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Sample records for 7-day wash-out period

  1. Effect of chloroquine wash-out period of photosensitizers in the skin and selected organs in rats.

    PubMed

    Zima, T; Jirsa, M; Jirsa, M; Jirásková, M; Bradová, V; Stádník, B

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade, photodynamic therapy has become an alternative method for the diagnosis and therapy of tumors. In human medicine hematoporphyrin derivatives, sulfonated hydrophilic meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPPS4) and an oligomer of hematoporphyrin (Photosan 3), are widely used. Chloroquine is used for the treatment of porphyria cutanea tarda for its power to release porphyrins from the liver tissue. The kinetics of two porphyrin photosensitizers TPPS4 and Photosan 3 in the skin and some organs as well as the effect of chloroquine on the porphyrin excretion and their accumulation in skin and organs of Wistar rats were studied. TPPS4 exhibited maximum fluorescence in skin 48 h after application with decreasing to basal level from the 8th to the 14th day. Maximum fluorescence was reached at 72 hours after Photosan 3 application and it decreased to basal level during 96 hours after application. TPPS4 caused significantly higher fluorescence compared to Photosan 3. Chloroquine after oral administration did not change the fluorescence of skin, but it significantly decreased the TPPS4 concentration in rat organs if chloroquine treatment started 3 days or 2 weeks after TPPS4 application. Chloroquine significantly decreased the serum TPPS4 concentration during the period of 28 days. Fluorescence of skin was significantly higher and lasted longer after application of TPPS4 compared to Photosan 3. Chloroquine after oral administration did not influence the fluorescence of the skin, but it significantly decreased the TPPS4 concentration in rat organs. This effect could be useful in photodynamic therapy for mobilizing exogenous porphyrins from tissues after parenteral photodynamic therapy. PMID:14984321

  2. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    PubMed

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value < 0.05). A complete wash-out of VOCs in this setting was not observed, whereby a statistically significant reduction up to 65% as for terpinolene was achieved. Our setting successfully demonstrated a reduction of ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  3. Wash-out in N2-dominated leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn-Woernle, F.

    2010-08-01

    We study the wash-out of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by subsequent interactions. Therefore we focus on a scenario in which a lepton asymmetry is established in the out-of-equilibrium decays of the next-to-lightest right-handed neutrino. We apply the full classical Boltzmann equations without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors to calculate the wash-out of the lepton asymmetry by interactions of the lightest right-handed state. We include scattering processes with top quarks in our analysis. This is of particular interest since the wash-out is enhanced by scatterings and the use of mode equations with quantum statistical distribution functions. In this way we provide a restriction on the parameter space for this scenario.

  4. An Examination of "Wash-Out" and Workplace Conditions of Beginning Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma; Colem, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the extent of wash-out in two beginning physical education teachers; and (2) determine the workplace conditions these novice teachers experienced that may have influenced the extent of wash-out for them. The interactive factors influencing workplace conditions for physical education teachers…

  5. Closed circuit rebreathing to achieve inert gas wash-in for multiple breath wash-out

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Katherine; Downey, Damian G.; Elborn, J. Stuart; Bell, Nicholas J.; Smith, Jaclyn; Owers-Bradley, John

    2016-01-01

    Multiple breath wash-out (MBW) testing requires prior wash-in of inert tracer gas. Wash-in efficiency can be enhanced by a rebreathing tracer in a closed circuit. Previous attempts to deploy this did not account for the impact of CO2 accumulation on patients and were unsuccessful. We hypothesised that an effective rebreathe wash-in could be delivered and it would not alter wash-out parameters. Computer modelling was used to assess the impact of the rebreathe method on wash-in efficiency. Clinical testing of open and closed circuit wash-in–wash-out was performed in healthy controls and adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) using a circuit with an effective CO2 scrubber and a refined wash-in protocol. Wash-in efficiency was enhanced by rebreathing. There was no difference in mean lung clearance index between the two wash-in methods for controls (6.5 versus 6.4; p=0.2, n=12) or patients with CF (10.9 versus 10.8; p=0.2, n=19). Test time was reduced by rebreathe wash-in (156 versus 230 s for CF patients, p<0.001) and both methods were well tolerated. End wash-in CO2 was maintained below 2% in most cases. Rebreathe–wash-in is a promising development that, when correctly deployed, reduces wash-in time and facilitates portable MBW testing. For mild CF, wash-out outcomes are equivalent to an open circuit. PMID:27730167

  6. SWIFT REVEALS A ∼5.7 DAY SUPER-ORBITAL PERIOD IN THE M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTER X-RAY BINARY XB158

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29 ± 1 times the orbital period, i.e., ∼81 ± 3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ∼1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3-10 keV Swift X-Ray Telescope luminosity light curve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65 ± 0.05 days, and a >5σ improvement in χ{sup 2} over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods of 5.4-5.8 days were detected at a >3σ level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ∼70% longer than the predicted period. The 0.3-10 keV luminosity varied by a factor of ∼5, consistent with variations seen in long-term monitoring from Chandra. We conclude that other X-ray binaries exhibiting similar long-term behavior are likely to also be X-ray binaries with low mass ratios and super-orbital periods.

  7. The sloping alveolar plateau of tracer gases washed out from mixed venous blood in man.

    PubMed

    Schrikker, A C; de Vries, W R; Zwart, A; Luijendijk, S C

    1989-03-01

    We have investigated the slope of the alveolar plateau for inert tracer gases that were washed out from mixed venous blood. Two pairs of tracer gases were used (He, SF6) and (C2H2, Freon 22). The gases of each pair share almost the same blood-gas partition coefficient but they have different diffusive properties in the gas phase. The experiments were performed in healthy subjects at rest and at three levels of exercise (75, 150, 225 W). Each experiment started with the alveolar washin of the tracer gases by adding these gases to inspired air. This washin was continued for several minutes in order to dissolve sufficient amounts of the tracer gases in the body tissues. Subsequently, the tracer gases were washed out. In this paper, the slopes of the alveolar plateaus are defined as the relative increase of the concentration per second. Steeper slopes were found for the heavier gases (SF6 and Freon 22) in comparison with those for the lighter gases of the two pairs (He and C2H2). This finding may be ascribed to the contribution of diffusion-limited gas mixing in the lung to the slope of the alveolar plateau. For each gas, the slope for the first expiration during washout (alveolar washout) was considerably smaller than that for the later part of washout (mixed venous washout), and the difference amounts to about 56% and 76% of the slope during mixed venous washout at rest and at the highest level of exercise, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s−1) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s−1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  9. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s(-1)) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s(-1) SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  10. The effect of a combination of chlorhexidine diacetate, sodium fluoride and xylitol on plaque wet weight and periodontal index scores in military academy cadets refraining from mechanical tooth cleaning for 7-day experimental periods.

    PubMed

    Nuuja, T; Meurman, J H; Murtomaa, H; Kortelainen, S; Metteri, J

    1992-02-01

    45 subjects participated in a double-blind cross-over mouthwash study where a new tablet-form combination of chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol (XYLIHEX) was studied together with solutions of chlorhexidine (CHX) and sodium fluoride (NaF). The preparation XYLIHEX was developed as a dental chemotherapeutic that could easily be added to the soldiers' kit to be used under circumstances where practising normal oral hygiene habits is restricted. For comparative purposes, XYLIHEX was prediluted in this study to make a solution. Before starting, professional prophylaxis was given to the subjects to bring their gingivitis index scores as close to 0 as possible. The subjects refrained from mechanical tooth cleaning for three 7-day test periods. Plaque wet weight and periodontal index scores were recorded before and after the test periods. The results showed that the preparations XYLIHEX and CHX did not statistically differ from each other in reducing plaque wet weight values and the recorded periodontal index scores. Both these preparations were statistically highly significantly more effective antiplaque agents than NaF, as expected.

  11. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M⊙, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R⊙, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  12. Washing Out the Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    AJT Associates, Inc. (AJT) worked with NASA to develop a revolutionary ozone-based laundry system. AJT's TecH2Ozone(R) wash system presents its customers with an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe way to perform commercial laundering. TecH2Ozone significantly reduces the amount of water and chemical used as compared to traditional commercial laundry systems. This reduction has resulted in lower cost and shorter wash cycles. And due to the reduced use of chemicals, a significant portion of the rinse water is recycled back into the system for reuse. TecH2Ozone customers, such as hotels and other large commercial laundry facilities, have felt the benefits of this equipment. Because of the reduced cycle times, fewer washers are needed and there is a notable increase in the cleanliness of the laundry. The reduction in chemical residues is a boon to customers with allergies and those prone to skin irritation from chemicals retained in regular laundry. AJT Associates, Inc. (AJT) worked with NASA to develop a revolutionary ozone-based laundry system. AJT's TecH2Ozone(R) wash system presents its customers with an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe way to perform commercial laundering.

  13. Numerical model for a watering plan to wash out organic matter from the municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash layer in closed system disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru; Tanikawa, Noboru

    2009-02-01

    Bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a main type of waste that is landfilled in Japan. The long-term elution of organic matter from the MSWI bottom ash layers is a concern because maintenance and operational costs of leachate treatment facilities are high. In closed system disposal facilities (CSDFs), which have a roof to prevent rainfall from infiltrating into the waste layers, water must be supplied artificially and its quantity can be controlled. However, the quantity of water needed and how to apply it (the intensity, period and frequency) have not been clearly defined. In order to discuss an effective watering plan, this study proposes a new washout model to clarify a fundamental mechanism of total organic carbon (TOC) elution behavior from MSWI bottom ash layers. The washout model considers three phases: solid, immobile water and mobile water. The parameters, including two mass transfer coefficients of the solid-immobile water phases and immobile-mobile water phases, were determined by one-dimensional column experiments for about 2 years. The intensity, period and frequency of watering and other factors were discussed based on a numerical analysis using the above parameters. As a result, our washout model explained adequately the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurred (pH approximately 8.3). The determined parameters and numerical analysis suggested that there is a possibility that the minimum amount of water needed for washing out TOC per unit weight of MSWI bottom ash layer could be determined, which depends on the two mass transfer coefficients and the depth of the MSWI bottom ash layer. Knowledge about the fundamental mechanism of the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurs, clarified by this study, will help an effective watering plan in CSDFs. PMID:18691865

  14. Abilities of candesartan and other AT(1) receptor blockers to impair angiotensin II-induced AT(1) receptor activation after wash-out.

    PubMed

    Kiya, Yoshihiro; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Matsuo, Yoshino; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Saku, Keijiro

    2012-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) binds to Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor and evokes cell signaling, and subsequently stimulates vasoconstriction and cell proliferation, which eventually lead to cardiovascular disease. Since most AT(1) receptor blockers (ARBs) have molecular (differential) effects, we evaluated the specific features of candesartan and compared the abilities of candesartan and other ARBs (olmesartan, telmisartan, valsartan, irbesartan and losartan) to bind to and activate AT(1) receptors using a cell-based wash-out assay. Each ARB blocked Ang II-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and inositol phosphate production to different degrees after wash-out. In addition, a small difference in the molecular structure, i.e. a carboxyl group, between candesartan and candesartan-7H was associated with a difference in the degree of this blocking effect. In addition, interaction between Gln(257) in the AT(1) receptor and the carboxyl group of candesartan may be partially associated with the effect of candesartan after wash-out. Although our findings regarding the molecular effects of ARB are based on basic research, these findings may lead to an exciting new area in the clinical application of ARBs. PMID:21824992

  15. Studies on 133Xe wash-out from human skin: quantitative measurements of blood flow in normal and corticosteroid-treated skin.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, J K; Wadskov, S

    1977-04-01

    Blood flow was measured by the 133Xe technique in normal and corticosteroid-treated skin. Epicutaneous and intracutaneous methods of tracer application were compared in normal skin. The two labeling methods were equally suitable for measuring cutaneous blood flow provided calculations in both cases were based on a biexponential resolution of the wash-out curve in its cutaneous and subcutaneous components and provided the traumatic hyperemia phase was considered, when intracutaneous application of the tracer was used. Results were invalidated if calculations were based on initial slope of the wash-out curves.Topical application of beta-methasone valerate in a reduction in cutaneous blood flow as measured by the intracutaneous technique with curve resolution, whereas no effect could be demonstrated when calculations were based on the initial slopes of the curves. The 133Xe technique is a simple and reliable method for measuring cutaneous blood flow, which might prove useful in estimations of penetration ability and potency of topical corticosteroids.

  16. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  17. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  18. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Lei, Meiying; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Chuang; Duan, Jiaobo; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT), during a bed rest period (HDT0), and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1-HDT7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment. PMID:26029071

  19. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yang; Lei, Meiying; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Chuang; Duan, Jiaobo; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT), during a bed rest period (HDT0), and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment. PMID:26029071

  20. Vitamin E delivery to human skin by a rinse-off product: penetration of alpha-tocopherol versus wash-out effects of skin surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage, S; Tavakkol, A; Polefka, T G; Nabi, Z; Elsner, P; Thiele, J J

    2005-01-01

    alpha-Tocopherol, the major biologically active form of vitamin E, represents a frequently added lipophilic compound of skin care products. Despite its emerging use in rinse-off formulations, little is known on its efficacy with respect to its deposition or its antioxidant potential in human skin. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the single use of an alpha-tocopherol-enriched rinse-off product provides effective deposition of alpha-tocopherol on human stratum corneum. To test this, forearm skin of 13 volunteers was washed either with an alpha-tocopherol-enriched rinse-off product (test product, TP) or with an alpha-tocopherol-free vehicle control (control product, CP) (contralateral arm) using a standardized wash protocol. Thereafter, skin surface lipids were extracted with pure ethanol after the wash procedure as well as after 24 h. Additionally, one group of volunteers was subjected to irradiation of their forearms with low-dose UVA (8 J/cm(2)) prior to lipid extraction. Skin lipid extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography using electrochemical detection for vitamin E and UV detection for squalene (SQ) and squalene monohydroperoxide. The results of this in vivo study demonstrated that (1) while CP treatment lowers, TP treatment strongly increases alpha-tocopherol levels of skin barrier lipids; (2) increased vitamin E deposition levels were maintained for a period of at least 24 h, and (3) TP treatment significantly inhibited photooxidation of SQ. In conclusion, the use of alpha-tocopherol-enriched rinse-off products may help to maintain the integrity of the skin barrier by providing protection against photooxidative stress at the level of skin surface lipids.

  1. Effect of Administration of Moxifloxacin plus Rifampin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis for 7 of 7 Days versus 5 of 7 Days in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic System

    PubMed Central

    Drusano, G. L.; Sgambati, N.; Eichas, A.; Brown, D.; Kulawy, R.; Louie, A.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some trials administered antituberculosis agents for 5 of 7 days (5/7-day regimen) to optimize adherence. Since moxifloxacin has a longer half-life than rifampin, rifampin concentrations are <1% of the maximum concentration in serum (Cmax) on day 6 and nondetectable on day 7, while concentrations of moxifloxacin remain and are able to induce error-prone replication. We determined if functional moxifloxacin monotherapy for 24 h/week caused resistance. In in vitro pharmacodynamic experiments, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was treated with mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) exposures for moxifloxacin and rifampin of 400 and 600 mg/kg/day and exposures equal to 1 standard deviation (SD) above and below the mean values. The drugs were administered on schedules of 7/7 days and 5/7 days. Over the 28-day experiments, bacteria were plated onto antibiotic-free agar to determine the effects of exposure and schedule on the total population. MICs were checked for emergence of resistance. At days 7 and 14, there was a 0.56- to 1.22-log10-CFU/ml greater cell kill with the 7/7-day regimen versus the 5/7-day regimen (low exposure). This difference was not seen for the larger exposures at day 21. At day 23, the low-exposure 5/7-day arm had breakthrough resistance, with the total count increasing to >2 log10 CFU/ml above the low-exposure 7/7-day arm. Pharmacokinetic mismatching of drugs in the therapy of tuberculosis may result in emergence of resistance when a drug holiday is imposed during which there is functional monotherapy and where the remaining agent induces error-prone replication. This is particularly true for the portion of the population where the clearance is higher (1 SD above the mean). PMID:21750119

  2. Effects of a 7-day military training exercise on inflammatory biomarkers, serum hepcidin, and iron status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepcidin, a peptide that is released into the blood in response to inflammation, prevents cellular iron export and results in declines in iron status. Elevated serum and urinary levels of hepcidin have been observed in athletes following exercise, and declines in iron status have been reported following prolonged periods of training. The objective of this observational study was to characterize the effects of an occupational task, military training, on iron status, inflammation, and serum hepcidin. Findings Volunteers (n = 21 males) included Norwegian Soldiers participating in a 7-day winter training exercise that culminated in a 3-day, 54 km ski march. Fasted blood samples were collected at baseline, on day 4 (PRE, prior to the ski march), and again on day 7 (POST, following the ski march). Samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and serum hepcidin. Military training affected inflammation and serum hepcidin levels, as IL-6 and hepcidin concentrations increased (P < 0.05) from the baseline to POST (mean ± SD, 9.1 ± 4.9 vs. 14.5 ± 8.4 pg/mL and 6.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.2 ± 6.9 ng/mL, respectively). Iron status was not affected by the training exercise, as sTfR levels did not change over the course of the 7-day study. Conclusions Military training resulted in significant elevations in IL-6 and serum hepcidin. Future studies should strive to identify the role of hepcidin in the adaptive response to exercise, as well as countermeasures for the prevention of chronic or repeated elevations in serum hepcidin due to exercise or sustained occupational tasks which may result in longer term decrements in iron status. PMID:24188143

  3. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  4. Clinical effects of thigh cuffs during a 7-day 6° head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavy-Le Traon, Anne; Maillet, Alain; Vasseur Clausen, Pascale; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Alferova, Irina; Gharib, Claude; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier

    2001-08-01

    Thigh cuffs are used by Russian cosmonauts to limit the fluid shift induced by space flight. A ground simulation using the head-down bed rest (HDBR) model was performed to assess the effects of thigh cuffs on clinical tolerance and orthostatic adaptation. 8 male healthy volunteers (32.4±1.9 years) participated twice in a 7-day HDBR — one time with thigh cuffs (worm daily from 9 am to 7 pm) (TC) and one time without (WTC). Orthostatic tolerance was assessed by a 10 minute stand test and by a LBNP test (5 min at -15, -30, -45 mmHg) before (BDC-1) and at the end of the HDBR period (R+1). Plasma volume was measured before and at the end of HDBR by the Evans blue dye dilution technique. Thigh cuffs limits headache due to fluid shift, as well as the loss in plasma volume (TC: -5.85±0.95%; WTC: -9.09±0.82%, p<0.05). The mean duration of the stand test (R+1) did not differ in the two group (TC 7.1±1.3 min; WTC 7.0±1.0 min). The increase in HR and decrease in diastolic blood pressure were slightly but significantly larger without thigh cuffs. Duration of the LBNP tests did not differ with thigh cuffs. Thigh cuffs limit the symptoms due to fluid shift and the loss in plasma volume. They partly reduced the increase in HR during orthostatic stress but had no effect on duration of orthostatic stress tests.

  5. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  6. The quality and fertility of sperm collected from European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses refrigerated for up to 7 days.

    PubMed

    Shishova, Natalia V; Uteshev, Viktor K; Sirota, Nikolai P; Kuznetsova, Elena A; Kaurova, Svetlana A; Browne, Robert K; Gakhova, Edith N

    2013-01-01

    There is a catastrophic decrease in the biodiversity of amphibians coupled with the loss of genetic variation. The perpetuation of amphibian biodiversity demands a multifaceted approach, including the use of reproduction technologies (RTs), to enable efficient reproduction in captivity and to prevent the loss of genetic variation. Reproduction technologies for the storage of amphibian sperm for days to weeks, when refrigerated at 4°C, or for millennia when cryopreserved have recently undergone rapid development. Sperm from amphibians may be obtained through excision and maceration of testes; however, this is sometimes not possible with rare or endangered species. Alternate methods of obtaining sperm are through hormonal induction, or as spermatozoa from the carcasses of recently dead amphibians. The use of sperm from carcasses of recently dead amphibians is particularly valuable when sampled from genetically important founders in conservation breeding programs, or where catastrophic mortality is occurring in natural population. Sperm harvested over a period of 7 days from the testes of European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses stored in a refrigerator were assessed for percentage and progressive motility, cell membrane integrity, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and fertilizing ability. In addition, the survival of resulting embryos to hatch was recorded. Results indicated that some sperm of R. temporaria remain motile and fertile when harvested from frog carcasses refrigerated up to 7 days post-mortem, and resulting embryos can develop to hatch. PMID:23609917

  7. Absence of diuresis during a 7-day saturation dive at 2.5 ATA N2-O2.

    PubMed

    Niu, A K; Hong, S K; Claybaugh, J R; Goldinger, J M; Kwon, O; Li, M; Randall, E; Lundgren, C E

    1990-05-01

    Three male divers were studied for 2 days during each of the predive and postdive 1 ATA air control periods and for 7 days at 2.5 ATA (2.3 ATA N2 and 0.2 ATA O2). The chamber temperature was always maintained at a comfort level. Average urine flow remained at 1500 ml.day-1 during both predive and 2.5 ATA periods; urine osmolality also remained constant at around 700 mOSM/kg. On the other hand, daily excretion of Na increased significantly from 139 mEq during the predive period to 178 mEq at 2.5 ATA (P less than 0.05) but returned to the predive level during the postdive period. In contrast, daily K excretion decreased progressively with a significant decrease during the postdive period (P less than 0.05). Plasma osmolality, Na, and K remained unchanged, whereas a 6% reduction of total protein concentration at 2.5 ATA (P less than 0.05) was observed. A quantitatively similar decrease (8%) was observed for hematocrit during the 2.5 ATA period, which did not recover at postdive. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in urinary excretion of antidiuretic hormone (P less than 0.05) and by decreases in both plasma renin and aldosterone (P less than 0.05) level and urinary excretion of aldosterone (P less than 0.05). Plasma atrial natriuretic factor remained unchanged throughout the entire dive period.

  8. Delayed profound thrombocytopenia presenting 7 days after use of abciximab (ReoPro).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjiv; Bhambi, Brijesh; Nyitray, William; Sharma, Geetanjali; Shambaugh, Shawn; Antonescu, Adrian; Shukla, Pankaj; Denny, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    A case of a 65-year-old woman presenting with delayed profound thrombocytopenia 7 days after the use of abciximab (ReoPro) in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention is described. The patient had normal platelet counts for the first 24 hours after the use of abciximab (ReoPro). She presented with petechiae and profound thrombocytopenia 1 week later. The patient was treated successfully with a platelet transfusion and recovered uneventfully. Profound thrombocytopenia occurs acutely within the first few hours after abciximab (ReoPro) use, so this case was unique in that the profound thrombocytopenia presented 1 week after use of abciximab (ReoPro).

  9. Eccentric and concentric muscle performance following 7 days of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.; Roper, Mary L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Mcbrine, John J.; Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle strength occur in response to chronic disuse or insufficient functional loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle performance of the lower extremity and torso prior to and immediately after 7 days of simulated weightlessness (horizontal bed rest). A Biodex was used to determine concentric and eccentric peak torque and angle at peak torque for the back, abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring, soleus, and tibialis anterior. A reference angle of 0 degrees was set at full extension. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

  10. A protocol for conducting 7-day daily renewal tests with Lemna gibba.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Solomon, Keith R

    2007-01-01

    Lemna gibba (a duckweed) is a freshwater macrophyte commonly used in toxicity testing, and Lemna spp are currently the only aquatic higher plants required for evaluation of pesticides under the pesticide registration guidelines of the EPA. The methods currently available for toxicity testing by various organizations and agencies, including ASTM, OECD, EPA and Environment Canada, are largely static or semistatic tests with unspecified renewal intervals (OECD) and may not provide a consistent means of exposure owing to short toxicant half-life in aquatic media, uptake of chemical by plants and evaporation of nutrient media. The procedure outlined here details a simple and efficient 7-day daily static renewal procedure for conducting toxicity tests with L. gibba, the appropriate end points to assess, the statistical criteria necessary for analyzing the toxicity data, as well as the steps required to culture and maintain L. gibba. This protocol is based on a modified version of a widely accepted static method. PMID:17446897

  11. Monocular blindness developing 7 days after repair of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture. A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Buckley, S B; McAnear, J T; Dolwick, M F; Aragon, S B

    1985-07-01

    Blindness following zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fracture and surgical repair is an unfortunate and uncommon complication. A review of the literature reveals fewer than 25 cases of monocular blindness resulting from zygomaticomaxillary fracture or repair. The case presented here is that of a man who was assaulted with a baseball bat and suffered a mildly displaced ZMC fracture. On admission, the patient had light perception only in his left eye. During his convalescence, vision in his left eye gradually improved to the point of allowing him to read a newspaper without difficulty. Then, 9 days after the injury (7 days after surgical repair), the patient awoke with complete blindness of the left eye. The possible mechanisms for such loss of vision are discussed.

  12. Growth, reproduction and population growth of Ceriodaphnia cornuta sars and comparison of 7-day fecundity with Ceriodaphnia dubia richard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Dehui

    1989-06-01

    Biology of parthenogenetic females of Ceriodaphnia cornuta Sars was studied under laboratory conditions. The mean length of neonates (first-young instars) of Ceriodaphnia cornuta was found to be 0.27 mm at 25±1°C and that of the first adult instars 0.50 mm. A maximum length of 0.69 mm was attained at the 8th adult instar. The mean longevity was found to be 19.0 days for 3 preadult and 8 adult instars. Sex maturity was reached in 4.26 days. The mean number of young per brood was 6.21. The total production for each adult reached 49.7. The maximum reproduction period occurred during the 4th adult instar. At this age, the animals were 10.25 days old, and had a body length of 0.65 mm. The innate capacity for increase ( r m) was 0.40 per female per day, the net reproduction rate ( R 0) was 33.601 per generation, the mean length of a generation ( T) was 8.786 days, and the finite rate for increase (λ) was 1.492 per female per day. Comparisons using the t-test indicated that the number of eggs produced and number of broods of C. cornuta and C. dubia were not significantly different ( p>0.05) after 7 days.

  13. Effects of 7-day continuous d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys*

    PubMed Central

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L.; Banks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice.In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined. Methods Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32 mg/kg/h). Results During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1 mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys. Conclusions The present subchronic treatment resultssupport the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice. PMID:26361713

  14. The development of a 7-day community specialist palliative care service.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    The author worked as a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in community palliative care in the Central Lancashire area of England when the CNS service was extended to a 9am-to-5pm 7-day service. A project group was set up to canvas some of the key stakeholders for their views on the extension of the service. The group undertook a literature search, a telephone survey of services in other areas that were providing this level of service, and interviews to ascertain the views of district nurses in the locality of the proposed service extension. The extension of service has long been advocated and was one of the key recommendations in the UK Department of Health's peer-review process. Such an extension was implemented following the research phase and was then evaluated by the project lead and the community services manager. The extension was found to be effective in the ongoing monitoring and support of patients. Anecdotally, the CNS team also felt it had been proactive in preventing unnecessary hospital admissions, although this specific aspect is difficult to quantify. This article looks at how the service was developed, how it has evolved over time, and how it works today. Consideration is also given to benefits and limitations. PMID:24356506

  15. Applications of a 7-day Caco-2 cell model in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Yadava, Preeti; Heikkinen, Aki T; Parrott, Neil; Railkar, Aruna

    2014-06-01

    Oral delivery is the preferred route of administration and therefore good absorption after oral dosing is a prerequisite for a compound to be successful in the clinic. The prediction of oral bioavailability from in vitro permeability assays is thus a valuable tool during drug discovery and development. Caco-2 cell monolayers mimic the human intestinal epithelium in many aspects. These monolayers form tight junctions between cells and have been widely used as a model of human intestinal absorption. Caco-2 cells also express a variety of transporter proteins although the transformed nature of the cells results in unpredictable differentiation markers, transport properties and enzyme expression. Thus various modifications of the Caco-2 assay are used in laboratories across the globe. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of a time and resource saving 7-day Caco-2 assay protocol. We also discuss the impact of various experimental conditions on permeability measurements and its applications during lead optimization in early discovery and for clinical candidate characterization, specifically for prediction of absorption in human, at a later stage in drug development.

