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Sample records for 7-day washout period

  1. The significance of the washout period in Preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Salie, Ruduwaan; Lochner, Amanda; Loubser, Dirk J

    2017-01-24

    Exposure of the heart to 5 min global ischaemia (I) followed by 5 min reperfusion (R) (ischaemic preconditioning, IPC) or transient Beta 2-adrenergic receptor (B2-AR) stimulation with formoterol (B2PC), followed by 5 min washout before index ischaemia, elicits cardioprotection against subsequent sustained ischaemia. Since the washout period during preconditioning is essential for subsequent cardioprotection, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of protein kinase A (PKA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), PKB/Akt, p38 MAPK and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) during this period. Isolated perfused rat hearts were exposed to IPC (1x5min I / 5min R) or B2PC (1x5min Formoterol / 5min R) followed by 35 min regional ischaemia and reperfusion. Inhibitors for PKA (Rp-8CPT-cAMP)(16μM), ROS (NAC)(300μM), PKB (A-6730)(2.5μM), ERKp44/p42 (PD98,059)(10μM), p38MAPK (SB239063)(1μM) or JNK (SP600125)(10μM) were administered for 5 minutes before 5 minutes global ischaemia / 5 min reperfusion (IPC) or for 5 minutes before and during administration of formoterol ( B2PC) prior to regional ischaemia, reperfusion and infarct size (IS) determination. Hearts exposed to B2PC or IPC were freeze-clamped during the washout period for Western blots analysis of PKB, ERKp44/p42, p38MAPK and JNK. The PKA blocker abolished both B2PC and IPC, while NAC significantly increased IS of IPC but not of B2PC. Western blot analysis showed that ERKp44/p42 and PKB activation during washout after B2PC compared to IPC was significantly increased. IPC compared to B2PC showed significant p38MAPK and JNKp54/p46 activation. PKB and ERK inhibition or p38MAPK and JNK inhibition during the washout period of B2PC and IPC respectively, significantly increased IS. PKA activation before regional ischaemia is a prerequisite for cardioprotection in both B2PC and IPC. However, ROS was crucial only in IPC. Kinase activation during the washout phase of IPC and B2

  2. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during periods of high magnitude floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, T.; Lepikhin, A.; Parshakova, Ya.; Tiunov, A.

    2016-03-01

    The risk of river pollution due to washout (removal of pollutants) from contaminated floodplain water bodies (floodplain lakes and quarries whose origin is related to the large-scale mining of nonmetallic building materials in the floodplain zone) during high magnitude flood periods is analyzed using a combination of one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling and in situ measurements. The modeling performed for the floodplain water bodies contaminated by N compounds shows that during large magnitude floods washout occurs. The washout process consists of two stages: an initial rapid stage lasting about two hours during which the upper (3-4 m thick) layer is washed out, followed by a second stage when the concentration of NH4-N in the floodplain water body remains nearly constant. The maximum contaminant concentration in the river in the vicinity of a water intake for drinking water located 21 km downstream is attained about 9 h from the beginning of the flood; concentration of NH4-N can reach values several times larger than acceptable concentration guidelines. The initial primary peak in contaminant concentration at the water intake is followed by a slight decrease in contaminant concentration; a second peak related to the contaminant transport through the inundated floodplain subsequently occurs, after which the concentration slowly decreases, reaching acceptable values after 30-40 h. Contaminated floodplain water bodies located near drinking water supply systems are not significant sources of contamination during small and moderate floods, but during high magnitude floods, they can become sources of water pollution. Operational measures that can decrease potential health risks are discussed.

  3. SWIFT REVEALS A ∼5.7 DAY SUPER-ORBITAL PERIOD IN THE M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTER X-RAY BINARY XB158

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29 ± 1 times the orbital period, i.e., ∼81 ± 3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ∼1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3-10 keV Swift X-Ray Telescope luminosity light curve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65 ± 0.05 days, and a >5σ improvement in χ{sup 2} over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods of 5.4-5.8 days were detected at a >3σ level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ∼70% longer than the predicted period. The 0.3-10 keV luminosity varied by a factor of ∼5, consistent with variations seen in long-term monitoring from Chandra. We conclude that other X-ray binaries exhibiting similar long-term behavior are likely to also be X-ray binaries with low mass ratios and super-orbital periods.

  4. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M⊙, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R⊙, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  5. Effect of hydration on nitrogen washout in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.; Conkin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Five subjects were tested to assess the influence of drinking hypotonic water (distilled water) on whole body tissue nitrogen washout. During the test, the subjects breathed aviators' oxygen for three hours. Each subject performed two baseline nitrogen washouts in a two-week period. The third washout, in the third week, was done under a transient hydrated condition. This was accomplished by having the subjects drink 1.5 liters of hypotonic water 30 minutes before the washout. Five-minute plots of tissue nitrogen removal from the three separate washouts were analyzed to ascertain if the hydration technique had any effect. Our results clearly indicate that the hydration technique did not alter the tissue nitrogen washout characteristics to any degree over three hours. An increase in tissue nitrogen washout under a transient hydrated condition using hypotonic fluid was not demonstrated to be the mechanism responsible for the reported benefit of this technique in preventing Type I altitude decompression pain in man.

  6. Clinical bioequivalence of a dose of clopidogrel Leti Cravid tablets 75 mg versus clopidogrel Sanofi Plavix tablets 75 mg administered on a daily dose for 7 days on healthy volunteers: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Aixa; Octavio, José; González, María Y; Contreras, Jesús; Méndez, Gisela; Portillo, Milagros; Valero, Zuleima

    2010-01-01

    Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention procedures, as in patients with coronary disease, should receive treatment indefinitely with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel. New brands of clopidogrel have been developed at lower costs, for helping to avoid premature suspension of antiplatelet therapy, as Cravid Leti Laboratories clopidogrel. Its effectiveness and safety must be compared with Plavix international standard. A prospective, comparative, cross-over, and randomized study was conducted in healthy volunteers. Each group received 1 tablet of Clopidogrel Leti or Clopidogrel Sanofi, 75 mg in a single dose daily for 7 days, followed by 7-day washout period before administration of second treatment. Platelet aggregation was measured at the start of each period and at 7 days of treatment through optical aggregometry, using an optical aggregometer 490-2D Chrono-Log, with a self-calibration system working with platelet-rich plasma with readings 0%-100% of light transmission. An important decrease of platelet aggregation was observed in both groups at 7 days of treatment of more than 50%, independent of adenosine diphosphate reactive (Helena and Chrono-Log) used for aggregation (P < 0.05). The relationship between the mean and 90% confidence interval ratio obtained with the 2 different adenosine diphosphate brands were between 80% and 125%, therefore, it can be considered that both brands are bioequivalent and perfectly exchangeable.

  7. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM), and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is needed to examine long

  8. 7 day chronic ceriodaphnia toxicity test -- reproductive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent causes death (acute toxicity) or reduction in the reproduction of the test organisms (chronic toxicity) during a seven day period. A series of dilutions of the effluent are set to determine how much the effluent must be diluted before toxic effects are no longer noted. Acute toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly more organisms die in the effluent dilutions than in the control treatment, and, if significantly more die, how much the effluent must be diluted so as to kill only 50% of the test organisms (the LC50). Chronic toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly fewer young are produced by test organisms exposed to the effluent dilutions. Results indicate the lowest effluent concentration which shows a toxic effect (the LOEC) and the highest effluent concentration which does not demonstrate an effect (NOEC).

  9. HTO washout model: on the relationship between exchange rate and washout coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.; Balashov, Y.; Mavrin, S.; Golubeva, V.; Galeriu, D.

    2015-03-15

    Washout coefficient Λ is widely used as a parameter in washout models. These models describes overall HTO washout with rain by a first-order kinetic equation, while washout coefficient Λ depends on the type of rain event and rain intensity and empirical parameters a, b. The washout coefficient is a macroscopic parameter and we have considered in this paper its relationship with a microscopic rate K of HTO isotopic exchange in atmospheric humidity and drops of rainwater. We have shown that the empirical parameters a, b can be represented through the rain event characteristics using the relationships of molecular impact rate, rain intensity and specific rain water content while washout coefficient Λ can be represented through the exchange rate K, rain intensity, raindrop diameter and terminal raindrop velocity.

  10. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    PubMed

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value < 0.05). A complete wash-out of VOCs in this setting was not observed, whereby a statistically significant reduction up to 65% as for terpinolene was achieved. Our setting successfully demonstrated a reduction of ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  11. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  12. Association of Deep Brain Stimulation Washout Effects With Parkinson Disease Duration

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Scott E.; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Fernandez, Hubert H.; Vitek, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD), including bradykinesia. When stimulation ceases abruptly, bradykinesia returns gradually. The duration of the gradual, slow washout varies across patients, and although the origin of this variability is unclear, it is hypothesized to be related to 1 or more clinical characteristics of patients. Objective To determine if a correlation exists between clinical characteristics of patients with Parkinson disease (age, age at disease onset, disease severity, disease duration, medication dose, or time since surgery) and the washout rate for bradykinesia when STN DBS is discontinued. Design Serial quantitative assessments of bradykinesia were performed during a defined period following cessation of STN DBS. Setting Academic research. Patients Twenty-four patients with Parkinson disease who underwent STN DBS were enrolled in the study. Patients were assessed while off medication (medication had been discontinued 10½ to 16½ hours before testing), and stimulator settings were unchanged for a mean (median) of 20 (14) months. Main Outcome Measures We measured bradykinesia in the dominant hand by assessing finger tapping (item 23 on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale), which was quantified using an angular velocity transducer strapped on the index finger. Finger tapping was assessed every 2 minutes for 20 seconds at a time. This was performed during a 20-minute period with DBS on (baseline period), during a 50-minute period following discontinuation of STN DBS for the dominant hand, and again during a 20-minute period after turning on the device. Results When STN DBS was turned off, an initial fast but partial loss of benefit was observed, which was followed by a further slow washout of the residual therapeutic effect. The half-life of the slow washout phase varied significantly across patients, and this variation was strongly related to disease

  13. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, Michael Andrew

    2016-02-22

    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  14. Analytical evaluation of two motion washout techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    Practical tools were developed which extend the state of the art of moving base flight simulation for research and training purposes. The use of visual and vestibular cues to minimize the actual motion of the simulator itself was a primary consideration. The investigation consisted of optimum programming of motion cues based on a physiological model of the vestibular system to yield 'ideal washout logic' for any given simulator constraints.

  15. Coordinated adaptive washout for motion simulators.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Dieudonne, J. E.; Bowles, R. L.; Martin, D. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method of providing motion cues to a moving base six-degree-of-freedom flight simulator utilizing nonlinear filters. Coordinated adaptive filters, used to coordinate translational and rotational motion, are derived based on the method of continuous steepest descent, and the basic concept of the digital controllers used for the uncoordinated heave and yaw cues is also presented. The coordinated adaptive washout method is illustrated by an application in a six-degree-of-freedom fixed-base environment.

  16. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  17. 7000 miles and 7 days from the battlefield.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Margaret M

    2010-01-01

    Critically injured combat casualties are rapidly evacuated from the battlefield, and within hours of their injuries they begin a 7000-mile journey home, often arriving in the United States within 7 days. National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, is a major facility for wounded warrior care in the Military Health System. Throughout the facility, the staff from a variety of disciplines and all military services provides care for military personnel with injuries and illnesses, with the goal of optimizing recovery and quality of life. The foundational evidence for select aspects of this care is discussed. Innovations in training and care delivery include the Air Force Nurse Corps' Critical Care Fellowship, the new inpatient Traumatic Brain Injury Unit, and the National Intrepid Center for Excellence for Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health. The future of the Medical Center includes a new name, expanded staff, and newly constructed space by Department of Defense Base Realignment and Closure activities.

  18. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  19. Strong washout approximation to resonant leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Björn; Gautier, Florian; Klaric, Juraj

    2014-09-01

    We show that the effective decay asymmetry for resonant Leptogenesis in the strong washout regime with two sterile neutrinos and a single active flavour can in wide regions of parameter space be approximated by its late-time limit ɛ=Xsin(2varphi)/(X2+sin2varphi), where X=8πΔ/(|Y1|2+|Y2|2), Δ=4(M1-M2)/(M1+M2), varphi=arg(Y2/Y1), and M1,2, Y1,2 are the masses and Yukawa couplings of the sterile neutrinos. This approximation in particular extends to parametric regions where |Y1,2|2gg Δ, i.e. where the width dominates the mass splitting. We generalise the formula for the effective decay asymmetry to the case of several flavours of active leptons and demonstrate how this quantity can be used to calculate the lepton asymmetry for phenomenological scenarios that are in agreement with the observed neutrino oscillations. We establish analytic criteria for the validity of the late-time approximation for the decay asymmetry and compare these with numerical results that are obtained by solving for the mixing and the oscillations of the sterile neutrinos. For phenomenologically viable models with two sterile neutrinos, we find that the flavoured effective late-time decay asymmetry can be applied throughout parameter space.

  20. Strong washout approximation to resonant leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbrecht, Björn; Gautier, Florian; Klaric, Juraj E-mail: florian.gautier@tum.de

    2014-09-01

    We show that the effective decay asymmetry for resonant Leptogenesis in the strong washout regime with two sterile neutrinos and a single active flavour can in wide regions of parameter space be approximated by its late-time limit ε=Xsin(2φ)/(X{sup 2}+sin{sup 2}φ), where X=8πΔ/(|Y{sub 1}|{sup 2}+|Y{sub 2}|{sup 2}), Δ=4(M{sub 1}-M{sub 2})/(M{sub 1}+M{sub 2}), φ=arg(Y{sub 2}/Y{sub 1}), and M{sub 1,2}, Y{sub 1,2} are the masses and Yukawa couplings of the sterile neutrinos. This approximation in particular extends to parametric regions where |Y{sub 1,2}|{sup 2}>> Δ, i.e. where the width dominates the mass splitting. We generalise the formula for the effective decay asymmetry to the case of several flavours of active leptons and demonstrate how this quantity can be used to calculate the lepton asymmetry for phenomenological scenarios that are in agreement with the observed neutrino oscillations. We establish analytic criteria for the validity of the late-time approximation for the decay asymmetry and compare these with numerical results that are obtained by solving for the mixing and the oscillations of the sterile neutrinos. For phenomenologically viable models with two sterile neutrinos, we find that the flavoured effective late-time decay asymmetry can be applied throughout parameter space.

  1. The field experiments on the HTO washout from the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.V.; Mavrin, S.V.; Golubeva, V.N.; Stengach, A.V.; Balashov, Y.S.; Kovalenko, V.P.; Solomatin, I.I.

    2015-03-15

    HTO (tritiated water) wash-out from the atmosphere is one of the key processes governing the HTO transport from the atmosphere into soil and plants. Experimental studies of the HTO interaction with water drops were carried out both in laboratories and in the field. In the course of experiments, the following rain characteristics were recorded: rain intensity, size distribution of drops, and falling velocities and their dependence on drop diameter. A laser optical device was designed and used to measure the distribution of the drop radius and velocities during the period of experiment. The tritium source was placed at a height of 30 m. Rainwater samples were collected in plastic bottles and their HTO activity was determined by liquid scintillation techniques. The data obtained for the experimental values of the scavenging rate are within the range from 4.12*10{sup -5} to 1.57*10{sup -4} s{sup -1} and correspond to the precipitation intensity from 0.3 to 1.26 mm/hour. These results are in sufficiently good agreement with the results of earlier papers.

  2. Lung function measurement with multiple-breath-helium washout system.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-Y; Suddards, M E; Mellor, C J; Owers-Bradley, J R

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multiple-breath-nitrogen washout (MBNW) tests. In this study, instead of using nitrogen, (4)He is used as the tracer gas with smaller gas density which may be able to reach deeper into our lungs in a given time and the helium washout results may be more sensitive to the ventilation inhomogeneity in small airways. A multiple-breath-helium-washout (MBHW) system developed for the lung function study is also presented. Quartz tuning forks with a resonance frequency of 32,768Hz have been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the quartz tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 14 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 4 tobacco smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting or acinar airways (or both). A feature has been found in washout curve of single breaths from 4 tobacco smokers with different length of smoking history which may indicate the early stage of respiratory ventilation inhomogeneity in acinar airways.

  3. Hydrogen washout technique in monitoring vascular status after replantation surgery.

    PubMed

    Glogovac, S V; Bitz, D M; Whiteside, L A

    1982-11-01

    The hydrogen washout technique was applied to an experimental model of microvascular repair to evaluate its potential use in determining blood flow after microvascular surgery. Three blood flow measurements were obtained in each of 10 rat hindlimbs with the hydrogen washout technique: a control, a reading with arterial flow disrupted, and a final reading after standard microvascular repair of only the saphenous artery. After repair, flow rate was 0.115 ml/minute/ml compared to 0.008 ml/minute/ml for the disrupted reading (p less than .01). The practical clinical applicability of the hydrogen washout technique for evaluating blood flow in the fingertip was tested on five human volunteers. Ischemia in the upper extremity was produced with a pneumatic tourniquet. The hydrogen washout technique and the Doppler pulse monitor were used simultaneously to evaluate circulation in the small finger. Hydrogen uptake occurred simultaneously with return of clinical signs of tissue perfusion during gradual tourniquet deflation. The Doppler pulse returned while clinical signs of ischemia remained. The use of hydrogen washout in monitoring three patients following microvascular surgery has shown it to be accurate in predicting survival. It has, thus far, proven itself to be easily repeatable and reliable both intraoperatively and postoperatively.

