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Sample records for 7-day ventilator circuit

  1. A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day course of doripenem to a 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Gram-negative bacteria. Methods This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing a fixed 7-day course of doripenem one gram as a four-hour infusion every eight hours with a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin one gram as a one-hour infusion every eight hours (April 2008 through June 2011). Results The study was stopped prematurely at the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee that was blinded to treatment arm assignment and performed a scheduled review of data which showed signals that were close to the pre-specified stopping limits. The final analyses included 274 randomized patients. The clinical cure rate at the end of therapy (EOT) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population was numerically lower for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (45.6% versus 56.8%; 95% CI, -26.3% to 3.8%). Similarly, the clinical cure rate at EOT was numerically lower for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP, the most common Gram-negative pathogen, in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (41.2% versus 60.0%; 95% CI, -57.2 to 19.5). All cause 28-day mortality in the MITT group was numerically greater for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (21.5% versus 14.8%; 95% CI, -5.0 to 18.5) and for patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (35.3% versus 0.0%; 95% CI, 12.6 to 58.0). Conclusions Among patients with microbiologically confirmed late-onset VAP, a fixed 7-day course of doripenem was found to have non-significant higher rates of clinical failure and mortality compared to a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin. Consideration should be given to treating patients with VAP for more than seven days to optimize clinical outcome. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00589693

  2. Open circuit mouthpiece ventilation: Concise clinical review.

    PubMed

    Garuti, G; Nicolini, A; Grecchi, B; Lusuardi, M; Winck, J C; Bach, J R

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 new "mouthpiece ventilation" modes are being introduced to commercially available portable ventilators. Despite this, there is little knowledge of how to use noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV) as opposed to bi-level positive airway pressure (PAP) and both have almost exclusively been reported to have been used via nasal or oro-nasal interfaces rather than via a simple mouthpiece. Non-invasive ventilation is often reported as failing because of airway secretion encumbrance, because of hypercapnia due to inadequate bi-level PAP settings, or poor interface tolerance. The latter can be caused by factors such as excessive pressure on the face from poor fit, excessive oral air leak, anxiety, claustrophobia, and patient-ventilator dys-synchrony. Thus, the interface plays a crucial role in tolerance and effectiveness. Interfaces that cover the nose and/or nose and mouth (oro-nasal) are the most commonly used but are more likely to cause skin breakdown and claustrophobia. Most associated drawbacks can be avoided by using mouthpiece NIV. Open-circuit mouthpiece NIV is being used by large populations in some centers for daytime ventilatory support and complements nocturnal NIV via "mask" interfaces for nocturnal ventilatory support. Mouthpiece NIV is also being used for sleep with the mouthpiece fixed in place by a lip-covering flange. Small 15 and 22mm angled mouthpieces and straw-type mouthpieces are the most commonly used. NIV via mouthpiece is being used as an effective alternative to ventilatory support via tracheostomy tube (TMV) and is associated with a reduced risk of pneumonias and other respiratory complications. Its use facilitates "air-stacking" to improve cough, speech, and pulmonary compliance, all of which better maintain quality of life for patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) than the invasive alternatives. Considering these benefits and the new availability of mouthpiece ventilator modes, wider knowledge of this

  3. Disposable adult breathing circuits for use with critical care ventilators.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    In this issue, we evaluate seven models of disposable breathing circuits from seven manufacturers; the evaluated circuits are intended to be used for adult patients on critical care ventilators. This study is a follow-up to our earlier Evaluation of disposable breathing circuits for use with portable ventilators, published in Health Devices 22(7), July 1993. We based our ratings on the breathing circuits' ability to function properly with minimal intervention from the healthcare provider. We rated only one of the evaluated units Acceptable; this circuit was not likely to interrupt ventilation during normal use (provided that its operation was verified before use). Three of the evaluated breathing circuits were rated Unacceptable because they had disadvantages that were likely to interrupt ventilation during normal use (e.g., a component could accidentally disconnect, the tubing could become kinked or crushed). When such a disadvantage could be compensated for by the healthcare provider, we rated the circuit Conditionally Acceptable: one circuit was rated Conditionally Acceptable; two circuits that had other significant disadvantages were rated Conditionally Acceptable--Not Recommended. We caution readers not to base purchasing decisions on our ratings alone, but on a thorough understanding of the issues surrounding our conclusions, which can be gained by reading this study in its entirety. We offer additional guidance and discuss important selection factors and usage issues in the Selection and Use Guide for Disposable Breathing Circuits included at the end of the Evaluation. Also see "Pre-use Verification of Breathing Circuits" in this issue for step-by-step guidelines to help healthcare providers and caregivers verify proper performance and identify the defective circuits that inevitably reach the clinical setting.

  4. Anaesthesia ventilators

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rajnish K; Swaminathan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bellows ventilators, ascending bellows design is safer than descending bellows. Piston ventilators have the advantage of delivering accurate tidal volume. They work with electricity as their driving force and do not require a driving gas. To enable improved patient safety, several modifications were done in circle system with the different types of anaesthesia ventilators. Fresh gas decoupling is a modification done in piston ventilators and in descending bellows ventilator to reduce th incidence of ventilator induced volutrauma. In addition to the conventional volume control mode, modern anaesthesia ventilators also provide newer modes of ventilation such as synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure-control ventilation and pressure-support ventilation (PSV). PSV mode is particularly useful for patients maintained on spontaneous respiration with laryngeal mask airway. Along with the innumerable benefits provided by these machines, there are various inherent hazards associated with the use of the ventilators in the operating room. To use these workstations safely, it is important for every Anaesthesiologist to have a basic understanding of the mechanics of these ventilators and breathing circuits. PMID:24249886

  5. Re-inspiration of CO2 from ventilator circuit: effects of circuit flushing and aspiration of dead space up to high respiratory rate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Dead space negatively influences carbon dioxide (CO2) elimination, particularly at high respiratory rates (RR) used at low tidal volume ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Aspiration of dead space (ASPIDS), a known method for dead space reduction, comprises two mechanisms activated during late expiration: aspiration of gas from the tip of the tracheal tube and gas injection through the inspiratory line - circuit flushing. The objective was to study the efficiency of circuit flushing alone and of ASPIDS at wide combinations of RR and tidal volume (VT) in anaesthetized pigs. The hypothesis was tested that circuit flushing and ASPIDS are particularly efficient at high RR. Methods In Part 1 of the study, RR and VT were, with a computer-controlled ventilator, modified for one breath at a time without changing minute ventilation. Proximal dead space in a y-piece and ventilator tubing (VDaw, prox) was measured. In part two, changes in CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) during prolonged periods of circuit flushing and ASPIDS were studied at RR 20, 40 and 60 minutes-1. Results In Part 1, VDaw, prox was 7.6 ± 0.5% of VT at RR 10 minutes-1 and 16 ± 2.5% at RR 60 minutes-1. In Part 2, circuit flushing reduced PaCO2 by 20% at RR 40 minutes-1 and by 26% at RR 60 minutes-1. ASPIDS reduced PaCO2 by 33% at RR 40 minutes-1 and by 41% at RR 60 minutes-1. Conclusions At high RR, re-breathing of CO2 from the y-piece and tubing becomes important. Circuit flushing and ASPIDS, which significantly reduce tubing dead space and PaCO2, merit further clinical studies. PMID:20420671

  6. Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Turner, W A; Bearg, D W; Brennan, T

    1995-01-01

    This chapter begins with an overview of the history of ventilation guidelines, which has led to the guidelines that are in effect today. Of particular interest is the most recent return in the past 5 years to ventilation rates that more closely reflect a mean or average of the range of guidelines that have existed over the past century. OSHA's and the EPA's recognition of the need to operate ventilation systems in buildings in an accountable manner is also of note. Of even more interest is the resurgence of the concept of minimum mixing and once-through ventilation air that has been pursued in parts of Northern Europe for the past 10 years, and in a school that is being designed with this concept in New Hampshire. In addition, the design concept of equipping office buildings with low pressure drop high efficiency particle filtration to remove fine particles from all of the air that is supplied to the occupants is being used increasingly in the U.S. This chapter also presents an overview of the various types of ventilation systems found in homes and commercial office buildings and the common indoor air quality problems that may be associated with them. It also offers an overview of common HVAC evaluation techniques that can be used to determine if a ventilation system is performing in a manner that makes sense for the use of the space and the needs of the occupants. Are the occupants receiving a reasonable supply of outdoor air? Is the air that they receive of reasonable quality? Are obvious pollutants being exhausted? Ventilation systems have become extremely complex and more difficult to run and maintain over the past 40 years. This trend will continue to drive the need for professionally maintained HVAC equipment that is serviced and run by individuals who are accountable for the quality of the air that the system delivers.

  7. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  8. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, Michael Andrew

    2016-02-22

    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  9. Mechanical ventilation with heated humidifiers: measurements of condensed water mass within the breathing circuit according to ventilatory settings.

    PubMed

    Schena, E; Saccomandi, P; Cappelli, S; Silvestri, S

    2013-07-01

    Heated wire humidifiers (HWHs) are widely used to heat and humidify gases during mechanical ventilation. The control strategy implemented on commercial HWHs, based on maintaining constant gas temperature at the chamber outlet, shows weaknesses: humidifying performances depend on environmental temperature and ventilatory settings, and often condensation occurs. Herein, we analyzed in vitro HWH performances focusing on the condensation amount according to ventilatory settings. We used a physical model to define the parameters which mainly influence the HWH performances. In order to investigate the influence of minute volume (MV) and frequency rate (fr) on condensation, the other influencing parameters were kept constant during experiments, and we introduced a novel approach to estimate the condensation. The method, based on measuring the condensed vapor mass (Δm), provided more objective information than the visual-based scale used in previous studies. Thanks to both the control of other influencing factors and the accurate Δm measures, the investigation showed the Δm increase with MV and fr. Substantial condensation after 7 h of ventilation and the influence of MV and fr on Δm (i.e., Δm = 3 g at MV = 1.5 L min(-1) and fr = 8 bpm and Δm = 9.4 g at MV = 8 L min(-1) and fr = 20 bpm) confirm the weaknesses of `single-point temperature' control strategies.

  10. Ventilation and ventilators.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B

    1982-01-01

    The history of ventilation is reviewed briefly and recent developments in techniques of ventilation are discussed. Operating features of ventilators have changed in the past few years, partly as the result of clinical progress; yet, technology appears to have outstripped the clinician's ability to harness it most effectively. Clinical discipline and training of medical staff in the use of ventilators could be improved. The future is promising if clinician and designer can work together closely. Ergonomics of ventilators and their controls and the provision of alarms need special attention. Microprocessors are likely to feature prominently in the next generation of designs.

  11. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  12. 7000 miles and 7 days from the battlefield.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Margaret M

    2010-01-01

    Critically injured combat casualties are rapidly evacuated from the battlefield, and within hours of their injuries they begin a 7000-mile journey home, often arriving in the United States within 7 days. National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, is a major facility for wounded warrior care in the Military Health System. Throughout the facility, the staff from a variety of disciplines and all military services provides care for military personnel with injuries and illnesses, with the goal of optimizing recovery and quality of life. The foundational evidence for select aspects of this care is discussed. Innovations in training and care delivery include the Air Force Nurse Corps' Critical Care Fellowship, the new inpatient Traumatic Brain Injury Unit, and the National Intrepid Center for Excellence for Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health. The future of the Medical Center includes a new name, expanded staff, and newly constructed space by Department of Defense Base Realignment and Closure activities.

  13. Modelling of in-vitro and in-vivo performance of aerosol emitted from different vibrating mesh nebulisers in non-invasive ventilation circuit.

    PubMed

    Rabea, Hoda; Ali, Ahmed M A; Salah Eldin, Randa; Abdelrahman, Maha M; Said, Amira S A; Abdelrahim, Mohamed E

    2017-01-15

    Substituting nebulisers by another in non-invasive ventilation circuit (NIV) involves many process variables which must be adjusted to ensure patient optimum therapy. However, there is a doubt when nebulisers use the same technology. Data mining technology based on artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms were used here to model in-vitro inhalation process and predict bioavailability from inhaled doses delivered by three different vibrating mesh nebulisers (VMNs) in NIV. Modelling of data indicated that in-vitro performance of VMNs was dependent mainly on fine particle fraction, mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), total emitted dose (TED) and to lesser extent on nebuliser type. Ex-vivo model indicated that amount of salbutamol collected on facemask filter was directly affected by TED. In-vivo model showed that amount of salbutamol deposited into the lung (0.5hQ) and amount absorbed systemically (24hQ) were dependent directly on MMAD and TED. Female patients showed higher 24hQ values than males. Nebuliser type affected TED, 0.5hQ but not 24hQ values. Results indicate suitability of VMNs in achieving appropriate in-vitro inhalation performance model. The results also, indicate that the three VMNs are comparable and can be interchanged with no fear of any additional toxicity.

  14. Assisted Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dries, David J

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Mechanical Ventilation may be essential in the setting of severe respiratory failure but consequences to the patient including increased use of sedation and neuromuscular blockade may contribute to delirium, atelectasis, and diaphragm dysfunction. Assisted ventilation allows spontaneous breathing activity to restore physiological displacement of the diaphragm and recruit better perfused lung regions. Pressure Support Ventilation is the most frequently used mode of assisted mechanical ventilation. However, this mode continues to provide a monotonous pattern of support for respiration which is normally a dynamic process. Noisy Pressure Support Ventilation where tidal volume is varied randomly by the ventilator may improve ventilation and perfusion matching but the degree of support is still determined by the ventilator. Two more recent modes of ventilation, Proportional Assist Ventilation and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA), allow patient determination of the pattern and depth of ventilation. Proposed advantages of Proportional Assist Ventilation and NAVA include decrease in patient ventilator asynchrony and improved adaptation of ventilator support to changing patient demand. Work of breathing can be normalized with these modes as well. To date, however, a clear pattern of clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. Existing challenges for both of the newer assist modes include monitoring patients with dynamic hyperinflation (auto-positive end expiratory pressure), obstructive lung disease, and air leaks in the ventilator system. NAVA is dependent on consistent transduction of diaphragm activity by an electrode system placed in the esophagus. Longevity of effective support with this technique is unclear.

  15. Inspiratory work and response times of a modified pediatric volume ventilator during synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure support ventilation.

    PubMed

    Martin, L D; Rafferty, J F; Wetzel, R C; Gioia, F R

    1989-12-01

    Volume ventilation by demand flow ventilators significantly increases work of breathing during inspiration. Although various ventilator modifications and different modes of ventilation have been developed, there have been few studies regarding imposed work of breathing in infants and children. This study was designed to evaluate several modifications of a commercially available demand flow ventilator designed to shorten response time (tr) and decrease the imposed work (Wi) involved in opening the demand valve. Minimum withdrawal volume (Vmin), maximum negative pressure (P mneg), and tr were measured. Wi was defined as the product of Vmin and P mneg. Seven Siemens Servo 900C ventilators were tested under 16 different trial conditions with four variables: 1) mode of ventilation (synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation [SIMV] vs. pressure support ventilation [PSV]); 2) caliber of circuit tubing (adult vs. pediatric); 3) location of airway pressure monitor (distal vs. proximal); and 4) ventilator trigger sensitivity (0 cm H2O--high vs. -2 cm H2O--low). Vmin, Pmneg, and Wi were all decreased (P less than .05) while tr was unaffected by changing ventilator trigger sensitivity from low to high. Wi was decreased by pediatric tubing and proximal airway pressure monitoring only when low trigger sensitivity was used. PSV and proximal airway monitoring shortened tr. The authors conclude that the use of pediatric circuit tubing and proximal airway pressure monitoring with a Siemens Servo 900C ventilator significantly improved ventilator performance.

  16. Difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Oh, T E

    1994-07-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation may be influenced by factors relating to equipment, techniques and procedures. Criteria to initiate weaning and predictors of weaning outcome are generally unreliable, but mechanical work of breathing, the tidal volume: frequency ratio and the inspiratory pressure: maximal inspiratory pressure ratio may anticipate those likely to fail weaning. The optimal weaning ventilatory mode is not known, but intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure support ventilation, and continuous positive pressure ventilation are the most commonly used. The resistances of individual components of breathing circuits are extremely important. Blow-by heated humidifiers and ventilators which compensate for the impedances of their inspiratory demand valves impose clinically acceptable spontaneous breathing loads. Close monitoring, adequate respiratory muscle rest, attention to mineral deficiencies, nutrition and pulmonary hygiene are also important parts of the weaning process.

  17. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  18. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  19. Ventilation Model

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-05

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post

  20. Comparing the 7-Day PAR with a Triaxial Accelerometer for Measuring Time in Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Lobach, David; Kraus, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary study aim was to evaluate associations of estimated weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise from self-reports of the telephone-administered 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) with data captured by the RT3 triaxial accelerometer. Methods This investigation was undertaken as part of the FRESH START study, a randomized clinical trial that tested an iteratively-tailored diet and exercise mailed print intervention among newly diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors. A convenience sample of 139 medically-eligible subjects living within a 60-mile radius of the study center provided both 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data at enrollment. Ultimately n=115 substudy subjects were found eligible for the FRESH START study and randomized to one of two study treatment arms. Follow-up assessments at Year 1 (n=103) and Year 2 (n=99) provided both the 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data. Results There was moderate agreement between the 7-Day PAR and the accelerometer with longitudinal serial correlation coefficients of .54 (baseline), .24 (Year 1) and .53 (Year 2), all P-values < .01, though the accelerometer estimates for weekly time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were much higher than those of the 7-Day PAR at all time points. The two methods were poorly correlated in assessing sensitivity to change from baseline to Year 1 (rho=.11, P=.30). Using mixed models repeated measures analysis, both methods exhibited similar non-significant treatment arm X time interaction P-values (7-Day PAR=.22, accelerometer=.23). Conclusions The correlations for three serial time points were in agreement with findings of other studies that compared self-reported time in exercise with physical activity captured by accelerometry. However, these methods capture somewhat different dimensions of physical activity and provide differing estimates of change over time. PMID:19461530

  1. Ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    2009-11-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a pneumonia that develops initially more than 48 h from the start of tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The route of infection is almost always through the respiratory tract. Intake of contaminants from outside the tracheal tube (silent aspiration) is considered a key route, and suctioning of secretions that have accumulated above the cuff of the endotracheal tubes is effective in preventing infection. The circuit is managed and heated-wire humidifiers and suction are manipulated based on appropriate infection control measures. To diagnose pathogens, efforts should be made to collect specimens from the pneumonia focus. Realistically, however, diagnosis can also be achieved based on the clinical course and from the results of culture of samples from tracheal aspirate. Use of prophylactic antimicrobials is not recommended, but once a diagnosis is made, antimicrobials are administered that combat the causative microorganism.

  2. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200b-7 Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  3. Liquid ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported. PMID:25886321

  4. [Mechanical ventilator].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akio; Hashimoto, S

    2009-07-01

    The development of the computer technology brought reform in the field of medical equipment. Originally the mechanical ventilator was an instrument only as for running by pressure and the tool that let you breathe. However, it has a function to assist a measurement (tidal volume, peek pressure, etc.) and to wean from a ventilator. There is a case to use a mechanical ventilator for after a chest surgical operation. After the operation without the complication, it seems that there is not the special administration. However, special respiratory management is necessary in case of chronic respiratory failure and acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore I introduce a method to use a respirator after an operation in our institution.

  5. Portable power supply for continuous mechanical ventilation during intrahospital transport of critically ill patients with ARDS.

    PubMed

    Barton, A C; Tuttle-Newhall, J E; Szalados, J E

    1997-08-01

    Patients with respiratory failure and poor pulmonary compliance requiring high levels of positive pressure ventilation are at high risk during intrahospital transportation. Most ICU ventilators currently do not have a built-in power supply. Manual bag-valve ventilation frequently is used but often without optimum mean airway pressures or minute ventilation guarantees. Transport ventilators also are limited in their ability to provide high positive end-expiratory pressure, variable inspiratory-expiratory ratios, or pressure-controlled ventilation. The 3M SARNS HELP (Hospital Emergency Limited Power) 115, a portable battery, provides continuous power to ICU ventilators and eliminates ventilator circuit interruption for the critical period of patient transportation.

  6. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  7. Analyzing Drought From Paleo-Reconstructions Of 7-Day Low Flow In The Hudson River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, M. R.; Cook, E.; Gelman, A.; Lall, U.

    2002-12-01

    The annual 7-day low flow in a stream is a measure of the dry season conditions in a stream. Consequently, it is a useful indicator for multi-year droughts. Here, we first present the application of a Generalized Linear Model in a Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling Framework for reconstructing the annual 7-day low flow series at 5 locations in the Hudson River Basin using 11 regional tree ring chronologies. This technique directly provides estimates of the posterior probability distribution of each reconstructed streamflow value, considering model parameter uncertainty. Given these reconstructions, we examine the frequency and recurrence attributes of extreme droughts in the region and their potential connections to known low frequency climate modes.

  8. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) 7-day survival and growth test method.

    PubMed

    Lazorchak, James M; Smith, Mark E

    2007-10-01

    A short-term method was developed in this study for conducting subchronic survival and growth renewal toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Previously published early life-stage methods for various salmonid species involve test durations of 30 to 90 days. This trout method, however, follows a previously published 7-day fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) growth method. The tests performed in this study measured subchronic growth and survival effects using standard reference toxicants (ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, phenol, and zinc sulfate), receiving water, and effluent samples. The test results were compared with performance criteria and results for 7-day survival and growth tests with P. promelas to determine the level of comparability between the two species. The results from tests with both salmonid species indicated that this 7-day survival and growth test method using O. mykiss and S. fontinalis provides reproducible results with various reference toxicant materials and can be used successfully to detect potential toxicity in environmental samples.

  9. Efficacy of Conventional and High-Frequency Ventilation at Altitude

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Lung volume was estimated by nitrogen dilution using a closed circuit rebreathing technique. 31 The same data collection protocol was employed for both...Fig. No. 1. Experimental preparation ......... .................... 6 2. Ventilator circuit used for washin during CMV .... .......... 9 3. Oscillator... circuit used for washin during HFV ............ . .11 4. Valve assembly used in measurements of inert gases ........ 17 5. Gas concentrations in

  10. Eccentric and concentric muscle performance following 7 days of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.; Roper, Mary L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Mcbrine, John J.; Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle strength occur in response to chronic disuse or insufficient functional loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle performance of the lower extremity and torso prior to and immediately after 7 days of simulated weightlessness (horizontal bed rest). A Biodex was used to determine concentric and eccentric peak torque and angle at peak torque for the back, abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring, soleus, and tibialis anterior. A reference angle of 0 degrees was set at full extension. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

  11. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis. PMID:28133553

  12. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Christopher; Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis.

  13. Leakage estimation using Kalman filtering in noninvasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G G; Freitas, U S; Bounoiare, D; Aguirre, L A; Letellier, C

    2013-05-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation is today often used to assist patient with chronic respiratory failure. One of the main reasons evoked to explain asynchrony events, discomfort, unwillingness to be treated, etc., is the occurrence of nonintentional leaks in the ventilation circuit, which are difficult to account for because they are not measured. This paper describes a solution to the problem of variable leakage estimation based on a Kalman filter driven by airflow and the pressure signals, both of which are available in the ventilation circuit. The filter was validated by showing that based on the attained leakage estimates, practically all the untriggered cycles can be explained.

  14. Psychometric properties of the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andy; Taylor, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy; Rowlands, Ann

    2007-12-01

    Few self-report measures of physical activity have been validated in individuals with severe mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 7-day recall measure (7DR: [Blair, S. N. (1984). How to assess exercise habits and physical fitness. In J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weiss, (Eds.), Behavioural health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 424-447). New York: Wiley.]) through comparison with RT3 triaxial accelerometry data. Fourteen individuals took part in the study. Validity was considered by Kendall's tau correlation and (Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical-methods for assessing agreement between 2 methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1(8476), 307-310) limits of agreement and test-retest reliability was measured by ICC. The only significant correlation between measures was total energy expenditure (tau = 0.43). The 7-DR over reported moderate physical activity by 16.9 +/- 52.3 min/day, but under reported vigorous physical activity by -10.4 +/- 24.3 min/day. Test retest ICC was significant for all outcome measures. Overall, the 7-DR was reliable but exhibited questionable validity. The use of self-report questionnaires such as the 7-DR may inaccurately estimate the levels of physical activity in this population, and may not be sensitive to monitoring intervention-related changes in physical activity.

  15. The development of a 7-day community specialist palliative care service.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    The author worked as a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in community palliative care in the Central Lancashire area of England when the CNS service was extended to a 9am-to-5pm 7-day service. A project group was set up to canvas some of the key stakeholders for their views on the extension of the service. The group undertook a literature search, a telephone survey of services in other areas that were providing this level of service, and interviews to ascertain the views of district nurses in the locality of the proposed service extension. The extension of service has long been advocated and was one of the key recommendations in the UK Department of Health's peer-review process. Such an extension was implemented following the research phase and was then evaluated by the project lead and the community services manager. The extension was found to be effective in the ongoing monitoring and support of patients. Anecdotally, the CNS team also felt it had been proactive in preventing unnecessary hospital admissions, although this specific aspect is difficult to quantify. This article looks at how the service was developed, how it has evolved over time, and how it works today. Consideration is also given to benefits and limitations.

  16. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  17. Predictive Factors for Delivery within 7 Days after Successful 48-Hour Treatment of Threatened Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Carolien; Schuit, Ewoud; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.; Duvekot, Hans J. J.; van Eyck, Jim; Kok, Joke H.; Kwee, Anneke; Merién, Ashley E. R.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van Pampus, Mariëlle G.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Porath, Martina M.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Spaanderman, Marc E. A.; Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Willekes, Christine; Lotgering, Fred K.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess which characteristics and results of vaginal examination are predictive for delivery within 7 days, in women with threatened preterm labor after initial treatment. Study Design A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial on maintenance nifedipine includes women who remained undelivered after threatened preterm labor for 48 hours. We developed one model for women with premature prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and one without PPROM. The predictors were identified by backward selection. We assessed calibration and discrimination and used bootstrapping techniques to correct for potential overfitting. Results For women with PPROM (model 1), nulliparity, history of preterm birth, and vaginal bleeding were included in the multivariable analysis. For women without PPROM (model 2), maternal age, vaginal bleeding, cervical length, and fetal fibronectin (fFN) status were in the multivariable analysis. Discriminative capability was moderate to good (c-statistic 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60–0.77 for model 1 and 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84–0.93 for model 2). Conclusion PPROM and vaginal bleeding in the current pregnancy are relevant predictive factors in all women, as are maternal age, cervical length, and fFN in women without PPROM and nulliparity, history of preterm birth in women with PPROM. PMID:26495173

  18. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL.

  19. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-07-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  1. Measuring circuit

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Shan C.; Chaprnka, Anthony G.

    1977-01-11

    An automatic gain control circuit functions to adjust the magnitude of an input signal supplied to a measuring circuit to a level within the dynamic range of the measuring circuit while a log-ratio circuit adjusts the magnitude of the output signal from the measuring circuit to the level of the input signal and optimizes the signal-to-noise ratio performance of the measuring circuit.

  2. Intermodule ventilation studies for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Roy G.; Reuter, James L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of the Space Station intermodule ventilation system to maintain centralized control of CO2 removal and O2 supply. The resulting concentration gradients that will arise are calculated by assuming steady state, ideal gas, isothermal conditions, and perfect mixing of air within and between the pressurized elements. In order to estimate the degree of mixing actually obtained for a given ventilation scheme, a program has been developed based on a potential flow solution technique. Preliminary results from this study indicate that substantial short circuiting and recirculation air flow patterns could arise if a simple duct and diffuser air exchange method at the docking port interface were employed.

  3. VENTILATION MODEL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-31

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their postclosure analyses.

  4. Comparison of actual tidal volume in neonatal lung model volume control ventilation using three ventilators.

    PubMed

    Toyama, H; Endo, Y; Ejima, Y; Matsubara, M; Kurosawa, S

    2011-07-01

    In neonates, small changes in tidal volumes (V(T)) may lead to complications. Previous studies have shown a significant difference between ventilator-measured tidal volume and tidal volume delivered (actual V(T)). We evaluated the accuracy of three different ventilators to deliver small V(T) during volume-controlled ventilation. We tested Servo 300, 840 ventilator and Evita 4 Neoflow ventilators with lung models simulating normal and injured neonatal lung compliance models. Gas volume delivered from the ventilator into the test circuit (V(TV)) and actual V(T) to the test lung were measured using Ventrak respiration monitors at set V(T) (30 ml). The gas volume increase of the breathing circuit was then calculated. Tidal volumes of the SV300 and PB840 in both lung models were similar to the set V(T) and the actual tidal volumes in the injured model (20.7 ml and 19.8 ml, respectively) were significantly less than that in the normal model (27.4 ml and 23.4 ml). PB840 with circuit compliance compensation could not improve the actual V(T). V(TV) of the EV4N in the normal and the injured models (37.8 ml and 46.6 ml) were markedly increased compared with set V(T), and actual V(T) were similar to set V(T) in the normal and injured model (30.2 ml and 31.9 ml, respectively). EV4N measuring V(T) close to the lung could match actual V(T) to almost the same value as the set V(T) however the gas volume of the breathing circuit was increased. If an accurate value for the patient's actual V(T) is needed, this V(T) must be measured by a sensor located between the Y-piece and the tracheal tube.

  5. VENTILATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop a systems analysis of ventilation technology and provide a state-of-the-art assessment of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ) research needs. (NOTE: Ventilation technology is defined as the hardware necessary to bring outdoor ...

  6. Suppurative meningitis in a 7-day-old Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) caused by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chiou, Shiow-Her; Chan, Jacky Peng-Wen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the clinical and pathological features of an orphan 7-day-old, male Formosan sambar fawn that was hospitalized for treatment of weakness. The fawn had been deprived of colostrum and developed suppurative meningitis that was attributed to Escherichia coli. PMID:20514257

  7. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits

  8. Emergency ventilation with a Chevalier Jackson's metal tracheostomy tube.

    PubMed

    Syed, Kamran A; Paul, Roshna R; Varghese, Ajoy M; Joseph, Neenu A

    2014-05-01

    Chevalier Jackson's metal tracheostomy tube is the oldest tracheostomy tube and has survived to the present day. This is probably because it is easy to use and cost-effective. However its biggest limitation is that it lacks provision to connect to a ventilating circuit in an emergency. Here we describe a simple and effective technique for ventilation with Chevalier Jackson's metal tracheostomy tube. Ventilation can be achieved by connecting the tracheostomy tube to an appropriate size universal 15mm endotracheal tube connector. We have also worked out a formula for selection of appropriate connector for various sizes of tracheostomy tube.

  9. Ventilation Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman; J. Case

    2002-12-20

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. Revision 01 ICN 01 included the results of the unqualified software code MULTIFLUX to assess the influence of moisture on the ventilation efficiency. The purposes of Revision 02 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of

  10. Prediction of glycated hemoglobin levels at 3 months after metabolic surgery based on the 7-day plasma metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Nam; Lee, Yeon Ji; Kang, Ju-Hee; Choi, Ji-Ho; An, Yong Jin; Kang, Sunmi; Lee, Dae Hyun; Suh, Young Ju; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Sunghyouk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients), and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary.