  16. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL.

  17. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL. PMID:25943335

  18. Psychometric properties of the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andy; Taylor, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy; Rowlands, Ann

    2007-12-01

    Few self-report measures of physical activity have been validated in individuals with severe mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 7-day recall measure (7DR: [Blair, S. N. (1984). How to assess exercise habits and physical fitness. In J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weiss, (Eds.), Behavioural health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 424-447). New York: Wiley.]) through comparison with RT3 triaxial accelerometry data. Fourteen individuals took part in the study. Validity was considered by Kendall's tau correlation and (Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical-methods for assessing agreement between 2 methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1(8476), 307-310) limits of agreement and test-retest reliability was measured by ICC. The only significant correlation between measures was total energy expenditure (tau = 0.43). The 7-DR over reported moderate physical activity by 16.9 +/- 52.3 min/day, but under reported vigorous physical activity by -10.4 +/- 24.3 min/day. Test retest ICC was significant for all outcome measures. Overall, the 7-DR was reliable but exhibited questionable validity. The use of self-report questionnaires such as the 7-DR may inaccurately estimate the levels of physical activity in this population, and may not be sensitive to monitoring intervention-related changes in physical activity.

  19. Somatosensory and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials Assessed between 4 and 7 Days after Severe Stroke Onset Predict Unfavorable Outcome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Su, Ying Ying; Xiao, Shu Ying; Liu, Yi Fei

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the best predictive timing of short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SLSEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) for unfavorable outcomes in patients with early stage severe stroke. One hundred fifty-six patients with acute severe supratentorial stroke were monitored according to SLSEP, BAEP, and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at 1-3 days and 4-7 days after the onset of stroke. All patients were followed up for outcomes at 6 months after onset using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), with a score of 5-6 considered unfavorable. The predictive values of SLSEP, BAEP, and the GCS at 1-3 days were compared with 4-7 days after onset. Our results show that, according to the analysis of prognostic authenticity, the predictive values of SLSEP and BAEP at 4-7 days after stroke onset improved when compared with the values at 1-3 days for unfavorable outcomes. Most of the patients with change of worsening evoked potentials from 1-3 days to 4-7 days after onset had unfavorable outcomes. In conclusion, SLSEP and BAEP assessed at 4-7 days after onset predicted unfavorable outcomes for acute severe stroke patients. The worsening values of SLSEP and BAEP between 1-3 days and 4-7 days also present a prognostic value.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  1. Estimating Monthly, Annual, and Low 7-Day, 10-Year Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Regression equations to estimate monthly, annual, and low 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) streamflows were derived for rivers in Maine. The derived regression equations for estimating mean monthly, mean annual, median monthly, median annual, and low 7Q10 streamflows for ungaged rivers in Maine presented in this report supersede those derived in previous studies. Twenty-six U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on unregulated, rural rivers in Maine with 10 years or more of recorded streamflow were used to develop the regression equations. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to select the explanatory variables (basin and climatic characteristics) that would appear in the final regression equations. OLS regression of all possible subsets was done with 62 explanatory variables for each of 27 response variables. Five explanatory variables were chosen for the final regression equations: drainage basin area, areal fraction of the drainage basin underlain by sand and gravel aquifers, distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid, mean drainage basin annual precipitation, and mean drainage basin winter precipitation (the sum of mean monthly precipitation for December, January, and February). Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to derive the final coefficients and measures of uncertainty for the regression equations. The forms of many of the derived regression equations indicate some physical, mechanistic processes. Drainage basin area is the most statistically important explanatory variable and appears in all derived regression equations. Monthly streamflows are related inversely to the distance from the coast to the drainage basin centroid during December, January, February, and March; that is, the closer a river basin is to the coast, the higher monthly streamflows are per unit drainage basin area during the winter. The relation reverses in May when higher streamflows are attributed to basins farther from the coast

  2. Favorable neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses to 7 days of exercise with an eccentric overload in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; DeVita, P

    2000-08-01

    The metabolic, cardiovascular, and neural cost of eccentric muscle contraction is less than that of concentric contraction, but the strength and neural adaptations in eccentric contractions are significantly greater following resistive exercise. We thus compared the short-term effects of exercise with an eccentric overload (n = 10) with those of exercise with a standard load distribution (n = 10) in ostensibly healthy sedentary elderly women (mean age 71.4). Subjects were tested for concentric and eccentric three-repetition maximum, maximal isokinetic eccentric and concentric and isometric force, and associated electromyographic activity of selected thigh muscles before and after 7 consecutive days of exercise training of the left knee extensors. The exercise program was designed so that the total weight lifted was similar between eccentric overload and standard groups, but the eccentric overload group exercised with an approximately 50% greater eccentric load. Control subjects did not exercise (n = 10). There was a 46% increase in the total weight lifted over 7 days. When all strength measures were combined, the eccentric overload group's strength gains were 1.8-fold greater than those of the standard group, and the cardiovascular stress in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, rate pressure product, and perceived exertion was significantly lower. The increases in muscle strength were achieved by increased muscle activation, but the strength gains were independent of the changes in antagonistic muscle coactivity. Because the strength gains occurred after a short period of exercise at a relatively low intensity and cardiovascular demand, the prescription of exercise with an eccentric overload appears suitable for elders, individuals deconditioned as a result of an injury, and the chronically diseased.

  3. Reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Research Settings: Last 7-Day Self-Administered Long Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan S.; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of the last 7-day long form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Craig et al., 2003) and to examine the construct validity for the measure in a research setting. Participants were 151 male (n = 52) and female (n = 99) university students (M age = 24.15 years, SD = 5.01)…

  4. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  5. Influence of 7 days of hindlimb suspension and intermittent weight support on rat muscle mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierotti, David J.; Roy, Roland R.; Flores, Vinicio; Edgerton, Reggie

    1990-01-01

    The effect of intermittent periods of weight support on a decrease in mass of the soleus (Sol) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles atrophied by hindlimb suspension (HS) was investigated in rats subjected to continuous HS for seven days or an HS plus intermittent (10 min every 6 hrs of slow walking on a treadmill) weight support (HS-WS). After 7 d HS, the Sol weight relative to body weight was 21 and 9 percent lower in Hs and HS-WS, respectively, than in control rats. Maximum tetanic tension/muscle mass ratio was significantly lower in HS than in controls; the HS-WS rats had values similar to controls, whereas the maximum tetanic tension/muscle weight was significantly elevated in HS-WS compared to controls. Contraction times were 25 percent faster in the Sol and unchanged in the MG of HS rats, indicating that a low-force short-duration exercise regime results in a significant functional recovery in the 'slow' Sol, whereas the 'fast' MG is less affected.

  6. Prediction of glycated hemoglobin levels at 3 months after metabolic surgery based on the 7-day plasma metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Nam; Lee, Yeon Ji; Kang, Ju-Hee; Choi, Ji-Ho; An, Yong Jin; Kang, Sunmi; Lee, Dae Hyun; Suh, Young Ju; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Sunghyouk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients), and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary.

  7. Prediction of Glycated Hemoglobin Levels at 3 Months after Metabolic Surgery Based on the 7-Day Plasma Metabolic Profile

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji-ho; An, Yong Jin; Kang, Sunmi; Lee, Dae Hyun; Suh, Young Ju; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Sunghyouk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients), and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary. PMID:25384027

  8. Variations in 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate of type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Verma, Narsingh; Anjum, Baby; Bhardwaj, Kshitij

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Diabetes has profound consequences on the cardiovascular system leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Blood pressure (BP) has a characteristic and reproducible circadian pattern, with high values during the day and low values at night. A 7-day timed analysis of BP through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been used not only to diagnose day and night dipping patterns of blood pressure, but also to measure day-to-day variability and the circadian hyper-amplitude-tension, a condition in which excessive circadian BP amplitude precedes the chronic established hypertension. Our objective was to assess the 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of BP and heart rate in diabetic patients, as it could be helpful in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 50 diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 non-diabetic participants were recruited for the study. General health records were individually maintained, and 7-day/24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor was carried out. Results The rhythmic parameters of systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, double amplitude, acrophase and 3-h fractionated hyperbaric index were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients. A total of 12 participants were diagnosed with circadian hyper-amplitude-tension. These data suggest that diabetic patients have certain variations in the circadian pattern of blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in disturbed vascular events, and thus are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion Seven-day/24-h monitoring might be useful as an early predictive tool in assessing future cardiovascular risk, guiding treatment and management of these patients. PMID:25422775

  9. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi; Murayama, Chieko; Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  10. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment.

  11. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment. PMID:26067703

  12. A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day course of doripenem to a 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Gram-negative bacteria. Methods This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing a fixed 7-day course of doripenem one gram as a four-hour infusion every eight hours with a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin one gram as a one-hour infusion every eight hours (April 2008 through June 2011). Results The study was stopped prematurely at the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee that was blinded to treatment arm assignment and performed a scheduled review of data which showed signals that were close to the pre-specified stopping limits. The final analyses included 274 randomized patients. The clinical cure rate at the end of therapy (EOT) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population was numerically lower for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (45.6% versus 56.8%; 95% CI, -26.3% to 3.8%). Similarly, the clinical cure rate at EOT was numerically lower for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP, the most common Gram-negative pathogen, in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (41.2% versus 60.0%; 95% CI, -57.2 to 19.5). All cause 28-day mortality in the MITT group was numerically greater for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (21.5% versus 14.8%; 95% CI, -5.0 to 18.5) and for patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (35.3% versus 0.0%; 95% CI, 12.6 to 58.0). Conclusions Among patients with microbiologically confirmed late-onset VAP, a fixed 7-day course of doripenem was found to have non-significant higher rates of clinical failure and mortality compared to a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin. Consideration should be given to treating patients with VAP for more than seven days to optimize clinical outcome. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00589693

  13. A 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids was ineffective to prevent muscle damage during a marathon.

    PubMed

    Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan Jose; Abian-Vicen, Javier; González-Millán, Cristina; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to prevent muscle damage during a marathon. Forty-six experienced runners were randomly divided into two groups, one with BCAA supplementation (n = 25, supplemented with 5 g day(-1) of powdered 1:0.5:0.5 leucine:isoleucine:valine, during the 7 days prior to the competition) and the other as a control group (n = 21, supplemented with an isocaloric placebo). Before the marathon race and within 3 min of finishing, leg muscle power was measured with a maximal countermovement jump and a urine sample was obtained. During the race, running pace was measured by means of a time-chip. Myoglobin concentration was determined in the urine samples as an indirect marker of muscle damage. A visual analog scale (0-10 points) was used to assess leg muscle pain during the race. In the BCAA group, the mean running pace during the marathon was similar to the control group (3.3 ± 0.4 vs. 3.3 ± 0.5 m s(-1), respectively, 0.98). The pre- to post-race reduction in muscle power was similar in both BCAA and control groups (-23.0 ± 16.1 vs. -17.3 ± 13.8 %, P = 0.13). Post-race urine myoglobin concentration was similar in both BCAA and control groups (5.4 ± 7.5 vs. 4.5 ± 8.6 μg mL(-1), P = 0.70). Finally, there were no differences between groups in the perceived muscle pain during the race (6 ± 1 vs. 5 ± 1 points, P = 0.80). A 7-day supplementation of BCAA (5 g day(-1)) did not increase the running performance during a marathon. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation was ineffective to prevent muscle power loss, muscle damage or perceived muscle pain during a marathon race. PMID:24477835

  14. A 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids was ineffective to prevent muscle damage during a marathon.

    PubMed

    Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan Jose; Abian-Vicen, Javier; González-Millán, Cristina; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to prevent muscle damage during a marathon. Forty-six experienced runners were randomly divided into two groups, one with BCAA supplementation (n = 25, supplemented with 5 g day(-1) of powdered 1:0.5:0.5 leucine:isoleucine:valine, during the 7 days prior to the competition) and the other as a control group (n = 21, supplemented with an isocaloric placebo). Before the marathon race and within 3 min of finishing, leg muscle power was measured with a maximal countermovement jump and a urine sample was obtained. During the race, running pace was measured by means of a time-chip. Myoglobin concentration was determined in the urine samples as an indirect marker of muscle damage. A visual analog scale (0-10 points) was used to assess leg muscle pain during the race. In the BCAA group, the mean running pace during the marathon was similar to the control group (3.3 ± 0.4 vs. 3.3 ± 0.5 m s(-1), respectively, 0.98). The pre- to post-race reduction in muscle power was similar in both BCAA and control groups (-23.0 ± 16.1 vs. -17.3 ± 13.8 %, P = 0.13). Post-race urine myoglobin concentration was similar in both BCAA and control groups (5.4 ± 7.5 vs. 4.5 ± 8.6 μg mL(-1), P = 0.70). Finally, there were no differences between groups in the perceived muscle pain during the race (6 ± 1 vs. 5 ± 1 points, P = 0.80). A 7-day supplementation of BCAA (5 g day(-1)) did not increase the running performance during a marathon. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation was ineffective to prevent muscle power loss, muscle damage or perceived muscle pain during a marathon race.

  15. Adherence to 7-Day Primaquine Treatment for the Radical Cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-01-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  16. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  17. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest.

    PubMed

    Vernikos, J; Dallman, M F; Keil, L C; O'Hara, D; Convertino, V A

    1993-07-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8338147

  18. Effect of burden and origin sites of premature ventricular contractions on left ventricular function by 7-day Holter monitor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Mingfang; Chen, Minglong; Yang, Bing; Wang, Daowu; Kong, Xiangqing; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Gu, Kai; Cao, Kejiang; Liu, Hailei; Jiang, Qi; Shi, Jiaojiao; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) could enlarge the heart, but its risk factors are incompletely understood as a single 24-hour recording cannot reflect the true PVC burden due to day-to-day variability. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of burden and origin sites on left ventricular (LV) function in patients with PVCs by 7-day Holter electrocardiography (ECG). From May 2012 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients with PVCs were recruited from the authors' affiliated hospital. All patients received 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead routing ECG and 7-days Holter ECG. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. A total of 102 participants with PVCs were included in the final analysis. Origin of PVCs from the tricuspid annulus had the highest burden and NT-proBNP level. LV papillary muscle had a higher LV ejection fraction (EF) level and a lower LV end-systolic dimension (ESD) than other PVC foci (P<0.05). The high burden group had a higher LV end-diastolic dimension (EDD) and LVESD but lower LVEF than the other two groups (P<0.05). Female, older age, physical work, and history of PVCs had a significantly positive correlation with symptoms. Male, older age, physical work, and high burden were positive predictors of enlarged LVEDD, LVESD and higher serum NT-proBNP level, but lower LVEF. Seven-day dynamic ECG Holter monitor showed the true PVC burden on patients with PVCs. PVCs with a lower burden or origin from the LV papillary muscle and the fascicle were relatively benign, while PVCs with a higher burden or origin from the tricuspid annulus may lead to cardiac dysfunction.

  19. Changes in messenger RNA of pancreatic enzymes and intestinal cholecystokinin after a 7-day bile-pancreatic juice diversion from the proximal small intestine in rats.

    PubMed

    Hara, H; Ochi, Y; Kasai, T

    1997-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated the bile-pancreatic juice (BPJ)-independent stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion in chronic BPJ-diverted rats. Pancreatic and intestinal adaptation to 7-day BPJ diversion was next examined. Pancreatic enzyme mRNA and cholecystokinin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa were measured in rats with BPJ diverted into the ileum (PBD rats) in comparison with the figures for rats with BPJ returned to the duodenum (normal rats) or laparotomized (Intact) rats under well-nourished conditions. Amylase mRNA in the pancreas was lower and trypsinogen plus chymotrypsinogen mRNA was higher in the PBD rats than in the intact rats. The change in pancreatic mRNA was similar to that in the specific activities of the enzymes after a chronic BPJ diversion. This finding suggests that these pancreatic enzymes were regulated by the mRNA level. The portal concentration of cholecystokinin in the postabsorptive period (exogenously non-stimulated status) was 4-fold higher in the PBD group than in the normal and intact groups. Cholecystokinin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of PBD rats was somewhat higher than that of intact rats. These results suggest that intestinal cholecystokinin was predominantly increased at the translational or later stage by chronic BPJ diversion.

  20. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Nittby, Henrietta; Brun, Arne; Eberhardt, Jacob; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after

  1. Static torsional otolith-cervical-ocular reflex after prolonged exposure to weightlessness and a 7-day immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Makarova, S. M.

    2011-05-01

    To determine the role of the support-proprioceptive factor in the functioning of the vestibular system, in particular the static torsional otolith-cervical-ocular reflex (OCOR), comparative OCOR studies with videooculography recording were performed after a 7-day "dry" horizontal immersion (16 subjects) and after a prolonged (126-195 days) exposure to weightlessness (13 cosmonauts). For the first time, it was demonstrated that minimization of the support and proprioceptive afferentation may result in an inversion or absence of the static torsional OCOR and the development of a positional nystagmus with an inverted reflex. A comparative OCOR data analysis of cosmonauts and immersion subjects has revealed similarity of responses. However, changes in OCOR after immersion were noted in only 60% of the subjects, while after space flight, 90% of cosmonauts showed them. Post-flight changes were more frequent, marked and long-lasting. Statistical analysis has shown that there were significant differences between pre- and post-flight data according to both parametric and non-parametric methods of multiple comparisons, whereas only parametric methods have found significant differences within immersion data.

  2. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  3. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  4. Fertility in Angus cross beef cows following 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Whittier, William D; Currin, John F; Schramm, Holly; Holland, Sarah; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K

    2013-12-01

    The present study determined whether a 5-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol with two doses of PGF2α would improve timed artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rate compared with 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in beef cows. Angus cross beef cows (N = 1817) at 12 locations were randomly assigned to 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR groups. All cows received 100 μg of GnRH and a CIDR insert on Day 0. Cows (n = 911) in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received two doses of 25 mg PGF, the first dose given on Day 5 at CIDR removal and the second dose 6 hours later, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 8 and were inseminated concurrently, 72 hours after CIDR removal. Cows (n = 906) in 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 7, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 10 and were inseminated concurrently, 66 to 72 hours after CIDR removal. All cows were fitted with a heat detector aid at CIDR removal and were observed twice daily until insemination for estrus and heat detector aid status. Accounting for estrus expression at or before AI (P < 0.0001) and body condition score (P < 0.01), cows in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group had greater AI pregnancy rate compared with cows in the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group (58.1% vs. 55.1%; P = 0.04). More cows that exhibited estrus at or before AI became pregnant compared with cows that did not [65.7% (681/1037) vs. 44.5% (347/780); P < 0.0001]. The AI pregnancy rate was lesser for cows with body condition ≤4 [≤4 - 49.3% (101/219), 5-6 - 57.9%; >6 - 55.8%]. The mean AI pregnancy rate difference between treatment groups and projected economic outcome varied among locations. In conclusion, cows synchronized with the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had greater AI pregnancy rate than those that received the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol.

  5. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  6. 36 CFR 223.81 - Shorter advertising periods in emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the spread of insects, the approving officer may authorize shortening the formal advertising period to not less than 7 days. In other emergency situations, or for timber sold under 36 CFR 223.2...

  7. Continuous accelerated 7-days-a-week radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Long-term results of Phase III clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof . E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Golen, Maria; Tarnawski, Rafal; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Suwinski, Rafal; Sygula, Mariusz; Wygoda, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To update 5-year results of a previously published study on special 7-days-a-week fractionation continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in Stage T{sub 2-4}N{sub 0-1}M were randomized between two definitive radiation treatments: accelerated fractionation 7 days a week including weekends (CAIR) and conventional 5 days a week (control). Hence the overall treatment time was 2 weeks shorter in CAIR. Results: Five-year local tumor control was 75% in the CAIR group and 33% in the control arm (p < 0.00004). Tumor-cure benefit corresponded with significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with the incidence significantly higher in CAIR patients than in control (respectively, 94% vs. 53%). When 2.0-Gy fractions were used, radiation necrosis developed in 5 patients (22%) in the CAIR group as a consequential late effect (CLE), but when fraction size was reduced to 1.8 Gy no more CLE occurred. Actuarial 5-year morbidity-free survival rate was similar for both treatments. Conclusions: Selected head-and-neck cancer patients could be treated very effectively with 7-days-a-week radiation schedule with no compromise of total dose and with slight 10% reduction of fraction dose (2 Gy-1.8 Gy), which article gives 1 week reduction of overall treatment time compared with standard 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 47-49 days. Although this report is based on the relatively small group of patients, its results have encouraged us to use CAIR fractionation in a standard radiation treatment for moderately advanced head-and-neck cancer patients.

  8. Estimation of minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge for selected stream sites, and associated low-flow water-quality data, southeast Texas, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Texas that provides discharge data used for water-management decisions and various other purposes. Operating stations at all locations where discharge data are needed is not feasible, but the statistical characteristics of the network station data can be used to estimate discharge characteristics at ungaged sites. Regionalization techniques such as regression analyses relate discharge-frequency characteristics to selected physical and climatic characteristics of drainage basins. A particular discharge-frequency characteristic that can be regionalized is the minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge1 (7Q2). In Texas, the 7Q2 is used at stream sites to analyze permit applications for water allocation, water-supply planning, aquatic maintenance (instream flow) requirements, and waste-load allocation for point and nonpoint source discharges.

  9. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkies, Krystyna; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  10. Incidence and Predictors of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Septic Shock Patients in a Medical ICU: Data from 7-Day Holter ECG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Guenancia, Charles; Binquet, Christine; Laurent, Gabriel; Vinault, Sandrine; Bruyère, Rémi; Prin, Sébastien; Pavon, Arnaud; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Quenot, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated incidence, risk factors for new-onset atrial fibrillation (NAF), and prognostic impact during septic shock in medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Methods Prospective, observational study in a university hospital. Consecutive patients from 03/2011 to 05/2013 with septic shock were eligible. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, history of AF, transfer with prior septic shock. Included patients were equipped with long-duration (7 days) Holter ECG monitoring. NAF was defined as an AF episode lasting >30 seconds. Patient characteristics, infection criteria, cardiovascular parameters, severity of illness, support therapies were recorded. Results Among 66 patients, 29(44%) developed NAF; 10 (34%) would not have been diagnosed without Holter ECG monitoring. NAF patients were older, with more markers of heart failure (troponin and NT-pro-BNP), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), longer QRS duration and more nonsustained supra ventricular arrhythmias (<30s) on day 1 than patients who maintained sinus rhythm. By multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.06; p = 0.01) and LVEF<45% (OR: 13.01, p = 0.03) were associated with NAF. NAF did not predict 28 or 90 day mortality. Conclusions NAF is common, especially in older patients, and is associated with low ejection fraction. We did not find NAF to be independently associated with higher mortality. PMID:25965915

  11. Trichilia monadelpha bark extracts inhibit carrageenan-induced foot-oedema in the 7-day old chick and the oedema associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ainooson, G K; Owusu, G; Woode, E; Ansah, C; Annan, K

    2012-01-01

    Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Meliaceae) bark extract is used in African traditional medicine for the management of various disease conditions including inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. monadelpha using the 7-day old chick-carrageenan footpad oedema (acute inflammation) and the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (chronic inflammation). TWE and TPEE significantly inhibited the chick-carrageenan footpad oedema with maximal inhibitions of 57.79±3.92 and 63.83±12 respectively, but TAE did not. The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of 64.92±2.03 and 71.85±15.34 respectively. Furthermore, all the extracts and the reference anti-inflammatory agents (diclofenac, dexamethasone, methotrexate) inhibited the inflammatory oedema associated with adjuvant arthritis with maximal inhibitions of 64.41±5.56, 57.04±8.57, 62.18±2.56%, for TWE, TAE and TPEE respectively and 80.28±5.79, 85.75±2.96, 74.68±3.03% for diclofenac, dexamethasone and methotrexate respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant bark confirmed the presence of a large array of plant constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids, all of which may be potential sources of phyto-antiinflammatory agents. In conclusion, our work suggests that T. monadelpha is a potential source of antiinflammatory agents.

  12. The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): reliability and validity against doubly labeled water and 7-day activity diaries.

    PubMed

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Neilson, Heather K; Kopciuk, Karen A; Khandwala, Farah; Liu, Andrew; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Bryant, Heather E; Lau, David C W; Robson, Paula J

    2014-08-15

    We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009-2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ρs of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE.

  13. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Azevedo, Bruna Fernades; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  14. On the choice of the optimal periodic operation for a continuous fermentation process.

    PubMed

    D'Avino, G; Crescitelli, S; Maffettone, P L; Grosso, M

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we investigate the impact of the forcing waveform on the productivity of a continuous bioreactor governed by an unstructured, nonlinear kinetic model. The (periodic) forcing is applied on the substrate concentration in the feed. To this end, some alternative waveforms commonly encountered in practice are evaluated and their performance is compared. An analytical/numerical approach is used. The preliminary analytical step is based on the π-criterion that gives useful information for small amplitudes. The extension to larger amplitudes, when significant improvements are expected, is then performed through a continuation-optimization procedure. It is found that the choice of the specific waveform has an impact on the performance of the process and there is no unique best forcing for any process condition, but its choice depends on the operating parameters and the forcing amplitude and frequency values. Further, the influence of the waveform functions on the wash-out conditions are extensively examined. The analysis shows that all the waveforms examined in this work may lead to significant enlargement of the nontrivial regime with respect to a steady state operation. In particular, square-wave forcing leads in practice to the extinction of the wash-out conditions for any feed substrate concentration and for a well defined choice of the forcing parameters.

  15. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  16. GluN2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and excitatory amino acid transporter 3 are upregulated in primary sensory neurons after 7 days of morphine administration in rats: implication for opiate-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Gong, Kerui; Bhargava, Aditi; Jasmin, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of the peripheral nervous system to opiate-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is not well understood. In this study, we determined the changes in excitability of primary sensory neurons after sustained morphine administration for 7 days. Changes in the expression of glutamate receptors and glutamate transporters after morphine administration were ascertained in dorsal root ganglions. Patch clamp recordings from intact dorsal root ganglions (ex vivo preparation) of morphine-treated rats showed increased excitability of small diameter (≤30 μm) neurons with respect to rheobase and membrane threshold, whereas the excitability of large diameter (>30 μm) neurons remained unchanged. Small diameter neurons also displayed increased responses to glutamate, which were mediated mainly by GluN2B containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and to a lesser degree by the neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3/excitatory amino acid carrier 1. Coadministration in vivo of the GluN2B selective antagonist Ro 25-6981 with morphine for 7 days prevented the appearance of OIH and increased morphine-induced analgesia. Administration of morphine for 7 days led to an increased expression of GluN2B and excitatory amino acid transporter 3/excitatory amino acid carrier 1, but not of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate, kainate, or group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, or of the vesicular glutamate transporter 2. These results suggest that peripheral glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to OIH and that GluN2B subunit of NMDA receptors in the periphery may be a target for therapy.

