which were devised by increasing the number of 250 rad fractions over a 2-day period. Increasing the total radiation dose from 6000 to 7500 rad in the series given CP 1 day after each of three courses of radiation results in an increase in total tumor cure rates from 50% to 60%. The tumor cure rate in the series given CP 7 days after radiation increased from 10% to 70% when the total radiation dose was increased from 6000 to 7500 rad. Increasing the total radiation dose from 6000 to 7500 rad increased the magnitude of the acute skin reaction as well as the duration of recovery. However, the skin reactions for both the 6000 and 7500 rad were acceptable. Host toxicity and normal tissue reaction were within acceptable limits for both modalities. The results of these studies, therefore, indicate that excessive toxicity, one of the major deterrents to the effective combined utilization of these two primary means of cancer management, may be avoided by temporal separation of delivery while maintaining tumor cure rates of 50% or greater.

  17. Comparative clinical evaluation of the immediate and late analgesic effect of GaAlAs diode lasers of 830 and 660 nm in the treatment of dentine pain: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladalardo, Thereza C.; Mangabeira Albernaz, Pedro L.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Siqueira, Jose T.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2002-06-01

    In this comparative clinical study, we aimed at evaluating the immediate and late analgesic effect of GaAlAs diode lasers of 660 nm and 830 nm in treatment of dentine pain. We used GaAlAs diode lasers of 660 nm and 830 nm with 35 mW, continuous wave emission, spot size 1 mm2 and a dosage of 4 joules/cm2 applied to the cervical dentine surface. In total 4 treatment sessions were performed at intervals of 7 days in a period of 4 consecutive weeks. A total of 40 teeth treated were divided into two groups comprising 20 teeth each: one group irradiated with a 660 nm wavelength laser, and the other one with a 830 nm wavelength laser. By means of a quantitative visual analogue scale (V.A.S.), we measured the sensitive responses to cold stimulus pre- treatment, and at a follow-up period of 15 and 30 minutes post-treatment in both groups in order to evaluate the immediate analgesic effect. The late effect was evaluated at a follow-up period of 15 and 30 days. Using the GaAlAs diode laser of 660 nm wavelength resulted in better levels of dentine desensitization, at both immediate and late analgesic effect analysis compared with the use of the GaAlAs diode laser of 830 nm wavelength.

  18. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Rojith Karanode; Chandran, Suresh Rama; Thirumalnesan, Geetha; Doraisamy, Nedumaran

    2011-07-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly. PMID:21966655

  19. [Periodic abstinence: its possibilities].

    PubMed

    1981-05-01

    Experience with family planning mehods requiring periodic sexual abstinence has been varied. During the last decade interest has centered on 2 methods, the cervical mucus and the sympto-thermal, which are based on identifying the onset of the fertile period. During the 1970s, the Australian physicians John and Evelyn Billings developed the cervical mucus method, in which changes in the quanitity and characteristics of cervical mucus are used to determine the moment of ovulation. The sympto-thermal method depends on identification of the slight rise in basal body temperature that occurs in the latter part of the menstrual cycle as well as cervical mucus changes and sometimes the calendar to determine the fertile period. The Catholic Church has been the main proponent of periodic abstinence methods, but since 1973 the World Health Organization has invested US$3.3 million on research in such methods. The Billings method requires differentiating between dry, wet, and very wet mucus in the vagina and between different consistencies of mucus. The method ususally requires 1-3 months for instruction and sexual abstinence is usually recommended for the 1st month. The average number of days of required abstinence was 9 in a study of 66 women and 15-18 in a study of 870 women. Many women with short menstrual cycles do not experience postmenstrual dry days, in which case abstinence may be required as many as 13 days out of 23. 18.8% of users of periodic abstinence methods in 1 North American study became pregnant in the 1st year, but most were using the calendar method. Women who desired to terminate childbearing had only about 1/2 as many failures with periodic abstinence methods as did women wishing to postpone a birth. PMID:12311397

  20. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  1. Soil respiration in a long-term tillage treatment experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelybó, Györgyi; Birkás, Márta; Dencsö, Márton; Horel, Ágota; Kása, Ilona; Tóth, Eszter

    2016-04-01

    Regular soil CO2 efflux measurements have been carried out at Józsefmajor longterm tillage experimental site in 2014 and 2015 with static chamber technique in no-till and ploughing plots in seven spatial replicates. The trial was established in 2002 on a loamy chernozem soil at the experimental site of the Szent István University nearby the city Hatvan, northern Hungary. At the site sunflower (Helianthus A.) and wheat (Triticum A.) was grown in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Ancillary measurements carried out at the site included weather parameters, soil water content, soil temperature. The aim of the investigation was to detect the effect of soil disturbance and soil tillage treatments on soil CO2 emission in agricultural ecosystems. Soil respiration measurements were carried out every week during the vegetation period and campaign measurements were performed scheduled to tillage application. In this latter case, measurements were carried out 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and 7 days after tillage operation. Results showed that during the vegetation season in the majority of measurement occasions emission was higher in the no-till plots. These differences; however were not found to be statistically significant. Due to the short term effect of tillage treatment, emissions increased following tillage treatment in the ploughed plots. Soil water content was also examined as main driver of soil CO2 fluxes. Soil water content sharply decreases in the surface layer (5-10 cm depth) after tillage treatment indicating a fast drying due to soil disturbance. This effect slowly attenuated and eventually extincted in approx. two weeks. CO2 emission measurements were associated with high uncertainties as a result of the measurement technique. Our further aim is to reduce this uncertainty using independent measurement techniques on the field.

  2. Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... need surgery. In some cases, a mix of treatments works best. What medications are used to treat dysmenorrhea? Certain pain relievers, called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), target prostaglandins. ...

  3. Field Testing of High Current Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Mitigation in Reinforced Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Alexander, Joshua B.; Cardenas, Henry E.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2008-01-01

    This work examines field performance of nanoscale pozzolan treatments delivered el ctrokinetically to suppress chloride induced corrosion of concrete reinforcement. The particles are 20 nm silica spheres coated with 2 nm alumina particles that carry a net positive charge. Earlier work demonstrated that the alumina particles were stripped from the silica carriers and formed a dense phase with an interparticle spacing that is small enough to inhibit the transport of solvated chlorides. A D.C. field was used to inject the particles into the pores of concrete specimens, directly toward the mild steel bars that were embedded within each 3 inch diameter by 6 inch length concrete specimen. The voltage was held constant at 25 v per inch of concrete cover for a period of 7 days. These voltages permitted current densities as high as 3 A/sq m. During the final 3 days, a 1 molar solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate was used to provide a source of calcium to facilitate stronger and more densified phase formation within the pores. In a departure from prior work the particle treatments were started concurrent with chloride extraction in order to determine if particle delivery would inhibit chloride transport. Following treatment the specimens were immersed in seawater for 4 weeks. After this posttreatment exposure, the specimens were tested for tensile strength and the steel reinforcement was examined for evidence of corrosion. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted to assess impact on microstructure.

  4. 42 CFR 8.5 - Periodic evaluation of accreditation bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Accreditation § 8.5 Periodic evaluation of... accreditation body are in compliance with the Federal opioid treatment standards. The evaluation will include...

  5. 42 CFR 8.5 - Periodic evaluation of accreditation bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Accreditation § 8.5 Periodic evaluation of... accreditation body are in compliance with the Federal opioid treatment standards. The evaluation will include...

  6. 42 CFR 8.5 - Periodic evaluation of accreditation bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Accreditation § 8.5 Periodic evaluation of... accreditation body are in compliance with the Federal opioid treatment standards. The evaluation will include...

  7. Ayurveda during Abbasid's period.

    PubMed

    Husain, S A; Subhaktha, P K

    2000-01-01

    This is a historical paper which deals with a brief account of Abbasid's period. In this article the existence of Ayurveda in Arab countries, arrival of Ayurvedic physicians to Baghdad, their eminence, authenticity and literary additions in medical field has been studied and presented. PMID:12578013

  8. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  9. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  10. Periods and Feynman integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, Christian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    We consider multiloop integrals in dimensional regularization and the corresponding Laurent series. We study the integral in the Euclidean region and where all ratios of invariants and masses have rational values. We prove that in this case all coefficients of the Laurent series are periods.

  11. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  12. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  13. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  14. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement. PMID:18992793

  15. Facilitating entry into drug treatment among injection drug users referred from a needle exchange program: Results from a community-based behavioral intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Ricketts, Erin P.; Huettner, Steven; Cornelius, Lee; Bishai, David; Havens, Jennifer R.; Beilenson, Peter; Rapp, Charles; Lloyd, Jacqueline J.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated a case management intervention to increase treatment entry among injecting drug users referred from a needle exchange program (NEP). A randomized trial of a strengths based case management (intervention) versus passive referral (control) was conducted among NEP attenders requesting and receiving referrals to subsidized, publicly funded opiate agonist treatment programs in Baltimore, MD. Logistic regression identified predictors of treatment entry within 7 days, confirmed through treatment program records. Of 247 potential subjects, 245 (99%) participated. HIV prevalence was 19%. Overall, 34% entered treatment within 7 days (intervention: 40% versus control: 26%, p = 0.03). In a multivariate “intention to treat’ model (i.e., ignoring the amount of case management actually received), those randomized to case management were more likely to enter treatment within 7 days. Additional ‘as treated’ analyses revealed that participants who received 30 min or more of case management within 7 days were 33% more likely to enter treatment and the active ingredient of case management activities was provision of transportation. These findings demonstrate the combined value of offering dedicated treatment referrals from NEP, case management and transportation in facilitating entry into drug abuse treatment. Such initiatives could be implemented at more than 140 needle exchange programs currently operating in the United States. These data also support the need for more accessible programs such as mobile or office-based drug abuse treatment. PMID:16364566

  16. SU-E-J-17: Intra-Fractional Prostate Movement Correction During Treatment Delivery Period for Prostate Cancer Using the Intra-Fractional Orthogonal KV-MV Image Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Azawi, S; Cho-Lim, J; Wei, R; Williams, R; Frank, E

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the intra-fractional prostate movement range during the beam delivery and implement new IGRT method to correct the prostate movement during the hypofractionated prostate treatment delivery. Methods: To evaluate the prostate internal motion range during the beam delivery, 11 conventional treatments were utilized. Two-arc RapidArc plans were used for the treatment delivery. Orthogonal KV imaging is performed in the middle of the treatment to correct intra-fractional prostate movement. However, it takes gantry-mounted on-board imaging system relative long time to finish the orthogonal KV imaging because of gantry rotation. To avoid gantry movement and accelerate the IGRT processing time, orthogonal KV-MV image pair is tested using the OBI daily QA Cube phantom. Results: The average prostate movement between two orthogonal KV image pairs was 0.38cm (0.20cm ∼ 0.85cm). And the interval time between them was 6.71 min (4.64min ∼ 9.22 min). 2-arc beam delivery time is within 3 minutes for conventional RapidArc treatment delivery. Hypofractionated treatment or SBRT need 4 partial arc and possible non-coplanar technology, which need much longer beam delivery time. Therefore prostate movement might be larger. New orthogonal KV-MV image pair is a new method to correct the prostate movement in the middle of the beam delivery if real time tracking method is not available. Orthogonal KV-MV image pair doesn’t need gantry rotation. Images were acquired quickly which minimized possible new prostate movement. Therefore orthogonal KV-MV image pair is feasible for IGRT. Conclusion: Hypofractionated prostate treatment with less PTV margin always needs longer beam delivery time. Therefore prostate movement correction during the treatment delivery is critical. Orthogonal KV-MV imaging pair is efficient and accurate to correct the prostate movement during treatment beam delivery. Due to limited fraction number and high dose per fraction, the MV imaging dose is

  17. Effect on the H19 gene methylation of sperm and organs of offspring after chlorpyrifos-methyl exposure during organogenesis period.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyo-Sook; Seo, Jong-Hun; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Park, Sung-Won; Park, Young-Il; Son, Seong-Wan; Kang, Hwan-Goo; Kim, Jin Suk

    2015-12-01

    To elucidate the effect on the H19 gene methylation of sperm and organs in offspring by chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM) exposure during organogenesis period, CPM was administered at doses of 4 (CPM4), 20 (CPM20), and 100 (CPM100) mg/kg bw/day from 7 days post coitum (d.p.c.) to 17 d.p.c. after mating CAST/Ei (♂) and B6 (♀). Anogenital distance (AGD) was measured at postnatal day (PND) 21. Clinical signs, body weights, feed and water consumption, organs weights, serum hormone values, and H19 methylation level of organ and sperm were measured at PND63. Body weights were significantly lower than control until PND6. AGD was significantly decreased in the CPM100 group in males and increased in the CPM20 group in females. The absolute weights of the thymus and epididymis were significantly increased for males in all of CPM treatment groups. In the CPM20 group, absolute weights of liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, prostate gland, and testes were significantly increased. Testosterone concentrations in serum were significantly increased by CPM treatment in males. H19 methylation level of liver and thymus showed decreased pattern in a dose-dependent manner in males. The levels of H19 methylation in sperm were 73.76 ± 7.16% (Control), 57.84 ± 12.94% (CPM4), 64.24 ± 3.79% (CPM20), and 64.24 ± 3.79% (CPM100). Conclusively, CPM exposure during organogenesis period can disrupt H19 methylation in sperm, liver, and thymus and disturb the early development of offspring. PMID:25782373

  18. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  19. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  20. Histotripsy of the Prostate for the Treatment of BPH: Chronic Results From a Canine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Chris R.; Lake, Alison M.; Kieran, Kathy; Ives, Kim; Cain, Charles A.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Roberts, William W.

    2009-04-14

    Histotripsy was evaluated as a non-invasive BPH treatment. The prostates of 21 canine subjects were targeted with one of three histotripsy doses. Prostates were harvested immediately, 7 days, or 28 days after treatment and assessed for changes. Lower treatment doses were found to produced scattered cellular disruption and hemorrhage that was sometimes reversible. Higher doses perforated the urethra and produced cavities in the glandular prostate that healed to leave an enlarged urinary channel.

  1. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space. PMID:27265395

  2. The Treatment of Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, P. A. L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes sociological and medical treatment appropriate to young drug experimenters and addicts. Discusses role of teachers, probation officers, school medical services, and general practitioners. Indicates necessity for long treatment period. Considers whether dependence is a disease of delinquent behavior. (AL)

  3. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanorice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Paritosh; Landskron, Kai

    2009-02-01

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with nanorice morphology was successfully synthesized by a template assisted sol-gel method using a chain-type precursor. The PMO is composed of D and T sites in the ratio 1:2. The obtained mesoporous nanorice has a surface area of 753 m2 g-1, one-dimensional channels, and a narrow pore size distribution centered at 4.3 nm. The nanorice particles have a length of ca. 600 nm and width of ca. 200 nm.

  4. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  5. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  6. Periodate oxidation of dextrans

    SciTech Connect

    Mirgorodskaya, O.A.; Poletaeva, L.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors estimate the degree of oxidation of the thiol group in dextran with various mol. wt. and make an attempt at a kinetic description of the main parameters of the process. Polyglucin was used. The results are shown of experiments done on the estimation of the amount of products formed in the process of oxidation of polyglucin in which the reaction stopped as a result of complete exhaustion of one of the original reagents. To estimate the reactivity of the thiol group toward oxidation, the authors studied the interaction of potassium periodate with alpha-D-glucose, isolated by the monomer unit of dextran.

  7. 42 CFR 412.426 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition period. 412.426 Section 412.426 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM... inpatient operating costs and capital costs in accordance with part 413 of this chapter. (c) Treatment...

  8. Are Mantle Plumes Periodic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Prokoph, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    In the past few years, researchers have uncovered evidence that several kinds of geological and biological events seem to show regular cycles of similar lengths. For example, Rohde and Muller [2005] looked at the record of diversity of marine organisms over the past 540 million years and found evidence for two cycles in the data—a roughly 62-million-year cycle and a longer cycle of about 140 million years. This was followed by reports of an approximately 56-million-year cycle in long-term stratigraphic sequences in sedimentary basins [Meyers and Peters, 2011] and a 59-million-year period in the marine strontium-isotope record [Melott et al., 2012]. A similar period may even exist in atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 542 million years of the Phanerozoic [Franks et al., 2012]. A cycle of about 140 million years was reported by Veizer et al. [2000] and Mayhew et al. [2008] in long-term fluctuations in global climate.

  9. [Cyclocryocoagulation in treatment of neovascular glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Kovacić, Zeljko; Ivanisević, Milan; Rogosić, Veljko; Plavec, Andrea; Karelović, Deni

    2004-01-01

    Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a pathological condition of the eye with fast deterioration, accompanied with eyeball pain and loosing sight. The aim of the study was to examine the efficacy of cryotherapy in the treatment of NVG which is resistant to medical and surgical therapy, concerning intraocular pressure (IOT) and eyeball pain immediately after the treatment and 6 months after. In the Department of Ophthalmology, Split University Scool of Medicine, during three years 70 patients with NVG, which were resistant to medical and surgical treatment, were included in the prospective study. There were 50 males and 21 women, average age 74 +/- 6.94 (45-87). The patients were treated with transconjuctival cyclocryocoagulation, machine ERBOKRYIO AE-ERBE was used. The average value of IOT was: at admission 44.8 mmHg, 7 days after the treatment 30.7 mmHg with the tendency of falling down 30 and 90 days later, to finally 19.9 mmHg 180 days after the treatment. The IOT was significantly lower after the treatment. At admission, the average value of eyeball pain intensity was high (4.2), 7 days after the treatment it was 2.1 with the tendency of falling down to finally 1.1 180 days after the treatment. The eyeball pain intensity was significantly lower after the treatment. Cyclocryocoagulation is a method of choice in the treatment of NVG resistant to medical and surgical treatment. Cyclocryocoagulation, as a treatment of noncontrolled progressive NVG, does not have any effect on the improvement of sight in these patient. PMID:15918320

  10. Microbial biofilm proliferation within sealer-root dentin interfaces is affected by sealer type and aging period

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Karina A; Friedman, Shimon; Lévesque, Céline M; Basrani, Bettina R; Finer, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Background Root canal fillings are intended to prevent microbial proliferation over time in the canal after treatment. Objective To assess biofilm proliferation within the sealer-dentin interfaces of two methacrylate resin-based systems, self-etch (SE) and total-etch (TE), and an epoxy resin-based sealer (EP), aged for up to 6 months. Methods Standardized specimens (n=45) comprising the coronal 5 mm of human roots were filled with the test materials and gutta-percha. Specimens were either not pre-incubated (control; n=9), or incubated in sterile saline for 1 week, 1 month, 3 months or 6 months (n=3/group). Monospecies biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis were grown on the specimens for 7 days in a chemostat-based biofilm fermentor mimicking pathogenic oral conditions. The extent of E. faecalis proliferation within the sealer-dentin interface for each material and incubation period group was assessed using fluorescence microscopy of dihydroethidium-stained specimens. Results TE had less biofilm proliferation than both EP and SE (p<0.01). Deeper biofilm proliferation was detected in SE and EP specimens aged for 1 and 3 months than those aged for 1 week or 6 months (p<0.05). Maximum depth of biofilm penetration was recorded for SE at 1 month (p<0.05). Conclusion Within the test model used, the self-etch and epoxy resin-based sealers were more susceptible to interfacial biofilm proliferation than the total-etch restorative material. This susceptibility diminished after aging the materials’ interfaces for 6 months. PMID:22892745

  11. A Case of Persistent and Possibly Treatment Resistant Pharyngeal Gonorrhea.

    PubMed

    Levy, Vivian; Pandori, Mark; Berrada, Zenda L; Relucio, Karen I; Lopez, Teresa P; Samuel, Michael C; Park, Ina U

    2016-04-01

    An HIV-negative man with pharyngeal gonorrhea had a positive test-of-cure (nucleic acid amplification test) result 7 days after treatment with ceftriaxone/azithromycin. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Multi-Antigen Sequencing Type 1407 and mosaic pen A (XXXIV) gene were identified in the test-of-cure specimen, and culture was negative. Retreatment with ceftriaxone 500 mg intramuscularly plus azithromycin 2 g orally yielded a negative test-of-cure result. PMID:26967304

  12. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    PubMed

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics. PMID:27514147

  13. Botulinum Toxin A for the Treatment of a Child with SUNCT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Haifeng; Lian, Ya-Jun; Ma, Yun-Qing; Xie, Nan-Chang; Cheng, Xuan; Zhang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) syndrome is an unusual cause of headache, mainly described in older adults, and is rare in children. Pain attacks may be severe, frequent, and prolonged. The therapeutic benefits of many drugs are disappointing. Patient and Methods. A 12-year-old boy suffered severe headache and toothache for 20 days. As treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticonvulsants, and steroids proved ineffective, he was treated with ipsilateral multisite subcutaneous injections of botulinum toxin A 70 U around the orbit, the temporal area, and the upper gum. Results. The pain had reduced in frequency and severity by the fourth day after treatment and had completely disappeared after 7 days. There were no side effects or recurrence during a subsequent 17-month follow-up period. Conclusion. Botulinum toxin A can be used to treat the first episode of SUNCT in children over the age of 12 years. PMID:27445629

  14. Severe Pit Viper Envenomation with Extended Clinical Signs and Treatment Complications in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Schaer, Michael; Buckley, Gareth J; Conner, Bobbi J; Cuddy, Laura C; Vigani, Alessio; Vansickle, Allison E; Coisman, James G; DeVuyst, Deanna R; Bandt, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the extended clinical abnormalities that can occur in severe snake envenomation and the clinical signs associated with antivenom hypersensitivity in a 3 yr old dog. Treatment consisted of IV fluid therapy, analgesics, a vasopressor, cardiac antiarrhythmia drugs, and polyvalent pit viper antivenom. Following initial response to treatment, relapse of clinical signs occurred. Most interesting was the recrudescence of clinical signs on day 7 that may have been caused by the release of deposited venom during surgical debridement of necrotic skin. The resulting extensive clinical signs required multiple vials of antivenom (22 vials over a 7 day period). Both F(ab')2 antivenom and antivenin (Crotalidae) polyvalent were used in this dog because of availability logistics. It is thought that this large amount of antivenom resulted in type I (anaphylaxis) and type III hypersensitivity (serum sickness) reactions. The dog made a complete clinical recovery. This description of extended, fluctuating clinical abnormalities that were associated with envenomation together with the development of hypersensitivity reactions that were presumably secondary to antivenom administration is information that can be useful for the management of patients afflicted with severe pit viper envenomation. PMID:26355585

  15. Modeling the contribution of individual proteins to mixed skeletal muscle protein synthetic rates over increasing periods of label incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Christopher A.; Peelor, Fredrick F.; Shipman, Patrick D.; Hamilton, Karyn L.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in stable isotope approaches, primarily the use of deuterium oxide (2H2O), allow for long-term measurements of protein synthesis, as well as the contribution of individual proteins to tissue measured protein synthesis rates. Here, we determined the influence of individual protein synthetic rates, individual protein content, and time of isotopic labeling on the measured synthesis rate of skeletal muscle proteins. To this end, we developed a mathematical model, applied the model to an established data set collected in vivo, and, to experimentally test the impact of different isotopic labeling periods, used 2H2O to measure protein synthesis in cultured myotubes over periods of 2, 4, and 7 days. We first demonstrated the influence of both relative protein content and individual protein synthesis rates on measured synthesis rates over time. When expanded to include 286 individual proteins, the model closely approximated protein synthetic rates measured in vivo. The model revealed a 29% difference in measured synthesis rates from the slowest period of measurement (20 min) to the longest period of measurement (6 wk). In support of these findings, culturing of C2C12 myotubes with isotopic labeling periods of 2, 4, or 7 days revealed up to a doubling of the measured synthesis rate in the shorter labeling period compared with the longer period of labeling. From our model, we conclude that a 4-wk period of labeling is ideal for considering all proteins in a mixed-tissue fraction, while minimizing the slowing effect of fully turned-over proteins. In addition, we advocate that careful consideration must be paid to the period of isotopic labeling when comparing mixed protein synthetic rates between studies. PMID:25593288

  16. Effect of low-level laser treatment of tissue-engineered skin substitutes: contraction of collagen lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barbenel, Joseph; Grant, M. Helen

    2009-05-01

    Fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCL) are widely used in tissue-engineered artificial skin substitutes, but their main drawback is that interaction of fibroblasts and matrix causes contraction of the lattice, reducing it to about 20% of its original area. The effect of low-level laser treatment (LLLT) on the behavior of 3T3 fibroblasts seeded in collagen lattices containing 20% chondroitin-6-sulphate was investigated to determine whether LLLT could control the contraction of FPCL. A He-Ne laser was used at 632.8 nm to deliver a 5-mW continuous wave with fluences from 1 to 4 J/cm2. Laser treatment at 3 J/cm2 increased contraction of collagen lattices in the absence of cells but decreased contraction of cell seeded lattices over a 7-day period. The effect was energy dependent and was not observed at 1, 2, or 4 J/cm2. There was no alteration in fibroblast viability, morphology, or mitochondrial membrane potential after any laser treatments, but the distribution of actin fibers within the cells and collagen fibers in the matrices was disturbed at 3 J/cm2. These effects contribute to the decrease in contraction observed. LLLT may offer a means to control contraction of FPCL used as artificial skin substitutes.