  4. Spectator effects during Leptogenesis in the strong washout regime

    SciTech Connect

    Garbrecht, Björn; Schwaller, Pedro E-mail: pedro.schwaller@cern.ch

    2014-10-01

    By including spectator fields into the Boltzmann equations for Leptogenesis, we show that partially equilibrated spectator interactions can have a significant impact on the freeze-out value of the asymmetry in the strong washout regime. The final asymmetry is typically increased, since partially equilibrated spectators ''hide'' a part of the asymmetry from washout. We study examples with leptonic and non-leptonic spectator processes, assuming thermal initial conditions, and find up to 50% enhanced asymmetries compared to the limit of fully equilibrated spectators. Together with a comprehensive overview of the equilibration temperatures for various Standard Model processes, the numerical results indicate the ranges when the limiting cases of either fully equilibrated or negligible spectator fields are applicable and when they are not. Our findings also indicate an increased sensitivity to initial conditions and finite density corrections even in the strong washout regime.

  5. Wash-out in N2-dominated leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn-Woernle, F.

    2010-08-01

    We study the wash-out of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by subsequent interactions. Therefore we focus on a scenario in which a lepton asymmetry is established in the out-of-equilibrium decays of the next-to-lightest right-handed neutrino. We apply the full classical Boltzmann equations without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors to calculate the wash-out of the lepton asymmetry by interactions of the lightest right-handed state. We include scattering processes with top quarks in our analysis. This is of particular interest since the wash-out is enhanced by scatterings and the use of mode equations with quantum statistical distribution functions. In this way we provide a restriction on the parameter space for this scenario.

  6. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  7. Burr hole washout versus craniotomy for chronic subdural hematoma: patient outcome and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jacqueline M; Worley, Emmagene; Shelburne, Christopher; Pullarkat, Ranjit; Watson, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH), which are frequently encountered in neurosurgical practice, are, in the majority of cases, ideally treated with surgical drainage. Despite this common practice, there is still controversy surrounding the best surgical procedure. With lack of clear evidence of a superior technique, surgeons are free to base the decision on other factors that are not related to patient care. A retrospective chart review of 119 patients requiring surgical drainage of CSDH was conducted at a large tertiary care center over a three-year period. Of the cases reviewed, 58 patients underwent craniotomy, while 61 patients underwent burr hole washout. The study focused on re-operation rates, mortality, and morbidity, as measured by Glasgow coma scores (GCS), discharge Rankin disability scores, and discharge disposition. Secondary endpoints included length of stay and cost of procedure. Burr hole washout was superior to craniotomy with respect to patient outcome, length of stay and recurrence rates. In both study groups, patients required additional surgical procedures (6.6% of burr hole patients and 24.1% of craniotomy patients) (P = 0.0156). Of the patients treated with craniotomy, 51.7% were discharged home, whereas 65.6% of the burr hole patients were discharged home. Patients who underwent burr hole washout spent a mean of 78.8 minutes in the operating suite while the patients undergoing craniotomy spent 129.4 minutes (P < 0.001). The difference in mean cost per patient, based solely on operating time, was $2,828 (P < 0.001). This does not include the further cost due to additional procedures and hospital stay. The mean length of stay after surgical intervention was 3 days longer for the craniotomy group (P = 0.0465). Based on this retrospective study, burr hole washout is superior for both patients' clinical and financial outcome; however, prospective long-term multicenter clinical studies are required to verify these findings.

  8. Space Suit CO2 Washout During Intravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Phillip M.; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Sargusingh, Miriam M.

    2010-01-01

    Space suit carbon dioxide (CO2) washout refers to the removal of CO2 gas from the oral-nasal area of a suited astronaut's (or crewmember's) helmet using the suit's ventilation system. Inadequate washout of gases can result in diminished mental/cognitive abilities as well as headaches and light headedness. In addition to general discomfort, these ailments can impair an astronaut s ability to perform mission-critical tasks ranging from flying the space vehicle to performing lunar extravehicular activities (EVAs). During design development for NASA s Constellation Program (CxP), conflicting requirements arose between the volume of air flow that the new Orion manned space vehicle is allocated to provide to the suited crewmember and the amount of air required to achieve CO2 washout in a space suit. Historically, space suits receive 6.0 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) of air flow, which has adequately washed out CO2 for EVAs. For CxP, the Orion vehicle will provide 4.5 acfm of air flow to the suit. A group of subject matter experts (SM Es) among the EVA Systems community came to an early consensus that 4.5 acfm may be acceptable for low metabolic rate activities. However, this value appears very risky for high metabolic rates, hence the need for further analysis and testing. An analysis was performed to validate the 4.5 acfm value and to determine if adequate CO2 washout can be achieved with the new suit helmet design concepts. The analysis included computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling cases, which modeled the air flow and breathing characteristics of a human wearing suit helmets. Helmet testing was performed at the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to provide a gross-level validation of the CFD models. Although there was not a direct data correlation between the helmet testing and the CFD modeling, the testing data showed trends that are very similar to the CFD modeling. Overall, the analysis yielded

  9. Application of nonlinear adaptive motion washout to transport ground-handling simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Martin, D. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The application of a nonlinear coordinated adaptive motion washout to the transport ground-handling environment is documented. Additions to both the aircraft math model and the motion washout system are discussed. The additions to the simulated-aircraft math model provided improved modeling fidelity for braking and reverse-thrust application, and the additions to the motion-base washout system allowed transition from the desired flight parameters to the less restrictive ground parameters of the washout.

  10. Washout kinetics of inhaled hydrogen cyanide in breath.

    PubMed

    Stamyr, Kristin; Nord, Pierre; Johanson, Gunnar

    2008-06-10

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) intoxication causes or contributes significantly to many of the fatalities among fire victims. To enable fast treatment of HCN poisoning, a more rapid diagnostic method than currently available is required. One possibility would be measurement in exhaled air. However, as HCN is highly water soluble, it may be absorbed during inhalation and reabsorbed during exhalation. If this, so-called, washin-washout effect is substantial it may interfere with the diagnosis, as a major part of breath HCN may originate from the respiratory tract, due to recent exposure, and not from systemic exposure. The aim of this study was to estimate the importance of the washin-washout effect of HCN. The time-course of cyanide in exhaled air was measured with an electrochemical detector in 10 volunteers during and after a 1 min x 10 ppm exposure to HCN. The experiment revealed an average half-life of 16s (range 10-24s) in breath. Extrapolating the results to higher exposures suggests that the contribution from washin-washout from the airways will be negligible even at fatal exposures. The results support the use of breath HCN as a potential indicator of systemic intoxication.

  11. Kubo relations and radiative corrections for lepton number washout

    SciTech Connect

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Laine, M. E-mail: laine@itp.unibe.ch

    2014-05-01

    The rates for lepton number washout in extensions of the Standard Model containing right-handed neutrinos are key ingredients in scenarios for baryogenesis through leptogenesis. We relate these rates to real-time correlation functions at finite temperature, without making use of any particle approximations. The relations are valid to quadratic order in neutrino Yukawa couplings and to all orders in Standard Model couplings. They take into account all spectator processes, and apply both in the symmetric and in the Higgs phase of the electroweak theory. We use the relations to compute washout rates at next-to-leading order in g, where g denotes a Standard Model gauge or Yukawa coupling, both in the non-relativistic and in the relativistic regime. Even in the non-relativistic regime the parametrically dominant radiative corrections are only suppressed by a single power of g. In the non-relativistic regime radiative corrections increase the washout rate by a few percent at high temperatures, but they are of order unity around the weak scale and in the relativistic regime.

  12. CO2 Washout Testing of NASA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason

    2012-01-01

    During the presentation "CO2 Washout Testing of NASA Spacesuits," Jason Norcross discussed the results of recent carbon dioxide CO2 washout testing of NASA spacesuits including the Rear Entry I-suit (REI), Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES), and possibly the ACES and Z-1 EVA prototype. When a spacesuit is used during ground testing, adequate CO2 washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on the partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2) available to enter the lungs during respiration. The primary factors during ground-based testing that influence the ppCO2 level in the oronasal area include the metabolic rate of the subject and air flow through the suit. These tests were done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. During this presentation, Norcross provided descriptions of the spacesuits, test hardware, methodology, and results, as well as implications for future ground testing and verification of flight requirements.

  13. Comparing the 7-Day PAR with a Triaxial Accelerometer for Measuring Time in Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Lobach, David; Kraus, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary study aim was to evaluate associations of estimated weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise from self-reports of the telephone-administered 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) with data captured by the RT3 triaxial accelerometer. Methods This investigation was undertaken as part of the FRESH START study, a randomized clinical trial that tested an iteratively-tailored diet and exercise mailed print intervention among newly diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors. A convenience sample of 139 medically-eligible subjects living within a 60-mile radius of the study center provided both 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data at enrollment. Ultimately n=115 substudy subjects were found eligible for the FRESH START study and randomized to one of two study treatment arms. Follow-up assessments at Year 1 (n=103) and Year 2 (n=99) provided both the 7-Day PAR and accelerometer data. Results There was moderate agreement between the 7-Day PAR and the accelerometer with longitudinal serial correlation coefficients of .54 (baseline), .24 (Year 1) and .53 (Year 2), all P-values < .01, though the accelerometer estimates for weekly time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were much higher than those of the 7-Day PAR at all time points. The two methods were poorly correlated in assessing sensitivity to change from baseline to Year 1 (rho=.11, P=.30). Using mixed models repeated measures analysis, both methods exhibited similar non-significant treatment arm X time interaction P-values (7-Day PAR=.22, accelerometer=.23). Conclusions The correlations for three serial time points were in agreement with findings of other studies that compared self-reported time in exercise with physical activity captured by accelerometry. However, these methods capture somewhat different dimensions of physical activity and provide differing estimates of change over time. PMID:19461530

  14. Characterization of a 7 day 17 beta-estradiol transdermal delivery system: pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R A; Zegarac, E A; Eldon, M A; Sedman, A J; Forgue, S T

    1996-08-01

    To assess the delivery characteristics of a new 7 day 17 beta-estradiol transdermal delivery system (TDS), estradiol and estrone pharmacokinetics were evaluated following a single 7 d application of one TDS or two TDSs in 24 healthy, postmenopausal women in a nonblind, randomized, two-period crossover study. Serial blood samples and total urine output were collected before (baseline measurement of endogenous hormone) and during TDS application, and for 24 h (urine) or 72 h (blood) following TDS removal. Serum was assayed for estradiol and estrone by a validated radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. The combined amounts of estradiol and its conjugates, and estrone and its conjugates in urine were determined by validated RIA methods. Overall, one or two estradiol TDSs were well tolerated by healthy, postmenopausal female volunteers. Estradiol absorption from the TDS was characterized by a zero-order process and was dose proportional, resulting in average steady-state serum estradiol concentrations of 16 and 33 pg mL-1 above baseline during the 7 d application of one and two TDSs, respectively. Parallel but smaller increases in serum estrone concentrations were observed, resulting in an increase in the serum estradiol/estrone concentration ratio from approximately 0.2 at baseline to median values of 0.64 and 0.88 during application of one and two TDSs, respectively. The 7 day 17 beta-estradiol TDS delivered a nominal estradiol dose of 0.02 mg/24 h during the intended wear period.

  15. A comparison of washout filters using a human dynamic orientation model. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The Ormsby model of human dynamic orientation, a discrete time computer program, was used to provide a vestibular explanation for observed differences between two washout schemes. These washout schemes, a linear washout and a nonlinear washout, were subjectively evaluated. It was found that the linear washout presented false rate cues, causing pilots to rate the simulation fidelity of the linear scheme much lower than the nonlinear scheme. By inputting these motion histories into the Ormsby model, it was shown that the linear filter causes discontinuities in the pilot's perceived angular velocity, resulting in the sensation of an anomalous rate cue. This phenomenon does not occur with the use of the nonlinear filter.

  16. Anticontrol of Hopf Bifurcation and Control of Chaos for a Finance System through Washout Filters with Time Delay

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mengxia; Zuo, Junmei

    2014-01-01

    A controlled model for a financial system through washout-filter-aided dynamical feedback control laws is developed, the problem of anticontrol of Hopf bifurcation from the steady state is studied, and the existence, stability, and direction of bifurcated periodic solutions are discussed in detail. The obtained results show that the delay on price index has great influences on the financial system, which can be applied to suppress or avoid the chaos phenomenon appearing in the financial system. PMID:24977239

  17. Anticontrol of Hopf bifurcation and control of chaos for a finance system through washout filters with time delay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huitao; Lu, Mengxia; Zuo, Junmei

    2014-01-01

    A controlled model for a financial system through washout-filter-aided dynamical feedback control laws is developed, the problem of anticontrol of Hopf bifurcation from the steady state is studied, and the existence, stability, and direction of bifurcated periodic solutions are discussed in detail. The obtained results show that the delay on price index has great influences on the financial system, which can be applied to suppress or avoid the chaos phenomenon appearing in the financial system.

  18. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200b-7 Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  19. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  20. Phase V of the single-breath washout test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichol, G. M.; Michels, D. B.; Guy, H. J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A downward-deflecting phase V is often seen following the terminal rise (phase IV) in single-breath washout tests. To investigate the nature of phase V, experiments using simultaneous washouts of N2 and tracer boluses of Ar were performed on eight normal nonsmoking subjects aged 27-41 who exhibited a phase V. Phase V is found to occur in all subjects at expiratory flow rates between 0.1 and 2.0 l/sec shortly after expiration became flow limited. Volumes of both phases IV and V increase with increasing flow rate. The difference between the exhaled volumes at which flow became limited and phase V appeared is shown to be approximately equal to the anatomic dead space. Results support a model of lung emptying in a gravitational field in which flow limitation occurs first in the lower lung regions and then progresses toward the upper regions, causing phase IV. A decrease in the amount of flow from the upper relative to the lower regions after all regions have become flow limited then causes phase V.

  1. Efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound washout rate in predicting hepatocellular carcinoma differentiation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Qin, Xia-Chuan; Luo, Yan; Li, Yong-Zhong; Zhou, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) washout rate in predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) differentiation. Two hundred seventy-one patients underwent liver resection for HCC between April 2008 and December 2012 after being examined by CEUS using the contrast agent SonoVue with a low mechanical index (<0.1) in a routine procedure. Contrast agent washout rates obtained from video images were divided into four categories from slow to fast: WR1 = no washout in all phases (slowest); WR2 = washout after 120 s from contrast injection (late-phase washout); WR3 = washout between 41 and 120 s from contrast injection (portal venous washout); WR4 = washout before 40 s from contrast injection (fastest washout rate). HCC nodules were graded as well, moderately and poorly differentiated. Spearman rank correlation and χ(2)-tests were used to assess group relationships and differences. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic predictive value of CEUS. Among the 271 patients, 18 (6.6%) had well differentiated, 150 (55.4%) had moderately differentiated and 103 (38.0%) had poorly differentiated HCC. Statistical tests indicated that washout rate was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation (p < 0.05), and the poorly differentiated HCCs had earlier washout. At the cutoff point of WR4, CEUS based on washout rate performed poorly in distinguishing poorly differentiated from moderately and well-differentiated HCCs, with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (area under the curve) of 24%, 97% and 0.68, respectively. However, at the cutoff point of WR2, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CEUS in differentiating well-differentiated HCC from other HCCs were significantly better: 98%, 78% and 0.96, respectively. Thus, CEUS washout rate may have a role in identifying patients with well-differentiated HCC.

  2. Analyzing Drought From Paleo-Reconstructions Of 7-Day Low Flow In The Hudson River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, M. R.; Cook, E.; Gelman, A.; Lall, U.

    2002-12-01

    The annual 7-day low flow in a stream is a measure of the dry season conditions in a stream. Consequently, it is a useful indicator for multi-year droughts. Here, we first present the application of a Generalized Linear Model in a Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling Framework for reconstructing the annual 7-day low flow series at 5 locations in the Hudson River Basin using 11 regional tree ring chronologies. This technique directly provides estimates of the posterior probability distribution of each reconstructed streamflow value, considering model parameter uncertainty. Given these reconstructions, we examine the frequency and recurrence attributes of extreme droughts in the region and their potential connections to known low frequency climate modes.

  3. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) 7-day survival and growth test method.

    PubMed

    Lazorchak, James M; Smith, Mark E

    2007-10-01

    A short-term method was developed in this study for conducting subchronic survival and growth renewal toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Previously published early life-stage methods for various salmonid species involve test durations of 30 to 90 days. This trout method, however, follows a previously published 7-day fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) growth method. The tests performed in this study measured subchronic growth and survival effects using standard reference toxicants (ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, phenol, and zinc sulfate), receiving water, and effluent samples. The test results were compared with performance criteria and results for 7-day survival and growth tests with P. promelas to determine the level of comparability between the two species. The results from tests with both salmonid species indicated that this 7-day survival and growth test method using O. mykiss and S. fontinalis provides reproducible results with various reference toxicant materials and can be used successfully to detect potential toxicity in environmental samples.

  4. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Dudleson, B. ); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. )

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  5. Continuous distributions of specific ventilation recovered from inert gas washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. M.; Evans, J. W.; Jalowayski, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    A new technique is described for recovering continuous distributions of ventilation as a function of tidal ventilation/volume ratio from the nitrogen washout. The analysis yields a continuous distribution of ventilation as a function of tidal ventilation/volume ratio represented as fractional ventilations of 50 compartments plus dead space. The procedure was verified by recovering known distributions from data to which noise had been added. Using an apparatus to control the subject's tidal volume and FRC, mixed expired N2 data gave the following results: (a) the distributions of young, normal subjects were narrow and unimodal; (b) those of subjects over age 40 were broader with more poorly ventilated units; (c) patients with pulmonary disease of all descriptions showed enlarged dead space; (d) patients with cystic fibrosis showed multimodal distributions with the bulk of the ventilation going to overventilated units; and (e) patients with obstructive lung disease fell into several classes, three of which are illustrated.

  6. [Estimation of I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial washout].