  17. Shapes of a liquid droplet in a periodic box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestipino, Santi; Caccamo, Carlo; Costa, Dino; Malescio, Gianpietro; Munaò, Gianmarco

    2015-08-01

    Within the coexistence region between liquid and vapor the equilibrium pressure of a simulated fluid exhibits characteristic jumps and plateaus when plotted as a function of density at constant temperature. These features exclusively pertain to a finite-size sample in a periodic box, as they are washed out in the bulk limit. Below the critical density, at each pressure jump the shape of the liquid drop undergoes a morphological transition, changing from spherical to cylindrical to slablike as the density is increased. We formulate a simple theory of these shape transitions, which is adapted from a calculation originally developed by Binder and coworkers [L. G. MacDowell, P. Virnau, M. Muller, and K. Binder, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5293 (2004), 10.1063/1.1645784]. Our focus is on the pressure equation of state (rather than on the chemical potential, as in the original work) and includes an extension to elongated boxes. Predictions based on this theory well agree with extensive Monte Carlo data for the cut-and-shifted Lennard-Jones fluid. We further discuss the thermodynamic stability of liquid drops with shapes other than the three mentioned above, like those found deep inside the liquid-vapor region in simulations starting from scratch. Our theory classifies these more elaborate shapes as metastable.

  18. Shapes of a liquid droplet in a periodic box.

    PubMed

    Prestipino, Santi; Caccamo, Carlo; Costa, Dino; Malescio, Gianpietro; Munaò, Gianmarco

    2015-08-01

    Within the coexistence region between liquid and vapor the equilibrium pressure of a simulated fluid exhibits characteristic jumps and plateaus when plotted as a function of density at constant temperature. These features exclusively pertain to a finite-size sample in a periodic box, as they are washed out in the bulk limit. Below the critical density, at each pressure jump the shape of the liquid drop undergoes a morphological transition, changing from spherical to cylindrical to slablike as the density is increased. We formulate a simple theory of these shape transitions, which is adapted from a calculation originally developed by Binder and coworkers [L. G. MacDowell, P. Virnau, M. Muller, and K. Binder, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5293 (2004)]. Our focus is on the pressure equation of state (rather than on the chemical potential, as in the original work) and includes an extension to elongated boxes. Predictions based on this theory well agree with extensive Monte Carlo data for the cut-and-shifted Lennard-Jones fluid. We further discuss the thermodynamic stability of liquid drops with shapes other than the three mentioned above, like those found deep inside the liquid-vapor region in simulations starting from scratch. Our theory classifies these more elaborate shapes as metastable. PMID:26382377

  19. Road Salt Accumulation and Wash-out in Stormwater Detention Basins: Patterns and Implications for Biogeochemical Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhillips, L. E.; Walter, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that salt application to roads and parking lots in winter is driving a rise in chloride concentrations in streams in the northeastern United States. Our research focuses specifically on salt dynamics in stormwater detention basins, which receive runoff directly from parking lots and detain it before it reaches the stream. The four study basins are located on the Cornell University campus in Ithaca, NY USA. Between summer 2012 and 2014, soil electrical conductivity was continuously monitored inside and outside the basins using Decagon 5TE sensors and dataloggers. In two basins which drain stormwater quickly, conductivity levels changed minimally over the year. However, in the other two basins which drain much slower and often are saturated, conductivity increased through the winter, peaking at 8-10 mS/cm, and then took several months to decrease to baseline levels; thus the basins served as a source of salt to outflowing water even into the summer. This annual variation in soil salinity has implications for plant and microbial communities living in these basins. Research by colleagues has indicated that changing salinity can alter microbial communities and impact biogeochemical processes that play a role in water quality remediation. Thus we are also investigating the impact of salinity on denitrification rates in these basins. All of this information will help us understand what role stormwater detention basins are playing in controlling fluxes of road salt in watersheds, as well as how changing salinity influences the ecosystem services provided by these basins.

  20. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  1. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention. PMID:26728766

  2. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention.

  3. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks.

  4. Orbital Period Investigations of Two W UMa-type Binaries: AH Aur and V728 Her

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Hu, Ke

    2016-04-01

    The orbital period changes of two W UMa-type binaries, AH Aur and V728 Her, are investigated based on all available times of the light minimum taken from the databases and literature. It is revealed that the orbital period of AH Aur shows a long-term decrease at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=-2.491× {10}-7 days yr-1. For V728 Her, we find that the orbital period exhibits a secular increase at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=3.793× {10}-7 days yr-1. The secular period changes suggest that AH Aur and V728 Her are undergoing rapid mass transfer between the primary star and the secondary companion.

  5. Aitchbone hanging and ageing period are additive factors influencing pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Channon, H A; Taverner, M R; D'Souza, D N; Warner, R D

    2014-01-01

    The effects of abattoir, carcase weight (60 or 80 kg HCW), hanging method (Achilles or aitchbone) and ageing period (2 or 7 day post-slaughter) on eating quality attributes of pork were investigated in this 3×2×2×2 factorial study. A total of 144 Large White×Landrace female pigs were slaughtered at one of three abattoirs and sides hung from either the Achilles tendon or the aitchbone. After 24 h chilling, loin (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) and topside (M. semimembranosus) muscles were individually vacuum packaged and aged for 2 or 7 days post-slaughter. Consumers (n=852) evaluated eating quality. Neither abattoir nor carcase weight influenced tenderness, flavour or overall liking of pork. Improvements in tenderness, flavour and overall liking were found due to aitchbone hanging (P<0.001) and ageing (P<0.001) for 7 days compared with Achilles-hung carcases and pork aged for 2 days, respectively. This study demonstrated that aitchbone hanging and 7 day ageing can improve eating quality, but these effects were additive as the interaction term was not significant. PMID:24013699

  6. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  7. Evaluation of reproductive and economic outcomes of dairy heifers inseminated at induced estrus or at fixed time after a 5-day or 7-day progesterone insert-based ovulation synchronization protocol.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Johnson, C R; Mendonça, L G D; Silva, P R B; Moraes, J G N; Ahmadzadeh, A; Dalton, J C; Chebel, R C

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the reproductive performance and economic outcome of 3 synchronization strategies for first artificial insemination (AI) of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers from 2 herds (site A, California, n=415; site B, Idaho, n=425) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Heifers assigned to the AI on estrus (AIE) treatment received an injection of 25mg of PGF(2α) at enrollment (d 0) and every 11 d thereafter until AI occurred. Heifers assigned to the CIDR5 treatment received a controlled internal drug release insert (CIDR) containing 1.38 g of progesterone, which was removed 5 d later concomitantly with an injection of 25mg of PGF(2α), and received fixed-time AI (TAI) concomitantly with an injection of 100 μg of GnRH 53 to 60 h later. Heifers assigned to the CIDR7 treatment received a CIDR insert, which was removed 7 d later concomitantly with an injection of 25mg of PGF(2α), and received TAI concomitantly with an injection of 100 μg of GnRH 53 to 60 h later. Heifers were observed for estrus and inseminated up to 98 and 73 d after enrollment in sites A and B, respectively. Thereafter, heifers were moved to pens with bulls and considered failure to conceive to AI if still not pregnant at the end of the observation period. Economic outcomes were based on cost of synchronization protocol (CIDR treatment=$11, PGF(2α) or GnRH treatments=$2.5/treatment, estrous detection=$0.80/heifer per day), rearing cost ($2.75/heifer per day), and economic loss if a heifer did not conceive to first AI ($150). Input cost of the reproductive programs=synchronization protocol cost + semen cost + rearing cost + replacement cost. Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) 38 ± 3 d after first AI was greatest for AIE heifers (61.1%) followed by CIDR5 (44.8%) and CIDR7 (35.7%) heifers. Furthermore, P/AI 73 ± 7 d after first AI was greatest for AIE (58.8%) and tended to be greater for CIDR5 (42%) than for CIDR7 (34.1%) heifers. The percentage of heifers that had

  8. Chaos and periodicity in solar wind speed: cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Tushnik; Ray, Rajdeep; Khondekar, Mofazzal H.; Ghosh, Koushik; Banerjee, Subrata

    2015-06-01

    The solar wind speed time series data from 1st January, 1997 to 28th October, 2003 has been pre-processed using simple exponential smoothing, discrete wavelet transform for denoising to investigate the underneath dynamics of it. Recurrence plot and recurrence quantification analysis has revealed that the time series is non-stationary one with deterministic chaotic behavior. The Hilbert-Huang Transform has been used in search of the underlying periods of the data series. Present investigation has revealed the periods of 21 days, 32.5 days, 43.6 days, 148.86 days, 180.7 days, 355.5 days, 403.2 days, 413.6 days, 490.72 days, 729.6 days, 1086.76 days, 1599.4 days and 1892.6 days.

  9. Rotation periods of open-cluster stars, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Dasgupta, Amil; Backman, Dana E.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.; Baker, Shawn W.; Marschall, Laurence A.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Kuijken, Konrad; Stauffer, John R.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results from a photometric monitoring program of 15 open cluster stars and one weak-lined T Tauri star during late 1993/early 1994. Several show rotators which are members of the Alpha Persei, Pleiades, and Hyades open clusters have been monitored and period estimates derived. Using all available Pleiades stars with photometric periods together with current X-ray flux measurements, we illustrate the X-ray activity/rotation relation among Pleiades late-G/K dwarfs. The data show a clear break in the rotation-activity relation around P approximately 6-7 days -- in general accordance with previous results using more heterogeneous samples of G/K stars.

  10. Long-Period Tidal Variations in the Length of Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.

    2014-01-01

    A new model of long-period tidal variations in length of day is developed. The model comprises 80 spectral lines with periods between 18.6 years and 4.7 days, and it consistently includes effects of mantle anelasticity and dynamic ocean tides for all lines. The anelastic properties followWahr and Bergen; experimental confirmation for their results now exists at the fortnightly period, but there remains uncertainty when extrapolating to the longest periods. The ocean modeling builds on recent work with the fortnightly constituent, which suggests that oceanic tidal angular momentum can be reliably predicted at these periods without data assimilation. This is a critical property when modeling most long-period tides, for which little observational data exist. Dynamic ocean effects are quite pronounced at shortest periods as out-of-phase rotation components become nearly as large as in-phase components. The model is tested against a 20 year time series of space geodetic measurements of length of day. The current international standard model is shown to leave significant residual tidal energy, and the new model is found to mostly eliminate that energy, with especially large variance reduction for constituents Sa, Ssa, Mf, and Mt.

  11. Non-Invasive Analysis of Recombinant mRNA Stability in Escherichia coli by a Combination of Transcriptional Inducer Wash-Out and qRT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kucharova, Veronika; Strand, Trine Aakvik; Almaas, Eivind; Naas, Adrian E.; Brautaset, Trygve; Valla, Svein

    2013-01-01

    mRNA stability is one among many parameters that can potentially affect the level of recombinant gene expression in bacteria. Blocking of the entire prokaryotic transcription machinery by addition of rifampicin is commonly used in protocols for analysis of mRNA stability. Here we show that such treatment can be effectively replaced by a simple, non-invasive method based on removal of the relevant transcriptional inducers and that the mRNA decay can then be followed by qRT-PCR. To establish the methodology we first used the m-toluate-inducible XylS/Pm expression cassette as a model system and analyzed several examples of DNA modifications causing gene expression stimulation in Escherichia coli. The new method allowed us to clearly discriminate whether an improvement in mRNA stability contributes to observed increases in transcript amounts for each individual case. To support the experimental data a simple mathematical fitting model was developed to calculate relative decay rates. We extended the relevance of the method by demonstrating its application also for an IPTG-inducible expression cassette (LacI/Ptac) and by analyzing features of the bacteriophage T7-based expression system. The results suggest that the methodology is useful in elucidating factors controlling mRNA stability as well as other specific features of inducible expression systems. Moreover, as expression systems based on diffusible inducers are almost universally available, the concept can be most likely used to measure mRNA decay for any gene in any cell type that is heavily used in molecular biology research. PMID:23840466

  12. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  13. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  14. CCD Photometric Study and Period Investigation of AH Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu; Yu, Yun-Xia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present new CCD photometric observations of AH Tauri in the R band observed in 2006 at the Yunnan Observatory. Two new times of light minima were derived from these observations. We modeled the light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney program. The results show that the variations of the light curves can be expained by a cool spot on the primary star. The fill-out factor is about 6.6%, indicating that AH Tauri is a shallow-contact system. The mass ratio was determined to be about 0.505. In addition, the orbital period variations of AH Tauri were investigated based on all of the photoelectric and CCD light minimum times, including our two new data. It was found that the orbital period exhibits a possible periodic variation with a period of {P}{mod}=54.62\\(+/- 0.20) years and a secular period decrease of {dP}/{dt}=-(1.823+/- 0.215)× {10}-7 {days} {{yr}}-1. Since AH Tauri is an overcontact solar-like system, we discuss three mechanisms of the mass transfer, the light-time effect of the third body, and magnetic activity responsible for the orbital period changes.

  15. The first orbital parameters and period variation of the short-period eclipsing binary AQ Boo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Liyun; Pi, Qingfeng; Han, Xianming L.; Zhang, Xiliang; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei; Li, TongAn

    2016-10-01

    We obtained the first VRI CCD light curves of the short-period contact eclipsing binary AQ Boo, which was observed on March 22 and April 19 in 2014 at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, and on January 20, 21 and February 28 in 2015 at Kunming station of Yunnan Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Using our six newly obtained minima and the minima that other authors obtained previously, we revised the ephemeris of AQ Boo. By fitting the O-C (observed minus calculated) values of the minima, the orbital period of AQ Boo shows a decreasing tendency P˙ = - 1.47(0.17) ×10-7 days/year. We interpret the phenomenon by mass transfer from the secondary (more massive) component to the primary (less massive) one. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we also derived the photometric orbital parameters of AQ Boo for the first time. We conclude that AQ Boo is a near contact binary with a low contact factor of 14.43%, and will become an over-contact system as the mass transfer continues.

  16. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  17. Magnetic activity and orbital period variation of the short-period eclipsing binary DV Psc

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, Qing-feng; Zhang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Xi-liang

    2014-03-01

    We present six new BVR{sub c}I{sub c} CCD light curves of a short-period RS CVn binary DV Psc obtained in 2010-2012. The light curve distortions change on both short and long timescales, which is explained by two starspots on the primary component. Moreover, five new flare events were detected and the flare ratio of DV Psc is about 0.082 flares per hour. There is a possible relation between the phases (longitude) of the flares and starspots for all of the available data of late-type binaries, which implies a correlation of the stellar activity of the spots and flares. The cyclic oscillation, with a period of 4.9 ± 0.4 yr, may result from the magnetic activity cycle, identified by the variability of Max. I-Max. II. Until now, there were no spectroscopic studies of chromospheric activity indicators of the H{sub β} and H{sub γ} lines for DV Psc. Our observations of these indicators show that DV Psc is active, with excess emissions. The updated O – C diagram with an observing time span of about 15 yr shows an upward parabola, which indicates a secular increase in the orbital period of DV Psc. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = 2.0×10{sup –7} days yr{sup –1}, which might be explained by the angular momentum exchanges or mass transfer from the secondary to primary component.

  18. CCD photometric study and period investigation of V508 Oph

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiao, Ting-Yu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, new CCD photometric observations of V508 Oph obtained in 2009 and 2010 at the Xinglong Observatory are presented. From the new observations, six new times of minimum light were derived. The light curves were analyzed by using the 2003 version of the Wilson–Devinney program. It is found that the asymmetric light curves can be modeled by a hot spot on the secondary component. The degree of overcontact is 15.4%, implying that the system is a shallow-contact binary. Combining the new times of minimum light with the photoelectric and CCD data compiled from the database, we investigate its orbital period. The results show that the orbital period may be undergoing multiple changes: a long-term decrease at a rate of dP/dt=−(1.502±0.063)×10{sup −7} days year{sup −1}, and a small periodic variation with a period of 24.27(±0.34) years. Since V508 Oph is an overcontact system and both components are late-type stars, we discuss the possible connection between the mass transfer, magnetic activity, the third body, and the orbital period changes.

  19. Saturn's variable radio period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Gurnett, D. A.; Cecconi, B.

    Temporal modulations in radio emissions are often used to determine the rotation rate of the emitting body. The rotation period (presumably) of Jupiter's interior was established in this way [Burke et al., 1962] and has recently been refined by Higgins et al. [1997]. Rotation periods for the remainder of the outer planet gas giants were determined from Voyager planetary radio astronomy observations. Similar techniques have been applied to astrophysical objects, including pulsars, for which the radio period is assumed to be the rotation period of the neutron star. In 2001, however, this simple relation between the radio period and rotation period became suspect, at least for the case of Saturn. Galopeau and Lecacheux [2001] reported that the radio period of Saturn had changed by as much as 1% from that determined by Voyager and, further, exhibited variations on time scales of years. More recently, Cassini observations indicate that the Saturn kilometric radiation is modulated with a period longer than that observed by Voyager and that this period is variable on a time scale of a year or less. The recent Higgins et al. result suggests that Jupiter's period is steady, within measurement accuracy. There are no additional measurements from Uranus or Neptune with which to look for time variations in their radio periods. For conservation of energy and angular momentum reasons, true variations of the rotation period of Saturn's deep interior are not believed to be a viable explanation for the variation in radio period, hence, it would appear that there is some disconnection of the radio period from the rotation period in the case of Saturn. One possible contributing factor may be that since Saturn's magnetic field is very accurately aligned with its rotational axis, there is no first-order beaming effect caused by the wobbling of the magnetic field, contrary to the situation at the other magnetized planets. Another explanation suggested by Galopeau and Lecacheux [2001] and

  20. Sequences close to periodic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchnik, Andrei A.; Pritykin, Yurii L.; Semenov, Aleksei L.

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a survey of concepts and results connected with generalizations of the notion of a periodic sequence, both classical and new. The topics discussed relate to almost periodicity in such areas as combinatorics on words, symbolic dynamics, expressibility in logical theories, computability, Kolmogorov complexity, and number theory. Bibliography: 124 titles.

  1. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out. PMID:27126116

  2. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  3. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  4. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  5. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  6. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  7. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  8. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  9. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  10. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  11. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  12. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  13. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  14. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  15. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Neki, N S

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  16. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  17. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  18. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Kloos, R T

    1995-09-01

    Spontaneous periodic hypothermia is a rare syndrome of recurrent, centrally mediated hypothermia without an identifiable systemic cause or brain lesion. Most patients defend a temporarily lowered temperature "set point" during episodes of hypothermia, despite manifesting many well-known systemic consequences of core temperature hypothermia. No case of death directly attributable to an episode of spontaneous periodic hypothermia has been reported, although many of the serious systemic effects of hypothermia have been documented in these cases, so it is not unlikely that death may occur. The syndrome's cause, and that of Shapiro syndrome, remains unknown. Pharmacologic trials to date have been only modestly successful. Anticonvulsant agents, clonidine, and cyproheptadine appear the most likely to succeed, with cyproheptadine being a reasonable first choice. Given that the term "spontaneous periodic hypothermia" describes a syndrome, and not a pathophysiologic mechanism, it is likely to encompass a common eventuality, arrived at via several different pathways. One can postulate mechanisms such as structural abnormalities, trauma, infection, irritation, and degeneration involving strategic locations which create a focus for epileptic or other periodic dysfunction whose scope involves the centers for thermoregulation. The existence of 2 distinct, oppositional thermoregulatory centers would allow for speculation of similar mechanisms accounting for cases of both periodic hypo- and hyperthermia (61). Postmortem data regarding the hypothalamic and surrounding areas from future cases of Shapiro syndrome and spontaneous periodic hypothermia would be of great interest. Further, more sensitive in vivo testing methods are clearly needed. The role of PET or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (Tc 99m HMPAO) performed acutely during an episode remains to be characterized (64, 103, 105). The term

  19. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  20. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  1. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  2. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  3. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  4. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  5. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  6. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  7. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  8. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during periods of high magnitude floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, T.; Lepikhin, A.; Parshakova, Ya.; Tiunov, A.

    2016-03-01

    The risk of river pollution due to washout (removal of pollutants) from contaminated floodplain water bodies (floodplain lakes and quarries whose origin is related to the large-scale mining of nonmetallic building materials in the floodplain zone) during high magnitude flood periods is analyzed using a combination of one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling and in situ measurements. The modeling performed for the floodplain water bodies contaminated by N compounds shows that during large magnitude floods washout occurs. The washout process consists of two stages: an initial rapid stage lasting about two hours during which the upper (3-4 m thick) layer is washed out, followed by a second stage when the concentration of NH4-N in the floodplain water body remains nearly constant. The maximum contaminant concentration in the river in the vicinity of a water intake for drinking water located 21 km downstream is attained about 9 h from the beginning of the flood; concentration of NH4-N can reach values several times larger than acceptable concentration guidelines. The initial primary peak in contaminant concentration at the water intake is followed by a slight decrease in contaminant concentration; a second peak related to the contaminant transport through the inundated floodplain subsequently occurs, after which the concentration slowly decreases, reaching acceptable values after 30-40 h. Contaminated floodplain water bodies located near drinking water supply systems are not significant sources of contamination during small and moderate floods, but during high magnitude floods, they can become sources of water pollution. Operational measures that can decrease potential health risks are discussed.

  9. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space.

  10. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  11. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  12. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  13. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  14. Radiation-Free Weekend Rescued! Continuous Accelerated Irradiation of 7-Days per Week Is Equal to Accelerated Fractionation With Concomitant Boost of 7 Fractions in 5-Days per Week: Report on Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof; Hutnik, Marcin; Wygoda, Andrzej; Golen, Maria; Pilecki, Boleslaw; Przeorek, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Lukaszczyk-Widel, Beata; Heyda, Alicja; Suwinski, Rafal; Tarnawski, Rafal; Maciejewski, Boguslaw

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term results of randomized trial comparing 2 accelerated fractionations of definitive radiation therapy assessing the need to irradiate during weekend in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 345 patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, and oro- or hypo-pharynx, stage T2-4N0-1M0, were randomized to receive continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR: once per day, 7 days per week) or concomitant accelerated boost (CB: once per day, 3 days per week, and twice per day, 2 days per week). Total dose ranged from 66.6-72 Gy, dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy, number of fractions ranged from 37-40 fractions, and overall treatment time ranged from 37-40 days. Results: No differences for all trial end-points were noted. At 5 and 10 years, the actuarial rates of local-regional control were 63% and 60% for CAIR vs 65% and 60% for CB, and the corresponding overall survival were 40% and 25% vs 44% and 25%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with an incidence of 89% in CAIR and 86% in CB patients. The 5-year rate of grade 3-4 late radiation morbidity was 6% for both regimens. Conclusions: Results of this trial indicate that the effects of accelerated fractionation can be achieve by delivering twice-per-day irradiation on weekday(s). This trial has also confirmed that an accelerated, 6-weeks schedule is a reasonable option for patients with intermediate-stage head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma because of the associated high cure rate and minimal severe late toxicity.

  15. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  16. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  17. [Bibliometry of biomedical periodicals].

    PubMed

    Similowski, T; Derenne, J P

    1995-01-01

    Bibliometry or the science citation index is a quantitative evaluation of periodical literature, biomedical or others. It depends above all on an analysis of citations which allows for a calculation of different indices characterising and classifying journals (number of articles published, frequency of citation, impact, topicality...). The applications of bibliometry are varied from the administration of library collections to the appreciation of the significance of a review in its own speciality area. By extension the bibliometry index are sometimes used to evaluate the importance of a discipline in the literature, the place of a nation within a discipline, the significance of certain opinions or the quality of research. The intrinsic limits of bibliometry are such that this last application should be handled with caution. In effect, various biases can mechanically affect the value of different indices and particularly the fact that an article appearing in a prestigious review should not prejudge its quality such as the relevance of the question posed, the validity of the methodology employed or the accuracy of the results. For this, the study of citations is insufficient and some qualitative or semi-quantitative criteria bearing on the contents of the article should be used (critical reading, gate analysis, etc.) This general review has, as its aim, to expose both the definitions and limits of bibliometry illustrating them with some information calculated from the principal respiratory journals.

  18. PERIOD CHANGES AND FOUR-COLOR LIGHT CURVES OF ACTIVE CONTACT BINARY VW BOOTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.; Li, L.-J.

    2011-05-15

    The secured four-color light curves of VW Boo were analyzed with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney code. It is confirmed that VW Boo is a shallow W-type contact binary system with a degree of contact factor f = 10.8%({+-} 0.5%). Two dark spots were found on the massive cool component this time. They cause an unequal depth of the two maxima. A period investigation based on all available visual, photographic, CCD, and photoelectric data shows that the period of the system includes a long-term decrease (dP/dt = -1.454 x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}) and an oscillation (A{sub 3} = 0.0059 days; T{sub 3} = 25.96 years). These may be caused by mass transfer, angular momentum loss, and cyclic magnetic activity.

  19. Developmental changes in hepatic glucose metabolism in a newborn piglet model: A comparative analysis for suckling period and early weaning period.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Wang, Qinhua; Wang, Jing; Tan, Bie; Fan, Zhiyong; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2016-02-19

    The liver glucose metabolism, supplying sufficient energy for glucose-dependent tissues, is important in suckling or weaned animals, although there are few studies with piglet model. To better understand the development of glucose metabolism in the piglets during suckling period and early weaning period, we determined the hepatic glycogen content, and investigated the relative protein expression of key enzymes of glucogenesis (GNG) and mRNA levels of some glucose metabolism-related genes. During suckling period, the protein level of G6Pase in the liver of suckling piglets progressively declined with day of age compared with that of newborn piglets (at 1 day of age), whereas the PEPCK level stabilized until day 21 of age, indicating that hepatic GNG capacity gradually weakened in suckling piglets. The synthesis of hepatic glycogen, which was consistent with the fluctuation of glycolytic key genes PFKL and PKLR that gradually decreased after birth and was more or less steady during latter suckling period, although both the mRNA levels of GCK and key glucose transporter GLUT2 presented uptrend in suckling piglets. However, early weaning significantly suppressed the hepatic GNG in the weaned piglets, especially at d 3-5 of weaning period, then gradually recovered at d 7 of weaning period. Meanwhile, PFKL, PKLR and GLUT2 showed the similar trend during weaning period. On the contrast, the hepatic glycogen reached the maximum value when the G6Pase and PEPCK protein expression were at the lowest level, although the GCK level maintained increasing through 7 days of weaning period. Altogether, our study provides evidence that hepatic GNG and glycolysis in newborn piglets were more active than other days during suckling period, and early weaning could significantly suppressed glucose metabolism in liver, but this inhibition would progressively recover at day 7 after weaning.

  20. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  1. Long period preservation of marine products using electrostatic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Takamasa; Yaegashi, Taro; Yamada, Kazuki; Ito, Takanori; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Aisawa, Sumio; Takaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Shigeyoshi; Syuto, Bunei

    2016-07-01

    The effect of an AC electric field on the freshness of marine products was experimentally investigated. An AC voltage of 10 kV with 50 Hz in frequency was generated with a transformer and applied to a plane electrode set in an incubator. The biological material was the gonad of purple sea urchin. The AC electric field with 50 Hz in frequency was applied to the gonad at -1 °C for 7 days. Freshness was evaluated by measuring protein release and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. The results showed that the protein release and LDH activity in the gonad were suppressed by applying the AC electric field, compared with that without the AC electric field. Moreover, the gonad was treated with the AC electric field at -5 °C for 3 days and then preserved at 0 °C for 1 day without the field. This electrical field treatment of the gonad prolonged the freshness date for more than 10 days under 4 °C preservation condition. In addition, the permeability of the cell membrane was suppressed by applying the AC electric field. Concerning the relationship between permeability and AC electric field, the conformational change of bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by the AC electric field was evaluated on the basis of UV absorption spectra. The results revealed that the secondary and/or higher-order structure gradually changes with preservation period. The conformational change of the BSA molecule was induced by applying the AC electric field.