  11. Protective garment ventilation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  12. Noninvasive ventilation in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karcz, Marcin K; Papadakos, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Trauma patients are a diverse population with heterogeneous needs for ventilatory support. This requirement depends mainly on the severity of their ventilatory dysfunction, degree of deterioration in gaseous exchange, any associated injuries, and the individual feasibility of potentially using a noninvasive ventilation approach. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need to intubate patients with trauma-related hypoxemia. It is well-known that these patients are at increased risk to develop hypoxemic respiratory failure which may or may not be associated with hypercapnia. Hypoxemia in these patients is due to ventilation perfusion mismatching and right to left shunt because of lung contusion, atelectasis, an inability to clear secretions as well as pneumothorax and/or hemothorax, all of which are common in trauma patients. Noninvasive ventilation has been tried in these patients in order to avoid the complications related to endotracheal intubation, mainly ventilator-associated pneumonia. The potential usefulness of noninvasive ventilation in the ventilatory management of trauma patients, though reported in various studies, has not been sufficiently investigated on a large scale. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, the indications and efficacy of noninvasive ventilation treatment in respiratory distress induced by trauma have thus far been inconsistent and merely received a low grade recommendation. In this review paper, we analyse and compare the results of various studies in which noninvasive ventilation was applied and discuss the role and efficacy of this ventilator modality in trauma. PMID:25685722

  13. ADDER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Jacobsohn, D.H.; Merrill, L.C.

    1959-01-20

    An improved parallel addition unit is described which is especially adapted for use in electronic digital computers and characterized by propagation of the carry signal through each of a plurality of denominationally ordered stages within a minimum time interval. In its broadest aspects, the invention incorporates a fast multistage parallel digital adder including a plurality of adder circuits, carry-propagation circuit means in all but the most significant digit stage, means for conditioning each carry-propagation circuit during the time period in which information is placed into the adder circuits, and means coupling carry-generation portions of thc adder circuit to the carry propagating means.

  14. Ventilatory failure, ventilator support, and ventilator weaning.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Martin J; Laghi, Franco; Jubran, Amal

    2012-10-01

    The development of acute ventilatory failure represents an inability of the respiratory control system to maintain a level of respiratory motor output to cope with the metabolic demands of the body. The level of respiratory motor output is also the main determinant of the degree of respiratory distress experienced by such patients. As ventilatory failure progresses and patient distress increases, mechanical ventilation is instituted to help the respiratory muscles cope with the heightened workload. While a patient is connected to a ventilator, a physician's ability to align the rhythm of the machine with the rhythm of the patient's respiratory centers becomes the primary determinant of the level of rest accorded to the respiratory muscles. Problems of alignment are manifested as failure to trigger, double triggering, an inflationary gas-flow that fails to match inspiratory demands, and an inflation phase that persists after a patient's respiratory centers have switched to expiration. With recovery from disorders that precipitated the initial bout of acute ventilatory failure, attempts are made to discontinue the ventilator (weaning). About 20% of weaning attempts fail, ultimately, because the respiratory controller is unable to sustain ventilation and this failure is signaled by development of rapid shallow breathing. Substantial advances in the medical management of acute ventilatory failure that requires ventilator assistance are most likely to result from research yielding novel insights into the operation of the respiratory control system.

  15. A simple circuit to deliver bubbling CPAP.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Charanjit; Sema, Akatoli; Beri, Rajbir S; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2008-04-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), especially bubbling CPAP, is known to reduce the need for more invasive ventilation. We here describe a circuit that can deliver bubbling CPAP in resource poor settings. We describe how the oxygen concentration can be altered from 98% to 21% oxygen using this system. Addition of a humidifier in the circuit has the effect of reducing the oxygen concentration by 1 to 5%. The cost of putting together the system is approximately Rs 5000.

  16. Guide to Home Ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Ventilation refers to the exchange of indoor and outdoor air. Without proper ventilation, an otherwise insulated and airtight house will seal in harmful pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, and moisture that can damage a house.

  17. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  18. 7-day weighed food diaries suggest patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may spontaneously modify their diet to avoid nosebleed precipitants.

    PubMed

    Finnamore, Helen; Silva, B Maneesha; Hickson, B Mary; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L

    2017-03-28

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) poses substantial burdens due to nosebleeds and iron deficiency resulting from recurrent hemorrhagic iron losses. Recent studies by our group found surprising links between HHT nosebleeds and certain food groups. In this letter, we report 7-day weighed food diary assessments of an unselected group of 25 UK patients with HHT whose nosebleeds ranged from mild to severe (median epistaxis severity score 4.66, range 0.89- 9.11). The diaries provide evidence that food items most commonly reported to provoke nosebleeds were ingested by fewer HHT patients, compared to food items less commonly reported to provoke nosebleeds (chi-squared p <0.001).

  19. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi; Murayama, Chieko; Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  20. DARPA 7-Day Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-17

    live fire challenge. ....................................... 54 Figure 62: Schedule for Live Fire Test with B. pseudomallei strain 1028...currently being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of AIDS, hepatitis C and cancer 3 . However, antigen delivery problems have...from Ac-DEX are pH- sensitive and degrade quicker in lysosomal pH (~ 5) compared to physiological pH (7.4). Beyond its performance in vaccine

  1. Characterization of a 7 day 17 beta-estradiol transdermal delivery system: pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R A; Zegarac, E A; Eldon, M A; Sedman, A J; Forgue, S T

    1996-08-01

    To assess the delivery characteristics of a new 7 day 17 beta-estradiol transdermal delivery system (TDS), estradiol and estrone pharmacokinetics were evaluated following a single 7 d application of one TDS or two TDSs in 24 healthy, postmenopausal women in a nonblind, randomized, two-period crossover study. Serial blood samples and total urine output were collected before (baseline measurement of endogenous hormone) and during TDS application, and for 24 h (urine) or 72 h (blood) following TDS removal. Serum was assayed for estradiol and estrone by a validated radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. The combined amounts of estradiol and its conjugates, and estrone and its conjugates in urine were determined by validated RIA methods. Overall, one or two estradiol TDSs were well tolerated by healthy, postmenopausal female volunteers. Estradiol absorption from the TDS was characterized by a zero-order process and was dose proportional, resulting in average steady-state serum estradiol concentrations of 16 and 33 pg mL-1 above baseline during the 7 d application of one and two TDSs, respectively. Parallel but smaller increases in serum estrone concentrations were observed, resulting in an increase in the serum estradiol/estrone concentration ratio from approximately 0.2 at baseline to median values of 0.64 and 0.88 during application of one and two TDSs, respectively. The 7 day 17 beta-estradiol TDS delivered a nominal estradiol dose of 0.02 mg/24 h during the intended wear period.

  2. Adaptive lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Linton, D M

    2001-09-01

    Adaptive lung ventilation (ALV) is a method of closed-loop mechanical ventilation analogous to modern closed-loop technology in aviation such as the autopilot and automatic landing system. The algorithm of the controller of ALV is designed to automatically provide pressure-controlled synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (P-SIMV) and weaning as individually required in any clinical situation. The synchronized pressure limited breaths constantly adapt to the patient requirements to encourage optimal alveolar ventilation with minimal adverse physiological disturbance and timely weaning. The ease of application, efficiency, and safety of the first ALV controllers have been demonstrated in lung models, in patients with normal lungs undergoing general anesthesia, in patients requiring unusual positioning, in transition to and from one-lung anesthesia, and in long-term ventilation of patients with various lung pathologies and in weaning patients who have restrictive or obstructive pulmonary disease. Prospective comparative studies of ALV versus other currently used manually selected modes of mechanical ventilation, such as the one reported in this article, should confirm the safety and identify the benefits of this form of advanced closed-loop mechanical ventilation technology.

  3. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  4. Adherence to 7-Day Primaquine Treatment for the Radical Cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-01-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  5. Why We Ventilate

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

    2011-09-01

    It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

  6. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  7. Effect of burden and origin sites of premature ventricular contractions on left ventricular function by 7-day Holter monitor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Mingfang; Chen, Minglong; Yang, Bing; Wang, Daowu; Kong, Xiangqing; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Gu, Kai; Cao, Kejiang; Liu, Hailei; Jiang, Qi; Shi, Jiaojiao; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have shown that premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) could enlarge the heart, but its risk factors are incompletely understood as a single 24-hour recording cannot reflect the true PVC burden due to day-to-day variability. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of burden and origin sites on left ventricular (LV) function in patients with PVCs by 7-day Holter electrocardiography (ECG). From May 2012 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients with PVCs were recruited from the authors' affiliated hospital. All patients received 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead routing ECG and 7-days Holter ECG. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. A total of 102 participants with PVCs were included in the final analysis. Origin of PVCs from the tricuspid annulus had the highest burden and NT-proBNP level. LV papillary muscle had a higher LV ejection fraction (EF) level and a lower LV end-systolic dimension (ESD) than other PVC foci (P<0.05). The high burden group had a higher LV end-diastolic dimension (EDD) and LVESD but lower LVEF than the other two groups (P<0.05). Female, older age, physical work, and history of PVCs had a significantly positive correlation with symptoms. Male, older age, physical work, and high burden were positive predictors of enlarged LVEDD, LVESD and higher serum NT-proBNP level, but lower LVEF. Seven-day dynamic ECG Holter monitor showed the true PVC burden on patients with PVCs. PVCs with a lower burden or origin from the LV papillary muscle and the fascicle were relatively benign, while PVCs with a higher burden or origin from the tricuspid annulus may lead to cardiac dysfunction. PMID:26668581

  8. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas. PMID:20927268

  9. MULTIPLIER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, R.E.

    1959-01-20

    An electronic circuit is presented for automatically computing the product of two selected variables by multiplying the voltage pulses proportional to the variables. The multiplier circuit has a plurality of parallel resistors of predetermined values connected through separate gate circults between a first input and the output terminal. One voltage pulse is applied to thc flrst input while the second voltage pulse is applied to control circuitry for the respective gate circuits. Thc magnitude of the second voltage pulse selects the resistors upon which the first voltage pulse is imprcssed, whereby the resultant output voltage is proportional to the product of the input voltage pulses

  10. GATING CIRCUITS

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-10-14

    Control circuits for vacuum tubes are described, and a binary counter having an improved trigger circuit is reported. The salient feature of the binary counter is the application of the input signal to the cathode of each of two vacuum tubes through separate capacitors and the connection of each cathode to ground through separate diodes. The control of the binary counter is achieved in this manner without special pulse shaping of the input signal. A further advantage of the circuit is the simplicity and minimum nuruber of components required, making its use particularly desirable in computer machines.

  11. Ofloxacin pharmacokinetics in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C; Lambert, D; Bruguerolle, B; Saux, P; Freney, J; Fleurette, J; Meugnier, H; Gouin, F

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin were studied in 12 intensive care patients, 6 of whom were under controlled mechanical ventilation. All patients had a creatinine clearance of greater than 80 ml/min per 1.73 m2. They were given 3 mg of ofloxacin per kg of body weight intravenously at a constant flow rate in 30 min twice a day for 7 days. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed on days 1 and 7. Between days 1 and 7, significant increases in the alpha (distribution) and beta (elimination) phase half-lives, the area under the serum concentration-time curve, and peak and trough levels in serum were observed, together with a marked decrease (greater than 50%) in total body clearance. Possible contributing factors for alteration of ofloxacin pharmacokinetics in ventilated patients were patient age, liver dysfunction, drug interaction, and drug accumulation in a deep compartment. This study shows that in intensive care patients the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin differ from those reported for healthy volunteers. PMID:1929329

  12. TRIPPING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Lees, G.W.; McCormick, E.D.

    1962-05-22

    A tripping circuit employing a magnetic amplifier for tripping a reactor in response to power level, period, or instrument failure is described. A reference winding and signal winding are wound in opposite directions on the core. Current from an ion chamber passes through both windings. If the current increases at too fast a rate, a shunt circuit bypasses one or the windings and the amplifier output reverses polarity. (AEC)

  13. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  14. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  15. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  16. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  17. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  18. Impact of intracranial blood-flow redistribution on stroke size during ischemia-reperfusion in 7-day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Philippe; Leger, Pierre-Louis; Deroide, Nicolas; Fau, Sébastien; Baud, Olivier; Pocard, Marc; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Renolleau, Sylvain

    2011-05-15

    We evaluated color-coded pulsed Doppler ultrasound imaging for the assessment of intracranial blood flow in two models of cerebral ischemia in 7-day-old (P7) rats. Blood-flow velocities (BFVs) were measured in the internal carotid arteries and basilar trunk upstream from the circle of Willis, and in the posterior cerebral arteries downstream (1) before, (2) during left middle cerebral artery electrocoagulation and 50 min-transient either one (I/R-1) or both (I/R-2) common carotid (CCA) arteries occlusion, and (3) after release of CCA(s) occlusion. At 48 h after ischemia 41-48% (I/R-1 model) and 24% (I/R-2 model) of rats did not present a lesion. Those rats displayed increased mean BFV in both right internal carotid artery and basilar trunk in I/R-1 model, and increased mean BFV in the basilar trunk (BT) in I/R-2 model. In contrast, no significant changes in mean BFV were observed in lesioned rats. Furthermore, mean BFV in the BT was inversely correlated to the size of the lesion (r² = 0.75, p<0.0001) in the I/R-2 model. Thus, we demonstrated the protective role of collateral support in P7 rodents. Ultrasound imaging can evidence the establishment or not of the cerebral collateral recruitment, leading to the presence or absence of a lesion. This novel approach should greatly help preclinical studies to reduce animal variability.

  19. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  20. Toxicity evaluation of waters from a tributary of the River Po using the 7-Day Ceriodaphnia dubia test.

    PubMed

    Viganò, L; Bassi, A; Garino, A

    1996-12-01

    Seven-day toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were used to assess ambient water toxicity in the River Lambro, a tributary of the River Po, and in the corresponding stretch of the main river located downstream from their confluence. About once a month, toxicity tests were conducted on water samples of the River Lambro, using as dilution water the water of the main river collected upstream from the confluence. With a lower frequency, the downstream stretch of the River Po was tested for ambient toxicity at four sites located at 6, 11, 16, and 21 km from the emission of the tributary. The River Lambro demonstrated variable toxicity in different time periods, although the most frequent effects were sublethal, on both reproduction and growth. Ammonia, nickel, and zinc can be indicated as possible toxicants. Acute toxic effects to C. dubia were observed with spring samples only, when the action of some pesticides, likely insecticides, have to be taken into account. Tests conducted on downstream water gave limited results, seemingly because the dilution capacity of the River Po reduced Lambro toxicity to a level close to and often below the detection limit of the 7-day test. Accordingly, toxic effects at downstream sites could only be observed on the growth of C. dubia, which was found to be the most sensitive endpoint. Fairly good agreement was found between predictions based on toxicity tests of the River Lambro and the effects observed for downstream samples.

  1. Growth, reproduction and population growth of Ceriodaphnia cornuta sars and comparison of 7-day fecundity with Ceriodaphnia dubia richard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Dehui

    1989-06-01

    Biology of parthenogenetic females of Ceriodaphnia cornuta Sars was studied under laboratory conditions. The mean length of neonates (first-young instars) of Ceriodaphnia cornuta was found to be 0.27 mm at 25±1°C and that of the first adult instars 0.50 mm. A maximum length of 0.69 mm was attained at the 8th adult instar. The mean longevity was found to be 19.0 days for 3 preadult and 8 adult instars. Sex maturity was reached in 4.26 days. The mean number of young per brood was 6.21. The total production for each adult reached 49.7. The maximum reproduction period occurred during the 4th adult instar. At this age, the animals were 10.25 days old, and had a body length of 0.65 mm. The innate capacity for increase ( r m) was 0.40 per female per day, the net reproduction rate ( R 0) was 33.601 per generation, the mean length of a generation ( T) was 8.786 days, and the finite rate for increase (λ) was 1.492 per female per day. Comparisons using the t-test indicated that the number of eggs produced and number of broods of C. cornuta and C. dubia were not significantly different ( p>0.05) after 7 days.

  2. The effects of modafinil treatment on neuropsychological and attentional bias performance during 7-day inpatient withdrawal from methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Hester, Robert; Lee, Nicole; Pennay, Amy; Nielsen, Suzi; Ferris, Jason

    2010-12-01

    The cognitive benefits of modafinil to patients undergoing 7-day inpatient withdrawal from methamphetamine (MA) dependence were examined as part of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Recent evidence has identified modafinil-related improvements in treatment outcomes for MA-dependent patients; however, the benefits to cognition function, which is critical to treatment success but known to be impaired, has yet to be examined. The first 20 participants recruited to the study were administered either 200 mg of modafinil (once daily) or placebo, and a neuropsychological test battery (including an MA version of the emotional Stroop task) at admission (n = 17) and discharge (n = 14). Follow-up interviews were conducted at 1-month postdischarge (n = 13). After participant withdrawals (3 in each group), treatment was associated with a significant improvement in immediate verbal memory recall and nonsignificant trend toward improvement on executive function and delayed memory tasks. No benefit was seen for measures of verbal learning, visual memory, processing speed, or verbal fluency. All participants showed a significant attentional bias for MA-related stimuli on the emotional Stroop task. The magnitude of bias predicted both retention in treatment and relapse potential at follow-up but was not significantly ameliorated by modafinil treatment. While nonsignificant, the effect sizes of modafinil-related improvements in executive function and memory were consistent with those found in more robustly powered studies of cognitive benefits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, supporting the need for further research.

  3. Targeting circuits

    PubMed Central

    Rajasethupathy, Priyamvada; Ferenczi, Emily; Deisseroth, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Current optogenetic methodology enables precise inhibition or excitation of neural circuits, spanning timescales as needed from the acute (milliseconds) to the chronic (many days or more), for experimental modulation of network activity and animal behavior. Such broad temporal versatility, unique to optogenetic control, is particularly powerful when combined with brain activity measurements that span both acute and chronic timescales as well. This enables, for instance, the study of adaptive circuit dynamics across the intact brain, and tuning interventions to match activity patterns naturally observed during behavior in the same individual. Although the impact of this approach has been greater on basic research than on clinical translation, it is natural to ask if specific neural circuit activity patterns discovered to be involved in controlling adaptive or maladaptive behaviors could become targets for treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here we consider the landscape of such ideas related to therapeutic targeting of circuit dynamics, taking note of developments not only in optical but also in ultrasonic, magnetic, and thermal methods. We note the recent emergence of first-in-kind optogenetically-guided clinical outcomes, as well as opportunities related to the integration of interventions and readouts spanning diverse circuit-physiology, molecular, and behavioral modalities. PMID:27104976

  4. Ventilation technologies scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-09-30

    This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the needs of California, determining residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and level of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  5. Bench performance of ventilators during simulated paediatric ventilation.

    PubMed

    Park, M A J; Freebairn, R C; Gomersall, C D

    2013-05-01

    This study compares the accuracy and capabilities of various ventilators using a paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome lung model. Various compliance settings and respiratory rate settings were used. The study was done in three parts: tidal volume and FiO2 accuracy; pressure control accuracy and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) accuracy. The parameters set on the ventilator were compared with either or both of the measured parameters by the test lung and the ventilator. The results revealed that none of the ventilators could consistently deliver tidal volumes within 1 ml/kg of the set tidal volume, and the discrepancy between the delivered volume and the volume measured by the ventilator varied greatly. The target tidal volume was 8 ml/kg, but delivered tidal volumes ranged from 3.6-11.4 ml/kg and the volumes measured by the ventilator ranged from 4.1-20.6 ml/kg. All the ventilators maintained pressure within 20% of the set pressure, except one ventilator which delivered pressures of up to 27% higher than the set pressure. Two ventilators maintained PEEP within 10% of the prescribed PEEP. The majority of the readings were also within 10%. However, three ventilators delivered, at times, PEEPs over 20% higher. In conclusion, as lung compliance decreases, especially in paediatric patients, some ventilators perform better than others. This study highlights situations where ventilators may not be able to deliver, nor adequately measure, set tidal volumes, pressure, PEEP or FiO2.

  6. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-04-01

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

  7. Ventilation flow: Submerged

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, D.

    1985-01-01

    The ventilation system on a submarine is discussed. When the submarine is submerged. The ventilation system provides a conditioned atmosphere in the ship with complete isolation from the outside. A conditioned atmosphere includes not only filtration and temperature and humidity control, but also air purification (removal of potentially harmful quantities of impurities and comtaminants) and revitalization (addition of vital life support oxygen). Carbon dioxide removal, the oxygen system, air conditioning, carbon monoxide removal, hydrogen removal, and atmosphere monitoring systems are among the topics discussed.

  8. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan involves two nuclear scan tests to measure breathing (ventilation) and circulation ( ... In: Mettler FA, Guiberteau MJ, eds. Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  9. Central Fan Integrated Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet describes one example of a ventilation system design, a central fan integrated supply (CFIS) system, a mechanical ventilation and pollutant source control to ensure that there is reasonable indoor air quality inside the house.

  10. Trigger Circuit.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A wire of Nitinol can be stretched up to a given amount and will remain in this stretched state until heated to a critical temperature. When heated...circuit of this invention provides a current pulse for the required time period to heat the Nitinol wire to its critical temperature to thereby restore the...wire to its original length. The circuit includes a high power transistor which is gated on for a controlled time to provide the required power to heat the Nitinol wire to its critical temperature. (Author)

  11. MULTIPLIER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Chase, R.L.

    1963-05-01

    An electronic fast multiplier circuit utilizing a transistor controlled voltage divider network is presented. The multiplier includes a stepped potentiometer in which solid state or transistor switches are substituted for mechanical wipers in order to obtain electronic switching that is extremely fast as compared to the usual servo-driven mechanical wipers. While this multiplier circuit operates as an approximation and in steps to obtain a voltage that is the product of two input voltages, any desired degree of accuracy can be obtained with the proper number of increments and adjustment of parameters. (AEC)

  12. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  13. How to Plan Ventilation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John H.

    1963-01-01

    Ventilation systems for factory safety demand careful planning. The increased heat loads and new processes of industry have introduced complex ventilation problems in--(1) ventilation supply, (2) duct work design, (3) space requirements, (4) hood face velocities, (5) discharge stacks, and (6) building eddies. This article describes and diagrams…

  14. Adherence to the items in a bundle for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Sachetti, Amanda; Rech, Viviane; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Fontana, Caroline; Barbosa, Gilberto da Luz; Schlichting, Dionara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess adherence to a ventilator care bundle in an intensive care unit and to determine the impact of adherence on the rates of ventilatorassociated pneumonia. Methods A total of 198 beds were assessed for 60 days using a checklist that consisted of the following items: bed head elevation to 30 to 45º; position of the humidifier filter; lack of fluid in the ventilator circuit; oral hygiene; cuff pressure; and physical therapy. Next, an educational lecture was delivered, and 235 beds were assessed for the following 60 days. Data were also collected on the incidence of ventilator-acquired pneumonia. Results Adherence to the following ventilator care bundle items increased: bed head elevation from 18.7% to 34.5%; lack of fluid in the ventilator circuit from 55.6% to 72.8%; oral hygiene from 48.5% to 77.8%; and cuff pressure from 29.8% to 51.5%. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia was statistically similar before and after intervention (p=0.389). Conclusion The educational intervention performed in this study increased the adherence to the ventilator care bundle, but the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia did not decrease in the small sample that was assessed. PMID:25607263

  15. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  16. Non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, D.

    1996-01-01

    Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation is an effective treatment for nocturnal hypoventilation secondary to chest wall deformity or respiratory muscle weakness. Physicians should be aware that, in these groups of patients, disabling breathlessness can be alleviated and established cor pulmonale reversed by the technique. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8949588

  17. Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1965-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…

  18. Energy recovery ventilator

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S. L.; Dravnieks, K.

    1985-04-30

    An energy recovery ventilator adapted to be mounted on a roof and adapted to be connected to the outlet of an exhaust air duct of a building ventilation system and the inlet of an air supply duct of a building ventilation system. The energy recovery ventilator includes a housing having an exhaust air chamber and a supply air chamber separated by a divider wall. A circular heat transfer wheel is position in the housing, a portion of the wheel being housed in the exhaust air chamber and a second portion of the wheel being housed in the supply air chamber, and the heat transfer wheel is caused to rotate about a central axis. An exhaust fan is housed in the exhaust air chamber and causes exhaust air to be pulled through the exhaust air duct and the heat transfer wheel and to be exhausted from the housing. A supply air fan is housed in the supply air housing above the heat transfer wheel, and causes outside air to be drawn into the supply air chamber and to be forced through the heat transfer wheel into the air supply duct.

  19. Understanding mechanical ventilators.

    PubMed

    Chatburn, Robert L

    2010-12-01

    The respiratory care academic community has not yet adopted a standardized system for classifying and describing modes of ventilation. As a result, there is enough confusion that patient care, clinician education and even ventilator sales are all put at risk. This article summarizes a ventilator mode taxonomy that has been extensively published over the last 15 years. Specifically, the classification system has three components: a description of the control variables within breath; a description of the sequence of mandatory and spontaneous breaths; and a specification for the targeting scheme. This three-level specification provides scalability of detail to make the mode description appropriate for the particular need. At the bedside, we need only refer to a mode briefly using the first or perhaps first and second components. To distinguish between similar modes and brand names, we would need to include all components. This taxonomy uses the equation of motion for the respiratory system as the underlying theoretical framework. All terms relevant to describing modes of mechanical ventilation are defined in an extensive appendix.

  20. Space station ventilation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

  1. Patient-ventilator dyssynchrony during assisted invasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Murias, G; Villagra, A; Blanch, L

    2013-04-01

    Patient-ventilator dyssynchrony is common during mechanical ventilation. Dyssynchrony decreases comfort, prolongs mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit stays, and might lead to worse outcome. Dyssynchrony can occur during the triggering of the ventilator, the inspiration period after triggering, the transition from inspiration to expiration, and the expiratory phase. The most common dyssynchronies are delayed triggering, autotriggering, ineffective inspiratory efforts (which can occur at any point in the respiratory cycle), mismatch between the patient's and ventilator's inspiratory times, and double triggering. At present, the detection of dyssynchronies usually depends on healthcare staff observing ventilator waveforms; however, performance is suboptimal and many events go undetected. To date, technological complexity has made it impossible to evaluate patient-ventilator synchrony throughout the course of mechanical ventilation. Studies have shown that a high index of dyssynchrony may increase the duration of mechanical ventilation. Better training, better ventilatory modes, and/or computerized systems that permit better synchronization of patients' demands and ventilator outputs are necessary to improve patient-ventilator synchrony.

  2. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flows in the Hudson River basin, New York, with release-flow data on Rondout and Ashokan reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow at 67 gaging stations and 173 partial-record stations in the Hudson River basin are given in tabular form. Variation of the 7-day, 10-year low flow from point to point in selected reaches, and the corresponding times of travel, are shown graphically for Wawayanda Creek, Wallkill River, Woodbury-Moodna Creek, and the Fishkill Creek basins. The 7-day, 10-year low flow for the Saw Kill basin, and estimates of the 7-day, 10-year low flow of the Roeliff Jansen Kill at Ancram and of Birch Creek at Pine Hill, are given. Summaries of discharge from Rondout and Ashokan Reservoirs, in Ulster County, are also included. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow for gaging stations with 10 years or more of record were determined by log-Pearson Type III computation; those for partial-record stations were developed by correlation of discharge measurements made at the partial-record stations with discharge data from appropriate long-term gaging stations. The variation in low flows from point to point within the selected subbasins were estimated from available data and regional regression formula. Time of travel at these flows in the four subbasins was estimated from available data and Boning's equations.

  3. [The transdermal 7-day buprenorphine patch--an effective and safe treatment option, if tramadol or tilidate/naloxone is insufficient. Results of a non-interventional study].

    PubMed

    Schutter, U; Ritzdorf, I; Heckes, B

    2010-07-01

    The transdermal 7-day buprenorphine matrix patch provides a constant and user-friendly pain management when chronic musculoskeletal pain requires opioids. This analysis of clinical routine data evaluated the benefit of this treatment for patients previously receiving oral long-term treatment with weak opioids alone. Data of 310 patients previously treated with tramadol or tildate/naloxone and part of a multicentre observational study with 3295 patients were analyzed. In 89.7% of the 310 patients oral treatment with weak opioids was replaced by the 7-day buprenorphine patch due to insufficient analgesia. During treatment with the 7-day buprenorphine patch there was a clinically significant decrease of the mean pain intensity at rest during the day from 5.7 to 2.9, on physical effort during the day from 7.3 to 3.8 and at night from 5.2 to 2.3 (11-point NRS scale, p < or = 0.001). In addition, quality of life aspects such as mobility, self-reliance and quality of sleep improved, which are relevant for individual patient satisfaction with pain management. For patients with previous long-term tramadol or tilidate/naloxone treatment the switch to the 7-day buprenorphine matrix patch proved to be effective and safe for the management of chronic pain. The user-friendly 7-day application interval contributes to improving compliance and a reducing exposure to tablets.

  4. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  5. Thermionic integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    MacRoberts, M.; Brown, D.R.; Dooley, R.; Lemons, R.; Lynn, D.; McCormick, B.; Mombourquette, C.; Sinah, D.

    1986-01-01

    Thermionic integrated circuits combine vacuum-tube technology with integrated-circuit techniques to form integrated vacuum circuits. These circuits are capable of extended operation in both high-temperature and high-radiation environments.

  6. Test Protocol for Room-to-Room Distribution of Outside Air by Residential Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, C. D.; Anderson, R.; Hendron, B.; Hancock, E.

    2007-12-01

    This test and analysis protocol has been developed as a practical approach for measuring outside air distribution in homes. It has been used successfully in field tests and has led to significant insights on ventilation design issues. Performance advantages of more sophisticated ventilation systems over simpler, less-costly designs have been verified, and specific problems, such as airflow short-circuiting, have been identified.

  7. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  8. Home Mechanical Ventilation in Children.

    PubMed

    Preutthipan, Aroonwan

    2015-09-01

    The number of children dependent on home mechanical ventilation has been reported to be increasing in many countries around the world. Home mechanical ventilation has been well accepted as a standard treatment of children with chronic respiratory failure. Some children may need mechanical ventilation as a lifelong therapy. To send mechanically ventilated children back home may be more difficult than adults. However, relatively better outcomes have been demonstrated in children. Children could be safely ventilated at home if they are selected and managed properly. Conditions requiring home ventilation include increased respiratory load from airway or lung pathologies, ventilatory muscle weakness and failure of neurologic control of ventilation. Home mechanical ventilation should be considered when the patient develops progressive respiratory failure or intractable failure to wean mechanical ventilation. Polysomnography or overnight pulse oximetry plus capnometry are used to detect nocturnal hypoventilation in early stage of respiratory failure. Ventilator strategy including non-invasive and invasive approach should be individualized for each patient. The author strongly believes that parents and family members are able to take care of their child at home if they are trained and educated effectively. A good team work with dedicated members is the key factor of success.