  17. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  18. Brinzolamide 1%/timolol versus dorzolamide 2%/timolol in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: prospective randomized patient-preference study

    PubMed Central

    Altafini, Romeo; Scherzer, Maria-Luise; Hubatsch, Douglas A; Frezzotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to assess preference for fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% (BTFC) versus fixed-combination dorzolamide 2%/timolol 0.5% (DTFC) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods In this prospective, single-masked crossover study, patients were randomized 1:1 to BTFC-DTFC or DTFC-BTFC treatment sequences. Patients self-administered each medication for 7 days, with a 48-hour washout period between treatments, and rated ocular discomfort after each treatment period. Medication preferences based on ocular comfort (primary endpoint) and anticipated adherence were assessed. Safety outcomes included adverse events and intraocular pressure. Between-group differences in treatment preference and ocular discomfort scores were analyzed using chi-square and Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney tests, respectively. Adherence, intraocular pressure, and adverse events were summarized descriptively. Results In total, 112 patients were enrolled (mean ± SD age, 66±11 years), and 109 patients completed the study. Numerically, more patients in the intent-to-treat dataset preferred BTFC versus DTFC (59.3% versus 40.7%); however, this result was not statistically significant (treatment difference, 18.6%; P=0.0670). Mean ocular discomfort scores (range, 0–9) were statistically significantly lower with BTFC versus DTFC (2.6 versus 3.7; P=0.0002, Wilcoxon– Mann–Whitney test). More patients who preferred BTFC over DTFC were confident that they would adhere to their preferred medication. Treatment-related adverse events included blurred vision with BTFC and eye irritation or eye pain with DTFC. Conclusion BTFC and DTFC were preferred by approximately 60% and 40% of patients, respectively, and BTFC was associated with less patient-reported ocular discomfort. Greater ocular comfort of glaucoma medications may improve treatment adherence. PMID:26664041

  19. Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, and Outcomes of Kawasaki Disease Among Hospitalized Children in an Inner City Hospital Before and After Publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics/American Heart Association Guidelines for Treatment of Kawasaki Disease: An 11-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Swati; Chen, Xinguang; Ang, Jocelyn Y

    2015-11-01

    The effect of 2004 Kawasaki disease (KD) guidelines on diagnosis and outcome of KD is lacking. We studied the epidemiology of KD in our region and compared the incidence, presentation, and outcome of KD before and after publication of the guidelines. A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients admitted with a diagnosis of KD. Demographics, laboratory data, and clinical data were collected. Comparison was made between 2 groups: prepublication (2000-2004) and postpublication (2005-2009) of guidelines. A total of 312 children were included; 64% were African American, 23% White, and 2% Asian; 61% were boys; 79% were complete KD, and 66% were in winter/spring. There was a significant increase in KD cases over the 11 years. There was no significant difference in clinical findings and outcome between the 2 groups. KD admissions in our region significantly increased during the postpublication period. There was no difference in clinical presentation, laboratory findings, or outcome between the 2 groups. PMID:26134553

  20. [Comparative study for the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of metronidazole and secnidazole in the treatment of vaginal trichomoniasis].

    PubMed

    Buitrón García Figueroa, R; Gonzalo Butrón López, F; Oropez Rechy, G; Romero-Cabello, R

    1997-11-01

    Presently study included 3 groups of 20 women with tricomoniasis demonstrated parasitologicaly for oozing vaginal, the first group received treatment with vaginal ova with metronidazol for 10 days, the second group ova of secnidazol for 3 days and the third group ova of secnidazol for 7 days. The results showed that the clinical manifestations dimanished significantly and the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis disappeared from the vaginal cavity, therefore cure was achieved parasitological in all the cases. We concluded that they are equally useful the metronidazol for 10 days, and the secnidazol for 3 or 7 days, without the presence of adverse effects. PMID:9441152

  1. Treatment of Giardiasis

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Timothy B.; Hill, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is both the most common intestinal parasite in the United States and a frequent cause of diarrheal illness throughout the world. In spite of its recognition as an important human pathogen, there have been relatively few agents used in therapy. This paper discusses each class of drugs used in treatment, along with their mechanism of action, in vitro and clinical efficacy, and side effects and contraindications. Recommendations are made for the preferred treatment in different clinical situations. The greatest clinical experience is with the nitroimidazole drugs, i.e., metronidazole, tinidazole, and ornidazole, which are highly effective. A 5- to 7-day course of metronidazole can be expected to cure over 90% of individuals, and a single dose of tinidazole or ornidazole will cure a similar number. Quinacrine, which is no longer produced in the United States, has excellent efficacy but may be poorly tolerated, especially in children. Furazolidone is an effective alternative but must be administered four times a day for 7 to 10 days. Paromomycin may be used during early pregnancy, because it is not systematically absorbed, but it is not always effective. Patients who have resistant infection can usually be cured by a prolonged course of treatment with a combination of a nitroimidazole with quinacrine. PMID:11148005

  2. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  3. Improving Adherence to Sertraline Treatment: The Effectiveness of a Patient Education Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bron, Morgan S.; O'Neill, John; Fogel, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Background: Previous attempts to improve anti-depressant adherence have achieved mixed results. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a patient education intervention designed to increase adherence to sertraline treatment. Method: Data from a national pharmacy claims database were used to retrospectively match (along key demographic and clinical variables) consecutive patients prescribed sertraline (N = 1462) who received an educational intervention (Knowing More) between May 1, 2003, and April 30, 2004, with a control group of concurrent sertraline-treated patients who did not receive the intervention (N = 1462). The intervention consisted of 10 newsletters distributed over a 9-month period by mail and e-mail. The intervention and control groups were compared over a 7-month follow-up period on 3 adherence measures: time to discontinuation, days on therapy, and percentage of days on therapy. Results: Cox regression analysis revealed that the time to discontinuation of sertraline (median = 100 days) was significantly greater (p < .0001) for the intervention group compared with the control group (median = 60 days). By the end of the follow-up period, 27% of patients remained on therapy with Knowing More versus 15% of those not enrolled in the compliance program. The mean number of days on therapy was 24.8 days (25.5%) longer for the intervention group compared with the control group (122.5 days for the intervention group versus 97.7 days for the control group). The percentage of days on therapy was 88.2% for the intervention group versus 77.7% for the control group among patients with at least 1 refill prescription (p < .001). Conclusion: The educational compliance intervention, Knowing More, was associated with a significant increase in adherence to antidepressant treatment. PMID:17235385

  4. Susceptibility to monocular deprivation following immersion in darkness either late into or beyond the critical period.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Kevin R; Lingley, Alexander J; Holman, Kaitlyn D; Mitchell, Donald E

    2016-09-01

    An extended duration of darkness starting near the time of birth preserves immature neuronal characteristics and prolongs the accentuated plasticity observed in young animals. Brief periods of complete darkness have emerged as an effective means of restoring a high capacity for neural plasticity and of promoting recovery from the effects of monocular deprivation (MD). We examined whether 10 days of darkness imposed in adulthood or beyond the peak of the critical period could rejuvenate the ability of MD to reduce the size of neuron somata within deprived layers of the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). For adult cats subjected to 10 days of darkness before 7 days of MD, we observed no alteration in neuron size or neurofilament labeling within the dLGN. At 12 weeks of age, MD that followed immediately after 10 days of darkness produced an enhanced reduction of neuron soma size within deprived dLGN layers. For this age we observed that 10 days of darkness also enhanced the loss of neurofilament protein within deprived dLGN layers. These results indicate that, although 10 days of darkness in adulthood does not enhance the susceptibility to 7 days of MD, darkness imposed near the trailing edge of the critical period can restore a heightened susceptibility to MD more typical of an earlier developmental stage. The loss of neurofilament in juveniles exposed to darkness prior to MD suggests that the enhanced capacity for structural plasticity is partially rooted in the ability of darkness to modulate molecules that inhibit plasticity. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2643-2653, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26878686

  5. Nutrient removal and biogas upgrading by integrating freshwater algae cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yongjun; Zhao, Guohua; Zhang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    An integrated approach that combined freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment was investigated in this study. The characteristics of algal growth, biogas production, and nutrient removal were examined using photobioreactor bags (PBRbs) to cultivate S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in digestate with various digestate dilutions (the concentration levels of 3200, 2200, 1600, 1200, 800, and 400 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)) during 7-day period. The effects of the level of pollutants on nutrient removal efficiency and CO2 removal process were investigated to select the optimum system for effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. The treatment performance displayed that average removal rates of COD, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and CO2 were 61.58-75.29, 58.39-74.63, 70.09-88.79, and 54.26-73.81 %, respectively. All the strains grew well under any the dilution treatments. With increased initial nutrient concentration to a certain range, the CO4 content (v/v) of raw biogas increased. Differences in the biogas enrichment of S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in all treatments mainly resulted from variations in biomass productivity and CO2 uptake. Notably, the diluted digestate sample of 1600 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for S. obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient and CO2 removals, as well as the highest productivities of biomass and biogas upgrading, were revealed. Results showed that microalgal biomass production offered real opportunities to address issues such as CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment, and biogas production. PMID:25808519

  6. Treatment Outcomes From a Specialist Model for Treating Tobacco Use Disorder in a Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael V.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; McFadden, David D.; Hays, J. Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cigarette smoking causes premature mortality and multiple morbidity; stop smoking improves health. Higher rates of smoking cessation can be achieved through more intensive treatment, consisting of medication and extended counseling of patients, but there are challenges to integrating these interventions into healthcare delivery systems. A care model using a master-level counselor trained as a tobacco treatment specialist (TTS) to deliver behavioral intervention, teamed with a supervising physician/prescriber, affords an opportunity to integrate more intensive tobacco dependence treatment into hospitals, clinics, and other medical systems. This article analyzes treatment outcomes and predictors of abstinence for cigarette smokers being treated using the TTS-physician team in a large outpatient clinic over a 7-year period. This is an observational study of a large cohort of cigarette smokers treated for tobacco dependence at a medical center. Patients referred by the primary healthcare team for a TTS consult received a standard assessment and personalized treatment planning guided by a workbook. Medication and behavioral plans were developed collaboratively with each patient. Six months after the initial assessment, a telephone call was made to ascertain a 7-day period of self-reported abstinence. The univariate association of each baseline patient characteristic with self-reported tobacco abstinence at 6 months was evaluated using the chi-squared test. In addition, a multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with self-reported tobacco abstinence as the dependent variable and all baseline characteristics included as explanatory variables. Over a period of 7 years (2005–2011), 6824 cigarette smokers who provided general research authorization were seen for treatment. The 6-month self-reported abstinence rate was 28.1% (95% confidence interval: 27.7–30.1). The patients most likely to report abstinence were less dependent, more motivated to quit

  7. Treatment of LD100 Escherichia coli septic shock with netilmicin and methylprednisolone in baboons.

    PubMed

    Flournoy, D J; Archer, L T; Beller, B K; Passey, R; Hinshaw, L B

    1986-01-01

    Treatment efficacy with netilmicin sulphate/methylprednisolone sodium succinate in a severe septic shock baboon model, using an LD100 of live Escherichia coli, was evaluated. All the animals treated with both netilmicin and methylprednisolone were permanent (greater than or equal to 7 days) survivors, whereas none of the untreated baboons lived more than 24 hours. These results indicate that, in a baboon model, netilmicin is an effective alternative to gentamicin (with methylprednisolone) in the treatment of severe septic shock. PMID:3526104

  8. Period variations in SZ ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. K.

    1990-06-01

    Results are presented of a detailed period study of the eclipsing binary system SZ Arietis, based on up-to-date collection of minima. A new period (P = 1.7175405 d) of the SZ Ari was found, and the period changes (with the new period) in different portions of the O-C diagram were estimated. The average period change (leaving out an unusual value) was estimated to be about 0.00006 d. The O-C diagram displayed a sinusoidal variation, indicating that the SZ Ari system may be a three-body system, having a period of nearly 66 years.

  9. Developmental changes in hepatic glucose metabolism in a newborn piglet model: A comparative analysis for suckling period and early weaning period.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Wang, Qinhua; Wang, Jing; Tan, Bie; Fan, Zhiyong; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2016-02-19

    The liver glucose metabolism, supplying sufficient energy for glucose-dependent tissues, is important in suckling or weaned animals, although there are few studies with piglet model. To better understand the development of glucose metabolism in the piglets during suckling period and early weaning period, we determined the hepatic glycogen content, and investigated the relative protein expression of key enzymes of glucogenesis (GNG) and mRNA levels of some glucose metabolism-related genes. During suckling period, the protein level of G6Pase in the liver of suckling piglets progressively declined with day of age compared with that of newborn piglets (at 1 day of age), whereas the PEPCK level stabilized until day 21 of age, indicating that hepatic GNG capacity gradually weakened in suckling piglets. The synthesis of hepatic glycogen, which was consistent with the fluctuation of glycolytic key genes PFKL and PKLR that gradually decreased after birth and was more or less steady during latter suckling period, although both the mRNA levels of GCK and key glucose transporter GLUT2 presented uptrend in suckling piglets. However, early weaning significantly suppressed the hepatic GNG in the weaned piglets, especially at d 3-5 of weaning period, then gradually recovered at d 7 of weaning period. Meanwhile, PFKL, PKLR and GLUT2 showed the similar trend during weaning period. On the contrast, the hepatic glycogen reached the maximum value when the G6Pase and PEPCK protein expression were at the lowest level, although the GCK level maintained increasing through 7 days of weaning period. Altogether, our study provides evidence that hepatic GNG and glycolysis in newborn piglets were more active than other days during suckling period, and early weaning could significantly suppressed glucose metabolism in liver, but this inhibition would progressively recover at day 7 after weaning. PMID:26802463

  10. Influence of advancing age on clinical presentation, treatment efficacy and safety, and long-term outcome of pre-excitation syndromes: a retrospective cohort study of 961 patients included over a 25-year period

    PubMed Central

    Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Olivier, Arnaud; Sellal, Jean-Marc; Manenti, Vladimir; Brembilla, Alice; Villemin, Thibaut; Admant, Philippe; Beurrier, Daniel; Bozec, Erwan; Girerd, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There are very little data on pre-excitation syndrome (PS) in the elderly. We investigated the influence of advancing age on clinical presentation, treatment and long-term outcome of PS. Setting Single-centre retrospective study of patient files. Participants In all, 961 patients (72 patients ≥60 years (mean 68.5±6), 889 patients <60 years (mean 30.5±14)) referred for overt pre-excitation and indication for electrophysiological study (EPS) were followed for 5.3±5 years. Usual care included 24 h Holter monitoring, echocardiography and EPS. Patients underwent accessory pathway (AP) ablation if necessary. Primary and secondary outcome measures Occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) or procedure-induced adverse event. Results Electrophysiological data and recourse to AP ablation (43% vs 48.5%, p=0.375) did not significantly differ between the groups. Older patients more often had symptomatic forms (81% vs 63%, p=0.003), history of spontaneous AF (8% vs 3%, p=0.01) or adverse presentation (poorly tolerated arrhythmias: 18% vs 7%, p=0.0009). In multivariable analysis, patients ≥60 years had a significantly higher risk of history of AF (OR=4.2, 2.1 to 8.3, p=0.001) and poorly tolerated arrhythmias (OR=3.8, 1.8 to 8.1, p=0.001). Age ≥60 years was associated with an increased major AP ablation complication risk (10% vs 1.9%, p=0.006). During follow-up, occurrence of AF (13.9% vs 3.6%, p<0.001) and incidence of poorly tolerated tachycardia (4.2% vs 0.6%, p=0.001) were more frequent in patients ≥60 years, although frequency of ablation failure or recurrence was similar (20% vs 15.5%, p=0.52). In multivariable analysis, patients ≥60 years had a significantly higher risk of AF (OR=2.9, 1.2 to 6.8, p≤0.01). Conclusions In this retrospective monocentre study, patients ≥60 years referred for PS work up appeared at higher risk of AF and adverse presentation, both prior and after the work up. These results suggest that, in elderly

  11. Photometric and period analysis of contact binary V608 Cassiopeiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Qian, S. B.; He, J. J.; Li, L. J.; Zhao, E. G.; Jiang, L. Q.; Han, Z. T.

    2016-02-01

    The first complete VRcIc light curves of V608 Cas are presented and analyzed by using the 2010 version of the W-D code. The photometric results show that V608 Cas is a moderate mass-ratio (q = 0.373 ± 0.005), shallow contact (f = 19.7 ± 4.9 %) binary. A cool spot is present on the massive component. The orbital period of V608 Cas may increase continuously according to the (O - C) diagram, with a rate of dP / dt = + 6.49 ×10-7 days/year. The fundamental parameters of V608 Cas are estimated as: M1 = 0.95 ± 0.15M⊙ , M2 = 0.35 ± 0.08M⊙ , R1 = 0.78 ± 0.12R⊙ , R2 = 0.50 ± 0.10R⊙ , L1 = 0.563 ± 0.112L⊙ , L2 = 0.233 ± 0.086L⊙ , where the uncertainties mainly come from the uncertainty of the primary's effective temperature.

  12. Empyema thoracis: a review of a 4 1/2 year experience of cases requiring surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Forty, J; Yeatman, M; Wells, F C

    1990-03-01

    During the period January 1985 to June 1989, 53 cases of empyema thoracis were treated surgically at Papworth hospital regional cardio-thoracic centre. Of these, 47 patients underwent thoracotomy and decortication as their primary surgical treatment. The remaining six patients were treated by rib resection. Prior to surgical referral 20 of these had undergone previous tube drainage for a mean period of 18 days (range 7-42 days). The principle cause of empyema was broncho-pulmonary infection. In 57% of cases no organisms were isolated from pleural debris or fluid. In the remainder, a variety of organisms were encountered. Early surgical drainage and freeing of the underlying lung met with good results and no deaths in the uncomplicated group. The median duration of postoperative chest drainage for the whole group was 7 days (mean 12 days) and median postoperative in-hospital stay was 13 days (mean 20 days). This is in stark contrast to the duration of hospitalization of patients prior to surgical referral (mean 103.6 days). There were five deaths. All occurred in patients with severe debilitating associated illnesses. In these patients initial drainage of the empyema space with a tube or by rib resection may have allowed recovery prior to more major surgery. PMID:2371438

  13. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity – very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  14. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  15. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity - very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  16. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... certain temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement. Establishing this...). SUPPLEMENTARY HISTORY: On February 3, 2011, the Postal Service filed a request for temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement for various market dominant postal services,...

  17. Cholestasis beyond the Neonatal and Infancy Periods.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Racha; Phen, Claudia; Karjoo, Sara; Wilsey, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Cholestasis results from impairment in the excretion of bile, which may be due to mechanical obstruction of bile flow or impairment of excretion of bile components into the bile canaliculus. When present, cholestasis warrants prompt diagnosis and treatment. The differential diagnosis of cholestasis beyond the neonatal period is broad and includes congenital and acquired etiologies. It is imperative that the clinician differentiates between intrahepatic and extrahepatic origin of cholestasis. Treatment may be supportive or curative and depends on the etiology. Recent literature shows that optimal nutritional and medical support also plays an integral role in the management of pediatric patients with chronic cholestasis. This review will provide a broad overview of the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and management of cholestasis beyond the neonatal and infancy periods. PMID:27066444

  18. Cholestasis beyond the Neonatal and Infancy Periods

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Racha; Phen, Claudia; Karjoo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Cholestasis results from impairment in the excretion of bile, which may be due to mechanical obstruction of bile flow or impairment of excretion of bile components into the bile canaliculus. When present, cholestasis warrants prompt diagnosis and treatment. The differential diagnosis of cholestasis beyond the neonatal period is broad and includes congenital and acquired etiologies. It is imperative that the clinician differentiates between intrahepatic and extrahepatic origin of cholestasis. Treatment may be supportive or curative and depends on the etiology. Recent literature shows that optimal nutritional and medical support also plays an integral role in the management of pediatric patients with chronic cholestasis. This review will provide a broad overview of the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and management of cholestasis beyond the neonatal and infancy periods. PMID:27066444

  19. Treatment of Sporadic Acute Puerperal Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Barton, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this study were to compare the efficacy of amoxicillin and cephradine for the treatment of sporadic acute puerperal mastitis (SAPM) and to evaluate the microbiology and clinical parameters of this infection. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study comparing amoxicillin, 500 mg orally q 8 h for 7 days, and cephradine, 500 mg orally q 6 h for 7 days. The diagnostic criteria for SAPM included a temperature of ≥37.56℃ (≥99.6℉) and erythema and tenderness of the breast(s). Results: Twenty-seven consecutive outpatients with SAPM were evaluated for admission to the study, and 25 of these were enrolled. The mean temperature at enrollment was 38.17℃ (100.7℉), with a mean WBC count of 11,440/μl. The most frequent bacterial isolates from expressed milk were Staphylococcus aureus (7), staphylococcal species (coagulase negative) (8), and α-hemolytic streptococci (4). There were no significant differences between the 2 antibiotic regimens in cure rate, mean days to resolution of symptoms, or recurrence within 30 days. Both of the treatment failures and 1 of the 3 recurrences within 30 days were amoxicillin-treated patients whose cultures grew S. aureus. Conclusions: Oral amoxicillin and cephradine appear equally effective in the treatment of SAPM. Staphylococci were the most frequent isolates from the milk of women with mastitis. PMID:18476075

  20. Betelgeuse Period Analysis Using VSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, F.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Betelgeuse was studied using the VSTAR software package and analysis of the observations in the AAVSO database. Period analysis derived a period of 376 days, in comparison with literature periods of 420 days using satellite UV data but significantly different from the VSX period of 2,335 days. The unique set of PEP observations of this star is also shown and advantage of PEP Johnson V observations is shown in comparison with the visual observations.