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Watanabe, N; Saitoh, T; Asakura, T; Kanke, M; Owada, K; Hoshi, K; Kimura, K; Maruyama, Y

    1990-11-01

    A crosstalk from I-123 to Tl-201 (Tl) window was 35 +/- 30% (mean +/- SD) and 30 +/- 10% in a myocardial phantom and the images of 6 patients respectively. However, the crosstalk from Tl to I-123 was approximately 1% in each. I-123 MIBG (MIBG) and Tl myocardial SPECT images were recorded in 3 normal volunteers (N), 10 patients with myocardial infarction (MI), and 4 with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The MIBG and Tl imagings were performed on the other day to avoid the crosstalk. Myocardial washout rates (WR) of Tl and MIBG were derived from 15 min and 4 hour images. WR of Tl was approximately 36% in each group. On the other hand, WR of MIBG in DCM (52 +/- 7%) and MI (41 +/- 14%) groups were statistically higher than in N (24 +/- 7%) group. Thus WR of MIBG would be useful to detect abnormalities in adrenergic nervous system.

  7. Mixed metal hydroxide drilling fluid minimizes well bore washouts

    SciTech Connect

    Lavoix, F. ); Lewis, M. )

    1992-09-28

    This paper reports that the use of a mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) drilling fluid, instead of a conventional polymer-based fluid, improved well bore stability in troublesome formations in West Africa. The unique flow and suspension characteristics of the MMH fluid improved cuttings removal and decreased well bore washouts. With fewer hole problems and better cleaning in the well, the operator reduced drilling time and cost of the well. MMH compounds were developed and introduced to the drilling industry a few years ago. Initially their utility was limited by an inability to achieve reliable filtration control without destroying the unique fluid rheology. A fully functional drilling fluid system, based on this unusual line of chemistry, has been developed and used with great success in dozens of wells around the world.

  8. Eccentric and concentric muscle performance following 7 days of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.; Roper, Mary L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Mcbrine, John J.; Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle strength occur in response to chronic disuse or insufficient functional loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle performance of the lower extremity and torso prior to and immediately after 7 days of simulated weightlessness (horizontal bed rest). A Biodex was used to determine concentric and eccentric peak torque and angle at peak torque for the back, abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring, soleus, and tibialis anterior. A reference angle of 0 degrees was set at full extension. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

  9. Diffuse slow washout of myocardial thallium-201: a new scintigraphic indicator of extensive coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, T.M.; Maddahi, J.; Gray, R.J.; Murphy, F.L.; Garcia, E.V.; Conklin, C.M.; Raymond, M.J.; Stewart, M.E.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    When coronary artery disease is extensive and of relatively uniform severity, regional myocardial hypoperfusion may be balanced during stress, precluding development of spatially relative perfusion defects. Assessment of the washout of thallium-201 from myocardial regions may provide diagnostic assistance in these cases because washout analysis is spatially nonrelative and hypoperfused myocardial regions manifest a slow thallium-201 washout rate. In 1,265 consecutive patients having quantitatively analyzed stress-redistribution scintigraphy, 46 had a diffuse slow washout pattern with no or a maximum of one regional perfusion defect. Thirty-two underwent clinically indicated coronary angiography, and 23 (72%) of these were found to have three vessel or left main disease. Of 30 similar patients without a diffuse slow washout pattern and with no or a maximum of one perfusion defect, only 5 (17%) had extensive coronary disease. An independent relation between diffuse slow washout and extensive coronary disease was demonstrated by a Mantel- Haentzel chi-square analysis of a wide variety of other indexes of extensive disease. A diffuse washout abnormality, even in the absence of other scintigraphic, clinical or electrocardiographic indicators, carries a high predictive value for three vessel or left main coronary artery disease. The predictive value is maintained when the exercise level achieved is submaximal. Although an infrequent occurrence (3.6% of tested patients), a diffuse slow washout pattern without other scintigraphic indications of extensive coronary disease should lead to further diagnostic testing.

  10. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis. PMID:28133553

  11. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Christopher; Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis.

  12. Polarographic measurement of ascorbate washout in isolated perfused rabbit hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Arts, T.; Kuikka, J.T.; Reneman, R.S.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    To study the myocardial washout of ascorbate, the applicability of polarographic detection of ascorbate ions by a platinum electrode (sensitive area 0.03 mm2) was investigated, in both a calibration setup (sampling flow along the electrode: 100 microliter X s-1) and isolated, retrogradely perfused rabbit hearts. In the calibration setup at pH 7.4, the sensitivity of the electrode was 70 microA/mol. This sensitivity increased moderately with increasing pH (13%/unit pH) and increasing sampling flow rate (14% at an increase from 100 to 150 microliter X s-1). In the isolated hearts, ascorbate infused into the aorta was detected in a right ventricular drain by the electrode as well as by the use of /sup 14/C-labeled ascorbate. Both recorded time courses were similar except for a scaling factor dependent on flow velocity. During continuous infusion the arteriovenous difference of ascorbate was 2 +/- 2% (SD), indicating a relatively low consumption of ascorbate by the isolated heart. The authors conclude that polarographic measurement of ascorbate in the coronary effluent of an isolated rabbit heart can be performed on-line and relatively easily.

  13. Microtubule aging probed by microfluidics-assisted tubulin washout

    PubMed Central

    Duellberg, Christian; Cade, Nicholas Ian; Surrey, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules switch stochastically between phases of growth and shrinkage. The molecular mechanism responsible for the end of a growth phase, an event called catastrophe, is still not understood. The probability for a catastrophe to occur increases with microtubule age, putting constraints on the possible molecular mechanism of catastrophe induction. Here we used microfluidics-assisted fast tubulin washout experiments to induce microtubule depolymerization in a controlled manner at different times after the start of growth. We found that aging can also be observed in this assay, providing valuable new constraints against which theoretical models of catastrophe induction can be tested. We found that the data can be quantitatively well explained by a simple kinetic threshold model that assumes an age-dependent broadening of the protective cap at the microtubule end as a result of an evolving tapered end structure; this leads to a decrease of the cap density and its stability. This analysis suggests an intuitive picture of the role of morphological changes of the protective cap for the age dependence of microtubule stability. PMID:27489342

  14. Relating indices of inert gas washout to localised bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jennine H; Hoffman, Eric A; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2012-09-30

    Asthma is typically characterised by increased ventilation heterogeneity. This can be directly inferred from the visualisation of ventilation defects in imaging studies, or indirectly inferred from indices derived from the multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW). The basis for the understanding of the MBNW indices and their implication for changes in structure and function at the largest and smallest scales in the lung has been facilitated by mathematical models for inert gas transport. A new model is presented that couples airway resistance and regional tissue compliance, for simulation of the effect of 'patchy' bronchoconstriction - as inferred from imaging studies - on the Scond index of ventilation heterogeneity. Patches of reduced washin gas concentration can emerge by constricting only the terminal bronchioles within localised regions, however this pattern of constriction is insufficient to affect Scond; Scond from this model is only sensitive to constriction that occurs within entire contiguous regions. Furthermore the model illustrates the possibility that the MBNW may not detect gas trapped in ventilation defects.

  15. Microtubule aging probed by microfluidics-assisted tubulin washout.

    PubMed

    Duellberg, Christian; Cade, Nicholas Ian; Surrey, Thomas

    2016-11-07

    Microtubules switch stochastically between phases of growth and shrinkage. The molecular mechanism responsible for the end of a growth phase, an event called catastrophe, is still not understood. The probability for a catastrophe to occur increases with microtubule age, putting constraints on the possible molecular mechanism of catastrophe induction. Here we used microfluidics-assisted fast tubulin washout experiments to induce microtubule depolymerization in a controlled manner at different times after the start of growth. We found that aging can also be observed in this assay, providing valuable new constraints against which theoretical models of catastrophe induction can be tested. We found that the data can be quantitatively well explained by a simple kinetic threshold model that assumes an age-dependent broadening of the protective cap at the microtubule end as a result of an evolving tapered end structure; this leads to a decrease of the cap density and its stability. This analysis suggests an intuitive picture of the role of morphological changes of the protective cap for the age dependence of microtubule stability.

  16. Randomized masked controlled clinical trial to compare 7-day and 14-day course length of doxycycline in the treatment of Mycoplasma felis infection in shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Kompare, B; Litster, A L; Leutenegger, C M; Weng, H-Y

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and microbial efficacy of a 7-day or a 14-day course of doxycycline for the treatment of Mycoplasma felis-infected cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) assessed using clinical scoring criteria. Cats were randomly allocated to either the Doxy-7 group (N=20; 7-day course of oral doxycyline liquid followed by 7-days placebo); or the Doxy-14 group (N=20; 14-day course of oral doxycycline). There were no significant differences in Mycoplasma load between groups at Day 1 or Day 7 (P>0.05), but at Day 14 mean Mycoplasma load was lower in the Doxy-14 group (P=0.01). Mycoplasma load reduced over Days 1-7 in each group (P<0.01), but only the Doxy-14 group had a significantly reduced Mycoplasma load at Day 14 compared to Day 1 (P<0.01). On Day 14, 11 (55%) cats in the Doxy-7 group and 5 (25%) cats in the Doxy-14 group had positive PCR results for M. felis. There was a statistically significant reduction within each group across the Day 1-7 period for ocular discharge, nasal discharge, demeanor, and food intake scores (P<0.01 for each score category). Nasal discharge scores and sneezing scores were statistically lower in the Doxy-14 group than in the Doxy-7 group on individual days during the Day 8-14 period (P<0.05). We conclude that in M. felis-infected cats with clinical signs of URTD, a 14-day course of oral doxycycline produced superior microbial but not clinical results compared to a 7-day course of treatment.

  17. Skin blood flow in sheep: comparison of xenon-133 washout and radioactive microsphere techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Midtgard, U.H.; Hales, J.R.; Fawcett, A.A.; Sejrsen, P.

    1987-09-01

    Blood flow was measured in leg and torso skin of conscious or anesthetized sheep by using 15-micron radioactive microspheres (Qm) and the /sup 133/Xe washout method (QXe). There was a good relationship between Qm in the cutaneous compartment and QXe calculated from the fast component of the biexponential washout curves (QXe = 0.40.Qm + 6.2, r = 0.90, P less than 0.001) with QXe values substantially below those determined with microspheres. Only at low blood flow levels was there a tendency for QXe to overestimate capillary blood flow as assessed with microspheres, but at higher blood flow levels the /sup 133/Xe washout method resulted in values substantially below those determined with microspheres. The slope of the slow component of the washout curves was inversely related to the tissue-blood partition coefficient in the subcutaneous tissue (r = 0.52, P less than 0.001), indicating an influence of the amount of subcutaneous fat on the washout rate. QXe calculated from the slow component of the washout curves was not significantly correlated with Qm in the subcutaneous compartment (r = 0.19, P greater than 0.10). In leg skin with dilated arteriovenous anastomoses, QXe was generally higher than in torso skin and leg skin with constricted arteriovenous anastomoses, indicating that shunt blood flow increases the washout of /sup 133/Xe.

  18. Effect of coronary blood flow on thallium-201 uptake and washout. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, H.; Adolph, R.J.; Gabel, M.; Lukes, S.J.; Franklin, D.; Williams, C.C.

    1982-03-01

    Myocardial uptake and washout of thallium-201 were studied in an experimental dog model in which regional blood flow to the posterior wall was varied by transient 2-minute occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery to produce transient ischemia and reactive hyperemia. Thallium-201 myocardial activity in a region of interest was determined continuously after i.v. administration by a gamma camera and computer program. Activity in the posterior wall was compared with that in the anterior wall in the same dog and the posterior wall of control dogs. Thallium-201 uptake was directly related to blood flow. With reactive hyperemia, there was a rapid and absolute increase in uptake followed by rapid washout; with ischemia, there was slow and decreased uptake followed by a slow washout. The calculated myocardial activity during washout in both ischemic and hyperemic areas approached values in control dogs long after blood flow had returned to baseline levels. Significant differences in washout slopes were found between the three groups of dogs (-0.156%/min in control dogs, -0.244%/min after reactive hyperemia, and -0.076%/min after transient ischemia, with half-washout times of 5.3 hours, 3.4 hours and 11.0 hours, respectively). These data suggest that both the initial decrease in activity in the ischemic area and the initial excess in the hyperemic area are corrected by different washout rates of ischemic and hyperemic cells during redistribution.

  19. Toxicity evaluation of waters from a tributary of the River Po using the 7-Day Ceriodaphnia dubia test.

    PubMed

    Viganò, L; Bassi, A; Garino, A

    1996-12-01

    Seven-day toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were used to assess ambient water toxicity in the River Lambro, a tributary of the River Po, and in the corresponding stretch of the main river located downstream from their confluence. About once a month, toxicity tests were conducted on water samples of the River Lambro, using as dilution water the water of the main river collected upstream from the confluence. With a lower frequency, the downstream stretch of the River Po was tested for ambient toxicity at four sites located at 6, 11, 16, and 21 km from the emission of the tributary. The River Lambro demonstrated variable toxicity in different time periods, although the most frequent effects were sublethal, on both reproduction and growth. Ammonia, nickel, and zinc can be indicated as possible toxicants. Acute toxic effects to C. dubia were observed with spring samples only, when the action of some pesticides, likely insecticides, have to be taken into account. Tests conducted on downstream water gave limited results, seemingly because the dilution capacity of the River Po reduced Lambro toxicity to a level close to and often below the detection limit of the 7-day test. Accordingly, toxic effects at downstream sites could only be observed on the growth of C. dubia, which was found to be the most sensitive endpoint. Fairly good agreement was found between predictions based on toxicity tests of the River Lambro and the effects observed for downstream samples.

  20. Growth, reproduction and population growth of Ceriodaphnia cornuta sars and comparison of 7-day fecundity with Ceriodaphnia dubia richard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Dehui

    1989-06-01

    Biology of parthenogenetic females of Ceriodaphnia cornuta Sars was studied under laboratory conditions. The mean length of neonates (first-young instars) of Ceriodaphnia cornuta was found to be 0.27 mm at 25±1°C and that of the first adult instars 0.50 mm. A maximum length of 0.69 mm was attained at the 8th adult instar. The mean longevity was found to be 19.0 days for 3 preadult and 8 adult instars. Sex maturity was reached in 4.26 days. The mean number of young per brood was 6.21. The total production for each adult reached 49.7. The maximum reproduction period occurred during the 4th adult instar. At this age, the animals were 10.25 days old, and had a body length of 0.65 mm. The innate capacity for increase ( r m) was 0.40 per female per day, the net reproduction rate ( R 0) was 33.601 per generation, the mean length of a generation ( T) was 8.786 days, and the finite rate for increase (λ) was 1.492 per female per day. Comparisons using the t-test indicated that the number of eggs produced and number of broods of C. cornuta and C. dubia were not significantly different ( p>0.05) after 7 days.

  1. Psychometric properties of the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andy; Taylor, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy; Rowlands, Ann

    2007-12-01

    Few self-report measures of physical activity have been validated in individuals with severe mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 7-day recall measure (7DR: [Blair, S. N. (1984). How to assess exercise habits and physical fitness. In J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weiss, (Eds.), Behavioural health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 424-447). New York: Wiley.]) through comparison with RT3 triaxial accelerometry data. Fourteen individuals took part in the study. Validity was considered by Kendall's tau correlation and (Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical-methods for assessing agreement between 2 methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1(8476), 307-310) limits of agreement and test-retest reliability was measured by ICC. The only significant correlation between measures was total energy expenditure (tau = 0.43). The 7-DR over reported moderate physical activity by 16.9 +/- 52.3 min/day, but under reported vigorous physical activity by -10.4 +/- 24.3 min/day. Test retest ICC was significant for all outcome measures. Overall, the 7-DR was reliable but exhibited questionable validity. The use of self-report questionnaires such as the 7-DR may inaccurately estimate the levels of physical activity in this population, and may not be sensitive to monitoring intervention-related changes in physical activity.

  2. The development of a 7-day community specialist palliative care service.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    The author worked as a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in community palliative care in the Central Lancashire area of England when the CNS service was extended to a 9am-to-5pm 7-day service. A project group was set up to canvas some of the key stakeholders for their views on the extension of the service. The group undertook a literature search, a telephone survey of services in other areas that were providing this level of service, and interviews to ascertain the views of district nurses in the locality of the proposed service extension. The extension of service has long been advocated and was one of the key recommendations in the UK Department of Health's peer-review process. Such an extension was implemented following the research phase and was then evaluated by the project lead and the community services manager. The extension was found to be effective in the ongoing monitoring and support of patients. Anecdotally, the CNS team also felt it had been proactive in preventing unnecessary hospital admissions, although this specific aspect is difficult to quantify. This article looks at how the service was developed, how it has evolved over time, and how it works today. Consideration is also given to benefits and limitations.

  3. Predictive Factors for Delivery within 7 Days after Successful 48-Hour Treatment of Threatened Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Carolien; Schuit, Ewoud; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.; Duvekot, Hans J. J.; van Eyck, Jim; Kok, Joke H.; Kwee, Anneke; Merién, Ashley E. R.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van Pampus, Mariëlle G.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Porath, Martina M.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Spaanderman, Marc E. A.; Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Willekes, Christine; Lotgering, Fred K.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess which characteristics and results of vaginal examination are predictive for delivery within 7 days, in women with threatened preterm labor after initial treatment. Study Design A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial on maintenance nifedipine includes women who remained undelivered after threatened preterm labor for 48 hours. We developed one model for women with premature prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and one without PPROM. The predictors were identified by backward selection. We assessed calibration and discrimination and used bootstrapping techniques to correct for potential overfitting. Results For women with PPROM (model 1), nulliparity, history of preterm birth, and vaginal bleeding were included in the multivariable analysis. For women without PPROM (model 2), maternal age, vaginal bleeding, cervical length, and fetal fibronectin (fFN) status were in the multivariable analysis. Discriminative capability was moderate to good (c-statistic 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60–0.77 for model 1 and 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84–0.93 for model 2). Conclusion PPROM and vaginal bleeding in the current pregnancy are relevant predictive factors in all women, as are maternal age, cervical length, and fFN in women without PPROM and nulliparity, history of preterm birth in women with PPROM. PMID:26495173

  4. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL.