  2. Long period preservation of marine products using electrostatic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Takamasa; Yaegashi, Taro; Yamada, Kazuki; Ito, Takanori; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Aisawa, Sumio; Takaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Shigeyoshi; Syuto, Bunei

    2016-07-01

    The effect of an AC electric field on the freshness of marine products was experimentally investigated. An AC voltage of 10 kV with 50 Hz in frequency was generated with a transformer and applied to a plane electrode set in an incubator. The biological material was the gonad of purple sea urchin. The AC electric field with 50 Hz in frequency was applied to the gonad at ‑1 °C for 7 days. Freshness was evaluated by measuring protein release and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. The results showed that the protein release and LDH activity in the gonad were suppressed by applying the AC electric field, compared with that without the AC electric field. Moreover, the gonad was treated with the AC electric field at ‑5 °C for 3 days and then preserved at 0 °C for 1 day without the field. This electrical field treatment of the gonad prolonged the freshness date for more than 10 days under 4 °C preservation condition. In addition, the permeability of the cell membrane was suppressed by applying the AC electric field. Concerning the relationship between permeability and AC electric field, the conformational change of bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by the AC electric field was evaluated on the basis of UV absorption spectra. The results revealed that the secondary and/or higher-order structure gradually changes with preservation period. The conformational change of the BSA molecule was induced by applying the AC electric field.

  3. New Galactic Double Periodic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennickent, R. E.; Rosales, J.

    2014-10-01

    We discovered two new Double Periodic Variables in the ASAS catalogue of variable stars, viz., V495 Cen and V4142 Sgr. Other 3 candidates for Double Periodic Variables were found. All systems have relatively long orbital periods. We present improved ephemerides and disentangled light curves.

  4. 75 FR 1301 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Docket No. RM2009-10, Order on Analytical Principles Used in Periodic Reporting (Proposals Three...

  5. Evolutionary ecology of periodical insects.

    PubMed

    Heliövaara, K; Väisänen, R; Simon, C

    1994-12-01

    To be periodical, a species must have a fixed life cycle length and adults must appear synchronously, reproduce only once, and die. The consequence of this life history is that, at a given location, adults of a periodical species will be absent or rare in some years and abundant in others. The relative scarcity of periodical Insect species suggests that periodicity does not evolve easily. The major obstacle to its evolution is selection favoring life cycles In which the offspring of any given female appear over a two- or three-year period. Chance events which disrupt this 'bet-hedging' strategy set the stage for periodicity. Mathematical models predict that, given certain initial conditions, intraspecific competition and predation favor its development. Recent studies suggest that periodicity is rarely perfect but that it can persist in the face of limited gene flow through time.

  6. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  7. Fractional-period excitations in continuum periodic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nistazakis, H. E.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Nicolin, A.; Chin, J. K.

    2006-12-15

    We investigate the generation of fractional-period states in continuum periodic systems. As an example, we consider a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical-lattice potential. We show that when the potential is turned on nonadiabatically, the system explores a number of transient states whose periodicity is a fraction of that of the lattice. We illustrate the origin of fractional-period states analytically by treating them as resonant states of a parametrically forced Duffing oscillator and discuss their transient nature and potential observability.

  8. On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.

  9. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  10. The atmospheric circulation of ultra-short period exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Lewis, Nikole K.

    2015-01-01

    Even though ultra-short period exoplanets comprise only a small fraction of the total exoplanet population, they present a useful probe into the role of fast rotation rates and small orbital distances on atmospheric dynamics. In this regime, advective timescales are longer than radiative timescales such that the temperature contrasts from dayside to nightside are large (>500 K at photospheric pressures); this strong day-night forcing, coupled with the planet's fast rotation rate (and hence small Rossby deformation radius) yields multiple, narrow (~40 degrees) jets in the atmosphere. Here we will present two cases illustrative of the dynamical regime for ultra-short period exoplanets, and how we can use general circulation models to constrain observations of their atmospheres. First, we will present models of WASP-43b, a Jupiter-mass planet in a 19.5-hour orbit around a K7 star. Because WASP-43b has an equilibrium temperature similar to that of HD 209458b, we can explore the role of rotation rate on the dynamics at a fixed stellar flux. We then compare our models to spectrophotometric observations obtained with HST/WFC3 and show how our 5× solar model provides the best match to the data. Next, we explore the dynamical regime of 55 Cnc e, a 7 Earth-mass, 2 Earth-radius planet in a 0.7 day orbit around a K star. Because smaller planets have a large diversity in possible compositions, we compare hydrogen-, water- and carbon dioxide-dominated models and show how differences in opacity structure lead to differences in temperature structure and circulation. We also demonstrate how future observations can distinguish between these possible compositions of 55 Cnc e, particularly in emission.

  11. Changing Periods of ST Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S.; Butterworth, N.; Pearce, A.

    2015-12-01

    ST Puppis is a reasonably bright W Virginis variable star, a Type 2 Cepheid with a record of substantial and erratic period changes—21 during the interval 1900 to 1985 with a range of magnitude from 17.4 to 19.2. It was observed as part of Variable Stars South's Cepheid project by Butterworth in 2014 and 2015 using DSLR photometry in BGR passbands and visually by Pearce in 2015. The known period changes are shown graphically and doubtful ones examined and discarded if necessary. With its period and amplitude with a frequently changing period it is a suitable and worthwhile object for visual observing.

  12. Assessing Periodicity of Periodic Leg Movements During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Rummel, Christian; Gast, Heidemarie; Schindler, Kaspar; Müller, Markus; Amor, Frédérique; Hess, Christian W.; Mathis, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Background: Periodic leg movements (PLM) during sleep consist of involuntary periodic movements of the lower extremities. The debated functional relevance of PLM during sleep is based on correlation of clinical parameters with the PLM index (PLMI). However, periodicity in movements may not be reflected best by the PLMI. Here, an approach novel to the field of sleep research is used to reveal intrinsic periodicity in inter movement intervals (IMI) in patients with PLM. Methods: Three patient groups of 10 patients showing PLM with OSA (group 1), PLM without OSA or RLS (group 2) and PLM with RLS (group 3) are considered. Applying the “unfolding” procedure, a method developed in statistical physics, enhances or even reveals intrinsic periodicity of PLM. The degree of periodicity of PLM is assessed by fitting one-parameter distributions to the unfolded IMI distributions. Finally, it is investigated whether the shape of the IMI distributions allows to separate patients into different groups. Results: Despite applying the unfolding procedure, periodicity is neither homogeneous within nor considerably different between the three clinically defined groups. Data-driven clustering reveals more homogeneous and better separated clusters. However, they consist of patients with heterogeneous demographic data and comorbidities, including RLS and OSA. Conclusions: The unfolding procedure may be necessary to enhance or reveal periodicity. Thus this method is proposed as a pre-processing step before analyzing PLM statistically. Data-driven clustering yields much more reasonable results when applied to the unfolded IMI distributions than to the original data. Despite this effort no correlation between the degree of periodicity and demographic data or comorbidities is found. However, there are indications that the nature of the periodicity might be determined by long-range interactions between LM of patients with PLM and OSA. PMID:20948585

  13. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  14. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 75 FR 58449 (Sept. 24, 2010). On December 20, 2010, the Postal Service...

  15. 75 FR 7426 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Advance notice of...-789-6820 or stephen.sharfman@prc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background II... approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ The Postal Service labels its proposal ``Proposal One''...

  16. Latino Periodicals: A Selection Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerena, Salvador, Ed.; Pisano, Vivian M., Ed.

    This guide is a collection development tool of national scope for librarians who need in-depth coverage of Latino periodicals suitable for public, school, and academic libraries. Periodicals evaluated include general interest and popular magazines and newspapers that appeal to Spanish-speaking, bilingual, and English-speaking library patrons and…

  17. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  18. 76 FR 52915 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... informal rulemaking on proposed changes in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Proposed Changes in Analytical Principles (Proposals Four-Eight), August 8, 2011 (Petition). Proposal...

  19. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Using the forward period analysis (FPA), we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit) solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT) scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested. PMID:27727295

  20. Schuler Period in LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Russell J.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes and extends the concept of the Schuler oscillation that occurs in the theory of inertial navigation systems, allowing one to see how the Schuler phenomenon affects inertial navigation systems operating in space. We show why a low earth orbit satellite's orbital period is identical to the period of the Schuler pendulum, which is the period of the errors for terrestrial inertial navigation systems. We also show that the generalized form of the Schuler oscillation takes the same form as the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for satellite relative motion and that the period of the out-of-plane motion in neighboring satellite relative trajectories is the same as the Schuler period. Finally, we describe how INS gyro drift manifests itself in different coordinate systems for the orbital case. These results may assist orbital flight dynamics and attitude control systems engineers in the design and analysis of INS-equipped spacecraft

  1. LYRA Mid-Term Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauters, L.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    The spectra of the PROBA2/LYRA data, similarly to every other solar time series, show predominant periodicities that can be of solar or instrumental origin. In this article, we compare the main periodicities characterizing the LYRA spectrum to those found in the sunspot number, in the 10.7 cm flux, in an X-ray flare index, and in the sunspot area evolution. We focused on the 2010 to 2014 time range, for which the LYRA data are available, although we also briefly address the evolution of the main periodicities in the longer range. The mid-term periodicities at {˜} 28, {˜} 44, {˜} 54, {˜} 59, {˜} 100, {˜} 110, and {˜} 150 days appear as highly significant in several analyzed datasets. The consistency of distinct periodicities between datasets provides characteristics for the global Sun. This consistency also strengthens the reliability of LYRA data.

  2. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  3. Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Orbitsfor the Standard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, Alberto; Gentile, Guido

    We consider both periodic and quasi-periodic solutions for the standard map, and we study the corresponding conjugating functions, i.e. the functions conjugating the motions to trivial rotations. We compare the invariant curves with rotation numbers ω satisfying the Bryuno condition and the sequences of periodic orbits with rotation numbers given by their convergents ωN = pN/qN. We prove the following results for N--> ∞: (1) for rotation numbers ωNN we study the radius of convergence of the conjugating functions and we find lower bounds on them, which tend to a limit which is a lower bound on the corresponding quantity for ω (2) the periodic orbits consist of points which are more and more close to the invariant curve with rotation number ω (3) such orbits lie on analytical curves which tend uniformly to the invariant curve.

  4. Cyclical Period Changes in Short-Period Dwarf Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.; Borges, B. W.; Bond, H. E.; Jablonski, F.; Steiner, J. E.; Grauer, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    The observed-minus-calculated (O-C) diagrams of the eclipse timings of three dwarf novae of the SU UMa sub-class are presented and discussed. The (O-C) diagrams cover 28 24 and 15 years respectively for Z~Cha V2051~Oph and V4140~Sgr and show clear orbital period changes. Z~Cha shows conspicuous cyclical changes of period 28+/-2 yr and amplitude 60+/-12 s. V2051~Oph shows a cyclical period change of period 22+/-2 yr and amplitude 17+/-3 s. The (O-C) diagram of V4140~Sgr shows less convincing evidence but can also be explained in terms of a cyclical period modulation with an amplitude of about 16s and a time scale of 6.9+/-0.3 years. The best explanation for these observations is that of a solar-type magnetic activity cycle in the secondary star modulating its radius and consequently the mass transfer rate and the orbital separation on time scales of years. These results support the recent findings of Ak Ozkan & Mattei that the quiescent magnitudes and outburst interval of a sample of dwarf novae (including many SU UMa stars) show cyclical variations produced by solar-type magnetic activity cycles. Our results also confirm that the fully-convective secondary stars of these short period binaries still possess non-negligible magnetic fields.

  5. 75 FR 65593 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Rules Concerning Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Measurements and Customer Satisfaction, May... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... waiver request. SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to address a recent Postal...

  6. 76 FR 80312 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    .... SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to consider new measurement of Flats Sequencing Systems... of the Business Reply Mail cost model in periodic reporting of service performance measurement...). Proposal Sixteen: proposed productivity measurement for Flats Sequencing System. Proposal...

  7. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  8. Period Adjustment of TT Scuti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederbloom, Steve E.

    1985-12-01

    The RR Lyrae variable TT Scuti was studied using photographic photometry. The O-C data show a possible downwards curve, which would indicate a decreasing period, but the results are not conclusive. New linear elements are: JD(max) = 2439384.915 + 0.45293855 E. A limit for the maximum rate of change of the period is -0.03 +/- 0.04 cycles per million years.

  9. Enhanced long term potentiation and decreased AMPA receptor desensitization in the acute period following a single kainate induced early life seizure.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Heather; Bernard, Paul B; Castano, Anna M; Benke, Tim A

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal seizures are associated with long term disabilities including epilepsy and cognitive deficits. Using a neonatal seizure rat model that does not develop epilepsy, but develops a phenotype consistent with other models of intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we sought to isolate the acute effects of a single episode of early life seizure on hippocampal CA1 synaptic development and plasticity. We have previously shown chronic changes in glutamatergic synapses, loss of long term potentiation (LTP) and enhanced long term depression (LTD), in the adult male rat ~50days following kainic acid (KA) induced early life seizure (KA-ELS) in post-natal (P) 7day old male Sprague-Dawley rats. In the present work, we examined the electrophysiological properties and expression levels of glutamate receptors in the acute period, 2 and 7days, post KA-ELS. Our results show for the first time enhanced LTP 7days after KA-ELS, but no change 2days post KA-ELS. Additionally, we report that ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) desensitization is decreased in the same time frame, with no changes in AMPAR expression, phosphorylation, or membrane insertion. Inappropriate enhancement of the synaptic connections in the acute period after the seizure could alter the normal patterning of synaptic development in the hippocampus during this critical period and contribute to learning deficits. Thus, this study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which KA-ELS alters early network properties that potentially lead to adverse outcomes. PMID:26706598

  10. Analysis of minimum 7-day discharges and estimation of minimum 7-day, 2-year discharges for streamflow-gaging stations in the Brazos River basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Timothy H.; Asquith, William H.

    1997-01-01

    The 7Q2 is zero for 31 of the 46 unregulated-only stations and for 9 of the 26 regulated-only stations. The 7Q2 also is zero for 9 stations before regulation and for 3 stations after regulation of the 25 stations with both unregulated and regulated data. The 7Q2 ranges from 33 to 631 cubic feet per second for the eight regulated-only stations on the mainstem Brazos River. For the seven stations on the mainstem Brazos River with at least 10 years of unregulated and 10 years of regulated discharge data, the 7Q2 ranges from 0 to 568 cubic feet per second before regulation and from 0.30 to 670 cubic feet per second after regulation. The 7Q2 increased during regulation for 19 of the 25 stations with both unregulated and regulated data. The effect of regulation for most stations generally was an increase in the magnitude of the 7Q2.

  11. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  12. A triple origin for the lack of tight coplanar circumbinary planets around short-period binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, Adrian; Perets, Hagai B.; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Detection of transiting circumbinary planets is more tractable around short-period binaries. However, sofar, no such binaries have been found with orbits shorter than 7 days. Short-period main sequence binaries have been suggested to form in triple systems, through a combination of secular Kozai-Lidov cycles and tidal friction (KLCTF). Here, we show that coplanar circumbinary transiting planets are unlikely to exist around short-period binaries, due to triple evolution. We use secular analysis, N-body simulations and analytic considerations as well as population synthesis models to characterize their overall properties. We find that the existence of a circumbinary planet in a triple is likely to produce one of the following outcomes. (1) Sufficiently massive planets in tight and/or coplanar orbits around the inner binary can partially or completely quench the KL evolution, `shielding' the inner binary from the secular effects of the tertiary, and not allowing the KLCTF process to take place. In this case, the inner binary will not shrink to become a short-period binary. (2) KL evolution is not quenched and it drives the planetary orbit into high eccentricities, giving rise to an unstable configuration, in which the planet is most likely ejected from the system. (3) KL evolution is not quenched, but the planet survives the KLCTF evolution and the formation of the short-period binary; the planet orbit is likely to be much wider than the currently observed inner binary orbit, and is likely to be inclined in respect to the binary orbit, as well as eccentric. These outcomes lead to two main conclusions: (1) it is unlikely to find a (massive) planet on a tight and coplanar orbit around a short-period main-sequence binary, and (2) the frequency, masses and orbits of non-coplanar circumbinary planets in short-period binaries are constrained by their secular evolution.

  13. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  14. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  15. Length of the memory retention period depends on the extent of protein synthesis in the terrestrial slug Limax.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Yuko; Matsuo, Ryota

    2016-09-01

    The terrestrial slug Limax can form an odor-aversion memory by the single simultaneous presentation of a food odor and an aversive stimulus. We have previously demonstrated that the long-term retention of this memory was impaired by a high-dose injection of a protein synthesis inhibitor 30min prior to the conditioning. However, the onset of amnesia was delayed if the dose of the inhibitor was reduced or a less potent protein synthesis inhibitor was used. We thus speculated that the persistence of memory depends on the amount of newly synthesized protein following learning. In the present study, we further elaborated on this idea by injecting a high dose of anisomycin at different timings before or after conditioning, and tested the memory retention at 1, 2, 3, 7, or 14days after the conditioning. We found that the injection of anisomycin 6h before, or 1h after the conditioning had no effect on memory retention for 7days, and an injection at 30min before and just following the conditioning impaired the memory retention at 3days. Interestingly, the injection at 3h before and 30min after the conditioning did not impair the retention at 3days but did impair retention at 7days. Taking into account the time course of protein synthesis inhibition in the brain, our results further support the idea that the memory retention period is dependent on the amount of protein synthesized following memory acquisition. PMID:27497918

  16. Objective identification research on cold vortex and mid-summer rainy periods in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Tai-Chen; Fang, Yi-He

    2015-04-01

    Considering the differences between the Northeast China Cold Vortex (CV) and the Mid-Summer (MS) rainy period and their corresponding atmospheric circulations are comprehensively analyzed, and the objective identification methods of defining the annual beginning and ending dates of Northeast China CV and MS rainy periods are developed respectively. The annual beginning date of the CV (MS) rainy period is as follows. In a period from April to August, if daily regional mean precipitation ryi is larger than yearly regional mean precipitation R (or 2R) on a certain day, the station precipitation rs is larger than the station yearly mean precipitation (or 2) in at least 50% of stations in Northeast China, and this condition is satisfied in the following 2 (7) days, then this date is defined as the beginning date of the CV (MS) rainy period. While the definition of the ending date of the MS rainy period shows the opposite process to its beginning date. With this objective identification method, the multi-year average (1981-2010) beginning date of the CV rainy period is May 3, the beginning date of the MS rainy period is June 27, the ending day of the CV rainy period is defined as the day before the beginning date of the MS rainy period, and the ending date of the MS rainy period is August 29. Meanwhile, corresponding anomaly analysis at a 500-hPa geopotential height, 850-hPa wind, Omega and relative humidity fields all show that the definitions of the average beginning and ending dates of the CV and MS rainy periods have a certain circulation meaning. Furthermore, the daily evolution of the CV index, meridional and zonal wind index, etc. all show that these objectively defined beginning and ending dates of the CV and MS rainy periods have climate significance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41205040 and 41375078), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research, China (Grant No. 2012CB955203), and the Special

  17. Reproductive performance of ewes grazing lucerne during different periods around mating.

    PubMed

    Robertson, S M; Clayton, E H; Friend, M A

    2015-11-01

    High intake of lucerne pastures or feeding of other high quality diets during early pregnancy may increase embryo mortality, negating any benefit of improved nutrition on ovulation rate in ewes. This study was conducted to determine whether grazing ewes on lucerne (Medicago sativa) pastures for 7 days prior to and throughout joining would result in greater foetal numbers than if ewes were removed 7 days after the commencement of joining, or if ewes grazed senescent pasture throughout the joining period. Merino ewes (300) were allocated to two replicates of three treatments, grazing pastures between Days -7 and 36 of an unsynchronised, natural autumn joining. Grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining resulted in 30% more (P<0.05) foetuses per ewe than grazing senescent pasture (1.60±0.07 and 1.31±0.07, respectively), and 19% more lambs marked per ewe joined. Extending grazing of lucerne past Day 7 of joining did not result in additional foetuses per ewe (1.61±0.06) in comparison with only grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining. Greater than 80% of ewes mated during the first 14 days of joining, and the proportions of ewes returning to oestrus and re-mating (0.18±0.022) and of non-pregnant (0.09±0.017) ewes were similar (P>0.05) among all treatment groups, suggesting no differences between treatments in embryo mortality. Grazing naturally cycling ewes on lucerne prior to and during joinings in autumn is recommended as a means to increase the number of lambs born, although additional gains may not be obtained by grazing past day seven of joining. PMID:26454684

  18. Rotational Period of 2770 Tsvet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Lorenzo; Papini, Riccardo

    2014-07-01

    Photometric observations of main-belt asteroid 2770 Tsvet were made over three nights during 2014 March. Lightcurve analysis shows a synodic period P = 7.82 ± 0.01 h with an amplitude A = 0.47 ± 0.03 mag.

  19. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Service Performance Measurements and Customer Satisfaction, May 25, 2010, at 22-24 (Order No. 465). Order... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... certain temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement. Establishing...

  20. On Some Periodic Toda Lattices

    PubMed Central

    Kac, M.; Van Moerbeke, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    A discrete version of Floquet's theory is developed and applied to a system of non-linear differential equations related to the periodic Toda lattice. A special solution previously found by Toda is thus seen to fit into the formalism of inverse scattering problems. PMID:16592244

  1. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  2. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  3. Quantifying periodicity in omics data.

    PubMed

    Amariei, Cornelia; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations play a significant role in biological systems, with many examples in the fast, ultradian, circadian, circalunar, and yearly time domains. However, determining periodicity in such data can be problematic. There are a number of computational methods to identify the periodic components in large datasets, such as signal-to-noise based Fourier decomposition, Fisher's g-test and autocorrelation. However, the available methods assume a sinusoidal model and do not attempt to quantify the waveform shape and the presence of multiple periodicities, which provide vital clues in determining the underlying dynamics. Here, we developed a Fourier based measure that generates a de-noised waveform from multiple significant frequencies. This waveform is then correlated with the raw data from the respiratory oscillation found in yeast, to provide oscillation statistics including waveform metrics and multi-periods. The method is compared and contrasted to commonly used statistics. Moreover, we show the utility of the program in the analysis of noisy datasets and other high-throughput analyses, such as metabolomics and flow cytometry, respectively.

  4. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in... Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposal One), April 6, 2011...

  5. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis associated with multiple sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, A; Santamaria, J

    1999-12-15

    A 24-year-old man with sporadic hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) presented with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness and transitory episodes of weakness which occurred during and after sleep. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) demonstrated the presence of five sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) and a sleep latency of five minutes. Treatment with a diuretic which decreases serum potassium resolved all the clinical symtomps and a new MSLT showed the absence of SOREMPs and a sleep latency of 13.5 minutes. To our knowledge, the patient herein reported is the first case that associates sleep abnormalities and multiple SOREMPs with HPP. Furthermore, the present case suggests that SOREMPs may be explained by an increased extracellular potassium conductance related to HPP.

  6. Silicones used in permanent and semi-permanent hair dyes to reduce the fading and color change process of dyed hair occurred by wash-out or UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Arndt

    2004-01-01

    Different kinds of silicones were incorporated directly into permanent and semi-permanent hair dyes. To ensure that the silicone was deposited to the hair fibers Si deposition was measured. Hair treated with a silicone free control or the silicone modified hair dyes was tested for color and lightness change (fading) by washing the treated tresses several times and measuring the color change. In a second experiment, hair treated with permanent hair dye was treated with UV radiation to show if silicones can reduce the color change initiated by UV light. The influence of the silicones to dry combing forces of permanent dyed hair untreated and treated with UV was also investigated. The tests showed that dimethiconol/dimethicone mixtures can reduce the washout of hair colorant clearly and silicone resins like trimethylsiloxysilcate or propylphenylsilsesquioxane are able to decrease the color change occurred by UV radiation in dyed hair.

  7. Orbital-Period Variations and Photometric Analysis for the Neglected Contact Binary EH Cancri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Shao, Z.-Y.; Pan, H.-J.; Yin, X.-G.

    2011-08-01

    New CCD photometry for the eclipsing binary EH Cnc was made from 2009 to 2011, and five new eclipsing times are presented. Through using the updated Wilson-Devinney code, we first deduced the photometric solution at χ2 = 0.9906. The results show that EH Cnc is a W-type contact binary, whose mass ratio and overcontact degree are q = 2.51 (± 0.02) and f = 27.7% (± 3.4%) , respectively. By analyzing the O - C curve of EH Cnc, it is found that there exists a secular-period decrease with a cyclic variation. The period and semiamplitude are P3=16.6(±0.4) yr and A = 0.0032 days (± 0.0003 days), respectively. This kind of cyclic variation may probably be attributed to the light-time effect via the presence of an unseen third body, because the values of ΔQ1,2 are much smaller than the typical one for close binaries. The orbital period of EH Cnc continuously decreases at a rate of dP/dt=-1.01(±0.05) × 10-7 days yr-1. This kind of secular period decrease may result from mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, accompanied by mass and angular momentum loss from the system. With the orbital period decreasing, the inner and outer Roche lobes will shrink, causing the contact degree to increase. Finally, binaries with decreasing periods, such as EH Cnc, will evolve into deep-contact configurations.

  8. Influence of Two Depuration Periods on the Activity and Transcription of Antioxidant Enzymes in Tilapia Exposed to Repeated Doses of Cylindrospermopsin under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Victoria; Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Moreno, Isabel M.; Prieto, Ana I.; Puerto, María; Jos, Angeles; Cameán, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacterial toxin Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, is increasingly being found in freshwater bodies infested by cyanobacterial blooms worldwide. Moreover, it has been reported to be implicated in human intoxications and animal mortality. Recently, the alteration of the activity and gene expression of some glutathione related enzymes in tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a single dose of CYN has been reported. However, little is known about the effects induced by repeated doses of this toxin in tilapias exposed by immersion and the potential reversion of these biochemical alterations after two different depuration periods (3 or 7 days). In the present study, tilapias were exposed by immersion to repeated doses of a CYN-containing culture of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum during 14 days, and then were subjected to depuration periods (3 or 7 days) in clean water in order to examine the potential reversion of the effects observed. The activity and relative mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST), and also the sGST protein abundance by Western blot analysis were evaluated in liver and kidney of fish. Results showed significant alterations in most of the parameters evaluated and their recovery after 3 days (GPx activity, sGST relative abundance) or 7 days (GPx gene expression, sGST activity). These findings not only confirm the oxidative stress effects produced in fish by cyanobacterial cells containing CYN, but also show the effectiveness of depuration processes in mitigating the CYN-containing culture toxic effects. PMID:24632554

  9. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  10. Periodic Structures in Optical Fibres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Duncan Paul

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The work presented in this thesis concerns techniques for the formation of periodic structures in optical fibres. Two different methods of producing such structures are studied in detail. The first of these involves a breakdown mechanism (known as the 'fibre fuse') that permanently damages the core glass in a periodic manner leaving it unable to guide light. The dynamics of this mechanism are studied, with a view to controlling it for the production of interactive grating structures. It is determined that, due to a sharp rise in fibre absorption with temperature, a thermal shock -wave, with a typical thermal gradient of several hundred degrees Kelvin per micron, forms and travels along the fibre, heating the core glass to such an extent that damage occurs. The periodicity of the resultant damage arises from thermal focusing and defocusing of light in the region of this shock-wave. The second method makes use of the photorefractivity observed in certain germanosilicate fibres on exposure to moderate intensity blue light of wavelength ~480nm or UV light ~240nm. A single-mode fibre transmission filter is demonstrated for the first time, produced by exposing a fibre Sagnac loop mirror to 488nm holographic fringes. Average index changes are shown to occur if such fibres are exposed to spatially uniform blue or UV light, indicating that grating formation is by a different mechanism to the local charge separation which occurs in photorefractive crystals. The various characteristics of these average index changes are measured and analysed, with the conclusion that they result from defect centre formation, driven by two photon absorption with blue light, or single photon absorption with UV light. Associated birefringence changes are also measured and are exploited in a hi-bi fibre to periodically perturb the birefringence axes, producing a narrow-line transmission filter.