  1. Treatment of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Décousus, Hervé; Mismetti, Patrick; Couturaud, Francis; Ageno, Walter; Bauersachs, Rupert

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of pulmonary embolism is going to be deeply modified by the development of Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs). There are currently three anti-Xa factors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) and one anti-IIa factor (dabigatran) labeled by the FDA and the EMA. All these drugs are direct anticoagulant, orally effective, without the need for adaptation to hemostasis test. As kidney excretion is involved for all of them, they are contra-indicated in patients with severe renal failure (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min according to Cockcroft & Gault formula). All the anti-Xa factor drugs are metabolized by liver cytochromes and then contra-indicated in case of liver insufficiency. Of note, the four DOACS have been evaluated in non-inferiority trials, including one open-label trial (the EINSTEIN program with the rivaroxaban). Moreover, two of them (rivaroxaban and apixaban) were evaluated in a single drug approach (provided initial increased doses: 15 mg bid during 21 days for rivaroxaban and 10 mg bid during 7 days for apixaban) whereas the two others (edoxaban and dabigatran) were evaluated after at least 5 days of parenteral heparin. They were found to be non-inferior to the conventional treatment, but also seem to be associated with a decreased risk of major bleeding, in a quite young and without significant comorbidities population. The risk/benefit ratio of DOACs in specific subgroups deserves prospective validations. PMID:26547678

  2. Detrimental effects of antiapoptotic treatments in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Cittelly, Diana M; Nesic, Olivera; Johnson, Kathia; Hulsebosch, Claire; Perez-Polo, J Regino

    2008-04-01

    Long-term functional impairments due to spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat result from secondary apoptotic death regulated, in part, by SCI-induced decreases in protein levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL. We have shown that exogenous administration of Bcl-xL spares neurons 24 h after SCI. However, long-term effects of chronic application of Bcl-xL have not been characterized. To counteract SCI-induced decreases in Bcl-xL and resulting apoptosis, we used the TAT protein transduction domain fused to the Bcl-xL protein (Tat-Bcl-xL), or its antiapoptotic domain BH4 (Tat-BH4). We used intrathecal delivery of Tat-Bcl-xL, or Tat-BH4, into injured spinal cords for 24 h or 7 days, and apoptosis, neuronal death and locomotor recovery were assessed up to 2 months after injury. Both, Tat-Bcl-xL and Tat-BH4, significantly decreased SCI-induced apoptosis in thoracic segments containing the site of injury (T10) at 24 h or 7 days after SCI. However, the 7-day delivery of Tat-Bcl-xL, or Tat-BH4, also induced a significant impairment of locomotor recovery that lasted beyond the drug delivery time. We found that the 7-day administration of Tat-Bcl-xL, or Tat-BH4, significantly increased non-apoptotic neuronal loss and robustly augmented microglia/macrophage activation. These results indicate that the antiapoptotic treatment targeting Bcl-xL shifts neuronal apoptosis to necrosis, increases the inflammatory response and impairs locomotor recovery. Our results suggest that a combinatorial treatment consisting of antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory agents may be necessary to achieve tissue preservation and significant improvement in functional recovery after SCI. PMID:18302959

  3. Randomized trials of dichlorphenamide in the periodic paralyses. Working Group on Periodic Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Tawil, R; McDermott, M P; Brown, R; Shapiro, B C; Ptacek, L J; McManis, P G; Dalakas, M C; Spector, S A; Mendell, J R; Hahn, A F; Griggs, R C

    2000-01-01

    Although the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have been used in the treatment of the primary periodic paralyses (PPs), their efficacy has not been demonstrated in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Therefore, we tested the efficacy of dichlorphenamide (DCP; Daranide), a potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, in the treatment of episodic weakness in the primary PPs. We performed two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trials, one involving 42 subjects with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) and the other involving 31 subjects with potassium-sensitive periodic paralysis (PSPP). In each trial, two 8-week treatment periods were separated by an active washout period of at least 9 weeks. The primary outcome variable in the HypoPP trial was the occurrence of an intolerable increase in attack severity or frequency (end point). The primary outcome variable in the PSPP trial was the number of attacks per week. In the HypoPP trial, there were 13 subjects who exhibited a preference (in terms of the end point) for either DCP or placebo, and 11 of these preferred DCP. In the PSPP trial, DCP significantly reduced attack rates relative to placebo. DCP also significantly reduced attack rates relative to placebo in the HypoPP subjects. We conclude that DCP is effective in the prevention of episodic weakness in both HypoPP and PSPP. PMID:10632100

  4. An investigation into the effect of cimetidine pre-treatment on raft formation of an anti-reflux agent.

    PubMed

    Washington, N; Wilson, C G; Williams, D L; Robertson, C

    1993-10-01

    It is now becoming common practice to co-administer H2-receptor antagonists and anti-reflux agents in the treatment of reflux oesophagitis. The mechanism by which anti-reflux agents achieve flotation requires a small amount of gastric acid to be present in the stomach. This study investigated whether an anti-reflux agent would remain effective after the decrease in acid secretion produced by a typical clinical dosage regimen of cimetidine (400 mg q.d.s., 7 days). Gastric distribution and residence of a meal and an anti-reflux agent were assessed in 12 normal subjects using gamma scintigraphy. The area under the gastric and fundal emptying curves demonstrated that Liquid Gaviscon (sodium alginate compound) had a significantly greater gastric residence than the meal, both during the control period and after cimetidine pretreatment, and that the majority of the Gaviscon was located in the fundus. The distribution of Gaviscon into the fundus was not affected by cimetidine pretreatment. Cimetidine pre-treatment slightly, but not significantly, increased the time for half the meal and the Gaviscon to empty from the stomach. The results suggest that the mechanism of action of Liquid Gaviscon is not compromised by concurrent H2-antagonist therapy. PMID:8280824

  5. Is early post-operative treatment with 5-fluorouracil possible without affecting anastomotic strength in the intestine?

    PubMed Central

    van der Kolk, B M; de Man, B M; Wobbes, T; Hendriks, T

    1999-01-01

    Early post-operative local or systemic administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is under investigation as a means to improve outcome after resection of intestinal malignancies. It is therefore quite important to delineate accurately its potentially negative effects on anastomotic repair. Five groups (n = 24) of rats underwent resection and anastomosis of both ileum and colon: a control group and four experimental groups receiving daily 5-FU, starting immediately after operation or after 1, 2 or 3 days. Within each group, the drug (or saline) was delivered either intraperitoneally (n = 12) or intravenously (n = 12). Animals were killed 7 days after operation and healing was assessed by measurement of anastomotic bursting pressure, breaking strength and hydroxyproline content. In all cases, 5-FU treatment from the day of operation or from day 1 significantly (P < 0.025) and severely suppressed wound strength; concomitantly, the anastomotic hydroxyproline content was reduced. Depending on the location of the anastomosis and the route of 5-FU administration, even a period of 3 days between operation and first dosage seemed insufficient to prevent weakening of the anastomosis. The effects of intravenous administration, though qualitatively similar, were quantitatively less dramatic than those observed after intraperitoneal delivery. Post-operative treatment with 5-FU, if started within the first 3 days after operation, is detrimental to anastomotic strength and may compromise anastomotic integrity. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027328

  6. Fluconazole (UK-49,858) treatment of candidiasis in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, M A; Lee, P G; Tarry, W F

    1989-01-01

    Fluconazole (UK-49,858), a new oral bistriazole antifungal agent, was compared with amphotericin B in the treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and diabetic rats. In normal rats, oral fluconazole at 10 mg/kg per day for 7 days reduced Candida colony counts in the kidneys and livers as well as amphotericin B did and was nearly as effective as amphotericin B in a 21-day treatment trial. There was no further reduction in Candida colony counts when normal rats were treated with fluconazole at 40 mg/kg twice a day for 7 days. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, fluconazole at 20 mg/kg per day for either 7 or 21 days compared favorably with amphotericin B in efficacy. Results of our study suggest that oral fluconazole may be useful in the treatment of established disseminated candidiasis in normal as well as diabetic hosts. PMID:2551214

  7. Comparison of effectiveness of curcumin with triamcinolone acetonide in the gel form in treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Radha A.; Bagewadi, Anjana S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is an unfortunately most common disease occurring in oral cavity. Although the lesion is usually self-limited, its painful presentation, high frequency of occurrence, and multifactorial etiology leads to significant morbidity. So, an efficient therapeutic strategy is needed to provide relief to the patients. Aim: To assess and compare the efficacy of Curcumin with Triamcinolone acetonide in the gel form in treatment of minor RAS. Materials and Methods: As a randomized clinical trial, 60 patients of either sex with clinically diagnosed RAS were randomly divided into 2 groups-Curcumin gel group (Group I) and Triamcinolone Acetonide gel group (Group II). Patients in either group were asked to apply the gel three times a day on each ulcer. Assessment of efficacy of gel was done on the basis of time required for regression in pain, size, and number of the ulcers. Results: The results showed significant difference in size, pain, number, and duration of ulcers in Group I and Group II within a period of 7 days. However, no significant difference was noted in both the groups in the treatment of RAS. To evaluate the efficacy, Mann-Whitney U test was used and statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 19 software. Conclusion: Curcumin has strong antioxidant, with anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and analgesic properties, which according to the results obtained from the present study, can be used as an effective alternative to steroids in treatment of RAS. PMID:25126527

  8. Fully Integrated e-Services for Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections: Results of a 4-County Study in California

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Vivian; Lensing, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Ishita; Venkatasubramanian, Lalitha; Acevedo, Nincoshka; Wolff, Peter; Callabresi, Debra; Philip, Susan; Lopez, Teresa P.; Padian, Nancy; Blake, Diane R.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the acceptability, feasibility, and cost of a fully integrated online system (eSTI) for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing, treatment, and linkage to care with 4 Northern California health departments. Methods. In April 2012, we implemented the eSTI system, which provided education; testing of self-collected vaginal swabs for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis; e-prescriptions; e-partner notification; and data integration with clinic electronic health records. We analyzed feasibility, acceptability, and cost measures. Results. During a 3-month period, 217 women aged 18 to 30 years enrolled; 67% returned the kit. Of these, 92% viewed their results online. STI prevalence was 5.6% (chlamydia and trichomoniasis). All participants with STIs received treatment either the same day at a pharmacy (62%) or within 7 days at a clinic (38%). Among participants completing follow-up surveys, 99% would recommend the online eSTI system to a friend, and 95% preferred it over clinic-based testing within a study. Conclusions. The fully integrated eSTI system has the potential to increase diagnosis and treatment of STIs with higher patient satisfaction at a potentially lower cost. PMID:25320878

  9. Large minimal period orbits of periodic autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Juan; Tarallo, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    We prove the existence of periodic orbits with minimal period greater than any prescribed number for a natural Lagrangian autonomous system in several variables that is analytic and periodic in each variable and whose potential is nonconstant. Work supported by Acción Integrada Italia-España HI2000-0112, Azione Integrata Italia-Spagna IT-117, MCYT BFM2002-01308, Spain.

  10. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  11. Optimal duration of percutaneous microballoon compression for treatment of trigeminal nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuyong; Han, Shuai; Ma, Yi; Yi, Fuxin; Xu, Xinmin; Liu, Yunhui

    2014-01-15

    Percutaneous microballoon compression of the trigeminal ganglion is a brand new operative technique for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. However, it is unclear how the procedure mediates pain relief, and there are no standardized criteria, such as compression pressure, compression time or balloon shape, for the procedure. In this study, percutaneous microballoon compression was performed on the rabbit trigeminal ganglion at a mean inflation pressure of 1,005 ± 150 mmHg for 2 or 5 minutes. At 1, 7 and 14 days after percutaneous microballoon compression, the large-diameter myelinated nerves displayed axonal swelling, rupture and demyelination under the electron microscope. Fragmentation of myelin and formation of digestion chambers were more evident after 5 minutes of compression. Image analyzer results showed that the diameter of trigeminal ganglion cells remained unaltered after compression. These experimental findings indicate that a 2-minute period of compression can suppress pain transduction. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the ganglion cells and axons was significantly increased 7 days after trigeminal ganglion compression, however, the changes were similar after 2-minute compression and 5-minute compression. The upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the ganglion cells after percutaneous microballoon compression can promote the repair of the injured nerve. These findings suggest that long-term compression is ideal for patients with recurrent trigeminal neuralgia. PMID:25206799

  12. Interaction between behavioral and pharmacological treatment strategies to decrease cocaine choice in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S Stevens

    2013-02-01

    Behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic approaches constitute two prominent strategies for treating cocaine dependence. This study investigated interactions between behavioral and pharmacological strategies in a preclinical model of cocaine vs food choice. Six rhesus monkeys, implanted with a chronic indwelling double-lumen venous catheter, initially responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and cocaine injections (0-0.1 mg/kg/injection, FR 10 schedule) during continuous 7-day treatment periods with saline or the agonist medication phenmetrazine (0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h). Subsequently, the FR response requirement for cocaine or food was varied (food, FR 100; cocaine, FR 1-100; cocaine, FR 10; food, FR 10-300), and effects of phenmetrazine on cocaine vs food choice were redetermined. Decreases in the cocaine FR or increases in the food FR resulted in leftward shifts in the cocaine choice dose-effect curve, whereas increases in the cocaine FR or decreases in the food FR resulted in rightward shifts in the cocaine choice dose-effect curve. The efficacy of phenmetrazine to decrease cocaine choice varied systematically as a function of the prevailing response requirements, such that phenmetrazine efficacy was greatest when cocaine choice was maintained by relatively low unit cocaine doses. These results suggest that efficacy of pharmacotherapies to modulate cocaine use can be influenced by behavioral contingencies of cocaine availability. Agonist medications may be most effective under contingencies that engender choice of relatively low cocaine doses. PMID:22968813

  13. A novel thermal treatment modality for controlling breast tumor growth and progression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yifan; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X

    2012-01-01

    The new concept of keeping primary tumor under control in situ to suppress distant foci sheds light on the novel treatment of metastatic tumor. Hyperthermia is considered as one of the means for controlling tumor growth. In this study, a novel thermal modality was built to introduce hyperthermia effect on tumor to suppress its growth and progression using 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma, a common animal model of metastatic breast cancer. A mildly raised temperature (i.e.39°C) was imposed on the skin surface of the implanted tumor using a thermal heating pad. Periodic heating (12 hours per day) was carried out for 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days, respectively. The tumor growth rate was found significantly decreased in comparison to the control without hyperthermia. Biological evidences associated with tumor angiogenesis and metastasis were examined using histological analyses. Accordingly, the effect of mild hyperthermia on immune cell infiltration into tumors was also investigated. It was demonstrated that a delayed tumor growth and malignancy progression was achieved by mediating tumor cell apoptosis, vascular injury, degrading metastasis potential and as well as inhibiting the immunosuppressive cell myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) recruitment. Further mechanistic studies will be performed to explore the quantitative relationship between tumor progression and thermal dose in the near future. PMID:23367225

  14. Dynamics of Coulombic and gravitational periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N.

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics and the phase-space structures of Coulombic and self-gravitating versions of the classical one-dimensional three-body system with periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate that such a three-body system may be reduced isomorphically to a spatially periodic system of a single particle experiencing a two-dimensional potential on a rhombic plane. For the case of both Coulombic and gravitational versions, exact expressions of the Hamiltonian have been derived in rhombic coordinates. We simulate the phase-space evolution through an event-driven algorithm that utilizes analytic solutions to the equations of motion. The simulation results show that the motion exhibits chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic behaviors in segmented regions of the phase space. While there is no evidence of global chaos in either the Coulombic or the gravitational system, the former exhibits a transition from a completely nonchaotic phase space at low energies to a mixed behavior. Gradual yet striking transitions from mild to intense chaos are indicated with changing energy, a behavior that differentiates the spatially periodic systems studied in this Rapid Communication from the well-understood free-boundary versions of the three-body problem. Our treatment of the three-body systems opens avenues for analysis of the dynamical properties exhibited by spatially periodic versions of various classes of systems studied in plasma and gravitational physics as well as in cosmology.

  15. Dynamics of Coulombic and gravitational periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics and the phase-space structures of Coulombic and self-gravitating versions of the classical one-dimensional three-body system with periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate that such a three-body system may be reduced isomorphically to a spatially periodic system of a single particle experiencing a two-dimensional potential on a rhombic plane. For the case of both Coulombic and gravitational versions, exact expressions of the Hamiltonian have been derived in rhombic coordinates. We simulate the phase-space evolution through an event-driven algorithm that utilizes analytic solutions to the equations of motion. The simulation results show that the motion exhibits chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic behaviors in segmented regions of the phase space. While there is no evidence of global chaos in either the Coulombic or the gravitational system, the former exhibits a transition from a completely nonchaotic phase space at low energies to a mixed behavior. Gradual yet striking transitions from mild to intense chaos are indicated with changing energy, a behavior that differentiates the spatially periodic systems studied in this Rapid Communication from the well-understood free-boundary versions of the three-body problem. Our treatment of the three-body systems opens avenues for analysis of the dynamical properties exhibited by spatially periodic versions of various classes of systems studied in plasma and gravitational physics as well as in cosmology. PMID:27176238

  16. Magnetospheric Periodicities at Saturn Equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E.; Paranicas, C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.; Hamilton, D. C.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    For several years before equinox, the energetic charged and neutral particles in Saturn’s magnetosphere displayed strong periodicities near 10.8 hours, the same period observed in radio emissions and magnetic fields. These particle periodicities have now been observed at equinox in electrons, protons, oxygen ions, and neutral hydrogen and oxygen atoms at all energies greater than ~3 keV, the lowest energies measured by the Magnetospheric IMaging Instrument (MIMI) on the Cassini spacecraft. The equinoctial electrons exhibit a very strong period at 10.72 hours, while the protons have essentially no periodicity at all. Water group ions display a notable period at 10.73 hours. Both the electrons and the ions have curious overtones in their spectral structure that may be related to solar wind modulation. The energetic neutral hydrogen and oxygen atoms have strong periods of 10.79 hours at equinox. Within the uncertainties of the measurements, the ENA periods are slightly longer than the charged particle periods, although they cover a somewhat different time interval. For comparison, the Cassini magnetometer observed periodicities in Saturn’s magnetic field of 10.65 hours during the same equinoctial interval. These observations will be interpreted in terms of a wavy magnetodisk model.

  17. The atmospheric circulation of ultra-short period exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Lewis, Nikole K.

    2015-01-01

    Even though ultra-short period exoplanets comprise only a small fraction of the total exoplanet population, they present a useful probe into the role of fast rotation rates and small orbital distances on atmospheric dynamics. In this regime, advective timescales are longer than radiative timescales such that the temperature contrasts from dayside to nightside are large (>500 K at photospheric pressures); this strong day-night forcing, coupled with the planet's fast rotation rate (and hence small Rossby deformation radius) yields multiple, narrow (~40 degrees) jets in the atmosphere. Here we will present two cases illustrative of the dynamical regime for ultra-short period exoplanets, and how we can use general circulation models to constrain observations of their atmospheres. First, we will present models of WASP-43b, a Jupiter-mass planet in a 19.5-hour orbit around a K7 star. Because WASP-43b has an equilibrium temperature similar to that of HD 209458b, we can explore the role of rotation rate on the dynamics at a fixed stellar flux. We then compare our models to spectrophotometric observations obtained with HST/WFC3 and show how our 5× solar model provides the best match to the data. Next, we explore the dynamical regime of 55 Cnc e, a 7 Earth-mass, 2 Earth-radius planet in a 0.7 day orbit around a K star. Because smaller planets have a large diversity in possible compositions, we compare hydrogen-, water- and carbon dioxide-dominated models and show how differences in opacity structure lead to differences in temperature structure and circulation. We also demonstrate how future observations can distinguish between these possible compositions of 55 Cnc e, particularly in emission.

  18. 40 CFR 35.910-2 - Period of availability; reallotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Period of availability; reallotment. 35.910-2 Section 35.910-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.910-2 Period of availability;...

  19. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  20. On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.

  1. Scaling limits of periodic monopoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to explore the structure of singly periodic monopoles for different values of the size to period ratio. The transition between a chain of small monopoles and the approximately two dimensional chain of large monopoles takes us through a region with an unintuitive dependence on the periodic direction. The focus is mainly on the smooth SU(2) monopole of charge 2.

  2. Changing Periods of ST Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S.; Butterworth, N.; Pearce, A.

    2015-12-01

    ST Puppis is a reasonably bright W Virginis variable star, a Type 2 Cepheid with a record of substantial and erratic period changes—21 during the interval 1900 to 1985 with a range of magnitude from 17.4 to 19.2. It was observed as part of Variable Stars South's Cepheid project by Butterworth in 2014 and 2015 using DSLR photometry in BGR passbands and visually by Pearce in 2015. The known period changes are shown graphically and doubtful ones examined and discarded if necessary. With its period and amplitude with a frequently changing period it is a suitable and worthwhile object for visual observing.