  9. The microbiological and sustainability effects of washing anaesthesia breathing circuits less frequently.

    PubMed

    McGain, F; Algie, C M; O'Toole, J; Lim, T F; Mohebbi, M; Story, D A; Leder, K

    2014-04-01

    In the presence of single-use airway filters, we quantified anaesthetic circuit aerobic microbial contamination rates when changed every 24 h, 48 h and 7 days. Microbiological samples were taken from the interior of 305 anaesthetic breathing circuits over a 15-month period (3197 operations). There was no significant difference in the proportion of contaminated circuits when changed every 24 h (57/105 (54%, 95% CI 45-64%)) compared with 48 h (43/100 (43%, 95% CI 33-53%, p = 0.12)) and up to 7 days (46/100 (46%, 95% CI 36-56%, p = 0.26)). Median bacterial counts were not increased at 48 h or 7 days provided circuits were routinely emptied of condensate. Annual savings for one hospital (six operating theatres) were $AU 5219 (£3079, €3654, $US 4846) and a 57% decrease in anaesthesia circuit steriliser loads associated with a yearly saving of 2760 kWh of electricity and 48 000 l of water. Our findings suggest that extended circuit use from 24 h up to 7 days does not significantly increase bacterial contamination, and is associated with labour, energy, water and financial savings.

  10. Ventilators for noninvasive ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Naldi, Mario

    2008-08-01

    The application of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to treat acute respiratory failure has increased tremendously both inside and outside the intensive care unit. The choice of ventilator is crucial for success of NIV in the acute setting, because poor tolerance and excessive air leaks are significantly correlated with NIV failure. Patient-ventilator asynchrony and discomfort can occur if the physician or respiratory therapist fails to adequately set NIV to respond to the patient's ventilatory demand, so clinicians need to fully understood the ventilator's technical peculiarities (eg, efficiency of trigger and cycle systems, speed of pressurization, air-leak compensation, CO(2) rebreathing, reliability of fraction of inspired oxygen reading, monitoring accuracy). A wide range of ventilators of different complexity have been introduced into clinical practice to noninvasively support patients in acute respiratory failure, but the numerous commercially available ventilators (bi-level, intermediate, and intensive care unit ventilators) have substantial differences that can influence patient comfort, patient-ventilator interaction, and, thus, the chance of NIV clinical success. This report examines the most relevant aspects of the historical evolution, the equipment, and the acute-respiratory-failure clinical application of NIV ventilators.

  11. Estimates of the demand for mechanical ventilation in the US during an influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Martin I.; Patel, Anita; Koonin, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak in China in April 2013 of human illnesses due to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus provided reason for U.S. public health officials to revisit existing national pandemic response plans. We built a spreadsheet model to examine the potential demand for invasive mechanical ventilation (excluding “rescue therapy" ventilation). We considered scenarios of either 20% or 30% gross influenza clinical attack rate (CAR), with a “low severity” scenario with case fatality rates (CFR) of 0.05%–0.1%, or a “high severity” scenario (CFR: 0.25%–0.5%). We used rates-of-influenza-related illness to calculate the numbers of potential clinical cases, hospitalizations, admissions to intensive care units (ICUs), and need for mechanical ventilation. We assumed 10 days ventilator use per ventilated patient, 13% of total ventilator demand will occur at peak, and a 33.7% weighted average mortality risk while on a ventilator. At peak, for a 20% CAR, low severity scenario, an additional 7,000 to 11,000 ventilators will be needed, averting a pandemic total of 35,000 to 55,000 deaths. A 30% CAR, high severity scenario, will need approximately 35,000 to 60,500 additional ventilators, averting a pandemic total 178,000 to 308,000 deaths. Estimates of deaths averted may not be realized because successful ventilation also depends on sufficient numbers of suitably trained staff, needed supplies (e.g., drugs, reliable oxygen sources, suction apparatus, circuits, and monitoring equipment) and timely ability to match access to ventilators with critically ill cases. There is a clear challenge to plan and prepare to meet demands for mechanical ventilators for a future severe pandemic. PMID:25878301

  12. Estimates of the demand for mechanical ventilation in the United States during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Martin I; Patel, Anita; Ajao, Adebola; Nystrom, Scott V; Koonin, Lisa M

    2015-05-01

    An outbreak in China in April 2013 of human illnesses due to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus provided reason for US public health officials to revisit existing national pandemic response plans. We built a spreadsheet model to examine the potential demand for invasive mechanical ventilation (excluding "rescue therapy" ventilation). We considered scenarios of either 20% or 30% gross influenza clinical attack rate (CAR), with a "low severity" scenario with case fatality rates (CFR) of 0.05%-0.1%, or a "high severity" scenario (CFR: 0.25%-0.5%). We used rates-of-influenza-related illness to calculate the numbers of potential clinical cases, hospitalizations, admissions to intensive care units, and need for mechanical ventilation. We assumed 10 days ventilator use per ventilated patient, 13% of total ventilator demand will occur at peak, and a 33.7% weighted average mortality risk while on a ventilator. At peak, for a 20% CAR, low severity scenario, an additional 7000 to 11,000 ventilators will be needed, averting a pandemic total of 35,000 to 55,000 deaths. A 30% CAR, high severity scenario, will need approximately 35,000 to 60,500 additional ventilators, averting a pandemic total 178,000 to 308,000 deaths. Estimates of deaths averted may not be realized because successful ventilation also depends on sufficient numbers of suitably trained staff, needed supplies (eg, drugs, reliable oxygen sources, suction apparatus, circuits, and monitoring equipment) and timely ability to match access to ventilators with critically ill cases. There is a clear challenge to plan and prepare to meet demands for mechanical ventilators for a future severe pandemic.

  13. 46 CFR 111.105-21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation. 111.105-21 Section 111.105-21 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-21 Ventilation. A ventilation duct which ventilates a hazardous location has the classification of that location. Each fan for ventilation of a hazardous location must...

  14. 46 CFR 111.105-21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation. 111.105-21 Section 111.105-21 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-21 Ventilation. A ventilation duct which ventilates a hazardous location has the classification of that location. Each fan for ventilation of a hazardous location must...

  15. 46 CFR 111.105-21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation. 111.105-21 Section 111.105-21 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-21 Ventilation. A ventilation duct which ventilates a hazardous location has the classification of that location. Each fan for ventilation of a hazardous location must...

  16. Pulmonary mechanics during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Henderson, William R; Sheel, A William

    2012-03-15

    The use of mechanical ventilation has become widespread in the management of hypoxic respiratory failure. Investigations of pulmonary mechanics in this clinical scenario have demonstrated that there are significant differences in compliance, resistance and gas flow when compared with normal subjects. This paper will review the mechanisms by which pulmonary mechanics are assessed in mechanically ventilated patients and will review how the data can be used for investigative research purposes as well as to inform rational ventilator management.

  17. Effect of outside air ventilation rate on VOC concentrations and emissions in a call center

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, A.T.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.P.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Russell, M.L.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of VOCs generated indoors was conducted in a call center. Ventilation rates were manipulated in the building's four air handling units (AHUs). Concentrations of VOCs in the AHU returns were measured on 7 days during a 13-week period. Indoor minus outdoor concentrations and emission factors were calculated. The emission factor data was subjected to principal component analysis to identify groups of co-varying compounds based on source type. One vector represented emissions of solvents from cleaning products. Another vector identified occupant sources. Direct relationships between ventilation rate and concentrations were not observed for most of the abundant VOCs. This result emphasizes the importance of source control measures for limiting VOC concentrations in buildings.

  18. LOGIC CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Strong, G.H.; Faught, M.L.

    1963-12-24

    A device for safety rod counting in a nuclear reactor is described. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is adapted to prevent de-energizing the hopper coils of a ball backup system if safety rods, sufficient in total control effect, properly enter the reactor core to effect shut down. A plurality of resistances form one arm of the bridge, each resistance being associated with a particular safety rod and weighted in value according to the control effect of the particular safety rod. Switching means are used to switch each of the resistances in and out of the bridge circuit responsive to the presence of a particular safety rod in its effective position in the reactor core and responsive to the attainment of a predetermined velocity by a particular safety rod enroute to its effective position. The bridge is unbalanced in one direction during normal reactor operation prior to the generation of a scram signal and the switching means and resistances are adapted to unbalance the bridge in the opposite direction if the safety rods produce a predetermined amount of control effect in response to the scram signal. The bridge unbalance reversal is then utilized to prevent the actuation of the ball backup system, or, conversely, a failure of the safety rods to produce the predetermined effect produces no unbalance reversal and the ball backup system is actuated. (AEC)

  19. Field measurement of ventilation rates.

    PubMed

    Persily, A K

    2016-02-01

    Ventilation rates have significant impacts on building energy use and indoor contaminant concentrations, making them key parameters in building performance. Ventilation rates have been measured in buildings for many decades, and there are mature measurement approaches available to researchers and others who need to know actual ventilation rates in buildings. Despite the fact that ventilation rates are critical in interpreting indoor concentration measurements, it is disconcerting how few Indoor Air Quality field studies measure ventilation rates or otherwise characterize the ventilation design of the study building(s). This paper summarizes parameters of interest in characterizing building ventilation, available methods for quantifying these parameters, and challenges in applying these methods to different types of buildings and ventilation systems. These parameters include whole-building air change rates, system outdoor air intake rates, and building infiltration rates. Tracer gas methods are reviewed as well as system airflow rate measurements using, for example, duct traverses. Several field studies of ventilation rates conducted over the past 75 years are described to highlight the approaches employed and the findings obtained.

  20. Control technology for integrated circuit fabrication at Micro-Circuit Engineering, Incorporated, West Palm Beach, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihlan, G. I.; Mitchell, R. I.; Smith, R. K.

    1984-07-01

    A survey to assess control technology for integrated circuit fabrication was conducted. Engineering controls included local and general exhaust ventilation, shielding, and personal protective equipment. Devices or work stations that contained toxic materials that were potentially dangerous were controlled by local exhaust ventilation. Less hazardous areas were controlled by general exhaust ventilation. Process isolation was used in the plasma etching, low pressure chemical vapor deposition, and metallization operations. Shielding was used in ion implantation units to control X-ray emissions, in contact mask alignes to limit ultraviolet (UV) emissions, and in plasma etching units to control radiofrequency and UV emissions. Most operations were automated. Use of personal protective equipment varied by job function.

  1. Radioaerosol ventilation imaging in ventilator-dependent patients. Technical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Vezina, W.; Chamberlain, M.; Vinitski, S.; King, M.; Nicholson, R.; Morgan, W.K.

    1985-11-01

    The differentiation of pulmonary embolism (PE) from regional ventilatory abnormalities accompanied by reduced perfusion requires contemporary perfusion and ventilation studies. Distinguishing these conditions in ventilator-dependent patients is aided by administering a Tc-99m aerosol to characterize regional ventilation, and by performing a conventional Tc-99m MAA perfusion study. The technique uses a simple in-house constructed apparatus. Simple photographic techniques suffice, but computer subtraction of perfusion from the combined perfusion-ventilation image renders interpretation easier if aerosol administration follows perfusion imaging. Multiple defects can be examined in a single study. Excluding normal or near-normal perfusion studies, PE was thought to be present in eight of 16 patients after perfusion imaging alone, but in only one of eight after added aerosol imaging. Angiography confirmed the diagnosis in that patient. Of the eight patients who had abnormal perfusion but were thought unlikely to have PE from the perfusion study alone, two had normal ventilation, and subsequently were shown to have PE by angiography. Because angiography was only performed on patients who were thought to have a high probability of PE on sequential perfusion-ventilation imaging, the true incidence of PE may have been higher. Aerosol ventilation imaging is a useful adjunct to perfusion imaging in patients on ventilators. It requires an efficient delivery system, particularly if aerosol administration follows perfusion imaging, as it does in this study.

  2. Laboratory and Industrial Ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This handbook supplements the Facilities Engineering Handbook (NHB 7320.1) and provides additional policies and criteria for uniform application to ventilation systems. It expands basic requirements, provides additional design and construction guidance, and places emphasis on those design considerations which will provide for greater effectiveness in the use of these systems. The provisions of this handbook are applicable to all NASA field installations and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Since supply of this handbook is limited, abstracts of the portion or portions applicable to a given requirement will be made for the individual specific needs encountered rather than supplying copies of the handbook as has been past practice.

  3. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM), and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is needed to examine long

  4. Contributing Factors for Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Organophosphate Poisoning on Mechanical Ventilation: A Retrospective Study in a Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Gurulingappa; Nikhil, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the most common causes of poisoning in agricultural based developing countries like India is due to Organophosphorus (OP) compound. Its widespread use and easy availability has increased the likelihood of poisoning with these compounds. Aim To study the morbidity and mortality in patients with acute OP poisoning requiring mechanical ventilation. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study constituting patients of all age groups admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with diagnosis of OP poisoning between January 2015 to December 2015. Of 66 OP poisoning cases those patients who went against medical advice, 20 were excluded from the study and thus 46 patients were included. Diagnosis was performed from the history taken either from the patient or from the patient’s relatives and presenting symptoms. Demographic data, month of the year, age of patient, mode of poisoning, cholinesterase levels, duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality were recorded. Data are presented as mean±SD. Results A 97.83% (45/46) of cases were suicidal. Out of 46, 9 were intubated and mechanically ventilated. Duration of mechanical ventilation varied from less than 48 hours to more than 7 days. Mortality rate was 50%, 0% and 100% in those who required mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days, 2 to 7 days and <2days respectively. None of the predictors like age, severity of poisoning, cholinesterase levels and duration of ventilation were independent predictors of death and all of them contributed to the mortality. Overall mortality rate in those who required mechanical ventilation was 22.22%. Conclusion Morbidity and mortality due to OP poisoning is directly proportional to the age, severity of poisoning and duration of mechanical ventilation and inversely proportional to serum cholinesterase level. PMID:28208980

  5. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  6. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, W.J.

    1981-11-10

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components. 13 figs.

  7. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  8. Fuselage ventilation under wind conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    To determine realistic fuselage ventilation rates for post-crash fires and full-scale fire tests, the effects on wind-about fuselage ventilation rate of various parameters were studied. The parameters investigated were fuselage size and shape, fuselage orientation and proximity to ground, fuselage-opening and location, and wind speed and direction.

  9. Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.

    2006-06-22

    Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

  10. A RANDOMIZED TREATMENT TRIAL: SINGLE VERSUS 7 DAY DOSE OF METRONIDAZOLE FOR THE TREATMENT OF TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS AMONG HIV-INFECTED WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Kissinger, Patricia; Mena, Leandro; Levison, Judy; Clark, Rebecca A.; Gatski, Megan; Henderson, Harold; Schmidt, Norine; Rosenthal, Susan; Myers, Leann; Martin, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if the metronidazole (MTZ) 2 gm single dose (recommended) is as effective as the 7 day 500 mg BID dose (alternative) for treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV+ women. Methods Phase IV randomized clinical trial; HIV+ women with culture confirmed TV were randomized to treatment arm: MTZ 2 gm single dose or MTZ 500 mg BID 7 day dose. All women were given 2 gm MTZ doses to deliver to their sex partners. Women were re-cultured for TV at a test-of-cure (TOC) visit occurring 6-12 days after treatment completion. TV-negative women at TOC were again re-cultured at a 3 month visit. Repeat TV infection rates were compared between arms. Results 270 HIV+/TV+ women were enrolled (mean age = 40 years, ± 9.4; 92.2% African-American). Treatment arms were similar with respect to age, race, CD4 count, viral load, ART status, site, and loss-to-follow up. Women in the 7 day arm had: lower repeat TV infection rates at TOC [8.5% (11/130) versus 16.8% (21/125) (R.R. 0.50, 95% CI=0.25, 1.00; P<0.05)], and at 3 months [11.0% (8/73) versus 24.1% (19/79) (R.R. 0.46, 95% CI=0.21, 0.98; P=0.03)] compared to the single dose arm. Conclusions The 7 day MTZ dose was more effective than the single dose for the treatment of TV among HIV+ women. PMID:21423852

  11. Randomized masked controlled clinical trial to compare 7-day and 14-day course length of doxycycline in the treatment of Mycoplasma felis infection in shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Kompare, B; Litster, A L; Leutenegger, C M; Weng, H-Y

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and microbial efficacy of a 7-day or a 14-day course of doxycycline for the treatment of Mycoplasma felis-infected cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) assessed using clinical scoring criteria. Cats were randomly allocated to either the Doxy-7 group (N=20; 7-day course of oral doxycyline liquid followed by 7-days placebo); or the Doxy-14 group (N=20; 14-day course of oral doxycycline). There were no significant differences in Mycoplasma load between groups at Day 1 or Day 7 (P>0.05), but at Day 14 mean Mycoplasma load was lower in the Doxy-14 group (P=0.01). Mycoplasma load reduced over Days 1-7 in each group (P<0.01), but only the Doxy-14 group had a significantly reduced Mycoplasma load at Day 14 compared to Day 1 (P<0.01). On Day 14, 11 (55%) cats in the Doxy-7 group and 5 (25%) cats in the Doxy-14 group had positive PCR results for M. felis. There was a statistically significant reduction within each group across the Day 1-7 period for ocular discharge, nasal discharge, demeanor, and food intake scores (P<0.01 for each score category). Nasal discharge scores and sneezing scores were statistically lower in the Doxy-14 group than in the Doxy-7 group on individual days during the Day 8-14 period (P<0.05). We conclude that in M. felis-infected cats with clinical signs of URTD, a 14-day course of oral doxycycline produced superior microbial but not clinical results compared to a 7-day course of treatment.

  12. Effect of outside air ventilation rate on volatile organic compound concentrations in a call center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, A. T.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. P.; DiBartolomeo, D. L.; Russell, M. L.; Fisk, W. J.

    A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated indoors was conducted in a call center office building. The building, with two floors and a total floor area of 4600 m 2, is located in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA. Ventilation rates were manipulated with the building's four air handling units (AHUs). VOC and CO 2 concentrations in the AHU returns were measured on 7 days during a 13-week period. VOC emission factors were determined for individual zones on days when they were operating at near steady-state conditions. The emission factor data were subjected to principal component (PC) analysis to identify groups of co-varying compounds. Potential sources of the PC vectors were ascribed based on information from the literature. The per occupant CO 2 generation rates were 0.0068-0.0092 l s -1. The per occupant isoprene generation rates of 0.2-0.3 mg h -1 were consistent with the value predicted by mass balance from breath concentration and exhalation rate. The relationships between indoor minus outdoor VOC concentrations and ventilation rate were qualitatively examined for eight VOCs. Of these, acetaldehyde and hexanal, which likely were associated with material sources, and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, associated with personal care products, exhibited general trends of higher concentrations at lower ventilation rates. For other compounds, a clear inverse relationship between VOC concentrations and ventilation was not observed. The net concentration of 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate isomers, examples of low-volatility compounds, changed very little with ventilation likely due to sorption and re-emission effects. These results illustrate that the efficacy of ventilation for controlling VOC concentrations can vary considerably depending upon the operation of the building, the pollutant sources and the physical and chemical processes affecting the pollutants. Thus, source

  13. Circuit monitors powerline interruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, N. E.; Stricklen, J. O.

    1977-01-01

    Simple circuit when combined with pulse detector detects momentary interruptions of 400-cycle ac signal. Circuit has been used during shock and vibration testing of electronic hardware to determine if tests caused interruptions of normal circuit operation.

  14. A simple tachometer circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.

    1972-01-01

    Electric circuit to measure frequency of repetitive sinusoidal or rectangular wave is presented. Components of electric circuit and method of operation are explained. Application of circuit as tachometer for automobile is discussed.

  15. Solar ventilation and tempering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adámek, Karel; Pavlů, Miloš; Bandouch, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents basic information about solar panels, designed, realized and used for solar ventilation of rooms. Used method of numerical flow simulation gives good overview about warming and flowing of the air in several kinds of realized panels (window, facade, chimney). Yearlong measurements give a good base for calculations of economic return of invested capital. The operation of the system in transient period (spring, autumn) prolongs the period without classical heating of the room or building, in winter the classical heating is supported. In the summer period the system, furnished with chimney, can exhaust inner warm air together with necessary cooling of the system by gravity circulation, only. System needs not any invoiced energy source; it is supplied entirely by solar energy. Large building systems are supported by classical electric fan respectively.

  16. Ventilation and respiratory mechanics.

    PubMed

    Sheel, Andrew William; Romer, Lee M

    2012-04-01

    During dynamic exercise, the healthy pulmonary system faces several major challenges, including decreases in mixed venous oxygen content and increases in mixed venous carbon dioxide. As such, the ventilatory demand is increased, while the rising cardiac output means that blood will have considerably less time in the pulmonary capillaries to accomplish gas exchange. Blood gas homeostasis must be accomplished by precise regulation of alveolar ventilation via medullary neural networks and sensory reflex mechanisms. It is equally important that cardiovascular and pulmonary system responses to exercise be precisely matched to the increase in metabolic requirements, and that the substantial gas transport needs of both respiratory and locomotor muscles be considered. Our article addresses each of these topics with emphasis on the healthy, young adult exercising in normoxia. We review recent evidence concerning how exercise hyperpnea influences sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow and the effect this might have on the ability to perform muscular work. We also review sex-based differences in lung mechanics.

  17. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  18. Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in Children.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ivy; Schibler, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common complication in mechanically ventilated children and adults. There remains much controversy in the literature over the definition, treatment and prevention of VAP. The incidence of VAP is variable, depending on the definition used and can effect up to 12% of ventilated children. For the prevention and reduction of the incidence of VAP, ventilation care bundles are suggested, which include vigorous hand hygiene, head elevation and use of non-invasive ventilation strategies. Diagnosis is mainly based on the clinical presentation with a lung infection occurring after 48hours of mechanical ventilation requiring a change in ventilator settings (mainly increased oxygen requirement, a positive culture of a specimen taken preferentially using a sterile sampling technique either using a bronchoscope or a blind lavage of the airways). A new infiltrate on a chest X ray supports the diagnosis of VAP. For the treatment of VAP, initial broad-spectrum antibiotics should be used followed by a specific antibiotic therapy with a narrow target once the bacterium is confirmed.

  19. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided for... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping...

  20. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping COAST... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided...

  1. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping COAST... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided...

  2. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping COAST... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided...

  3. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.20-5 Section 194.20-5 Shipping COAST... Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type. The... based upon the volume of the compartment. (1) Power ventilation units shall have nonsparking...

  4. 33 CFR 175.201 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventilation. 175.201 Section 175... SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Ventilation § 175.201 Ventilation. No person may operate a boat built after... unless it is equipped with an operable ventilation system that meets the requirements of 33 CFR...

  5. 33 CFR 175.201 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ventilation. 175.201 Section 175... SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Ventilation § 175.201 Ventilation. No person may operate a boat built after... unless it is equipped with an operable ventilation system that meets the requirements of 33 CFR...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.505 - Crawlspace ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crawlspace ventilation. 3285.505... ventilation. (a) A crawlspace with skirting must be provided with ventilation openings. The minimum net area of ventilation openings must not be less than one square foot (ft.2) for every 150 square feet...

  7. 33 CFR 175.201 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ventilation. 175.201 Section 175... SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Ventilation § 175.201 Ventilation. No person may operate a boat built after... unless it is equipped with an operable ventilation system that meets the requirements of 33 CFR...

  8. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping COAST... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided...

  9. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.20-5 Section 194.20-5 Shipping COAST... Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type. The... based upon the volume of the compartment. (1) Power ventilation units shall have nonsparking...

  10. 24 CFR 3285.505 - Crawlspace ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crawlspace ventilation. 3285.505... ventilation. (a) A crawlspace with skirting must be provided with ventilation openings. The minimum net area of ventilation openings must not be less than one square foot (ft.2) for every 150 square feet...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.505 - Crawlspace ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crawlspace ventilation. 3285.505... ventilation. (a) A crawlspace with skirting must be provided with ventilation openings. The minimum net area of ventilation openings must not be less than one square foot (ft.2) for every 150 square feet...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.505 - Crawlspace ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crawlspace ventilation. 3285.505... ventilation. (a) A crawlspace with skirting must be provided with ventilation openings. The minimum net area of ventilation openings must not be less than one square foot (ft.2) for every 150 square feet...

  13. 30 CFR 75.333 - Ventilation controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ventilation controls. 75.333 Section 75.333... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.333 Ventilation controls. (a) For... ventilation control devices constructed after November 15, 1992, shall be built and maintained— (1)...

  14. 30 CFR 75.333 - Ventilation controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventilation controls. 75.333 Section 75.333... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.333 Ventilation controls. (a) For... ventilation control devices constructed after November 15, 1992, shall be built and maintained— (1)...

  15. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  16. 30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ventilation plan. 57.8520 Section 57.8520... Underground Only § 57.8520 Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation system shall be set out by the... ventilation plan or revisions thereto shall be submitted to the District Manager for review and comments...

  17. 30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ventilation plan. 57.8520 Section 57.8520... Underground Only § 57.8520 Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation system shall be set out by the... ventilation plan or revisions thereto shall be submitted to the District Manager for review and comments...

  18. 46 CFR 111.105-21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 111.105-21 Section 111.105-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-21 Ventilation. A ventilation duct which ventilates a...

  19. 30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventilation plan. 57.8520 Section 57.8520... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8520 Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation system shall be set out by...

  20. 6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT VENTILATION EQUIPMENT IN SOUTH VENTILATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT VENTILATION EQUIPMENT IN SOUTH VENTILATION HOUSE. THIS AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM WAS INSTALLED BY PARKS-CRAMER COMPANY OF FITCHBURG, MASSACHUSETTS WHEN THE MILL WAS CONSTRUCTED IN 1923-24. ONE AIR WASHER AND FAN ROOM EXTERIOR IS VISIBLE ON THE RIGHT. THE DUCTS FROM BOTH FAN ROOMS (CURVED METAL STRUCTURES AT CENTER AND LEFT OF PHOTO) ARE CONNECTED TO A COMMON AIR SHAFT. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  1. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...

  2. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...

  3. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...

  4. New operational technology of intrauterine ventilation the fetus lungs by breathing gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A. L.; Nikityuk, D. B.; Urakova, N. A.; Kasankin, A. A.; Chernova, L. V.; Dementiev, V. B.

    2015-11-01

    New operational technology for elimination intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia of the fetus using endoscopic artificial ventilation lungs by respiratory gas was developed. For intrauterine ventilation of fetal lung it is proposed to enter into the uterus a special breathing mask and wear it on the head of the fetus using the original endoscopic technology. The breathing mask, developed by us is connected with external breathing apparatus with a hose. The device is called "intrauterine aqualung". Intrauterine aqualung includes a ventilator and breathing circuit with a special fold-out breathing mask that is put on inside the uterus on the head of fetus like a mesh hat. Controlled by ultrasound the technology of the introduction of the mask inside of the uterus through the natural opening in the cervix and technology of putting on the respiratory mask on the head of the fetus with its head previa were developed. The technology intrauterine ventilation of the fetus lungs by respiratory gas was developed.

  5. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  6. Basic concepts in mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Carbery, Catherine

    2008-03-01

    Mechanical ventilatory support is a major component of the clinical management of critically ill patients admitted into intensive care. Closely linked with the developments within critical care medicine, the use of ventilatory support has been increasing since the polio epidemics in the 1950s (Lassen 1953). Initially used to provide controlled mandatory ventilation, today with advances in technology, most mechanical ventilators are triggered by the patient, increasing the awareness of the complexity of patient/ventilator interaction (Tobin 1994). Though ventilator appearance and design may have changed quite significantly and the variety of options for support extensive, the basic concepts of mechanical ventilatory support of the critically ill patient remains unchanged. This paper aims to outline these concepts so as to gain a better understanding of mechanical ventilatory support.

  7. Continuous accelerated 7-days-a-week radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Long-term results of Phase III clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof . E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Golen, Maria; Tarnawski, Rafal; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Suwinski, Rafal; Sygula, Mariusz; Wygoda, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To update 5-year results of a previously published study on special 7-days-a-week fractionation continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in Stage T{sub 2-4}N{sub 0-1}M were randomized between two definitive radiation treatments: accelerated fractionation 7 days a week including weekends (CAIR) and conventional 5 days a week (control). Hence the overall treatment time was 2 weeks shorter in CAIR. Results: Five-year local tumor control was 75% in the CAIR group and 33% in the control arm (p < 0.00004). Tumor-cure benefit corresponded with significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with the incidence significantly higher in CAIR patients than in control (respectively, 94% vs. 53%). When 2.0-Gy fractions were used, radiation necrosis developed in 5 patients (22%) in the CAIR group as a consequential late effect (CLE), but when fraction size was reduced to 1.8 Gy no more CLE occurred. Actuarial 5-year morbidity-free survival rate was similar for both treatments. Conclusions: Selected head-and-neck cancer patients could be treated very effectively with 7-days-a-week radiation schedule with no compromise of total dose and with slight 10% reduction of fraction dose (2 Gy-1.8 Gy), which article gives 1 week reduction of overall treatment time compared with standard 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 47-49 days. Although this report is based on the relatively small group of patients, its results have encouraged us to use CAIR fractionation in a standard radiation treatment for moderately advanced head-and-neck cancer patients.

  8. Effect of variability in the 7-day baseline pain diary on the assay sensitivity of neuropathic pain randomized clinical trials: an ACTTION study.

    PubMed

    Farrar, John T; Troxel, Andrea B; Haynes, Kevin; Gilron, Ian; Kerns, Robert D; Katz, Nathaniel P; Rappaport, Bob A; Rowbotham, Michael C; Tierney, Ann M; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    The degree of variability in the patient baseline 7-day diary of pain ratings has been hypothesized to have a potential effect on the assay sensitivity of randomized clinical trials of pain therapies. To address this issue, we obtained clinical trial data from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership, and harmonized patient level data from 12 clinical trials (4 gabapentin and 8 pregabalin) in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Models were developed using exploratory logistic regression to examine the interaction between available baseline factors and treatment (placebo vs active medication) in predicting patient response to therapy (ie, >30% improvement). Our analysis demonstrated an increased likelihood of response in the placebo-treated group for patients with a higher standard deviation in the baseline 7-day diary without affecting the likelihood of a response in the active medication-treated group, confirming our hypothesis. In addition, there was a small but significant age-by-treatment interaction in the PHN model, and small weight-by-treatment interaction in the DPN model. The patient's sex, baseline pain level, and the study protocol had an effect only on the likelihood of response overall. Our results suggest the possibility that, at least in some disease processes, excluding patients with a highly variable baseline 7-day diary has the potential to improve the assay sensitivity of these analgesic clinical trials, although reductions of external validity must be considered when increasing the homogeneity of the investigated sample.