  11. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  12. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  13. Stroke risk in the early period after carotid related symptoms: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tsantilas, P; Kühnl, A; Kallmayer, M; Knappich, C; Schmid, S; Kuetchou, A; Zimmermann, A; Eckstein, H H

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend performing carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid disease as soon as possible after the neurological index event. However, early stroke risk has not been well documented for this patient group. We therefore conducted a systematic analysis of the current literature on the recurrent risk of ischemic events in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis. Systematic review was performed by searching the MEDLINE® database from 1950 until June 8, 2015 (key words: cerebral ischemia, transient ischemic attack, amaurosis fugax, stroke, symptomatic carotid stenosis, recurrent risk, outcome, prognosis, follow-up, cohort and natural history). All studies reporting stroke risks in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis after neurologic index events within a period of 7 days were included. Cumulative stroke risks with 95% confidence intervals after a neurologic index event were recalculated at 2-3, 7, 14 and 30 days and a meta-analysis including an analysis of heterogeneity were performed using the statistical package R and Excel for Mac 2003. Ten studies with a total number of 2634 patients were included. Results of an overall stroke risk were as follows: 2.0-17.2% at 2-3 days, 0-22.1% at 7 days, 0-29.6% at 14 days and 0-11.1% at 30 days in patients with a symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis. The pooled stroke risk in the six studies with active follow-up was 6.0% (95% CI 2.4-14.4) at 2-3 days, 10.9% (6.1-18.7) at 7 days and 17.6% (9.7-29.9) at 14 days. Pooled stroke risk in the three studies with uncensored populations was even higher with 6.4% (1.5-23.8%) at 2-3 days, 19.5% (12.7-28.7) at 7 days and 26.1% (20.6-32.5%) at 14 days. Significant heterogeneity (P<0.001) could be explained by the different inclusion criteria and the study's design. Retrospective studies with passive follow-up had the lowest stroke risk whereas prospective studies with active follow-up and without bias through early intervention by carotid

  14. Haemocytic periodicity and periodic disorders: Periodic neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis and anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Hobart A.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated of rhythmic numerical oscillation of each of the blood cells either independently or in combinations. The cyclic changes originate in the marrow of some normal persons and animals without causing illness, and can be induced experimentally. In more than 100 reported instances, periodic oscillations of various cells were accompanied by respective episodes of the disorders named in the title. The disorders may be transitory but usually recur throughout life and occasionally are fatal. All resist therapy. Features in common suggest an interrelationship of the haemal disorders and other disparate heritable periodic diseases. Theoretically, the rhythms are regulated by ubiquitous, inherent, intracellular bioclocks controlled hypothalamically or neurohumorally in relation to a feedback mechanism. Reactions to long cycles are of greater clinical importance than disturbances arising from the circadian rhythm. PMID:4397784

  15. Rotational period of GQ Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, C.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Guenther, E.; Gaedke, A.; Bedalov, A.; Neuhäuser, R.; Walter, F. M.

    2007-06-01

    Aims: We wanted to determine the rotation parameters of GQ Lup A, thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the GQ Lup system. Methods: We have undertaken a photometric monitoring campaign on GQ Lup A consisting of two epochs spaced one year apart. We also searched the photometric archives to enlarge the data set. Results: We were able to determine the photometric period (8.45±0.2 days) in both epochs in several photometric bands. This periodicity could also be found in some of the archival data. The combined false-alarm probability is 0.015. The variation is most likely caused by hot spots on the surface of GQ Lup A. This, combined with high-resolution spectra (v sin i) allows calculation of GQ Lup A's inclination (i=27±5°). Radial velocity data also contains this period but is inconclusive. Nevertheless, the RV data supports the interpretation that hot spots cause the photometric variation. We use the known K-band variability, amplitude, and phase of GQ Lup A together with a new image of GQ Lup A+b, taken quasi-simultaneously with our monitoring of the star, to confirm the magnitude and, hence, luminosity of the companion. Based on observations obtained on Cerro Paranal, Chile, in ESO program 075.C-0710(C) and on La Silla, Chile, in ESO programs 074.C-0034(A),075.C-0710(E), 075.C-0710(F), 075.C-0202(A), 076.C-0010(A) as well as with ANDICAM of the SMARTS consortium. Photometry data of epochs I and II are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/468/1039

  16. Periodic roads and quantized wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos Valadares, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple approach to determine all possible wheels that can roll smoothly without slipping on a periodic roadbed, while maintaining the center of mass at a fixed height. We also address the inverse problem that of obtaining the roadbed profile compatible with a specific wheel and all other related "quantized wheels." The role of symmetry is highlighted, which might preclude the center of mass from remaining at a fixed height. A straightforward consequence of such geometric quantization is that the gravitational potential energy and the moment of inertia are discrete, suggesting a parallelism between macroscopic wheels and nano-systems, such as carbon nanotubes.

  17. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  18. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  19. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  20. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  1. 7 CFR 930.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Definitions § 930.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period beginning on July 1 of any year and ending on June 30 of the following year, or such other period as the... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 930.7 Section 930.7...

  2. Estimating the Distribution of the Incubation Periods of Human Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Virlogeux, Victor; Li, Ming; Tsang, Tim K; Feng, Luzhao; Fang, Vicky J; Jiang, Hui; Wu, Peng; Zheng, Jiandong; Lau, Eric H Y; Cao, Yu; Qin, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2015-10-15

    A novel avian influenza virus, influenza A(H7N9), emerged in China in early 2013 and caused severe disease in humans, with infections occurring most frequently after recent exposure to live poultry. The distribution of A(H7N9) incubation periods is of interest to epidemiologists and public health officials, but estimation of the distribution is complicated by interval censoring of exposures. Imputation of the midpoint of intervals was used in some early studies, resulting in estimated mean incubation times of approximately 5 days. In this study, we estimated the incubation period distribution of human influenza A(H7N9) infections using exposure data available for 229 patients with laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) infection from mainland China. A nonparametric model (Turnbull) and several parametric models accounting for the interval censoring in some exposures were fitted to the data. For the best-fitting parametric model (Weibull), the mean incubation period was 3.4 days (95% confidence interval: 3.0, 3.7) and the variance was 2.9 days; results were very similar for the nonparametric Turnbull estimate. Under the Weibull model, the 95th percentile of the incubation period distribution was 6.5 days (95% confidence interval: 5.9, 7.1). The midpoint approximation for interval-censored exposures led to overestimation of the mean incubation period. Public health observation of potentially exposed persons for 7 days after exposure would be appropriate.

  3. Periodic bedrock ridges on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Becker, Scott K.

    2012-03-01

    Evidence for sediment transport and erosion by wind is widespread over the surface of Mars today and was likely a major geomorphic process for much of its geological past. Although Martian surface features resembling aeolian dunes and ripples have been recognized since the Mariner and Viking missions, such features have been interpreted previously as active, indurated, or exhumed sedimentary forms. Here we report evidence based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images that show some megaripple forms are eroded into cohesive substrate rather than being composed of loose granular material or fossilized dunes. Exposure of stratigraphic continuity within layered, cohesive material extending crest to trough through features with mean wavelengths of 18 to 51 m demonstrates the primarily erosional formation of what we term periodic bedrock ridges (PBRs). Hence some surfaces on Mars previously considered to be covered by wind-deposited material are actually wind-carved exposures that offer windows into Martian history. PBRs lack the distinctive streamlining associated with wind-parallel yardangs and comparison of PBR orientation to yardangs, megayardangs, and active sedimentary dunes in the same vicinity confirm that these PBRs formed transverse to prevailing winds. Observed wavelengths of PBRs are comparable to those predicted by a simple model for erosional wavelengths of periodic transverse bed forms owing to the spacing of flow separations within the flow. Recognition of these transverse aeolian erosional forms brings up the question of how widespread Martian PBRs are and how many have been misinterpreted as active or indurated (fossilized) sedimentary dunes.

  4. Quasi-periodic spatiotemporal filtering.

    PubMed

    Burghouts, Gertjan J; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents the online estimation of temporal frequency to simultaneously detect and identify the quasiperiodic motion of an object. We introduce color to increase discriminative power of a reoccurring object and to provide robustness to appearance changes due to illumination changes. Spatial contextual information is incorporated by considering the object motion at different scales. We combined spatiospectral Gaussian filters and a temporal reparameterized Gabor filter to construct the online temporal frequency filter. We demonstrate the online filter to respond faster and decay faster than offline Gabor filters. Further, we show the online filter to be more selective to the tuned frequency than Gabor filters. We contribute to temporal frequency analysis in that we both identify ("what") and detect ("when") the frequency. In color video, we demonstrate the filter to detect and identify the periodicity of natural motion. The velocity of moving gratings is determined in a real world example. We consider periodic and quasiperiodic motion of both stationary and nonstationary objects. PMID:16764282

  5. Permeability relation for periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K J; LaTorraca, G A; Bergman, D J

    1998-01-01

    The permeability relation for periodic porous media is studied with respect to other petrophysical parameters such as formation factor, porosity, surface-to-volume ratio, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time. All these quantities were computed for periodic structures of simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic arrays of touching and overlapping spheres. The formation factors were calculated by using a method which is based on a Fourier-space representation of an integral equation for the electric potential in a two-component composite. The nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time for the case where surface-enchanced relaxation plays a dominant role is known to be V P/rho S (VP is the pore volume, S is the pore surface, is the surface relaxation strength) when rho is not too large. Previously calculated permeabilities for these structures from the literature were used for correlation studies with other petrophysical parameters. Various correlation schemes among these quantities, such as k = aTbFc, and k = aTb phi c, were investigated, where k is permeability, T is the NMR relaxation time, phi is the porosity, and F is the formation factor. PMID:9803908

  6. A periodic table for cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  7. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  8. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia and hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Nihal Olgac; Boz, Adil; Duman, Ozgur; Aydin, Funda; Haspolat, Senay

    2008-12-01

    We present a patient diagnosed with Shapiro syndrome without corpus callosum agenesis. A 4-year-old-girl was admitted to the hospital with complaints of sweating, cooling, and drowsiness that continued during the last week of her admission. Attacks occurred almost daily, and lasted for about 1 hour. All laboratory findings, as well as Holter and echocardiography results, were normal. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intact corpus callosum, and electroencephalography obtained during an attack revealed normal findings. However, technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission computed tomography indicated increased perfusion in the right thalamus, basal ganglia, and inferior frontal areas during a hypothermic period. Although oxcarbazepine reduced the frequency of attacks, they were not halted completely. The patient responded better to carbamazepine. PMID:19027594

  9. Comparison of eMODIS and MOD/MYD13A2 NDVI products during 2012-2014 spring green-up periods in Alaska and northwest Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbyla, David

    2015-04-01

    Accurate monitoring of vegetation dynamics is required to understand the inter-annual variability and long term trends in terrestrial carbon exchange in tundra and boreal ecoregions. In western North America, two Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) products based on spectral reflectance data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are available. The MOD/MYD13A2 NDVI product is available as a 16-day composite product in a sinusoidal projection as global hdf tiles. The eMODIS Alaska NDVI product is available as a 7-day composite geotif product in a regional equal area conic projection covering Alaska and the entire Yukon River Basin. These two NDVI products were compared for the 2012-2014 late May-late June spring green-up periods in Alaska and the Yukon Territory. Relative to the MOD/MYD13A2 NDVI product, it is likely that the eMODIS NDVI product contained more cloud-contaminated NDVI values. For example, the MOD/MYD13A2 product flagged substantially fewer pixels as "good quality" in each 16-day composite period compared to the corresponding MODIS Alaska NDVI product from a 7-day composite period. During the spring green-up period, when field-based NDVI increases, the eMODIS NDVI product averaged 43 percent of pixels that declined by at least 0.05 NDVI between 2 composite periods, consistent with cloud-contamination problems, while the MOD/MYD13A2 NDVI averaged only 6 percent of pixels. Based on a cloudy Landsat-8 scene, the eMODIS compositing process selected 23 percent pixels, while the MOD/MYD13A2 compositing process selected less than 0.003 percent pixels. Based on the results, it appears that the MOD/MYD13A2 NDVI product is superior for scientific applications based on NDVI phenology in the tundra and boreal regions of northwestern North America.

  10. Extension of the established period of diacetyl adaptation by oxygen intermediates in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Asuka; Sato, Fumihiko; Ito, Kuniko; Matsuura, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    After pre-exposure to the odorant diacetyl, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans showed a decline in chemotactic responses to diacetyl, a phenomenon known as diacetyl adaptation. In the present study, we found that the established period of diacetyl adaptation in nematodes increased with the breeding temperature. When wild-type (N2) nematodes were bred at 15°C, adaptation was observed from the young adult (YA) to the 3-day-old adult that is reached 3 days after the YA stage. On breeding nematodes at 20°C and 25°C, adaptation was observed between the YA and 5-day-old adult and between the YA and the 7-day-old adult, respectively. Breeding temperature has been shown to correlate with the rate of aging in nematodes, which is related to the level of oxygen consumption. Accordingly, long-lived isp-1 and clk-1 mutants that demonstrate decreased levels of oxygen consumption showed a shorter established period of adaptation than N2 nematodes, whereas short-lived gas-1 and mev-1 mutants that have a hypersensitive response to oxygen showed a longer period of adaptation than the N2. Moreover, the established period of diacetyl adaptation in N2 nematodes was shortened by the antioxidant α-lipoic acid. These results suggest that oxygen intermediates, which are produced by oxygen consumption, play a significant role in diacetyl adaptation. Although this is only one of many factors that regulate diacetyl adaptation, such as the release of neurotransmitters and changes in intracellular conditions, the acquisition of this adaptation requires an increase in the intensity of moderate oxygen signals.

  11. Photometric and Period Investigation of the Late F-type Overcontact Binary II UMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, B.; Kreiner, J.

    2016-03-01

    II UMa is a late F-type (F5) contact binary with a close-in tertiary and a distant visual companion. According to the four-color (B V RcIc) light curves’ solutions of II UMa, it is a high fill-out (f = 86.6%) and low-mass ratio (q = 0.172) contact binary system, which indicates that it is at the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binary stars. The masses of the primary star and secondary star are calculated to be {M}1=1.99{M}⊙ and {M}2=0.34{M}⊙ . The primary star has evolved from the zero-age main sequence, but it still appeared before the terminal-age main sequence, and the secondary star is even more evolved. Considering the mass ratio ({M}3/{M}1=0.67) obtained by spectroscopic observations, the mass of the close-in tertiary is estimated to be {M}3=1.34{M}⊙ . The period variations of the binary system are investigated for the first time. According to the observed-calculated (O-C) curve analysis, a continuous period increase at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=4.88× {10}-7 {day} {{yr}}-1 is determined. The parabolic variation in the O-C curve may be part of a cyclic period of change, or the combined period of change of a parabolic variation and a cyclic one. More instances of minimum light are needed to confirm this. The presence of the tertiary component may play an important role in the formation and evolution of this binary system by drawing angular momentum from the central system during the pre-contact stage.

  12. 7 CFR 1280.613 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting period. 1280.613 Section 1280.613 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.613 Voting period. The term voting period means a 4-week period to be announced by the Secretary for voting the referendum. Procedures...

  13. 7 CFR 1280.613 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting period. 1280.613 Section 1280.613 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.613 Voting period. The term voting period means a 4-week period to be announced by the Secretary for voting the referendum. Procedures...

  14. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  15. 7 CFR 924.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on March 31 of... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 924.7 Section 924.7...

  16. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  17. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  18. 7 CFR 916.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period beginning on March 1 of one year and ending on the last day of February of the... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 916.7 Section 916.7...

  19. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  20. 7 CFR 924.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on March 31 of... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 924.7 Section 924.7...

  1. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  2. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  3. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  4. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  5. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  6. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  7. Metabolism of Arginine by Aging and 7 Day Old Pumpkin Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Splittstoesser, Walter E.

    1969-01-01

    The metabolism of arginine by etiolated pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was studied over various time and age intervals by injecting arginine-U-14C into the cotyledons. At most, 25% of the 14C was transported from the cotyledon to the axis tissue and the amount of this transport decreased with increasing age of the seedlings. The cotyledons of 25 day old plants contained 60% of the administered 14C as unmetabolized arginine. Little 14C was in sugars and it appeared that arginine was the primary translocation product. Time course studies showed that arginine was extensively metabolized and the labeling patterns suggest that different pathways were in operation in the axis and cotyledons. The amount of arginine incorporated into cotyledonary protein show that synthesis and turnover were occurring at rapid rate. Only 25% of the label incorporated into protein by 1.5 hr remained after 96 hr. The label in protein was stable in the axis tissue. By 96 hr 50% of the administered label occurred as 14CO2 and it appeared that arginine was metabolized, through glutamate, by the citrio acid cycle in the cotyledons. The experiments showed that an extensive conversion of arginine carbon into other amino acids did not occur. PMID:16657070

  8. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  9. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  10. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  11. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  12. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  13. AN EVALUATION OF THE 7-DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA (FORMERLY MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 7-d test measuring survival, growth, and fecundity of Americamysis bahia formerly Mysidopsis bahia) was developed for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and associated receiving waters for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Currently, this test...

  14. Neglected partial denture in the lower oesophagus presenting after 7 days.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Vinoth; Bakshi, Satvinder Singh; Balasubramanian, Padhmini; Dakshinamoorthy, Suganthy

    2015-09-30

    Accidental ingestion of a denture is an acute emergency, and the denture is usually removed on the same day it is discovered. We present a patient who had a seizure while asleep, during which his denture broke; he accidentally swallowed a major part of it, which had a clasp attached. He was unaware that he had ingested the denture, since he was asymptomatic, but he started developing symptoms after 5 days and presented to us on the eighth day of ingestion. With much difficulty, the impacted section of the denture in the distal oesophagus was removed with the combined effort of flexible endoscopy and a rigid oesophagoscopy. Post-procedure, the patient developed mediastinitis, which was managed conservatively; he is doing well on follow-up.

  15. [Investigation into vegetative regulation of blood circulation during 7-day dry immersion].

    PubMed

    Eshmanova, A K; Luchinskaia, E S; Baevskiĭ, R M

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations into vegetative regulation of blood circulation and regulation modification by peroral amlodipine and myostimulation during 7-d dry immersion. It was shown that in immersion vegetative regulation readjusted towards predominance of the sympathetic mechanisms. Myostimulation and peroral amlodipine modified regulation substantially mobilizing high level suprasegmentary structures. It should be noted that amlodipine and myostimulation differ in mechanisms of their action on central regulation. Pharmaceutical intervention seems to have a more complex and varying effect on people including side-effects. Presumably, it was the cause of poor orthostatic tolerance of several test-subjects.

  16. Epigenetics in the perioperative period

    PubMed Central

    Lirk, P; Fiegl, H; Weber, N C; Hollmann, M W

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative period is characterized by profound changes in the body's homoeostatic processes. This review seeks to address whether epigenetic mechanisms may influence an individual's reaction to surgery and anaesthesia. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that epigenetic mechanisms can explain many facets of susceptibility to acute and chronic pain, making them potential therapeutic targets. Modern pain management is still based upon opiates, and both the developmental expression of opioid receptors and opioid-induced hyperalgesia have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms. In general, opiates seem to increase global DNA methylation levels. This is in contrast to local anaesthetics, which have been ascribed a global demethylating effect. Even though no direct investigations have been carried out, the potential influence of epigenetics on the inflammatory response that follows surgery seems a promising area for research. There is a considerable body of evidence that supports the involvement of epigenetics in the complex process of wound healing. Epigenetics is an important emerging research topic in perioperative medicine, with a huge potential to positively influence patient outcome. PMID:25073649

  17. Periodic motion near the surface of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Hengnian

    2015-12-01

    We are interested in the periodic motion and bifurcations near the surface of an asteroid. The gravity field of an irregular asteroid and the equation of motion of a particle near the surface of an asteroid are studied. The periodic motions around the major body of triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra and the OSIRIS-REx mission target-asteroid 101955 Bennu are discussed. We find that motion near the surface of an irregular asteroid is quite different from the motion near the surface of a homoplastically spheroidal celestial body. The periodic motions around the asteroid 101955 Bennu and 216 Kleopatra indicate that the geometrical shapes of the orbits are probably very sophisticated. There exist both stable periodic motions and unstable periodic motions near the surface of the same irregular asteroid. This periodic motion which is unstable can be resonant or non-resonant. The period-doubling bifurcation and pseudo period-doubling bifurcation of periodic orbits coexist in the same gravity field of the primary of the triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra. It is found that both of the period-doubling bifurcations of periodic orbits and pseudo period-doubling bifurcation of periodic orbits have four different paths. The pseudo period-doubling bifurcation found in the potential field of primary of triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra shows that there exist stable periodic orbits near the primary's equatorial plane, which gives an explanation for the motion stability of the triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra's two moonlets, Alexhelios and Cleoselene.

  18. Megadontia, striae periodicity and patterns of enamel secretion in Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Dean, M Christopher; Ramirez-Rozzi, Fernando; Bromage, Timothy G

    2008-08-01

    Early hominins formed large and thick-enamelled cheek-teeth within relatively short growth periods as compared with modern humans. To understand better the developmental basis of this process, we measured daily enamel increments, or cross striations, in 17 molars of Plio-Pleistocene hominins representing seven different species, including specimens attributed to early Homo. Our results show considerable variation across species, although all specimens conformed to the known pattern characterised by greater values in outer than inner enamel, and greater cuspal than cervical values. We then compared our results with the megadontia index, which represents tooth size in relation to body mass, for each species to assess the effect of daily growth rates on tooth size. Our results indicate that larger toothed (megadont) taxa display higher rates or faster forming enamel than smaller toothed hominins. By forming enamel quickly, large tooth crowns were able to develop within the constraints of shorter growth periods. Besides daily increments, many animals express long-period markings (striae of Retzius) in their enamel. We report periodicity values (number of cross striations between adjacent striae) in 14 new specimens of Australopithecus afarensis, Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus boisei, Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis and Homo erectus, and show that long-period striae express a strong association with male and average male-female body mass. Our results for Plio-Pleistocene hominins show that the biological rhythms that give rise to long-period striae are encompassed within the range of variation known for modern humans, but show a lower mean and modal value of 7 days in australopithecines. In our sample of early Homo, mean and modal periodicity values were 8 days, and therefore similar to modern humans. These new data on daily rates of enamel formation and periodicity provide a better framework to interpret surface manifestations of internal growth markings on

  19. Megadontia, striae periodicity and patterns of enamel secretion in Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Dean, M Christopher; Ramirez-Rozzi, Fernando; Bromage, Timothy G

    2008-08-01

    Early hominins formed large and thick-enamelled cheek-teeth within relatively short growth periods as compared with modern humans. To understand better the developmental basis of this process, we measured daily enamel increments, or cross striations, in 17 molars of Plio-Pleistocene hominins representing seven different species, including specimens attributed to early Homo. Our results show considerable variation across species, although all specimens conformed to the known pattern characterised by greater values in outer than inner enamel, and greater cuspal than cervical values. We then compared our results with the megadontia index, which represents tooth size in relation to body mass, for each species to assess the effect of daily growth rates on tooth size. Our results indicate that larger toothed (megadont) taxa display higher rates or faster forming enamel than smaller toothed hominins. By forming enamel quickly, large tooth crowns were able to develop within the constraints of shorter growth periods. Besides daily increments, many animals express long-period markings (striae of Retzius) in their enamel. We report periodicity values (number of cross striations between adjacent striae) in 14 new specimens of Australopithecus afarensis, Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus boisei, Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis and Homo erectus, and show that long-period striae express a strong association with male and average male-female body mass. Our results for Plio-Pleistocene hominins show that the biological rhythms that give rise to long-period striae are encompassed within the range of variation known for modern humans, but show a lower mean and modal value of 7 days in australopithecines. In our sample of early Homo, mean and modal periodicity values were 8 days, and therefore similar to modern humans. These new data on daily rates of enamel formation and periodicity provide a better framework to interpret surface manifestations of internal growth markings on

  20. Megadontia, striae periodicity and patterns of enamel secretion in Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins

    PubMed Central

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Dean, M Christopher; Ramirez-Rozzi, Fernando; Bromage, Timothy G

    2008-01-01

    Early hominins formed large and thick-enamelled cheek-teeth within relatively short growth periods as compared with modern humans. To understand better the developmental basis of this process, we measured daily enamel increments, or cross striations, in 17 molars of Plio-Pleistocene hominins representing seven different species, including specimens attributed to early Homo. Our results show considerable variation across species, although all specimens conformed to the known pattern characterised by greater values in outer than inner enamel, and greater cuspal than cervical values. We then compared our results with the megadontia index, which represents tooth size in relation to body mass, for each species to assess the effect of daily growth rates on tooth size. Our results indicate that larger toothed (megadont) taxa display higher rates or faster forming enamel than smaller toothed hominins. By forming enamel quickly, large tooth crowns were able to develop within the constraints of shorter growth periods. Besides daily increments, many animals express long-period markings (striae of Retzius) in their enamel. We report periodicity values (number of cross striations between adjacent striae) in 14 new specimens of Australopithecus afarensis, Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus boisei, Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis and Homo erectus, and show that long-period striae express a strong association with male and average male–female body mass. Our results for Plio-Pleistocene hominins show that the biological rhythms that give rise to long-period striae are encompassed within the range of variation known for modern humans, but show a lower mean and modal value of 7 days in australopithecines. In our sample of early Homo, mean and modal periodicity values were 8 days, and therefore similar to modern humans. These new data on daily rates of enamel formation and periodicity provide a better framework to interpret surface manifestations of internal growth markings on

  1. Man Made Elements Periodic Table, Astronomical Periodic Table, Geographic Periodic Table-Dimitri Mendeleev Imitation in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, J.-T.

    2013-11-01

    A man made elements periodic table, including every single current element not just synthetic elements can be built differently than the naturally occurring element periodic table. Implications for knowing producible elements in space travel.

  2. Orbital Period Changes and Their Evolutionary Status for the Weak-Contact Binaries. III. AO Camelopardalis and AH Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Wei, J.-Y.; Kreiner, J. M.; Li, H.-L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we presented multicolor photometric observations for two eclipsing binaries, AO Camelopardalis and AH Tauri, obtained on 2008 December 16 and 17. Using the Wilson-Devinney Code, the photometric solution of AH Tau was determined from our new CCD data. The mass ratio and the fill-out factor are q = 0.503(±0.003) and f = 10.8%(±0.1%), respectively. This indicates that AH Tau is in weak contact. For the weak-contact binary AO Cam, BVI light curves clearly show a difference in the heights of the maxima (i.e., the O'Connell effect), which may be explained by spot activity. By analyzing the O - C curves for AO Cam and AH Tau, it is found that the orbital periods appear to show a secular period decrease with a cyclic variation. The observed period modulation is ΔP/P ~ 10-6. For AO Cam, the cyclic oscillation with a short period of 7.63(±0.07) yr and a low amplitude of 0fd0019(±0fd0003) may be preferably attributed to the cyclic magnetic activity. The period and amplitude of the cyclic variation for AH Tau are 45.8(±1.1) yr and 0fd0171(±0fd0005), which may more likely result from the light-time effect via a third body. The secular period decrease rates are dP/dt = -1.26(±0.04) × 10-7 days yr -1 for AO Cam and dP/dt = -6.98(±0.07) × 10-8 days yr -1 for AH Tau. This kind of period decrease can be plausibly explained by the mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, and may result in the system evolving into a deep contact configuration.