  3. Short-term cocaine treatment causes neuroadaptive changes in Galphaq and Galpha11 proteins in rats undergoing withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Gonzalo A; Damjanoska, Katerina J; D'Souza, Deborah N; Zhang, Yahong; Garcia, Francisca; Battaglia, George; Muma, Nancy A; Van de Kar, Louis D

    2004-10-01

    One of the characteristics of drug dependence is that a drug has to be administered repeatedly before withdrawal effects can be observed. We have previously shown that withdrawal after 14 days of cocaine treatment produces a supersensitivity of hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors, which is accompanied by increases in the levels of Galpha(q) and Galpha(11) proteins. Unfortunately, the exact duration of cocaine treatment necessary to induce alterations in G protein levels during cocaine withdrawal is unknown. The present study investigated the minimum cocaine treatment period required to produce changes in protein levels of membrane- and cytosol-associated Galpha(q) and Galpha(11) proteins in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, amygdala, and frontal cortex. Rats were injected with cocaine (15 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.) for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days and tested after 2 days of withdrawal. The levels of Galpha(q) and Galpha(11) proteins were increased in the paraventricular nucleus and the amygdala but not in the frontal cortex. Although 1 and 3 days of cocaine treatment were sufficient to maximally elevate the protein levels of Galpha(11) and Galpha(q) proteins in the amygdala, 5 days of treatment were required to maximally increase the levels of Galpha(11) and Galpha(q) proteins in the paraventricular nucleus. The data suggest that the amygdala shows a faster neuroadaptation to the effects of cocaine than the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. These findings provide insight into the relative importance of individual components of 5-HT(2A) receptor signal transduction system in regulating the overall sensitivity of this signaling in cocaine-treated rats. PMID:15175423

  4. Effects of Environmental Manipulations and Treatment with Bupropion and Risperidone on Choice between Methamphetamine and Food in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical and human laboratory choice procedures have been invaluable in improving our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms of drug reinforcement and in the drug development process for candidate medications to treat drug addiction. However, little is known about the neuropharmacological mechanisms of methamphetamine vs food choice. The aims of this study were to develop a methamphetamine vs food choice procedure and determine treatment effects with two clinically relevant compounds: the monoamine uptake inhibitor bupropion and the dopamine antagonist risperidone. Rhesus monkeys (n=6) responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, FR10 schedule) during 7-day bupropion (0.32-1.8 mg/kg/h) and risperidone (0.001-0.0056 mg/kg/h) treatment periods. For comparison, effects of removing food pellets or methamphetamine injections and FR response requirement manipulations were also examined. Under saline treatment conditions, food was preferred over no methamphetamine or small unit methamphetamine doses (0.01-0.032 mg/kg/injection). Larger methamphetamine doses resulted in greater methamphetamine preference and 0.32 mg/kg/injection methamphetamine maintained near exclusive preference. Removing food availability increased methamphetamine choice, whereas removing methamphetamine availability decreased methamphetamine choice. Methamphetamine choice was not significantly altered when the FR response requirements for food and drug were the same (FR100:FR100 or FR10:FR10). Risperidone treatment increased methamphetamine choice, whereas bupropion treatment did not alter methamphetamine choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant behavior. Overall, these negative results with bupropion and risperidone are concordant with previous human laboratory and clinical trials and support the potential validity of this preclinical methamphetamine vs food

  5. Periodic and aperiodic synchronization in skilled action.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Synchronized action is considered as a manifestation of shared skill. Most synchronized behaviors in humans and other animals are based on periodic repetition. Aperiodic synchronization of complex action is found in the experimental task of synchronous speaking, in which naive subjects read a common text in lock step. The demonstration of synchronized behavior without a periodic basis is presented as a challenge for theoretical understanding. A unified treatment of periodic and aperiodic synchronization is suggested by replacing the sequential processing model of cognitivist approaches with the more local notion of a task-specific sensorimotor coordination. On this view, skilled action is the imposition of constraints on the co-variation of movement and sensory flux such that the boundary conditions that define the skill are met. This non-cognitivist approach originates in the work of John Dewey. It allows a unification of the treatment of sensorimotor synchronization in simple rhythmic behavior and in complex skilled behavior and it suggests that skill sharing is a uniquely human trait of considerable import. PMID:22232583

  6. Periodic and Aperiodic Synchronization in Skilled Action

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Synchronized action is considered as a manifestation of shared skill. Most synchronized behaviors in humans and other animals are based on periodic repetition. Aperiodic synchronization of complex action is found in the experimental task of synchronous speaking, in which naive subjects read a common text in lock step. The demonstration of synchronized behavior without a periodic basis is presented as a challenge for theoretical understanding. A unified treatment of periodic and aperiodic synchronization is suggested by replacing the sequential processing model of cognitivist approaches with the more local notion of a task-specific sensorimotor coordination. On this view, skilled action is the imposition of constraints on the co-variation of movement and sensory flux such that the boundary conditions that define the skill are met. This non-cognitivist approach originates in the work of John Dewey. It allows a unification of the treatment of sensorimotor synchronization in simple rhythmic behavior and in complex skilled behavior and it suggests that skill sharing is a uniquely human trait of considerable import. PMID:22232583

  7. Quasi-periodicity in relative quasi-periodic tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassò, Francesco; García-Naranjo, Luis C.; Giacobbe, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    At variance from the cases of relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits of dynamical systems with symmetry, the dynamics in relative quasi-periodic tori (namely, subsets of the phase space that project to an invariant torus of the reduced system on which the flow is quasi-periodic) is not yet completely understood. Even in the simplest situation of a free action of a compact and abelian connected group, the dynamics in a relative quasi-periodic torus is not necessarily quasi-periodic. It is known that quasi-periodicity of the unreduced dynamics is related to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, and sufficient conditions for it are virtually known only in a perturbation context. We provide a different, though equivalent, approach to this subject, based on the hypothesis of the existence of commuting, group-invariant lifts of a set of generators of the reduced torus. Under this hypothesis, which is shown to be equivalent to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, we give a complete description of the structure of the relative quasi-periodic torus, which is a principal torus bundle whose fibers are tori of a dimension which exceeds that of the reduced torus by at most the rank of the group. The construction can always be done in such a way that these tori have minimal dimension and carry ergodic flow.

  8. Pivmecillinam in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Nicolle

    2000-08-01

    The efficacy of pivmecillinam for empirical treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) was initially reported in clinical trials published in the 1970s and 1980s. Bacteriological cure rates observed in these trials were consistently >85%, and studies of different dosing regimens suggested that a 3 day course was appropriate. Comparative studies reported that pivmecillinam was equivalent to other antimicrobial agents in terms of clinical and bacteriological outcomes. These studies also documented that pivmecillinam was effective for treatment of Staphylococcus saprophyticus infections, was acceptable for use in pregnancy and was well tolerated. Subsequent widespread use of pivmecillinam in Scandinavian countries has led to a body of clinical experience which confirms the efficacy and safety of this antimicrobial agent in the treatment of acute cystitis. Recently, two large, prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-centre clinical trials have been completed to assist in defining the role of this antimicrobial agent in the treatment of acute cystitis. A comparison of 3 day courses of pivmecillinam or norfloxacin, both at 400 mg bd, showed higher bacteriological cure rates with norfloxacin but generally similar clinical outcomes. A second, dose-ranging study found that pivmecillinam, given bd for 7 days, led to superior bacteriological and clinical outcomes at short-term follow-up than the 3 day regimen. Pooling bacteriological outcomes from the two studies showed similar outcomes with 7 days of pivmecillinam 200 mg bd or 3 days of norfloxacin 400 mg bd. The shorter, 3 day, course achieved similar short-term clinical outcomes to 7 days of pivmecillinam and 3 days of norfloxacin in women aged treatment of acute cystitis in women. PMID:10969050

  9. Pivmecillinam in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, L E

    2000-09-01

    The efficacy of pivmecillinam for empirical treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) was initially reported in clinical trials published in the 1970s and 1980s. Bacteriological cure rates observed in these trials were consistently >85%, and studies of different dosing regimens suggested that a 3 day course was appropriate. Comparative studies reported that pivmecillinam was equivalent to other antimicrobial agents in terms of clinical and bacteriological outcomes. These studies also documented that pivmecillinam was effective for treatment of Staphylococcus saprophyticus infections, was acceptable for use in pregnancy and was well tolerated. Subsequent widespread use of pivmecillinam in Scandinavian countries has led to a body of clinical experience which confirms the efficacy and safety of this antimicrobial agent in the treatment of acute cystitis. Recently, two large, prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-centre clinical trials have been completed to assist in defining the role of this antimicrobial agent in the treatment of acute cystitis. A comparison of 3 day courses of pivmecillinam or norfloxacin, both at 400 mg bd, showed higher bacteriological cure rates with norfloxacin but generally similar clinical outcomes. A second, dose-ranging study found that pivmecillinam, given bd for 7 days, led to superior bacteriological and clinical outcomes at short-term follow-up than the 3 day regimen. Pooling bacteriological outcomes from the two studies showed similar outcomes with 7 days of pivmecillinam 200 mg bd or 3 days of norfloxacin 400 mg bd. The shorter, 3 day, course achieved similar short-term clinical outcomes to 7 days of pivmecillinam and 3 days of norfloxacin in women aged < or =50 years. These recent studies confirm earlier reports and clinical experience that pivmecillinam is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of acute cystitis in women. PMID:11051622

  10. Current North American Indian Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blew, Carol Van Antwerp Holliday; And Others

    Approximately 150 newsletters, newspapers, and other periodicals are cited in this bibliography of current sources of information about or directed toward North American Indians. One-sentence descriptions of content, ordering information, and frequency of publication are provided. The majority of the periodicals cited emphasize current events of…

  11. 75 FR 39200 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Counsel, at stephen.sharfman@prc.gov or 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 75 FR... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... rulemaking proceeding to consider a change in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic...

  12. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  13. Testing for periodicity of extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, David M.; Sepkoski, J. J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical techniques used by Raup and Sepkoski (1984 and 1986) to identify a 26-Myr periodicity in the biological extinction record for the past 250 Myr are reexamined, responding in detail to the criticisms of Stigler and Wagner (1987). It is argued that evaluation of a much larger set of extinction data using a time scale with 51 sampling intervals supports the finding of periodicity. In a reply by Sigler and Wagner, the preference for a 26-Myr period is attributed to a numerical quirk in the Harland et al. (1982) time scale, in which the subinterval boundaries are not linear interpolations between the stage boundaries but have 25-Myr periodicity. It is stressed that the results of the stringent statistical tests imposed do not disprove periodicity but rather indicate that the evidence and analyses presented so far are inadequate.

  14. Schuler Period in LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Russell J.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes and extends the concept of the Schuler oscillation that occurs in the theory of inertial navigation systems, allowing one to see how the Schuler phenomenon affects inertial navigation systems operating in space. We show why a low earth orbit satellite's orbital period is identical to the period of the Schuler pendulum, which is the period of the errors for terrestrial inertial navigation systems. We also show that the generalized form of the Schuler oscillation takes the same form as the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for satellite relative motion and that the period of the out-of-plane motion in neighboring satellite relative trajectories is the same as the Schuler period. Finally, we describe how INS gyro drift manifests itself in different coordinate systems for the orbital case. These results may assist orbital flight dynamics and attitude control systems engineers in the design and analysis of INS-equipped spacecraft

  15. LYRA Mid-Term Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauters, L.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    The spectra of the PROBA2/LYRA data, similarly to every other solar time series, show predominant periodicities that can be of solar or instrumental origin. In this article, we compare the main periodicities characterizing the LYRA spectrum to those found in the sunspot number, in the 10.7 cm flux, in an X-ray flare index, and in the sunspot area evolution. We focused on the 2010 to 2014 time range, for which the LYRA data are available, although we also briefly address the evolution of the main periodicities in the longer range. The mid-term periodicities at {˜} 28, {˜} 44, {˜} 54, {˜} 59, {˜} 100, {˜} 110, and {˜} 150 days appear as highly significant in several analyzed datasets. The consistency of distinct periodicities between datasets provides characteristics for the global Sun. This consistency also strengthens the reliability of LYRA data.

  16. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  17. Tumor Burden Talks in Cancer Treatment with PEGylated Liposomal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia-Je; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Tseng, Yun-Long; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Ting, Gann; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2013-01-01

    Purpose PEGylated liposomes are important drug carriers that can passively target tumor by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in neoplasm lesions. This study demonstrated that tumor burden determines the tumor uptake, and also the tumor response, in cancer treatment with PEGylated liposomal drugs in a C26/tk-luc colon carcinoma-bearing mouse model. Methods Empty PEGylated liposomes (NanoX) and those encapsulated with VNB (NanoVNB) were labeled with In-111 to obtain InNanoX and InVNBL in high labeling yield and radiochemical purity (all >90%). BALB/c mice bearing either small (58.4±8.0 mm3) or large (102.4±22.0 mm3) C26/tk-luc tumors in the right dorsal flank were intravenously administered with NanoVNB, InNanoX, InVNBL, or NanoX as a control, every 7 days for 3 times. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by body weight loss, tumor growth inhibition (using calipers and bioluminescence imaging) and survival fraction. The scintigraphic imaging of tumor mouse was performed during and after treatment. Results The biodistribution study of InVNBL revealed a clear inverse correlation (r2 = 0.9336) between the tumor uptake and the tumor mass ranged from 27.6 to 623.9 mg. All three liposomal drugs showed better therapeutic efficacy in small-tumor mice than in large-tumor mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with InVNBL (a combination drug) showed the highest tumor growth inhibition rate and survival fraction compared to those treated with NanoVNB (chemodrug only) and InNanoX (radionuclide only). Specific tumor targeting and significantly increased tumor uptake after periodical treatment with InVNBL were evidenced by scintigraphic imaging, especially in mice bearing small tumors. Conclusion The significant differences in the outcomes of cancer treatment and molecular imaging between animals bearing small and large tumors revealed that tumor burden is a critical and discriminative factor in cancer therapy using PEGylated liposomal drugs. PMID:23675454

  18. Nerve growth factor preserves a critical motor period in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Wolansky, M J; Paratcha, G C; Ibarra, G R; Azcurra, J M

    1999-01-01

    We previously found the occurrence of a critical motor period during rat postnatal development where circling training starting the 7-day schedule at 30 days-but not before or after-induces a lifetime drop in the binding to cholinergic muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) in striatum. Here, we studied whether nerve growth factor (NGF) participates in this restricted period of muscarinic sensitivity. For this purpose, we administered mouse salival gland 2.5S NGF (1.4 or 0.4 microg/day, infused by means of ALZA minipumps) by intrastriatal unilateral route between days 25 and 39, and then trained rats starting at 40 days. Under these conditions, NGF induced a long-term reduction in the striatal [3H] quinuclidilbenzylate (QNB) binding sites despite the fact that motor training was carried out beyond the natural critical period. Thus, at day 70, measurement of specific QNB binding in infused striata of trained rats showed decreases of 42% (p < .0004) and 33% (p < .02) after administration of the higher and lower NGF doses, respectively, with respect to trained rats treated with cytochrome C, for control. Noncannulated striata of the NGF-treated rats also showed a decrease in QNB binding sites (44%; p < .0001) only at the higher infusion rate. This effect was not found in the respective control groups. Our observations show that NGF modulates the critical period in which activity-dependent mAChR setting takes place during rat striatal maturation. PMID:10027568

  19. Treatment delay in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Law, C W; Roslani, A C; Ng, L L C

    2009-06-01

    Early diagnosis of rectal cancer is important for prompt treatment and better outcome. Little data exists for comparison or to set standards. The primary objective of this study is to identify factors resulting in delays in treatment of rectal cancer, the correlation between the disease stage and diagnosis waiting time, treatment waiting time and duration of symptoms. A five year retrospective audit was undertaken in University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). There were 137 patients recruited and the median time to diagnosis was nine days after the first UMMC Surgical Unit consultation with a mean of 18.7 days. Some 11% had to wait more than four weeks for diagnosis. The median time from confirmation of diagnosis to surgery was 11 days with a mean of 18.6 days. Sixty-two percent of patients were operated upon within two weeks of diagnosis and more than 88% by four weeks. However, 10% of them had delayed surgery done four weeks after diagnosis. Long colonoscopy waiting time was the main cause for delay in diagnosis while delay in staging CTs were the main reason for treatment delays. PMID:20058579

  20. Enhanced long term potentiation and decreased AMPA receptor desensitization in the acute period following a single kainate induced early life seizure.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Heather; Bernard, Paul B; Castano, Anna M; Benke, Tim A

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal seizures are associated with long term disabilities including epilepsy and cognitive deficits. Using a neonatal seizure rat model that does not develop epilepsy, but develops a phenotype consistent with other models of intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we sought to isolate the acute effects of a single episode of early life seizure on hippocampal CA1 synaptic development and plasticity. We have previously shown chronic changes in glutamatergic synapses, loss of long term potentiation (LTP) and enhanced long term depression (LTD), in the adult male rat ~50days following kainic acid (KA) induced early life seizure (KA-ELS) in post-natal (P) 7day old male Sprague-Dawley rats. In the present work, we examined the electrophysiological properties and expression levels of glutamate receptors in the acute period, 2 and 7days, post KA-ELS. Our results show for the first time enhanced LTP 7days after KA-ELS, but no change 2days post KA-ELS. Additionally, we report that ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) desensitization is decreased in the same time frame, with no changes in AMPAR expression, phosphorylation, or membrane insertion. Inappropriate enhancement of the synaptic connections in the acute period after the seizure could alter the normal patterning of synaptic development in the hippocampus during this critical period and contribute to learning deficits. Thus, this study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which KA-ELS alters early network properties that potentially lead to adverse outcomes. PMID:26706598

  1. 12 CFR 1.7 - Securities held in satisfaction of debts previously contracted; holding period; disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... previously contracted; holding period; disposal; accounting treatment; non-speculative purpose. 1.7 Section 1...; accounting treatment; non-speculative purpose. (a) Securities held in satisfaction of debts previously... additional holding period is needed. (c) Accounting treatment. A bank shall account for securities...

  2. Nonphotosynthetic pigmented bacteria in a potable water treatment and distribution system.

    PubMed Central

    Reasoner, D J; Blannon, J C; Geldreich, E E; Barnick, J

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of pigmented bacteria in potable water, from raw source water through treatment to distribution water, including dead-end locations, was compared at sample sites in a large municipal water system. Media used to enumerate heterotrophic bacteria and differentiate pigmented colonies were standard method plate count (SPC), m-SPC, and R2A agars, incubated up to 7 days at 35 degrees C. The predominant pigmented bacteria at most sample locations were yellow and orange, with a small incidence of pink organisms at the flowing distribution site. Seasonal variations were seen, with the yellow and orange organisms shifting in dominance. SPC agar was the least productive medium for both heterotroph counts and pigmented bacteria differentiation. At the flowing distribution site, percentages of pigmented bacteria on SPC medium ranged from 2.3 to 9.67 times less than on m-SPC and from 2.3 to 9.86 times less than on R2A. At the same site, seasonal trends in the percentage of pigmented bacteria were the same for m-SPC and R2A media, and the highest and lowest percentages occurred in the fall and winter, respectively. At site 6, there appeared to be an inverse relationship between the yellow and orange pigmented groups, but upon analysis, this did not hold and all correlations between yellow and orange pigmented bacteria were positive. The study results indicate that pigmented bacteria could readily be detected by using plate counting media developed for heterotroph enumeration in potable waters with incubation periods of 7 days. Pigmented bacteria can be used as an additional marker for monitoring changes in water quality. High numbers of heterotrophs, including pigmented forms, were found at dead-end locations, usually in the absence of a free chlorine residual and when the water temperature was greater than 16 degrees C. The association of some pigmented bacteria with nosocomial and other infections raises concern that the organisms may have originated from the

  3. Chaos in Periodic Discrete Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuming; Zhang, Lijuan; Yu, Panpan; Huang, Qiuling

    This paper focuses on chaos in periodic discrete systems, whose state space may vary with time. Some close relationships between some chaotic dynamical behaviors of a periodic discrete system and its autonomous induced system are given. Based on these relationships, several criteria of chaos are established and some sufficient conditions for no chaos are given for periodic discrete systems. Further, it is shown that a finite-dimensional linear periodic discrete system is not chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Wiggins. In particular, an interesting problem of whether nonchaotic rules may generate a chaotic system is studied, with some examples provided, one of which surprisingly shows that a composition of globally asymptotically stable maps can be chaotic. In addition, some properties of sign pattern matrices of non-negative square matrices are given for convenience of the study.

  4. Periodical Vandalism: A Chronic Condition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleep, Esther L.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the losses due to theft and mutilation in the periodicals collection at Brock University indicates that security needs to be tightened. Nine suggestions for improving security are offered, and six references are cited. (CHC)

  5. Substance Use in the Perinatal Period.

    PubMed

    Forray, Ariadna; Foster, Dawn

    2015-11-01

    Perinatal substance use remains a major public health problem and is associated with a number of deleterious maternal and fetal effects. Polysubstance use in pregnancy is common and can potentiate adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Tobacco is the most commonly used substance in pregnancy, followed by alcohol and illicit substances. The treatments for perinatal substance use are limited and consist mostly of behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Of these, contingency management has shown the most efficacy. More recently, novel interventions such as progesterone for postpartum cocaine use have shown promise. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids in the perinatal period, their effects on maternal and fetal health, and current treatments. PMID:26386836

  6. Incontinence Treatment: Surgical Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ...

  7. Progesterone in the treatment of neonatal arterial ischemic stroke and acute seizures: Role of BDNF/TrkB signaling.

    PubMed

    Atif, Fahim; Yousuf, Seema; Stein, Donald G

    2016-08-01

    Neonatal stroke is among the top ten causes of childhood death and permanent disability in survivors, but no safe and effective acute treatments exist. To advance understanding of its neuroprotective mechanisms, we examined the effects of progesterone (PROG) on local and systemic inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα), brain derived neurotrophic factor/Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF/TrkB) signaling, vascular damage (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)), acute behavioral seizures and brain infarction size following neonatal arterial ischemic stroke in mice. CD1 mouse pups (postnatal day 12, mixed gender) received permanent unilateral right common carotid ligation (pUCCL) or sham surgery. Pups showing seizure activity during the first hour post-pUCCL were randomly assigned to receive PROG (8 mg/kg) or vehicle injections. PROG treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced seizure occurrence by ∼44% compared to vehicle and attenuated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and brain at different time-points. PROG differentially regulated the expression of BDNF and TrkB and the activity of VEGF and MMP-9 over the 7d period. Permanent UCCL resulted in severe hemispheric damage measured at 7 days post-pUCCL but PROG treatment produced a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in infarct volume (∼70%) compared to vehicle. A gender-based comparison of data revealed significantly greater seizure activity in males compared to females. However, we did not observe significant sex differences on any other markers of the injury at this early stage of development. PROG treatment is neuroprotective through a number of signaling pathways and can be beneficial in treating neonatal arterial ischemic stroke in CD1 mice. PMID:27039043

  8. A concurrent ultra-fractionated radiation therapy and temozolomide treatment: A promising therapy for newly diagnosed, inoperable glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Beauchesne, P; Quillien, V; Faure, G; Bernier, V; Noel, G; Quetin, P; Gorlia, T; Carnin, C; Pedeux, R

    2016-03-15

    We report on a phase II clinical trial to determine the effect of a concurrent ultra-fractionated radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment in inoperable glioblastoma patients. A phase II study opened; patients over 18 years of age who were able to give informed consent and had histologically proven, newly diagnosed inoperable diagnosed and supratentorial glioblastoma were eligible. Three doses of 0.75 Gy spaced apart by at least 4 hr were delivered daily, 5 days a week for six consecutive weeks for a total of 67.5 Gy. Chemotherapy was administered during the same period, which consisted of temozolomide given at a dose of 75 mg/m(2) for 7 days a week. After a 4-week break, chemotherapy was resumed for up to six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide treatment, given every 28 days, according to the standard 5-day regimen. Tolerance and toxicity were the primary endpoints; survival and progression-free survival were the secondary endpoints. In total, 40 patients were enrolled in this study, 29 men and 11 women. The median age was 58 years, and the median Karnofsky performance status was 80. The concomitant ultra-fractionated radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment was well tolerated. Complete responses were seen in four patients, and partial responses were reported in seven patients. The median survival from the initial diagnosis was 16 months. Several long-term survivors were noted. Concurrent ultra-fractionated radiation therapy and temozolomide treatment are well accepted by the patients. The results showed encouraging survival rates for these unfavorable patients. PMID:26501997