  9. Simple Autonomous Chaotic Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, Jessica; Sprott, J.

    2010-03-01

    Over the last several decades, numerous electronic circuits exhibiting chaos have been proposed. Non-autonomous circuits with as few as two components have been developed. However, the operation of such circuits relies on the non-ideal behavior of the devices used, and therefore the circuit equations can be quite complex. In this paper, we present two simple autonomous chaotic circuits using only opamps and linear passive components. The circuits each use one opamp as a comparator, to provide a signum nonlinearity. The chaotic behavior is robust, and independent of nonlinearities in the passive components. Moreover, the circuit equations are among the algebraically simplest chaotic systems yet constructed.

  10. Design and effectiveness of a membrane-pump-driven ventilator for mice.

    PubMed

    Winning, Johannes; Huwer, Hanno; Redjai, Jasmin; Naumann, Christian; Winning, Ilka; Bauer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    To perform mechanical ventilation of mice in the absence of highly expensive commercially available devices, we developed a membrane-pump-driven respirator and studied its practicability. The continuous airflow generated by the membrane pump was changed into an intermittent flow by using a multifunction timer. Tidal volume was adjusted by a rotary dimmer regulating the electric power onto the pump. The expiration air left the circuit through openings at the tube connection. Mice were ventilated with room air for 5 h with a tidal volume of approximately 200 muL. In group 1 (n = 6), ventilation was performed with a frequency of 110 min-1, in group 2 (n = 6) with a frequency of 150 min-1. Spontaneously breathing anesthetized mice (n = 6) served as controls. In addition we performed single-lung open-chest ventilation for 1 h in two animals. The parameters of arterial blood gas analyses were within the normal range except for moderate hyperventilation in group 2. Single-lung ventilation led to a significant decline (P < 0.05) of pO2 and SO2, whereas the pCO2 remained within the normal range. Respiratory rate, tidal volume and pressure limitation can be adjusted for optimal ventilation. In addition, the device provides a minimalized dead space and impedes potential alveolar damage caused by negative pressure generated by spontaneous inspiration during positive-pressure ventilation.

  11. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity.

  12. Ventilation Model and Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman

    2003-07-18

    This model and analysis report develops, validates, and implements a conceptual model for heat transfer in and around a ventilated emplacement drift. This conceptual model includes thermal radiation between the waste package and the drift wall, convection from the waste package and drift wall surfaces into the flowing air, and conduction in the surrounding host rock. These heat transfer processes are coupled and vary both temporally and spatially, so numerical and analytical methods are used to implement the mathematical equations which describe the conceptual model. These numerical and analytical methods predict the transient response of the system, at the drift scale, in terms of spatially varying temperatures and ventilation efficiencies. The ventilation efficiency describes the effectiveness of the ventilation process in removing radionuclide decay heat from the drift environment. An alternative conceptual model is also developed which evaluates the influence of water and water vapor mass transport on the ventilation efficiency. These effects are described using analytical methods which bound the contribution of latent heat to the system, quantify the effects of varying degrees of host rock saturation (and hence host rock thermal conductivity) on the ventilation efficiency, and evaluate the effects of vapor and enhanced vapor diffusion on the host rock thermal conductivity.

  13. Solenoid-Simulation Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical properties of solenoids imitated for tests of control circuits. Simulation circuit imitates voltage and current responses of two engine-controlling solenoids. Used in tests of programs of digital engine-control circuits, also provides electronic interface with circuits imitating electrical properties of pressure sensors and linear variable-differential transformers. Produces voltages, currents, delays, and discrete turnon and turnoff signals representing operation of solenoid in engine-control relay. Many such circuits used simulating overall engine circuitry.

  14. Spermatozoa isolated from cat testes retain their structural integrity as well as a developmental potential after refrigeration for up to 7 days.

    PubMed

    Buarpung, Sirirak; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Thongkittidilok, Chommanart; Comizzoli, Pierre; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of preservation media for isolated feline testicular spermatozoa as well as the concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on: (1) the membrane (sperm membrane integrity (SMI)) and DNA integrity of spermatozoa; and (2) the developmental potential of spermatozoa after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Isolated cat spermatozoa were stored in HEPES-M199 medium (HM) or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) at 4°C for up to 7 days. Results indicated that HM maintained a better SMI than DPBS throughout the storage periods (P > 0.05). When spermatozoa were stored in HM supplemented with BSA at different concentrations (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), SMI obtained from HM containing 8 and 16 mg/ml BSA was higher than with 4 mg/ml BSA (P 0.05). In summary, cat spermatozoa immediately isolated from testicular tissue can be stored as a suspension in basic buffered medium at 4°C for up to 7 days. BSA supplementation into the medium improves membrane integrity of the spermatozoa during cold storage. Testicular spermatozoa stored in HM containing 16 mg/ml BSA retained full in vitro developmental potential after ICSI, similar to that of fresh controls even though DNA integrity had slightly declined.

  15. Hidden circuits and argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinonen, Risto; Kesonen, Mikko H. P.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the relevance of DC circuits in everyday life and schools, they have been shown to cause numerous learning difficulties at various school levels. In the course of this article, we present a flexible method for teaching DC circuits at lower secondary level. The method is labelled as hidden circuits, and the essential idea underlying hidden circuits is in hiding the actual wiring of DC circuits, but to make their behaviour evident for pupils. Pupils are expected to find out the wiring of the circuit which should enhance their learning of DC circuits. We present two possible ways to utilise hidden circuits in a classroom. First, they can be used to test and enhance pupils’ conceptual understanding when pupils are expected to find out which one of the offered circuit diagram options corresponds to the actual circuit shown. This method aims to get pupils to evaluate the circuits holistically rather than locally, and as a part of that aim this method highlights any learning difficulties of pupils. Second, hidden circuits can be used to enhance pupils’ argumentation skills with the aid of argumentation sheet that illustrates the main elements of an argument. Based on the findings from our co-operating teachers and our own experiences, hidden circuits offer a flexible and motivating way to supplement teaching of DC circuits.

  16. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  17. The Johannesburg A-D circuit switch. A valve device for converting a co-axial Mapleson D into a co-axial Mapleson A system.

    PubMed

    Manicom, A W; Schoonbee, C G

    1979-12-01

    A simple valve device is described for a co-axial tubing anaesthetic system which enables selection of the circuit characteristics of either a modified Mapleson A system for spontaneous breathing or a modified Mapleson D system for controlled ventilation. Thus, the system allows an economical fresh gas flow to be used during either controlled or spontaneous ventilation. The mode of ventilation may be changed during anaesthesia without adjusting the patient tubing or the attachment of the system to the anaesthetic machine.

  18. NanoClusters Enhance Drug Delivery in Mechanical Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pornputtapitak, Warangkana

    The overall goal of this thesis was to develop a dry powder delivery system for patients on mechanical ventilation. The studies were divided into two parts: the formulation development and the device design. The pulmonary system is an attractive route for drug delivery since the lungs have a large accessible surface area for treatment or drug absorption. For ventilated patients, inhaled drugs have to successfully navigate ventilator tubing and an endotracheal tube. Agglomerates of drug nanoparticles (also known as 'NanoClusters') are fine dry powder aerosols that were hypothesized to enable drug delivery through ventilator circuits. This Thesis systematically investigated formulations of NanoClusters and their aerosol performance in a conventional inhaler and a device designed for use during mechanical ventilation. These engineered powders of budesonide (NC-Bud) were delivered via a MonodoseRTM inhaler or a novel device through commercial endotracheal tubes, and analyzed by cascade impaction. NC-Bud had a higher efficiency of aerosol delivery compared to micronized stock budesonide. The delivery efficiency was independent of ventilator parameters such as inspiration patterns, inspiration volumes, and inspiration flow rates. A novel device designed to fit directly to the ventilator and endotracheal tubing connections and the MonodoseRTM inhaler showed the same efficiency of drug delivery. The new device combined with NanoCluster formulation technology, therefore, allowed convenient and efficient drug delivery through endotracheal tubes. Furthermore, itraconazole (ITZ), a triazole antifungal agent, was formulated as a NanoCluster powder via milling (top-down process) or precipitation (bottom-up process) without using any excipients. ITZ NanoClusters prepared by wet milling showed better aerosol performance compared to micronized stock ITZ and ITZ NanoClusters prepared by precipitation. ITZ NanoClusters prepared by precipitation methods also showed an amorphous state

  19. Assisted mechanical ventilation: the future is now!

    PubMed

    Kacmarek, Robert M; Pirrone, Massimiliano; Berra, Lorenzo

    2015-07-29

    Assisted ventilation is a highly complex process that requires an intimate interaction between the ventilator and the patient. The complexity of this form of ventilation is frequently underappreciated by the bedside clinician. In assisted mechanical ventilation, regardless of the specific mode, the ventilator's gas delivery pattern and the patient's breathing pattern must match near perfectly or asynchrony between the patient and the ventilator occurs. Asynchrony can be categorized into four general types: flow asynchrony; trigger asynchrony; cycle asynchrony; and mode asynchrony. In an article recently published in BMC Anesthesiology, Hodane et al. have demonstrated reduced asynchrony during assisted ventilation with Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) as compared to pressure support ventilation (PSV). These findings add to the growing volume of data indicating that modes of ventilation that provide proportional assistance to ventilation - e.g., NAVA and Proportional Assist Ventilation (PAV) - markedly reduce asynchrony. As it becomes more accepted that the respiratory center of the patient in most circumstances is the most appropriate determinant of ventilatory pattern and as the negative outcome effects of patient-ventilator asynchrony become ever more recognized, we can expect NAVA and PAV to become the preferred modes of assisted ventilation!

  20. Precise control of end-tidal carbon dioxide levels using sequential rebreathing circuits.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, R B; Vesely, A E; Preiss, D; Prisman, E; Volgyesi, G; Azami, T; Iscoe, S; Fisher, J A; Sasano, H

    2005-12-01

    Anaesthesiologists have traditionally been consulted to help design breathing circuits to attain and maintain target end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO2). The methodology has recently been simplified by breathing circuits that sequentially deliver fresh gas (not containing carbon dioxide (CO2)) and reserve gas (containing CO2). Our aim was to determine the roles of fresh gas flow, reserve gas PCO2 and minute ventilation in the determination of P(ET)CO2. We first used a computer model of a non-rebreathing sequential breathing circuit to determine these relationships. We then tested our model by monitoring P(ET)CO2 in human volunteers who increased their minute ventilation from resting to five times resting levels. The optimal settings to maintain P(ET)CO2 independently of minute ventilation are 1) fresh gas flow equal to minute ventilation minus anatomical deadspace ventilation, and 2) reserve gas PCO2 equal to alveolar PCO2. We provide an equation to assist in identifying gas settings to attain a target PCO2. The ability to precisely attain and maintain a target PCO2 (isocapnia) using a sequential gas delivery circuit has multiple therapeutic and scientific applications.

  1. [Effect of mechanic stimulation of foot support zones during 7-day dry immersion on alterations of ocular saccades kinematics associated with immersion].

    PubMed

    Zobova, L N; Miller, N V; Badakva, A M

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the investigation was to evaluate how daily sessions of mechanic stimulation (MS) of foot support zones applied to mitigate the effects of lack of support loading on the postural muscles influence ocular saccades during prolonged support deprivation. According to the experimental protocol, before and immediately after 7-day dry immersion, 4 control and 4 MC human subjects (experimental group) implemented the test of rapid blanking light target appearing on the visual field periphery. Eye motions were detected using infrared images obtained at 200 Hz. Analysis of normalized and consolidated data showed that MC of foot support zones moderated significantly alterations in ocular saccade kinematics associated with support load deprivation confirmed by recruitment of support afferentation in sensory input to mechanisms of ocular saccade generation.

  2. Biodistribution of PLGA and PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles after repeat-dose oral delivery in F344 rats for 7 days

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sara M; Darensbourg, Caleb; Cross, Linda; Stout, Rhett; Coulon, Diana; Astete, Carlos E; Morgan, Timothy; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Aim To quantify in vivo the biodistribution of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles (PLGA/Chi NPs) and assess if the positive charge of chitosan significantly enhances nanoparticle absorption in the GI tract. Material & methods PLGA and PLGA/Chi NPs covalently linked to tetramethylrhodamine-5-isothiocyanate (TRITC) were orally administered to F344 rats for 7 days, and the biodistribution of fluorescent NPs was analyzed in different organs. Results The highest amount of particles (% total dose/g) was detected for both treatments in the spleen, followed by intestine and kidney, and then by liver, lung, heart and brain, with no significant difference between PLGA and PLGA/Chi NPs. Conclusion Only a small percentage of orally delivered NPs was detected in the analyzed organs. The positive charge conferred by chitosan was not sufficient to improve the absorption of the PLGA/Chi NPs over that of PLGA NPs. PMID:25491670

  3. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus confers complete clinical protection in 7 days and partial protection in 4 days: Use in emergency outbreak response.

    PubMed

    Golde, William T; Pacheco, Juan M; Duque, Hernando; Doel, Timothy; Penfold, Barry; Ferman, Geoffrey S; Gregg, Douglas R; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2005-12-30

    Recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) demonstrate that this highly contagious viral infection of cloven hoofed animals continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Debate about the most effective way to respond to outbreaks of FMDV in disease free countries continues to center on the use of vaccines. In this report, we present data showing that a commercially available, standard dose vaccine formulation can fully protect cattle against direct challenge with the virus in as little as 7 days with no carrier transmission to naïve animals. Cattle challenged 4 days after vaccination have reduced disease severity, no detectable virus in blood and little virus shedding from nasal secretions. These significant effects at 4 days post vaccination, confirmed in two separate trials, support the value of using currently available vaccines as a first line of defense against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks.

  4. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  5. Linear integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, T.

    This book is intended to be used as a textbook in a one-semester course at a variety of levels. Because of self-study features incorporated, it may also be used by practicing electronic engineers as a formal and thorough introduction to the subject. The distinction between linear and digital integrated circuits is discussed, taking into account digital and linear signal characteristics, linear and digital integrated circuit characteristics, the definitions for linear and digital circuits, applications of digital and linear integrated circuits, aspects of fabrication, packaging, and classification and numbering. Operational amplifiers are considered along with linear integrated circuit (LIC) power requirements and power supplies, voltage and current regulators, linear amplifiers, linear integrated circuit oscillators, wave-shaping circuits, active filters, DA and AD converters, demodulators, comparators, instrument amplifiers, current difference amplifiers, analog circuits and devices, and aspects of troubleshooting.

  6. Promotion of Cholera Awareness Among Households of Cholera Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7 Days (CHoBI7) Intervention.

    PubMed

    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Monira, Shirajum; Alam, Munirul; Shaly, Nusrat Jahan; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are highly susceptible to cholera infections for a 7-day period after the presentation of the index patient in the hospital. However, there is no standard of care to prevent cholera transmission in this high-risk population. Furthermore, there is limited information available on awareness of cholera transmission and prevention among cholera patients and their household contacts. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which delivers a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention to household contacts during the time they spend with the admitted cholera patient in the hospital and reinforces these messages through home visits. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 302 intervention cholera patient household members and 302 control cholera patient household members in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the CHoBI7 intervention in increasing awareness of cholera transmission and prevention, and the key times for handwashing with soap. We observed a significant increase in cholera knowledge score in the intervention arm compared with the control arm at both the 1-week follow-up {score coefficient = 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96, 2.71)} and 6 to 12-month follow-up period (score coefficient = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.05, 2.13]). This 1-week hospital- and home-based intervention led to a significant increase in knowledge of cholera transmission and prevention which was sustained 6 to 12 months post-intervention. These findings suggest that the CHoBI7 intervention presents a promising approach to increase cholera awareness among this high-risk population.

  7. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkies, Krystyna; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial of 7-Day Intensive and Standard Weekly Cognitive Therapy for PTSD and Emotion-Focused Supportive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Hackmann, Ann; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Liness, Sheena; Albert, Idit; Deale, Alicia; Stott, Richard; Clark, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are usually delivered once or twice weekly over several months. It is unclear whether they can be successfully delivered over a shorter period of time. This clinical trial had two goals, (1) to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of a 7-day intensive version of cognitive therapy for PTSD, and (2) to investigate whether cognitive therapy has specific treatment effects by comparing intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy with an equally credible alternative treatment. Method Patients with chronic PTSD (N=121) were randomly allocated to 7-day intensive or standard 3-month weekly cognitive therapy for PTSD, 3-month weekly emotion-focused supportive therapy, or a 14-week waitlist condition. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms and diagnosis as assessed by independent assessors and self-report. Secondary outcomes were disability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Measures were taken at initial assessment, 6 weeks and 14 weeks (post-treatment/wait). For groups receiving treatment, measures were also taken at 3 weeks, and follow-ups at 27 and 40 weeks after randomization. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Results At post-treatment/wait assessment, 73%, 77%, 43%, 7% of the intensive cognitive therapy, standard cognitive therapy, supportive therapy, and waitlist groups, respectively, had recovered from PTSD. All treatments were well tolerated and were superior to waitlist on all outcome measures, with the exception of no difference between supportive therapy and waitlist on quality of life. For primary outcomes, disability and general anxiety, intensive and standard cognitive therapy were superior to supportive therapy. Intensive cognitive therapy achieved faster symptom reduction and comparable overall outcomes to standard cognitive therapy. Conclusions Cognitive therapy for PTSD delivered intensively over little more than a week is as effective as cognitive therapy delivered

  9. Sense circuit arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohning, Oliver D. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A unique, two-node sense circuit is disclosed. The circuit includes a bridge comprised of resistance elements and a differential amplifier. The two-node circuit is suitably adapted to be arranged in an array comprised of a plurality of discrete bridge-amplifiers which can be selectively energized. The circuit is arranged so as to form a configuration with minimum power utilization and a reduced number of components and interconnections therebetween.

  10. The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES) package is a tool to help school designers assess the potential financial payback and indoor humidity control benefits of Energy Recovery Ventilation (ERV) systems for school applications.

  11. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation....

  12. Intraoperative mechanical ventilation for the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Kneyber, Martin C J

    2015-09-01

    Invasive mechanical ventilation is required when children undergo general anesthesia for any procedure. It is remarkable that one of the most practiced interventions such as pediatric mechanical ventilation is hardly supported by any scientific evidence but rather based on personal experience and data from adults, especially as ventilation itself is increasingly recognized as a harmful intervention that causes ventilator-induced lung injury. The use of low tidal volume and higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure became an integral part of lung-protective ventilation following the outcomes of clinical trials in critically ill adults. This approach has been readily adopted in pediatric ventilation. However, a clear association between tidal volume and mortality has not been ascertained in pediatrics. In fact, experimental studies have suggested that young children might be less susceptible to ventilator-induced lung injury. As such, no recommendations on optimal lung-protective ventilation strategy in children with or without lung injury can be made.

  13. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  14. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  15. Genealogy of Chua's Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Since its invention in 1983, Chua's circuit has become a reference circuit for studying bifurcations and chaos. This chapter plots the evolution of the circuit from the original simulations and experimental realization of a five-element topology with a three-segment nonlinear resistor to the latest three-element design comprising a capacitor, an inductor, and a memristor.

  16. Integrated Circuit Computer Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    information on this topic. The most important findings were the method used to identify combinational circuits ( Quine - McCluskey algorithm) and a clearly...defined set of limits on the problem of identifying sequential circuits. Since the Quine - McCluskey algorithm works only for combinational circuits, an

  17. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, Steven D.; Waters, Arlon J.; Shirley, David

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  18. FLOW-i ventilator performance in the presence of a circle system leak.

    PubMed

    Lucangelo, Umberto; Ajčević, Miloš; Accardo, Agostino; Borelli, Massimo; Peratoner, Alberto; Comuzzi, Lucia; Zin, Walter A

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the FLOW-i anaesthesia ventilator was developed based on the SERVO-i intensive care ventilator. The aim of this study was to test the FLOW-i's tidal volume delivery in the presence of a leak in the breathing circuit. We ventilated a test lung model in volume-, pressure-, and pressure-regulated volume-controlled modes (VC, PC, and PRVC, respectively) with a FLOW-i. First, the circuit remained airtight and the ventilator was tested with fresh gas flows of 6, 1, and 0.3 L/min in VC, PC, and PRVC modes and facing 4 combinations of different resistive and elastic loads. Second, a fixed leak in the breathing circuit was introduced and the measurements repeated. In the airtight system, FLOW-i maintained tidal volume (VT) and circuit pressure at approximately the set values, independently of respiratory mode, load, or fresh gas flow. In the leaking circuit, set VT = 500 mL, FLOW-i delivered higher VTs in PC (about 460 mL) than in VC and PRVC, where VTs were substantially less than 500 mL. Interestingly, VT did not differ appreciably from 6 to 0.3 L/min of fresh air flow among the 3 ventilatory modes. In the absence of leakage, peak inspiratory pressures were similar, while they were 35-45 % smaller in PRVC and VC than in PC mode in the presence of leaks. In conclusion, FLOW-i maintained VT (down to fresh gas flows of 0.3 L/min) to 90 % of its preset value in PC mode, which was 4-5 times greater than in VC or PRVC modes.

  19. 33 CFR 175.201 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation. 175.201 Section 175... SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Ventilation § 175.201 Ventilation. No person may operate a boat built after July 31, 1980, that has a gasoline engine for electrical generation, mechanical power, or...

  20. 9 CFR 91.21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ventilation. 91.21 Section 91.21... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.21 Ventilation. Each underdeck... mechanical ventilation that will furnish a complete change of air in each compartment every 2 minutes...

  1. 14 CFR 125.117 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation. 125.117 Section 125.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....117 Ventilation. Each passenger or crew compartment must be suitably ventilated. Carbon...

  2. 14 CFR 125.117 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ventilation. 125.117 Section 125.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....117 Ventilation. Each passenger or crew compartment must be suitably ventilated. Carbon...

  3. 9 CFR 91.21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ventilation. 91.21 Section 91.21... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.21 Ventilation. Each underdeck... mechanical ventilation that will furnish a complete change of air in each compartment every 2 minutes...

  4. 9 CFR 91.21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ventilation. 91.21 Section 91.21... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.21 Ventilation. Each underdeck... mechanical ventilation that will furnish a complete change of air in each compartment every 2 minutes...

  5. 14 CFR 125.117 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ventilation. 125.117 Section 125.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....117 Ventilation. Each passenger or crew compartment must be suitably ventilated. Carbon...

  6. 14 CFR 125.117 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ventilation. 125.117 Section 125.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....117 Ventilation. Each passenger or crew compartment must be suitably ventilated. Carbon...

  7. 14 CFR 29.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation. 29.831 Section 29.831 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Ventilation. (a) Each passenger and crew compartment must be ventilated, and each crew compartment must...

  8. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    been associated with a decrease in the incidence of ventilator - associated pneumonia and an improvement in mortality among inhalational injury patients... ventilator - associ - ated pneumonia , or mortality. Although intriguing, these clinical reports are lim- ited by small sample sizes, retrospective...of HFPV theory toward improving gas exchange. Furthermore, no discussion has been held regarding the possible risk of HFPV- associated ventilator

  9. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.10-25 Section 194.10-25 Shipping...

  10. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... as to provide the level and quality of ventilation specified and designed by the manufacturer for the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9... REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  11. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.10-25 Section 194.10-25 Shipping...

  12. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.10-25 Section 194.10-25 Shipping...

  13. 14 CFR 29.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ventilation. 29.831 Section 29.831... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.831 Ventilation. (a) Each passenger and crew compartment must be ventilated, and each crew compartment must...

  14. 14 CFR 29.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ventilation. 29.831 Section 29.831... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.831 Ventilation. (a) Each passenger and crew compartment must be ventilated, and each crew compartment must...

  15. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... as to provide the level and quality of ventilation specified and designed by the manufacturer for the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9... REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  16. 14 CFR 27.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.831 Ventilation. (a) The ventilating system for the pilot and passenger compartments must be designed to prevent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ventilation. 27.831 Section...

  17. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.10-25 Section 194.10-25 Shipping...

  18. 14 CFR 27.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.831 Ventilation. (a) The ventilating system for the pilot and passenger compartments must be designed to prevent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation. 27.831 Section...

  19. 14 CFR 29.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ventilation. 29.831 Section 29.831... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.831 Ventilation. (a) Each passenger and crew compartment must be ventilated, and each crew compartment must...

  20. 14 CFR 29.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation. 29.831 Section 29.831... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.831 Ventilation. (a) Each passenger and crew compartment must be ventilated, and each crew compartment must...

  1. 14 CFR 27.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.831 Ventilation. (a) The ventilating system for the pilot and passenger compartments must be designed to prevent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation. 27.831 Section...

  2. 14 CFR 27.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.831 Ventilation. (a) The ventilating system for the pilot and passenger compartments must be designed to prevent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ventilation. 27.831 Section...

  3. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Ventilation of air conditioning systems serving the chemical laboratory shall be designed so that air cannot... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST....15-5 Ventilation. (a) Operations, reactions or experiments which produce toxic, noxious or...

  4. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... as to provide the level and quality of ventilation specified and designed by the manufacturer for the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9... REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  5. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... as to provide the level and quality of ventilation specified and designed by the manufacturer for the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9... REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  6. 14 CFR 27.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.831 Ventilation. (a) The ventilating system for the pilot and passenger compartments must be designed to prevent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ventilation. 27.831 Section...

  7. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... as to provide the level and quality of ventilation specified and designed by the manufacturer for the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9... REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  8. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Ventilation of air conditioning systems serving the chemical laboratory shall be designed so that air cannot... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST....15-5 Ventilation. (a) Operations, reactions or experiments which produce toxic, noxious or...

  9. 33 CFR 175.201 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventilation. 175.201 Section 175.201 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Ventilation § 175.201 Ventilation. No person may operate a boat built...

  10. 14 CFR 125.117 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation. 125.117 Section 125.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....117 Ventilation. Each passenger or crew compartment must be suitably ventilated. Carbon...

  11. Mitochondrial ion circuits.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, David G

    2010-01-01

    Proton circuits across the inner mitochondrial membrane link the primary energy generators, namely the complexes of the electron transport chain, to multiple energy utilizing processes, including the ATP synthase, inherent proton leak pathways, metabolite transport and linked circuits of sodium and calcium. These mitochondrial circuits can be monitored in both isolated preparations and intact cells and, for the primary proton circuit techniques, exist to follow both the proton current and proton electrochemical potential components of the circuit in parallel experiments, providing a quantitative means of assessing mitochondrial function and, equally importantly, dysfunction.

  12. CIRCUITS FOR CURRENT MEASUREMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Cox, R.J.

    1958-11-01

    Circuits are presented for measurement of a logarithmic scale of current flowing in a high impedance. In one form of the invention the disclosed circuit is in combination with an ionization chamber to measure lonization current. The particular circuit arrangement lncludes a vacuum tube having at least one grid, an ionization chamber connected in series with a high voltage source and the grid of the vacuum tube, and a d-c amplifier feedback circuit. As the ionization chamber current passes between the grid and cathode of the tube, the feedback circuit acts to stabilize the anode current, and the feedback voltage is a measure of the logaritbm of the ionization current.

  13. The effect of changing ventilator settings on indices of ventilation inhomogeneity in small ventilated lungs

    PubMed Central

    Schmalisch, G; Proquitté, H; Roehr, CC; Wauer, RR

    2006-01-01

    Background In ventilated newborns the use of multiple breath washout (MBW) techniques for measuring both lung volume and ventilation inhomogeneity (VI) is hampered by the comparatively high dead space fraction. We studied how changes in ventilator settings affected VI indices in this particular population. Methods Using a computer simulation of a uniformly ventilated volume the interaction between VI indices (lung clearance index (LCI), moment ratios (M1/M0, M2/M0, AMDN1, AMDN2) of the washout curve) and tidal volume (VT), dead space (VD) and functional residual capacity (FRC) were calculated. The theoretical results were compared with measurements in 15 ventilated piglets (age <12 h, median weight 1135 g) by increasing the peak inspiratory pressure (PIP). FRC and VI indices were measured by MBW using 0.8% heptafluoropropane as tracer gas. Results The computer simulation showed that the sensitivity of most VI indices to changes in VD/VT and VT/FRC increase, in particular for VD/VT > 0.5. In piglets, the raised PIP caused a significant increase of VT from 15.4 ± 9.5 to 21.9 ± 14.7 (p = 0.003) and of the FRC from 31.6 ± 14.7 mL to 35.0 ± 15.9 mL (p = 0.006), whereas LCI (9.15 ± 0.75 to 8.55 ± 0.74, p = 0.019) and the moment ratios M1/M0, M2/M0 (p < 0.02) decreased significantly. No significant changes were seen in AMDN1 and AMDN2. The within-subject variability of the VI indices (coefficient of variation in brackets) was distinctly higher (LCI (9.8%), M1/M0 (6.6%), M2/M0 (14.6%), AMDN1 (9.1%), AMDN2 (16.3%)) compared to FRC measurements (5.6%). Computer simulations showed that significant changes in VI indices were exclusively caused by changes in VT and FRC and not by an improvement of the homogeneity of alveolar ventilation. Conclusion In small ventilated lungs with a high dead space fraction, indices of VI may be misinterpreted if the changes in ventilator settings are not considered. Computer simulations can help to prevent this misinterpretation. PMID

  14. Preventing Ventilation On Sailboard Skegs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Design effort undertaken to solve spinout problem plaguing high-performance sailboards. Proposed skeg section designed by use of computer model of pressure field and boundary layer. Prevents ventilation by maintaining attached boundary-layer flow throughout operating environment. Cavitation also avoided by preventing valleys in pressure distribution while skeg operated throughout its range.

  15. Fire Service Training. Ventilation. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers ventilation practices and principles. As background, subjects such as heat transmission and building construction are included. The three objectives of this part of the course are to enable the fireman to (1) rescue trapped victims, (2) locate fires as…

  16. Prognosis of mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, M A; Lee, K K; Browner, W S; Kent, D L; Matchar, D B; Kagawa, M K; Hallenbeck, J; Lee, D; Onishi, R; Charles, G

    1993-01-01

    In this Department of Veterans Affairs cooperative study, we examined predictors of in-hospital and 1-year mortality of 612 mechanically ventilated patients from 6 medical intensive care units in a retrospective cohort design. The outcome variable was vital status at hospital discharge and after 1 year. The results showed that 97% of patients were men, the mean age was 63 +/- 11 years (SD), and hospital mortality was 64% (95% confidence interval, 60% to 68%). Within the next year, an additional 38% of hospital survivors died, for a total 1-year mortality of 77% (95% confidence interval, 73% to 80%). Hospital and 1-year mortality, respectively, for patients older than 70 years was 76% and 94%, for those with serum albumin levels below 20 grams per liter it was 92% and 96%, for those with an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score greater than 35 it was 91% and 98%, and for patients who were being mechanically ventilated after cardiopulmonary resuscitation it was 86% and 90%. The mortality ratio (actual mortality versus APACHE II-predicted mortality) was 1.15. Conclusions are that patient age, APACHE II score, serum albumin levels, or the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation may identify a subset of mechanically ventilated veterans for whom mechanical ventilation provides little or no benefit. PMID:8128673

  17. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Nittby, Henrietta; Brun, Arne; Eberhardt, Jacob; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after

  18. Economics of mechanical ventilation and respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    For patients with acute respiratory failure, mechanical ventilation provides the most definitive life-sustaining therapy. Because of the intense resources required to care for these patients, its use accounts for considerable costs. There is great societal need to ensure that use of mechanical ventilation maximizes societal benefits while minimizing costs, and that mechanical ventilation, and ventilator support in general, is delivered in the most efficient and cost-effective manner. This review summarizes the economic aspects of mechanical ventilation and summarizes the existing literature that examines its economic impact cost effectiveness.