  5. Sex-specific criteria for interpretation of thallium-201 myocardial uptake and washout studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, M.; Suissa, S.; Elstein, J.; Staniloff, H.; Tang, A.; Rush, C.; Aldis, A.; Tannous, R.; Turek, M.; Addas, A.

    1986-12-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effect of gender on criteria for the quantitative analysis of exercise-redistribution /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy. The studies of 26 normal females and 23 normal males were subjected to bilinear interpolative background subtraction and horizontal profile analysis. Significant sexual differences were found in both regional uptake ratios and washout rates. These differences primarily reflected a proportionately decreased anterior and upper septal uptake in females, and faster washout in females. Faster myocardial /sup 201/Tl washout rates in females could not be clearly ascribed to either a physiological or artifactual explanation. It is concluded that since important differences exist between males and females in the detected pattern of /sup 201/Tl myocardial uptake and washout, sex-specific criteria may enhance the predictive accuracy of exercise-redistribution /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy.

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  7. Plume wash-out near a coal-fired power plant: Measurements and model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ten Brink, H. M.; Janssen, A. J.; Slanina, J.

    The contribution of plume wash-out to the wet deposition of pollutants in the vicinity of a 1000 MWe coal-fired power plant in The Netherlands has been investigated. Whereas the extra wet deposition of heavy metals, emitted in the form of fly-ash, is not of importance as compared to the background deposition, drastically increased wet deposition of Cl -, F - and especially B-compounds was observed. Little extra deposition of S compounds was found, due to the fact that increased acidity in precipitation, associated with wash-out of HCl and (to a lesser extent) HF, limits the uptake of SO 2. The results of the experiments near the 1000 MWe installation were used to test and validate a wash-out model developed to study and predict wet removal of the major pollutants from a plume. Annual wet deposition patterns of these constituents due to plume wash-out have been calculated for a more characteristic 600 MWe coal-fired power plant. Very locally, at short distances from the stack, plume washout may nearly double local acid deposition under conditions prevalent in The Netherlands. This is mainly the result of wash-out of HCl, whereas the contribution of SO 2 is negligible. Significant plume contributions to the deposition of HF, B-compounds, Al, Ti and Br may be expected. Application of desulfurization units ('scrubbers') will reduce the emission and deposition of acids.

  8. Binding constants determined from Ca2+ current responses to rapid applications and washouts of nifedipine in frog cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Méry, P F; Hove-Madsen, L; Mazet, J L; Hanf, R; Fischmeister, R

    1996-07-01

    1. A fast perfusion system was used to analyse the kinetics of the response of L-type calcium current (ICa) to rapid applications and washouts of the dihydropyridine antagonist nifedipine in whole-cell patch-clamped frog ventricular myocytes. 2. Both the inhibition of ICa induced by nifedipine and the recovery from inhibition upon washout of the drug behaved as mono-exponential functions of time. 3. During application or washout of 100 nM nifedipine, only the peak amplitude of ICa varied but not its time course of activation or inactivation. 4. The rate constant of the onset of ICa inhibition increased with the concentration of nifedipine. However, the time course of the recovery from inhibition was independent of drug concentration. 5. Both rate constants were strongly sensitive to the holding potential but insensitive to the test potential. 6. Using simple rate equations and a one-binding-site analysis it was possible to determine the rate constants for association (k1) and dissociation (k-1) and the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of the reaction between nifedipine and Ca2+ channels. KD values for nifedipine were identical to IC50 values obtained from classical steady-state experiments. 7. With depolarized holding potentials, KD decreased strongly due to a large reduction in k-1 and a modest increase in k1. Assuming that these changes result from the distribution of Ca2+ channels between resting and inactivated states, a low-affinity binding to the resting state (R) and a high-affinity binding to the inactivated state (I) were obtained with the binding constants: k1R = 1.0 x 10(6) M-1 S-1, k-1R = 0.077 S-1, and KDR = 77 nM for the resting state; k1I = 4.47 x 10(6) M-1 S-1, k-1I = 7.7 x 10(-4) S-1, and KDI = 0.17 nM for the inactivated state. 8. Rapid application/washout experiments provide a unique way to determine, in an intact cell and in a relatively short period (2-4 min), the binding rate constants and the KD value of the reaction between a

  9. Inhomogeneity of pulmonary ventilation during sustained microgravity as determined by single-breath washouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, G. Kim; Elliott, Ann R.; Deutschman, Robert A., III; West, John B.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity is known to cause inhomogeneity of ventilation. Nongravitational factors are also recognized, but their relative contribution is not understood. We therefore studied ventilatory inhomogeneity during sustained microgravity during the 9-day flight of Spacelab SLS-1. All seven crew members performed single-breath nitrogen washouts. They inspired a vital capacity breath of 100% oxygen with a bolus of argon at the start of inspiration, and the inspiratory and expiratory flow rates were controlled at 0.5 l/s. Control measurements in normal gravity (1 G) were made pre- and postflight in the standing and supine position. Compared with the standing 1-G measurements, there was a marked decrease in ventilatory inhomogeneity during microgravity, as evidenced by the significant reductions in cardiogenic oscillations, slope of phase III, and height of phase IV for nitrogen and argon. However, argon phase IV volume was not reduced, and considerable ventilatory inhomogeneity remained. For example, the heights of the cardiogenic oscillations during microgravity for nitrogen and argon were 44 and 24%, respectively, of their values at 1 G, whereas the slopes of phase III for nitrogen and argon were 78 and 29%, respectively, of those at 1 G. The presence of a phase IV in microgravity is strong evidence that airway closure still occurs in the absence of gravity. The results were qualitatively similar to those found previously during short periods of 0 G in parabolic flight.

  10. Experimental investigation and modelling of tritium washout by precipitation in the area of the nuclear power plant of Paks, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Köllo, Z; Palcsu, L; Major, Z; Papp, L; Molnár, M; Ranga, T; Dombóvári, P; Manga, L

    2011-01-01

    Tritium occurs in nature in trace amounts, but its concentration is changing due to natural and artificial sources. Studies focusing on natural tritium have to take into account the effect of artificial sources. Also, the impact of tritium is an important issue in environmental protection, e.g. in connection with the emissions from nuclear power plants. The present work focuses on the rain washout of tritium emitted from the Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary. Rainwater collectors were placed around the plant and after a period of precipitation, rainwater was collected and analysed for tritium content. Samples were analysed using low-level liquid scintillation counting, with some also subject to the more accurate (3)He ingrowth method. The results clearly show the trace of the tritium plume emitted from the plant; however, values are only about one order of magnitude higher than environmental background levels. A washout model was devised to estimate the distribution of tritium around the plant. The model gives slightly higher concentrations than those measured in the field, but in general the agreement is satisfactory. The modelled values demonstrate that the effect of the plant on rainwater tritium levels is negligible over a distance of some kilometres.

  11. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  12. The importance of surface adsorption on the washout of semivolatile organic compounds by rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcik, Matt F.

    The washout of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) by rain is an important removal mechanism from the atmosphere and an important loading mechanism to terrestrial and aquatic systems. In this paper, the rain washout equation is modified to include gas-phase SOC adsorption to the surface of raindrops. The relative influence of gas adsorption is a function of the air-water interface adsorption constant, Kia, Henry's law CONSTANT, H, the fraction of the SOCs associated with particles, φ, and the diameter of the raindrop, dR. Theoretical gas-phase washout ratios were calculated assuming a rainfall intensity of 10 mm/h and spherical raindrops for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs). Results for PAHs indicate that gas-phase washout including surface adsorption exceed those calculated considering only Henry's law dissolution for low volatility PAHs. This shift in gas-phase partitioning being dominated by dissolution to the bulk water of the rain drop to being dominated by adsorption to the raindrop surface occurs at sub-cooled liquid saturated vapor pressures around 10 -5 Pa, corresponding to PAHs with greater than or equal to five aromatic rings. Similar calculations for PCBs indicate similar gas-phase washout ratios (10 to ˜10 4), and a similar shift from dissolution to adsorption in the range of sub-cooled liquid saturated vapor pressures of 10 -2.7 to 10 -1.4 Pa. Calculations for polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) indicate that adsorption dominates all gas-phase washout of PCDDs. Kinetic calculations indicate that even the least volatile SOCs reach equilibrium with the rain within hundreds of meters of the bottom of a cloud, depending on rainfall rate. Given the theoretical domination of gas-phase adsorption to the surface of raindrops, traditional rain samplers may underestimate actual washout ratios and ultimately loadings to terrestrial and aquatic surfaces because of

  13. [Application of the hydrogen washout technique to orthopedic research (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ogata, K

    1981-08-01

    Since the first description by Aukland and co-authors in 1964, the hydrogen washout has been shown to be an accurate method in determining regional tissue blood flow. The presence of hydrogen molecules within the tissue is detected with a platinum electrode where a small amount of current is generated by oxidation of molecular hydrogen to hydrogen ions. Therefore, construction of the suitable electrode for the tissue to be measured is essential. The author applied the hydrogen washout technique to the blood flow measurement of bone, muscle, skin, digit and peripheral nerve, and found that the technique was valuable in basic and clinical studies in orthopedics. As a typical experimental study using the hydrogen washout technique, the study on the effect of adrenaline on bone blood flow was presented and the experimental method was explained in detail. Although the hydrogen washout technique has been developed to measure the blood flow, the technique has been found useful in detecting the pathways of microcirculation between different tissues. As an example, the study on nutritional pathways of the intervertebral disk was described. Since the hydrogen gas is harmless, it is possible to apply the technique to the clinical studies including the blood flow measurement of replanted digits, diagnosis of the compartment syndrome and the blood flow measurement of skin flaps. Furthermore, several problems in the hydrogen washout technique were discussed.

  14. Suppurative meningitis in a 7-day-old Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) caused by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chiou, Shiow-Her; Chan, Jacky Peng-Wen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the clinical and pathological features of an orphan 7-day-old, male Formosan sambar fawn that was hospitalized for treatment of weakness. The fawn had been deprived of colostrum and developed suppurative meningitis that was attributed to Escherichia coli. PMID:20514257

  15. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  16. Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys and Coatings for Die inserts

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Edward Courtright; Harold Adkins

    2005-01-30

    This project had two main objectives: (1) To design, fabricate and run a full size test for evaluating soldering and washout in die insert materials. This test utilizes the unique capabilities of the 350 Ton Squeeze Casting machine available in the Case Meal Casting Laboratory. Apply the test to evaluate resistance of die materials and coating, including heat resistant alloys to soldering and washout damage. (2) To evaluate materials and coatings, including heat resistant superalloys, for use as inserts in die casting of aluminum alloys.

  17. Spermatozoa isolated from cat testes retain their structural integrity as well as a developmental potential after refrigeration for up to 7 days.

    PubMed

    Buarpung, Sirirak; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Thongkittidilok, Chommanart; Comizzoli, Pierre; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of preservation media for isolated feline testicular spermatozoa as well as the concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on: (1) the membrane (sperm membrane integrity (SMI)) and DNA integrity of spermatozoa; and (2) the developmental potential of spermatozoa after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Isolated cat spermatozoa were stored in HEPES-M199 medium (HM) or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) at 4°C for up to 7 days. Results indicated that HM maintained a better SMI than DPBS throughout the storage periods (P > 0.05). When spermatozoa were stored in HM supplemented with BSA at different concentrations (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), SMI obtained from HM containing 8 and 16 mg/ml BSA was higher than with 4 mg/ml BSA (P 0.05). In summary, cat spermatozoa immediately isolated from testicular tissue can be stored as a suspension in basic buffered medium at 4°C for up to 7 days. BSA supplementation into the medium improves membrane integrity of the spermatozoa during cold storage. Testicular spermatozoa stored in HM containing 16 mg/ml BSA retained full in vitro developmental potential after ICSI, similar to that of fresh controls even though DNA integrity had slightly declined.

  18. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  19. Influence of 7 days of hindlimb suspension and intermittent weight support on rat muscle mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierotti, David J.; Roy, Roland R.; Flores, Vinicio; Edgerton, Reggie

    1990-01-01

    The effect of intermittent periods of weight support on a decrease in mass of the soleus (Sol) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles atrophied by hindlimb suspension (HS) was investigated in rats subjected to continuous HS for seven days or an HS plus intermittent (10 min every 6 hrs of slow walking on a treadmill) weight support (HS-WS). After 7 d HS, the Sol weight relative to body weight was 21 and 9 percent lower in Hs and HS-WS, respectively, than in control rats. Maximum tetanic tension/muscle mass ratio was significantly lower in HS than in controls; the HS-WS rats had values similar to controls, whereas the maximum tetanic tension/muscle weight was significantly elevated in HS-WS compared to controls. Contraction times were 25 percent faster in the Sol and unchanged in the MG of HS rats, indicating that a low-force short-duration exercise regime results in a significant functional recovery in the 'slow' Sol, whereas the 'fast' MG is less affected.

  20. Prediction of glycated hemoglobin levels at 3 months after metabolic surgery based on the 7-day plasma metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Nam; Lee, Yeon Ji; Kang, Ju-Hee; Choi, Ji-Ho; An, Yong Jin; Kang, Sunmi; Lee, Dae Hyun; Suh, Young Ju; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Sunghyouk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients), and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary.

  1. The washout of combustion-generated hydrogen chloride. [rocket exhaust raindrop scavenging quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.; Hrdina, D.; Knutson, E. O.

    1980-01-01

    The coefficient for the washout from a rocket exhaust cloud of HCl generated by the combustion of an ammonium perchlorate-based solid rocket propellant such as that to be used for the Space Shuttle Booster is determined. A mathematical model of HCl scavenging by rain is developed taking into account rain droplet size, fall velocity and concentration under various rain conditions, partitioning of exhaust HCl between liquid and gaseous phases, the tendency of HCl to promote water vapor condensation and the concentration and size of droplets within the exhaust cloud. The washout coefficient is calculated as a function of total cloud water content, total HCl content at 100% relative humidity, condensation nuclei concentration and rain intensity. The model predictions are compared with experimental results obtained in scavenging tests with solid rocket exhaust and raindrops of different sizes, and the large reduction in washout coefficient at high relative humidities predicted by the model is not observed. A washout coefficient equal to 0.0000512 times the -0.176 power of the mass concentration of HCl times the 0.773 power of the rainfall intensity is obtained from the experimental data.

  2. Inert gas washout: theoretical background and clinical utility in respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul D; Goldman, Michael D; Gustafsson, Per M

    2009-01-01

    Inert gas washout was first described more than 60 years ago and 2 principal tests have been developed from it: the single breath and multiple breath washout (MBW) techniques. The invention of fast responding gas analysers almost 60 years ago and small computers 30 years later have facilitated breath-by-breath analysis and the development of sophisticated analysis techniques. It is now possible to detect not only the degree of pulmonary ventilation inhomogeneity, but also to gain important insight into the location of the underlying disease process. While single breath washout requires a full vital capacity effort, tidal breathing during the multiple breath test requires minimal co-operation and co-ordination, and is feasible in subjects of all ages. Available MBW normative data from parameters, such as the lung clearance index, appears to vary minimally with age, making MBW particularly useful to follow children longitudinally. Multiple breath inert gas washout has demonstrated improved sensitivity, in comparison to spirometry, in the early detection of a number of important disease processes, including cystic fibrosis. Despite this, these important techniques remain under-utilised in the clinical setting and there is a lack of commercially available devices currently available. The recent resurgence of research in this area has produced a large number of important studies and a pronounced international interest has developed in these techniques. This review article will provide an overview of the theoretical background of inert gas washout and analysis indices, review important physiological and clinical insights gained from research to date (as well as from our own experience) to illustrate its utility, and outline the challenges that lie ahead in incorporating these techniques into the mainstream clinical setting.

  3. Promotion of Cholera Awareness Among Households of Cholera Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7 Days (CHoBI7) Intervention.

    PubMed

    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Monira, Shirajum; Alam, Munirul; Shaly, Nusrat Jahan; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are highly susceptible to cholera infections for a 7-day period after the presentation of the index patient in the hospital. However, there is no standard of care to prevent cholera transmission in this high-risk population. Furthermore, there is limited information available on awareness of cholera transmission and prevention among cholera patients and their household contacts. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which delivers a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention to household contacts during the time they spend with the admitted cholera patient in the hospital and reinforces these messages through home visits. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 302 intervention cholera patient household members and 302 control cholera patient household members in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the CHoBI7 intervention in increasing awareness of cholera transmission and prevention, and the key times for handwashing with soap. We observed a significant increase in cholera knowledge score in the intervention arm compared with the control arm at both the 1-week follow-up {score coefficient = 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96, 2.71)} and 6 to 12-month follow-up period (score coefficient = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.05, 2.13]). This 1-week hospital- and home-based intervention led to a significant increase in knowledge of cholera transmission and prevention which was sustained 6 to 12 months post-intervention. These findings suggest that the CHoBI7 intervention presents a promising approach to increase cholera awareness among this high-risk population.