  9. Atomoxetine treatment for nicotine withdrawal: a pilot double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study in adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many effective treatments for nicotine addiction inhibit noradrenaline reuptake. Three recent studies have suggested that another noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, may reduce smoking behaviors. Methods The present double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study was carried out over 21 days during which administration of 40 mg atomoxetine was compared to placebo in 17 individuals. Of these, nine were randomized to atomoxetine and eight to placebo. Baseline and weekly measurements were made using the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS), Cigarette Withdrawal Scale (CWS), Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU), reported number of cigarettes smoked, and salivary cotinine levels. Results The study results showed that all those on placebo completed the study. In marked contrast, of the nine individuals who started on atomoxetine, five dropped out due to side effects. In a completer analysis there were statistically significant differences at 14 and 21 days in several measures between the atomoxetine and placebo groups, including CDS, CWS, QSU, number of cigarettes smoked (decreasing to less than two per day in the treatment group who completed the study), and a trend towards lower mean salivary cotinine levels. However, these differences were not seen in a last observation carried forward (LOCF) analysis. Conclusions In summary, this is the first study to examine the use of atomoxetine in non-psychiatric adult smokers for a period of more than 7 days, and the findings suggest that atomoxetine might be a useful treatment for nicotine addiction. However, the dose used in the current study was too high to be tolerated by many adults, and a dose-finding study is required to determine the most appropriate dose for future studies of this potential treatment for smoking cessation. PMID:22405499

  10. Artesunate Dose Escalation for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in a Region of Reported Artemisinin Resistance: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bethell, Delia; Se, Youry; Lon, Chanthap; Tyner, Stuart; Saunders, David; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Darapiseth, Sea; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Khemawoot, Phisit; Schaecher, Kurt; Ruttvisutinunt, Wiriya; Lin, Jessica; Kuntawungin, Worachet; Gosi, Panita; Timmermans, Ans; Smith, Bryan; Socheat, Duong; Fukuda, Mark M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of artemisinin resistance has raised concerns that the most potent antimalarial drug may be under threat. The currently recommended daily dose of artesunate (AS) is 4 mg/kg, and is administered for 3 days together with a partner antimalarial drug. This study investigated the impact of different AS doses on clinical and parasitological responses in malaria patients from an area of known artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Methods Adult patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were randomized into one of three 7-day AS monotherapy regimens: 2, 4 or 6 mg/kg/day (total dose 14, 28 and 42 mg/kg). Clinical, parasitological, pharmacokinetic and in vitro drug sensitivity data was collected over a 7-day inpatient period and during weekly follow-up to 42 days. Results 143 patients were enrolled (n = 75, 40 and 28 to receive AS 2, 4 and 6 mg/kg/day respectively). Cure rates were high in all treatment groups at 42 days despite almost half the patients remaining parasitemic on Day 3. There was no impact of increasing AS dose on median parasite clearance times, median parasite clearance rates or on the proportion of patients remaining parasitemic on Day 3. However at the lowest dose used (2 mg/kg/d) patients with parasitemia >10,000/µL had longer median (IQR) parasite clearance times than those with parasitemia <10,000/µL (63 (48–75) vs. 84 (66–96) hours, p<0.0001). 19% of patients in the high-dose arm developed neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1.0×109/L) by Day 14 and resulted in the arm being halted early. Conclusion There is no pharmacodynamic benefit of increasing the daily dose of AS (4mg/kg) currently recommended for short-course combination treatment of uncomplicated malaria, even in regions with emerging artemisinin resistance, as long as the partner drug retains high efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00722150. PMID:21603629

  11. A triple origin for the lack of tight coplanar circumbinary planets around short-period binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, Adrian; Perets, Hagai B.; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Detection of transiting circumbinary planets is more tractable around short-period binaries. However, sofar, no such binaries have been found with orbits shorter than 7 days. Short-period main sequence binaries have been suggested to form in triple systems, through a combination of secular Kozai-Lidov cycles and tidal friction (KLCTF). Here, we show that coplanar circumbinary transiting planets are unlikely to exist around short-period binaries, due to triple evolution. We use secular analysis, N-body simulations and analytic considerations as well as population synthesis models to characterize their overall properties. We find that the existence of a circumbinary planet in a triple is likely to produce one of the following outcomes. (1) Sufficiently massive planets in tight and/or coplanar orbits around the inner binary can partially or completely quench the KL evolution, `shielding' the inner binary from the secular effects of the tertiary, and not allowing the KLCTF process to take place. In this case, the inner binary will not shrink to become a short-period binary. (2) KL evolution is not quenched and it drives the planetary orbit into high eccentricities, giving rise to an unstable configuration, in which the planet is most likely ejected from the system. (3) KL evolution is not quenched, but the planet survives the KLCTF evolution and the formation of the short-period binary; the planet orbit is likely to be much wider than the currently observed inner binary orbit, and is likely to be inclined in respect to the binary orbit, as well as eccentric. These outcomes lead to two main conclusions: (1) it is unlikely to find a (massive) planet on a tight and coplanar orbit around a short-period main-sequence binary, and (2) the frequency, masses and orbits of non-coplanar circumbinary planets in short-period binaries are constrained by their secular evolution.

  12. Empirical treatment of acute cystitis in women.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2003-07-01

    Empirical antimicrobial treatment for acute cystitis in women requires continuing reassessment as the antimicrobial susceptibility of community isolates of Escherichia coli evolves. Current recommendations for 3 days trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole are compromised by increasing resistance of community E. coli to these agents. Fluoroquinolones are an alternate 3-day therapy, but increasing resistance is being reported from some countries, and widespread community use may promote resistance, limiting effectiveness of these agents for more serious infections. Alternate regimens supported by recent clinical trials suggest pivmecillinam given twice daily for 7 days is as effective as 3 days of quinolone therapy, while microbiological cure is 80% with 3 days therapy twice daily, and 90% with 3 days therapy thrice daily. Nitrofurantoin given for 7 days has a cure rate of 80-85%. Fosfomycin trometamol as a single dose has cure rates of 75-85%. All these agents are effective, but a compromise in efficacy or duration of therapy compared with current 3-day regimens may have to be considered. PMID:12842322

  13. Length of the memory retention period depends on the extent of protein synthesis in the terrestrial slug Limax.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Yuko; Matsuo, Ryota

    2016-09-01

    The terrestrial slug Limax can form an odor-aversion memory by the single simultaneous presentation of a food odor and an aversive stimulus. We have previously demonstrated that the long-term retention of this memory was impaired by a high-dose injection of a protein synthesis inhibitor 30min prior to the conditioning. However, the onset of amnesia was delayed if the dose of the inhibitor was reduced or a less potent protein synthesis inhibitor was used. We thus speculated that the persistence of memory depends on the amount of newly synthesized protein following learning. In the present study, we further elaborated on this idea by injecting a high dose of anisomycin at different timings before or after conditioning, and tested the memory retention at 1, 2, 3, 7, or 14days after the conditioning. We found that the injection of anisomycin 6h before, or 1h after the conditioning had no effect on memory retention for 7days, and an injection at 30min before and just following the conditioning impaired the memory retention at 3days. Interestingly, the injection at 3h before and 30min after the conditioning did not impair the retention at 3days but did impair retention at 7days. Taking into account the time course of protein synthesis inhibition in the brain, our results further support the idea that the memory retention period is dependent on the amount of protein synthesized following memory acquisition. PMID:27497918

  14. Analysis of minimum 7-day discharges and estimation of minimum 7-day, 2-year discharges for streamflow-gaging stations in the Brazos River basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Timothy H.; Asquith, William H.

    1997-01-01

    The 7Q2 is zero for 31 of the 46 unregulated-only stations and for 9 of the 26 regulated-only stations. The 7Q2 also is zero for 9 stations before regulation and for 3 stations after regulation of the 25 stations with both unregulated and regulated data. The 7Q2 ranges from 33 to 631 cubic feet per second for the eight regulated-only stations on the mainstem Brazos River. For the seven stations on the mainstem Brazos River with at least 10 years of unregulated and 10 years of regulated discharge data, the 7Q2 ranges from 0 to 568 cubic feet per second before regulation and from 0.30 to 670 cubic feet per second after regulation. The 7Q2 increased during regulation for 19 of the 25 stations with both unregulated and regulated data. The effect of regulation for most stations generally was an increase in the magnitude of the 7Q2.

  15. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  16. Multi-Component Smoking Cessation Treatment including Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation in Homeless Veteran Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Vickie L.; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S.; Kirby, Angela C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Moore, Scott D.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Dennis, Paul A.; Dedert, Eric A.; Hair, Lauren P.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking rates are 80% among persons who are homeless, and these smokers have decreased odds of quitting smoking. Little is known about relapse rates among homeless smokers, but the dearth of research indicates that more information regarding quit rates in this population is needed. Furthermore, innovative methods are needed to treat smoking cessation among homeless smokers. Web-based contingency management (CM) approaches have been found helpful in reducing smoking among other difficult-to-treat smoker populations but have been generally limited by the need for computers or frequent clinic based carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. This pilot study builds on a web-based CM approach by evaluating a smart phone based application for CM named mobile CM (mCM). Methods Following a one-week training period, 20 homeless veteran smokers participated in a multi-component smoking cessation intervention including 4 weeks of mCM. All smokers received 4 smoking cessation counseling sessions, nicotine replacement and bupropion (if medically eligible). Participants could earn up to $815 ($480 for mCM, $100 for CO readings showing abstinence at posttreatment and follow up, and $35 for equipment return). Mean compensation for the mCM component was $286 of a possible $480. Results Video transmission compliance was high during the one-week training (97%) and the four-week treatment period (87%). Bioverified 7-day point prevalence abstinence was 50% at four weeks. Follow up bioverified single assessment point prevalence abstinence was 65% at three months and 60% at six months. Conclusions mCM may be a useful adjunctive smoking cessation treatment component for reducing smoking among homeless smokers. PMID:25699616

  17. Incidence of post obturation pain following single and multi visit root canal treatment in a teaching hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, S; Khurshiduzzaman, M

    2014-04-01

    Post obturation pain is the pain of any degree after endodontic treatment. There are different opinions regarding incidence of post obturation pain related to single and multi visit root canal treatment. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of post obturation pain in single visit and multi visit root canal treatment and to compare the incidence of pain between the two treatment groups. A total of 120 cases of endodontically involved asymptomatic non vital single rooted teeth were selected for this study. The patients were assigned and divided in to two treatment groups, sixty patients each. In single visit group, all teeth were prepared and filled using the standardized preparation and lateral condensation filling technique. In the multi visit treatment group, at the first appointment, the teeth were prepared, and dressed with calcium hydroxide paste for 7 days. At the second appointment, the teeth were prepared and obturated by using lateral condensation technique. The frequency of post obturation pain was recorded as no pain, slight, moderate and severe pain and evaluated at the day 1 and at the day 7 after obturation. The data were analyzed statistically by using SPSS version-12. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. The study showed that the post obturation pain in the single visit treatment group was more than multi visit treatment group, which is significant (p value <0.044). Out of the 120 patients, 86(71.7%) patients had no pain, 19(15.8%) had slight pain and 15(12.5%) patients had moderate pain at the day 1 after obturation. At the day 7 after obturation, 108(90%) patients had no pain, 9(7.5%) had slight pain and 3(2.5%) patients had moderate pain. No patient noticed severe pain during the follow up period. Older patient had significantly more post obturation pain than the younger patient. There was higher incidence of post obturation pain following the single visit root canal treatment. In multi visit root canal treatment with

  18. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic deficits and refractoriness to subsequent treatment.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jarom E; Birdsall, Elisabeth; Seferian, Kristi S; Crosby, Marcus A; Keefe, Kristen A; Gibb, James W; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2009-04-01

    Repeated high-dose methamphetamine administrations can cause persistent dopaminergic deficits. As individuals abusing methamphetamine are often exposed to recurrent high-dose administration, the impact of its repeated exposure merits investigation. Accordingly, rats were pretreated with repeated high-dose injections of methamphetamine, and subsequently "challenged" with the same neurotoxic regimen 7 or 30 days later. Results revealed that the initial methamphetamine treatment caused persistent deficits in striatal dopamine levels, dopamine transporter function, and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function. The subsequent methamphetamine challenge treatment was without further persistent effects on these parameters, as assessed 7 days after the challenge, regardless of the interval (7 or 30 days) between the initial and challenge drug exposures. Similarly, a methamphetamine challenge treatment administered 7 days after the initial drug treatment was without further acute effect on dopamine transporter or VMAT-2 function, as assessed 1 h later. Thus, this study describes a model of resistance, possibly explained by: 1) the existence of dopaminergic neurons that are a priori refractory to deficits caused by methamphetamine; 2) the existence of dopaminergic neurons made persistently resistant consequent to a neurotoxic methamphetamine exposure; and/or 3) altered activation of post-synaptic basal ganglia systems necessary for the elaboration of methamphetamine-induced dopamine neurotoxicity. PMID:19326567

  19. Objective identification research on cold vortex and mid-summer rainy periods in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Tai-Chen; Fang, Yi-He

    2015-04-01

    Considering the differences between the Northeast China Cold Vortex (CV) and the Mid-Summer (MS) rainy period and their corresponding atmospheric circulations are comprehensively analyzed, and the objective identification methods of defining the annual beginning and ending dates of Northeast China CV and MS rainy periods are developed respectively. The annual beginning date of the CV (MS) rainy period is as follows. In a period from April to August, if daily regional mean precipitation ryi is larger than yearly regional mean precipitation R (or 2R) on a certain day, the station precipitation rs is larger than the station yearly mean precipitation (or 2) in at least 50% of stations in Northeast China, and this condition is satisfied in the following 2 (7) days, then this date is defined as the beginning date of the CV (MS) rainy period. While the definition of the ending date of the MS rainy period shows the opposite process to its beginning date. With this objective identification method, the multi-year average (1981-2010) beginning date of the CV rainy period is May 3, the beginning date of the MS rainy period is June 27, the ending day of the CV rainy period is defined as the day before the beginning date of the MS rainy period, and the ending date of the MS rainy period is August 29. Meanwhile, corresponding anomaly analysis at a 500-hPa geopotential height, 850-hPa wind, Omega and relative humidity fields all show that the definitions of the average beginning and ending dates of the CV and MS rainy periods have a certain circulation meaning. Furthermore, the daily evolution of the CV index, meridional and zonal wind index, etc. all show that these objectively defined beginning and ending dates of the CV and MS rainy periods have climate significance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41205040 and 41375078), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research, China (Grant No. 2012CB955203), and the Special

  20. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  1. On composites with periodic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemat-Nasser, S.; Iwakuma, T.; Hejazi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The overall moduli of a composite with an isotropic elastic matrix containing periodically distributed (anisotropic) inclusions or voids, can be expressed in terms of several infinite series which only depend on the geometry of the inclusions or voids, and hence can be computed once and for all for given geometries. For solids with periodic structures these infinite series play exactly the same role as does Eshelby's tensor for a single inclusion or void in an unbounded elastic medium. For spherical and circular-cylindrical geometries, the required infinite series are calculated and the results are tabulated. These are then used to estimate the overall elastic moduli when either the overall strains or the overall stresses are prescribed, obtaining the same results. These results are compared with other estimates and with experimental data. It is found that the model of composites with periodic structure yields estimates in excellent agreement with the experimental observations.

  2. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  3. Detection of latent sequence periodicities.

    PubMed Central

    Pizzi, E; Liuni, S; Frontali, C

    1990-01-01

    A method is proposed for the automatic detection of serial periodicities in a linear sequence. Its application to DNA subtelomeric sequences from two lower eukaryotes, P.falciparum and S.cerevisiae, reveals ordered patterns organised in hierarchical periodicities, not easily recognizable by other methods. The possible implications concerning the evolution of tandemly repetitive arrays are discussed in light of a model which involves, as successive steps, random repeat modification, the fusion of differently modified repeat versions into longer units, and the amplification of (and/or homogenization to) the more recent repeat units. PMID:2197595

  4. Ondansetron and sertraline may interact with 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 polymorphisms to reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent women: exploratory findings

    PubMed Central

    Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200mg/day of sertraline or 0.5mg/day of ondansetron for 3-weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotypes receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7-days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e. sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a three-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4 ≥7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4 <7-repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad lib during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions

  5. Ondansetron and sertraline may interact with 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 polymorphisms to reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent women: exploratory findings.

    PubMed

    Kenna, George A; Zywiak, William H; Swift, Robert M; McGeary, John E; Clifford, James S; Shoaff, Jessica R; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender-specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200 mg/day of sertraline or 0.5 mg/day of ondansetron for 3 weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for 3 weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for 3 weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7 days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e., sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a 3-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4≥7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4<7 repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad libitum during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions may be

  6. Influence of Two Depuration Periods on the Activity and Transcription of Antioxidant Enzymes in Tilapia Exposed to Repeated Doses of Cylindrospermopsin under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Victoria; Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Moreno, Isabel M.; Prieto, Ana I.; Puerto, María; Jos, Angeles; Cameán, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacterial toxin Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, is increasingly being found in freshwater bodies infested by cyanobacterial blooms worldwide. Moreover, it has been reported to be implicated in human intoxications and animal mortality. Recently, the alteration of the activity and gene expression of some glutathione related enzymes in tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a single dose of CYN has been reported. However, little is known about the effects induced by repeated doses of this toxin in tilapias exposed by immersion and the potential reversion of these biochemical alterations after two different depuration periods (3 or 7 days). In the present study, tilapias were exposed by immersion to repeated doses of a CYN-containing culture of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum during 14 days, and then were subjected to depuration periods (3 or 7 days) in clean water in order to examine the potential reversion of the effects observed. The activity and relative mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST), and also the sGST protein abundance by Western blot analysis were evaluated in liver and kidney of fish. Results showed significant alterations in most of the parameters evaluated and their recovery after 3 days (GPx activity, sGST relative abundance) or 7 days (GPx gene expression, sGST activity). These findings not only confirm the oxidative stress effects produced in fish by cyanobacterial cells containing CYN, but also show the effectiveness of depuration processes in mitigating the CYN-containing culture toxic effects. PMID:24632554

  7. [Interintestinal anastomoses formation using permanent magnet in surgical treatment of children with intestinal stomas].

    PubMed

    Gatkin, E Ya; Razumovsky, A Yu; Korsunsky, A A; Konovalov, A K; Sergeev, A V; Vinogradov, A Ya; Sein, V A

    2015-01-01

    It was analyzed the results of treatment of 48 children aged from 1 month to 14 years. In these observations by the 6th - 7th days after doubleintestinalstoma formation magnetic dies with inductance from 300 to 360 mTl and energy force at least 255 kJ/m3 were introduced into lumen of afferent and efferent intestinal loops. Attractive or compression force between dies was 600 g, i.e. force per 1 cm2 was 200 g according to dies' surface 1.12.83.0 cm. Magnets are not only surgical instruments but also physiotherapeutic devices improving microcirculation and stimulating regeneration in the area of anastomosis. Interintestinal anastomosis has been completely formed for 5-7 days. Thereafter magnetic dies have been removed. Stool was normalized in 45 of 48 observations after surgery (1-3 times daily). Intestinal discharge from ileostomy reduced to minimal amount. In 2 patients irregular bowel movements was observed due to adhesive stenosis of interintestinal anastomosis. Magnetic dies can't be established in 1 case due to adhesive process. Hospital stay was from 10 to 25 days in 41 children. 7 patients were discharged for outpatient treatment later. All children were under observation for the period 2-4 months after discharge. Signs of hypotrophy including body weight deficit within 10% of age norm were diagnosed only in 3 children with prematurity degree I-II. Hereafter children were repeatedly hospitalized; intestinal stomas were surgically removed using conventional technique. Thus complete convalescence was obtained. PMID:26271323

  8. Treatment of herpes simplex gingivostomatitis with aciclovir in children: a randomised double blind placebo controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Amir, J.; Harel, L.; Smetana, Z.; Varsano, I.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of aciclovir suspension for treating herpetic gingivostomatitis in young children. DESIGN: Randomised double blind placebo controlled study. SETTING: Day care unit of a tertiary paediatric hospital. SUBJECTS: 72 children aged 1-6 years with clinical manifestations of gingivostomatitis lasting less than 72 hours; 61 children with cultures positive for herpes simplex virus finished the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of oral lesions, fever, eating and drinking difficulties, and viral shedding. INTERVENTION: Aciclovir suspension 15 mg/kg five times a day for seven days, or placebo. RESULTS: Children receiving aciclovir had oral lesions for a shorter period than children receiving placebo (median 4 v 10 days (difference 6 days, 95% confidence interval 4.0 to 8.0)) and earlier disappearance of the following signs and symptoms: fever (1 v 3 days (2 days, 0.8 to 3.2)); extraoral lesions (lesions around the mouth but outside the oral cavity) (0 v 5.5 days (5.5 days, 1.3 to 4.7)); eating difficulties (4 v 7 days (3 days, 1.31 to 4.69)); and drinking difficulties (3 v 6 days (3 days, 1.1 to 4.9)). Viral shedding was significantly shorter in the group treated with aciclovir (1 v 5 days (4 days, 2.9 to 5.1)). CONCLUSIONS: Oral aciclovir treatment for herpetic gingivostomatitis, started within the first three days of onset, shortens the duration of all clinical manifestations and the infectivity of affected children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the ideal dose and length of treatment. PMID:9224082

  9. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  10. The Period of 2167 Erin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montigiana, N.; Benedetti, W.; Mannucci, M.; Riccetti, S.

    2008-09-01

    Analysis of data taken in March and April 2007 by groups from Osservatorio Astronomico Margherita Hack and the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire indicates a likely period of 5.7186 ± 0.0001 h for 2167 Erin. The amplitude of the lightcurve was 0.53 ± 0.02 mag.

  11. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  12. 78 FR 70904 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rulemaking... Counsel, at 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Petition...

  13. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...The Commission is establishing a docket to consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to a Postal Service rulemaking petition. Establishing this docket will allow the Commission to consider the Postal Service's proposal and comments from the...

  14. Periodicities of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Aoki, T.

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive all-sky electron multiplier charge-coupled device airglow imager has been operative in Longyearbyen, Norway since October 2011. The imager captures 630.0 nm all-sky images with an exposure time of 4 s, which is about 10 times shorter than that achieved by conventional cooled CCD imagers. This allows us to visualize the structure of polar cap patches without blurring effects and better estimate their periodicities. We present, as one of the first results from the imager, an event of successive appearance of patches on the night of 21 December 2011. A time series of the optical intensity at zenith showed modulations having two distinguished periods, one at 40 min and the other at 5-12 min. One possible explanation is that such a coexistence of two different periodicities is a manifestation of simultaneous occurrence of patch generation processes on the 40 min periodicity was created by large-scale reconfiguration of the dayside convection pattern while the 5-12 min modulations were closely associated with mechanisms driven by pulsed reconnection on the dayside magnetopause. Such a combined effect of multiple patch generation processes may play a role in structuring patches; thus, it would be of particular importance for evaluating the space weather effects in the trans-ionospheric communications environment in the polar cap.

  15. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in... Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposal One), April 6, 2011...