  19. Night ventilation control strategies in office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaojun; Yi, Lingli; Gao, Fusheng

    2009-10-15

    In moderate climates night ventilation is an effective and energy-efficient approach to improve the indoor thermal environment for office buildings during the summer months, especially for heavyweight construction. However, is night ventilation a suitable strategy for office buildings with lightweight construction located in cold climates? In order to answer this question, the whole energy-consumption analysis software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in typical office buildings with night mechanical ventilation in three cities in northern China. The summer outdoor climate data was analyzed, and three typical design days were chosen. The most important factors influencing night ventilation performance such as ventilation rates, ventilation duration, building mass and climatic conditions were evaluated. When night ventilation operation time is closer to active cooling time, the efficiency of night ventilation is higher. With night ventilation rate of 10 ach, the mean radiant temperature of the indoor surface decreased by up to 3.9 C. The longer the duration of operation, the more efficient the night ventilation strategy becomes. The control strategies for three locations are given in the paper. Based on the optimized strategies, the operation consumption and fees are calculated. The results show that more energy is saved in office buildings cooled by a night ventilation system in northern China than ones that do not employ this strategy. (author)

  20. Parallelizing quantum circuit synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, Olivia; Mosca, Michele

    2016-03-01

    Quantum circuit synthesis is the process in which an arbitrary unitary operation is decomposed into a sequence of gates from a universal set, typically one which a quantum computer can implement both efficiently and fault-tolerantly. As physical implementations of quantum computers improve, the need is growing for tools that can effectively synthesize components of the circuits and algorithms they will run. Existing algorithms for exact, multi-qubit circuit synthesis scale exponentially in the number of qubits and circuit depth, leaving synthesis intractable for circuits on more than a handful of qubits. Even modest improvements in circuit synthesis procedures may lead to significant advances, pushing forward the boundaries of not only the size of solvable circuit synthesis problems, but also in what can be realized physically as a result of having more efficient circuits. We present a method for quantum circuit synthesis using deterministic walks. Also termed pseudorandom walks, these are walks in which once a starting point is chosen, its path is completely determined. We apply our method to construct a parallel framework for circuit synthesis, and implement one such version performing optimal T-count synthesis over the Clifford+T gate set. We use our software to present examples where parallelization offers a significant speedup on the runtime, as well as directly confirm that the 4-qubit 1-bit full adder has optimal T-count 7 and T-depth 3.

  1. Fosfomycin in a single dose versus a 7-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Estebanez, A; Pascual, R; Gil, V; Ortiz, F; Santibáñez, M; Pérez Barba, C

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the efficacy of a single dose of 3 g of fosfomycin to that of a 7-day regimen of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A randomised, prospective, interventional, analytical, longitudinal study was undertaken, in which the efficacy of two antibiotic regimens (one short and the other long) in the treatment of pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria is compared. One hundred and nine patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 56 were treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate and 53 with fosfomycin. The two groups were similar in terms of co-morbidity, treatments received during pregnancy, obstetric, gynaecological and surgical history and laboratory data. The efficacy of the two regimens was similar and the eradication rate was over 80% in both groups (P = 0.720) (relative risk [RR] 1.195, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.451-3.165). The number of reinfections was greater in the amoxicillin-clavulanate group (P = 0.045). The secondary effects were lower in the fosfomycin group (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in the number of persistences (P = 0.39), development of symptomatic urinary infections (P = 0.319) or recurrences (P = 0.96). Treatment with a single dose of fosfomycin is as effective as the standard course of treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate and may be preferable due to its simpler administration and the smaller number of reinfections.

  2. [Effect of water-salt dietary supplements on tolerance to head-pelvis acceleration after 7 days of "dry" immersion and during normal motor activity].

    PubMed

    Kokova, N I

    1984-01-01

    The effect of water-salt supplements as an agent increasing human tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration with a slow onset was examined. The test subjects were rotated in a 7.25 m arm centrifuge after 7-day dry immersion or normal motor activity. The water-salt supplements were given at a dose of 0.15 g NaCl and 18 ml water per kg body weight (with the total daily dose consumed in four fractions). During immersion fluid retention was significantly higher than during normal activity (818 +/- 139.7 ml versus 478 +/- 69 ml). Water-salt supplements consumed produced a positive effect on tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration. During centrifugation after water-salt supplementation the physiological responses were less strained. Water-salt supplements taken on the last immersion day increased the tolerance level as compared to the control. The amount of the fluid retained in the body was found to be inversely proportional to the tolerance level. It is concluded that water-salt supplements may be recommended to increase tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration in aerospace medicine.

  3. Summary of human responses to ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

    2004-06-01

    The effects of ventilation on indoor air quality and health is a complex issue. It is known that ventilation is necessary to remove indoor generated pollutants from indoor air or dilute their concentration to acceptable levels. But, as the limit values of all pollutants are not known, the exact determination of required ventilation rates based on pollutant concentrations and associated risks is seldom possible. The selection of ventilation rates has to be based also on epidemiological research (e.g. Seppanen et al., 1999), laboratory and field experiments (e.g. CEN 1996, Wargocki et al., 2002a) and experience (e.g. ECA 2003). Ventilation may also have harmful effects on indoor air quality and climate if not properly designed, installed, maintained and operated as summarized by Seppdnen (2003). Ventilation may bring indoors harmful substances that deteriorate the indoor environment. Ventilation also affects air and moisture flow through the building envelope and may lead to moisture problems that deteriorate the structures of the building. Ventilation changes the pressure differences over the structures of building and may cause or prevent the infiltration of pollutants from structures or adjacent spaces. Ventilation is also in many cases used to control the thermal environment or humidity in buildings. Ventilation can be implemented with various methods which may also affect health (e.g. Seppdnen and Fisk, 2002, Wargocki et al., 2002a). In non residential buildings and hot climates, ventilation is often integrated with air-conditioning which makes the operation of ventilation system more complex. As ventilation is used for many purposes its health effects are also various and complex. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on positive and negative effects of ventilation on health and other human responses. The focus of the paper is on office-type working environment and residential buildings. In the industrial premises the problems of air quality are usually

  4. Remote reset circuit

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, Russell E.

    1987-01-01

    A remote reset circuit acts as a stand-alone monitor and controller by clocking in each character sent by a terminal to a computer and comparing it to a given reference character. When a match occurs, the remote reset circuit activates the system's hardware reset line. The remote reset circuit is hardware based centered around monostable multivibrators and is unaffected by system crashes, partial serial transmissions, or power supply transients.

  5. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    DOEpatents

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  6. Pulsed Dose Delivery of Oxygen in Mechanically Ventilated Pigs with Acute Lung Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    atropine (0.54 mg/kg). They were then intubated with 7.5 French endotracheal tubes. A surgical plane of anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane...patients often require intubation and mechanical ventilation with supplemental oxygen and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). To date, the...circuit, directly at the endotracheal tube. We used the SeQual Eclipse II, which was selected for its oxygen generating capabilities, as it is capable

  7. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lau, Arthur C W; So, H M; Tang, S L; Yeung, Alwin; Lam, S M; Yan, W W

    2015-02-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the commonest, yet mostly preventable, infection in mechanically ventilated patients. Successful control of ventilator-associated pneumonia can save hospitalisation cost, and is possible by using a multidisciplinary clinical and administrative approach. The ventilator-associated pneumonia rate should be expressed as the number of ventilator-associated pneumonia days per 1000 ventilator days to take into account the device-utilisation duration for meaningful comparison. Various strategies address the issue, including general infection control measures, body positioning, intubation and mechanical ventilation, oral and gastro-intestinal tract, endotracheal tube, airway pressure, cuff pressure, selective digestive and/or oropharyngeal decontamination, and probiotic or early antibiotic treatment, as well as overall administration at a policy level. The rationale and controversy of these approaches are discussed in this article. The authors suggest that all units treating mechanically ventilated patients should have a ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention protocol in place, and ventilator-associated pneumonia should be seriously considered as a key performance indicator in local intensive care units.

  8. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  9. Comparison of follicular dynamics and hormone concentrations between the 7-day and 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR program in primiparous beef cows.

    PubMed

    Bridges, G A; Mussard, M L; Helser, L A; Day, M L

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to compare follicular dynamics, preovulatory estradiol concentrations, and progesterone concentrations between the 7-day (7CO, n = 15) and 5-day (5CO, n = 13) CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) program in primiparous suckled beef cows. On Day -7 (7CO) or Day -5 (5CO), GnRH (100 μg) was administered (GnRH-1) and a CIDR was inserted. On Day 0, hour 0, CIDR was removed and cows received PGF2α (25 mg) at hours 0 and 12. Animals were administered GnRH (100 μg, GnRH-2) at either hour 60 (7CO) or 72 (5CO). Follicular growth and ovulation to both GnRH-1 and GnRH-2 were evaluated using ultrasonography. Concentrations of estradiol were determined in blood samples taken at hours 0, 36, 60, and 72 (5CO). Blood samples were collected on Days 5, 8, and 14 for progesterone quantification. Ovulation rate to GnRH-1 did not differ between the 7CO (11/15) and 5CO (8/13) treatments, and for all dependent variables the statistical model included treatment, ovulation to GnRH-1, and their interaction. Diameter (mm) of the ovulatory follicle did not differ between treatments (13.4 ± 0.3) but was greater (P < 0.05) in cows that responded to GnRH-1 (13.8 ± 0.3) than those did not (12.6 ± 0.6). Maximum estradiol concentrations tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in the 5CO (7.3 ± 0.5 pg/mL) than 7CO (6.1 ± 0.7 pg/mL) treatment and tended to be greater (P = 0.08) in cows that responded to GnRH-1 (7.1 ± 0.5 pg/mL) than those did not (5.6 ± 0.9 pg/mL). Three cows in the 7CO treatment failed to develop a CL after GnRH-2. There was a treatment by response to GnRH-1 interaction (P < 0.05) for progesterone concentrations. In cows that did not respond to GnRH-1 in the 7CO treatment, progesterone concentrations were less (P < 0.05) than in those that responded to GnRH-1 in the 7CO treatment and tended (P = 0.09) to be less than in cows in the 5CO treatment that did not respond to GnRH-1. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that failure to

  10. A phase I trial of the selective oral cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor seliciclib (CYC202; R-Roscovitine), administered twice daily for 7 days every 21 days

    PubMed Central

    Benson, C; White, J; Bono, J De; O'Donnell, A; Raynaud, F; Cruickshank, C; McGrath, H; Walton, M; Workman, P; Kaye, S; Cassidy, J; Gianella-Borradori, A; Judson, I; Twelves, C

    2006-01-01

    Seliciclib (CYC202; R-roscovitine) is the first selective, orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 1, 2, 7 and 9 to enter clinical trial. Preclinical studies showed antitumour activity in a broad range of human tumour xenografts. A phase I trial was performed with a 7-day b.i.d. p.o. schedule. Twenty-one patients (median age 62 years, range: 39–73 years) were treated with doses of 100, 200 and 800 b.i.d. Dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 800 mg b.i.d.; grade 3 fatigue, grade 3 skin rash, grade 3 hyponatraemia and grade 4 hypokalaemia. Other toxicities included reversible raised creatinine (grade 2), reversible grade 3 abnormal liver function and grade 2 emesis. An 800 mg portion was investigated further in 12 patients, three of whom had MAG3 renograms. One patient with a rapid increase in creatinine on day 3 had a reversible fall in renal perfusion, with full recovery by day 14, and no changes suggestive of renal tubular damage. Further dose escalation was precluded by hypokalaemia. Seliciclib reached peak plasma concentrations between 1 and 4 h and elimination half-life was 2–5 h. Inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation was not demonstrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. No objective tumour responses were noted, but disease stabilisation was recorded in eight patients; this lasted for a total of six courses (18 weeks) in a patient with ovarian cancer. PMID:17179992

  11. Trichilia monadelpha bark extracts inhibit carrageenan-induced foot-oedema in the 7-day old chick and the oedema associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ainooson, G K; Owusu, G; Woode, E; Ansah, C; Annan, K

    2012-01-01

    Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Meliaceae) bark extract is used in African traditional medicine for the management of various disease conditions including inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. monadelpha using the 7-day old chick-carrageenan footpad oedema (acute inflammation) and the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (chronic inflammation). TWE and TPEE significantly inhibited the chick-carrageenan footpad oedema with maximal inhibitions of 57.79±3.92 and 63.83±12 respectively, but TAE did not. The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of 64.92±2.03 and 71.85±15.34 respectively. Furthermore, all the extracts and the reference anti-inflammatory agents (diclofenac, dexamethasone, methotrexate) inhibited the inflammatory oedema associated with adjuvant arthritis with maximal inhibitions of 64.41±5.56, 57.04±8.57, 62.18±2.56%, for TWE, TAE and TPEE respectively and 80.28±5.79, 85.75±2.96, 74.68±3.03% for diclofenac, dexamethasone and methotrexate respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant bark confirmed the presence of a large array of plant constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids, all of which may be potential sources of phyto-antiinflammatory agents. In conclusion, our work suggests that T. monadelpha is a potential source of antiinflammatory agents.

  12. The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): reliability and validity against doubly labeled water and 7-day activity diaries.

    PubMed

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Neilson, Heather K; Kopciuk, Karen A; Khandwala, Farah; Liu, Andrew; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Bryant, Heather E; Lau, David C W; Robson, Paula J

    2014-08-15

    We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009-2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ρs of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE.

  13. Concentrations of dapivirine in the rhesus macaque and rabbit following once daily intravaginal administration of a gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Jeremy P; Thake, Daryl C; Lewis, Mark G; Ferkany, John W; Romano, Joseph W; Mitchnick, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    Dapivirine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being developed as a topical microbicide for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The distribution of radioactivity and drug in plasma and in vaginal, cervical, and draining lymph node tissues was investigated after daily application of a vaginal gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine to rhesus macaques. This was preceded by a preliminary study with rabbits. Following the intravaginal administration of [14C]dapivirine ( approximately 0.1 mg/ml [15 microCi/ml]) to rabbits (0.5 ml/day) and macaques (1 ml/day) for 7 days, the dapivirine levels associated with vaginal and cervical tissue samples 1 h after the final dose were high (quantities of microg/g of tissue) and remained detectable at 24 h (mean, >or=2.5 ng/g in rabbits) and 48 h (mean, >80 ng/g in macaques). Radioactivity levels were low in the plasma and very low or unquantifiable in the draining lymph nodes of the macaques. Microautoradiography identified drug-related material (DRM) on the surfaces of the vaginal and cervical tissues of the rabbits and macaques. Although DRM was primarily associated with the outermost layer of shedding cells in rabbits, two animals showed some evidence of small quantities in the mucosal epithelium of the cervix. In macaques, DRM was seen within the keratinized layer of the vaginal epithelium and and was found to extend into the superficial cellular layers, and in at least one animal it appeared to be present in the deepest (germinal) layer of the epithelium and in submucosal tissues. The persistence of biologically significant concentrations of dapivirine in vaginal and cervical tissues for >24 h supports the development of dapivirine as a microbicide for once daily application.

  14. Airway Microbial Community Turnover Differs by BPD Severity in Ventilated Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Brandie D.; Sontag, Marci K.; Harris, J. Kirk; Miller, Joshua I.; Morrow, Lindsey; Robertson, Charles E.; Stephens, Mark; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Abman, Steven H.; Mourani, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth exposes the developing lung to an environment with direct exposure to bacteria, often facilitated by endotracheal intubation. Despite evidence linking bacterial infections to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), systematic studies of airway microbiota are limited. The objective was to identify specific patterns of the early respiratory tract microbiome from tracheal aspirates of mechanically ventilated preterm infants that are associated with the development and severity of BPD. Infants with gestational age ≤34 weeks, and birth weight 500–1250g were prospectively enrolled. Mechanically ventilated infants had tracheal aspirate samples collected at enrollment, 7, 14, and 21 days of age. BPD was determined by modified NIH criteria with oxygen reduction tests; infants without BPD were excluded due to low numbers. Aspirates were processed for bacterial identification by 16S rRNA sequencing, and bacterial load by qPCR. Cross-sectional analysis was performed using 7 day samples and longitudinal analysis was performed from subjects with at least 2 aspirates. Microbiome analysis was performed on tracheal aspirates from 152 infants (51, 49, and 52 with mild, moderate, and severe BPD, respectively). Seventy-nine of the infants were included in the cross-sectional analysis and 94 in the longitudinal. Shannon Diversity, bacterial load, and relative abundance of individual taxa were not strongly associated with BPD status. Longitudinal analysis revealed that preterm infants who eventually developed severe BPD exhibited greater bacterial community turnover with age, acquired less Staphylococcus in the first days after birth, and had higher initial relative abundance of Ureaplasma. In conclusion, longitudinal changes in the airway microbial communities of mechanically ventilated preterm infants may be associated with BPD severity, whereas cross-sectional analysis of airway ecology at 7 days of age did not reveal an association with BPD severity

  15. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark Raymond

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  16. Catheter transducer and circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. R.; Kerwin, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    Simple integrated circuit located at transducer, enables use of single coaxial cable for both input and output connections. Circuit is sensitive to changes in RC time constant, has much improved sensitivity characteristics, and is unaffected by changes in cable capacitance effects.

  17. A Virtual Circuits Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Physics Education Technology (PhET) website offers free, high-quality simulations of many physics experiments that can be used in the classroom. The Circuit Construction Kit, for example, allows students to safely and constructively play with circuit components while learning the mathematics behind many circuit…

  18. Understanding Simple Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mant, Jenny; Wilson, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Many envisage electricity as the "power" to "do things." They know that electricity needs "circuits" and that something is "flowing" in the circuits, but they are not sure what or why. Words such as "current" and "voltage" are part of electricity but their meaning, and the difference between them, is not always clear. In this article, the authors…

  19. Liquid detection circuit

    DOEpatents

    Regan, Thomas O.

    1987-01-01

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  20. Completing a Simple Circuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Timothy F.; Adams, Jeffrey P.; Brown, Thomas R.

    2000-01-01

    Students have problems successfully arranging an electric circuit to make the bulb produce light. Investigates the percentage of students able to complete a circuit with a given apparatus, and the effects of prior experience on student success. Recommends hands-on activities at the elementary and secondary school levels. (Contains 14 references.)…

  1. Thermocouple-Signal-Conditioning Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    Thermocouple-signal-conditioning circuit acting in conjunction with thermocouple, exhibits electrical behavior of voltage in series with resistance. Combination part of input bridge circuit of controller. Circuit configured for either of two specific applications by selection of alternative resistances and supply voltages. Includes alarm circuit detecting open circuit in thermocouple and provides off-scale output to signal malfunctions.

  2. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control doors...-establish normal ventilation to working places....

  3. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control doors...-establish normal ventilation to working places....

  4. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control doors...-establish normal ventilation to working places....

  5. 30 CFR 75.330 - Face ventilation control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Face ventilation control devices. 75.330... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.330 Face ventilation control devices. (a) Brattice cloth, ventilation tubing and other face ventilation control devices...

  6. 30 CFR 75.330 - Face ventilation control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Face ventilation control devices. 75.330... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.330 Face ventilation control devices. (a) Brattice cloth, ventilation tubing and other face ventilation control devices...

  7. 30 CFR 75.330 - Face ventilation control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Face ventilation control devices. 75.330... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.330 Face ventilation control devices. (a) Brattice cloth, ventilation tubing and other face ventilation control devices...

  8. 30 CFR 75.330 - Face ventilation control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Face ventilation control devices. 75.330... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.330 Face ventilation control devices. (a) Brattice cloth, ventilation tubing and other face ventilation control devices...

  9. 30 CFR 75.330 - Face ventilation control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Face ventilation control devices. 75.330... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.330 Face ventilation control devices. (a) Brattice cloth, ventilation tubing and other face ventilation control devices...

  10. [Home mechanical ventilation: Invasive and noninvasive ventilation therapy for chronic respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Huttmann, S E; Storre, J H; Windisch, W

    2015-06-01

    Home mechanical ventilation represents a valuable therapeutic option to improve alveolar ventilation in patients with chronic respiratory failure. For this purpose both invasive ventilation via tracheostomy and noninvasive ventilation via facemasks are available. The primary goal of home mechanical ventilation is a reduction of symptoms, improvement of quality of life and in many cases reduction of mortality. Elective establishment of home mechanical ventilation is typically provided for noninvasive ventilation in respect to clinical symptoms and partial pressure of carbon dioxide depending on the underlying disease. However, invasive mechanical ventilation is increasingly being used to continue ventilatory support in polymorbid patients following unsuccessful weaning. Recommendations and guidelines have been published by the German Respiratory Society (DGP).

  11. Single-lung ventilation in pediatric anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Dinesh K

    2005-12-01

    Single-lung ventilation is requested for an increasing spectrum of surgical procedures in infants and children. A clear understanding of the physiology of single-lung ventilation, the techniques of lung separation, and the technical skill necessary to apply these techniques are essential for an anesthesiologist practicing thoracic anesthesia. This article focuses on various devices available for single-lung ventilation in the pediatric age group, the relevant respiratory physiology, and the strategies that optimize oxygenation during one-lung anesthesia.

  12. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation and Low Tidal Volume Ventilation in Burns: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    incidence of ventilator - associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients with inha- lation injury when supported with HFPV compared with conventional modes of...no. (%) 0 (0) 4 (13) .04 HFPV, high-frequency percussive ventilation ; LTV, low-tidal volume ventilation ; VAP, ventila- tor- associated pneumonia ...LTV, low-tidal volume ventilation ; VAP, ventila- tor- associated pneumonia ; NS, nonsignificant. aMean SD. 1973Crit Care Med 2010 Vol. 38, No. 10

  13. [Principles and function of mechanical ventilation: classification and modes of ventilators].

    PubMed

    Kelbel, C; Huntemann, M; Lorenz, J

    2006-04-01

    A spectrum of diseases is associated with the necessity for partial or total support of pulmonary ventilation. The insight into the function of ventilators and their modes reduces the spectrum of ventilatory support to a few basic principles. The knowledge enables the pulmonary intensivist to adapt mechanical ventilation to the individual patient's needs. This overview describes the technical aspects of mechanical ventilation and summarizes the variety of specific modes implied.

  14. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, David M.

    1996-01-01

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit.

  15. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, D.M.

    1996-11-05

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit. 5 figs.

  16. Lung-protective ventilation in neonatology.

    PubMed

    van Kaam, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is considered an important risk factor in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and is primarily caused by overdistension (volutrauma) and repetitive opening and collapse (atelectrauma) of terminal lung units. Lung-protective ventilation should therefore aim to reduce tidal volumes, and recruit and stabilize atelectatic lung units (open lung ventilation strategy). This review will summarize the available evidence on lung-protective ventilation in neonatology, discussing both high-frequency ventilation (HFV) and positive pressure ventilation (PPV). It shows that HFV does not appear to have a clear benefit over PPV, although most studies failed to apply a true open lung ventilation strategy during HFV. The evidence on the optimal tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and the role for lung recruitment during lung-protective PPV is extremely limited. Volume-targeted ventilation seems to be a promising mode in terms of lung protection, but more studies are needed. Due to the lack of convincing evidence, lung-protective ventilation and modes seem to be implemented in daily clinical practice at a slow pace.

  17. Calculation of the fresh gas flow requirements of the Hafnia A and D anaesthetic circuits.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, A

    1980-01-01

    Semi-closed anaesthetic circuits are converted into the corresponding Hafnia circuits by replacing the expiratory valve by a side tube connected to an ejector flowmeter. Theoretical analysis of the Hafnia A and D circuits revealed by the fresh gas flow requirements are dependent on the inspiration/expiration time ratio. Using a ratio of 1/1.2 and a sine-wave respiratory waveform, the minimal fresh gas requirements were calculated as 2.1 (Hafnia A) and 2.5 (Hafnia D) times the respiratory minute volume. The fresh gas requirements are identical with spontaneous or controlled ventilation.

  18. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Azevedo, Bruna Fernades; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  19. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... not apply to closed ventilation systems for motors or generators, diffuser fans for refrigerated... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  20. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not apply to closed ventilation systems for motors or generators, diffuser fans for refrigerated... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  1. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  2. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  3. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  4. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Dahlon D.; Thelen, Jr., Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

  5. [Evaluation of patient-ventilator synchrony of three new types of ventilators with pressure sunnort ventilation mode].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Wu, Hao; Cao, Desen

    2014-08-01

    Pressure-support ventilation (PSV) is a form of important ventilation mode. Patient-ventilator synchrony of pressure support ventilation can be divided into inspiration-triggered and expiration-triggered ones. Whether the ventilator can track the patient's inspiration and expiration very well or not is an important evaluating item of the performance of the ventilator. The ventilator should response to the patient's inspiration effort on time and deliver the air flow to the patient under various conditions, such as different patient's lung types and inspiration effort, etc. Similarly, the ventilator should be able to response to the patient's expiration action, and to decrease the patient lung's internal pressure rapidly. Using the Active Servo Lung (ASL5000) respiratory simulation system, we evaluated the spontaneous breathing of PSV mode on E5, Servo i and Evital XL. The following parameters, the delay time before flow to the patient starts once the trigger variable signaling the start of inspiration, the lowest inspiratory airway pressure generated prior to the initiation of PSV, etc. were measured.

  6. 46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system must meet the following: (a) A ventilation system exhaust duct must discharge no less than 10 m... ventilation duct, a ventilation duct must not pass through a machinery room, an accommodation space,...

  7. DIFFERENTIAL FAULT SENSING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, J.H.

    1961-09-01

    A differential fault sensing circuit is designed for detecting arcing in high-voltage vacuum tubes arranged in parallel. A circuit is provided which senses differences in voltages appearing between corresponding elements likely to fault. Sensitivity of the circuit is adjusted to some level above which arcing will cause detectable differences in voltage. For particular corresponding elements, a group of pulse transformers are connected in parallel with diodes connected across the secondaries thereof so that only voltage excursions are transmitted to a thyratron which is biased to the sensitivity level mentioned.

  8. Gallium Arsenide Domino Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Long; Long, Stephen I.

    1990-01-01

    Advantages include reduced power and high speed. Experimental gallium arsenide field-effect-transistor (FET) domino circuit replicated in large numbers for use in dynamic-logic systems. Name of circuit denotes mode of operation, which logic signals propagate from each stage to next when successive stages operated at slightly staggered clock cycles, in manner reminiscent of dominoes falling in a row. Building block of domino circuit includes input, inverter, and level-shifting substages. Combinational logic executed in input substage. During low half of clock cycle, result of logic operation transmitted to following stage.

  9. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  10. Alternative approaches to ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention.

    PubMed

    Berra, L; Sampson, J; Fumagalli, J; Panigada, M; Kolobow, T

    2011-03-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which develops in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, is the most common nosocomial infection in patients with acute respiratory failure. The major mechanism of lower respiratory tract colonization is aspiration of bacteria-colonized secretions from the oropharynx into the lower airways. The hydrostatic pressure of the secretions that collect in the subglottic space, which is the area above the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff, or aerosolization of bacteria from the secretions collected within the respiratory tubing may facilitate the leakage into the lower airways. Ideally, the elimination of the mechanisms responsible for aspiration would decrease the incidence of VAP. Several preventive measures have been tested in clinical trials with little success.Here we present the results of our efforts to develop novel approaches for the prevention of VAP. Specifically, we found that keeping ventilated patients in a lateral position, which eliminates gravitational forces, is feasible and possibly advantageous. Additionally, several novel medical devices have been recently developed to prevent bacterial biofilm formation from the ETT and breathing tubing. These devices include coated ETTs, mucus shavers and mucus slurpers. Prevention of ETT bacterial colonization showed decreased bacterial colonization of the respiratory circuit and of the lower respiratory tract in laboratory studies and clinical trials. Future large studies should be designed to test the hypothesis that VAP can be prevented with these novel strategies. While there is a current focus on the use of respiratory devices to prevent biofilm formation and microaspiration, it is important to remember that lower respiratory tract colonization is multifactorial. Prevention of VAP cannot be achieved solely by eliminating bacterial biofilm on respiratory devices, and more comprehensive care of the intubated patient needs to be implemented.

  11. History of Mechanical Ventilation. From Vesalius to Ventilator-induced Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Arthur S

    2015-05-15

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving therapy that catalyzed the development of modern intensive care units. The origins of modern mechanical ventilation can be traced back about five centuries to the seminal work of Andreas Vesalius. This article is a short history of mechanical ventilation, tracing its origins over the centuries to the present day. One of the great advances in ventilatory support over the past few decades has been the development of lung-protective ventilatory strategies, based on our understanding of the iatrogenic consequences of mechanical ventilation such as ventilator-induced lung injury. These strategies have markedly improved clinical outcomes in patients with respiratory failure.

  12. Comparison of jet and ultrasonic nebulizer pulmonary aerosol deposition during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, C J; O'Doherty, M J; Page, C J; Thomas, S H; Nunan, T O; Treacher, D F

    1997-04-01

    Increased delivery of aerosol to a model lung (attached to a mechanical ventilator) has been demonstrated with an ultrasonic nebulizer as compared to a jet nebulizer. This study examined whether the increased aerosol deposition with an ultrasonic nebulizer could also be demonstrated in vivo. Seven patients (6 male and 1 female) were studied during mechanical ventilalion (Siemens Servo 900C, Middlesex, UK) after open heart surgery. Two studies were performed in each patient. In the first study, aerosol was delivered via a Siemens Servo 945 nebulizer system (high setting) driving a System 22 Acorn jet nebulizer (Medic-Aid, Sussex, UK) containing 3 mL (99m)technetium-labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) (50 microg; activity 74 MBq). In the second study, a DP100 ultrasonic nebulizer (DP Medical, Meylan, France) containing 12 mL 99mTc-HSA (50 microg; activity 185 MBq) was used. Pulmonary deposition was quantified using a gamma camera. The humidification of the circuit and the ventilator settings were kept constant according to the patient's clinical requirements. The total lung aerosol deposition (mean+/-SD), as a percentage of initial nebulizer activity, was greater using the ultrasonic nebulizer than using the jet nebulizer (53+/-1.4 vs 2.3+/-0.9%; p<0.002). The ultrasonic nebulizer was also associated with a reduction in the time required to complete nebulization (9 vs 21 min, respectively) (p<0.0001). Use of the DP100 ultrasonic nebulizer more than doubled lung deposition compared with the System 22 jet nebulizers in mechanically-ventilated patients. Their efficiency, speed of drug delivery, and compatibility with mechanical ventilator circuits make ultrasonic nebulizers potentially attractive for use during mechanical ventilation.