  3. Investigating the recovery period of rat brain tissue after electrolytic and 980-nm laser induced lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkulak, Ozguncem; Tabakoglu, H. Ozgur; Aksoy, Ayla; Canbeyli, Resit; Bilgin, Nes'e.; Kurtkaya, Ozlem; Sav, Aydin; Gulsoy, Murat

    2003-10-01

    The effects of 980-nm diode laser and electrolytic lesions in Wistar rat brain tissue were observed by immunohistochemical staining for CD68 marker and Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E). Bilateral lesions; laser lesions (2W/2sec) in the right hemispheres, and electrolytic lesions (1.5mA/20sec) in the left hemispheres were done through in vivo stereotaxic neurosurgical procedure. Subjects were classified into three groups due to the recovery period. Subjects in Group I, II, and III were sacrificed after 0, 2 and 7 days of recovery period respectively. After saline perfusion their brains were dislocated, and paraffin embedded sections were taken. One section for H&E and one for CD68 were cut consecutively in 3μm thickness by examining the lesion in every 30-μm thickness. CD68 was found more efficient marker than H&E in observing the after-effects of both types of lesions. The total damage of laser was smaller than that of electrosurgical unit. The shape of the ablated area in laser induced lesions was more spherical than that of electrosurgical unit. The number of macrophages increased as the recovery period increased for all subjects. Group III showed the highest number of macrophages in three, and the number of macrophages around electrolytic lesion is nearly 1.5 times higher than that of laser lesion. The remarkable ablating ability, the damage zone created and the healing of nearby tissue clearly showed that the 980-nm diode laser is an effective and useful alternative to electrosurgical unit in neurosurgery.

  4. Dearth of short-period Neptunian exoplanets: A desert in period-mass and period-radius planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazeh, T.; Holczer, T.; Faigler, S.

    2016-05-01

    A few studies have reported a significant dearth of exoplanets with Neptune mass and radius with orbital periods below 2-4 d. This cannot be explained by observational biases because many Neptunian planets with longer orbital periods have been detected. The existence of this desert is similar to the appearance of the so-called brown-dwarf desert that suggests different formation mechanisms of planets and stellar companions with short orbital periods. Similarly, the Neptunian desert might indicate different mechanisms of formation and evolution for hot Jupiters and short-period super-Earths. We here follow a previous study and examine the location and shape of the desert in both the period-mass and period-radius planes, using the currently available large samples of planets. The desert in the period-mass plane has a relatively sharp upper edge, with a planetary mass that is inversely proportional to the planetary orbital period, while the lower, somewhat blurred, boundary is located along masses that are apparently linearly proportional to the period. The desert in the period-radius plane of the transiting planets is less clear. It seems as if the radius along the upper boundary is inversely proportional to the period to the power of one-third, while the lower boundary shows a radius that is proportional to the period to the power of two-thirds. The combination of the two upper bounds of the desert, in the period-mass and period-radius planes, yields a planetary mass-radius relation of Rp/RJup ≃ (1.2 ± 0.3)(Mp/MJup)0.27 ± 0.11 for 0.1 ≲ Mp/MJup ≲ 1. The derived shape of the desert, which might extend up to periods of 5-10 d, could shed some light on the formation and evolution of close-in planets.

  5. 7 CFR 1205.20 - Representative period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1205.20 Section 1205.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... period means the 2006 calendar year....

  6. Periodic behavior in a random environment.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, H A

    1994-04-01

    Animals' tendency to search periodically in temporally random environments was studied by presenting rats with random-interval (RI) 60-s and 120-s schedules. Power spectra revealed a periodicity of responding of 20-50 s for all animals regardless of condition. A second periodicity of 5-10-s was strongest under the RI 60-s schedule. Optimality theory suggests that periodic responding is better than random responding in obtaining food sooner on average, but the theory does not account for multiple periodicities. These multiple periodicities also cannot be explained by a single-oscillator, information-processing version of scalar expectancy theory (J. Gibbon & R. M. Church, 1992) or by the behavioral theory of timing (P.R. Killeen & J. G. Fetterman, 1988). The periodicities are consistent with a connectionist version of scalar expectancy theory that has nonscalar emergent properties, including multiple periodicities that are not proportional to the rate of random events.

  7. 25 CFR 140.11 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is the owner or beneficial owner or holds a use right to the land on which the business is to be... land on which the business is to be conducted. The license period shall correspond to the period of...

  8. Continuing Diversity: A Column of Periodical Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juedes, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents brief reviews of four periodicals that address diversity themes. Periodicals reviewed are: "Parabola: The Magazine of Myth and Traditions,""Race, Sex & Class: An Interdisciplinary Journal,""Third Force," and "Rhythm Music Magazine." Purchase information is included. (GR)

  9. 75 FR 65677 - Periodic Reporting Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... periodic reporting of service performance measurement for Applications and Mailing Permits, pursuant to... performance measurement reporting requirements. ADDRESSES: Submit comments electronically via the Commission's... Exception from Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Measurement, September 30, 2010 (Request); see...

  10. The two periods of TT ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstensen, J. R.; Smak, J.; Hessman, F. V.

    1985-05-01

    To clarify the spectroscopic period and demonstrate that the spectroscopic and photometric periods are distinct, velocities of the cataclysmic variable TT Ari in its high and intermediate photometric states are obtained. Evidence for periodicity is found near the period of Cowley et al. (1975) in both the high-state and intermediate-state velocities and in a reanalysis of the Cowley et al. velocities no evidence is found for periodicity near the photometric period. Since no single period fits all the data well and since the original Cowley et al. period fits all the high-state data quite well, it is shown that the velocities change phase between the high and the intermediate states. Results indicate that the intermediate-state velocities lag the high-state velocities by 0.28 of a cycle and that in the high-state data, the gamma velocities tend to be systematically lower for the high-order Balmer lines.

  11. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  12. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  13. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  14. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  15. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  16. Study of gratings with variable periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Fuentes-Tapia, Israel; Toxqui-López, Santa; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Ordoñez-Padilla, Manuel Jorge; Mejias-Brizuela, Nildia Y.

    2016-03-01

    A theoretical study with sinusoidal amplitude diffraction gratings, elaborated with variable periods is shown. The diffraction pattern behavior and the symmetry degree of the gratings were observed. The grating period is increased, fringe to fringe, starting with a small period and ending with a big period that is; the grating edge, start with high spatial frequency and finish with low spatial frequency. This gratings modulation causes a widening in the diffracted orders.

  17. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  18. Dietary intake and thiamin, iron, and zinc status in elite Nordic skiers during different training periods.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, M; Rehunen, S; Gref, C G; Laakso, J T; Lehto, J; Ruokonen, I; Himberg, J J

    1992-12-01

    This study evaluated how different training periods affect dietary intake and biochemical indices of thiamin, iron, and zinc status in elite Nordic skiers. Subjects were 17 skiers and 39 controls, ages 18-38 yrs. Dietary data were collected by 7-day food records at 3-month intervals. Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to indicate magnitude of seasonal changes. Energy intake for the year (28 food record days) was 3,802 kcal/day (CV 19.1%) in male skiers, 2,754 kcal/day (CV 3.7%) in male controls, 2,812 kcal/day (CV 9.1%) in female skiers, and 2,013 kcal/day (CV 5.9%) in female controls. CVs for thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc intake were 14.1-23.9% (male skiers), 2.9-15.0% (male controls), 4.8-24.5% (female skiers), and 4.3-11.5% (female controls). Seasonal changes in energy, carbohydrate, and micronutrient intakes reflected energy expenditure in male endurance athletes particularly. Erythrocyte transketolase activation coefficients and serum ferritin and zinc concentrations did not differ between skiers and controls. Seasonal variations in these biochemical indices of nutritional status were of the same magnitude in skiers and controls, despite large changes in skiers' physical activity.

  19. Sodium periodate-induced human suppressor cells for polyclonal B cell activation.

    PubMed

    Goust, J M

    1982-09-01

    Sodium periodate (SP) induces proliferation of mature T cells. In this study, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) pretreated for 10 minutes at room temperature with increasing concentrations (0.1 to 5 mM) of SP before culture for 7 days in the presence of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of IgG production, contrasting with an increase in 3H-thymidine uptake. When MNC from 70 normal individuals were pretreated with 1 and 2 mM SP, IgG production in culture was suppressed by 46.8 +/- 4.5% and 60.4 +/- 4.4% (mean +/- S.E.M.), respectively, as compared to IgG synthesis in the presence of PWM alone. Longitudinal studies of MNC obtained from the same normal individuals over 6-10 months showed similar degrees of suppression, indicating that the level of SP-inducible suppressor cell activity remains relatively constant, although the degree of suppression varies among normal persons. Both T cells and monocytes were required for PWM-driven IgG production and for SP-induced suppression. A soluble factor elaborated by SP-treated monocytes was also able to suppress IgG production. This model should provide useful information about abnormal regulation of IgG synthesis in various pathological conditions. PMID:6290661

  20. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  1. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  2. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  3. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  4. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage period. 1437.5 Section 1437.5 Agriculture... Provisions § 1437.5 Coverage period. (a) The coverage period is the time during which coverage is available against loss of production of the eligible crop as a result of natural disaster. (b) The coverage...

  5. Prebifurcation periodic ghost orbits in semiclassical quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Kus, M. ); Haake, F. ); Delande, D. )

    1993-10-04

    Classical periodic orbits are stationary-phase points in path integral representations of quantum propagators. We show that complex solutions of the stationary-phase equation, not corresponding to real classical periodic orbits, give additional contributions to the propagator which can be important, especially near bifurcations. We reveal the existence and relevance of such periodic ghost orbits for a kicked top.

  6. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  7. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  8. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  9. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  10. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  11. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  12. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  13. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  14. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  15. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  16. 30 CFR 887.13 - Grant period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remaining at the end of any grant period to us according to 43 CFR part 12. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant period. 887.13 Section 887.13 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE INSURANCE PROGRAM GRANTS § 887.13 Grant period. The grant funding...

  17. 30 CFR 887.13 - Grant period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remaining at the end of any grant period to us according to 43 CFR part 12. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant period. 887.13 Section 887.13 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE INSURANCE PROGRAM GRANTS § 887.13 Grant period. The grant funding...

  18. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  19. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County...

  20. 12 CFR 226.7 - Periodic statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH... periodic rates apply to different types of transactions, the types of transactions to which the periodic... amount(s) of any other type of finance charge. If there is more than one periodic rate, the amount of...

  1. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.621 Voting period. The term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.621 Voting period. The term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  3. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  4. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  5. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the...

  6. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon... an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant differs from an award-specific audit of...

  7. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  8. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  9. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  10. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  11. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  12. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  13. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  14. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  15. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  16. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  17. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  18. 14 CFR 325.6 - Periodic reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic reviews. 325.6 Section 325.6... REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE PROCEDURES § 325.6 Periodic reviews. (a) The Department will start a periodic review of essential air service within 1 year of the date of the previous determination...

  19. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this chapter, the FAA reviews and makes a decision on an application...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  5. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the...

  6. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this...

  7. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this...

  8. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  9. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this...

  10. 16 CFR 1107.21 - Periodic testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... body. Periodic testing must be conducted pursuant to either paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section.... Component part testing pursuant to 16 CFR part 1109 may be used to support the periodic testing requirements... assessment body for periodic testing to the applicable children's product safety rules at least once...

  11. 16 CFR 1107.21 - Periodic testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... body. Periodic testing must be conducted pursuant to either paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section.... Component part testing pursuant to 16 CFR part 1109 may be used to support the periodic testing requirements... assessment body for periodic testing to the applicable children's product safety rules at least once...

  12. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  13. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  14. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  15. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  16. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  17. Acute phase response in the primiparous dairy cows after repeated percutaneous liver biopsy during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Jawor, P; Brzozowska, A; Słoniewski, K; Kowalski, Z M; Stefaniak, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute phase response of dairy cows to repeated liver biopsy in order to estimate the safety of this procedure during the transition period. Liver biopsies (up to 1000 mg of liver tissue) were conducted twice a day, 7 days before expected parturition and 3 days after calving. The number of needle insertions for each biopsy was recorded and was dependent on the amount of obtained tissue. Blood samples were taken on day 7 before expected parturition, then on days 3, 4, 7 and 14 after calving. Body temperature was measured daily in all 30 cows from day 3 until day 14 after calving. The concentrations of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen and interleukin-6 were determined in serum and plasma. In 16.7% of cows, the rectal body temperature rose by ≥ 0.5°C on the day after liver biopsy. Although the concentrations of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and fibrinogen increased significantly after calving (p<0.01), there was no influence of the number of biopsies on the acute phase reaction and repeated biopsy during the transition period had no effect on body temperature. Therefore, the procedure may be regarded as safe for cows during the transition period. PMID:27487515

  18. Confinement of sows for different periods during lactation: effects on behaviour and lesions of sows and performance of piglets.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, C; Petig, M; Elkmann, A; Gauly, M

    2015-08-01

    Alternatives to farrowing crates with continuous confinement of the sow are urgently needed because the animal welfare is negatively impacted. Given the increase of herd sizes, practical experience with loose-housing is needed to force the implementation of these systems in the field. Next to aspects of labour efficiency, detrimental piglet mortality rates that may occur during the first days postpartum (pp) is a major criticism. Therefore, loose-housing after a crating period limited to the first days pp might be a feasible alternative to improve welfare under intensive production conditions. The aim was to investigate the effect of crating sows during lactation for different periods on their behaviour and integument alterations and on piglets' performance. Gilts from a commercial herd were observed from 5 to 26 days pp and housed in farrowing crates (1.85×2.50 m) that could be altered between confinement crates and loose-housing pens. Animals were divided into three groups, that were either crated continuously from birth until weaning (Group A, n=55), until 14 days pp (Group B; n=54) or 7 days pp (Group C, n=59). The behaviour of six randomly selected gilts per group was video recorded from 5 to 26 days pp and analysed by time sampling technique. Lesions on the legs, shoulder and lumbar vertebra were scored on days 7, 14 and 25 pp. Piglets were weighed weekly, causes of losses recorded and weight losses of gilts measured. Not different between groups (P>0.05), animals spent 72 to 76% lying laterally, 14 to 17% lying in abdominal or semi-abdominal position, 9 to 10% standing and 1 to 3% sitting. B-sows were lying longer in week 3 and 4 of lactation compared to A- and C-sows (P0.05), whereas almost 90% of the losses occurred in the first week pp. In conclusion, loose-housing of lactating gilts after a reduced postnatal crating period of 7 days affected neither the activity level of the gilts and lesions on the integument nor pre-weaning mortality. Therefore, it is

  19. Light period regulation of carbohydrate partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Harry W.

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that the photosynthetic period is important in regulating carbon partitioning. Even when the same amount of carbon is fixed over a 24h period considerably more is translocated out of the leaf under the longer photosynthetic period. This is extremely important when parts of the plant other than the leaves are to be sold. It is also important to notice the amount of carbon respired in the short photosynthetic period. The light period effect on carbohydrate fixation, dark respiration, and translocation is shown in this report.

  20. A highly specific test for periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ansmann, Gerrit

    2015-11-15

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series.

  1. Long Periodic Terms in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretagnon, P.

    1982-01-01

    The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation function. A second approximation was made taking into account the short period terms' contribution, namely the perturbations of first order with respect to the masses. Special attention was paid to the determination of the integration constants. The relative importance of the different contributions is shown. It is useless, for example, to introduce the long period terms of fifth order if no account has been taken of the short period terms. Meanwhile, the terms that have been neglected would not introduce large changes in the integration constants. Even so, the calculation should be repeated with higher order short period terms and fifth order long periods.

  2. Sawtooth period control by power modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauret, Menno; Schuster, Eugenio; de Baar, Marco; Felici, Federico; Heemels, Maurice; Gomes, Alexander; Goodman, Tim; Kim, Doohyun; Sauter, Olivier; Vandersteen, Gerd; Witvoet, Gert; Lennholm, Morten

    2015-11-01

    It is foreseen that long sawtooth oscillations will occur during ITER H-mode scenarios leading to confinement loss and even disruptions. Sawtooth period control is therefore crucial. Most sawtooth period control approaches depend on changing the deposition location of electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) near r(q =1). In contrast to this, several TCV and AUG experiments with fixed ECCD deposition location show that ECCD power modulation, either periodic or feedback controlled, can lead to fast and reliable period control. To understand this nonlinear phenomenon, a reduced and `hybrid' reset model has been derived that models the nonlinear dynamics. Analysis reveals that the sawtooth period can be controlled by power modulation, even in the case of significant model uncertainties or when there is a significant lengthening effect of the fast particles on the sawtooth period, as there will be in ITER. The model can also be used to design period control using ICRH influencing this fast particle effect.

  3. Talbot effect of quasi-periodic grating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Furui; Wang, Junhong; Teng, Shuyun

    2013-07-20

    Theoretic and experimental studies of the Talbot effect of quasi-periodic gratings are performed in this paper. The diffractions of periodic and quasi-periodic square aperture arrays in Fresnel fields are analyzed according to the scalar diffraction theory. The expressions of the diffraction intensities of two types of quasi-periodic gratings are deduced. Talbot images of the quasi-periodic gratings are predicted to appear at multiple certain distances. The quasi-periodic square aperture arrays are produced with the aid of a liquid crystal light modulator, and the self-images of the quasi-periodic gratings are measured successfully in the experiment. This study indicates that even a structure in short-range disorder may take on the self-imaging effect in a Fresnel field. PMID:23872752

  4. Long periodic terms in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretagnon, P.

    1982-06-01

    The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation function. A second approximation was made taking into account the short period terms' contribution, namely the perturbations of first order with respect to the masses. Special attention was paid to the determination of the integration constants. The relative importance of the different contributions is shown. It is useless, for example, to introduce the long period terms of fifth order if no account has been taken of the short period terms. Meanwhile, the terms that have been neglected would not introduce large changes in the integration constants. Even so, the calculation should be repeated with higher order short period terms and fifth order long periods.

  5. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  6. HeteroGenome: database of genome periodicity

    PubMed Central

    Chaley, Maria; Kutyrkin, Vladimir; Tulbasheva, Gayane; Teplukhina, Elena; Nazipova, Nafisa

    2014-01-01

    We present the first release of the HeteroGenome database collecting latent periodicity regions in genomes. Tandem repeats and highly divergent tandem repeats along with the regions of a new type of periodicity, known as profile periodicity, have been collected for the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We obtained data with the aid of a spectral-statistical approach to search for reliable latent periodicity regions (with periods up to 2000 bp) in DNA sequences. The original two-level mode of data presentation (a broad view of the region of latent periodicity and a second level indicating conservative fragments of its structure) was further developed to enable us to obtain the estimate, without redundancy, that latent periodicity regions make up ∼10% of the analyzed genomes. Analysis of the quantitative and qualitative content of located periodicity regions on all chromosomes of the analyzed organisms revealed dominant characteristic types of periodicity in the genomes. The pattern of density distribution of latent periodicity regions on chromosome unambiguously characterizes each chromosome in genome. Database URL: http://www.jcbi.ru/lp_baze/ PMID:24857969

  7. Probabilistic stellar rotation periods with Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Ruth; Aigrain, Suzanne; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Stellar rotation has many applications in the field of exoplanets. High-precision photometry from space-based missions like Kepler and K2 allows us to measure stellar rotation periods directly from light curves. Stellar variability produced by rotation is usually not sinusoidal or perfectly periodic, therefore sine-fitting periodograms are not well suited to rotation period measurement. Autocorrelation functions are often used to extract periodic information from light curves, however uncertainties on rotation periods measured by autocorrelation are difficult to define. A ‘by eye’ check, or a set of heuristic criteria are used to validate measurements and rotation periods are only reported for stars that pass this vetting process. A probabilistic rotation period measurement method, with a suitable generative model bypasses the need for a validation stage and can produce realistic uncertainties. The physics driving the production of variability in stellar light curves is still poorly understood and difficult to model. We therefore use an effective model for stellar variability: a Gaussian process with a quasi-periodic covariance function. By injecting fake signals into Kepler light curves we show that the GP model is well suited to quasi-periodic, non-sinusoidal signals, is capable of modelling noise and physical signals simultaneously and provides probabilistic rotation period measurements with realistic uncertainties.

  8. Cyclical period changes in Z Chamaeleontis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.; Jablonski, F.; Oliveira, E.; Vrielmann, S.; Woudt, P. A.; Catalán, M. S.

    2002-09-01

    We report the identification of cyclical changes in the orbital period of the eclipsing dwarf nova Z Cha. We used times of mid-eclipse collected from the literature and our new eclipse timings to construct an observed-minus-calculated diagram covering 30 yr of observations (1972-2002). The data present cyclical variations that can be fitted by a linear plus sinusoidal function with period 28 +/- 2 yr and amplitude 1.0 +/- 0.2 min. The statistical significance of this period by an F-test is larger than 99.9 per cent. The derived fractional period change, ΔP/P= 4.4 × 10-7, is comparable to that of other short-period cataclysmic variables (CVs), but is one order of magnitude smaller than those of the long-period CVs. Separate fits to the first and second halves of the data lead to ephemerides with quite different cycle periods and amplitudes, indicating that the variation is not sinusoidal or, most probably, is not strictly periodic. The observed cyclical period change is possibly caused by a solar-type magnetic activity cycle in the secondary star. An incremental variation in the Roche lobe of the secondary star of is required in order to explain both the observed period change and the modulation of the quiescent brightness previously reported by Ak, Ozkan & Mattei.

  9. Do triatomic molecules echo atomic periodicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Hefferlin, R. Barrow, J.

    2015-03-30

    Demonstrations of periodicity among triatomic-molecular spectroscopic constants underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. The objective of this work is to prepare for another test using vibration frequencies ν{sub 1} of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected ν{sub 1} data for molecules formed from second period atoms.

  10. Long period coupling terms for Lagrange's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of that portion of the work of Berger, which deals with the long period coupling effect of certain pairs of zonal harmonics. Long period terms arising from the short short period coupling of zonal harmonics are derived for Lagrange's equations. The formulation is general so that the results are valid for any pairs of zonal harmonics. Formulas are given to generate the various functions and integrals needed for the results given. Checks have been made against the work of Kozai.

  11. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  12. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  13. Lightcurve and Rotation Period of 1044 Teutonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Alberto Silva; Ferreira, Diogo Henrique; Dos Santos, Tarcio Henrique Ribeiro; Novaes, Alberto Brum

    2008-03-01

    The minor planet 1044 Teutonia was observed 2007 June 8-9 UT, during 3.7h, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The synodic period from the collected data are best fit by a period 2.84 ± 0.04 h and with an amplitude of 0.20 ± 0.03. However, the period of 3.153 ± 0.003 reported by Behrend et al. (2006) cannot be eliminated.

  14. Preparing to perform: periodization and dance.

    PubMed

    Wyon, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the historical and current literature on periodization in sport before applying the concept to dance from scientific and anecdotal points of view. Preparing the dancer through the use of a periodization model, in a professional or vocational setting, will potentially help prevent overtraining and its link to injury, while improving the dancer's readiness to perform optimally. Practical examples of tapering and periodization of training are discussed for companies and vocational schools.

  15. Impairment of heme biosynthesis induces short circadian period in body temperature rhythms in mice.

    PubMed

    Iwadate, Reiko; Satoh, Yoko; Watanabe, Yukino; Kawai, Hiroshi; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi; Mashino, Tadahiko; Mitsumoto, Atsushi

    2012-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that the function of mammalian clock gene transcripts is controlled by the binding of heme in vitro. To examine the effects of heme on biological rhythms in vivo, we measured locomotor activity (LA) and core body temperature (T(b)) in a mouse model of porphyria with impaired heme biosynthesis by feeding mice a griseofulvin (GF)-containing diet. Mice fed with a 2.0% GF-containing diet (GF2.0) transiently exhibited phase advance or phase advance-like phenomenon by 1-3 h in terms of the biological rhythms of T(b) or LA, respectively (both, P < 0.05) while mice were kept under conditions of a light/dark cycle (12 h:12 h). We also observed a transient, ~0.3 h shortening of the period of circadian T(b) rhythms in mice kept under conditions of constant darkness (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the observed duration of abnormal circadian rhythms in GF2.0 mice lasted between 1 and 3 wk after the onset of GF ingestion; this finding correlated well with the extent of impairment of heme biosynthesis. When we examined the effects of therapeutic agents for acute porphyria, heme, and hypertonic glucose on the pathological status of GF2.0 mice, it was found that the intraperitoneal administration of heme (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or glucose (9 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 7 days partially reversed (50%) increases in urinary δ-aminolevulinic acids levels associated with acute porphyria. Treatment with heme, but not with glucose, suppressed the phase advance (-like phenomenon) in the diurnal rhythms (P < 0.05) and restored the decrease of heme (P < 0.01) in GF2.0 mice. These results suggest that impairments of heme biosynthesis, in particular a decrease in heme, may affect phase and period of circadian rhythms in animals.

  16. Mirtazapine Provokes Periodic Leg Movements during Sleep in Young Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Stephany; Kloiber, Stefan; Dose, Tatjana; Lucae, Susanne; Holsboer, Florian; Schaaf, Ludwig; Hennings, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent evidence suggests that certain antidepressants are associated with an increase of periodic leg movements (PLMS) that may disturb sleep. So far, this has been shown in patients clinically treated for depression and in cross-sectional studies for various substances, but not mirtazapine. It is unclear whether antidepressants induce the new onset of PLMS or only increase preexisting PLMS, and whether this is a general property of the antidepressant or only seen in depressed patients. We report here the effect of mirtazapine on PLMS in young healthy men. Design: Open-labeled clinical trial (NCT00878540) including a 3-week preparatory phase with standardized food, physical activity, and sleep-wake behavior, and a 10-day experimental inpatient phase with an adaptation day, 2 baseline days, and 7 days with mirtazapine. Setting: Research institute. Participants: Twelve healthy young (20-25 years) men. Interventions: Seven days of nightly intake (22:00) of 30 mg mirtazapine. Measurements and results: Sleep was recorded on 2 drug-free baseline nights, the first 2 drug nights, and the last 2 drug nights. Eight of the 12 subjects showed increased PLMS after the first dose of mirtazapine. Frequency of PLMS was highest on the first drug night and attenuated over the course of the next 6 days. Three subjects reported transient restless legs symptoms. Conclusions: Mirtazapine provoked PLMS in 67% of young healthy males. The effect was most pronounced in the first days. The possible role of serotonergic, noradrenergic and histaminergic mechanisms in mirtazapine-induced PLMS is discussed. Citation: Fulda S; Kloiber S; Dose T; Lucae S. Mirtazapine provokes periodic leg movements during sleep in young healthy men. SLEEP 2013;36(5):661-669. PMID:23633748

  17. Coherent peculiar velocities and periodic redshifts

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.T.; Steinhardt, P.J.; Turner, M.S. Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Batavia Chicago Univ., IL )

    1991-01-01

    A coherent, sinusoidal peculiar velocity field of 0.003 amplitude and wavelength of 128/h Mpc could explain the apparent redshift periodicity seen in the recent pencil-beam survey of Broadhurst et al. (1990). Such a peculiar velocity field could arise if the power spectrum of density perturbations has a strong feature at about this wavelength. This explanation has additional predictions: the phase, period, and strength of the periodicity should vary in different directions; the strength of the periodicity should decrease at higher redshifts; and there should be more thin structures perpendicular to the line of sight than parallel to it. 28 refs.