  16. 76 FR 30893 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in analytical principles. Proposal Three involves... proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ Proposal... of a Proceeding to Consider a Proposed Change in Analytic Principles (Proposal Three), May 18,...

  17. Stability of underwater periodic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu; Kanso, Eva

    2013-07-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates swim by lateral flapping of their bodies and caudal fins. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the flapping kinematics and its influence on the swimming efficiency, little is known about the stability (or lack of) of periodic swimming. It is believed that stability limits maneuverability and body designs/flapping motions that are adapted for stable swimming are not suitable for high maneuverability and vice versa. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of a planar elliptic body undergoing prescribed periodic heaving and pitching in potential flow. We show that periodic locomotion can be achieved due to the resulting hydrodynamic forces, and its value depends on several parameters including the aspect ratio of the body, the amplitudes and phases of the prescribed flapping.We obtain closedform solutions for the locomotion and efficiency for small flapping amplitudes, and numerical results for finite flapping amplitudes. This efficiency analysis results in optimal parameter values that are in agreement with values reported for some carangiform fish. We then study the stability of the (finite amplitude flapping) periodic locomotion using Floquet theory. We find that stability depends nonlinearly on all parameters. Interesting trends of switching between stable and unstable motions emerge and evolve as we continuously vary the parameter values. This suggests that, for live organisms that control their flapping motion, maneuverability and stability need not be thought of as disjoint properties, rather the organism may manipulate its motion in favor of one or the other depending on the task at hand.

  18. 12 CFR 561.6 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit period. 561.6 Section 561.6 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.6 Audit period. The audit period of a savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual...

  19. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  20. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  1. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  2. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  3. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  4. Impact of Oxandrolone Treatment on Acute Outcomes After Severe Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tam N.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacologic modulation of hypermetabolism clearly benefits children with major burns, however, its role in adult burns remains to be defined. Oxandrolone appears to be a promising anabolic agent although few outcome data are as yet available. We examined whether early oxandrolone treatment in severely burned adults was associated with improved outcomes during acute hospitalization. We evaluated for potential associations between oxandrolone treatment and outcomes in a large cohort of severely burned adults in the context of a multicenter observational study. Patients were dichotomized with respect to oxandrolone treatment, defined as administration within 7 days after admission, with duration of at least 7 days. Acute hospitalization outcomes were compared with univariate and multivariate analyses. One hundred seventeen patients were included in this analysis. Mean patient age was 42.6 years (range, 18–86); 77% were male, with an average TBSA of 44.1%. Baseline and injury characteristics were similar among treatment and nontreatment cohorts. Oxandrolone treatment (N =59) did not impact length of stay but was associated with a lower mortality rate (P = .01) by univariate analysis. Oxandrolone treatment was independently associated with higher survival by adjusted analyses (P = .02). Examination of early oxandrolone treatment in this cohort of severely burned adults suggests that this therapy is safe and may be associated with improved survival. Further studies are necessary to define the exact mechanisms by which oxandrolone is beneficial during inpatient treatment. PMID:18849836

  5. Effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in healthy women: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pianez, Luana Ramalho; Custódio, Fernanda Silva; Guidi, Renata Michelini; de Freitas, Jauru Nunes; Sant’Ana, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Background Carbon dioxide therapy, better known as carboxytherapy, relates to percutaneous infusion of medical carbon dioxide with therapeutic approaches, and its use in the treatment of localized fat has demonstrated good results. Gynoid lipodystrophy, also known as cellulite, affects 80%–90% of women after puberty, especially in the buttocks and thighs. Its etiology is complex and involves multifactorial aspects. Its treatment and evaluation require the use of new technologies (more effective and low-cost approaches). The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in the areas of buttocks and posterior thigh. Patients and methods Ten women, 29±6.1 years, were selected and all of them received eight treatment sessions, with an interval of 7 days between sessions. Standardized digital photographs were used to assess the severity of cellulite, and panoramic images were collected by ultrasound diagnosis. The evaluations were performed before the first treatment (baseline) and 7 days after the last treatment session of carboxytherapy. Results After the treatment, there was a significant reduction (P=0.0025) of the cellulite from degree III to degree II, and this improvement had correlation with the improvement in the organization of the fibrous lines and the disposal of adipose tissue lines of the treated regions observed through the panoramic ultrasound images diagnosis. Conclusion Carboxytherapy is an effective technique of treatment of cellulite in the buttocks region and posterior thighs of healthy women. PMID:27578994

  6. Stroke risk in the early period after carotid related symptoms: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tsantilas, P; Kühnl, A; Kallmayer, M; Knappich, C; Schmid, S; Kuetchou, A; Zimmermann, A; Eckstein, H H

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend performing carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid disease as soon as possible after the neurological index event. However, early stroke risk has not been well documented for this patient group. We therefore conducted a systematic analysis of the current literature on the recurrent risk of ischemic events in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis. Systematic review was performed by searching the MEDLINE® database from 1950 until June 8, 2015 (key words: cerebral ischemia, transient ischemic attack, amaurosis fugax, stroke, symptomatic carotid stenosis, recurrent risk, outcome, prognosis, follow-up, cohort and natural history). All studies reporting stroke risks in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis after neurologic index events within a period of 7 days were included. Cumulative stroke risks with 95% confidence intervals after a neurologic index event were recalculated at 2-3, 7, 14 and 30 days and a meta-analysis including an analysis of heterogeneity were performed using the statistical package R and Excel for Mac 2003. Ten studies with a total number of 2634 patients were included. Results of an overall stroke risk were as follows: 2.0-17.2% at 2-3 days, 0-22.1% at 7 days, 0-29.6% at 14 days and 0-11.1% at 30 days in patients with a symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis. The pooled stroke risk in the six studies with active follow-up was 6.0% (95% CI 2.4-14.4) at 2-3 days, 10.9% (6.1-18.7) at 7 days and 17.6% (9.7-29.9) at 14 days. Pooled stroke risk in the three studies with uncensored populations was even higher with 6.4% (1.5-23.8%) at 2-3 days, 19.5% (12.7-28.7) at 7 days and 26.1% (20.6-32.5%) at 14 days. Significant heterogeneity (P<0.001) could be explained by the different inclusion criteria and the study's design. Retrospective studies with passive follow-up had the lowest stroke risk whereas prospective studies with active follow-up and without bias through early intervention by carotid

  7. Noncoherent detection of periodic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The optimal Bayes detector for a general periodic waveform having uniform delay and additive white Gaussian noise is examined. It is shown that the detector is much more complex than that for the well known cases of pure sine waves (i.e. classical noncoherent detection) and narrowband signals. An interpretation of the optimal processing is presented, and several implementations are discussed. The results have application to the noncoherent detection of optical square waves.

  8. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  9. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  10. Treatment of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael A; Gregory, Dawn E; Neumann, Norwood R; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David

    2005-05-15

    An examination was made as to the ability of Sentinel Flavor Tabs (milbemycin oxime/lufenuron) to treat Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs. The study was designed as a critical trial and included five naturally infected dogs and two dogs that were experimentally infected. Another dog from a prior clinical trial that was treated with Sentinel Flavor Tabs as part of the original FDA submission package for intestinal nematode infections was also included with the treated dogs. Of the five naturally infected dogs treated as part of the critical trial, three were cleared of their infections. These five dogs passed a total of 52 worms after treatment; one dog retained 23 worms and the other retained 1 worm at necropsy 7 days after treatment. Two of five experimentally infected Beagle dogs that had been given mice that had been fed 200 infectious eggs, developed patent infections with the parasite. These dogs were treated, and one of the dogs passed one worm and the other passed two worms after treatment with no worms being detected at necropsy 7 days after treatment. The one dog that was treated with milbemycin oxime as part of the FDA submission was clear of worms at necropsy. Overall, the mean efficacy of Sentinel Flavor Tabs was found to be 91.0%. Of the eight dogs that were treated, six were totally cleared of their infections, a cure rate of 75%. The two dogs that did not clear their infections had very large numbers of adult B. procyonis within their intestinal tracts at the time of treatment, one dog had 40 worms (23 remaining) and the other had 26 worms (1 remaining). It is suggested that the treatment of dogs with monthly Sentinel Flavor Tabs could markedly reduce the chance of infected dogs contaminating the environment. Also, additional monthly treatments are highly likely to clear dogs of any worms not killed with the initial treatment. PMID:15845284

  11. Intestinal malrotation presenting outside the neonatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Yanez, R; Spitz, L

    1986-01-01

    We report 37 patients ranging in age from 1 month to 14 years treated for intestinal malrotation during a five year period. The main presenting features consisted of intermittent attacks of vomiting (15 patients), failure to thrive (seven), and recurrent colicky abdominal pain (seven). The diagnosis was confirmed by gastrointestinal contrast studies in all but three patients. A standard Ladd's procedure comprised the definitive surgical treatment. We emphasise the poor nutritional state at the time of operation (49% of the cases were on or below the third centile). In contrast with neonatal presentation, volvulus of the midgut occurred in only five patients (14%) compared with 68% in neonates with malrotation. There were two deaths in the series. Ninety four per cent of the remaining patients responded favourably to the operative procedure. Malrotation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a wide variety of symptoms and should be treated promptly once the diagnosis has been confirmed. PMID:3740908

  12. Haemocytic periodicity and periodic disorders: Periodic neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis and anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Hobart A.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated of rhythmic numerical oscillation of each of the blood cells either independently or in combinations. The cyclic changes originate in the marrow of some normal persons and animals without causing illness, and can be induced experimentally. In more than 100 reported instances, periodic oscillations of various cells were accompanied by respective episodes of the disorders named in the title. The disorders may be transitory but usually recur throughout life and occasionally are fatal. All resist therapy. Features in common suggest an interrelationship of the haemal disorders and other disparate heritable periodic diseases. Theoretically, the rhythms are regulated by ubiquitous, inherent, intracellular bioclocks controlled hypothalamically or neurohumorally in relation to a feedback mechanism. Reactions to long cycles are of greater clinical importance than disturbances arising from the circadian rhythm. PMID:4397784

  13. The SCIDOTS Project: Evidence of benefits of an integrated tobacco cessation intervention in tuberculosis care on treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence to support the association between tuberculosis (TB) and tobacco smoking and that the smoking-related immunological abnormalities in TB are reversible within six weeks of cessation. Therefore, connecting TB and tobacco cessation interventions may produce significant benefits and positively impact TB treatment outcomes. However, no study has extensively documented the evidence of benefits of such integration. SCIDOTS Project is a study from the context of a developing nation aimed to determine this. Methods An integrated TB-tobacco intervention was provided by trained TB directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) providers at five chest clinics in Malaysia. The study was a prospective non-randomized controlled intervention using quasi-experimental design. Using Transtheoretical Model approach, 120 eligible participants who were current smokers at the time of TB diagnosis were assigned to either of two treatment groups: conventional TB DOTS plus smoking cessation intervention (integrated intervention or SCIDOTS group) or conventional TB DOTS alone (comparison or DOTS group). At baseline, newly diagnosed TB patients considering quitting smoking within the next 30 days were placed in the integrated intervention group, while those who were contemplating quitting were assigned to the comparison group. Eleven sessions of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy with or without nicotine replacement therapy were provided to each participant in the integrated intervention group. The impacts of the novel approach on biochemically validated smoking cessation and TB treatment outcomes were measured periodically as appropriate. Results A linear effect on both 7-day point prevalence abstinence and continuous abstinence was observed over time in the intervention group. At the end of 6 months, patients who received the integrated intervention had significantly higher rate of success in quitting smoking when compared with those who

  14. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Occurring in the Postoperative Period.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Süleyman; Bakal, Ömer; İnangil, Gökhan; Şen, Hüseyin; Özkan, Sezai

    2015-02-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy simulates acute myocardial infarction, and it is characterised by reversible left ventricular failure. A case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy diagnosed after emergency angiography performed in a patient with evidence of acute myocardial infarction in the postoperative period will be described in this report. Transurethral resection of a bladder tumour (TUR-BT) was performed in a 92-year-old male patient by the urology clinic. The patient was transferred to the post-anaesthesia care unit after the operation. An echocardiography was performed because of the sudden onset of dyspnoea, tachycardia (140-150 beats per minute, rhythm-atrial fibrillation) and ST-segment elevation on electrocardiography (ECG) at the first postoperative hour, and midapical dyskinesia was detected at the patient. An immediate angiography was performed due to suspicion of acute coronary syndrome. Patent coronary arteries and temporary aneurysmatic dilatation of the apex of the heart were revealed by angiography. As a result of these findings, the patient was diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy by the cardiology service. The patient was discharged uneventfully following 10 days in the intensive care unit. Aneurysm of the apex of the left ventricle and normal anatomy of the coronary arteries in the angiography have diagnostic value for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Diuretics (furosemide) and beta-blockers (metoprolol) are commonly used for the treatment of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Even though Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare and benign disease, it should be kept in mind in patients suspected for acute myocardial infarction in the postoperative period. PMID:27366464

  15. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  16. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  17. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  18. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  19. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  20. Effects of Zidovudine Treatment on Heart mRNA Expression and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Associated with Alterations in Deoxynucleoside Triphosphate Composition in a Neonatal Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Snowdin, Jacob W.; Hsiung, Chia-Heng; Kesterson, Daniel G.; Kamath, Vasudeva G.

    2015-01-01

    The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is a crucial component in HIV therapy. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), primarily 3′-azido-3′-thymidine (AZT [zidovudine]), have been used to treat both mothers and neonates. While AZT is being replaced with less toxic drugs in treating mothers in MTCT prevention, it is still commonly used to treat neonates. Problems related to mitochondrial toxicity and potential mutagenesis associated with AZT treatment have been reported in treated cohorts. Yet little is known concerning the metabolism and potential toxicity of AZT on embryonic and neonatal tissues, especially considering that the enzymes of nucleoside metabolism change dramatically as many tissues convert from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth during this period. AZT is known to inhibit thymidine phosphorylation and potentially alter deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools in adults. This study examines the effects of AZT on dNTP pools, mRNA expression of deoxynucleoside/deoxynucleotide metabolic enzymes, and mitochondrial DNA levels in a neonatal rat model. Results show that AZT treatment dramatically altered dNTP pools in the first 7 days of life after birth, which normalized to age-matched controls in the second and third weeks. Additionally, AZT treatment dramatically increased the mRNA levels of many enzymes involved in deoxynucleotide synthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis during the first week of life, which normalized to age-matched controls by the third week. These results were correlated with depletion of mitochondrial DNA noted in the second week. Taken together, results demonstrated that AZT treatment has a powerful effect on the deoxynucleotide synthesis pathways that may be associated with toxicity and mutagenesis. PMID:26248377

  1. Rotation period of comet Donati

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to the rotation period of comet Donati (1858 VI) whose haloes were approximate parabolic envelopes having foci near the apparent nucleus and vertices toward the sun forward from the tail axis. The regularity and sharpness of the halves suggest that they represent the repetitive ejection of material from an active area which is exposed to solar radiation as the cometary nucleus rotates. Bobrovnikov's results (1954) are used to evaluate the linear expansion velocity of such haloes. This calculation is applied to the comet and a linear correction is used to assess the results.

  2. Long-Period Solar Variability

    SciTech Connect

    GAUTHIER,JOHN H.

    2000-07-20

    Terrestrial climate records and historical observations of the Sun suggest that the Sun undergoes aperiodic oscillations in radiative output and size over time periods of centuries and millenia. Such behavior can be explained by the solar convective zone acting as a nonlinear oscillator, forced at the sunspot-cycle frequency by variations in heliomagnetic field strength. A forced variant of the Lorenz equations can generate a time series with the same characteristics as the solar and climate records. The timescales and magnitudes of oscillations that could be caused by this mechanism are consistent with what is known about the Sun and terrestrial climate.

  3. Rotational periods of asteroids II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccioli, D.; Blanco, C.; Cigna, M.

    2001-06-01

    In the framework of the photoelectric asteroid observational program undertaken at Catania University to collect lightcurves apt to apply the pole computational methods, the V-band lightcurves and the values of the synodic rotational period and of the average B- V colour index of 5 Astrea, 6 Hebe, 12 Victoria, 13 Egeria, 26 Proserpina, 34 Circe, 63 Ausonia, 66 Maja, 102 Miriam, 140 Siwa, 176 Iduna, 181 Eucaris, 241 Germania, 250 Bettina, 258 Tyche, 313 Chaldea, 335 Roberta, 352 Gisela, 419 Aurelia, 471 Papagena, 537 Pauly, 639 Latona and 984 Gretia are presented.

  4. Periodic roads and quantized wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos Valadares, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple approach to determine all possible wheels that can roll smoothly without slipping on a periodic roadbed, while maintaining the center of mass at a fixed height. We also address the inverse problem that of obtaining the roadbed profile compatible with a specific wheel and all other related "quantized wheels." The role of symmetry is highlighted, which might preclude the center of mass from remaining at a fixed height. A straightforward consequence of such geometric quantization is that the gravitational potential energy and the moment of inertia are discrete, suggesting a parallelism between macroscopic wheels and nano-systems, such as carbon nanotubes.

  5. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  6. Periodic microwave absorption in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Martinek, J.; Stankowski, J. )

    1994-08-01

    A model explaining the presence of a periodic train of microwave absorption lines in the magnetic modulated microwave absorption (MMMA) spectra of high- and low-temperature superconductors is proposed. The model assumes the occurrence of regular superconducting current loops, closed by Josephson junctions, in these materials. The system of such loops is considered within the basic model of the rf superconducting quantum interference device taking into account the effect of thermal fluctuations. The magnetic-field and temperature dependencies of the MMMA obtained on the basis of the proposed model are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  7. Concentration of hydrogen ions in several calcium hydroxide pastes over different periods of time.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Morgana Eli; Zilio, Danila M; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the concentration of hydrogen ions (pH) of calcium hydroxide [(Ca(OH)2] pastes combined with different vehicles over 7 periods of time. The Ca(OH)2 was manipulated with the following vehicles: i: sterile water; ii: iodoform plus sterile water; iii: local anesthetics (Lydocaine 2% with 1: 100,000 epinephrine); iv: polyethyleneglycol; v: glycerin; vi: 2.0% chlorhexidine gel; vii: camphorated paramonochlorophenol (CMCP); viii: (CMCP) + glycerin; and ix: polyethyleneglycol plus CMCP. The pastes were made on a glass plate to toothpaste consistency and the pH was measured at the following times: 5 min, 1, 24, 48 h; 7, 14 and 28 days. The data were statistically analyzed (Kruskal-Wallis at p<0.05). At 5 min, 1 and 24 h, the pH of all tested pastes ranged from 13.05 to 11.16. At 48 h and 7 days the pH of all tested pastes ranged from 11.66 to 8.92. At 14 and 28 days almost all pastes had pH means lower than 10. In conclusion, the mean pH of all tested calcium hydroxide pastes decreased with the time. Pastes made with aqueous vehicles (especially with sterile water), followed by oily vehicles (especially with CMCP + glycerin), held the highest pH means over the periods of time tested. PMID:20126906

  8. [Effect of pharmacotherapy on course of postoperative period after endovenous thermal ablation].

    PubMed

    Stoiko, Yu M; Mazaishvili, K V; Khlevtova, T V; Tsyplyashchuk, A V; Kharitonova, S E; Akimov, S S

    2015-01-01

    The authors assessed the effect of a micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) on the course of the postoperative period after endovenous thermal ablation (EVTA). The patients of the Study Group matching by the main studied parameters to the Control Group patients were given the MPFF according to the suggested regimen for 7 days. The obtained results were analysed by means of questionnaires (CIVIQ, VCSS, VAS) and ultrasound angioscanning. The obtained findings were statistically processed by means of the program Statistica 6.0 and reliability of the results was assessed with the help of the Student t-test. Patients of the both groups showed complete stable obliteration of the target veins. No statistically significant differences of the items of the questionnaires CIVIQ and VCSS at the beginning of the study and at the last examination were revealed, differences were noted on days 2-14 after EVTA and were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Phlebotrophic therapy in the postoperative period after EVTA helps to decrease phlebitic alterations in the coagulated vein, to improve motor activity and mental psychoemotional state of the patients. PMID:26355925

  9. Secondary Sjogren's syndrome presenting with hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Dormohammadi Toosi, Taraneh; Naderi, Neda; Movassaghi, Shafieh; Seradj, Mehran Heydari; Khalvat, Ali; Shahbazi, Fatemeh

    2014-11-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) may develop in a large population of patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), but most of the subjects are asymptomatic. Here, we report a patient with known rheumatoid arthritis and symptoms of xerostomia, xerophthalmia and periodic paralysis. SS should be considered as a cause of RTA. The treatment of the underlying disorder may ameliorate the symptoms. PMID:25988057

  10. Secondary Sjogren's syndrome presenting with hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Dormohammadi Toosi, Taraneh; Naderi, Neda; Movassaghi, Shafieh; Seradj, Mehran Heydari; Khalvat, Ali; Shahbazi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) may develop in a large population of patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), but most of the subjects are asymptomatic. Here, we report a patient with known rheumatoid arthritis and symptoms of xerostomia, xerophthalmia and periodic paralysis. SS should be considered as a cause of RTA. The treatment of the underlying disorder may ameliorate the symptoms. PMID:25988057

  11. 40 CFR 35.910-2 - Period of availability; reallotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Period of availability; reallotment. 35.910-2 Section 35.910-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  12. 40 CFR 35.910-2 - Period of availability; reallotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Period of availability; reallotment. 35.910-2 Section 35.910-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  13. 40 CFR 35.910-2 - Period of availability; reallotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Period of availability; reallotment. 35.910-2 Section 35.910-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  14. 40 CFR 35.910-2 - Period of availability; reallotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Period of availability; reallotment. 35.910-2 Section 35.910-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  15. [Pregnancy and lactation period: Which local anesthetics and analgesics?].

    PubMed

    Fatori Popovic, Sandra; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; von Mandach, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show relevant aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. Common medication used in dental offices should be highlighted in special regard to the pregnant patient during dental treatment. The reader should gain more security in the election of the proper drugs for local anesthesia and oral analgesics. Local anaesthetics such as articain with adrenalin in a dilution of 1 : 200 000 can be used for dental treatment at any time. Paracetamol should be used as first line oral analgesic. Elective dental procedures should be postponed after delivery and after lactation period. PMID:27142442

  16. Periodic bedrock ridges on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Becker, Scott K.

    2012-03-01

    Evidence for sediment transport and erosion by wind is widespread over the surface of Mars today and was likely a major geomorphic process for much of its geological past. Although Martian surface features resembling aeolian dunes and ripples have been recognized since the Mariner and Viking missions, such features have been interpreted previously as active, indurated, or exhumed sedimentary forms. Here we report evidence based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images that show some megaripple forms are eroded into cohesive substrate rather than being composed of loose granular material or fossilized dunes. Exposure of stratigraphic continuity within layered, cohesive material extending crest to trough through features with mean wavelengths of 18 to 51 m demonstrates the primarily erosional formation of what we term periodic bedrock ridges (PBRs). Hence some surfaces on Mars previously considered to be covered by wind-deposited material are actually wind-carved exposures that offer windows into Martian history. PBRs lack the distinctive streamlining associated with wind-parallel yardangs and comparison of PBR orientation to yardangs, megayardangs, and active sedimentary dunes in the same vicinity confirm that these PBRs formed transverse to prevailing winds. Observed wavelengths of PBRs are comparable to those predicted by a simple model for erosional wavelengths of periodic transverse bed forms owing to the spacing of flow separations within the flow. Recognition of these transverse aeolian erosional forms brings up the question of how widespread Martian PBRs are and how many have been misinterpreted as active or indurated (fossilized) sedimentary dunes.