  13. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  14. Dynamic Behaviour of Ventilated Hydrofoils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Morten; Arndt, Roger; Wosnik, Martin

    2006-11-01

    In certain types of pumping applications oscillations are induced by operation with liquids containing a free gas load. In order to understand the physics of this process, a series of tests with a ventilated A 2D NACA 0015 hydrofoil were performed in the water tunnel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory of the University of Minnesota. The special bubble removal feature of the water tunnel allowed continuous ventilation without experiencing visible bubbles upstream the hydrofoil. These studies build on previous work on cavitation-induced oscillations. Gas injection studies were made over a range of gas flow rates and test section pressure. The results clearly show that lift oscillations increase in intensity when the gas load is increased. The point of maximum unsteadiness is also associated the rapid decline of the foil performance as measured as average lift. Further increase of the gas injection load gives a steady behaviour with almost no lift. These experiments are compared with traditional cavitation experiments. The similarities between gas injection- and cavitation induced unsteadiness on the hydrofoil are many, but the amplitude of lift oscillations found on the foil with gas injection corresponds to about 50% of that found for cavitating hydrofoils. The fact that the oscillations are periodic leads to the consideration of both passive and active control.

  15. Cell types, circuits, computation.

    PubMed

    Azeredo da Silveira, Rava; Roska, Botond

    2011-10-01

    How does the connectivity of a neuronal circuit, together with the individual properties of the cell types that take part in it, result in a given computation? We examine this question in the context of retinal circuits. We suggest that the retina can be viewed as a parallel assemblage of many small computational devices, highly stereotypical and task-specific circuits afferent to a given ganglion cell type, and we discuss some rules that govern computation in these devices. Multi-device processing in retina poses conceptual problems when it is contrasted with cortical processing. We lay out open questions both on processing in retinal circuits and on implications for cortical processing of retinal inputs.

  16. 24 CFR 3285.505 - Crawlspace ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) of the home's floor area. The total area of ventilation openings may be reduced to one square foot (ft.2) for every 1,500 square feet (ft.2) of the home's floor area, where a uniform 6-mil polyethylene... surface beneath the entire floor area of the home. (b) Ventilation openings must be placed as high...

  17. 46 CFR 111.105-21 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 111.105-21 Section 111.105-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... location has the classification of that location. Each fan for ventilation of a hazardous location must...

  18. 14 CFR 121.219 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ventilation. 121.219 Section 121.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.219 Ventilation....

  19. 14 CFR 121.219 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ventilation. 121.219 Section 121.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.219 Ventilation....

  20. 14 CFR 121.219 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ventilation. 121.219 Section 121.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.219 Ventilation....

  1. 14 CFR 121.219 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation. 121.219 Section 121.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.219 Ventilation....

  2. 14 CFR 23.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation. 23.831 Section 23.831 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Cargo Accommodations § 23.831 Ventilation. (a) Each passenger and crew compartment must be...

  3. 14 CFR 121.219 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation. 121.219 Section 121.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.219 Ventilation....

  4. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

  5. Ventilation Technical Guide, 2nd Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-12

    Proficiency Codes (see Table 2) Indicate Required Training Levela 3- lvl Course 5- lvl OJT 5- lvl CDCb 7- lvl Course 4.13 Mechanical Ventilation...for deficient ventilation systems A - B - a7- lvl OJT & Advanced Course have no required training level. bCDC = Career

  6. 14 CFR 23.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ventilation system must be designed to provide each occupant with at least 0.55 pounds of fresh air per minute... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ventilation. 23.831 Section 23.831... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel...

  7. 14 CFR 23.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ventilation system must be designed to provide each occupant with at least 0.55 pounds of fresh air per minute... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ventilation. 23.831 Section 23.831... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel...

  8. 14 CFR 23.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation. 23.831 Section 23.831... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.831 Ventilation. (a) Each passenger and crew compartment must be...

  9. 14 CFR 23.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ventilation system must be designed to provide each occupant with at least 0.55 pounds of fresh air per minute... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ventilation. 23.831 Section 23.831... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel...

  10. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  11. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  12. New modes of assisted mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Sipmann, F

    2014-05-01

    Recent major advances in mechanical ventilation have resulted in new exciting modes of assisted ventilation. Compared to traditional ventilation modes such as assisted-controlled ventilation or pressure support ventilation, these new modes offer a number of physiological advantages derived from the improved patient control over the ventilator. By implementing advanced closed-loop control systems and using information on lung mechanics, respiratory muscle function and respiratory drive, these modes are specifically designed to improve patient-ventilator synchrony and reduce the work of breathing. Depending on their specific operational characteristics, these modes can assist spontaneous breathing efforts synchronically in time and magnitude, adapt to changing patient demands, implement automated weaning protocols, and introduce a more physiological variability in the breathing pattern. Clinicians have now the possibility to individualize and optimize ventilatory assistance during the complex transition from fully controlled to spontaneous assisted ventilation. The growing evidence of the physiological and clinical benefits of these new modes is favoring their progressive introduction into clinical practice. Future clinical trials should improve our understanding of these modes and help determine whether the claimed benefits result in better outcomes.

  13. 29 CFR 1910.94 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... replacement system complying with the preceding section, general heating of the building in which the spray... maintained at not less than 65 °F. when the exhaust system is in operation or the general heating system... handled by an exhaust ventilation system. (viii) Exhaust ventilation system. A system for...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.94 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... replacement system complying with the preceding section, general heating of the building in which the spray... maintained at not less than 65 °F. when the exhaust system is in operation or the general heating system... handled by an exhaust ventilation system. (viii) Exhaust ventilation system. A system for...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.94 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... replacement system complying with the preceding section, general heating of the building in which the spray... maintained at not less than 65 °F. when the exhaust system is in operation or the general heating system... handled by an exhaust ventilation system. (viii) Exhaust ventilation system. A system for...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.94 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... replacement system complying with the preceding section, general heating of the building in which the spray... maintained at not less than 65 °F. when the exhaust system is in operation or the general heating system... handled by an exhaust ventilation system. (viii) Exhaust ventilation system. A system for...

  17. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, Lori E. (Inventor); Loveland, Rohan C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A conditioning circuit is provided with a constant current diode in series with a zener diode, the former having a high dynamic impedance and the latter a low dynamic impedance. The constant current diode can receive an input voltage with PARD. In conjunction with the zener diode fixed to a ground, a voltage divider is provided which can give an output voltage whose PARD was significantly reduced. The conditioning circuit is effective down to dc.

  18. Overriding Faulty Circuit Breakers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Richard L.; Pierson, Thomas E.

    1987-01-01

    Retainer keeps power on in emergency. Simple mechanical device attaches to failed aircraft-type push/pull circuit breaker to restore electrical power temporarily until breaker replaced. Device holds push/pull button in closed position; unnecessary for crewmember to hold button in position by continual finger pressure. Sleeve and plug hold button in, overriding mechanical failure in circuit breaker. Windows in sleeve show button position.

  19. An assessment of ventilator-associated pneumonias and risk factors identified in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Karatas, Mevlut; Saylan, Sedat; Kostakoglu, Ugur; Yilmaz, Gurdal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant cause of hospital-related infections, one that must be prevented due to its high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors in patients developing VAP in our intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: This retrospective cohort study involved in mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours. VAP diagnosed patients were divided into two groups, those developing pneumonia (VAP(+)) and those not (VAP(-)).\\ Results: We researched 1560 patients in adult ICUs, 1152 (73.8%) of whom were mechanically ventilated. The MV use rate was 52%. VAP developed in 15.4% of patients. The VAP rate was calculated as 15.7/1000 ventilator days. Mean length of stay in the ICU for VAP(+) and VAP(-) patients were (26.7±16.3 and 18.1±12.7 days (p<0.001)) and mean length of MV use was (23.5±10.3 and 12.6±7.4 days (p<0.001)). High APACHE II and Charlson co-morbidity index scores, extended length of hospitalization and MV time, previous history of hospitalization and antibiotherapy, reintubation, enteral nutrition, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and organ failure were determined as significant risk factors for VAP. The mortality rate in the VAP(+) was 65.2%, with 23.6% being attributed to VAP. Conclusion: VAPs are prominent nosocomial infections that can cause considerable morbidity and mortality in ICUs. Patient care procedures for the early diagnosis of patients with a high risk of VAP and for the reduction of risk factors must be implemented by providing training concerning risk factors related to VAP for ICU personnel, and preventable risk factors must be reduced to a minimum. PMID:27648020

  20. Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.

  1. Exchange circuits for FASTBUS slaves

    SciTech Connect

    Bratskii, A.A.; Matseev, M.Y.; Rybakov, V.G.

    1985-09-01

    This paper describes general-purpose circuits for FASTBUS interfacing of the functional part of a slave device. The circuits contain buffered receivers and transmitters, addressrecognition and data-transfer logic, and the required control/status registers. The described circuits are implemented with series-K500 integrated circuits.

  2. Circuit simulation: some humbling thoughts

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Manfred; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A short, very personal note on circuit simulation is presented. It does neither include theoretical background on circuit simulation, nor offers an overview of available software, but just gives some general remarks for a discussion on circuit simulator needs in context to the design and development of accelerator beam instrumentation circuits and systems.

  3. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Martens, Jon S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

  4. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  5. Clinical bioequivalence of a dose of clopidogrel Leti Cravid tablets 75 mg versus clopidogrel Sanofi Plavix tablets 75 mg administered on a daily dose for 7 days on healthy volunteers: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Aixa; Octavio, José; González, María Y; Contreras, Jesús; Méndez, Gisela; Portillo, Milagros; Valero, Zuleima

    2010-01-01

    Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention procedures, as in patients with coronary disease, should receive treatment indefinitely with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel. New brands of clopidogrel have been developed at lower costs, for helping to avoid premature suspension of antiplatelet therapy, as Cravid Leti Laboratories clopidogrel. Its effectiveness and safety must be compared with Plavix international standard. A prospective, comparative, cross-over, and randomized study was conducted in healthy volunteers. Each group received 1 tablet of Clopidogrel Leti or Clopidogrel Sanofi, 75 mg in a single dose daily for 7 days, followed by 7-day washout period before administration of second treatment. Platelet aggregation was measured at the start of each period and at 7 days of treatment through optical aggregometry, using an optical aggregometer 490-2D Chrono-Log, with a self-calibration system working with platelet-rich plasma with readings 0%-100% of light transmission. An important decrease of platelet aggregation was observed in both groups at 7 days of treatment of more than 50%, independent of adenosine diphosphate reactive (Helena and Chrono-Log) used for aggregation (P < 0.05). The relationship between the mean and 90% confidence interval ratio obtained with the 2 different adenosine diphosphate brands were between 80% and 125%, therefore, it can be considered that both brands are bioequivalent and perfectly exchangeable.

  6. Ventilation Criteria for Aeromedical Evacuation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    the injectate solution. We estimated lung volume by nitrogen dilution, using a closed - circuit rebreathing technique. We used the same data collection...patients (3), which indicates the computer model’s close simulation of pulmonary gas exchange in ARDS. TABLE 1. COMPARISON OF GAS EXCHANGE VARIABLES...After these data collections, the hypobaric chamber containing. the animal was closed and decompressed to a simulated level of 8,000 feet

  7. Ventilation Criteria for Aeromedical Evacuation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    continually monitored the temperature of the injectate solution. We estimated lung volume by nitrogen dilution, using a closed - circuit rebreathing ...computer- model values are all within one standard deviation of those reported in ARDS patients (3), which indicates the computer model’s close ...only with the second collection of each set. After these data collections, the hypobaric chamber containing the animal was closed and decompressed to

  8. [Comparison of volume preset and pressure preset ventilators during daytime nasal ventilation in chronic respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Perrin, C; Wolter, P; Berthier, F; Tamisier, R; Jullien, V; Lemoigne, F; Blaive, B

    2001-02-01

    Both volume preset and pressure preset ventilators are available for domiciliary nasal ventilation. Owing to their technical characteristics, it has been suggested that impaired ventilatory mechanics might cause a drop in the tidal volume (Vt) delivered by pressure preset devices, thereby placing mechanical ventilation at risk of inefficacy. We have assessed two ventilator systems (one pressure preset and one volume preset) with regard to the tidal volume and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PetCO(2)) changes that may be achieved in a group of awake patients with stable chronic respiratory failure (CRF). Eleven patients with stable CRF were ventilated in the assist/control mode for two consecutive one-hour periods. One ventilator was tested each hour, in random order. The VIGIL'AIR(R) system was used to record Vt, Respiratory Rate (RR), and Inspiratory/Expiratory ratio (I/E). The deviation E (E=preset value - measured value) was calculated for each measurement. Changes in PetCO(2) and arterial oxygen saturation were determined respectively by a capnometer and a pulse oximeter. Comparison of the mean deviation of Vt calculated for the two ventilators revealed a difference in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The deviation was greatest with the pressure preset ventilator (PPV), which gave mean measured values higher than the mean preset values. The same comparison failed to reveal any difference in restrictive CRF. Comparison of the volume preset and pressure preset ventilators for RR, I/E and PetCO(2) did not reveal any difference. Compared to the volume preset ventilator, the efficacy of PPV to ventilate is not affected by the restrictive or obstructive nature of CRF. Our results show that pressure-preset ventilator is an adequate alternative to the volume-preset device for daytime non invasive ventilation in chronic respiratory insufficiency.

  9. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Turner, William J.N.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.

  10. Microfluidic serial dilution circuit.

    PubMed

    Paegel, Brian M; Grover, William H; Skelley, Alison M; Mathies, Richard A; Joyce, Gerald F

    2006-11-01

    In vitro evolution of RNA molecules requires a method for executing many consecutive serial dilutions. To solve this problem, a microfluidic circuit has been fabricated in a three-layer glass-PDMS-glass device. The 400-nL serial dilution circuit contains five integrated membrane valves: three two-way valves arranged in a loop to drive cyclic mixing of the diluent and carryover, and two bus valves to control fluidic access to the circuit through input and output channels. By varying the valve placement in the circuit, carryover fractions from 0.04 to 0.2 were obtained. Each dilution process, which is composed of a diluent flush cycle followed by a mixing cycle, is carried out with no pipeting, and a sample volume of 400 nL is sufficient for conducting an arbitrary number of serial dilutions. Mixing is precisely controlled by changing the cyclic pumping rate, with a minimum mixing time of 22 s. This microfluidic circuit is generally applicable for integrating automated serial dilution and sample preparation in almost any microfluidic architecture.

  11. Characteristics of coal mine ventilation air flows.

    PubMed

    Su, Shi; Chen, Hongwei; Teakle, Philip; Xue, Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a greenhouse gas but also a wasted energy resource if not utilised. Underground coal mining is by far the most important source of fugitive methane emissions, and approximately 70% of all coal mining related methane is emitted to the atmosphere through mine ventilation air. Therefore, research and development on mine methane mitigation and utilisation now focuses on methane emitted from underground coal mines, in particular ventilation air methane (VAM) capture and utilisation. To date, most work has focused on the oxidation of very low concentration methane. These processes may be classified based on their combustion kinetic mechanisms into thermal oxidation and catalytic oxidation. VAM mitigation/utilisation technologies are generally divided into two basic categories: ancillary uses and principal uses. However, it is possible that the characteristics of ventilation air flows, for example the variations in methane concentration and the presence of certain compounds, which have not been reported so far, could make some potential VAM mitigation and utilisation technologies unfeasible if they cannot cope with the characteristics of mine site ventilation air flows. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows. Moreover, dust, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, and other possible compounds emitted through mine ventilation air into the atmosphere are also pollutants. Therefore, this paper presents mine-site experimental results on the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows, including methane concentration and its variations, dust loadings, particle size, mineral matter of the dust, and other compounds in the ventilation air flows. The paper also discusses possible correlations between ventilation air characteristics and underground mining activities.

  12. [Classification and terminology of artificial lung ventilation].

    PubMed

    Gal'perin, Iu S

    2005-01-01

    The author considers the main features of a prepared edition of the international standard ISO 4135:2001 "Equipment for anesthesia and artificial ventilation. Glossary" as the state standard of Russia. He shows methods for classification of the modes of ventilation support. A classification scheme of its procedures is proposed, by giving necessary notes. The abbreviations of these procedures are given in the Russian and English languages. The shorthand notations of airways gas pressure in the characteristic points of a respiratory cycle are clarified in detail and on this basis the procedures for limiting inspiration pressure during controlled artificial ventilation.

  13. Special Considerations in Neonatal Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Stacey; Kostecky, Linda; Charania, Irina

    2016-12-01

    Care of infants supported with mechanical ventilation is complex, time intensive, and requires constant vigilance by an expertly prepared health care team. Current evidence must guide nursing practice regarding ventilated neonates. This article highlights the importance of common language to establish a shared mental model and enhance clear communication among the interprofessional team. Knowledge regarding the underpinnings of an open lung strategy and the interplay between the pathophysiology and individual infant's response to a specific ventilator strategy is most likely to result in a positive clinical outcome.

  14. Ventilatory management of one-lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Della Rocca, G; Coccia, C

    2011-05-01

    Hypoxemia is considered to be the most important challenge during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Recent studies, however, have shown that one-lung ventilation can involve some lung damage and can therefore be per se a cause of hypoxemia. OLV can be associated to an injury: but the techniques used to improve oxygenation may also damage the lung. A new ventilator approach should be used and applied with regards to what is so far known in terms of "lung protection" also during OLV.

  15. High-frequency animal ventilator using a loudspeaker and its gas exchange characteristics.

    PubMed

    Suwa, K; Tagami, M

    1981-01-01

    A high-frequency ventilator was designed using a loudspeaker as a piston, driven by a power-amplifier. A sine-wave signal was introduced into the amplifier from an electronic oscillator. The mechanical and gas exchange characteristics of the ventilator were studied in vitro and in dogs. The volume output per stroke, when open to air, was between 100 and 200 ml up to 7 Hz, then gradually decreased as the frequency increased. A Wright respirometer appeared to measure the volume flow fairly accurately up to 14 Hz. The pressure output against a closed volume of 1.1 liters achieved a maximum of 29 mmHg at 7 Hz. It gradually decreased as the frequency was changed from 7 Hz. The loudspeaker worked in such a way that the volume output decreased considerably when it was forced to move against a closed space to generate pressure. Adequate ventilation was achieved in all dogs from 1.4 to 10 Hz. At 14 Hz, the results were variable, and at 20 Hz and above, gross hypoventilation always resulted. The PaO2 values were always over 440 mmHg when 0.8 liter/(kg . min) of oxygen was supplied into the respiratory circuit. A speaker ventilator has the advantage of easy assembly and the possibility of applying various flows by electrical control. Its disadvantages are a lack of power and the difficulty in establishing ventilatory volumes without actual measurement.

  16. ELECTRONIC PHASE CONTROL CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, J.D.; Klein, W.W.; Hansen, C.F.

    1959-04-21

    An electronic circuit is described for controlling the phase of radio frequency energy applied to a multicavity linear accelerator. In one application of the circuit two cavities are excited from a single radio frequency source, with one cavity directly coupled to the source and the other cavity coupled through a delay line of special construction. A phase detector provides a bipolar d-c output signal proportional to the difference in phase between the voltage in the two cavities. This d-c signal controls a bias supply which provides a d-c output for varying the capacitnce of voltage sensitive capacitors in the delay line. The over-all operation of the circuit is completely electronic, overcoming the time response limitations of the electromechanical control systems, and the relative phase relationship of the radio frequency voltages in the two caviiies is continuously controlled to effect particle acceleration.

  17. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  18. ELECTRONIC MULTIPLIER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, R.E.

    1959-08-25

    An electronic multiplier circuit is described in which an output voltage having an amplitude proportional to the product or quotient of the input signals is accomplished in a novel manner which facilitates simplicity of circuit construction and a high degree of accuracy in accomplishing the multiplying and dividing function. The circuit broadly comprises a multiplier tube in which the plate current is proportional to the voltage applied to a first control grid multiplied by the difference between voltage applied to a second control grid and the voltage applied to the first control grid. Means are provided to apply a first signal to be multiplied to the first control grid together with means for applying the sum of the first signal to be multiplied and a second signal to be multiplied to the second control grid whereby the plate current of the multiplier tube is proportional to the product of the first and second signals to be multiplied.

  19. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV)...

  20. 46 CFR 72.15-15 - Ventilation for closed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for closed spaces. 72.15-15 Section 72.15-15... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-15 Ventilation for closed spaces. (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel... spaces and for closing all doorways, ventilators and annular spaces around funnels and other openings...

  1. 46 CFR 72.15-15 - Ventilation for closed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for closed spaces. 72.15-15 Section 72.15-15... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-15 Ventilation for closed spaces. (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel... spaces and for closing all doorways, ventilators and annular spaces around funnels and other openings...

  2. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  3. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  4. 46 CFR 72.15-15 - Ventilation for closed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for closed spaces. 72.15-15 Section 72.15-15... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-15 Ventilation for closed spaces. (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel... spaces and for closing all doorways, ventilators and annular spaces around funnels and other openings...

  5. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  6. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  7. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  8. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under § 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  10. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation stop stations. 111.103-7 Section 111.103-7...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-7 Ventilation stop stations. Each ventilation stop... Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development. Such equipment...

  12. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. 192.187... Components § 192.187 Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. Each underground vault or closed top pit... ventilating effect of a pipe 4 inches (102 millimeters) in diameter; (2) The ventilation must be enough...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) attachment... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  14. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) attachment... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  15. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) attachment... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  16. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. 192.187... Components § 192.187 Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. Each underground vault or closed top pit... ventilating effect of a pipe 4 inches (102 millimeters) in diameter; (2) The ventilation must be enough...

  17. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation stop stations. 111.103-7 Section 111.103-7...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-7 Ventilation stop stations. Each ventilation stop... Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) attachment... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  19. 46 CFR 38.20-10 - Ventilation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation-T/ALL. 38.20-10 Section 38.20-10 Shipping... Ventilation § 38.20-10 Ventilation—T/ALL. (a) A power ventilation system shall be provided for compartments... equipped with power ventilation of the exhaust type having capacity sufficient to effect a complete...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development. Such equipment...

  1. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations....

  2. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development. Such equipment...

  3. 46 CFR 38.20-10 - Ventilation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and accessible from the cargo handling deck. Such ventilation systems shall be designed to preclude... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation-T/ALL. 38.20-10 Section 38.20-10 Shipping... Ventilation § 38.20-10 Ventilation—T/ALL. (a) A power ventilation system shall be provided for...

  4. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations....

  5. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations....

  6. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532 Section 57.8532 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control...

  7. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532 Section 57.8532 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under § 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under § 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under § 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under § 154.1200 (a) must have ducts for... duct under paragraph (a) of this section must be at least 10 m (32.8 ft.) from ventilation intakes and... operational controls outside the ventilated space. (g) No ventilation duct for a gas-dangerous space may...

  15. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  16. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  17. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  18. 46 CFR 72.15-15 - Ventilation for closed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for closed spaces. 72.15-15 Section 72.15-15... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-15 Ventilation for closed spaces. (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel... spaces and for closing all doorways, ventilators and annular spaces around funnels and other openings...

  19. 46 CFR 72.15-15 - Ventilation for closed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for closed spaces. 72.15-15 Section 72.15-15... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-15 Ventilation for closed spaces. (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel... spaces and for closing all doorways, ventilators and annular spaces around funnels and other openings...

  20. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  1. Electrical Circuit Tester

    DOEpatents

    Love, Frank

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  2. Small circuits for cryptography.

    SciTech Connect

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  3. Using a Ventilation Controller to Optimize Residential Passive Ventilation For Energy and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    One way to reduce the energy impact of providing residential ventilation is to use passive and hybrid systems. However, these passive and hybrid (sometimes called mixed-mode) systems must still meet chronic and acute health standards for ventilation. This study uses a computer simulation approach to examine the energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of passive and hybrid ventilation systems, in 16 California climate zones. Both uncontrolled and flow controlled passive stacks are assessed. A new hybrid ventilation system is outlined that uses an intelligent ventilation controller to minimise energy use, while ensuring chronic and acute IAQ standards are met. ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 – the United States standard for residential ventilation - is used as the chronic standard, and exposure limits for PM2.5, formaldehyde and NO2 are used as the acute standards.The results show that controlled passive ventilation and hybrid ventilation can be used in homes to provide equivalent IAQ to continuous mechanical ventilation, for less use of energy.

  4. Relevance of non-nutritional calories in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Bousie, E; van Blokland, D; Lammers, H J W; van Zanten, A R H

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Overfeeding in critically ill patients is associated with many complications. Propofol, dextrose infusion and citrate dialysis provide non-nutritional calories (NNCs), potentially causing overfeeding. The relevance of NNCs for total caloric intake has not been systematically studied. Subjects/Methods: We retrospectively studied adult mechanically ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving enteral nutrition with or without supplemental parenteral nutrition. Primary outcome was the proportion of NNCs (from dextrose, propofol and trisodium citrate) to the total energy intake during the first 7 days after ICU admission. In addition, NNC intake groups were compared. Results: In total, we identified 146 patients: 142 patients with NNC median value of 580 kcal (interquartile range 310–1043 kcal) over 7 days and 4 patients without NNC intake. The mean proportion of NNCs was larger during the first days after ICU admission (30.7–36.1%), because of the start-up phase of the nutrition. In the ‘propofol' group and the ‘dextrose' group this proportion levelled off at 6% on day 4. A more stable proportion of 18% was found during the first 7 days of ICU admission in the ‘citrate' group. Conclusions: The mean proportion of NNCs in patients who receive dextrose and/or propofol is low (6%); however, in individual patients it may comprise one-third of the total daily calories. Patients receiving trisodium citrate have higher mean non-nutritional intakes (18%). As NNC intake can be marked in individual patients, close monitoring is warranted when administering high-dose propofol or trisodium citrate anticoagulation to prevent overfeeding. PMID:27623980

  5. 46 CFR 72.05-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... periodic inspection by means of a hinged or bolted plate in the duct. The damper and the portion of duct... ventilator, and the duct shall be insulated to meet the applicable requirements of tables 72.05-10(d) and...

  6. 46 CFR 72.05-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... periodic inspection by means of a hinged or bolted plate in the duct. The damper and the portion of duct... ventilator, and the duct shall be insulated to meet the applicable requirements of tables 72.05-10(d) and...

  7. 46 CFR 72.05-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... periodic inspection by means of a hinged or bolted plate in the duct. The damper and the portion of duct... ventilator, and the duct shall be insulated to meet the applicable requirements of tables 72.05-10(d) and...

  8. 'Elective' ventilation: an unethical and harmful misnomer?

    PubMed

    Stammers, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    The demand for organs prompted the first use of elective ventilation in the UK in the 1990s. Recently the shortfall in supply of organs has once again prompted calls for elective ventilation to be instituted even in patients who are not brain dead. This paper proposes that the term 'elective' ventilation is a misnomer and the term non-therapeutic ventilation (NTV) should be used instead. It is further argued that the practice of NTV in cases of severe stroke is unethical and has the potential of causing a variety of harms to the patient, their relatives, and the healthcare professionals working in transplant teams and this may result in a backlash of reductions in the number of organ donations.

  9. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  10. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  11. Speech for People with Tracheostomies or Ventilators

    MedlinePlus

    ... his or her life is undergoing dramatic change. Young children with tracheostomies do not get to explore making sounds. They also may have limited social interactions that are critical to the ... impact does having a ventilator have on speech? For ...

  12. Uneven ventilation of the lung following trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Lozman, J; Dutton, R E; Newell, J; Powers, S R

    1977-01-01

    Ventilatory function of the lungs has been studied in 13 post-trauma patients using a two compartment analysis. The analysis is based upon a model of the lung which describes a nitrogen washout curve in terms of fast and slowly ventilated compartments. Data output from a digital computer provides values that compare the fractions of the alveolar ventilation and volume of the two compartments. All patients on initial investigation had large identifiable slow spaces. Subsequent evaluation at a time of clinical improvement showed that the ventilation of the slow space had increased significantly (P less than .003), whereas no change was evident in the volume fraction. The ventilation to volume ratio of the slow space, measured on these two separate occasions increased in twelve of the patients studied. An increase in this ratio correlated with improvement in the patient's clinical condition. PMID:921355

  13. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: risks and benefits of ventilation].

    PubMed

    Cordioli, Ricardo Luiz; Garelli, Valentina; Lyazidi, Aissam; Suppan, Laurent; Savary, Dominique; Brochard, Laurent; Richard, Jean-Christophe M

    2013-12-11

    Knowledge of the physiological mechanisms that govern cardiopulmonary interactions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) allows to better assess risks and benefits of ventilation. Ventilation is required to maintain gas exchange, particularly when CPR is prolonged. Nevertheless, conventional ventilation (bag mask or mechanical ventilation) may be harmful when excessive or when chest compressions are interrupted. In fact large tidal volume and/or rapid respiratory rate may adversely compromise hemodynamic effects of chest compressions. In this regard, international recommendations that give the priority to chest compressions, are meaningful. Continuous flow insufflation with oxygen that generates a moderate positive airway pressure avoids any interruption of chest compressions and prevents the risk of lung injury associated with prolonged resuscitation.

  14. [The choice of a pediatric anesthesia ventilator].

    PubMed

    Kern, D; Larcher, C; Cottron, N; Ait Aissa, D; Fesseau, R; Alacoque, X; Delort, F; Masquère, P; Agnès, E; Visnadi, G; Fourcade, O

    2013-12-01

    The technology of anesthesia ventilators has substantially progressed during last years. The choice of a pediatric anesthesia ventilator needs to be led by multiple parameters: requirement, technical (pneumatic performance, velocity of halogenated or oxygen delivery), cost (purchase, in operation, preventive and curative maintenance), reliability, ergonomy, upgradability, and compatibility. The demonstration of the interest of pressure support mode during maintenance of spontaneous ventilation anesthesia makes this mode essential in pediatrics. In contrast, the financial impact of target controlled inhalation of halogenated has not be studied in pediatrics. Paradoxically, complex and various available technologies had not been much prospectively studied. Anesthesia ventilators performances in pediatrics need to be clarified in further clinical and bench test studies.

  15. [Mechanical ventilation at home: facts and questions].

    PubMed

    Fitting, J W

    1993-06-15

    Treatment of respiratory insufficiency with retention of CO2 by mechanic ventilation has come into use over the last decade, favored by use of non-invasive methods like nasal ventilation. Best results have been observed in hypercapnic respiratory insufficiency caused by neuromuscular disease or restrictive pathologic changes of the lung. Nocturnal use of nasal ventilation alone is often sufficient to correct also the daily CO2-values. Mechanisms explaining this beneficial effect are not yet known-The respiratory CNS-centers, respiratory muscles or thoracopulmonary mechanics may play etiologically an important role. Medical indications for nasal ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are not clear, since results from several studies are controversial. Also in severe or progressive neurologic diseases a critical evaluation is mandatory for assessment of benefits including improvement of quality of life.