  4. Comparative studies between species that do and do not exhibit the washout effect.

    PubMed

    Scott, Patrick A; Overby, Darryl R; Freddo, Thomas F; Gong, Haiyan

    2007-03-01

    Ocular perfusion studies from all non-human species performed to date consistently demonstrate a perfusion-volume-dependent increase in aqueous outflow facility known as the "washout" effect. However, this "washout" effect does not occur in human eyes. We have recently documented that, in bovine eyes, the washout associated increase in facility correlates with the extent of physical separation between the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium lining the aqueous plexus (the bovine equivalent of Schlemm's canal). We hypothesize that if washout truly correlates with inner wall/JCT separation then this separation should not occur in human eyes that do not exhibit the washout effect, even after prolonged perfusion. Eight enucleated human and eight bovine eyes were used in this study. Aqueous humor outflow facility was measured at 15 mmHg for long-duration (3 h) or short-duration (30 min to 1 h) perfusion (n=4 for each group). All eyes were perfusion-fixed at 15 mmHg, and examined morphologically with both light and electron microscopy. In bovine eyes, outflow facility increased 81% (p=0.049) from 1.06 +/- 0.06 microl/min per mmHg (mean+/-SEM) at baseline to 1.92 +/- 0.30 microl/min per mmHg after 3 h due to washout. The pre-fixation outflow facility in long-duration eyes (1.92 +/- 0.30 microl/min per mmHg) was 2-fold greater than pre-fixation facility in short-duration eyes (0.92 +/- 0.11 microl/min per mmHg; p=0.0387). In human eyes, washout was not observed; baseline outflow facility was similar between both groups (0.18 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.08 microl/min per mmHg; p=0.518); however, pre-fixation outflow facility in long-duration eyes showed a 40% decrease compared to baseline outflow facility in those same eyes (p=0.017, paired Student's t-test). In bovine eyes, significant expansion and rarefaction of the JCT and inner wall/JCT separation was much more prevalent in long-duration eyes, and data from all bovine eyes revealed a

  5. 7-day weighed food diaries suggest patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may spontaneously modify their diet to avoid nosebleed precipitants.

    PubMed

    Finnamore, Helen; Silva, B Maneesha; Hickson, B Mary; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L

    2017-03-28

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) poses substantial burdens due to nosebleeds and iron deficiency resulting from recurrent hemorrhagic iron losses. Recent studies by our group found surprising links between HHT nosebleeds and certain food groups. In this letter, we report 7-day weighed food diary assessments of an unselected group of 25 UK patients with HHT whose nosebleeds ranged from mild to severe (median epistaxis severity score 4.66, range 0.89- 9.11). The diaries provide evidence that food items most commonly reported to provoke nosebleeds were ingested by fewer HHT patients, compared to food items less commonly reported to provoke nosebleeds (chi-squared p <0.001).

  6. Biopsy Specimens Obtained 7 Days After Starting Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) Provide Reliable Predictors of Response to CRT for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Kamijo, Akemi; Murayama, Chieko; Akiba, Takeshi; Kawada, Shuichi

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response. However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. Methods and Materials: The study group comprised 101 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with oral uracil/tegafur (UFT) or S-1. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT. These findings were contrasted with the histologic response and the degree of tumor shrinkage. Results: In biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, histologic marked regression according to the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma (JCCC) criteria and the degree of tumor shrinkage on barium enema examination (BE) were significantly greater in patients with p21-positive tumors than in those with p21-negative tumors (P=.04 and P<.01, respectively). In biopsy specimens obtained 7 days after starting CRT, pathologic complete response, histologic marked regression according to both the tumor regression criteria and JCCC criteria, and T downstaging were significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative (P<.01, P=.02, P=.01, and P<.01, respectively) or p21-negative tumors (P=.03, P<.01, P<.01, and P=.02, respectively). The degree of tumor shrinkage on both BE as well as MRI was significantly greater in patients with apoptosis-positive and with p21-positive tumors than in those with apoptosis-negative or p21-negative tumors, respectively. Histologic changes in H and E-stained biopsy specimens 7 days after starting CRT significantly correlated with pathologic complete response and marked regression on both JCCC and tumor

  7. Analysis of metabolic washout of positron emitters produced during carbon ion head and neck radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Helmbrecht, Stephan; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Parodi, Katia; Didinger, Bernd; Debus, Jürgen; Kunath, Daniela; Priegnitz, Marlen; Fiedler, Fine

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Particle Therapy Positron Emission Tomography (PT-PET) is a suitable method for verification of therapeutic dose delivery by measurements of irradiation-induced β{sup +}-activity. Due to metabolic processes in living tissue β{sup +}-emitters can be removed from the place of generation. This washout is a limiting factor for image quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a washout model obtained by animal experiments is applicable to patient data.Methods: A model for the washout has been developed by Mizuno et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 48(15), 2269–2281 (2003)] and Tomitani et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 48(7), 875–889 (2003)]. It is based upon measurements in a rabbit in living and dead conditions. This model was modified and applied to PET data acquired during the experimental therapy project at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Germany. Three components are expected: A fast one with a half life of 2 s, a medium one in the range of 2–3 min, and a slow component of the order of 2–3 h. Ten patients were selected randomly for investigation of the fast component. To analyze the other two components, 12 one-of-a-kind measurements from a single volunteer patient are available.Results: A fast washout on the time scale of a few seconds was not observed in the patient data. The medium processes showed a mean half life of 155.7 ± 4.6 s. This is in the expected range. Fractions of the activity not influenced by the washout were found.Conclusions: On the time scale of an in-beam or in-room measurement only the medium-time washout processes play a remarkable role. A slow component may be neglected if the measurements do not exceed 20 min after the end of the irradiation. The fast component is not observed due to the low relative blood filled volume in the brain.

  8. DARPA 7-Day Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-17

    live fire challenge. ....................................... 54 Figure 62: Schedule for Live Fire Test with B. pseudomallei strain 1028...currently being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of AIDS, hepatitis C and cancer 3 . However, antigen delivery problems have...from Ac-DEX are pH- sensitive and degrade quicker in lysosomal pH (~ 5) compared to physiological pH (7.4). Beyond its performance in vaccine

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of 7-Day Intensive and Standard Weekly Cognitive Therapy for PTSD and Emotion-Focused Supportive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Hackmann, Ann; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Liness, Sheena; Albert, Idit; Deale, Alicia; Stott, Richard; Clark, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are usually delivered once or twice weekly over several months. It is unclear whether they can be successfully delivered over a shorter period of time. This clinical trial had two goals, (1) to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of a 7-day intensive version of cognitive therapy for PTSD, and (2) to investigate whether cognitive therapy has specific treatment effects by comparing intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy with an equally credible alternative treatment. Method Patients with chronic PTSD (N=121) were randomly allocated to 7-day intensive or standard 3-month weekly cognitive therapy for PTSD, 3-month weekly emotion-focused supportive therapy, or a 14-week waitlist condition. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms and diagnosis as assessed by independent assessors and self-report. Secondary outcomes were disability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Measures were taken at initial assessment, 6 weeks and 14 weeks (post-treatment/wait). For groups receiving treatment, measures were also taken at 3 weeks, and follow-ups at 27 and 40 weeks after randomization. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Results At post-treatment/wait assessment, 73%, 77%, 43%, 7% of the intensive cognitive therapy, standard cognitive therapy, supportive therapy, and waitlist groups, respectively, had recovered from PTSD. All treatments were well tolerated and were superior to waitlist on all outcome measures, with the exception of no difference between supportive therapy and waitlist on quality of life. For primary outcomes, disability and general anxiety, intensive and standard cognitive therapy were superior to supportive therapy. Intensive cognitive therapy achieved faster symptom reduction and comparable overall outcomes to standard cognitive therapy. Conclusions Cognitive therapy for PTSD delivered intensively over little more than a week is as effective as cognitive therapy delivered

  10. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s(-1)) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s(-1) SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  11. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s−1) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s−1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  12. Krogh-cylinder and infinite-domain models for washout of an inert diffusible solute from tissue

    PubMed Central

    Secomb, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Models based on the Krogh-cylinder concept are developed to analyze the washout from tissue by blood flow of an inert diffusible solute that permeates blood vessel walls. During the late phase of washout, the outflowing solute concentration decays exponentially with time. This washout decay rate is predicted for a range of conditions. Methods A single capillary is assumed to lie on the axis of a cylindrical tissue region. In the classic “Krogh-cylinder” approach, a no-flux boundary condition is applied on the outside of the cylinder. An alternative “infinite-domain” approach is proposed that allows for solute exchange across the boundary, but with zero net exchange. Both models are analyzed, using finite-element and analytical methods. Results The washout decay rate depends on blood flow rate, tissue diffusivity and vessel permeability of solute, and assumed boundary conditions. At low blood flow rates, the washout rate can exceed the value for a single well-mixed compartment. The infinite-domain approach predicts slower washout decay rates than the Krogh-cylinder approach. Conclusions The infinite-domain approach overcomes a significant limitation of the Krogh-cylinder approach, while retaining its simplicity. It provides a basis for developing methods to deduce transport properties of inert solutes from observations of washout decay rates. PMID:25377492

  13. Roll tracking effects of G-vector tilt and various types of motion washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, H. R.; Magdaleno, R. E.; Junker, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    In a dogfight scenario, the task was to follow the target's roll angle while suppressing gust disturbances. All subjects adopted the same behavioral strategies in following the target while suppressing the gusts, and the MFP-fitted math model response was generally within one data symbol width. The results include the following: (1) comparisons of full roll motion (both with and without the spurious gravity tilt cue) with the static case. These motion cues help suppress disturbances with little net effect on the visual performance. Tilt cues were clearly used by the pilots but gave only small improvement in tracking errors. (2) The optimum washout (in terms of performance close to real world, similar behavioral parameters, significant motion attenuation (60 percent), and acceptable motion fidelity) was the combined attenuation and first-order washout. (3) Various trends in parameters across the motion conditions were apparent, and are discussed with respect to a comprehensive model for predicting adaptation to various roll motion cues.

  14. Alternative inert gas washout outcomes in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Nyilas, Sylvia; Schlegtendal, Anne; Singer, Florian; Goutaki, Myrofora; Kuehni, Claudia E; Casaulta, Carmen; Latzin, Philipp; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula

    2017-01-01

    The lung clearance index (LCI) derived from a nitrogen multiple breath washout test (N2-MBW) is a promising tool to assess small airways disease in primary ciliary dyskinesia, but it is difficult to apply in routine clinical settings because of its long measuring time. In this study, we aimed to assess alternative indices derived from shorter washout protocols.49 patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (mean age 14.7±6.6 years) and 37 controls (mean age 14.3±1.4 years) performed N2-MBW and double-tracer gas (DTG) single-breath washout tests. Global (LCI and moment ratio (M2/M0)), conductive (Scond) and acinar ventilation inhomogeneity (DTG Slope III (SIII-DTG)) were determined for each individual. The main outcomes were 1) the ability to detect abnormal lung function from washout indices (>1.64 z-scores) and 2) measurement duration.The prevalence of abnormal values for LCI2.5% was 37 out of 47 (79%), for LCI5% was 34 out of 47 (72%), for M2/M0 was 34 out of 47 (72%), for Scond was 36 out of 46 (78%) and for SIII-DTG was 12 out of 35 (34%). Mean±sd duration of measurement was 19.8±11.2 min for LCI2.5%, 10.8±4.6 min for LCI5% and 8.6±2.3 min for ScondCompared to standard LCI2.5%, ventilation inhomogeneity was detected by LCI5%, moment ratio and Scond with comparable sensitivity while measurement duration was significantly shorter. Longitudinal studies will show which outcome is most suitable and practical in terms of sensitivity, duration and variability within the course of primary ciliary dyskinesia lung disease.

  15. Ventilatory inhomogeneity determined from multiple-breath washouts during sustained microgravity on Spacelab SLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Paiva, Manuel; West, John B.

    1995-01-01

    We used multiple-breath N2 washouts (MBNW) to study the homogeneity of ventilation in four normal humans (mean age 42.5 yr) before, during, and after 9 days of exposure to microgravity on Spacelab Life Sciences-1. Subjects performed 20-breath MBNW at tidal volumes of approximately 700 ml and 12-breath MBNW at tidal volumes of approximately 1,250 ml. Six indexes of ventilatory inhomogeneity were derived from data from (1) distribution of specific ventilation (SV) from mixed-expired and (2) end-tidal N2, (3) change of slope of N2 washout (semilog plot) with time, (4) change of slope of normalized phase III of successive breaths, (5) anatomic lead dead space, and (6) Bohr dead space. Significant ventilatory inhomogeneity was seen in the standing position at normal gravity (1 G). When we compared standing 1 G with microgravity, the distributions of SV became slightly narrower, but the difference was not significant. Also, there were no significant changes in the change of slope of the N2 washout, change of normalized phase III slopes, or the anatomic and Bohr dead spaces. By contrast, transition from the standing to supine position in 1 G resulted in significantly broader distributions of SV and significantly greater changes in the changes in slope of the N2 washouts, indicating more ventilatory inhomogeneity in that posture. Thus these techniques can detect relatively small changes in ventilatory inhomogeneity. We conclude that the primary determinants of ventilatory inhomogeneity during tidal breathing in the upright posture are not gravitational in origin.

  16. Empirical comparison of a linear and a nonlinear washout for motion simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Martin, D. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The subjective opinions gathered from seven pilots in the process of comparing a linear and a nonlinear washout for motion simulators reveal an important advance in motion cue presentation. The advance is not in the increased cue provided by the nonlinear filter over a linear filter for the same amount of motion base travel, but rather in the elimination of false rotational rate cues presented by linear filters.

  17. Microcrustacea in flowing water - experimental-analysis of washout times and a field-test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    1. Flow-chamber experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of microcrustacea to maintain position in moving water. These results were compared to distributions of zooplankton and water velocity in a stream pool to determine the relationship of animal density to water movement and swimming ability.^2. Cladocerans exhibited negative rheotaxis (directed behaviour against a current) but poor ability to maintain position at velocities >2.5 Cm s-1. Daphnia and scapholeberis were better at avoiding washout than moina and diaphanosoma. At velocities 2.5 Cm s-1, scapholeberis >3.2 Cm s-1 and eucyclops >7.75 Cm s-1. Washout time of daphnia and scapholeberis was positively related to body size and negatively to water velocity and possession of eggs. Washout was inversely related to water velocity for eucyclops.^4. Highest densities of microcrustacea in a stream pool were found in non-flowing or downstream zones of the pool. Benthic (hydracarina, harpacticoid copepods, ostracods) and fast-swimming (cyclopoids) forms were most common in flowing zones. Facultatively benthic cladocera were abundant in regions of no flow. Rotifers and immature copepods were most abundant at the downstream end of the pool.^5. Behavioural mechanisms for remaining in stream pools at times of high flow appear to include: (i) flow avoidance (simocephalus, chydorus, scapholeberis and cyclopoids), (ii) use of benthic habitat (ostracods, harpacticoids, hydracarina), (iii) strong swimming ability (cyclopoids).

  18. Consensus statement for inert gas washout measurement using multiple- and single- breath tests.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul D; Latzin, Philipp; Verbanck, Sylvia; Hall, Graham L; Horsley, Alexander; Gappa, Monika; Thamrin, Cindy; Arets, Hubertus G M; Aurora, Paul; Fuchs, Susanne I; King, Gregory G; Lum, Sooky; Macleod, Kenneth; Paiva, Manuel; Pillow, Jane J; Ranganathan, Sarath; Ranganathan, Sarah; Ratjen, Felix; Singer, Florian; Sonnappa, Samatha; Stocks, Janet; Subbarao, Padmaja; Thompson, Bruce R; Gustafsson, Per M

    2013-03-01

    Inert gas washout tests, performed using the single- or multiple-breath washout technique, were first described over 60 years ago. As measures of ventilation distribution inhomogeneity, they offer complementary information to standard lung function tests, such as spirometry, as well as improved feasibility across wider age ranges and improved sensitivity in the detection of early lung damage. These benefits have led to a resurgence of interest in these techniques from manufacturers, clinicians and researchers, yet detailed guidelines for washout equipment specifications, test performance and analysis are lacking. This manuscript provides recommendations about these aspects, applicable to both the paediatric and adult testing environment, whilst outlining the important principles that are essential for the reader to understand. These recommendations are evidence based, where possible, but in many places represent expert opinion from a working group with a large collective experience in the techniques discussed. Finally, the important issues that remain unanswered are highlighted. By addressing these important issues and directing future research, the hope is to facilitate the incorporation of these promising tests into routine clinical practice.

  19. Analytic model for washout of HCl(g) from dispersing rocket exhaust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    The potential is investigated that precipitation scavenging of HCl from large solid rocket exhaust clouds may result in unacceptably acidic rain in the Cape Canaveral, Florida, area before atmospheric dispersion reduces HCl concentrations to safe limits. Several analytic expressions for HCl(g) and HCl(g + aq) washout are derived; a geometric mean washout coefficient is recommended. A previous HCl washout model is refined and applied to a space shuttle case (70 t HCl exhausted up to 4 km) and eight Titan 3 (60 percent less exhaust) dispersion cases. The vertical column density (sigma) decays were deduced by application of a multilayer Gaussian diffusion model to seven standard meteorological regimes for overland advection. The Titan 3 decays of sigma and initial rain pH differed greatly among regimes; e.g., a range of 2 pH units was spanned at x 100 km downwind and t = 2 hr. Environmentally significant pH's .5 for infrequent exposures were shown possible at X = 50 km and t 5 hr for the two least dispersive Titan 3 cases. Representative examples of downwind rainwater pH and G(X) are analyzed. Factors affecting the validity of the results are discussed.

  20. The washout effects of rainfall on atmospheric particulate pollution in two Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling-Chuan; Zhang, Yonghui; Lin, Hualiang; Zeng, Weilin; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Rutherford, Shannon; You, Jing; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-08-01

    Though rainfall is recognized as one of the main mechanisms to reduce atmospheric particulate pollution, few studies have quantified this effect, particularly the corresponding lag effect and threshold. This study aimed to investigate the association between rainfall and air quality using a distributed lag non-linear model. Daily data on ambient PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and from 2.5 to 10 μm) and meteorological factors were collected in Guangzhou and Xi'an from 2013 to 2014. A better washout effect was found for PM2.5-10 than for PM2.5, and the rainfall thresholds for both particle fractions were 7 mm in Guangzhou and 1 mm in Xi'an. The decrease in PM2.5 levels following rain lasted for 3 and 6 days in Guangzhou and Xi'an, respectively. Rainfall had a better washout effect in Xi'an compared with that in Guangzhou. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the washout effects of rainfall on particulate pollution, which may help to understand the category and sustainability of dust-haze and enforce anthropogenic control measures in time.