  17. Quasi-periodic spatiotemporal filtering.

    PubMed

    Burghouts, Gertjan J; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents the online estimation of temporal frequency to simultaneously detect and identify the quasiperiodic motion of an object. We introduce color to increase discriminative power of a reoccurring object and to provide robustness to appearance changes due to illumination changes. Spatial contextual information is incorporated by considering the object motion at different scales. We combined spatiospectral Gaussian filters and a temporal reparameterized Gabor filter to construct the online temporal frequency filter. We demonstrate the online filter to respond faster and decay faster than offline Gabor filters. Further, we show the online filter to be more selective to the tuned frequency than Gabor filters. We contribute to temporal frequency analysis in that we both identify ("what") and detect ("when") the frequency. In color video, we demonstrate the filter to detect and identify the periodicity of natural motion. The velocity of moving gratings is determined in a real world example. We consider periodic and quasiperiodic motion of both stationary and nonstationary objects. PMID:16764282

  18. Treatment of malaria in north-eastern and south-eastern Nigeria: a population study of mefloquine, sulphadoxine, pyrimethamine combination (MSP) vs chloroquine (CQ).

    PubMed

    Ekanem, O J; Ezedinachi, E N; Molta, N B; Watila, I M; Chukwuani, C M; Meremikwu, M M; Akpede, G; Ojar, E A

    2000-01-01

    In a population-based study involving 4019 patients in 20 peripheral health facilities in Nigeria, the outcome of presumptive malaria treatment with MSP was compared to that of CQ. The study was conducted between January 1995 and January 1996. Patients aged 6 months or more with a clinical diagnosis of malaria based on history of fever and axillary temperature > 37.5 degrees C were either treated with MSP (250 mg mefloquine, 500 mg sulphadoxine, and 25 mg pyrimethamine per tablet) or CQ (150 mg chloroquine base per tablet). The clinical cure rate was assessed by the disappearance of clinical signs and symptoms over a 7-day period. Tolerability was assessed by the incidence of adverse events (adverse drug reaction and intercurrent illness). The result shows that the clinical care rate of suspected malaria was 97.6% with MSP and 85.6% with CQ. The incidence of adverse event was 9.5% with MSP and 9.2% with CQ. The withdrawal rate was 2.0% with MSP and 5.0% with CQ; 3.5% of the patients in the CQ group withdrew due to adverse events compared to 0.47% with MSP. In conclusion it was observed that in addition to superior efficacy of MSP over CQ, fever clearance rate with MSP was comparable to that of CQ. The study also demonstrated that two tablets maximum dose of MSP is safe and effective in a large population of Nigeria malaria patients. PMID:11391844

  19. Comparison of eMODIS and MOD/MYD13A2 NDVI products during 2012-2014 spring green-up periods in Alaska and northwest Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbyla, David

    2015-04-01

    Accurate monitoring of vegetation dynamics is required to understand the inter-annual variability and long term trends in terrestrial carbon exchange in tundra and boreal ecoregions. In western North America, two Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) products based on spectral reflectance data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are available. The MOD/MYD13A2 NDVI product is available as a 16-day composite product in a sinusoidal projection as global hdf tiles. The eMODIS Alaska NDVI product is available as a 7-day composite geotif product in a regional equal area conic projection covering Alaska and the entire Yukon River Basin. These two NDVI products were compared for the 2012-2014 late May-late June spring green-up periods in Alaska and the Yukon Territory. Relative to the MOD/MYD13A2 NDVI product, it is likely that the eMODIS NDVI product contained more cloud-contaminated NDVI values. For example, the MOD/MYD13A2 product flagged substantially fewer pixels as "good quality" in each 16-day composite period compared to the corresponding MODIS Alaska NDVI product from a 7-day composite period. During the spring green-up period, when field-based NDVI increases, the eMODIS NDVI product averaged 43 percent of pixels that declined by at least 0.05 NDVI between 2 composite periods, consistent with cloud-contamination problems, while the MOD/MYD13A2 NDVI averaged only 6 percent of pixels. Based on a cloudy Landsat-8 scene, the eMODIS compositing process selected 23 percent pixels, while the MOD/MYD13A2 compositing process selected less than 0.003 percent pixels. Based on the results, it appears that the MOD/MYD13A2 NDVI product is superior for scientific applications based on NDVI phenology in the tundra and boreal regions of northwestern North America.

  20. Hyperbaric treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on hyperbaric treatment are presented. Topics covered include: hyperbaric treatment - purpose; decompression sickness; sources of decompression sickness; physical description; forms of decompression sickness; hyperbaric treatment of decompression sickness; and duration of treatment.

  1. Surgical treatment of GERD. Comperative study of WTP vs. Toupet fundoplication – results of 151 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Nowosad, Małgorzata; Krawczyk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is recognized as one of the most common disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The best choice of management for advanced GERD is laparoscopic surgery. Aim To compare and evaluate the results of surgical treatment of GERD patients operated on using two different techniques. Material and methods Between 2001 and 2012, 353 patients (211 female and 142 male), aged 17–76 years (mean 44), underwent laparoscopic antireflux surgery. The study included patients who underwent a Toupet fundoplication or Wroblewski Tadeusz procedure (WTP). Results The mean age of the group was 47.77 years (17–80 years). Forty-nine (32.45%) patients had severe symptoms, 93 (61.58%) had mild symptoms and 9 (5.96%) had a single mild but intolerable sign of GERD. Eighty-six (56.95%) patients had a Toupet fundoplication and 65 (43.04%) had a WTP. The follow-up period was 18–144 months. The average operating time for Toupet fundoplication and the WTP procedure was 164 min (90–300 min) and 147 min (90–210 min), respectively. The perioperative mortality rate was 0.66%. The average post-operative hospitalization period was 5.4 days (2–16 post-operative days (POD) = Toupet) vs. 4.7 days (2–9 POD = WTP). No reoperations were performed. No major surgical complications were identified. Conclusions Wroblewski Tadeusz procedure due to a low percentage of post-operative complications, good quality of life of patients and a zero recurrence rate of hiatal hernia should be a method of choice. PMID:27458484

  2. Flame propagation through periodic vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Dold, J.W.; Kerr, O.S.; Nikolova, I.P.

    1995-02-01

    The discovery of a new class of Navier-Stokes solutions representing steady periodic stretched vortices offers a useful test-bed for examining interactions between flames and complex flow-fields. After briefly describing these vortex solutions and their wide-ranging parameterization in terms of wavelength and amplitude, this article examines their effect on flames of constant normal propagation speed as observed through numerical solutions of an eikonal equation. Over certain ranges of vortex amplitude and flame-speed, a corridor of enhanced flame passage is seen to be created as a leading flame-tip managers to leap-frog between successive vortices. However, for large enough amplitudes of vorticity or small enough flame-speeds, the flame fails to be able to benefit from the advection due to the vortices. It is shown that the leading tips of such flames are effectively trapped by the stretched vortices.

  3. The periodic table in Flatland

    SciTech Connect

    Negadi, T.; Kibler, M.

    1996-01-05

    The D-dimensional Coulomb system serves as a starting point for generating generalized atomic shells. These shells are ordered according to a generalized Madelung rule in D dimensions. This rule together with an Aujbau Prinzip is applied to produce a D-dimensional periodic table. A model is developed to rationalize the ordering of the shells predicted by the generalized Madelung rule. This model is based on the introduction of a Hamiltonian, invariant under the q-deformed algebra U{sub q}(so(D)), that breaks down the SO(D + 1) dynamical symmetry of the hydrogen atom in D dimensions. The D = 2 case (Flatland) is investigated in some detail. It is shown that the neutral atoms and the (moderately) positive ions correspond to the values q = 0.8 and q = 1, respectively, of the deformation parameter q. 55 refs.

  4. Impact of dietary plane of energy during the dry period on lipoprotein parameters in the transition period in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Newman, A; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R; Behling-Kelly, E

    2016-02-01

    The high energy demands of dairy cows during the transition period from late gestation into early lactation can place them at an increased risk for the development of metabolic and infectious diseases. Modification of the dry period diet has been investigated as a preventive means to minimize the detrimental aspects of metabolic shifts during the transition period. Studies investigating the impact of dry period diet on lipid parameters during the transition period have largely focused on markers of lipolysis and ketogenesis. Total cholesterol declines during the periparturient period and increases in early lactation. The impact total energy in the dry period diet has on the ability of the cow to maintain total serum cholesterol, as well as its natural high-density lipoprotein-rich status, during this metabolically challenging window is not clear. The impact of lipoproteins on inflammation and immune function may have a clinical impact on the cow's ability to ward off production-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that the provision of adequate, but not excessive, total metabolizable energy, would better allow the cow to maintain total cholesterol and a higher relative proportion of HDL throughout the transition period. Cows were allocated to one of three dry period dietary treatment groups following a randomized block design. Total serum triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions were measured on a weekly basis from approximately 7 weeks pre-calving to 6 weeks post-calving. The cows on the high energy diet maintained total serum cholesterol as compared to the cows provided a lower energy diet, but there was no significant increase in the LDL fraction of lipoproteins between diet treatment groups. PMID:25958934

  5. Induction of ovulation with GnRH and PGF(2 alpha) at two different stages during the early postpartum period in dairy cows: ovarian response and changes in hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Montoya, Carlos; Matsui, Motozumi; Kawashima, Chiho; Hayashi, Ken-Go; Matsuda, Go; Kaneko, Etsushi; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi

    2007-08-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to determine whether dairy cows can be induced to ovulate by the treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) followed by prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF(2 alpha)) during the early postpartum period and 2) to describe their ovarian and hormonal responses according to ovarian status. Cows were divided in two groups and received 10 microg of buserelin followed by 500 microg of cloprostenol 7 days apart starting from 21 (GnRH21, n=7) or around 37 days postpartum (GnRH37, n=7). The groups were further classified according to presence (-CL) or absence (-NCL) of functional corpora lutea (CL) on the day of GnRH treatment (d 0): GnRH21-NCL (n=4), GnRH21-CL (n=3) and GnRH37-CL (n=7). Ovarian morphology was monitored and the concentrations of P(4), E(2), FSH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. All cows ovulated after administration of GnRH. The P(4) levels of the GnRH21-NCL group from d 0 to d 5 were lower than those of the GnRH21-CL (P<0.05) and GnRH37-CL groups (P<0.01). In contrast, the E(2) levels of the GnRH21-NCL group within d 2 to d 6 were higher (P<0.05) than those of the other groups. Compared with the GnRH37-CL group, the GnRH21-NCL group had more small follicles on d 2 (P<0.05), d 3 (P<0.01) and d 4 (P<0.01) and more large follicles on d 5 (P<0.05). The induced CL and new ovulatory follicles were larger in the GnRH21-NCL group compared with the GnRH21-CL (P<0.001 and P<0.01) and GnRH37-CL groups (P<0.001 and P<0.05). IGF-1 did not differ among the groups. The GnRH21-NCL group had higher FSH levels than the GnRH21-CL (P<0.01) and GnRH37-CL groups (P<0.001) on d 0. Low P(4) and high FSH levels may suggest higher gonadotropin support on the enhanced ovarian morphology of the GnRH21-NCL group. PGF(2 alpha) treatment induced CL regression and subsequent ovulation in 3/4 (75%), 3/3 (100%) and 7/7 (100%) cows in the GnRH21-NCL, GnRH21-CL and GnRH37-CL groups, respectively. In conclusion, a 7-day GnRH-PGF(2 alpha

  6. Faropenem medoxomil: a treatment option in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hadley, James A; Tillotson, Glenn S; Tosiello, Robert; Echols, Roger M

    2006-12-01

    Faropenem medoxomil is the first oral penem in a new class of beta-lactam antibiotics. Faropenem medoxomil has excellent in vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and other key pathogens implicated in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Clinical studies have demonstrated that, in the treatment of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in adults, 7 days of treatment with faropenem medoxomil is as clinically and bacteriologically effective as 10 days of treatment with cefuroxime axetil. One study showed faropenem medoxomil to be superior to cefuroxime axetil. Overall, the safety profile of faropenem medoxomil is similar to that of most comparators. Specifically, the minimal impact of faropenem medoxomil on the gastrointestinal flora leads to less diarrhea and other adverse events than coamoxicillin-clavulanate. Faropenem medoxomil has almost no drug-drug interactions and little requirement for dosage adjustments in the typical acute rhinosinusitis population. PMID:17181408

  7. Extension of the established period of diacetyl adaptation by oxygen intermediates in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Asuka; Sato, Fumihiko; Ito, Kuniko; Matsuura, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    After pre-exposure to the odorant diacetyl, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans showed a decline in chemotactic responses to diacetyl, a phenomenon known as diacetyl adaptation. In the present study, we found that the established period of diacetyl adaptation in nematodes increased with the breeding temperature. When wild-type (N2) nematodes were bred at 15°C, adaptation was observed from the young adult (YA) to the 3-day-old adult that is reached 3 days after the YA stage. On breeding nematodes at 20°C and 25°C, adaptation was observed between the YA and 5-day-old adult and between the YA and the 7-day-old adult, respectively. Breeding temperature has been shown to correlate with the rate of aging in nematodes, which is related to the level of oxygen consumption. Accordingly, long-lived isp-1 and clk-1 mutants that demonstrate decreased levels of oxygen consumption showed a shorter established period of adaptation than N2 nematodes, whereas short-lived gas-1 and mev-1 mutants that have a hypersensitive response to oxygen showed a longer period of adaptation than the N2. Moreover, the established period of diacetyl adaptation in N2 nematodes was shortened by the antioxidant α-lipoic acid. These results suggest that oxygen intermediates, which are produced by oxygen consumption, play a significant role in diacetyl adaptation. Although this is only one of many factors that regulate diacetyl adaptation, such as the release of neurotransmitters and changes in intracellular conditions, the acquisition of this adaptation requires an increase in the intensity of moderate oxygen signals. PMID:25759262

  8. Photometric and Period Investigation of the Late F-type Overcontact Binary II UMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, B.; Kreiner, J.

    2016-03-01

    II UMa is a late F-type (F5) contact binary with a close-in tertiary and a distant visual companion. According to the four-color (B V RcIc) light curves’ solutions of II UMa, it is a high fill-out (f = 86.6%) and low-mass ratio (q = 0.172) contact binary system, which indicates that it is at the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binary stars. The masses of the primary star and secondary star are calculated to be {M}1=1.99{M}⊙ and {M}2=0.34{M}⊙ . The primary star has evolved from the zero-age main sequence, but it still appeared before the terminal-age main sequence, and the secondary star is even more evolved. Considering the mass ratio ({M}3/{M}1=0.67) obtained by spectroscopic observations, the mass of the close-in tertiary is estimated to be {M}3=1.34{M}⊙ . The period variations of the binary system are investigated for the first time. According to the observed-calculated (O-C) curve analysis, a continuous period increase at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=4.88× {10}-7 {day} {{yr}}-1 is determined. The parabolic variation in the O-C curve may be part of a cyclic period of change, or the combined period of change of a parabolic variation and a cyclic one. More instances of minimum light are needed to confirm this. The presence of the tertiary component may play an important role in the formation and evolution of this binary system by drawing angular momentum from the central system during the pre-contact stage.

  9. Hypothyroidism in the Newborn Period

    PubMed Central

    Wassner, Ari J.; Brown, Rosalind S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review summarizes significant advances in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), with a focus on thyroid dysfunction in preterm infants. Recent Findings CH appears to be increasing in incidence, primarily due to increased stringency of screening strategies, with smaller contributions from changing demographics and improved survival of increasingly premature infants. The greatest increase has been in mildly affected infants. Although many such cases are transient, some eventually prove to be severe and/or permanent. In preterm infants, transient hypothyroidism is common and may be delayed in onset. The etiology is probably multifactorial, and inadequate iodine intake may contribute to some cases. Transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (THOP), also common in premature infants, is correlated with markers of inflammation. Despite concern about the potential morbidity of THOP, the benefits and safety of treatment have not been established. Novel genetic causes of CH continue to be identified, and accumulating data support the sensitivity of infants with severe CH to small changes in levothyroxine formulation. Summary Changes in newborn screening strategies have increasingly identified thyroid function abnormalities of unclear clinical significance. Novel causes of CH continue to be identified, and new data continue to emerge regarding optimal therapy. PMID:23974774

  10. Effect of ultrasonic treatments on nanoparticle preparation of acid-hydrolyzed waxy maize starch.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Han, Jung-Ah; Kweon, Dong-Keon; Park, Jong-Dae; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2013-04-01

    Waxy maize starch was dispersed (14.7% solids) in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution (3.16M), and hydrolyzed by stirring for up to 7 days at 40°C with ultrasonic treatments at different vibration amplitudes (20 and 40%) and durations (30 and 60min/day). The amount of starch nanoparticles in the hydrolyzates isolated after 7 days, measured by a dynamic light scattering detector, was raised from 20% to 70% by an ultrasonic treatment (20% amplitude, 30min). The aggregation of nanoparticles possibly occurring during the hydrolysis was effectively prevented by the ultrasonication. Alternatively, ultrasonic treatments were applied to the re-dispersed suspension of the large microparticles of starch hydrolyzates (2 days) precipitated by a mild centrifugation (500rpm, 10min). By an ultrasonic treatment at 60% vibration amplitude for 3min, the microparticles could be completely transformed to nanoparticles. The inherent crystalline structure of waxy maize starch (A-type in X-ray diffraction) remained after the ultrasonic treatments during acid hydrolysis, but it was disrupted by the ultrasonic treatments for the re-dispersed microparticles. PMID:23499099

  11. Critical period of weed control in aerobic rice.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M P; Juraimi, A S; Samedani, B; Puteh, A; Man, A

    2012-01-01

    Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a) increasing duration of weed interference and (b) increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined through Logistic and Gompertz equations. Critical period varied between seasons; in main season, it started earlier and lasted longer, as compared to off-season. The onset of the critical period was found relatively stable between seasons, while the end was more variable. Critical period was determined as 7-49 days after seeding in off-season and 7-53 days in main season to achieve 95% of weed-free yield, and 23-40 days in off-season and 21-43 days in main season to achieve 90% of weed-free yield. Since 5% yield loss level is not practical from economic view point, a 10% yield loss may be considered excellent from economic view point. Therefore, aerobic rice should be kept weed-free during 21-43 days for better yield and higher economic return. PMID:22778701

  12. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  13. 34 CFR 75.251 - Budget periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Budget periods. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education Office...-Year Projects § 75.251 Budget periods. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of not more... multi-year project period, the Secretary: (1) Makes a grant to the project for the initial budget...

  14. The Educator's Guide to Computer Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlabay, Les R.

    1982-01-01

    This annotated directory of periodicals on computers and computer-related topics is divided into three sections: (1) seven major periodicals designed specifically for teachers who wish to use computers as a classroom aid; (2) 12 general-interest computer periodicals for educators; and (3) 15 additional periodicals for specialized interest. (JL)

  15. 20 CFR 627.901 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transition period. 627.901 Section 627.901... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Transition Provisions § 627.901 Transition period. The transition period ended June 30, 1993 unless otherwise stated. The intent of the transition period is...

  16. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  17. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  18. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  19. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  20. 7 CFR 1488.7 - Expiration of period(s) for delivery and/or export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Financing Export Sales § 1488.7 Expiration of period(s..., the period for delivery may be extended by CCC by the period of such delay. (c) If delivery is...

  1. Treatment of onychomycosis: an update.

    PubMed

    Shirwaikar, A A; Thomas, T; Shirwaikar, A; Lobo, R; Prabhu, K S

    2008-11-01

    Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period. PMID:21369429

  2. Treatment of Onychomycosis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Shirwaikar, A. A.; Thomas, T.; Shirwaikar, A.; Lobo, R.; Prabhu, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period. PMID:21369429

  3. Gauge interaction as periodicity modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolce, Donatello

    2012-06-01

    The paper is devoted to a geometrical interpretation of gauge invariance in terms of the formalism of field theory in compact space-time dimensions (Dolce, 2011) [8]. In this formalism, the kinematic information of an interacting elementary particle is encoded on the relativistic geometrodynamics of the boundary of the theory through local transformations of the underlying space-time coordinates. Therefore gauge interactions are described as invariance of the theory under local deformations of the boundary. The resulting local variations of the field solution are interpreted as internal transformations. The internal symmetries of the gauge theory turn out to be related to corresponding space-time local symmetries. In the approximation of local infinitesimal isometric transformations, Maxwell's kinematics and gauge invariance are inferred directly from the variational principle. Furthermore we explicitly impose periodic conditions at the boundary of the theory as semi-classical quantization condition in order to investigate the quantum behavior of gauge interaction. In the abelian case the result is a remarkable formal correspondence with scalar QED.

  4. Epigenetics in the perioperative period

    PubMed Central

    Lirk, P; Fiegl, H; Weber, N C; Hollmann, M W

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative period is characterized by profound changes in the body's homoeostatic processes. This review seeks to address whether epigenetic mechanisms may influence an individual's reaction to surgery and anaesthesia. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that epigenetic mechanisms can explain many facets of susceptibility to acute and chronic pain, making them potential therapeutic targets. Modern pain management is still based upon opiates, and both the developmental expression of opioid receptors and opioid-induced hyperalgesia have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms. In general, opiates seem to increase global DNA methylation levels. This is in contrast to local anaesthetics, which have been ascribed a global demethylating effect. Even though no direct investigations have been carried out, the potential influence of epigenetics on the inflammatory response that follows surgery seems a promising area for research. There is a considerable body of evidence that supports the involvement of epigenetics in the complex process of wound healing. Epigenetics is an important emerging research topic in perioperative medicine, with a huge potential to positively influence patient outcome. PMID:25073649

  5. Dense periodic packings of tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbrielli, Ruggero; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2014-02-01

    Dense packings of nonoverlapping bodies in three-dimensional Euclidean space R3 are useful models of the structure of a variety of many-particle systems that arise in the physical and biological sciences. Here we investigate the packing behavior of congruent ring tori in R3, which are multiply connected nonconvex bodies of genus 1, as well as horn and spindle tori. Specifically, we analytically construct a family of dense periodic packings of unlinked tori guided by the organizing principles originally devised for simply connected solid bodies [22 Torquato and Jiao, Phys. Rev. E 86, 011102 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.011102]. We find that the horn tori as well as certain spindle and ring tori can achieve a packing density not only higher than that of spheres (i.e., π /√18 =0.7404...) but also higher than the densest known ellipsoid packings (i.e., 0.7707...). In addition, we study dense packings of clusters of pair-linked ring tori (i.e., Hopf links), which can possess much higher densities than corresponding packings consisting of unlinked tori.