  16. Innovative ventilation system for animal anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.R.; Smith, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    A unique ventilation system was designed and built to reduce formaldehyde fumes in the large animal anatomy lab at the Vet Medical Center at Cornell University. The laboratory includes four rooms totaling 5,500 ft{sup 2}. The main room has 2,300 ft{sup 2} and houses the laboratory where up to 60 students dissect as many as 12 horses at a time. Other rooms are a cold storage locker, an animal preparation room and a smaller lab for specialized instruction. The large animal anatomy laboratory has a history of air quality complaints despite a fairly high ventilation rate of over 10 air changes/hour. The horses are embalmed, creating a voluminous source of formaldehyde and phenol vapors. Budget constraints and increasingly stringent exposure limits for formaldehyde presented a great challenge to design a ventilation system that yields acceptable air quality. The design solution included two innovative elements: air-to-air heat recovery, and focused ventilation.

  17. EVALUATION OF VENTILATION PERFORMANCE FOR INDOOR SPACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a personal-computer-based application of computational fluid dynamics that can be used to determine the turbulent flow field and time-dependent/steady-state contaminant concentration distributions within isothermal indoor space. (NOTE: Ventilation performance ...

  18. A microprocessor-controlled tracheal insufflation-assisted total liquid ventilation system.

    PubMed

    Parker, James Courtney; Sakla, Adel; Donovan, Francis M; Beam, David; Chekuri, Annu; Al-Khatib, Mohammad; Hamm, Charles R; Eyal, Fabien G

    2009-09-01

    A prototype time cycled, constant volume, closed circuit perfluorocarbon (PFC) total liquid ventilator system is described. The system utilizes microcontroller-driven display and master control boards, gear motor pumps, and three-way solenoid valves to direct flow. A constant tidal volume and functional residual capacity (FRC) are maintained with feedback control using end-expiratory and end-inspiratory stop-flow pressures. The system can also provide a unique continuous perfusion (bias flow, tracheal insufflation) through one lumen of a double-lumen endotracheal catheter to increase washout of dead space liquid. FRC and arterial blood gases were maintained during ventilation with Rimar 101 PFC over 2-3 h in normal piglets and piglets with simulated pulmonary edema induced by instillation of albumin solution. Addition of tracheal insufflation flow significantly improved the blood gases and enhanced clearance of instilled albumin solution during simulated edema.

  19. Evaluating Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2013-02-01

    In an effort to improve housing options near Las Vegas, Nevada, the Clark County Community Resources Division (CCCRD) performs substantial renovations to foreclosed homes. After dramatic energy, aesthetic, and health and safety improvements are made, homes are rented or sold to qualified residents. This report describes the evaluation and selection of ventilation systems for these homes, including key considerations when selecting an ideal system. The report then describes CCCRD’s decision process with respect to ventilation.

  20. Adequacy of Wind Ventilation in Upgraded Shelters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    cross - sectional area. An approximate value of the "through-flow area" for the front door opening of model I can be calculated in the following way...Summary of Mathematical Models taken From References in Section 2 APPENDIX B - Ventilation Throughout Calculation Model GARD, INC. vii LIST OF FIGURES...as frequency of dooring opening, presence of fireplaces and chimneys , operation of ventilators and exhaust fans, furnace operation, etc. (Refs 2.10

  1. Mechanical Ventilation and ARDS in the ED

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Nicholas M.; Miller, Christopher N.; Deitchman, Andrew R.; Castagno, Nicole; Hassebroek, Elizabeth C.; Dhedhi, Adam; Scott-Wittenborn, Nicholas; Grace, Edward; Lehew, Courtney; Kollef, Marin H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few data regarding mechanical ventilation and ARDS in the ED. This could be a vital arena for prevention and treatment. METHODS: This study was a multicenter, observational, prospective, cohort study aimed at analyzing ventilation practices in the ED. The primary outcome was the incidence of ARDS after admission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of ARDS. RESULTS: We analyzed 219 patients receiving mechanical ventilation to assess ED ventilation practices. Median tidal volume was 7.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW) (interquartile range, 6.9-8.9), with a range of 4.3 to 12.2 mL/kg PBW. Lung-protective ventilation was used in 122 patients (55.7%). The incidence of ARDS after admission from the ED was 14.7%, with a mean onset of 2.3 days. Progression to ARDS was associated with higher illness severity and intubation in the prehospital environment or transferring facility. Of the 15 patients with ARDS in the ED (6.8%), lung-protective ventilation was used in seven (46.7%). Patients who progressed to ARDS experienced greater duration in organ failure and ICU length of stay and higher mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Lung-protective ventilation is infrequent in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ED, regardless of ARDS status. Progression to ARDS is common after admission, occurs early, and worsens outcome. Patient- and treatment-related factors present in the ED are associated with ARDS. Given the limited treatment options for ARDS, and the early onset after admission from the ED, measures to prevent onset and to mitigate severity should be instituted in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01628523; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:25742126

  2. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    De Almeida, A.T.; Fisk, W.J.

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  3. Performance of Portable Ventilators at Temperature Extremes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-30

    support of patients requires ventilators deliver desired settings accurately. Consistent tidal volume ( VT ) is of critical importance, especially in...low VT (6 mL/kg of predicted body weight) improved mortality [1]. Other ventilator settings such as respiratory rate and positive end expiratory...Delivered and set VTs were compared using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard of ±10% of set VT [4]. Table 1. Pediatric

  4. [High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in neonates].

    PubMed

    2002-09-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) may be considered as an alternative in the management of severe neonatal respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. In patients with diffuse pulmonary disease, HFOV can applied as a rescue therapy with a high lung volume strategy to obtain adequate alveolar recruitment. We review the mechanisms of gas exchange, as well as the indications, monitoring and special features of the use HVOF in the neonatal period.

  5. [A computer-controlled closed circle system for ventilation during anesthesia and intensive care and its possibilities for patient monitoring].

    PubMed

    Verkaaik, A P; Rubreht, J; van Dijk, G; Westerkamp, B; Erdmann, W

    1991-01-01

    A computer feed back controlled anaesthesia- and intensive care ventilator has been developed with on-line and separate lung function measurement. The system design is built on the principle of a totally closed circuit (closed rebreathing respirometer) and an inspiratory "high flow", the gas being rotated through the closed circuit unidirectionally by a blower with 70 l/min. Ventilation is performed by metal membranes freely movable in membrane chambers with an internal part included into the closed circuit and an external part connected to pressurized air controlling inspiratory valves expiratory valves. The electronic valves are software controlled by the computer to exactly perform the desired preset ventilatory mode. Membrane movement are on-line measured capacitively and transformed into respective flow and volume values, whereby the compressibility of the system gas (on-line pressure recording) is taken into account. Volatile anaesthetic gases are feed back controlled to preset end expiratory values (MAC-controlled anaesthesia), circuit volume is maintained by N20-addition and oxygen is added to maintain the desired present inspiratory concentration measured with paramagnetic oxygen sensors. Ergonometric aspects led to the triangular from of the new anaesthesia and intensive care ventilator with the controlling service screen turnable to all three sides of the ventilator (high flexibility of the user) and all necessary equipment and material included into the "Anaesthesia workstation". All measured and present parameters are continuously displayed on the service (computer) screen and entered into the computer-memory in minute cycles with a memory capacity of 75 h anaesthesia. At any desired moment the memorized values can be transferred to IBM-compatible disc systems for storage or into the respective data management systems, thus at the end of anaesthesia, at the end of the working day or at the end of the week.

  6. Integrated circuit reliability testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Sayah, Hoshyar R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique is described for use in determining the reliability of microscopic conductors deposited on an uneven surface of an integrated circuit device. A wafer containing integrated circuit chips is formed with a test area having regions of different heights. At the time the conductors are formed on the chip areas of the wafer, an elongated serpentine assay conductor is deposited on the test area so the assay conductor extends over multiple steps between regions of different heights. Also, a first test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of first height, and a second test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of second height. The occurrence of high resistances at the steps between regions of different height is indicated by deriving the measured length of the serpentine conductor using the resistance measured between the ends of the serpentine conductor, and comparing that to the design length of the serpentine conductor. The percentage by which the measured length exceeds the design length, at which the integrated circuit will be discarded, depends on the required reliability of the integrated circuit.

  7. Integrated circuit reliability testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Sayah, Hoshyar R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A technique is described for use in determining the reliability of microscopic conductors deposited on an uneven surface of an integrated circuit device. A wafer containing integrated circuit chips is formed with a test area having regions of different heights. At the time the conductors are formed on the chip areas of the wafer, an elongated serpentine assay conductor is deposited on the test area so the assay conductor extends over multiple steps between regions of different heights. Also, a first test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of first height, and a second test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of second height. The occurrence of high resistances at the steps between regions of different height is indicated by deriving the measured length of the serpentine conductor using the resistance measured between the ends of the serpentine conductor, and comparing that to the design length of the serpentine conductor. The percentage by which the measured length exceeds the design length, at which the integrated circuit will be discarded, depends on the required reliability of the integrated circuit.

  8. The Global Circuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of and research related to a theory explaining the earth's electric budget. The theory suggests a global electric circuit completed by a positive current flowing up into thunderstorm clouds, from clouds to ionosphere, distributed around the globe, and down to earth through the lower atmosphere in fair-weather regions. (JN)

  9. An atomtronic dumbell circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aijun; Murray, N.; Lanier, C.; Wang, Y.-H.; Clark, C. W.; Edwards, M.

    2014-05-01

    We report on simulations of the behavior of a Bose-Einstein condensate formed in the left well of a ``dumbell'' circuit potential. This quasi-2d potential takes the form of the combination of strong harmonic vertical confinement along with a horizontal-plane potential having dumbell shape. The dumbell consists of two circular wells connected by a channel. We assume that the condensate is initially formed in one of the wells and then is released and allowed to flow down the channel into the other well and possibly back again. We first simulated the behavior of the BEC in this potential using a variational mean-field version of the 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) at zero temperature for dumbell potentials having a range of different channel lengths and widths. We used these results to indentify equivalent ``atomtronic'' circuits such as an RCL circuit with DC battery. We also investigated the effects of finite temperature on the behavior of the condensate in the dumbell potential using the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin (ZNG) theory. These results were used to identify the effects of a thermal cloud on the atomtronic circuit operation. Supported in part by NSF grant #1068761 and ARO Atomtronics MURI.

  10. Wein bridge oscillator circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipoma, P. C.

    1971-01-01

    Circuit with minimum number of components provides stable outputs of 2 to 8 volts at frequencies of .001 to 100 kHz. Oscillator exhibits low power consumption, portability, simplicity, and drive capability, it has application as loudspeaker tester and audible alarm, as well as in laboratory and test generators.

  11. Circuit breaker lockout device

    DOEpatents

    Kozlowski, Lawrence J.; Shirey, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    An improved lockout assembly for locking a circuit breaker in a selected off or on position is provided. The lockout assembly includes a lock block and a lock pin. The lock block has a hollow interior which fits over the free end of a switch handle of the circuit breaker. The lock block includes at least one hole that is placed in registration with a hole in the free end of the switch handle. A lock tab on the lock block serves to align and register the respective holes on the lock block and switch handle. A lock pin is inserted through the registered holes and serves to connect the lock block to the switch handle. Once the lock block and the switch handle are connected, the position of the switch handle is prevented from being changed by the lock tab bumping up against a stationary housing portion of the circuit breaker. When the lock pin installed, an apertured-end portion of the lock pin is in registration with another hole on the lock block. Then a special scissors conforming to O.S.H.A. regulations can be installed, with one or more padlocks, on the lockout assembly to prevent removal of the lock pin from the lockout assembly, thereby preventing removal of the lockout assembly from the circuit breaker.

  12. Circuit breaker lockout device

    DOEpatents

    Kozlowski, L.J.; Shirey, L.A.

    1992-11-24

    An improved lockout assembly for locking a circuit breaker in a selected off or on position is provided. The lockout assembly includes a lock block and a lock pin. The lock block has a hollow interior which fits over the free end of a switch handle of the circuit breaker. The lock block includes at least one hole that is placed in registration with a hole in the free end of the switch handle. A lock tab on the lock block serves to align and register the respective holes on the lock block and switch handle. A lock pin is inserted through the registered holes and serves to connect the lock block to the switch handle. Once the lock block and the switch handle are connected, the position of the switch handle is prevented from being changed by the lock tab bumping up against a stationary housing portion of the circuit breaker. When the lock pin installed, an apertured-end portion of the lock pin is in registration with another hole on the lock block. Then a special scissors conforming to O.S.H.A. regulations can be installed, with one or more padlocks, on the lockout assembly to prevent removal of the lock pin from the lockout assembly, thereby preventing removal of the lockout assembly from the circuit breaker. 2 figs.

  13. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Michael L.; Sayler, Gary S.; Paulus, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are monolithic bioelectronic devices comprising a bioreporter and an OASIC. These bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit are useful in detecting substances such as pollutants, explosives, and heavy-metals residing in inhospitable areas such as groundwater, industrial process vessels, and battlefields. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for environmental pollutant detection, oil exploration, drug discovery, industrial process control, and hazardous chemical monitoring.

  14. A Step Circuit Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Aerobics instructors can use step aerobics to motivate students. One creative method is to add the step to the circuit workout. By incorporating the step, aerobic instructors can accommodate various fitness levels. The article explains necessary equipment and procedures, describing sample stations for cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength,…

  15. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  16. Field circuit breaker tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulcomer, P. M.

    1982-05-01

    Test equipment developed at National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to evaluate the performance of single-pole circuit breakers in residential installations is described along with instructions for its use. The procedures are intended to be carried out by a test crew of at least two persons.

  17. "Printed-circuit" rectenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Rectifying antenna is less bulky structure for absorbing transmitted microwave power and converting it into electrical current. Printed-circuit approach, using microstrip technology and circularly polarized antenna, makes polarization orientation unimportant and allows much smaller arrays for given performance. Innovation is particularly useful with proposed electric vehicles powered by beam microwaves.

  18. Electrifying Inquiry: Electrical Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Susan; Barnett, Jessica; Webster, Lois

    2005-01-01

    An activity involving parallel electrical circuits was modified to incorporate an open inquiry approach. Both the original and revised versions of the activity were tested in the middle school classroom. We present a comparison of the two versions of the activity in terms of facilitating learning and engaging students' interests.

  19. Pretest Predictions for Phase II Ventilation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Yiming Sun

    2001-09-19

    The objective of this calculation is to predict the temperatures of the ventilating air, waste package surface, and concrete pipe walls that will be developed during the Phase II ventilation tests involving various test conditions. The results will be used as inputs to validating numerical approach for modeling continuous ventilation, and be used to support the repository subsurface design. The scope of the calculation is to identify the physical mechanisms and parameters related to thermal response in the Phase II ventilation tests, and describe numerical methods that are used to calculate the effects of continuous ventilation. The calculation is limited to thermal effect only. This engineering work activity is conducted in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Subsurface Performance Testing for License Application (LA) for Fiscal Year 2001'' (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This technical work plan (TWP) includes an AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', activity evaluation (CRWMS M&O 2000d, Addendum A) that has determined this activity is subject to the YMP quality assurance (QA) program. The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12Q procedure, ''Calculations''. Additional background information regarding this activity is contained in the ''Development Plan for Ventilation Pretest Predictive Calculation'' (DP) (CRWMS M&O 2000a).

  20. [Ventilator-associated pneumonia and other infections].

    PubMed

    Bobik, Piotr; Siemiątkowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    One of the fundamental elements of therapy in patients hospitalised in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is mechanical ventilation (MV). MV enables sufficient gas exchange in patients with severe respiratory insufficiency, thus preserving the proper functioning of organs and systems. However, clinical and experimental studies show that mechanical ventilation may cause severe complications, e.g. lung injury (VALI, VILI), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and, on rare occasions, multiple organ failure (MOF). Mechanical ventilation and especially endotracheal intubation are associated also with higher risk of infectious complications of the respiratory system: ventilator-associated respiratory infection (VARI) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The complications of the MV listed above have a significant influence on the length of treatment and also on the increase of the costs of therapy and mortality of patients who stay in an ICU. These negative effects of supported breathing are the reasons for intensive research to find new biological markers of inflammation and lung injury, more sensitive and specific diagnostic instruments, more effective methods of therapy, and programs of prevention. The purpose of this article is the presentation of current knowledge concerning VAP-related infections, to allow pulmonologists and general practitioners to become more familiar with the problem. Basic and the most important data concerning the definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, microbiology, diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of VAP have been included. Additionally, ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) was discussed.

  1. Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Dominique; Argaud, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected to improve patient outcomes, reduce ICU admission, enhance patient comfort, and increase the efficiency of health care resource utilization. Current literature indicates that noninvasive ventilation improves and stabilizes the clinical course of many patients with chronic ventilatory failure. Noninvasive ventilation also permits long-term mechanical ventilation to be an acceptable option for patients who otherwise would not have been treated if tracheostomy were the only alternative. Nevertheless, these results appear to be better in patients with neuromuscular/-parietal disorders than in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This clinical review will address the use of noninvasive ventilation (not including continuous positive airway pressure) mainly in diseases responsible for chronic hypoventilation (that is, restrictive disorders, including neuromuscular disease and lung disease) and incidentally in others such as obstructive sleep apnea or problems of central drive. PMID:17419882

  2. Nasal mask ventilation is better than face mask ventilation in edentulous patients

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Mukul Chandra; Rana, Sandeep; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Vishal, Vindhya; Sikdar, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Face mask ventilation of the edentulous patient is often difficult as ineffective seating of the standard mask to the face prevents attainment of an adequate air seal. The efficacy of nasal ventilation in edentulous patients has been cited in case reports but has never been investigated. Material and Methods: Consecutive edentulous adult patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, during a 17-month period, were prospectively evaluated. After induction of anesthesia and administration of neuromuscular blocker, lungs were ventilated with a standard anatomical face mask of appropriate size, using a volume controlled anesthesia ventilator with tidal volume set at 10 ml/kg. In case of inadequate ventilation, the mask position was adjusted to achieve best-fit. Inspired and expired tidal volumes were measured. Thereafter, the face mask was replaced by a nasal mask and after achieving best-fit, the inspired and expired tidal volumes were recorded. The difference in expired tidal volumes and airway pressures at best-fit with the use of the two masks and number of patients with inadequate ventilation with use of the masks were statistically analyzed. Results: A total of 79 edentulous patients were recruited for the study. The difference in expiratory tidal volumes with the use of the two masks at best-fit was statistically significant (P = 0.0017). Despite the best-fit mask placement, adequacy of ventilation could not be achieved in 24.1% patients during face mask ventilation, and 12.7% patients during nasal mask ventilation and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Nasal mask ventilation is more efficient than standard face mask ventilation in edentulous patients. PMID:27625477

  3. Resistor Combinations for Parallel Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTernan, James P.

    1978-01-01

    To help simplify both teaching and learning of parallel circuits, a high school electricity/electronics teacher presents and illustrates the use of tables of values for parallel resistive circuits in which total resistances are whole numbers. (MF)

  4. Electronic circuits and systems: A compilation. [including integrated circuits, logic circuits, varactor diode circuits, low pass filters, and optical equipment circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technological information is presented electronic circuits and systems which have potential utility outside the aerospace community. Topics discussed include circuit components such as filters, converters, and integrators, circuits designed for use with specific equipment or systems, and circuits designed primarily for use with optical equipment or displays.

  5. Methods of fabricating applique circuits

    DOEpatents

    Dimos, Duane B.; Garino, Terry J.

    1999-09-14

    Applique circuits suitable for advanced packaging applications are introduced. These structures are particularly suited for the simple integration of large amounts (many nanoFarads) of capacitance into conventional integrated circuit and multichip packaging technology. In operation, applique circuits are bonded to the integrated circuit or other appropriate structure at the point where the capacitance is required, thereby minimizing the effects of parasitic coupling. An immediate application is to problems of noise reduction and control in modern high-frequency circuitry.

  6. 41 CFR 102-74.195 - What ventilation policy must Federal agencies follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provide ventilation in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 62, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality... ventilation up to current standards. ASHRAE Standard 62 is available from ASHRAE Publications Sales,...

  7. Characteristics of rain penetration through a gravity ventilator used for natural ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehyeung; Lee, Dong Ho; Ahn, Kwangseog; Ha, Hyunchul; Park, Heechang; Piao, Cheng Xu; Li, Xiaoyu; Seo, Jeoungyoon

    2008-01-01

    Gravity ventilators rely simply on air buoyancy to extract air and are widely used to exhaust air contaminants and heat from workplaces using minimal energy. They are designed to maximize the exhaust flow rate, but the rain penetration sometimes causes malfunctioning. In this study, the characteristics of rain penetration through a ventilator were examined as a preliminary study to develop a ventilator with the maximum exhaust capacity while minimizing rain penetration. A model ventilator was built and exposed to artificial rain and wind. The paths, intensities and amounts of penetration through the ventilator were observed and measured in qualitative and quantitative fashions. In the first phase, the pathways and intensities of rain penetration were visually observed. In the second phase, the amounts of rain penetration were quantitatively measured under the different configurations of ventilator components that were installed based on the information obtained in the first-phase experiment. The effects of wind speed, grill direction, rain drainage width, outer wall height, neck height and leaning angle of the outer wall from the vertical position were analyzed. Wind speed significantly affected rain penetration. Under the low crosswind conditions, the rain penetration intensities were under the limit of detection. Under the high crosswind conditions, grill direction and neck height were the most significant factors in reducing rain penetration. The installation of rain drainage was also important in reducing rain penetration. The experimental results suggest that, with proper configurations of its components, a gravity ventilator can be used for natural ventilation without significant rain penetration problems.

  8. Statistical circuit design for yield improvement in CMOS circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, H. J.; Purviance, J. E.; Whitaker, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the statistical design of CMOS integrated circuits for improved parametric yield. The work uses the Monte Carlo technique of circuit simulation to obtain an unbiased estimation of the yield. A simple graphical analysis tool, the yield factor histogram, is presented. The yield factor histograms are generated by a new computer program called SPICENTER. Using the yield factor histograms, the most sensitive circuit parameters are noted, and their nominal values are changed to improve the yield. Two basic CMOS example circuits, one analog and one digital, are chosen and their designs are 'centered' to illustrate the use of the yield factor histograms for statistical circuit design.

  9. Ladder-Type Circuits Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sung Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Ladder-type circuits where a given unit is repeated infinitely many times are dealt with in many textbooks on electromagnetism as examples of filter circuits. Determining the impedance of such circuits seems to be regarded as simple, which may be due to the fact that the invariance of the infinite system under the operation of adding one more unit…

  10. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  11. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  12. Selective Manipulation of Neural Circuits.

    PubMed

    Park, Hong Geun; Carmel, Jason B

    2016-04-01

    Unraveling the complex network of neural circuits that form the nervous system demands tools that can manipulate specific circuits. The recent evolution of genetic tools to target neural circuits allows an unprecedented precision in elucidating their function. Here we describe two general approaches for achieving circuit specificity. The first uses the genetic identity of a cell, such as a transcription factor unique to a circuit, to drive expression of a molecule that can manipulate cell function. The second uses the spatial connectivity of a circuit to achieve specificity: one genetic element is introduced at the origin of a circuit and the other at its termination. When the two genetic elements combine within a neuron, they can alter its function. These two general approaches can be combined to allow manipulation of neurons with a specific genetic identity by introducing a regulatory gene into the origin or termination of the circuit. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of both these general approaches with regard to specificity and efficacy of the manipulations. We also review the genetic techniques that allow gain- and loss-of-function within specific neural circuits. These approaches introduce light-sensitive channels (optogenetic) or drug sensitive channels (chemogenetic) into neurons that form specific circuits. We compare these tools with others developed for circuit-specific manipulation and describe the advantages of each. Finally, we discuss how these tools might be applied for identification of the neural circuits that mediate behavior and for repair of neural connections.

  13. Ventilation of Nonparalyzed Patients Under Anesthesia with Laryngeal Mask Airway, Comparison of Three Modes of Ventilation: Volume Controlled Ventilation, Pressure Controlled Ventilation, and Pressure Controlled Ventilation-volume Guarantee

    PubMed Central

    Ghabach, Maroun Badwi; El Hajj, Elie M.; El Dib, Rouba D.; Rkaiby, Jeanette M.; Matta, May S.; Helou, May R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pressure controlled ventilation (PCV) is the preferable mode of ventilation of nonparalyzed patients undergoing anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) as compared to volume controlled ventilation (VCV) and spontaneously breathing patient. In this study, we compared the PC–volume guarantee (PC-VG) mode of ventilation with VCV and PCV modes. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status Classes I and II, scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia with a classic LMA were ventilated, subsequently, with the three modes of ventilation: VCV, PCV, and PC-VG for 10 min each mode. Tidal volume set for all patients was 8 ml/kg of ideal body weight. Parameters measured with modes of ventilation include peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), compliance, measured tidal volume, O2 saturation, end-tidal CO2, and presence of an oropharyngeal leak. Results: The PIP was significantly higher with the application of VCV mode of ventilation than PCV and PC-VG modes. The compliance was significantly lower when using the mode of ventilation VCV than PCV and PC-VG. The PIP and the compliance were not statistically different between the PCV and PC-VG modes of ventilation. Conclusions: Ventilation of nonparalyzed patients with LMA under anesthesia with PC-VG is advantageous over VCV in reducing PIP and increasing lung compliance. No difference was noted between PCV and PC-VG in ASA Classes I or II under the adequate depth of anesthesia in patients with normal pulmonary function. PMID:28298784

  14. Anesthesia and critical care ventilator modes: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Bristle, Timothy J; Collins, Shawn; Hewer, Ian; Hollifield, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Mechanical ventilators have evolved from basic machines to complicated, electronic, microprocessing engines. Over the last 2 decades, ventilator capabilities and options for critical care and anesthesia ventilators have rapidly advanced. These advances in ventilator modalities--in conjunction with a better understanding of patient physiology and the effects of positive pressure ventilation on the body--have revolutionized the mechanical ventilation process. Clinicians today have a vast array of mechanical ventilator mode options designed to match the pulmonary needs of the critically ill and anesthetized patient. Modes of mechanical ventilation continue to be based on 1 of 2 variances: volume-based or pressure-based. The wording describing the standard ventilatory modes on select present-day ventilators has changed, yet the basic principles of operation have not changed compared with older ventilators. Anesthesia providers need to understand these ventilator modes to best care for patients. This literature review encompasses a brief history of mechanical ventilation and current modes available for anesthesia and critical care ventilators, including definitions of each mode, definitions of the various descriptive labels given each mode, and techniques for optimizing and meeting the ventilator needs of the patient while avoiding complications in the surgical and critical care patient.

  15. Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

    1994-05-01

    The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

  16. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

  17. Ventilation efficiencies of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, David; Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Lee, Seung Min

    2002-03-01

    In chamber experiments, we investigated the effectiveness of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air at the mannequin's face) ranged from 1.4 to 2.7, which is higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems.

  18. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  19. PHASE DIFFERENTIAL INDICATING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Kirsten, F.A.

    1962-01-01

    An electronic circuit for totalizing the net phase difference between two alternating current signals is designed which responds to both increasing and decreasing phase changes. A phase comparator provldes an output pulse for each 360 deg of phase difference occurring, there being a negative pulse for phase shtft in one direction and a positive pulse for a phase shift in the opposite direction. A counting circuit utilizing glow discharge tubes receives the negative and positive pulses at a single input terminal and provides a running net total, pulses of one polarity dded and pulses of the opposite polarity being subtracted. The glow discharge tubes may be decaded to increase the total count capacity. (AEC)

  20. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  1. GAS PHOTOTUBE CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, J.H.

    1958-03-01

    This patent pertains to electronic circuits for measuring the intensity of light and is especially concerned with measurement between preset light thresholds. Such a circuit has application in connection with devices for reading-out information stored on punch cards or tapes where the cards and tapes are translucent. By the novel arrangement of this invention thc sensitivity of a gas phototube is maintained at a low value when the light intensity is below a first threshold level. If the light level rises above the first threshold level, the tube is rendered highly sensitive and an output signal will vary in proportion to the light intensity change. When the light level decreases below a second threshold level, the gas phototube is automatically rendered highly insensitive. Each of these threshold points is adjustable.

  2. Preconditioner Circuit Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    ground plane and both operational amplifier terminals. The parasitic capacitances are labeled Cp1 and Cp2 in Figure 19. Figure 19. Circuit for...3.69 MHz 3.98pF 55720 5107 OV                                  (17) Cp2 = 1 pF R1 = 5107 Ω R3...circuit. The capacitor would be placed in parallel with RF to cancel the effect of Cp2 and then feedback factor will look purely resistive. Another

  3. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications, including the treatment of medical conditions. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system that will provide controlled pressurization of the system, and provide adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the

  4. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, HBOT is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. HBOT is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The HHC technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system to provide controlled pressurization and adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the patient and operating personnel, and physiological considerations. The simple schematic, comprised of easily acquired commercial hardware

  5. [Using non-invasive mask lung ventilation in cardiosurgical patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Eremenko, A A; Levikov, D I; Egorov, V M; Zorin, D E; Kolomiets, V Ia

    2004-01-01

    Twenty patients aged 33 to 71 (54 +/- 6) years (male - 13, female - 7) operated on the heart and main vessels were included in the case study. I.e. those patient were investigated, whose immediate postoperative results were complicated by the syndrome of multiple organ failure (SMOF) that developed due to different-etiology shock, huge blood loss and hemotransfusion or to the syndrome of acute postperfusion lung damage. NIMLV was made at the resolution stage of SMOF and ARDS after artificial pulmonary ventilation (APL) for as long as 5-7 days. The indications for extubation of patients were as follows: PaO2/FiO2 of 200 and more mm Hg, respiratory rate (RR) of less than 30 per min, respiratory volume of more than 6 ml/kg with pressure support at inspiration of less than 5 cm H2O and with the total pressure at the exhalation end of no more than 3 cm H2O. Mask ventilation sessions were started in a growing dyspnea of more than 26 per min, a decreased content of oxyhemoglobin in arterial blood (below 95% at oxygen inhalation of 10-15 l/min), involvement of auxiliary muscles in breathing and at subjective complaints of patients related with complicated breathing and with being short of air. The mask SIMV ventilation with a preset apparatus-aided rate of inhales of 2-6/min, with Bi-PAP and PSV inhale pressure of 15 cm/ H2O and with PEEP of 3-5 cm/ H2O was made by 40-120 min sessions; the number of IFMLV sessions ranged from 6 to 22/patient, mean - 11 +/- 1.1 h. The total IFMLV duration was 10.7 +/- 1.1 h. The need for respiratory support persisted for 4-6 days after extubation. In 18 (90%) of 20 patients, the mask pulmonary ventilation resolved the respiratory insufficiency. Two (10%) patients were reintubated because of progressing multiorgan failure and because of obturation of the left main bronchus. A questioning of patients on the comfort degree of mask ventilation denoted the Flow-by triggering to be by far better tolerated by patients versus the pressure

  6. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  7. Monolithic Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Walters, Wayne; Gustafsen, Jerry; Bendett, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) receives single digitally modulated input light signal via optical fiber and converts it into 16-channel electrical output signal. Potentially useful in any system in which digital data must be transmitted serially at high rates, then decoded into and used in parallel format at destination. Applications include transmission and decoding of control signals to phase shifters in phased-array antennas and also communication of data between computers and peripheral equipment in local-area networks.