  1. A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day course of doripenem to a 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Gram-negative bacteria. Methods This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing a fixed 7-day course of doripenem one gram as a four-hour infusion every eight hours with a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin one gram as a one-hour infusion every eight hours (April 2008 through June 2011). Results The study was stopped prematurely at the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee that was blinded to treatment arm assignment and performed a scheduled review of data which showed signals that were close to the pre-specified stopping limits. The final analyses included 274 randomized patients. The clinical cure rate at the end of therapy (EOT) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population was numerically lower for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (45.6% versus 56.8%; 95% CI, -26.3% to 3.8%). Similarly, the clinical cure rate at EOT was numerically lower for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP, the most common Gram-negative pathogen, in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (41.2% versus 60.0%; 95% CI, -57.2 to 19.5). All cause 28-day mortality in the MITT group was numerically greater for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (21.5% versus 14.8%; 95% CI, -5.0 to 18.5) and for patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (35.3% versus 0.0%; 95% CI, 12.6 to 58.0). Conclusions Among patients with microbiologically confirmed late-onset VAP, a fixed 7-day course of doripenem was found to have non-significant higher rates of clinical failure and mortality compared to a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin. Consideration should be given to treating patients with VAP for more than seven days to optimize clinical outcome. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00589693

  2. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, I; Norcross, J.; Bekdash, O.

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to provide adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout in a space suit to reduce the risks associated with manned operations in space suits. Symptoms of elevated CO2 levels range from reduced cognitive performance and headache to unconsciousness and death at high levels of CO2. Because of this, NASA imposes limits on inspired CO2 levels for space suits when they are used in space and for ground testing. Testing and/or analysis must be performed to verify that a space suit meets CO2 washout requirements. Testing for developmental space suits has traditionally used an oronasal mask that collects CO2 samples at the left and rights sides of the mouth. Testing with this mask resulted in artificially elevated CO2 concentration measurements, which is most likely due to the dead space volume at the front of the mask. The mask also extends outward and into the supply gas stream, which may disrupt the washout effect of the suit supply gas. To mitigate these problems, a nasal cannula was investigated as a method for measuring inspired CO2 based on the assumptions that it is low profile and would not interfere with the designed suit gas flow path, and it has reduced dead space. This test series compared the performance of a nasal cannula to the oronasal mask in the Mark III space suit. Inspired CO2 levels were measured with subjects at rest and at metabolic workloads of 1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/hr. Workloads were achieved by use of an arm ergometer or treadmill. Test points were conducted at air flow rates of 2, 4, and 6 actual cubic feet per minute, with a suit pressure of 4.3 psid. Results from this test series will evaluate the accuracy and repeatability across subjects of the nasal cannula collection method, which will provide rationale for using a nasal cannula as the new method for measuring inspired CO2 in a space suit. Proper characterization of sampling methods and of suit CO2 washout capability will better inform requirements definition and verification

  3. Adherence to 7-Day Primaquine Treatment for the Radical Cure of P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Soto, Veronica; Erhart, Annette; Ribera, Joan Muela; Toomer, Elizabeth; Tenorio, Alex; Montalvo, Tanilu Grande; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cuentas, Alejandro Llanos; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2010-01-01

    Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot state of body, which is further aggravated by the characteristically hot medical treatment. Notably, patients were willing to adhere to the first 3 days of treatment during which symptoms are most apparent and include the characteristic chills. Nevertheless, as symptoms abate, the perceived aggravating characteristics of the medication outweigh the perceived advantages of treatment adherence. Improving community awareness about the role of primaquine to prevent further malaria transmission and fostering a realistic system of direct observed treatment intake, organized at community level, can be expected to improve adherence to the radical cure of P. vivax in this area. PMID:20519594

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDIES BETWEEN SPECIES THAT DO AND DO NOT EXHIBIT THE WASHOUT EFFECT

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Patrick A.; Overby, Darryl R.; Freddo, Thomas F.; Gong, Haiyan

    2007-01-01

    Ocular perfusion studies from all non-human species performed to date consistently demonstrate a perfusion-volume-dependent increase in aqueous outflow facility known as the “washout” effect. However, this “washout” effect does not occur in human eyes. We have recently documented that, in bovine eyes, the washout associated increase in facility correlates with the extent of physical separation between the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium lining the aqueous plexus (the bovine equivalent of Schlemm’s canal). We hypothesize that if washout truly correlates with inner wall/JCT separation then this separation should not occur in human eyes that do not exhibit the washout effect, even after prolonged perfusion. Eight enucleated human and eight bovine eyes were used in this study. Aqueous outflow facility was measured at 15 mmHg for long-duration (3 hr) or short-duration (30 min – 1 hr) perfusion (n=4 for each group). All eyes were perfusion-fixed at 15 mmHg, and examined morphologically with both light and electron microscopy. In bovine eyes, outflow facility increased 81% (p=0.049) from 1.06 ± 0.06 μl/min/mmHg at baseline to 1.92 ± 0.30 μl/min/mmHg after 3 hrs due to washout. The pre-fixation outflow facility in long-duration eyes (1.92 ± 0.30 μl/min/mmHg) (mean ± SEM) was 2-fold greater than pre-fixation facility in short-duration eyes (0.92 ± 0.11 μl/min/mmHg; p = 0.0387). In human eyes, washout was not observed; baseline outflow facility was similar between both groups (0.18 ± 0.02 vs. 0.25 ± 0.08 μl/min/mmHg; p=0.518); however, pre-fixation outflow facility in long-duration eyes showed a 40% decrease compared to baseline outflow facility in those same eyes (p = 0.017, paired Student’s t-test). In bovine eyes, significant expansion and rarefaction of the JCT and inner wall/JCT separation was much more prevalent in long-duration eyes, and data from all bovine eyes revealed a correlation between the

  5. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  6. Effect of burden and origin sites of premature ventricular contractions on left ventricular function by 7-day Holter monitor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Mingfang; Chen, Minglong; Yang, Bing; Wang, Daowu; Kong, Xiangqing; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Gu, Kai; Cao, Kejiang; Liu, Hailei; Jiang, Qi; Shi, Jiaojiao; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have shown that premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) could enlarge the heart, but its risk factors are incompletely understood as a single 24-hour recording cannot reflect the true PVC burden due to day-to-day variability. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of burden and origin sites on left ventricular (LV) function in patients with PVCs by 7-day Holter electrocardiography (ECG). From May 2012 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients with PVCs were recruited from the authors' affiliated hospital. All patients received 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead routing ECG and 7-days Holter ECG. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. A total of 102 participants with PVCs were included in the final analysis. Origin of PVCs from the tricuspid annulus had the highest burden and NT-proBNP level. LV papillary muscle had a higher LV ejection fraction (EF) level and a lower LV end-systolic dimension (ESD) than other PVC foci (P<0.05). The high burden group had a higher LV end-diastolic dimension (EDD) and LVESD but lower LVEF than the other two groups (P<0.05). Female, older age, physical work, and history of PVCs had a significantly positive correlation with symptoms. Male, older age, physical work, and high burden were positive predictors of enlarged LVEDD, LVESD and higher serum NT-proBNP level, but lower LVEF. Seven-day dynamic ECG Holter monitor showed the true PVC burden on patients with PVCs. PVCs with a lower burden or origin from the LV papillary muscle and the fascicle were relatively benign, while PVCs with a higher burden or origin from the tricuspid annulus may lead to cardiac dysfunction. PMID:26668581

  7. Premixed, injectable PLA-modified calcium deficient apatite biocement (cd-AB) with washout resistance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Ngothai, Yung; Wei, Jie; Liu, Changsheng; O'Neill, Brian; Wu, Yuequn

    2012-04-01

    By using a non-aqueous solution as the mixing liquid, the washout resistance of the calcium deficient apatite biocement (cd-AB) was significantly improved, over that of the conventional method of using cd-AB with water as the liquid phase. In this study, premixed and injectable cd-AB was prepared, which had the advantage of being stable in the syringe and hardens only after being delivered to the defect area. The cd-AB powder with a Ca/P ratio of 1.5 consists of a mixture of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). A solution of polylactide (PLA) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used as the liquid phase of the premixed cd-AB. The premixed cd-AB paste injected into an aqueous environment exhibited excellent washout resistance. The premixed cd-AB had longer setting time and lower compressive strength than conventional cd-AB. The hydration products of premixed cd-AB were a mixture of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (cd-HA) and PLA. In vitro Tris-HCl immersion tests demonstrated that the premixed cd-AB could be degradable. The results revealed that the premixed cd-AB was cytocompatible and had no adverse effects on the attachment and proliferation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells in vitro. The most distinct advantages of premixed and injectable PLA-modified cd-AB were its excellent washout resistance and in vitro degradability, suggesting that it may be a promising candidate for bone repair.

  8. Kinetics of Uptake and Washout of Lidocaine in Rat Sciatic Nerve In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, Stanley; Strichartz, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background The potency and efficacy of local anesthetics injected clinically for peripheral nerve block depends strongly on the rate of neural drug uptake. However, since diffusion into surrounding tissues and removal by the vascular system are major factors in the overall distribution of lidocaine in vivo, true kinetics of drug/neural tissue interactions must be studied in the absence of those confounding factors. Methods Uptake: Ensheathed or desheathed isolated rat sciatic nerves were exposed to [14C]-lidocaine for 0-180min and then removed and the lidocaine content of nerve and sheath analyzed. Washout: Isolated nerves were soaked in [14C]-lidocaine for 60min and then placed in lidocaine-free solution for 0-30min, with samples removed at different times to assess the drug content. Experimental variables included the effects of the ensheathing epineurium, lidocaine concentration, pH, presence of CO2-bicarbonate, and incubation duration. Results The equilibrium uptake of lidocaine increased with incubation time, concentration and the fraction of molecules in the non-ionized form. The uptake rate was unaffected by drug concentration, but was about halved by the presence of the epineurial sheath, with the washout rate slowed less. Slight alkalinization, from pH 6.8 to pH 7.4, by bicarbonate-CO2 buffer or a non-bicarbonate buffer, enhanced the neural uptake, and to the same degree. The washout of lidocaine was faster after shorter incubations at high concentrations than when equal amounts of lidocaine were taken up after long incubations at low lidocaine concentrations. Conclusion Lidocaine enters a nerve by a process other than free diffusion, through an epineurial sheath that is a slight obstacle. Given the rapid entry in vitro compared to the much smaller and transient content measured in vivo, it seems highly unlikely that lidocaine equilibrates with the nerve during a peripheral blockade. PMID:23400993

  9. Closed circuit rebreathing to achieve inert gas wash-in for multiple breath wash-out

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Katherine; Downey, Damian G.; Elborn, J. Stuart; Bell, Nicholas J.; Smith, Jaclyn; Owers-Bradley, John

    2016-01-01

    Multiple breath wash-out (MBW) testing requires prior wash-in of inert tracer gas. Wash-in efficiency can be enhanced by a rebreathing tracer in a closed circuit. Previous attempts to deploy this did not account for the impact of CO2 accumulation on patients and were unsuccessful. We hypothesised that an effective rebreathe wash-in could be delivered and it would not alter wash-out parameters. Computer modelling was used to assess the impact of the rebreathe method on wash-in efficiency. Clinical testing of open and closed circuit wash-in–wash-out was performed in healthy controls and adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) using a circuit with an effective CO2 scrubber and a refined wash-in protocol. Wash-in efficiency was enhanced by rebreathing. There was no difference in mean lung clearance index between the two wash-in methods for controls (6.5 versus 6.4; p=0.2, n=12) or patients with CF (10.9 versus 10.8; p=0.2, n=19). Test time was reduced by rebreathe wash-in (156 versus 230 s for CF patients, p<0.001) and both methods were well tolerated. End wash-in CO2 was maintained below 2% in most cases. Rebreathe–wash-in is a promising development that, when correctly deployed, reduces wash-in time and facilitates portable MBW testing. For mild CF, wash-out outcomes are equivalent to an open circuit. PMID:27730167

  10. Closed circuit rebreathing to achieve inert gas wash-in for multiple breath wash-out.

    PubMed

    Horsley, Alex R; O'Neill, Katherine; Downey, Damian G; Elborn, J Stuart; Bell, Nicholas J; Smith, Jaclyn; Owers-Bradley, John

    2016-01-01

    Multiple breath wash-out (MBW) testing requires prior wash-in of inert tracer gas. Wash-in efficiency can be enhanced by a rebreathing tracer in a closed circuit. Previous attempts to deploy this did not account for the impact of CO2 accumulation on patients and were unsuccessful. We hypothesised that an effective rebreathe wash-in could be delivered and it would not alter wash-out parameters. Computer modelling was used to assess the impact of the rebreathe method on wash-in efficiency. Clinical testing of open and closed circuit wash-in-wash-out was performed in healthy controls and adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) using a circuit with an effective CO2 scrubber and a refined wash-in protocol. Wash-in efficiency was enhanced by rebreathing. There was no difference in mean lung clearance index between the two wash-in methods for controls (6.5 versus 6.4; p=0.2, n=12) or patients with CF (10.9 versus 10.8; p=0.2, n=19). Test time was reduced by rebreathe wash-in (156 versus 230 s for CF patients, p<0.001) and both methods were well tolerated. End wash-in CO2 was maintained below 2% in most cases. Rebreathe-wash-in is a promising development that, when correctly deployed, reduces wash-in time and facilitates portable MBW testing. For mild CF, wash-out outcomes are equivalent to an open circuit.

  11. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, Ian M.; Norcross, Jason; Bekdash, Omar; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A space suit must provide adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout inside the helmet to prevent symptoms of hypercapnia. In the past, an oronasal mask has been used to measure the inspired air of suited subjects to determine a space suit's CO2 washout capability. While sufficient for super-ambient pressure testing of space suits, the oronasal mask fails to meet several human factors and operational criterion needed for future sub-ambient pressure testing (e.g. compatibility with a Valsalva device). This paper describes the evaluation of a nasal cannula as a device for measuring inspired air within a space suit. Eight test subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill or operating an arm ergometer to achieve target metabolic rates of 1000, 2000, and 3000 British thermal units per hour (BTU/hr), at flow rates of 2, 4, and 6 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM). Each test configuration was conducted twice, with subjects instructed to breathe either through their nose only, or however they felt comfortable. Test data shows that the nasal cannula provides more statistically consistent data across test subjects than the oronasal mask used in previous tests. The data also shows that inhaling/exhaling through only the nose provides a lower sample variance than a normal breathing style. Nose-only breathing reports better CO2 washout due to several possible reasons, including a decreased respiratory rate, an increased tidal volume, and because nose-only breathing directs all of the exhaled CO2 down and away from the oronasal region. The test subjects in this study provided feedback that the nasal cannula is comfortable and can be used with the Valsalva device.

  12. Computerized Mathematical Models of Spray Washout of Airborne Contaminants (Radioactivity) in Containment Vessels.

    SciTech Connect

    TAM, P. S.

    2003-05-23

    Version 01 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles, the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties of steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.

  13. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Nittby, Henrietta; Brun, Arne; Eberhardt, Jacob; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after

  14. Impact of intracranial blood-flow redistribution on stroke size during ischemia-reperfusion in 7-day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Philippe; Leger, Pierre-Louis; Deroide, Nicolas; Fau, Sébastien; Baud, Olivier; Pocard, Marc; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Renolleau, Sylvain

    2011-05-15

    We evaluated color-coded pulsed Doppler ultrasound imaging for the assessment of intracranial blood flow in two models of cerebral ischemia in 7-day-old (P7) rats. Blood-flow velocities (BFVs) were measured in the internal carotid arteries and basilar trunk upstream from the circle of Willis, and in the posterior cerebral arteries downstream (1) before, (2) during left middle cerebral artery electrocoagulation and 50 min-transient either one (I/R-1) or both (I/R-2) common carotid (CCA) arteries occlusion, and (3) after release of CCA(s) occlusion. At 48 h after ischemia 41-48% (I/R-1 model) and 24% (I/R-2 model) of rats did not present a lesion. Those rats displayed increased mean BFV in both right internal carotid artery and basilar trunk in I/R-1 model, and increased mean BFV in the basilar trunk (BT) in I/R-2 model. In contrast, no significant changes in mean BFV were observed in lesioned rats. Furthermore, mean BFV in the BT was inversely correlated to the size of the lesion (r² = 0.75, p<0.0001) in the I/R-2 model. Thus, we demonstrated the protective role of collateral support in P7 rodents. Ultrasound imaging can evidence the establishment or not of the cerebral collateral recruitment, leading to the presence or absence of a lesion. This novel approach should greatly help preclinical studies to reduce animal variability.

  15. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  16. The effects of modafinil treatment on neuropsychological and attentional bias performance during 7-day inpatient withdrawal from methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Hester, Robert; Lee, Nicole; Pennay, Amy; Nielsen, Suzi; Ferris, Jason

    2010-12-01

    The cognitive benefits of modafinil to patients undergoing 7-day inpatient withdrawal from methamphetamine (MA) dependence were examined as part of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Recent evidence has identified modafinil-related improvements in treatment outcomes for MA-dependent patients; however, the benefits to cognition function, which is critical to treatment success but known to be impaired, has yet to be examined. The first 20 participants recruited to the study were administered either 200 mg of modafinil (once daily) or placebo, and a neuropsychological test battery (including an MA version of the emotional Stroop task) at admission (n = 17) and discharge (n = 14). Follow-up interviews were conducted at 1-month postdischarge (n = 13). After participant withdrawals (3 in each group), treatment was associated with a significant improvement in immediate verbal memory recall and nonsignificant trend toward improvement on executive function and delayed memory tasks. No benefit was seen for measures of verbal learning, visual memory, processing speed, or verbal fluency. All participants showed a significant attentional bias for MA-related stimuli on the emotional Stroop task. The magnitude of bias predicted both retention in treatment and relapse potential at follow-up but was not significantly ameliorated by modafinil treatment. While nonsignificant, the effect sizes of modafinil-related improvements in executive function and memory were consistent with those found in more robustly powered studies of cognitive benefits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, supporting the need for further research.