  6. Megadontia, striae periodicity and patterns of enamel secretion in Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins

    PubMed Central

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Dean, M Christopher; Ramirez-Rozzi, Fernando; Bromage, Timothy G

    2008-01-01

    Early hominins formed large and thick-enamelled cheek-teeth within relatively short growth periods as compared with modern humans. To understand better the developmental basis of this process, we measured daily enamel increments, or cross striations, in 17 molars of Plio-Pleistocene hominins representing seven different species, including specimens attributed to early Homo. Our results show considerable variation across species, although all specimens conformed to the known pattern characterised by greater values in outer than inner enamel, and greater cuspal than cervical values. We then compared our results with the megadontia index, which represents tooth size in relation to body mass, for each species to assess the effect of daily growth rates on tooth size. Our results indicate that larger toothed (megadont) taxa display higher rates or faster forming enamel than smaller toothed hominins. By forming enamel quickly, large tooth crowns were able to develop within the constraints of shorter growth periods. Besides daily increments, many animals express long-period markings (striae of Retzius) in their enamel. We report periodicity values (number of cross striations between adjacent striae) in 14 new specimens of Australopithecus afarensis, Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus boisei, Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis and Homo erectus, and show that long-period striae express a strong association with male and average male–female body mass. Our results for Plio-Pleistocene hominins show that the biological rhythms that give rise to long-period striae are encompassed within the range of variation known for modern humans, but show a lower mean and modal value of 7 days in australopithecines. In our sample of early Homo, mean and modal periodicity values were 8 days, and therefore similar to modern humans. These new data on daily rates of enamel formation and periodicity provide a better framework to interpret surface manifestations of internal growth markings on

  7. Megadontia, striae periodicity and patterns of enamel secretion in Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Dean, M Christopher; Ramirez-Rozzi, Fernando; Bromage, Timothy G

    2008-08-01

    Early hominins formed large and thick-enamelled cheek-teeth within relatively short growth periods as compared with modern humans. To understand better the developmental basis of this process, we measured daily enamel increments, or cross striations, in 17 molars of Plio-Pleistocene hominins representing seven different species, including specimens attributed to early Homo. Our results show considerable variation across species, although all specimens conformed to the known pattern characterised by greater values in outer than inner enamel, and greater cuspal than cervical values. We then compared our results with the megadontia index, which represents tooth size in relation to body mass, for each species to assess the effect of daily growth rates on tooth size. Our results indicate that larger toothed (megadont) taxa display higher rates or faster forming enamel than smaller toothed hominins. By forming enamel quickly, large tooth crowns were able to develop within the constraints of shorter growth periods. Besides daily increments, many animals express long-period markings (striae of Retzius) in their enamel. We report periodicity values (number of cross striations between adjacent striae) in 14 new specimens of Australopithecus afarensis, Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus boisei, Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis and Homo erectus, and show that long-period striae express a strong association with male and average male-female body mass. Our results for Plio-Pleistocene hominins show that the biological rhythms that give rise to long-period striae are encompassed within the range of variation known for modern humans, but show a lower mean and modal value of 7 days in australopithecines. In our sample of early Homo, mean and modal periodicity values were 8 days, and therefore similar to modern humans. These new data on daily rates of enamel formation and periodicity provide a better framework to interpret surface manifestations of internal growth markings on

  8. HR 1225 - New observations and period search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuPuy, D. L.; Collins, G.; Swingler, D. N.

    1982-02-01

    Four nights of photoelectric observations of the delta Scuti star HR 1225 have been obtained. The light curve has a variable amplitude envelope indicating that more than one period is present. A search for periodicities using the Jurkevich method and Fourier analysis suggests periods of 0.156 d and 0.097 d. A least-squares solution yields a fair fit to the data with these two periods. The Fourier transform suggests that three periods are present.

  9. AN EVALUATION OF THE 7-DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA (FORMERLY MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 7-d test measuring survival, growth, and fecundity of Americamysis bahia formerly Mysidopsis bahia) was developed for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and associated receiving waters for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Currently, this test...

  10. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  11. N-Nitroso compounds: Assessing agreement between food frequency questionnaires and 7-day food records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate the intake of these compounds in a US population. To ad...

  12. A randomized trial comparing mebendazole and secnidazole for the treatment of giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, A A; Cañete, R; Gonzalez, M E; Pareja, A; Cimerman, S; Almirall, P

    2003-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of the two drugs in the treatment of giardiasis, 146 children (aged 5-15 years) with confirmed Giardia lamblia infection were randomly allotted to treatment with mebendazole (200 mg three times daily for 3 days) or secnidazole (30 mg/kg, in a single dose). Parasitological response to treatment was evaluated in each child by the microscopical examination of faecal samples collected 3, 5 and 7 days after he or she had completed treatment. Although the frequency of cure was higher for secnidazole (79.4%) than for mebendazole (78.1%), the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Both treatment regimens were well tolerated, with only mild, transient and self-limiting side-effects reported. Mebendazole may be preferable to secnidazole in the treatment of giardiasis cases who have an history of intolerance to 5-nitromidazoles, and where infections with Giardia and soil-transmitted helminths frequently co-occur. PMID:12930613

  13. Chronic Treatment with Novel Brain-Penetrating Selective NOP Receptor Agonist MT-7716 Reduces Alcohol Drinking and Seeking in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Stopponi, Serena; Economidou, Daina; Kuriyama, Makoto; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Heilig, Markus; Roberto, Marisa; Weiss, Friedbert; Teshima, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery, the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-NOP receptor system has been extensively investigated as a promising target to treat alcoholism. Encouraging results obtained with the endogenous ligand N/OFQ stimulated research towards the development of novel brain-penetrating NOP receptor agonists with a pharmacological and toxicological profile compatible with clinical development. Here we describe the biochemical and alcohol-related behavioral effects of the novel NOP receptor agonist MT-7716. MT-7716 has high affinity for human NOP receptors expressed in HEK293 cells with a Ki value of 0.21 nM. MT-7716 concentration-dependently stimulated GTPγ35S binding with an EC50 value of 0.30 nM and its efficacy was similar to N/OFQ, suggesting that MT7716 is a full agonist at NOP receptors. In the two bottle choice test MT-7716 (0, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, bid) given orally for 14 days dose-dependently decreased voluntary alcohol intake in Marchigian Sardinian rats. The effect became gradually stronger following repeated administration, and was still significant 1 week after discontinuation of the drug. Oral naltrexone (30 mg/kg, bid) for 14 days also reduced ethanol intake; however, the effect decreased over the treatment period and rapidly disappeared when drug treatment was discontinued. MT-7716 is also effective for preventing reinstatement caused by both ethanol-associated environmental stimuli and stress. Finally, to investigate the effect of MT-7716 on alcohol withdrawal symptoms, Wistar rats were withdrawn from a 7-day alcohol liquid diet. MT-7716 significantly attenuated somatic alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Together these findings indicate that MT-7716 is a promising candidate for alcoholism treatment remaining effective with chronic administration. PMID:24863033

  14. [Treatment of bronchiectasias].

    PubMed

    Purokivi, Minna; Koskela, Heikki; Kaarteenaho, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Typical symptoms of bronchiectasis include cough, sliminess of the airways and recurrent respiratory infections which lead to lung injury and impaired quality of life when untreated. High-resolution computer tomography is the most important examination to detect bronchiectasias. Cornerstones of the treatment are elucidation of the etiology of the disease, taking care of vaccinations, management of physical fitness, treating sliminess, and careful treatment of periods of exacerbation with antibiotics according to bacterial growth and susceptibility testing determined from sputum. Hypertonic saline inhalation can be used to potentiate the treatment of sliminess and achieve a positive effect on the quality of life. PMID:24822326

  15. Chromium propionate supplementation during the peripartum period interacts with starch source fed postpartum: Production responses during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, R J; Allen, M S

    2016-06-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between chromium propionate (CrPr) supplementation and sources of corn varying in ruminal starch fermentability on production responses during the postpartum (PP) and carryover periods. During the peripartum period (28d before expected parturition until 28d PP), diets were top-dressed (20g/d) with either CrPr (KemTRACE Chromium Propionate, Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA; 8mg of Cr/cow per day) or control (Con; ground corn). At parturition, cows were randomly assigned to corn treatment within CrPr and Con treatments: dry corn (DC) or high-moisture corn (HMC). Treatment combinations (CrPr/DC, CrPr/HMC, Con/DC, and Con/HMC) were fed from parturition until 28d PP (treatment period). Cows were fed a common diet to evaluate potential carryover effects of the treatment diets from 29 to 84d PP (carryover period). The CrPr and corn treatments interacted over time to affect yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) during both the treatment and carryover periods. The CrPr/HMC treatment combination tended to increase FCM compared with Con/DC and Con/HMC by 28d PP (57.4 vs. 48.6 and 48.5kg/d, respectively) and increased FCM compared with Con/DC by 42d PP (59.2 vs. 44.8kg/d). The CrPr tended to increase milk yield (55.4 vs. 51.9kg/d) regardless of corn source during the carryover period after treatment ceased. Daily and cumulative DMI were not affected by treatment during the PP period, but CrPr and corn treatments interacted over time to affect daily DMI during the carryover period; DMI was generally higher for CrPr/HMC, lower for Con/DC, and intermediate for CrPr/DC and Con/HMC from 29 to 84d PP. Supplementation of CrPr throughout the peripartum period interacted with starch source in PP diets over time to affect production responses that were sustained after treatment application ceased. PMID:26995130

  16. Association between the Severity of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections and Length of the Incubation Period

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Vicky J.; Feng, Luzhao; Tsang, Tim K.; Jiang, Hui; Wu, Peng; Zheng, Jiandong; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Qin, Ying; Peng, Zhibin; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In early 2013, a novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) virus emerged in China, and has caused sporadic human infections. The incubation period is the delay from infection until onset of symptoms, and varies from person to person. Few previous studies have examined whether the duration of the incubation period correlates with subsequent disease severity. Methods and Findings We analyzed data of period of exposure on 395 human cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in China in a Bayesian framework using a Weibull distribution. We found a longer incubation period for the 173 fatal cases with a mean of 3.7 days (95% credibility interval, CrI: 3.4–4.1), compared to a mean of 3.3 days (95% CrI: 2.9–3.6) for the 222 non-fatal cases, and the difference in means was marginally significant at 0.47 days (95% CrI: -0.04, 0.99). There was a statistically significant correlation between a longer incubation period and an increased risk of death after adjustment for age, sex, geographical location and underlying medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio 1.70 per day increase in incubation period; 95% credibility interval 1.47–1.97). Conclusions We found a significant association between a longer incubation period and a greater risk of death among human H7N9 cases. The underlying biological mechanisms leading to this association deserve further exploration. PMID:26885816

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Bytzer, Peter; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Rosenstock, Steffen; Wildt, Signe

    2011-04-01

    National Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection have been approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology. All patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma should be tested for Hp. We also recommend testing in first degree relatives to patients with gastric cancer, in NSAID-naive patients, who need long-term NSAID therapy, and in patients presenting with dyspepsia and no alarm symptoms. Non-endoscoped patients can be tested with a urea-breath test or a faecal antigen test. Endoscoped patients can be tested with a rapid urease test. Proton pump inhibitor therapy should be stopped at least 1 week prior to Hp testing. All infected patients should be offered Hp eradication therapy. First-line treatment is 7-day triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and clarithromycine in combination with metronidazole or amoxicilline. Quadruple therapy for 2 weeks with bismuthsubsalicylate, tetracycline, metronidazole and a proton pump inhibitor is recommended in case of treatment failure. Hp testing should be offered to all patients after eradication therapy but is mandatory in patients with ulcer disease, noninvasive gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma. Testing after eradication should not be done before 4 weeks after treatment has ended. PMID:21466771

  18. Renal tubular acidosis complicated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y C; Huang, C C; Chiou, Y Y; Yu, C Y

    1995-07-01

    Three Chinese girls with hypokalemic periodic paralysis secondary to different types of renal tubular acidosis are presented. One girl has primary distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with nephrocalcinosis. Another has primary Sjögren syndrome with distal renal tubular acidosis, which occurs rarely with hypokalemic periodic paralysis in children. The third has an isolated proximal renal tubular acidosis complicated with multiple organ abnormalities, unilateral carotid artery stenosis, respiratory failure, and consciousness disturbance. The diagnostic evaluation and emergent and prophylactic treatment for these three types of renal tubular acidosis are discussed. PMID:7575850

  19. Reliability analysis of structures under periodic proof tests in service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.-N.

    1976-01-01

    A reliability analysis of structures subjected to random service loads and periodic proof tests treats gust loads and maneuver loads as random processes. Crack initiation, crack propagation, and strength degradation are treated as the fatigue process. The time to fatigue crack initiation and ultimate strength are random variables. Residual strength decreases during crack propagation, so that failure rate increases with time. When a structure fails under periodic proof testing, a new structure is built and proof-tested. The probability of structural failure in service is derived from treatment of all the random variables, strength degradations, service loads, proof tests, and the renewal of failed structures. Some numerical examples are worked out.

  20. Optimal health insurance for multiple goods and time periods.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Randall P; Jiang, Shenyi; Manning, Willard G

    2015-05-01

    We examine the efficiency-based arguments for second-best optimal health insurance with multiple treatment goods and multiple time periods. Correlated shocks across health care goods and over time interact with complementarity and substitutability to affect optimal cost sharing. Health care goods that are substitutes or have positively correlated demand shocks should have lower optimal patient cost sharing. Positive serial correlations of demand shocks and uncompensated losses that are positively correlated with covered health services also reduce optimal cost sharing. Our results rationalize covering pharmaceuticals and outpatient spending more fully than is implied by static, one good, or one period models. PMID:25727031

  1. Neurocognitive effects of ketamine and association with antidepressant response in individuals with treatment-resistant depression: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Murrough, James W; Burdick, Katherine E; Levitch, Cara F; Perez, Andrew M; Brallier, Jess W; Chang, Lee C; Foulkes, Alexandra; Charney, Dennis S; Mathew, Sanjay J; Iosifescu, Dan V

    2015-04-01

    The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine displays rapid antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD); however, the potential for adverse neurocognitive effects in this population has not received adequate study. The current study was designed to investigate the delayed neurocognitive impact of ketamine in TRD and examine baseline antidepressant response predictors in the context of a randomized controlled trial. In the current study, 62 patients (mean age = 46.2 ± 12.2) with TRD free of concomitant antidepressant medication underwent neurocognitive assessments using components of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) before and after a single intravenous infusion of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) or midazolam (0.045 mg/kg). Participants were randomized to ketamine or midazolam in a 2:1 fashion under double-blind conditions and underwent depression symptom assessments at 24, 48, 72 h, and 7 days post treatment using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Post-treatment neurocognitive assessment was conducted once at 7 days. Neurocognitive performance improved following the treatment regardless of treatment condition. There was no differential effect of treatment on neurocognitive performance and no association with antidepressant response. Slower processing speed at baseline uniquely predicted greater improvement in depression at 24 h following ketamine (t = 2.3, p = 0.027), while controlling for age, depression severity, and performance on other neurocognitive domains. In the current study, we found that ketamine was devoid of adverse neurocognitive effects at 7 days post treatment and that slower baseline processing speed was associated with greater antidepressant response. Future studies are required to further define the neurocognitive profile of ketamine in clinical samples and to identify clinically useful response moderators. PMID:25374095

  2. Sodium periodate-induced human suppressor cells for polyclonal B cell activation.

    PubMed

    Goust, J M

    1982-09-01

    Sodium periodate (SP) induces proliferation of mature T cells. In this study, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) pretreated for 10 minutes at room temperature with increasing concentrations (0.1 to 5 mM) of SP before culture for 7 days in the presence of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of IgG production, contrasting with an increase in 3H-thymidine uptake. When MNC from 70 normal individuals were pretreated with 1 and 2 mM SP, IgG production in culture was suppressed by 46.8 +/- 4.5% and 60.4 +/- 4.4% (mean +/- S.E.M.), respectively, as compared to IgG synthesis in the presence of PWM alone. Longitudinal studies of MNC obtained from the same normal individuals over 6-10 months showed similar degrees of suppression, indicating that the level of SP-inducible suppressor cell activity remains relatively constant, although the degree of suppression varies among normal persons. Both T cells and monocytes were required for PWM-driven IgG production and for SP-induced suppression. A soluble factor elaborated by SP-treated monocytes was also able to suppress IgG production. This model should provide useful information about abnormal regulation of IgG synthesis in various pathological conditions. PMID:6290661

  3. Dearth of short-period Neptunian exoplanets: A desert in period-mass and period-radius planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazeh, T.; Holczer, T.; Faigler, S.

    2016-05-01

    A few studies have reported a significant dearth of exoplanets with Neptune mass and radius with orbital periods below 2-4 d. This cannot be explained by observational biases because many Neptunian planets with longer orbital periods have been detected. The existence of this desert is similar to the appearance of the so-called brown-dwarf desert that suggests different formation mechanisms of planets and stellar companions with short orbital periods. Similarly, the Neptunian desert might indicate different mechanisms of formation and evolution for hot Jupiters and short-period super-Earths. We here follow a previous study and examine the location and shape of the desert in both the period-mass and period-radius planes, using the currently available large samples of planets. The desert in the period-mass plane has a relatively sharp upper edge, with a planetary mass that is inversely proportional to the planetary orbital period, while the lower, somewhat blurred, boundary is located along masses that are apparently linearly proportional to the period. The desert in the period-radius plane of the transiting planets is less clear. It seems as if the radius along the upper boundary is inversely proportional to the period to the power of one-third, while the lower boundary shows a radius that is proportional to the period to the power of two-thirds. The combination of the two upper bounds of the desert, in the period-mass and period-radius planes, yields a planetary mass-radius relation of Rp/RJup ≃ (1.2 ± 0.3)(Mp/MJup)0.27 ± 0.11 for 0.1 ≲ Mp/MJup ≲ 1. The derived shape of the desert, which might extend up to periods of 5-10 d, could shed some light on the formation and evolution of close-in planets.

  4. Periodic Poisson model for beam dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohlus, M.; Henning, Ch.

    2016-03-01

    A method is described to solve the Poisson problem for a three dimensional source distribution that is periodic into one direction. Perpendicular to the direction of periodicity a free space (or open) boundary condition is realized. In beam physics, this approach allows us to calculate the space charge field of a continualized charged particle distribution with periodic pattern. The method is based on a particle-mesh approach with equidistant grid and fast convolution with a Green's function. The periodic approach uses only one period of the source distribution, but a periodic extension of the Green's function. The approach is numerically efficient and allows the investigation of periodic- and pseudoperiodic structures with period lengths that are small compared to the source dimensions, for instance of laser modulated beams or of the evolution of micro bunch structures. Applications for laser modulated beams are given.

  5. Prognosis and treatment of patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Papastergiou, Vassilios; Burroughs, Andrew K; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2014-07-01

    Despite alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is the most acute manifestation of alcohol-related liver disease, its treatment remains controversial. Corticosteroids, given either as monotherapy or together with N-acetylecysteine, have been associated with a moderate short-term survival benefit in patients with severe disease. The Maddrey's discriminant function; Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score; age, bilirubin, INR and creatinine score; and the Model for end-stage liver disease have been proposed for stratifying prognosis in AH enabling selection of the patients to treat. Definition of treatment non-responders using the Lille model after 7 days of therapy may prevent a detrimental impact of prolonged corticosteroids. Pentoxifylline is an effective alternative reducing the occurrence of hepatorenal syndrome. Emerging evidence supports use of liver transplantation in a strictly selected subset of corticosteroid non-responders. PMID:24716632

  6. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  7. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  8. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  9. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  10. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  11. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  12. Circadian genes Period 1 and Period 2 in the nucleus accumbens regulate anxiety-related behavior

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Sade; Falcon, Edgardo; Kumar, Jaswinder; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Mukherjee, Shibani; Birnbaum, Shari G.; McClung, Colleen A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested for some time that circadian rhythm abnormalities underlie the development of multiple psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear how disruptions in individual circadian genes might regulate mood and anxiety. Here we found that mice lacking functional mPeriod 1 (mPer1) or mPeriod 2 (mPer2) individually did not have consistent behavioral abnormalities in measures of anxiety-related behavior. However, mice deficient in both mPer1 and mPer2 had an increase in levels of anxiety-like behavior in multiple measures. Moreover, we found that mPer1 and mPer2 expression was reduced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) after exposure to chronic social defeat stress, a paradigm that led to increased anxiety-related behavior. Following social defeat, chronic treatment with fluoxetine normalized Per gene expression towards wild-type levels. Knockdown of both mPer1 and mPer2 expression via RNA interference specifically in the NAc led to a similar increase in anxiety-like behavior as seen in the mutant animals. Taken together, these results implicate the Per genes in the NAc in response to stress and the development of anxiety. PMID:23039899

  13. In ovo 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure in three avian species. 1. Effects on thyroid hormones and growth during the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Janz, D M; Bellward, G D

    1996-08-01

    Thyroid hormones are important in the perinatal growth and development of avian species, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds have been shown to cause alterations in these hormones in laboratory animals. Since the decreased reproductive success in certain fish-eating bird populations exposed to TCDD and related compounds is characterized by high embryo and hatchling mortality, we examined the effects of in ovo TCDD exposure on plasma thyroid hormone concentrations (total T3, total T4) and body and skeletal growth during the perinatal period in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), and great blue heron (Ardea herodias). Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also determined as an enzymatic marker of cytochrome P450IA induction by TCDD. [3H]TCDD was injected into the air cell of chicken eggs (21-day incubation period) on Embryonic Day 4.5 (0.1 microgram/kg egg), pigeon eggs (18-day incubation period) on Embryonic Day 3.5 (1 microgram/kg egg) and Embryonic Day 14 (3 microgram/kg egg), and heron eggs (28-day incubation period) at approximately the midpoint of incubation (2 microgram/kg egg). Chickens were euthanized on Embryonic Days 17 and 19, day of hatch (Embryonic Day 21), and Days 2 and 4 after hatch. Pigeons and herons were euthanized either at hatch (Embryonic Days 18 and 28, respectively), or fed an uncontaminated diet for 7 days prior to sacrifice. Although hepatic EROD activity was induced 13- to 43-fold above controls in chickens, there was no effect of TCDD exposure on hatchability, body growth, subcutaneous edema, or plasma thyroid hormone levels. In pigeons exposed to TCDD on Embryonic Day 3.5, EROD was induced 6- to 15-fold, hatchability was decreased, liver to body weight ratio was elevated, and body and skeletal growth were decreased (p < 0.01); however, there was no effect of TCDD exposure on plasma thyroid hormone levels. Similarly, in pigeons exposed to TCDD on

  14. 34 CFR 668.4 - Payment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment period. 668.4 Section 668.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.4 Payment period. (a) Payment periods for an eligible program that...

  15. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  16. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  17. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage period. 1437.5 Section 1437.5 Agriculture... Provisions § 1437.5 Coverage period. (a) The coverage period is the time during which coverage is available against loss of production of the eligible crop as a result of natural disaster. (b) The coverage...

  18. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  19. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  20. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...