  18. NONPARAMETRIC BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuyang; Khardon, Roni; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2012-09-01

    Many astronomical phenomena exhibit patterns that have periodic behavior. An important step when analyzing data from such processes is the problem of identifying the period: estimating the period of a periodic function based on noisy observations made at irregularly spaced time points. This problem is still a difficult challenge despite extensive study in different disciplines. This paper makes several contributions toward solving this problem. First, we present a nonparametric Bayesian model for period finding, based on Gaussian Processes (GPs), that does not make assumptions on the shape of the periodic function. As our experiments demonstrate, the new model leads to significantly better results in period estimation especially when the light curve does not exhibit sinusoidal shape. Second, we develop a new algorithm for parameter optimization for GP which is useful when the likelihood function is very sensitive to the parameters with numerous local minima, as in the case of period estimation. The algorithm combines gradient optimization with grid search and incorporates several mechanisms to overcome the high computational complexity of GP. Third, we develop a novel approach for using domain knowledge, in the form of a probabilistic generative model, and incorporate it into the period estimation algorithm. Experimental results validate our approach showing significant improvement over existing methods.

  19. Strange attractors and their periodic repetition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiudong; Oksasoglu, Ali

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present some important findings regarding a comprehensive characterization of dynamical behavior in the vicinity of two periodically perturbed homoclinic solutions. Using the Duffing system, we illustrate that the overall dynamical behavior of the system, including strange attractors, is organized in the form of an asymptotic invariant pattern as the magnitude of the applied periodic forcing approaches zero. Moreover, this invariant pattern repeats itself with a multiplicative period with respect to the magnitude of the forcing. This multiplicative period is an explicitly known function of the system parameters. The findings from the numerical experiments are shown to be in great agreement with the theoretical expectations. PMID:21456842

  20. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR NATIVE AMERICANS, NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  6. Doppler effects on periodicities in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, J. F.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetosphere of Saturn exhibits a wide variety of periodic phenomena in magnetic fields, charged particles, and radio emissions. The periodicities are observed from a moving spacecraft, so an issue arises about the periodicities being influenced by the Doppler effects. Doppler effects can be investigated using models of the periodicities and then flying the spacecraft through the model, effectively measuring any Doppler phenomena with the simulation. Using 200 days of typical elliptical orbits from the Cassini mission at Saturn, three models were tested: an azimuthal wave (or "searchlight") model, a radial wave (or "pond ripple") model, and a model of an outwardly traveling spiral wave. The azimuthal wave model produced virtually no Doppler effects in the periodicities because its wave vector is nearly perpendicular to the spacecraft trajectory. The radial wave model generated strong Doppler effects of an upshifted and a downshifted signal (a dual period) on either side of the true period, because the wave vector is either parallel or antiparallel to the spacecraft trajectory. Being intermediate to the searchlight and radial waves, the spiral wave produced Doppler effects but only for low wave speeds (<10 RS/h). For higher wave speeds the Doppler effects were not as clear. The Doppler effects can be mitigated by employing only observations beyond ~15 RS where the spacecraft speed is low compared to the wave speed. The observed periodicities over the same 200 day interval do not show evidence of Doppler effects but generally display a single feature at the expected ~10.7 h period.

  7. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  12. 40 CFR 91.105 - Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Useful life period, recall, and... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.105 Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods. (a) The useful life for PWC engines is a period of 350 hours of operation or 5 years of use, whichever...

  13. 40 CFR 91.105 - Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Useful life period, recall, and... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.105 Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods. (a) The useful life for PWC engines is a period of 350 hours of operation or 5 years of use, whichever...

  14. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  15. 40 CFR 91.105 - Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Useful life period, recall, and... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.105 Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods. (a) The useful life for PWC engines is a period of 350 hours of operation or 5 years of use, whichever...

  16. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  17. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  18. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  19. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  20. Current Film Periodicals in English. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Adam, Comp.

    This bibliography of about 200 periodicals dealing with film covers several types of magazine: scholarly journals on film aesthetics, like "The Film Journal"; news notes for movie fans, like "Film Nut News"; magazines which cover films as well as the other arts, like "Cue" and "After Dark"; film education periodicals, like "Media and Methods";…

  1. Prospectus for a Chicano Periodical Index Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabran, Richard

    Seven Southwest Chicano library units propose to collaborate in the first cycle of the development and production of a Chicano Periodical Index. The units intend to provide library users with an indexing system which would improve access of Chicano periodical publications and to provide a model index for future development. The proposed project…

  2. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  3. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  4. 47 CFR 27.13 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false License period. 27.13 Section 27.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.13 License period. (a) 2305-2320 MHz and 2345-2360...

  5. 47 CFR 27.13 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License period. 27.13 Section 27.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.13 License period. (a) 2305-2320 MHz and 2345-2360...

  6. 47 CFR 27.13 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false License period. 27.13 Section 27.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.13 License period. (a) 2305-2320 MHz and 2345-2360...

  7. 47 CFR 27.13 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false License period. 27.13 Section 27.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.13 License period. Link to an amendment published at 79...

  8. 47 CFR 27.13 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false License period. 27.13 Section 27.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.13 License period. (a) 2305-2320 MHz and 2345-2360...

  9. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  10. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  11. Local field effects in periodic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porvatkina, O. V.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.

    2016-08-01

    In this article we investigate dielectric and magnetic properties of periodic metamaterials taking into account the so-called local field effect, caused by interaction between single particles the material consists of. We also consider the spatial dispersion effects. As a result, generalized Clausius-Mossotti techniques have been extended to the case of periodic metamaterials; permittivity tensor and permeability tensor were obtained.

  12. Deterministic weak localization in periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Tian, C; Larkin, A

    2005-12-01

    In some perfect periodic structures classical motion exhibits deterministic diffusion. For such systems we present the weak localization theory. As a manifestation for the velocity autocorrelation function a universal power law decay is predicted to appear at four Ehrenfest times. This deterministic weak localization is robust against weak quenched disorders, which may be confirmed by coherent backscattering measurements of periodic photonic crystals.

  13. 75 FR 47717 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Periodicals Mail'' published by the Federal Register on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 41989-41991) is revised to... March 27, 1995, the Postal Service published a final rule in the Federal Register (60 FR 10021-10029... Part 111 Content of Periodicals Mail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\ ACTION: Final rule; revised....

  14. 7 CFR 916.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 916.7 Section 916.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... the 12-month period beginning on March 1 of one year and ending on the last day of February of...

  15. Periodically correlated processes and their stationary dilations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miamee, A. G.

    1988-01-01

    An explicit form for a stationary dilation for periodically correlated random processes is obtained. This is then used to give spectral conditions for a periodically correlated process to be non-deterministic, purely deterministic, minimal, and to have a positive angle between its past and future.

  16. Orbital period changes of YY Coronae Borealis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu

    2015-06-01

    By using all available times of light minimum, the orbital period changes of a W UMa eclipsing binary YY CrB have been investigated. Two possible orbital period variations are found: (1) a secular period decrease with a rate of dP/dt = -6.727 × 10-7 d yr-1, on which a sinusoidal oscillation with a period of P = 12.68 yr is superposed, or (2) an abrupt period change with a sudden period decrease of -0.7862 s around the year 2005. The secular period decrease is discussed in terms of (1) the mass transfer from the more massive companion to the less massive one with a mass transfer rate of dM2/dt = 2.8096 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1, and (2) the mass loss via stellar wind from the system. The sinusoidal oscillatory can be interpreted as a result of the magnetic activity cycles of the system. In addition, the abrupt period decrease of the system might be due to the sudden mass transfer between the components.

  17. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  18. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  19. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  20. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  1. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  2. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  3. Online Periodic Table: A Cautionary Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izci, Kemal; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Thornhill, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate ten online periodic table sources for their accuracy and (b) to compare the types of information and links provided to users. Limited studies have been reported on online periodic table (Diener and Moore 2011; Slocum and Moore in "J Chem Educ" 86(10):1167, 2009). Chemistry students'…

  4. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169.226 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  5. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169.226 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  6. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169.226 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  7. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169.226 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  8. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169.226 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  9. Depression in Pregnancy and Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Mamta; Sood, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in a service hospital, with the aim to study the prevalence and incidence of depression in pregnancy and postpartum period. Eighty Four consecutive patients attending the antenatal outpatient in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology department in their last trimester of pregnancy were recruited for the study. They were assessed on Beck Depression Inventory thrice viz. during third trimester of pregnancy, within 3 days of delivery (early postpartum period) & within 4-8 weeks of delivery (late postpartum period).The prevalence of depression was 8.3%, 20% and 12.8% respectively at three ratings. The incidence was 16% and 10% in the early & late postpartum period respectively. Further analysis revealed that depression in pregnancy correlated significantly with depression in early postpartum period, but not with late postpartum period. Depression in early postpartum period correlated with depression in late postpartum period.These findings have implications for early detection and care of women at risk for developing depression. PMID:21206814

  10. 24 CFR 886.332 - Rehabilitation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rehabilitation period. 886.332... Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.332 Rehabilitation period. (a) Immediate start of rehabilitation after sales closing. After the execution of the Agreement and the sales...

  11. 24 CFR 886.332 - Rehabilitation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rehabilitation period. 886.332... Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.332 Rehabilitation period. (a) Immediate start of rehabilitation after sales closing. After the execution of the Agreement and the sales...

  12. 30 CFR 735.17 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant periods. 735.17 Section 735.17 Mineral... REGULATORY PROGRAMS FOR NON-FEDERAL AND NON-INDIAN LANDS GRANTS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.17 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally...

  13. 42 CFR 1008.3 - Effective period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective period. 1008.3 Section 1008.3 Public... ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.3 Effective period. The provisions in this part are applicable to requests for advisory opinions submitted on or after February 21, 1997, and before August...

  14. Uniform period spacings in white dwarf models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical models of g-mode oscillations in white dwarfs are investigated analytically. Numerical results of period-spacing computations for DOV, DAV, and DBV models are presented in tables, and the relationships between period spacings and the composition and structure of the stellar atmospheres are discussed.

  15. 30 CFR 735.17 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant periods. 735.17 Section 735.17 Mineral... REGULATORY PROGRAMS FOR NON-FEDERAL AND NON-INDIAN LANDS GRANTS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.17 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally...

  16. 30 CFR 735.17 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant periods. 735.17 Section 735.17 Mineral... REGULATORY PROGRAMS FOR NON-FEDERAL AND NON-INDIAN LANDS GRANTS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.17 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally...

  17. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within...

  18. 20 CFR 410.501 - Payment periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment periods. 410.501 Section 410.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.501 Payment periods. Benefits are paid...

  19. 20 CFR 410.501 - Payment periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment periods. 410.501 Section 410.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.501 Payment periods. Benefits are paid...

  20. 14 CFR 23.49 - Stalling period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stalling period. 23.49 Section 23.49... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.49 Stalling period. (a) VSOand VS1are the stalling speeds or the minimum steady flight speeds, in knots (CAS),...

  1. 20 CFR 655.205 - Recruitment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recruitment period. 655.205 Section 655.205... Agricultural Employment § 655.205 Recruitment period. (a) If the OFLC Administrator determines that the... carry out the assurances contained in § 655.203 with respect to the recruitment of U.S. workers....

  2. 75 FR 38757 - Periodic Reporting Exceptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... 39 CFR 3055 Periodic Reporting Exceptions AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... to Postal Service-proposed semi-permanent exceptions to certain rules on periodic reporting of... INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On June 25, 2010,...

  3. 46 CFR 107.270 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 107.270 Section 107.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.270 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  4. 46 CFR 107.270 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 107.270 Section 107.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.270 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  5. 46 CFR 107.270 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 107.270 Section 107.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.270 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  6. 46 CFR 107.270 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 107.270 Section 107.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.270 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  7. 46 CFR 107.270 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 107.270 Section 107.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.270 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  8. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  9. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  10. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  11. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  12. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  13. 36 CFR 223.50 - Periodic payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.50... species of included timber meeting utilization standards. (3) Normal operating season is the period so specified in a timber sale contract. (4) Periodic payment(s) is/are amount(s) specified in a timber...

  14. The dispersion of period spacing for DAVstars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    Three groups of DAV star models are evolved with time-dependent element diffusion by WDEC. The core compositions of these models are directly from white dwarf models evolved by MESA, which are results of thermonuclear burning. Based on these DAV star models, we try to study the dispersion of period spacing. The thickness of hydrogen atmosphere can seriously affect the deviation degree of minimal period spacings. The minimal period spacings dominate the dispersion of period spacing. The thinner the hydrogen atmosphere, basically, the more dispersive the period spacing. Standard deviations are used to analyse the dispersion of period spacing. Studying the dispersion of period spacing on a DAV star KUV03442+0719 preliminarily, we suggest that log(MH/M*) is from -8.5 to -5.5. In addition, modes partly trapped in C/O core are found based on those DAV star models. The identified modes and average period spacings indicate that KUV03442+0719 may be the first star to `observe' modes partly trapped in C/O core.

  15. 12 CFR 226.7 - Periodic statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Periodic statement. 226.7 Section 226.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.7 Periodic statement. The creditor shall furnish...

  16. 14 CFR 2-4 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting period. Sec. 2-4 Section Sec. 2... Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-4 Accounting period. (a) The accounting year of each air carrier subject to this... settlement with debtors or creditors. (c) Expenditures incurred during the current accounting year...

  17. 18 CFR 367.5 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accounting period. 367.5 Section 367.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Instructions § 367.5 Accounting period. Each service company must keep its books on a monthly basis so that...

  18. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall...

  19. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall...

  20. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall...

  1. 18 CFR 367.5 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accounting period. 367.5 Section 367.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Instructions § 367.5 Accounting period. Each service company must keep its books on a monthly basis so that...

  2. 18 CFR 367.5 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accounting period. 367.5 Section 367.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Instructions § 367.5 Accounting period. Each service company must keep its books on a monthly basis so that...

  3. 28 CFR 524.75 - Periodic review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodic review. 524.75 Section 524.75... TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.75 Periodic review. The Warden shall ensure that the status of an inmate's CIM assignment is considered at each program...

  4. 7 CFR 1.417 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... days after the comment period, pursuant to 36 CFR 233.190(h)(2). The request must be postmarked no... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review period. 1.417 Section 1.417 Agriculture Office... of Sourcing Area Applications and Formal Review of Sourcing Areas Pursuant to the Forest...

  5. 50 CFR 424.21 - Periodic review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic review. 424.21 Section 424.21... SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT § 424.21 Periodic review. At least once every 5 years, the Secretary shall conduct a review of each listed species to determine whether it should be delisted...

  6. Periodical Literature of Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawani, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    In order to foster improvements in bibliographical control, this study attempts to provide some information on the periodicals in which articles on tropical and subtropical agriculture are published. The periodicals in which publications most frequently appear are listed, and the extent of bibliographic scattering and language of publication are…

  7. 7 CFR 1280.224 - Periodic evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Periodic evaluation. 1280.224 Section 1280.224... Periodic evaluation. Pursuant to the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7401... to the Board, an independent evaluation of the effectiveness of the Order and other...

  8. 7 CFR 1280.224 - Periodic evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Periodic evaluation. 1280.224 Section 1280.224... Periodic evaluation. Pursuant to the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7401... to the Board, an independent evaluation of the effectiveness of the Order and other...

  9. 28 CFR 524.75 - Periodic review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic review. 524.75 Section 524.75... TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.75 Periodic review. The Warden shall ensure that the status of an inmate's CIM assignment is considered at each program...

  10. 50 CFR 424.21 - Periodic review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic review. 424.21 Section 424.21... SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.21 Periodic review. At least once every 5 years, the Secretary shall conduct a review of each listed species to determine whether...

  11. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... recognized medical and dental organizations involved in child health care; (b) Specifies screening services applicable at each stage of the recipient's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age...

  12. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall...

  13. 18 CFR 367.5 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting period. 367.5 Section 367.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Instructions § 367.5 Accounting period. Each service company must keep its books on a monthly basis so that...

  14. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall...

  15. 7 CFR 1.417 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... days after the comment period, pursuant to 36 CFR 233.190(h)(2). The request must be postmarked no... Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620 et seq.) § 1.417 Review period. (a) Review...

  16. 7 CFR 1.417 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... days after the comment period, pursuant to 36 CFR 233.190(h)(2). The request must be postmarked no... Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620 et seq.) § 1.417 Review period. (a) Review...

  17. 7 CFR 1.417 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... days after the comment period, pursuant to 36 CFR 233.190(h)(2). The request must be postmarked no... Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620 et seq.) § 1.417 Review period. (a) Review...

  18. 7 CFR 1.417 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... days after the comment period, pursuant to 36 CFR 233.190(h)(2). The request must be postmarked no... Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620 et seq.) § 1.417 Review period. (a) Review...

  19. Short Periodicities in Latitudinal Variation of Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bang-Yeop; Chang, Heon-Young

    2011-06-01

    The latitudinal variation of sunspots appearing during the period from 1874 to 2009 has been studied in terms of centerof- latitude (COL). The butterfly diagram has been used to study the evolution of the magnetic field and the dynamics at the bottom of the solar convection zone. Short-term periodicities have been of particular interest, in that they are somehow related to the structure and dynamics of the solar interior. We thus have focused our investigation on shortterm periodicities. We first calculated COL by averaging the latitude of sunspots with the weight function in area. Then, we analyzed the time series of COL using the wavelet transform technique. We found that a periodicity of ~5 years is the most dominant feature in the time series of COL, with the exception of the ~11 year solar cycle itself. This periodicity can be easily understood by considering small humps between the minima in the area-weighted butterfly diagram. However, we find that periodicities of ~1.3 (0.064), ~1.5 (0.056), or ~1.8 (0.046) years ( 1/ month ), which have been previously suggested as evidence of links between the changing structure of the sunspot zone and the tachocline rotation rate oscillations, are insignificant and inconsistent. We therefore conclude that the only existing short-term periodicity is of ~5 years, and that periodicities of ~1.3, ~1.5, or ~1.8 years are likely to be artifacts due to random noise of small sunspots.

  20. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., utilities, music licensing fees, etc.). Any successive applicants proposing to assign or transfer the... receiving a decisive preference for fair distribution of service is required to construct and operate... preference is based for a period of four years of on-air operations. (c) The holding period in this...

  1. 5 CFR 317.503 - Probationary period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Career Appointments § 317.503 Probationary period. (a) An individual's initial appointment as an SES career appointee becomes final only after the individual has served a 1-year probationary period as a career appointee; there has been an assessment of the appointee's performance...

  2. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact Eclipsing Binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Hongpeng, Lu; Wang, Daimei

    2016-01-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of -5.1(±0.4)×10-7 days/year. We believe this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm/dt = 7.06×10-7M⊙/year. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. Its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  3. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact eclipsing binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei

    2016-05-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of - 5.1(± 0.4) × 10-7 days/year. We assume this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm / dt = 7.06 ×10-7M⊙ /year . By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. In the future, its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  4. Periodic oscillations of the forced Brusselator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallas, Jason A. C.

    We study the organization of stability phases in the control parameter space of a periodically driven Brusselator. Specifically, we report high-resolution stability diagrams classifying periodic phases in terms of the number of spikes per period of their regular oscillations. Such diagrams contain accumulations of periodic oscillations with an apparently unbounded growth in the number of their spikes. In addition to the entrainment horns, we investigate the organization of oscillations in the limit of small frequencies and amplitudes of the drive. We find this limit to be free from chaotic oscillations and to display an extended and regular tiling of periodic phases. The Brusselator contains also several features discovered recently in more complex scenarios like, e.g. in lasers and in biochemical reactions, and exhibits properties which are helpful in the generic classification of entrainment in driven systems. Our stability diagrams reveal snippets of how the full classification of oscillations might look like for a wide class of flows.

  5. Periodic oscillations of the forced Brusselator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallas, J. A. C.

    2015-12-01

    We study the organization of stability phases in the control parameter space of a periodically driven Brusselator. Specifically, we report high-resolution stability diagrams classifying periodic phases in terms of the number of spikes per period of their regular oscillations. Such diagrams contain accumulations of periodic oscillations with an apparently unbounded growth in the number of their spikes. In addition to the entrainment horns, we investigate the organization of oscillations in the limit of small frequencies and amplitudes of the drive. We find this limit to be free from chaotic oscillations and to display an extended and regular tiling of periodic phases. The Brusselator contains also several features discovered recently in more complex scenarios like, e.g. in lasers and in biochemical reactions, and exhibits properties which are helpful in the generic classification of entrainment in driven systems. Our stability diagrams reveal snippets of how the full classification of oscillations might look like for a wide class of flows.

  6. Periodicity of the earth's magnetic reversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented from an attempt to perform a relatively comprehensive analysis of the evidence for a periodicity, with harmonics, of the observed regular reversals of the earth's magnetic field. The database considered covers 296 reversals over the past 165 Myr. Histograms with bins 1 Myr apart reveal only 30 Myr reversal patterns. The reversal dates are fitted to a linear periodic function and a spectrum is computed for the residuals at the adopted dates. The possible presence of multiple periodicities is evaluated and over various time intervals. The analysis shows that a recently observed 15 Myr periodicity is probably a harmonic of the 29.5-30.5 Myr period. The calculations do not confirm an inherent magnetic reversal property of the earth. The reversals may arise from tectonic events or from impacts from extraterrestrial objects.

  7. All-fibre components using periodic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngquist, R. C.; Brooks, J. L.; Risk, W. P.; Kino, G. S.; Shaw, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    The paper presents a new class of all-fiber devices based upon periodic coupling principles. The two basic devices which are described are a birefringent fiber polarization coupler and a two-mode fiber transverse mode coupler. Both devices consist of a ridged plate which is used to periodically stress a fiber with a periodicity equal to the beat length of the modes to be coupled. This periodic stress has been shown to result in almost complete power transfer for both the devices described. These 'in-line couplers' have been shown to have several applications, e.g., amplitude modulators, notch filters, polarizers, mixers, etc. One of the most important results of the work in this area was the development of an all-fiber frequency shifter based upon the principles of periodic coupling. More work needs to be done in the design and engineering of these devices, and there is still room for new ideas and approaches.

  8. Bounded Correctors in Almost Periodic Homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Gloria, Antoine; Kuusi, Tuomo

    2016-10-01

    We show that certain linear elliptic equations (and systems) in divergence form with almost periodic coefficients have bounded, almost periodic correctors. This is proved under a new condition we introduce which quantifies the almost periodic assumption and includes (but is not restricted to) the class of smooth, quasiperiodic coefficient fields which satisfy a Diophantine-type condition previously considered by Kozlov (Mat Sb (N.S), 107(149):199-217, 1978). The proof is based on a quantitative ergodic theorem for almost periodic functions combined with the new regularity theory recently introduced by Armstrong and Shen (Pure Appl Math, 2016) for equations with almost periodic coefficients. This yields control on spatial averages of the gradient of the corrector, which is converted into estimates on the size of the corrector itself via a multiscale Poincaré-type inequality.

  9. Generalized periodic discharges in the critically ill

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Abou Khaled, Karine; Jirsch, Jeffrey; Alschuler, Daniel M.; Wittman, John; Emerson, Ronald G.; Hirsch, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized periodic discharges are increasingly recognized on continuous EEG monitoring, but their relationship to seizures and prognosis remains unclear. Methods: All adults with generalized periodic discharges from 1996 to 2006 were matched 1:1 to controls by age, etiology, and level of consciousness. Overall, 200 patients with generalized periodic discharges were matched to 200 controls. Results: Mean age was 66 years (range 18–96); 56% were comatose. Presenting illnesses included acute brain injury (44%), acute systemic illness (38%), cardiac arrest (15%), and epilepsy (3%). A total of 46% of patients with generalized periodic discharges had a seizure during their hospital stay (almost half were focal), vs 34% of controls (p = 0.014). Convulsive seizures were seen in a third of both groups. A total of 27% of patients with generalized periodic discharges had nonconvulsive seizures, vs 8% of controls (p < 0.001); 22% of patients with generalized periodic discharges had nonconvulsive status epilepticus, vs 7% of controls (p < 0.001). In both groups, approximately half died or were in a vegetative state, one-third had severe disability, and one-fifth had moderate to no disability. Excluding cardiac arrest patients, generalized periodic discharges were associated with increased mortality on univariate analysis (36.8% vs 26.9%; p = 0.049). Multivariate predictors of worse outcome were cardiac arrest, coma, nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and sepsis, but not generalized periodic discharges. Conclusion: Generalized periodic discharges were strongly associated with nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. While nonconvulsive status epilepticus was independently associated with worse outcome, generalized periodic discharges were not after matching for age, etiology, and level of consciousness. PMID:23035068

  10. Periodicity of extinction: A 1988 update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkowski, J. John, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that events of mass extinction recur periodically at approximately 26 my intervals is an empirical claim based on analysis of data from the fossil record. The hypothesis has become closely linked with catastrophism because several events in the periodic series are associated with evidence of extraterrestrial impacts, and terrestrial forcing mechanisms with long, periodic recurrences are not easily conceived. Astronomical mechanisms that have been hypothesized include undetected solar companions and solar oscillation about the galactic plane, which induce comet showers and result in impacts on Earth at regular intervals. Because these mechanisms are speculative, they have been the subject of considerable controversy, as has the hypothesis of periodicity of extinction. In response to criticisms and uncertainties, a data base was developed on times of extinction of marine animal genera. A time series is given and analyzed with 49 sample points for the per-genus extinction rate from the Late Permian to the Recent. An unexpected pattern in the data is the uniformity of magnitude of many of the periodic extinction events. Observations suggest that the sequence of extinction events might be the result of two sets of mechanisms: a periodic forcing that normally induces only moderate amounts of extinction, and independent incidents or catastrophes that, when coincident with the periodic forcing, amplify its signal and produce major-mass extinctions.

  11. Is the sun a long period variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonett, Charles P.

    1990-08-01

    The inventory of atmospheric radiocarbon exhibits quasi-periodic variations of mean period of bar-lambda=269 years over the entire 9000 year record. But the period is inconstant and subject to random variability (sigma m exp. 1/2 = 119 years). The radiocarbon maxima correspond to the quasiperiodic extension of the Maunder minimum throughout the Holocene and resolve the long-standing issue of Maunder cyclicity. The radiocarbon maxima are amplitude modulated by the approx. 2300 year period and thus vary significantly in peak value. The approx. 2300 year period in turn appears to not be modulated by the secular geomagnetic variation. Detection of a Maunder-like sequence of minima in tree ring growth of Bristlecone pine and its correlation with the Maunder (1890, 1922) cyclicity in the radiocarbon record supports the inference that solar forcing of the radiocarbon record is accompanied by a corresponding forcing of growth of timberline Bristlecone pine. Because of the random component of the Maunder period, prediction of climate, if tied to the Maunder cycle other than probabilistically, is significantly hindered. For the mean Maunder period of 269 years, the probability is 67 percent that a given climatic maximum lies anywhere between 150 and 388 years.

  12. Torpedo: topic periodicity discovery from text data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Deng, Hongbo; Han, Jiawei

    2015-05-01

    Although history may not repeat itself, many human activities are inherently periodic, recurring daily, weekly, monthly, yearly or following some other periods. Such recurring activities may not repeat the same set of keywords, but they do share similar topics. Thus it is interesting to mine topic periodicity from text data instead of just looking at the temporal behavior of a single keyword/phrase. Some previous preliminary studies in this direction prespecify a periodic temporal template for each topic. In this paper, we remove this restriction and propose a simple yet effective framework Torpedo to mine periodic/recurrent patterns from text, such as news articles, search query logs, research papers, and web blogs. We first transform text data into topic-specific time series by a time dependent topic modeling module, where each of the time series characterizes the temporal behavior of a topic. Then we use time series techniques to detect periodicity. Hence we both obtain a clear view of how topics distribute over time and enable the automatic discovery of periods that are inherent in each topic. Theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrate the advantage of Torpedo over existing work.