  17. Utilizing a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus and Space Suit Ventilation Loop to Evaluate Carbon Dioxide Washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; Kanne, Bryan; McMillin, Summer; Paul, Thomas; Norcross, Jason; Alonso, Jesus Delgado; Swickrath, Mike

    2015-01-01

    NASA is pursuing technology development of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) which is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a pressure garment system and a portable life support subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. One of the key functions of the ventilation system is to remove and control the carbon dioxide (CO2) delivered to the crewmember. Carbon dioxide washout is the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the space suit helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the crew member. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and robust designs that are insensitive to human variabilities in a space suit. A suited manikin test apparatus (SMTA) was developed to augment testing of the PLSS ventilation loop in order to provide a lower cost and more controlled alternative to human testing. The CO2 removal function is performed by the regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) within the PLSS ventilation loop and its performance is evaluated within the integrated SMTA and Ventilation Loop test system. This paper will provide a detailed description of the schematics, test configurations, and hardware components of this integrated system. Results and analysis of testing performed with this integrated system will be presented within this paper.

  18. Emptying patterns of the lung studied by multiple-breath N2 washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the nitrogen concentration seen during the single-breath nitrogen washout reflect changes in relative flow (ventilation) from units with differing ventilation/volume ratios. The multiple-breath washout provides sufficient data on ventilation for units with varying ventilation/volume ratios to be plotted as a function of the volume expired. Flow from the dead space may also be determined. In young normals the emptying patterns are narrow and unimodal throughout the alveolar plateau with little or no flow from the dead space at the end of the breath. Older normals show more flow from the dead space, particularly toward the end of the breath, and some show a high ventilation/volume ratio mode early in the breath. Patients with obstructive lung disease have a high flow from the dead space which is present throughout the breath. A well ventilated mode at the end of the breath is seen in some obstructed subjects. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed a poorly ventilated mode appearing at the end of the breath as well as a very high dead space.

  19. Utilizing a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus and Spacesuit Ventilation Loop to Evaluate Carbon Dioxide Washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; Kanne, Bryan; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Jeng, Frank; Swickrath, Mike

    2014-01-01

    NASA is pursuing technology development of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) which is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a pressure garment system and a Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. One of the key functions of the ventilation system is to remove and control the carbon dioxide delivered to the crewmember. Carbon dioxide washout is the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the spacesuit helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the crew member. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and robust designs that are insensitive to human variabilities in a spacesuit. A Suited Manikin Test Apparatus (SMTA) is being developed to augment testing of the PLSS ventilation loop in order to provide a lower cost and more controlled alternative to human testing. The CO2 removal function is performed by the regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) within the PLSS ventilation loop and its performance is evaluated within the integrated SMTA and Ventilation Loop test system. This paper will provide a detailed description of the schematics, test configurations, and hardware components of this integrated system. Results and analysis of testing performed with this integrated system will be presented within this paper.

  20. Determination of washout performance of various monochrome displays under simulated flight ambient and solar lighting conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Vernon M.; Robertson, James B.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-01-01

    The aircraft cockpit ambient lighting simulation system (ACALSS) has been developed to study display readability and associated pilot/vehicle performance effects in a part-task simulator cockpit. In the study reported here, the ACALSS was used to determine the illumination levels at which subjects lose the ability to maintain aircraft states when using three display technologies as display media for primary flight displays: a standard monochrome EL (electroluminescent) flat-panel, a laboratory-class monochrome CRT, and an enhanced-brightness EL flat-panel. The multivariate statistical technique of modified profile analysis was used to test for performance differences between display devices as functions of illumination levels. The standard monochrome EL flat-panel display began to washout after the 2500 foot-candle level of illumination. The monochrome CRT began to washout after the 5500 foot-candle level of illumination. No performance decrements by increased illumination up to the 12,000 foot-candle level were found for the enhanced-brightness EL flat-panel display. What was not anticipated was that half the subjects would subjectively prefer the CRT over the enhanced-brightness EL, even though their performance errors would have indicated the opposite.

  1. Ventilation Inception and Washout, Scaling, and Effects on Hydrodynamic Performance of a Surface Piercing Strut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Casey; Young, Yin Lu; Ceccio, Steven

    2014-11-01

    High-lift devices that operate at or near a fluid free surface (such as surface-piercing or shallowly-submerged propellers and hydrofoils) are prone to a multiphase flow phenomenon called ventilation, wherein non-condensable gas is entrained in the low-pressure flow, forming a cavity around the body and dramatically altering the global hydrodynamic forces. Experiments are being conducted at the University of Michigan's towing tank using a canonical surface-piercing strut to investigate atmospheric ventilation. The goals of the work are (i) to gain an understanding of the dominant physics in fully wetted, partially ventilated, and fully ventilated flow regimes, (ii) to quantify the effects of governing dimensionless parameters on the transition between flow regimes, and (iii) to develop scaling relations for the transition between flow regimes. Using theoretical arguments and flow visualization techniques, new criteria are developed for classifying flow regimes and transition mechanisms. Unsteady transition mechanisms are described and mapped as functions of the governing non-dimensional parameters. A theoretical scaling relationship is developed for ventilation washout, which is shown to adequately capture the experimentally-observed washout boundary. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Student Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 1256260. Support also comes from the Naval Engineering Education Center (Award No. N65540-10-C-003).

  2. A study of moving base simulation motion cues utilizing washout technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N., Jr.; Brye, R.; Vinz, F. L.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was conducted to derive data on non-visual motion thresholds utilizing washout technique, and to develop specific threshold values for use as washout parameters. It describes the results of acceleration detection studies carried out using the NASA MSFC General Purpose Simulator which provides six degree-of-freedom cab motion. A series of experiments was performed to test the hypothesis that constant velocity visual cues might suppress non-visual deceleration sensitivity. The psychophysical method employed was the forced-choice procedure which theoretically yields a pure sensitivity measure. The MSFC General Purpose Simulator was programmed to provide velocity ramps in three axes - pitch, fore-aft translation, and vertical translation. Data were collected with and without a constant velocity visual input. Comparison of the current results with classical data suggested significantly greater sensitivity of the human observer to fore-aft accelerations than has generally been reported, sensitivity tending to depend on motion direction and sign of velocity change.

  3. Penile xenon (/sup 133/Xe) washout: a rapid method of screening for vasculogenic impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Wilbur, H.J.; Kang, S.A.; Flesh, L.; Bennett, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The radioactive inert gas xenon (/sup 133/Xe) is a well-established isotopic indicator used to assess vascular status in many organ systems. Xenon-133 was used to evaluate male impotence. Xenon-133 was injected subcutaneously at the level of the coronal sulcus in the detumescent state. Using the gamma camera, sequential images were obtained and computer-generated curves calculated. The clearance time for 50 per cent washout of the injected /sup 133/Xe (T1/2) was then calculated for each patient, as well as a control group. Preliminary findings indicate a correlation with such established techniques of evaluating erectile impotence as history, physical examination, penile pulse Doppler tracings, and brachial-penile blood pressure index. The xenon-133 washout study was a rapid, minimally invasive, reproducible, and cost-effective method of screening those impotent patients for vasculogenic etiology of their erectile impotence. We recommend the addition of this method to the surgeon engaged in the care of impotent males.

  4. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  5. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.; Bekdash, O.; Meginnis, I.

    2016-01-01

    Providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout is essential to the reduction of risk in performing suited operations. Long term CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms such as headache, lethargy, dizziness, and in severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and death. Thus maintaining adequate CO2 washout in both ground testing and during in flight EVAs is a requirement of current and future suit designs. It is necessary to understand the inspired CO2 of suit wearers such that future requirements for space suits appropriately address the risk of inadequate washout. Testing conducted by the EVA Physiology Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center aimed to characterize a method for noninvasively measuring inspired oronasal CO2 under pressurized suited conditions in order to better inform requirements definition and verification techniques for future CO2 washout limits in space suits. Prior work conducted by the EPL examined several different wearable, respirator style, masks that could be used to sample air from the vicinity surround the nose and mouth of a suited test subject. Previously published studies utilized these masks, some being commercial products and some novel designs, to monitor CO2 under various exercise and flow conditions with mixed results for repeatability and/or consistency between subjects. Based on a meta-analysis of those studies it was decided to test a nasal cannula as it is a commercially available device that is placed directly in the flow path of the user as they breathe. A nasal cannula was used to sample air inhaled by the test subjects during both rest and exercise conditions. Eight subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill or operating an arm ergometer to reach target metabolic rates of 1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/hr. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid for all tests, with supply flow rates of 6, 4, and 2 actual cubic feet per minute depending on the test condition. Each test configuration was conducted twice with subjects breathing

  6. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  7. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test is to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III space suit across a range of workload and flow rates. As a secondary objective, results will be compared to the predicted CO2 concentrations and used to refine existing CFD models. These CFD models will then be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit, which maximizes oronasal CO2 washout. This test has not been completed, but is planned for January 2014. The results of this test will be incorporated into this paper. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects will be tested in the Mark-III space suit with each subject performing two test sessions to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations will be evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure will be maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects will wear the suit while walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) will be tested at each workload. Subjects will wear an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and will be allowed to

  8. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flows in the Hudson River basin, New York, with release-flow data on Rondout and Ashokan reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow at 67 gaging stations and 173 partial-record stations in the Hudson River basin are given in tabular form. Variation of the 7-day, 10-year low flow from point to point in selected reaches, and the corresponding times of travel, are shown graphically for Wawayanda Creek, Wallkill River, Woodbury-Moodna Creek, and the Fishkill Creek basins. The 7-day, 10-year low flow for the Saw Kill basin, and estimates of the 7-day, 10-year low flow of the Roeliff Jansen Kill at Ancram and of Birch Creek at Pine Hill, are given. Summaries of discharge from Rondout and Ashokan Reservoirs, in Ulster County, are also included. Minimum average 7-day, 10-year flow for gaging stations with 10 years or more of record were determined by log-Pearson Type III computation; those for partial-record stations were developed by correlation of discharge measurements made at the partial-record stations with discharge data from appropriate long-term gaging stations. The variation in low flows from point to point within the selected subbasins were estimated from available data and regional regression formula. Time of travel at these flows in the four subbasins was estimated from available data and Boning's equations.

  9. [The transdermal 7-day buprenorphine patch--an effective and safe treatment option, if tramadol or tilidate/naloxone is insufficient. Results of a non-interventional study].

    PubMed

    Schutter, U; Ritzdorf, I; Heckes, B

    2010-07-01

    The transdermal 7-day buprenorphine matrix patch provides a constant and user-friendly pain management when chronic musculoskeletal pain requires opioids. This analysis of clinical routine data evaluated the benefit of this treatment for patients previously receiving oral long-term treatment with weak opioids alone. Data of 310 patients previously treated with tramadol or tildate/naloxone and part of a multicentre observational study with 3295 patients were analyzed. In 89.7% of the 310 patients oral treatment with weak opioids was replaced by the 7-day buprenorphine patch due to insufficient analgesia. During treatment with the 7-day buprenorphine patch there was a clinically significant decrease of the mean pain intensity at rest during the day from 5.7 to 2.9, on physical effort during the day from 7.3 to 3.8 and at night from 5.2 to 2.3 (11-point NRS scale, p < or = 0.001). In addition, quality of life aspects such as mobility, self-reliance and quality of sleep improved, which are relevant for individual patient satisfaction with pain management. For patients with previous long-term tramadol or tilidate/naloxone treatment the switch to the 7-day buprenorphine matrix patch proved to be effective and safe for the management of chronic pain. The user-friendly 7-day application interval contributes to improving compliance and a reducing exposure to tablets.

  10. Gravitational independence of single-breath washout tests in recumbent dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomioka, Shinichi; Kubo, Susumu; Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of gravitational orientation in the mechanism of lung filling and emptying in dogs was examined by conducting simultaneously Ar-bolus and N2 single-breath washout tests (SBWTs) in 10 anesthetized dogs (prone and supine), with three of the dogs subjected to body rotation. Transpulmonary pressure was measured simultaneously, allowing identification of the lung volume above residual volume at which there was an inflection point in the pressure-volume curve. Combined resident gas and bolus SBWTs in recumbent dogs were found to be different from such tests in humans; in dogs, the regional distribution of ventilation was not primarily determined by gravity. The measurements did not make it possible to discern exact mechanisms of filling and emptying, but both processes appear to be related to lung, thorax, and mediastinum interactions and/or differences in regional mechanical properties of the lungs.

  11. Evaluation of a linear washout for simulator motion cue presentation during landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Martin, D. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The comparison of a fixed-base versus a five-degree-of-freedom motion base simulation of a 737 conventional take-off and landing (CTOL) aircraft performing instrument landing system (ILS) landing approaches was used to evaluate a linear motion washout technique. The fact that the pilots felt that the addition of motion increased the pilot workload and this increase was not reflected in the objective data results, indicates that motion cues, as presented, are not a contributing factor to root-mean-square (rms) performance during the landing approach task. Subjective results from standard maneuvering about straight-and-level flight for specific motion cue evaluation revealed that the longitudinal channels (pitch and surge) possibly the yaw channel produce acceptable motions. The roll cue representation, involving both roll and sway channels, was found to be inadequate for large roll inputs, as used for example, in turn entries.

  12. Washout allometric reference method (WARM) for parametric analysis of [(11)C]PIB in human brains.

    PubMed

    Rodell, Anders; Aanerud, Joel; Braendgaard, Hans; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Rapid clearance and disappearance of a tracer from the circulation challenges the determination of the tracer's binding potentials in brain (BP ND) by positron emission tomography (PET). This is the case for the analysis of the binding of radiolabeled [(11)C]Pittsburgh Compound B ([(11)C]PIB) to amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques in brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To resolve the issue of rapid clearance from the circulation, we here introduce the flow-independent Washout Allometric Reference Method (WARM) for the analysis of washout and binding of [(11)C]PIB in two groups of human subjects, healthy aged control subjects (HC), and patients suffering from AD, and we compare the results to the outcome of two conventional analysis methods. We also use the rapid initial clearance to obtain a surrogate measure of the rate of cerebral blood flow (CBF), as well as a method of identifying a suitable reference region directly from the [(11)C]PIB signal. The difference of average absolute CBF values between the AD and HC groups was highly significant (P < 0.003). The CBF measures were not significantly different between the groups when normalized to cerebellar gray matter flow. Thus, when flow differences confound conventional measures of [(11)C]PIB binding, the separate estimates of CBF and BP ND provide additional information about possible AD. The results demonstrate the importance of data-driven estimation of CBF and BP ND, as well as reference region detection from the [(11)C]PIB signal. We conclude that the WARM method yields stable measures of BP ND with relative ease, using only integration for noise reduction and no model regression. The method accounts for relative flow differences in the brain tissue and yields a calibrated measure of absolute CBF directly from the [(11)C]PIB signal. Compared to conventional methods, WARM optimizes the Aβ plaque load discrimination between patients with AD and healthy controls (P = 0.009).

  13. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  14. Washout of tritium from 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-L-aspartate in the aspartase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, B.M.; Cook, P.F.

    1987-05-01

    Bacterial aspartase catalyzes the reversible conversion of L-aspartate to fumarate and ammonia. Recent studies that made use of deuterium and /sup 15/N isotope effects suggested a carbanion intermediate mechanism in which C-N bond cleavage is rate determining. This could result in removal of a proton from the 3R position of aspartate at a rate of faster than the elimination of ammonia. 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-Aspartate was prepared enzymatically using aspartase from fumarate, ammonia and /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and aspartate isolated via chromatography on Dowex 50W x 8 at pH 1, eluting with 2N pyridine. The rate of /sup 3/H washout from this aspartate was then measured as a function of aspartate concentration and compared to the rate of production of fumarate. Tritium does washout of aspartate at a rate faster than fumarate is formed but the proton is apparently not rapidly equilibrated with solvent. The tritium washout experiments were supplemented using 3R-3(/sup 2/H)-aspartate prepared as above with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O replacing /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and monitoring the appearance of 3R-3(/sup 1/H)-aspartate via /sup 1/H-NMR. Results confirm the tritium washout results. Data are discussed in terms of the carbanion mechanism.

  15. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Today, the potential impact of extremely high floods, which in the last years have become a rather frequent weather-related disaster, is the problem of primary concern. In studies of the potential impact of floods the emphasis is placed first of all on the estimation of possible flood zones and the analysis of the flow regimes in these zones. However, in some cases the hydrochemical parameters related to changes in the chemical composition of water are more important than the hydraulic parameters. It is generally believed that the higher is the flow rate, the more intensive is the process of dissolution, i.e. the lower is the concentration of limiting contaminants in water. However, this statement is valid provided that flooding does not activate new sources of water pollution such as contaminated floodplain water bodies located in the vicinity of water supply systems. Being quite reliable and safe at small and moderate discharges, in the case of extremely high level of river waters they become intensive sources of water pollution, essentially limiting the water consumption schedule for downstream water consumers. It should be noted that compared to the well-studied mechanisms of waste discharge due to failure of hydraulic engineering structures by flood waves, the mechanisms of pollutant washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies by the flood waves is still poorly understood. We analyze the impacts of such weather-related events on the quality of water in the water intake system, taking as an example, the section of the Vyatka River located in the Prikamskaya lowland of the Russian Federation. The risk of river pollution due to washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods is studied by hydrodynamical modeling in the framework of combined approach using one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models are implemented and by in situ measurements. It is shown that during high floods the removal of pollutants from the

  16. Combined measurement of pulmonary inert gas washout and regional ventilation heterogeneity by MR of a single dose of hyperpolarized 3He.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Martin H; Parra-Robles, Juan; Ajraoui, Salma; Wild, Jim M

    2011-04-01

    Washout of inert gases is a measure of pulmonary function well-known in lung physiology. This work presents a method combining inert gas washout and spatially resolved imaging using hyperpolarized (3) He, thus providing complementary information on lung function and physiology. The nuclear magnetic resonance signal of intrapulmonary hyperpolarized (3) He is used to track the total amount of gas present within the lungs during multiple-breath washout via tidal breathing. Before the washout phase, 3D ventilation images are acquired using (3) He magnetic resonance imaging from the same dose of inhaled gas. The measured washout signal is corrected for T(1) relaxation and radiofrequency depletion, converting it into a quantity proportional to the apparent amount of gas within the lungs. The use of a pneumotachograph for acquisition of breathing volumes during washout, together with lung volumes derived from the magnetic resonance imaging data, permits assessment of the washout curves against physiological model predictions for healthy lungs. The shape of the resulting washout curves obtained from healthy volunteers matches the predictions, demonstrating the utility of the technique for the quantitative assessment of lung function. The proposed method can be readily integrated with a standard breath-hold (3) He ventilation imaging sequence, thus providing additional information from a single dose of gas.