  8. Cartography of serotonergic circuits.

    PubMed

    Sparta, Dennis R; Stuber, Garret D

    2014-08-06

    Serotonin is an essential neuromodulator, but the precise circuit connectivity that regulates serotonergic neurons has not been well defined. Using rabies virus tracing strategies Weissbourd et al. (2014) and Pollak Dorocic et al. (2014) in this issue of Neuron and Ogawa et al. (2014) in Cell Reports provide a comprehensive map of the inputs to serotonergic neurons, highlighting the complexity and diversity of potential upstream cellular regulators.

  9. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  10. A Porcine Model for Initial Surge Mechanical Ventilator Assessment and Evaluation of Two Limited Function Ventilators

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Robert P; Hotchkin, David L; Lamm, Wayne JE; Hinkson, Carl; Pierson, David J; Glenny, Robb W; Rubinson, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Objective To adapt an animal model of acute lung injury for use as a standard protocol for a screening, initial evaluation of limited function, or “surge,” ventilators for use in mass casualty scenarios. Design Prospective, experimental animal study. Setting University research laboratory. Subjects 12 adult pigs. Interventions 12 spontaneously breathing pigs (6 in each group) were subjected to acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) via pulmonary artery infusion of oleic acid. Following development of respiratory failure, animals were mechanically ventilated with a limited function ventilator (Simplified Automatic Ventilator [SAVe] I or II; Automedx) for one hour or until the ventilator could not support the animal. The limited function ventilator was then exchanged for a full function ventilator (Servo 900C; Siemens). Measurements and Main Results Reliable and reproducible levels of ALI/ARDS were induced. The SAVe I was unable to adequately oxygenate 5 animals, with PaO2 (52.0 ± 11.1 torr) compared to the Servo (106.0 ± 25.6 torr; p=0.002). The SAVe II was able to oxygenate and ventilate all 6 animals for one hour with no difference in PaO2 (141.8 ± 169.3 torr) compared to the Servo (158.3 ± 167.7 torr). Conclusions We describe a novel in vivo model of ALI/ARDS that can be used to initially screen limited function ventilators considered for mass respiratory failure stockpiles, and is intended to be combined with additional studies to defintively assess appropriateness for mass respiratory failure. Specifically, during this study we demonstrate that the SAVe I ventilator is unable to provide sufficient gas exchange, while the SAVe II, with several more functions, was able to support the same level of hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to ALI/ARDS for one hour. PMID:21187747

  11. Driven superconducting quantum circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2014-03-01

    Driven nonlinear quantum systems show rich phenomena in various fields of physics. Among them, superconducting quantum circuits have very attractive features such as well-controlled quantum states with design flexibility, strong nonlinearity of Josephson junctions, strong coupling to electromagnetic driving fields, little internal dissipation, and tailored coupling to the electromagnetic environment. We have investigated properties and functionalities of driven superconducting quantum circuits. A transmon qubit coupled to a transmission line shows nearly perfect spatial mode matching between the incident and scattered microwave field in the 1D mode. Dressed states under a driving field are studied there and also in a semi-infinite 1D mode terminated by a resonator containing a flux qubit. An effective Λ-type three-level system is realized under an appropriate driving condition. It allows ``impedance-matched'' perfect absorption of incident probe photons and down conversion into another frequency mode. Finally, the weak signal from the qubit is read out using a Josephson parametric amplifier/oscillator which is another nonlinear circuit driven by a strong pump field. This work was partly supported by the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST), Project for Developing Innovation Systems of MEXT, MEXT KAKENHI ``Quantum Cybernetics,'' and the NICT Commissioned Research.

  12. Digital integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polasek, P.; Halamik, J.

    1984-05-01

    The term semicustom designed integrated circuits denotes integrated circuits of an all purpose character in which the production of chips is completed by using one to three custom design stencil type exposure masks. This involves in most cases interconnecting masks that are used to devise the circuit function desired by the customer. Silicon plates with an all purpose gate matrix are produced up to the interconnection level and can be kept at this phase in storage, after which a customer's specific demands can be met very expediently. All purpose logic fields containing 200 logic gates on a chip and an all purpose chip to be expanded to 1,000 logic gates are discussed. The technology facilitates the devising of fast gates with a delay of approximately 5 ns and power dissipation of 1 mW. In assembly it will be possible to make use of the entire assortment of the currently used casings with 16, 18, 20, 24, 28 and 40 outlets. In addition to the development of the mentioned technology, a general methodology for design of the mentioned gate fields is currently under way.

  13. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  14. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  15. Candida spp. airway colonization: A potential risk factor for Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaojiang; Zhu, Song; Yan, Dongxing; Chen, Weiping; Chen, Ruilan; Zou, Jian; Yan, Jingdong; Zhang, Xiangdong; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2016-08-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to identify potential risk factors for Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and evaluate the association between Candida spp. airway colonization and A. baumannii VAP. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were on mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥48 hours were divided into the following groups: patients with and without Candida spp. airway colonization; colonized patients receiving antifungal treatment or not; patients with A. baumannii VAP and those without VAP. Logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching were used to identify factors independently associated with A. baumannii VAP. Among 618 eligible patients, 264 (43%) had Candida spp. airway colonization and 114 (18%) developed A. baumannii VAP. Along with MV for ≥7 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.9, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 4.9-15.8) and presence of a central venous catheter (aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9), Candida spp. airway colonization (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6-4.3) was identified as an independent risk factor for A. baumannii VAP. Patients with Candida spp. airway colonization were more likely to develop A. baumannii VAP than non-colonized patients (23% vs 15%, P=.01 and 34% vs. 15%, P<.001 in propensity score-matched subgroups). Administration of antifungal agents was not associated with A. baumannii VAP (29% vs. 21%, P=.153) but with higher in-hospital mortality (53% vs. 39%, P=.037). Candida spp. airway colonization (43%) and A. baumannii VAP (18%) were common in ICU patients who were on mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. Candida spp. airway colonization was an independent risk factor for subsequent A. baumannii VAP.

  16. Interface Circuit For Printer Port

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Yadlowsky, Ann B.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic circuit, called printer-port interface circuit (PPI) developed to overcome certain disadvantages of previous methods for connecting IBM PC or PC-compatible computer to other equipment. Has both reading and writing modes of operation. Very simple, requiring only six integrated circuits. Provides for moderately fast rates of transfer of data and uses existing unmodified circuit card in IBM PC. When used with appropriate software, circuit converts printer port on IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible personal computer to general purpose, 8-bit-data, 16-bit address bus that connects to multitude of devices.

  17. Coating Circuit Boards With Silicone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaudiano, S.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques appropriate to boards containing CMOS circuits detailed. Document presents procedure for applying thin conformal coating to such electronic assemblies as printed-circuit boards and wire-wrapped boards. Coating is from 1 to 7 mils (25 to 178 micrometers) thick and composed of room-temperature-vulcanizing (RTV) silicone. Specifies materials, equipment, spraying method, and quality requirements. Takes into account special needs of circuits made with complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) devices on circuit boards. Special attention given to preventing damage by electrostatic discharge, to which CMOS circuits especially sensitive.

  18. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    P.A. Kumar

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Handling Building (WHB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WHB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement areas ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination within the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WHB. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System is designed to perform its safety functions under accident conditions and other Design Basis Events (DBEs) (such as earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and loss of the primary electric power). Additional system design features (such as compartmentalization with independent subsystems) limit the potential for cross-contamination within the WHB. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits. The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is

  19. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Lane, William H.

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  20. Tunnel Ventilation Control Using Reinforcement Learning Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Baeksuk; Kim, Dongnam; Hong, Daehie; Park, Jooyoung; Chung, Jin Taek; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    The main purpose of tunnel ventilation system is to maintain CO pollutant concentration and VI (visibility index) under an adequate level to provide drivers with comfortable and safe driving environment. Moreover, it is necessary to minimize power consumption used to operate ventilation system. To achieve the objectives, the control algorithm used in this research is reinforcement learning (RL) method. RL is a goal-directed learning of a mapping from situations to actions without relying on exemplary supervision or complete models of the environment. The goal of RL is to maximize a reward which is an evaluative feedback from the environment. In the process of constructing the reward of the tunnel ventilation system, two objectives listed above are included, that is, maintaining an adequate level of pollutants and minimizing power consumption. RL algorithm based on actor-critic architecture and gradient-following algorithm is adopted to the tunnel ventilation system. The simulations results performed with real data collected from existing tunnel ventilation system and real experimental verification are provided in this paper. It is confirmed that with the suggested controller, the pollutant level inside the tunnel was well maintained under allowable limit and the performance of energy consumption was improved compared to conventional control scheme.

  1. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns.

  2. Dynamic behavior during noninvasive ventilation: chaotic support?

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, J R; Adams, A B; Dries, D J; Marini, J J; Crooke, P S

    2001-02-01

    Acute noninvasive ventilation is generally applied via face mask, with modified pressure support used as the initial mode to assist ventilation. Although an adequate seal can usually be obtained, leaks frequently develop between the mask and the patient's face. This leakage presents a theoretical problem, since the inspiratory phase of pressure support terminates when flow falls to a predetermined fraction of peak inspiratory flow. To explore the issue of mask leakage and machine performance, we used a mathematical model to investigate the dynamic behavior of pressure-supported noninvasive ventilation, and confirmed the predicted behavior through use of a test lung. Our mathematical and laboratory analyses indicate that even when subject effort is unvarying, pressure-support ventilation applied in the presence of an inspiratory leak proximal to the airway opening can be accompanied by marked variations in duration of the inspiratory phase and in autoPEEP. The unstable behavior was observed in the simplest plausible mathematical models, and occurred at impedance values and ventilator settings that are clinically realistic.

  3. Mechanical Ventilation in Sepsis: A Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fernando G; Mazza, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is the main cause of close to 70% of all cases of acute respiratory distress syndromes (ARDS). In addition, sepsis increases susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury. Therefore, the development of a ventilatory strategy that can achieve adequate oxygenation without injuring the lungs is highly sought after for patients with acute infection and represents an important therapeutic window to improve patient care. Suboptimal ventilatory settings cannot only harm the lung, but may also contribute to the cascade of organ failure in sepsis due to organ crosstalk.Despite the prominent role of sepsis as a cause for lung injury, most of the studies that addressed mechanical ventilation strategies in ARDS did not specifically assess sepsis-related ARDS patients. Consequently, most of the recommendations regarding mechanical ventilation in sepsis patients are derived from ARDS trials that included multiple clinical diagnoses. While there have been important improvements in general ventilatory management that should apply to all critically ill patients, sepsis-related lung injury might still have particularities that could influence bedside management.After revisiting the interplay between sepsis and ventilation-induced lung injury, this review will reappraise the evidence for the major components of the lung protective ventilation strategy, emphasizing the particularities of sepsis-related acute lung injury.

  4. Design Feature 7: Continuous Preclosure Ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    A.T. Watkins

    1999-06-22

    This design feature (DF) is intended to evaluate the effects of continuous ventilation in the emplacement drifts during preclosure and how the effects, if any, compare to the Viability Assessment (VA) reference design for postclosure long term performance. This DF will be evaluated against a set of criteria provided by the License Application Design Selection (LADS) group. The VA reference design included a continuous ventilation airflow quantity of 0.1 m{sup 3}/s in the emplacement drifts in the design of the repository subsurface facilities. The effects of this continuous ventilation during the preclosure was considered to have a negligible effect on postclosure performance and therefore is not included during postclosure in the assessment of the long term performance. This DF discusses the effects of continuous ventilation on the emplacement drift environment and surrounding rock conditions during preclosure for three increased airflow quantities. The three cases of continuous ventilation systems are: System A, 1.0 m{sup 3}/s (Section 8), System B, 5.0 m{sup 3}/s (Section 9), and System C, 10.0 m{sup 3}/s (Section 10) in each emplacement drift split. An emplacement drift split is half total length of emplacement drift going from the east or west main to the exhaust main. The difference in each system is the quantity of airflow in the emplacement drifts.

  5. Ventilator-Related Adverse Events: A Taxonomy and Findings From 3 Incident Reporting Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Williams, Tamara L; Sparnon, Erin M; Cillie, Tam K; Scharen, Hilda F; Marella, William M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2009, researchers from Johns Hopkins University's Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality; public agencies, including the FDA; and private partners, including the Emergency Care Research Institute and the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization, sought to form a public-private partnership for the promotion of patient safety (P5S) to advance patient safety through voluntary partnerships. The study objective was to test the concept of the P5S to advance our understanding of safety issues related to ventilator events, to develop a common classification system for categorizing adverse events related to mechanical ventilators, and to perform a comparison of adverse events across different adverse event reporting systems. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of ventilator-related adverse events reported in 2012 from the following incident reporting systems: the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System, UHC's Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization database, and the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database. Once each organization had its dataset of ventilator-related adverse events, reviewers read the narrative descriptions of each event and classified it according to the developed common taxonomy. RESULTS: A Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, FDA, and UHC search provided 252, 274, and 700 relevant reports, respectively. The 3 event types most commonly reported to the UHC and the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System databases were airway/breathing circuit issue, human factor issues, and ventilator malfunction events. The top 3 event types reported to the FDA were ventilator malfunction, power source issue, and alarm failure. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that (1) through the development of a common taxonomy, adverse events from 3 reporting systems can be evaluated, (2) the types of

  6. Flow measurement in mechanical ventilation: a review.

    PubMed

    Schena, Emiliano; Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Cecchini, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Accurate monitoring of flow rate and volume exchanges is essential to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury. Mechanical ventilators employ flowmeters to estimate the amount of gases delivered to patients and use the flow signal as a feedback to adjust the desired amount of gas to be delivered. Since flowmeters play a crucial role in this field, they are required to fulfill strict criteria in terms of dynamic and static characteristics. Therefore, mechanical ventilators are equipped with only the following kinds of flowmeters: linear pneumotachographs, fixed and variable orifice meters, hot wire anemometers, and ultrasonic flowmeters. This paper provides an overview of these sensors. Their working principles are described together with their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, the most promising emerging approaches for flowmeters design (i.e., fiber optic technology and three dimensional micro-fabrication) are briefly reviewed showing their potential for this application.

  7. MODELING VENTILATION SYSTEM RESPONSE TO FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Fires in facilities containing nuclear material have the potential to transport radioactive contamination throughout buildings and may lead to widespread downwind dispersal threatening both worker and public safety. Development and implementation of control strategies capable of providing adequate protection from fire requires realistic characterization of ventilation system response which, in turn, depends on an understanding of fire development timing and suppression system response. This paper discusses work in which published HEPA filter data was combined with CFAST fire modeling predictions to evaluate protective control strategies for a hypothetical DOE non-reactor nuclear facility. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate when safety significant active ventilation coupled with safety class passive ventilation might be a viable control strategy.

  8. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J; Zagalo, C; Cavaco-Silva, P

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) represents a risk factor for the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which develops at least 48h after admission in patients ventilated through tracheostomy or endotracheal intubation. VAP is the most frequent intensive-care-unit (ICU)-acquired infection among patients receiving IMV. It contributes to an increase in hospital mortality, duration of MV and ICU and length of hospital stay. Therefore, it worsens the condition of the critical patient and increases the total cost of hospitalization. The introduction of preventive measures has become imperative, to ensure control and to reduce the incidence of VAP. Preventive measures focus on modifiable risk factors, mediated by non-pharmacological and pharmacological evidence based strategies recommended by guidelines. These measures are intended to reduce the risk associated with endotracheal intubation and to prevent microaspiration of pathogens to the lower airways.

  9. Home Mechanical Ventilation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Choi, Won Ah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To survey the use of invasive and noninvasive home mechanical ventilation (HMV) methods in South Korea from the perspective of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R). Materials and Methods For 413 users of HMV, retrospective reviews of PM&R interventions and survey of HMV methods employed from Mar 2000 to Dec 2009. Results Of the 413 users, the majority of whom with progressive neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) (n=358), 284 patients initially used noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV), while 63 others who were using tracheostomy mechanical ventilation switched to NIV as part of their rehabilitation. The NMD patients began HMV at an earlier age (34.9±20.3 yrs), and used for longer (14.7±7.5) hours than patients with non-neuromuscular causes of respiratory impairment. Conclusion Noninvasive management was preferred over invasive ones, and transition to the former was a result of PM&R interventions. PMID:25323913

  10. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, C.D.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Miksch, R.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Traynor, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminants and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. These air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings were measured and analyzed with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency.

  11. Thermoregulation and ventilation of termite mounds.

    PubMed

    Korb, Judith

    2003-05-01

    Some of the most sophisticated of all animal-built structures are the mounds of African termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, the fungus-growing termites. They have long been studied as fascinating textbook examples of thermoregulation or ventilation of animal buildings. However, little research has been designed to provide critical tests of these paradigms, derived from a very small number of original papers. Here I review results from recent studies on Macrotermes bellicosus that considered the interdependence of ambient temperature, thermoregulation, ventilation and mound architecture, and that question some of the fundamental paradigms of termite mounds. M. bellicosus achieves thermal homeostasis within the mound, but ambient temperature has an influence too. In colonies in comparably cool habitats, mound architecture is adapted to reduce the loss of metabolically produced heat to the environment. While this has no negative consequences in small colonies, it produces a trade-off with gas exchange in large colonies, resulting in suboptimally low nest temperatures and increased CO(2) concentrations. Along with the alteration in mound architecture, the gas exchange/ventilation mechanism also changes. While mounds in the thermally appropriate savannah have a very efficient circular ventilation during the day, the ventilation in the cooler forest is a less efficient upward movement of air, with gas exchange restricted by reduced surface exchange area. These results, together with other recent findings, question entrenched ideas such as the thermosiphon-ventilation mechanism or the assumption that mounds function to dissipate internally produced heat. Models trying to explain the proximate mechanisms of mound building, or building elements, are discussed.

  12. Thermoregulation and ventilation of termite mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, Judith

    2003-05-01

    Some of the most sophisticated of all animal-built structures are the mounds of African termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, the fungus-growing termites. They have long been studied as fascinating textbook examples of thermoregulation or ventilation of animal buildings. However, little research has been designed to provide critical tests of these paradigms, derived from a very small number of original papers. Here I review results from recent studies on Macrotermes bellicosus that considered the interdependence of ambient temperature, thermoregulation, ventilation and mound architecture, and that question some of the fundamental paradigms of termite mounds. M. bellicosus achieves thermal homeostasis within the mound, but ambient temperature has an influence too. In colonies in comparably cool habitats, mound architecture is adapted to reduce the loss of metabolically produced heat to the environment. While this has no negative consequences in small colonies, it produces a trade-off with gas exchange in large colonies, resulting in suboptimally low nest temperatures and increased CO2 concentrations. Along with the alteration in mound architecture, the gas exchange/ventilation mechanism also changes. While mounds in the thermally appropriate savannah have a very efficient circular ventilation during the day, the ventilation in the cooler forest is a less efficient upward movement of air, with gas exchange restricted by reduced surface exchange area. These results, together with other recent findings, question entrenched ideas such as the thermosiphon-ventilation mechanism or the assumption that mounds function to dissipate internally produced heat. Models trying to explain the proximate mechanisms of mound building, or building elements, are discussed.

  13. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at low pressures that simulate a PLSS environment. We obtained head/flow performance curves over a range of operating speeds, identified the maximum efficiency point for the blower, and used these results to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We designed a compact motor that can drive the blower under all anticipated operating requirements and operate with high efficiency during normal operation. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment. We produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSS ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm and consuming only 9 W of electric power and using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power blower can meet the performance requirements for future PLSSs.

  14. The growing role of noninvasive ventilation in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R

    2012-06-01

    For many patients with chronic respiratory failure requiring ventilator support, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is preferable to invasive support by tracheostomy. Currently available evidence does not support the use of nocturnal NIV in unselected patients with stable COPD. Several European studies have reported benefit for high intensity NIV, in which setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate are selected to achieve normocapnia. There have also been studies reporting benefit for the use of NIV as an adjunct to exercise training. NIV may be useful as an adjunct to airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis. Accumulating evidence supports the use of NIV in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. There is considerable observational evidence supporting the use of NIV in patients with chronic respiratory failure related to neuromuscular disease, and one randomized controlled trial reported that the use of NIV was life-prolonging in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A variety of interfaces can be used to provide NIV in patients with stable chronic respiratory failure. The mouthpiece is an interface that is unique in this patient population, and has been used with success in patients with neuromuscular disease. Bi-level pressure ventilators are commonly used for NIV, although there are now a new generation of intermediate ventilators that are portable, have a long battery life, and can be used for NIV and invasive applications. Pressure support ventilation, pressure controlled ventilation, and volume controlled ventilation have been used successfully for chronic applications of NIV. New modes have recently become available, but their benefits await evidence to support their widespread use. The success of NIV in a given patient population depends on selection of an appropriate patient, selection of an appropriate interface, selection of an appropriate ventilator and ventilator settings, the skills of the clinician, the

  15. Early Mobilization of Mechanically Ventilated Patients.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Pam

    2016-12-01

    Critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation are least likely to be mobilized and, as a result, are at-risk for prolonged complications from weakness. The use of bed rest and sedation when caring for mechanically ventilated patients is likely shaped by historical practice; however, this review demonstrates early mobilization, with little to no sedation, is possible and safe. Assessing readiness for mobilization in context of progressing patients from passive to active activities can lead to long-term benefits and has been achievable with resource-efficient implementations and team work.

  16. Special cases: mechanical ventilation of neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Victoria E; Huang, Jason H; Pilcher, Webster H

    2007-04-01

    Mechanical ventilation has evolved greatly over the last half century, guided primarily by improved comprehension of the relevant pathology/physiology. Neurosurgical patients are a unique subgroup of patients who heavily use this technology for both support, and less commonly, as a therapy. Such patients demand special consideration with regard to mode of ventilation, use of positive end-expiratory pressure, and monitoring. In addition, meeting the ventilatory needs of neurosurgical patients while minimizing ventilatory-induced lung damage can be a challenging aspect of care.

  17. Ventilation-perfusion imaging in pulmonary papillomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Espinola, D.; Rupani, H.; Camargo, E.E.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Three children with laryngeal papillomas involving the lungs had serial ventilation-perfusion scintigrams to assess results of therapy designed to reduce the bronchial involvement. Different imaging patterns were observed depending on size, number, and location of lesions. In early parenchymal involvement a ventilation-perfusion mismatch was seen. The initial and follow-up studies correlated well with clinical and radiographic findings. This noninvasive procedure is helpful in evaluating ventilatory and perfusion impairment in these patients as well as their response to treatment.

  18. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-11

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  19. Circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Lev Samuel

    Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics (cQED), the study of the interaction between superconducting circuits behaving as artificial atoms and 1-dimensional transmission-line resonators, has shown much promise for quantum information processing tasks. For the purposes of quantum computing it is usual to approximate the artificial atoms as 2-level qubits, and much effort has been expended on attempts to isolate these qubits from the environment and to invent ever more sophisticated control and measurement schemes. Rather than focussing on these technological aspects of the field, this thesis investigates the opportunities for using these carefully engineered systems for answering questions of fundamental physics. The low dissipation and small mode volume of the circuits allows easy access to the strong-coupling regime of quantum optics, where one can investigate the interaction of light and matter at the level of single atoms and photons. A signature of strong coupling is the splitting of the cavity transmission peak into a pair of resolvable peaks when a single resonant atom is placed inside the cavity---an effect known as vacuum Rabi splitting. The cQED architecture is ideally suited for going beyond this linear response effect. This thesis shows that increasing the drive power results in two unique nonlinear features in the transmitted heterodyne signal: the supersplitting of each vacuum Rabi peak into a doublet, and the appearance of additional peaks with the characteristic n spacing of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder. These constitute direct evidence for the coupling between the quantized microwave field and the anharmonic spectrum of a superconducting qubit acting as an artificial atom. This thesis also addresses the idea of Bell tests, which are experiments that aim to disprove certain types of classical theories, presenting a proposed method for preparing maximally entangled 3-qubit states via a 'preparation by measurement' scheme using an optimized filter on the time

  20. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Takahiro Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-07-06

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.

  1. 13. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING ACROSS HUDSON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING ACROSS HUDSON RIVER IN BACKGROUND, WITH SOUTH WALL OF NEW JERSEY SIDE OF VENTILATION BUILDING IN FOREGROUND - Holland Tunnel, Beneath Hudson River between New York & Jersey City, New York County, NY

  2. 12. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING IN FOREGROUND; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING IN FOREGROUND; NEW JERSEY SIDE, HUDSON RIVEN VENTILATION BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Holland Tunnel, Beneath Hudson River between New York & Jersey City, New York County, NY

  3. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  4. 2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, REDPAINTED GABLE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, RED-PAINTED GABLE WITH WHITE STARS AND A DOORWAY HOOD. ALSO SHOWS PORTION OF REAR ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS - Decorated Red Barn (1852), State Route 100 vicinity, Pottstown, Montgomery County, PA

  5. Ways of improving economy and reliability of mine ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    N.N. Petrov; N.A. Popov

    2004-09-01

    It is established that mine ventilation by main fans operating at maximum capacity results in higher power consumption. The ways are proposed for reduction in the effective power consumption by ventilation and improvement of mining operation safety.

  6. VENTILATION RESEARCH: A REVIEW OF RECENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY LITERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review, conducted to survey and summarize recent and ongoing engineering research into building ventilation, air exchange rate, pollutant distribution and dispersion, and other effects of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) s...

  7. Elective ventilation for organ donation: law, policy and public ethics.

    PubMed

    Coggon, John

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines questions concerning elective ventilation, contextualised within English law and policy. It presents the general debate with reference both to the Exeter Protocol on elective ventilation, and the considerable developments in legal principle since the time that that protocol was declared to be unlawful. I distinguish different aspects of what might be labelled elective ventilation policies under the following four headings: 'basic elective ventilation'; 'epistemically complex elective ventilation'; 'practically complex elective ventilation'; and 'epistemically and practically complex elective ventilation'. I give a legal analysis of each. In concluding remarks on their potential practical viability, I emphasise the importance not just of ascertaining the legal and ethical acceptability of these and other forms of elective ventilation, but also of assessing their professional and political acceptability. This importance relates both to the successful implementation of the individual practices, and to guarding against possible harmful effects in the wider efforts to increase the rates of posthumous organ donation.

  8. Integrated circuit cell library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  9. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    An improved base drive circuit (10) having a level shifter (24) for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays (30, 32). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors (100, 106) through a corresponding pair of buffer components (88, 94). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors (100, 106) while an associated pair of transistors (72, 80) shunt the non-linear delays (30, 32) during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor (100, 106).

  10. Temperature-Controlling Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    Simple circuit switches current to electrical heater on and off to maintain temperature of room at 25 plus or minus 0.5 degree C. Lightweight, compact, reliable, insensitive to electrical noise, and uses single 5-Vdc power supply. Handles ac loads of 10 A. Designed to operate outside temperature controlled environment over range of -55 to +85 degree C. Thermistor provides input signal for simple temperature controller. Output of controller applied to solid-state relay, which in turn switches current to resistance heater.

  11. Distributed circuit switching starnet

    SciTech Connect

    Chuan-lin Wu; Woei Lin; Min-chang Lin

    1982-01-01

    Starnet is a communication subnet which can cost-effectively connect hundreds or thousands of processors for distributed processing. It uses distributed control and circuit switching. Starnet's communication medium includes two major components: a multistage interconnection network and a set of interface units. The interconnection network uses a destination routing scheme with no central control. The interface unit provides handshaking between the computer/data node and the interconnection network under the control of a microprocessor. Detailed design of the communication medium is described. A model for comparing cost-effectiveness among starnet, crossbar and multiple buses is included. 7 references.

  12. Small Depth Quantum Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    circuit families and quantum Turing machines”. Theoretical Computer Science, 1-2(276):147–181, 2002. [20] S. Parker and M . B . Plenio . “Efficient...unclassified b . ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 polynomial-size...xn, b 〉 = |x1, ..., xn, b ⊕ f(x1, . . . , xn)〉 This is just an easy form of simulating any classical function in a reversible manner. If f(x1

  13. Itch Mechanisms and Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Han, Liang; Dong, Xinzhong

    2014-01-01

    The itch-scratch reflex serves as a protective mechanism in everyday life. However, chronic persistent itching can be devastating. Despite the clinical importance of the itch sensation, its mechanism remains elusive. In the past decade, substantial progress has been made to uncover the mystery of itching. Here, we review the molecules, cells, and circuits known to mediate the itch sensation, which, coupled with advances in understanding the pathophysiology of chronic itching conditions, will hopefully contribute to the development of new anti-itch therapies. PMID:24819620

  14. Seeing Circuits Assemble

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Jeff W.; Smith, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental neurobiology has been greatly invigorated by a recent string of breakthroughs in molecular biology and optical physics that permit direct in vivo observation of neural circuit assembly. The imaging done thus far suggests that as brains are built, a significant amount of unbuilding is also occurring. We offer the view that this tumult is the result of the intersecting behaviors of the many single-celled creatures (i.e., neurons, glia, and progenitors) that inhabit brains. New tools will certainly be needed if we wish to monitor the myriad cooperative and competitive interactions at play in the cellular society that builds brains. PMID:18995818

  15. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, Scott; Krainak, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  16. Dynamic pulse difference circuit

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Gerald L.

    1978-01-01

    A digital electronic circuit of especial use for subtracting background activity pulses in gamma spectrometry comprises an up-down counter connected to count up with signal-channel pulses and to count down with background-channel pulses. A detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal when the up-down counter has completed one scaling sequence cycle of counts in the up direction. In an alternate embodiment, a detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal upon overflow of the counter.

  17. Signal Processing Circuit Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Simplified active filter circuit 64 42. Video output amplifier 66 43. 64/128 gated clock circuitry 68 44. Two pole Sallen-Key active filters 7!1 45. Switched...four quadrant multiplier, log compression, multiple pole active video filtering and black level control. In what follows in this report an attempt...chip is shown in Fiqu-e 5. This is the master synch chip which generates all of the control signals necessary for TV monitor presentation of video data

  18. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, A.C.

    1995-04-04

    An improved base drive circuit having a level shifter for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays. The non-linear delays provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors through a corresponding pair of buffer components. The non-linear delays provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors while an associated pair of transistors shunt the non-linear delays during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor. 2 figures.

  19. 7 day chronic ceriodaphnia toxicity test -- reproductive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent causes death (acute toxicity) or reduction in the reproduction of the test organisms (chronic toxicity) during a seven day period. A series of dilutions of the effluent are set to determine how much the effluent must be diluted before toxic effects are no longer noted. Acute toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly more organisms die in the effluent dilutions than in the control treatment, and, if significantly more die, how much the effluent must be diluted so as to kill only 50% of the test organisms (the LC50). Chronic toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly fewer young are produced by test organisms exposed to the effluent dilutions. Results indicate the lowest effluent concentration which shows a toxic effect (the LOEC) and the highest effluent concentration which does not demonstrate an effect (NOEC).

  20. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Lawrence T.; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.