  13. Superluminal periodic orbits in the Lorenz system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algaba, A.; Merino, M.; Rodríguez-Luis, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present, for the Lorenz system, analytical and numerical results on the existence of periodic orbits with unbounded amplitude and whose period tends to zero. Since a particle moving on these periodic orbits would be faster-than-light, we call them superluminal periodic orbits. To achieve this goal, we first find analytical expressions for the period in three different situations, where Hopf and Takens-Bogdanov bifurcations of infinite codimension occur. Thus, taking limit in the corresponding expressions allows to demonstrate the existence of superluminal periodic orbits for finite values of the parameter ρ (in a region where the other two parameters σ and b are negative). Moreover, we numerically show, in other two different cases of physical interest, that these orbits also exist when the parameter ρ tends to infinity. Finally, the presence of superluminal periodic orbits in the widely studied Chen and Lü systems follows directly from our results, taking into account that they are, generically, particular cases of the Lorenz system, as can be proved with a linear scaling in time and state variables.

  14. Reliability, return periods, and risk under nonstationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-08-01

    Water resources design has widely used the average return period as a concept to inform management and communication of the risk of experiencing an exceedance event within a planning horizon. Even though nonstationarity is often apparent, in practice hydrologic design often mistakenly assumes that the probability of exceedance, p, is constant from year to year which leads to an average return period To equal to 1/p; this expression is far more complex under nonstationarity. Even for stationary processes, the common application of an average return period is problematic: it does not account for planning horizon, is an average value that may not be representative of the time to the next flood, and is generally not applied in other areas of water planning. We combine existing theoretical and empirical results from the literature to provide the first general, comprehensive description of the probabilistic behavior of the return period and reliability under nonstationarity. We show that under nonstationarity, the underlying distribution of the return period exhibits a more complex shape than the exponential distribution under stationary conditions. Using a nonstationary lognormal model, we document the increased complexity and challenges associated with planning for future flood events over a planning horizon. We compare application of the average return period with the more common concept of reliability and recommend replacing the average return period with reliability as a more practical way to communicate event likelihood in both stationary and nonstationary contexts.

  15. Is the Sun a Long Period Variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, Charles P.

    1990-01-01

    The inventory of atmospheric radiocarbon exhibits quasi-periodic variations of mean period of bar-lambda=269 years over the entire 9000 year record. But the period is inconstant and subject to random variability (sigma m exp. 1/2 = 119 years). The radiocarbon maxima correspond to the quasiperiodic extension of the Maunder minimum throughout the Holocene and resolve the long-standing issue of Maunder cyclicity. The radiocarbon maxima are amplitude modulated by the approx. 2300 year period and thus vary significantly in peak value. The approx. 2300 year period in turn appears to not be modulated by the secular geomagnetic variation. Detection of a Maunder-like sequence of minima in tree ring growth of Bristlecone pine and its correlation with the Maunder (1890, 1922) cyclicity in the radiocarbon record supports the inference that solar forcing of the radiocarbon record is accompanied by a corresponding forcing of growth of timberline Bristlecone pine. Because of the random component of the Maunder period, prediction of climate, if tied to the Maunder cycle other than probabilistically, is significantly hindered. For the mean Maunder period of 269 years, the probability is 67 percent that a given climatic maximum lies anywhere between 150 and 388 years.

  16. Trend Analysis of Long Period Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattei, J. A.; Foster, G.

    1998-12-01

    We have performed a trend analysis of 383 Oxygen-rich and Carbon-rich long period variables (LPVs) using 90 years of AAVSO data, as a continuation of our study of the long-term behavior of LPVs (Mattei & Foster 1997, BAAS vol. 29, no. 5, 46.08). We studied the period and amplitude, as well as the mean magnitude and asymmetry (time from minimum to the following maximum as a fraction of the period). Our analysis indicates that the period is a much more stable parameter than the others; longer-period stars are more likely to show period fluctuations than shorter-period stars. The light curve asymmetry is the parameter most likely to show a trend; 50% of the sample stars show some trend in their asymmetry. A significant fraction of the stars seem to be getting fainter in their mean visual magnitude, while a very small number appear to be brightening. Also, the Carbon-rich LPVs show significant differences in their light curve behavior from the Oxygen-rich LPVs. We point out a few stars that show extreme time evolution of their light curve parameters, many of which deserve detailed study.

  17. The study of periodic changes in altitude of the satellite permanent stations of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiy, Lyubov; Tretyak, Kornyliy; Smirnova, Olha; Kulchyckiy, Andriy

    2013-04-01

    The following investigations were implemented in order to study the period of harmonic oscillations of time series of permanent GNSS stations, which are caused by various geophysical factors. A database of daily time series had been created for 111 permanent stations, there observations were running for at least 3 years. Permanent stations cover the latitudinal zone within +600 to -600. Algorithm and program for processing time series and determination of the optimal harmonic functions were developed. Kinematics model of the satellite station is described by the following equation h = at+b+c*cos(t-t0-n*p)+s*sin(t-t0-n*p), where a,b - coefficients of regression equation of linear displacement of station; c,s - harmonic coefficients, t-t0 - time observations at the station, n - number of periods of oscillation p, which fit in the interval t-t0. Presented equation was calculated at each epoch of observations for each station and coefficients a, b, c, s were determined by the method of least squares. On database 60 stations were selected for the study. The criterion for selection was the availability of clearly specified minimum of function of standard deviation of approximate curve from measurement results depending on the duration of the period of oscillations. From the analysis of created database it can be argued that harmonic oscillations of permanent stations depend on geographic station location and location of satellite receivers. According to results of processing it was defined that amplitude of periodical oscillations is changing in the bounds from 2.0 mm till 10.2 mm; period - from 348.9 days till 392,7 days. The largest amplitudes of function of harmonic oscillations are on the permanent stations that are in the heart of the continent, and the smallest amplitudes are on the stations placed along the coastline and on the islands, which apparently due to the capacity of the Earth's crust. It should be noted that the maximums of oscillation amplitudes of

  18. Temporal Prediction in lieu of Periodic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Charles E.; Wyart, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Predicting not only what will happen, but also when it will happen is extremely helpful for optimizing perception and action. Temporal predictions driven by periodic stimulation increase perceptual sensitivity and reduce response latencies. At the neurophysiological level, a single mechanism has been proposed to mediate this twofold behavioral improvement: the rhythmic entrainment of slow cortical oscillations to the stimulation rate. However, temporal regularities can occur in aperiodic contexts, suggesting that temporal predictions per se may be dissociable from entrainment to periodic sensory streams. We investigated this possibility in two behavioral experiments, asking human participants to detect near-threshold auditory tones embedded in streams whose temporal and spectral properties were manipulated. While our findings confirm that periodic stimulation reduces response latencies, in agreement with the hypothesis of a stimulus-driven entrainment of neural excitability, they further reveal that this motor facilitation can be dissociated from the enhancement of auditory sensitivity. Perceptual sensitivity improvement is unaffected by the nature of temporal regularities (periodic vs aperiodic), but contingent on the co-occurrence of a fulfilled spectral prediction. Altogether, the dissociation between predictability and periodicity demonstrates that distinct mechanisms flexibly and synergistically operate to facilitate perception and action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Temporal predictions are increasingly recognized as fundamental instruments for optimizing performance, enabling mammals to exploit regularities in the world. However, the notion of temporal predictions is often confounded with the idea of entrainment to periodic sensory inputs. At the behavioral level, it is also unclear whether perceptual sensitivity and reaction time improvements benefit the same way from temporal predictions and periodic stimulation. In two behavioral experiments on human

  19. Saturn kilometric radiation periodicity after equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, G.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Ye, S.-Y.; Groene, J. B.

    2015-07-01

    The rotation period of Saturn's magnetosphere was found to vary with time, and changing periodicities were identified in magnetic fields, radio emissions, and charged particles. Here we analyze the varying period of Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) from 2009 to early 2013, i.e. mainly after Saturn equinox of August 2009. A periodicity analysis is first applied to the complete SKR signal, and second to SKR intensities separated by spacecraft latitude and wave polarization, attributed to SKR from the northern and southern hemisphere. Our analyses are done with the tracking filter approach of Gurnett et al. (Gurnett et al. [2009a]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L16102) and by simply tracing the phases of normalized SKR intensity maxima (north and south) with time. It is shown that SKR periods from the northern and southern hemisphere converged during 2009, crossed shortly after equinox, and coalesced in spring 2010. We will show that SKR from both hemispheres not only exhibited similar periods, but also similar phases from March 2010 until February 2011 and from August 2011 until June 2012. The in-between time interval (March to July 2011) shows a slowdown of the southern SKR rotation rate and a slight increase in rotation speed for the northern SKR before rotation rates and phases become equal again in August 2011. We also identify SKR signals where the modulation phase deviation exceeds one rotation each time Cassini completes one orbit, i.e. this is consistent with the characteristic of a rotating signal. However, the main SKR modulation signals from 2009 to 2012 can be viewed as being clock-like with no correction needed for the derived periods. A comparison of SKR periodicities after equinox to the planetary period oscillations of the magnetic field shows major differences, and we compare SKR phases to magnetic field phases to explain the deviations.

  20. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    DOEpatents

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  1. Optimal glucose management in the perioperative period.

    PubMed

    Evans, Charity H; Lee, Jane; Ruhlman, Melissa K

    2015-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is a common finding in surgical patients during the perioperative period. Factors contributing to poor glycemic control include counterregulatory hormones, hepatic insulin resistance, decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, use of dextrose-containing intravenous fluids, and enteral and parenteral nutrition. Hyperglycemia in the perioperative period is associated with increased morbidity, decreased survival, and increased resource utilization. Optimal glucose management in the perioperative period contributes to reduced morbidity and mortality. To readily identify hyperglycemia, blood glucose monitoring should be instituted for all hospitalized patients. PMID:25814110

  2. Period variability of coupled noisy oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Fumito; Kori, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Period variability, quantified by the standard deviation (SD) of the cycle-to-cycle period, is investigated for noisy phase oscillators. We define the checkpoint phase as the beginning or end point of one oscillation cycle and derive an expression for the SD as a function of this phase. We find that the SD is dependent on the checkpoint phase only when oscillators are coupled. The applicability of our theory is verified using a realistic model. Our work clarifies the relationship between period variability and synchronization from which valuable information regarding coupling can be inferred.

  3. Stability of periodic paraxial optical systems.

    PubMed

    Longhi, S

    2002-02-01

    Based on ray propagation of paraxial geometric optics, we show that any stable periodic paraxial system or optical resonator becomes unstable in presence of stochastic perturbations of the the periodic sequence along which the rays are propagated. The exponential divergence with distance of ray displacements from the optical axis bears a close connection to the phenomenon of Anderson localization in disordered systems. The stability of the periodic focusing system is restored when finite aperture effects are accounted for and complex paraxial optics is used to describe wave propagation. PMID:11863701

  4. Diffraction Theory and Almost Periodic Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strungaru, Nicolae; Terauds, Venta

    2016-09-01

    We introduce and study the notions of translation bounded tempered distributions, and autocorrelation for a tempered distribution. We further introduce the spaces of weakly, strongly and null weakly almost periodic tempered distributions and show that for weakly almost periodic tempered distributions the Eberlein decomposition holds. For translation bounded measures all these notions coincide with the classical ones. We show that tempered distributions with measure Fourier transform are weakly almost periodic and that for this class, the Eberlein decomposition is exactly the Fourier dual of the Lebesgue decomposition, with the Fourier-Bohr coefficients specifying the pure point part of the Fourier transform. We complete the project by looking at few interesting examples.

  5. The Jovian period in the Sun?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    The 41-year measurements of the Doppler effect of the photosphere performed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, discovered two periods of global oscillations of the Sun: 9600.606(12) s and 9597.929(15) s. Their beat period, 398.4(2.9) d, well agrees with a synodic orbital period of Jupiter, PJ = 398.9 d, raising a new problem for solar physics, cosmogony and cosmology. A hypothesis is advanced that the PJ beating of the Sun is induced by gravitation of Jupiter, revolving in a privileged reference system "the Sun - the Earth".

  6. Diffraction by dual-period gratings.

    PubMed

    Skigin, Diana C; Depine, Ricardo A

    2007-03-20

    The dynamical characteristics of dual-period perfectly conducting gratings are explored. Gratings with several grooves (reflection) or slits (transmission) within each period are considered. A scalar approach is proposed to derive the general characteristics of the diffracted response. It was found that compound gratings can be designed to cancel as well as to intensify a given diffraction order. These preliminary estimations for finite gratings are validated by numerical examples for infinitely periodic reflection and transmission gratings with finite thickness, performed using an extension of the rigorous modal method to compound gratings, for both polarization cases.

  7. Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  8. Let Us Make the Table Periodic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Arthur

    1989-01-01

    An approach to teaching the properties of the elements and their arrangement in the periodic table is suggested. Discussed are symbols for the elements, format of the table, and coding the properties of the elements on the table. (CW)

  9. Periodic waves in fiber Bragg gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, K. W.; Merhasin, Ilya M.; Malomed, Boris A.; Nakkeeran, K.; Senthilnathan, K.; Wai, P. K. A.

    2008-02-15

    We construct two families of exact periodic solutions to the standard model of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with Kerr nonlinearity. The solutions are named ''sn'' and ''cn'' waves, according to the elliptic functions used in their analytical representation. The sn wave exists only inside the FBG's spectral bandgap, while waves of the cn type may only exist at negative frequencies ({omega}<0), both inside and outside the bandgap. In the long-wave limit, the sn and cn families recover, respectively, the ordinary gap solitons, and (unstable) antidark and dark solitons. Stability of the periodic solutions is checked by direct numerical simulations and, in the case of the sn family, also through the calculation of instability growth rates for small perturbations. Although, rigorously speaking, all periodic solutions are unstable, a subfamily of practically stable sn waves, with a sufficiently large spatial period and {omega}>0, is identified. However, the sn waves with {omega}<0, as well as all cn solutions, are strongly unstable.

  10. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  11. Long-period librations of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yseboodt, Marie; Van Hoolst, T.

    2013-10-01

    Because of its elliptical orbit around Saturn and its non-spherical mass distribution, Titan has longitudinal librations. Here we study the long-period librations of Titan and include deformation effects and the existence of a subsurface ocean. We take into account the fact that the orbit is not keplerian and has other periodicities than the main period of orbital motion around Saturn due to perturbations by the Sun, other planets and moons (in particular Iapetus). An orbital theory is used to compute the orbital perturbations due to these other bodies. We numerically evaluate the amplitude of the long-period librations for many interior structure models of Titan constrained by the mass, radius and gravity field. Measurements of these librations may give constrains on the interior structure of the icy satellites.

  12. The cataclysmic variable period gap: still there

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, U.; King, A. R.; Ritter, H.

    1998-08-01

    We consider a recently proposed alternative explanation of the CV period gap in terms of a revised mass-radius relation for the lower main sequence. We show that no such thermal equilibrium relation is likely to produce a true gap. Using population synthesis techniques we calculate a model population that obeys the claimed equilibrium mass-radius relation. A theoretical period histogram obtained from this population shows two prominent period spikes rather than a gap. We consider also recent arguments suggesting that the period gap itself may not be real. We argue that, far from demonstrating a weakness of the interrupted braking picture, the fact that most CV subtypes prefer one side of the gap or the other is actually an expected consequence of this model.

  13. Ecological periodic tables: In principle and practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical periodic table, the Linnaean system of classification and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are iconic information organizing structure in chemistry, biology and astronomy, respectively, because they are simple, exceptionally useful and they foster the expansion of sci...

  14. THE ORBITAL PERIOD OF SCORPIUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, Robert I.; Britt, Christopher T.

    2012-08-10

    The orbital period of Sco X-1 was first identified by Gottlieb et al. While this has been confirmed on multiple occasions, this work, based on nearly a century of photographic data, has remained the reference in defining the system ephemeris ever since. It was, however, called into question when Vanderlinde et al. claimed to find the one-year alias of the historical period in RXTE/All-Sky Monitor data and suggested that this was the true period rather than that of Gottlieb et al. We examine data from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) spanning 2001-2009. We confirm that the period of Gottlieb et al. is in fact the correct one, at least in the optical, with the one-year alias strongly rejected by these data. We also provide a modern time of minimum light based on the ASAS data.

  15. 14 CFR 117.25 - Rest period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... minimum of 8 uninterrupted hours of sleep opportunity. (f) If a flightcrew member determines that a rest period under paragraph (e) of this section will not provide eight uninterrupted hours of...

  16. Waves in almost periodic particle chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazor, Y.; Steinberg, Ben Z.

    2014-07-01

    Almost periodic particle chains exhibit peculiar propagation properties that are not observed in perfectly periodic ones. Furthermore, since they inherently support nonnegligible long-range interactions and radiation through the surrounding free space, nearest-neighbor approximations cannot be invoked. Hence the governing operator is fundamentally different from that used in traditional analysis of almost periodic structures, e.g., Harper's model and almost Mathieu difference equations. We present a mathematical framework for the analysis of almost periodic particle chains, and study their electrodynamic properties. We show that they support guided modes that exhibit a complex interaction mechanism with the light cone. These modes possess a two-dimensional fractal-like structure in the frequency-wave number space, such that a modal phase velocity cannot be uniquely defined. However, a well-defined group velocity is revealed due to the fractal's inner structure.

  17. Quantum Chemistry via the Periodic Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinder, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an approach to quantum mechanics exploiting the periodic structure of the elements as a foundation for the quantum theory of matter. Indicates that a quantum chemistry course can be developed using this approach. (SK)

  18. Subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity throughout the nervous system.

    PubMed

    D'Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Velte, Caroline; Göttfert, Fabian; Simons, Mikael; Hell, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy recently revealed a ~190 nm periodic cytoskeleton lattice consisting of actin, spectrin, and other proteins underneath the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons. Whether the periodic cytoskeleton lattice is a structural feature of all neurons and how it is modified when axons are ensheathed by myelin forming glial cells is not known. Here, STED nanoscopy is used to demonstrate that this structure is a commonplace of virtually all neuron types in vitro. To check how the subcortical meshwork is modified during myelination, we studied sciatic nerve fibers from adult mice. Periodicity of both actin and spectrin was uncovered at the internodes, indicating no substantial differences between unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Remarkably, the actin/spectrin pattern was also detected in glial cells such as cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Altogether our work shows that the periodic subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork is a fundamental characteristic of cells in the nervous system and is not a distinctive feature of neurons, as previously thought. PMID:26947559

  19. Charged particle periodicity in the Saturnian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbary, J. F.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the first definitive evidence for charged particle modulations near the magnetic rotation period at Saturn. This periodicity is apparent in the ratios (and spectra) of low energy charged particles in the Saturnian magnetosphere. Most of the data presented were taken during the Voyager 2 outbound portion of the Saturn encounter. During this time the spacecraft was at high latitudes (approximately 30 deg) in the southern hemisphere of the Saturnian magnetosphere. The probe's trajectory was approximately along the dawn meridian at an essentially constant local time. The observation that the charged particle modulation is consistent with the Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) period provides a basic input for the resolution of a puzzle which has existed ever since the discovery of the SKR modulation. The charged particle periodicity identified suggests that a basic asymmetry must exist in the Saturnian magnetosphere.

  20. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  1. Theodore William Richards and the Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conant, James B.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of Theodore Richards to the accurate determination of atomic weights of copper and other elements; his major contribution was to the building of the definitive periodic table of the elements. (BR)

  2. Toward an Organic Chemist's Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, H. K., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An analogy between electron transfer reactions of the elements and those of organic molecules is offered. Examples of organic electron transfer reactions are presented. The rationale of constructing an organic chemists' periodic table is also discussed. (HM)

  3. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... against loss of production of the eligible crop as a result of natural disaster. (b) The coverage period... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  4. 40 CFR 65.166 - Periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... duration of periods when monitoring data were not collected shall be specified. (2) Report all carbon-bed regeneration cycles during which the parameters recorded under § 65.162(c)(2) were outside the...

  5. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  6. 5 CFR 317.503 - Probationary period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... another agency is credited, i.e., the individual does not have to start a new probationary period. (e... for a Presidential appointment and is exercising reinstatement rights under 5 U.S.C. 3593(b). (2)...

  7. 5 CFR 317.503 - Probationary period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... another agency is credited, i.e., the individual does not have to start a new probationary period. (e... for a Presidential appointment and is exercising reinstatement rights under 5 U.S.C. 3593(b). (2)...

  8. 5 CFR 317.503 - Probationary period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... another agency is credited, i.e., the individual does not have to start a new probationary period. (e... for a Presidential appointment and is exercising reinstatement rights under 5 U.S.C. 3593(b). (2)...

  9. 5 CFR 317.503 - Probationary period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... another agency is credited, i.e., the individual does not have to start a new probationary period. (e... for a Presidential appointment and is exercising reinstatement rights under 5 U.S.C. 3593(b). (2)...

  10. Transversally periodic solitary gravity-capillary waves.

    PubMed

    Milewski, Paul A; Wang, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    When both gravity and surface tension effects are present, surface solitary water waves are known to exist in both two- and three-dimensional infinitely deep fluids. We describe here solutions bridging these two cases: travelling waves which are localized in the propagation direction and periodic in the transverse direction. These transversally periodic gravity-capillary solitary waves are found to be of either elevation or depression type, tend to plane waves below a critical transverse period and tend to solitary lumps as the transverse period tends to infinity. The waves are found numerically in a Hamiltonian system for water waves simplified by a cubic truncation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. This approximation has been proved to be very accurate for both two- and three-dimensional computations of fully localized gravity-capillary solitary waves. The stability properties of these waves are then investigated via the time evolution of perturbed wave profiles. PMID:24399922

  11. 5 CFR 2634.908 - Reporting periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Confidential Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.908 Reporting periods. (a) Incumbents. Each confidential financial disclosure report filed...

  12. 5 CFR 2634.908 - Reporting periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Confidential Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.908 Reporting periods. (a) Incumbents. Each confidential financial disclosure report filed...

  13. 5 CFR 2634.908 - Reporting periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Confidential Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.908 Reporting periods. (a) Incumbents. Each confidential financial disclosure report filed...

  14. 5 CFR 2634.908 - Reporting periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Confidential Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.908 Reporting periods. (a) Incumbents. Each confidential financial disclosure report filed...

  15. 5 CFR 2634.908 - Reporting periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Confidential Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.908 Reporting periods. (a) Incumbents. Each confidential financial disclosure report filed...

  16. Incubation periods of Yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Michael A; Arana-Vizcarrondo, Neysarí; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Staples, J Erin

    2010-07-01

    Yellow fever virus is a global health threat due to its endemicity in parts of Africa and South America where human infections occur in residents and travelers. To understand yellow fever dynamics, it is critical to characterize the incubation periods of the virus in vector mosquitoes and humans. Here, we compare four statistical models of the yellow fever incubation periods fitted with historical data. The extrinsic incubation period in the urban vector Aedes aegypti was best characterized with a temperature-dependent Weibull model with a median of 10 days at 25 degrees C (middle 95% = 2.0-37 days). The intrinsic incubation period, fitted with a log-normal model, had a median of 4.3 days (middle 95% = 2.3-8.6 days). These estimates and their associated statistical models provide a quantitative basis to assist in exposure assessments, model potential outbreaks, and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions.

  17. Subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity throughout the nervous system.

    PubMed

    D'Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Velte, Caroline; Göttfert, Fabian; Simons, Mikael; Hell, Stefan W

    2016-03-07

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy recently revealed a ~190 nm periodic cytoskeleton lattice consisting of actin, spectrin, and other proteins underneath the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons. Whether the periodic cytoskeleton lattice is a structural feature of all neurons and how it is modified when axons are ensheathed by myelin forming glial cells is not known. Here, STED nanoscopy is used to demonstrate that this structure is a commonplace of virtually all neuron types in vitro. To check how the subcortical meshwork is modified during myelination, we studied sciatic nerve fibers from adult mice. Periodicity of both actin and spectrin was uncovered at the internodes, indicating no substantial differences between unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Remarkably, the actin/spectrin pattern was also detected in glial cells such as cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Altogether our work shows that the periodic subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork is a fundamental characteristic of cells in the nervous system and is not a distinctive feature of neurons, as previously thought.

  18. Unstable periodic orbits in human cardiac rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, K.; Govindan, R. B.; Gopinathan, M. S.

    1998-04-01

    Unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) extracted from experimental electrocardiograph signals are reported for normal and pathological human cardiac rhythms. The periodicity and distribution of the orbits on the chaotic attractor are found to be indicative of the state of health of the cardiac system. The normal cardiac system is characterized by three to four UPOs with typical periodicities and intensities. However, pathological conditions such as premature ventricular contraction, atrio ventricular block, ventricular tachy arrhythmia, and ventricular fibrillation have UPOs whose periodicity and intensity distribution are quite distinct from those of the healthy cases and are characteristic of the pathological conditions. Eigenvalues and the largest positive Lyapunov exponent value for the UPOs are also reported. The UPOs are shown to be insensitive to the embedding dimension and the present UPO analysis is demonstrated to be reliable by the method of surrogate analysis.

  19. Transversally periodic solitary gravity-capillary waves.

    PubMed

    Milewski, Paul A; Wang, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    When both gravity and surface tension effects are present, surface solitary water waves are known to exist in both two- and three-dimensional infinitely deep fluids. We describe here solutions bridging these two cases: travelling waves which are localized in the propagation direction and periodic in the transverse direction. These transversally periodic gravity-capillary solitary waves are found to be of either elevation or depression type, tend to plane waves below a critical transverse period and tend to solitary lumps as the transverse period tends to infinity. The waves are found numerically in a Hamiltonian system for water waves simplified by a cubic truncation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. This approximation has been proved to be very accurate for both two- and three-dimensional computations of fully localized gravity-capillary solitary waves. The stability properties of these waves are then investigated via the time evolution of perturbed wave profiles.

  20. Quasi-periodic Variations in X-Ray Emission and Long-term Radio Observations: Evidence for a Two-component Jet in Sw J1644+57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiu-Zhou; Lei, Wei-Hua; Wang, Ding-Xiong; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Zhang, Bing; Gao, He; Huang, Chang-Yin

    2014-06-01

    The continued observations of Sw J1644+57 in X-ray and radio bands accumulated a rich data set to study the relativistic jet launched in this tidal disruption event. The X-ray light curve of Sw J1644+57 from 5-30 days presents two kinds of quasi-periodic variations: a 200 s quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and a 2.7 day quasi-periodic variation. The latter has been interpreted by a precessing jet launched near the Bardeen-Petterson radius of a warped disk. Here we suggest that the ~200 s QPO could be associated with a second, narrower jet sweeping the observer line-of-sight periodically, which is launched from a spinning black hole in the misaligned direction with respect to the black hole's angular momentum. In addition, we show that this two-component jet model can interpret the radio light curve of the event, especially the re-brightening feature starting ~100 days after the trigger. From the data we infer that inner jet may have a Lorentz factor of Γj ~ 5.5 and a kinetic energy of E k, iso ~ 3.0 × 1052 erg, while the outer jet may have a Lorentz factor of Γj ~ 2.5 and a kinetic energy of E k, iso ~ 3.0 × 1053 erg.