  17. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.; Norcross, Jason

    2012-01-01

    When a space suit is used during ground testing, adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), metabolic rate of the subject, and other factors. This test was done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of about 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied between 6, 5, and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored in real time by gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the suit air outlet. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was affected mainly by the metabolic rate of the subject: increased metabolic rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased inspired ppCO2. Decreased air flow caused small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates . 2000 BTU/hr. CO2 washout values of the EM-ACES were slightly but not significantly better than those of the REI suit. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology, and results as well as implications for future

  18. Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy, and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject, and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit, and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit. Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet

  19. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Norcross, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. The objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) across a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice to allow for comparison between tests. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied at 6, 5 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was primarily affected by the metabolic rate of the subject, with increased metabolic rate resulting in increased inspired ppCO2. Suit flow rate also affected inspired ppCO2, with decreased flow causing small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates greater than or equal to 2000 BTU/hr. Results were consistent between suits, with

  20. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Realtime metabolic rate measurements were

  1. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were

  2. Modelling responses of the inert-gas washout and MRI to bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Foy, Brody H; Kay, David; Bordas, Rafel

    2017-01-01

    Many lung diseases lead to an increase in ventilation heterogeneity (VH). Two clinical practices for the measurement of patient VH are in vivo imaging, and the inert gas multiple breath washout (MBW). In this study computational modelling was used to compare the responses of MBW indices LCI and scond and MRI measured global and local ventilation indices, σr and σlocal, to constriction of airways in the conducting zone of the lungs. The simulations show that scond, LCI and σr behave quite similarly to each other, all being sensitive to increases in the severity of constriction, while exhibiting little sensitivity to the depth at which constriction occurs. In contrast, the local MRI index σlocal shows strong sensitivity to depth of constriction, but lowered sensitivity to constriction severity. We finish with an analysis of the sensitivity of MRI indices to grid sizes, showing that results should be interpreted with reference to the image resolution. Overall we conclude that the application of both local and global VH measures may help to classify different types of bronchoconstriction.

  3. CICATRIZATION OF WOUNDS : XI. LATENT PERIOD.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A; du Noüy, P L

    1921-09-30

    1. The latent period of cicatrization varies generally from 5 to 7 days. 2. It stops abruptly and contraction starts with its maximum velocity. 3. The formula of du Noüy applies to the beginning of the contraction period as well as to the subsequent periods.

  4. A RANDOMIZED TREATMENT TRIAL: SINGLE VERSUS 7 DAY DOSE OF METRONIDAZOLE FOR THE TREATMENT OF TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS AMONG HIV-INFECTED WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Kissinger, Patricia; Mena, Leandro; Levison, Judy; Clark, Rebecca A.; Gatski, Megan; Henderson, Harold; Schmidt, Norine; Rosenthal, Susan; Myers, Leann; Martin, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if the metronidazole (MTZ) 2 gm single dose (recommended) is as effective as the 7 day 500 mg BID dose (alternative) for treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV+ women. Methods Phase IV randomized clinical trial; HIV+ women with culture confirmed TV were randomized to treatment arm: MTZ 2 gm single dose or MTZ 500 mg BID 7 day dose. All women were given 2 gm MTZ doses to deliver to their sex partners. Women were re-cultured for TV at a test-of-cure (TOC) visit occurring 6-12 days after treatment completion. TV-negative women at TOC were again re-cultured at a 3 month visit. Repeat TV infection rates were compared between arms. Results 270 HIV+/TV+ women were enrolled (mean age = 40 years, ± 9.4; 92.2% African-American). Treatment arms were similar with respect to age, race, CD4 count, viral load, ART status, site, and loss-to-follow up. Women in the 7 day arm had: lower repeat TV infection rates at TOC [8.5% (11/130) versus 16.8% (21/125) (R.R. 0.50, 95% CI=0.25, 1.00; P<0.05)], and at 3 months [11.0% (8/73) versus 24.1% (19/79) (R.R. 0.46, 95% CI=0.21, 0.98; P=0.03)] compared to the single dose arm. Conclusions The 7 day MTZ dose was more effective than the single dose for the treatment of TV among HIV+ women. PMID:21423852

  5. Special report on the data collection programs for the ground based nitrogen washout experiment. Volume 1: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bueker, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Nitrogen Washout System measures nitrogen elimination on a breath basis from the body tissues of a subject breathing pure oxygen. The system serves as a prototype for a Space Shuttle Life Sciences experiment and in the Environmental Physiology Laboratory. Typically, a subject washes out body nitrogen for three hours while breathing oxygen from a mask enclosed in a positive-pressure oxygen tent. A nitrogen washout requires one test operator and the test subject. A DEC LSI-11/02 computer is used to (1) control and calibrate the mass spectrometer and Skylab spirometer, (2) gather and store experimental data and (3) provide limited real time analysis and more extensive post-experiment analysis. Five programs are used to gather and store the experimental data and perform all the real time control and analysis.

  6. A functional mathematical model to simulate the single-breath nitrogen washout.

    PubMed

    Barbini, Paolo; Brighenti, Chiara; Gnudi, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model is proposed to reproduce and interpret the influence of pulmonary inhomogeneities on the single-breath nitrogen washout (SBNW) curve. The model is characterized by two parallel zones. In each zone, the upper airways are described by a Rohrer resistor. Intermediate airways are represented as a collapsible segment, the volume of which depends on transmural pressure. Smaller airways are described by a resistance which increases when transpulmonary pressure decreases. The respiratory region is modeled as a Voigt element. Three different conditions were simulated: a reference case, characterized by airway-parameter values for normal conditions, and two pathological states corresponding to different levels of disease. In the reference case, a straight line was a good approximation of SBNW phase III and the last point of departure of the nitrogen trace from this line unambiguously identified the onset of phase IV. The slope of phase III rose with disease severity (from a 1.1% increase in nitrogen concentration per 1000 ml of expired volume in the reference case to 3.6% and 7.7% in the pathological cases) and the distinction between phases III and IV became less evident. The results obtained indicate that the slope of phase III depends primarily on nitrogen-concentration differences between lung zones, as determined by different mechanical properties of the respiratory airways. In spite of the simplified representation of the lungs, the similarity of the simulation results to actual data suggests that the proposed model describes important physiological mechanisms underlying changes observed during SBNW in normal and pathological patients.

  7. A Functional Mathematical Model to Simulate the Single-Breath Nitrogen Washout

    PubMed Central

    Barbini, Paolo; Brighenti, Chiara; Gnudi, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model is proposed to reproduce and interpret the influence of pulmonary inhomogeneities on the single-breath nitrogen washout (SBNW) curve. The model is characterized by two parallel zones. In each zone, the upper airways are described by a Rohrer resistor. Intermediate airways are represented as a collapsible segment, the volume of which depends on transmural pressure. Smaller airways are described by a resistance which increases when transpulmonary pressure decreases. The respiratory region is modeled as a Voigt element. Three different conditions were simulated: a reference case, characterized by airway-parameter values for normal conditions, and two pathological states corresponding to different levels of disease. In the reference case, a straight line was a good approximation of SBNW phase III and the last point of departure of the nitrogen trace from this line unambiguously identified the onset of phase IV. The slope of phase III rose with disease severity (from a 1.1% increase in nitrogen concentration per 1000 ml of expired volume in the reference case to 3.6% and 7.7% in the pathological cases) and the distinction between phases III and IV became less evident. The results obtained indicate that the slope of phase III depends primarily on nitrogen-concentration differences between lung zones, as determined by different mechanical properties of the respiratory airways. In spite of the simplified representation of the lungs, the similarity of the simulation results to actual data suggests that the proposed model describes important physiological mechanisms underlying changes observed during SBNW in normal and pathological patients. PMID:24044025

  8. The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Avagyan, Rozanna; Hongyu, Ren; Östman, Conny

    2016-02-01

    In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 μg/g (median 0.44 μg/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 μg/g (median 0.21 μg/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.

  9. Diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence: Combination of penile xenon-133 washout and papaverine tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.N.; Liu, R.S.; Yu, P.C.; Chang, L.S.; Yeh, S.H.; Kuo, J.S.

    1989-07-01

    The present study evaluates both penile xenon-133 washout (XWT) and papaverine tests (PT) in the diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence. XWT was accomplished by subcutaneous injection of xenon-133 (1-2 mCi in 0.1 mL saline solution) into the dorsal coronal prepuce. Abnormal XWT was suggested in patients whose clearance time (T1/2) was longer than 7.5 minutes and whose penile blood flow rate (Q) was less than 6 mL/100 g tissue/min. PT was done by intracavernous injection of papaverine (60 mg in 20 mL normal saline). Abnormal PT was indicated in patients whose onset of full erection was more than ten minutes after papaverine injection and whose duration of erection was less than one hour. Ten young and 11 older normal volunteers were examined with XWT only; all showed normal results. A total of 60 impotent patients were examined with both XWT and PT and were classified into four groups: in 2 patients (3.3%) both XWT and PT were normal (group I); in 8 (13.3%) XWT was abnormal and PT normal (group II); in 14 (23.3%) XWT was normal and PT abnormal (group III); and in 36 (60%) both XWT and PT were abnormal (group IV). On further examination with bilateral hypogastric arteriography in 10 XWT-abnormal patients and on surgical correction of abnormal curvature in 5 XWT-abnormal patients, all (100%) were proved to have penile arterial insufficiency. Erection cavernosography performed in 15 PT-abnormal patients confirmed penile venous insufficiency in 80 percent. We conclude both XWT and PT are simple and effective for evaluation of the penile arterial blood flow and venous competence, respectively.

  10. Technical Note: Implementation of biological washout processes within GATE/GEANT4—A Monte Carlo study in the case of carbon therapy treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Rovira, I. Jouvie, C.; Jan, S.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The imaging of positron emitting isotopes produced during patient irradiation is the only in vivo method used for hadrontherapy dose monitoring in clinics nowadays. However, the accuracy of this method is limited by the loss of signal due to the metabolic decay processes (biological washout). In this work, a generic modeling of washout was incorporated into the GATE simulation platform. Additionally, the influence of the washout on the β{sup +} activity distributions in terms of absolute quantification and spatial distribution was studied. Methods: First, the irradiation of a human head phantom with a {sup 12}C beam, so that a homogeneous dose distribution was achieved in the tumor, was simulated. The generated {sup 11}C and {sup 15}O distribution maps were used as β{sup +} sources in a second simulation, where the PET scanner was modeled following a detailed Monte Carlo approach. The activity distributions obtained in the presence and absence of washout processes for several clinical situations were compared. Results: Results show that activity values are highly reduced (by a factor of 2) in the presence of washout. These processes have a significant influence on the shape of the PET distributions. Differences in the distal activity falloff position of 4 mm are observed for a tumor dose deposition of 1 Gy (T{sub ini} = 0 min). However, in the case of high doses (3 Gy), the washout processes do not have a large effect on the position of the distal activity falloff (differences lower than 1 mm). The important role of the tumor washout parameters on the activity quantification was also evaluated. Conclusions: With this implementation, GATE/GEANT 4 is the only open-source code able to simulate the full chain from the hadrontherapy irradiation to the PET dose monitoring including biological effects. Results show the strong impact of the washout processes, indicating that the development of better models and measurement of biological washout data are

  11. In vitro and in vivo studies of boron neutron capture therapy: boron uptake/washout and cell death.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, C; Bakeine, J; Ballarini, F; Boninella, A; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Coppola, A; Di Liberto, R; Dionigi, P; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S

    2011-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy based on thermal-neutron irradiation of cells enriched with (10)B, which produces α particles and (7)Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness. The selective uptake of boron by tumor cells is a crucial issue for BNCT, and studies of boron uptake and washout associated with cell survival studies can be of great help in developing clinical applications. In this work, boron uptake and washout were characterized both in vitro for the DHDK12TRb (DHD) rat colon carcinoma cell line and in vivo using rats bearing liver metastases from DHD cells. Despite a remarkable uptake, a large boron release was observed after removal of the boron-enriched medium from in vitro cell cultures. However, analysis of boron washout after rat liver perfusion in vivo did not show a significant boron release, suggesting that organ perfusion does not limit the therapeutic effectiveness of the treatment. The survival of boron-loaded cells exposed to thermal neutrons was also assessed; the results indicated that the removal of extracellular boron does not limit treatment effectiveness if adequate amounts of boron are delivered and if the cells are kept at low temperature. Cell survival was also investigated theoretically using a mechanistic model/Monte Carlo code originally developed for radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and extended here to cell death; good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental data was obtained.

  12. Comparison of a linear and a nonlinear washout for motion simulators utilizing objective and subjective data from CTOL transport landing approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Martin, D. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Objective and subjective data gathered in the processes of comparing a linear and a nonlinear washout for motion simulators reveal that there is no difference in the pilot performance measurements used during instrument landing system (ILS) approaches with a Boeing 737 conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) airplane between fixed base, linear washout, and nonlinear washout operations. However, the subjective opinions of the pilots reveal an important advance in motion cue presentation. The advance is not in the increased cue available over a linear filter for the same amount of motion base travel but rather in the elimination of false rotational rate cues presented by linear filters.

  13. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  14. Continuous accelerated 7-days-a-week radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Long-term results of Phase III clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof . E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Golen, Maria; Tarnawski, Rafal; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Suwinski, Rafal; Sygula, Mariusz; Wygoda, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To update 5-year results of a previously published study on special 7-days-a-week fractionation continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in Stage T{sub 2-4}N{sub 0-1}M were randomized between two definitive radiation treatments: accelerated fractionation 7 days a week including weekends (CAIR) and conventional 5 days a week (control). Hence the overall treatment time was 2 weeks shorter in CAIR. Results: Five-year local tumor control was 75% in the CAIR group and 33% in the control arm (p < 0.00004). Tumor-cure benefit corresponded with significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with the incidence significantly higher in CAIR patients than in control (respectively, 94% vs. 53%). When 2.0-Gy fractions were used, radiation necrosis developed in 5 patients (22%) in the CAIR group as a consequential late effect (CLE), but when fraction size was reduced to 1.8 Gy no more CLE occurred. Actuarial 5-year morbidity-free survival rate was similar for both treatments. Conclusions: Selected head-and-neck cancer patients could be treated very effectively with 7-days-a-week radiation schedule with no compromise of total dose and with slight 10% reduction of fraction dose (2 Gy-1.8 Gy), which article gives 1 week reduction of overall treatment time compared with standard 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 47-49 days. Although this report is based on the relatively small group of patients, its results have encouraged us to use CAIR fractionation in a standard radiation treatment for moderately advanced head-and-neck cancer patients.

  15. Effect of variability in the 7-day baseline pain diary on the assay sensitivity of neuropathic pain randomized clinical trials: an ACTTION study.

    PubMed

    Farrar, John T; Troxel, Andrea B; Haynes, Kevin; Gilron, Ian; Kerns, Robert D; Katz, Nathaniel P; Rappaport, Bob A; Rowbotham, Michael C; Tierney, Ann M; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    The degree of variability in the patient baseline 7-day diary of pain ratings has been hypothesized to have a potential effect on the assay sensitivity of randomized clinical trials of pain therapies. To address this issue, we obtained clinical trial data from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership, and harmonized patient level data from 12 clinical trials (4 gabapentin and 8 pregabalin) in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Models were developed using exploratory logistic regression to examine the interaction between available baseline factors and treatment (placebo vs active medication) in predicting patient response to therapy (ie, >30% improvement). Our analysis demonstrated an increased likelihood of response in the placebo-treated group for patients with a higher standard deviation in the baseline 7-day diary without affecting the likelihood of a response in the active medication-treated group, confirming our hypothesis. In addition, there was a small but significant age-by-treatment interaction in the PHN model, and small weight-by-treatment interaction in the DPN model. The patient's sex, baseline pain level, and the study protocol had an effect only on the likelihood of response overall. Our results suggest the possibility that, at least in some disease processes, excluding patients with a highly variable baseline 7-day diary has the potential to improve the assay sensitivity of these analgesic clinical trials, although reductions of external validity must be considered when increasing the homogeneity of the investigated sample.

  16. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity.

  17. Washout rate in rat brain irradiated by a 11C beam after acetazolamide loading using a small single-ring OpenPET prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-03-01

    In dose verification techniques of particle therapies based on in-beam positron emission tomography (PET), the causes of washout of positron emitters by physiological effects should be clarified to correct washout for accurate verification. As well, the quantitative washout rate has a potential usefulness as a diagnostic index which should be explored. Therefore, we measured washout rates of rat brain after vasodilator acetazolamide loading to investigate the possible effects of blood flow on washout. Six rat brains were irradiated by a radioisotope 11C beam and time activity curves on the whole brains were obtained with a small single-ring OpenPET prototype. Then, washout rates were calculated with the Mizuno model, where two washout rates (k 2m and k 2s ) were assumed, and a two-compartment model including efflux from tissue to blood (k 2) and influx (k 3) and efflux (k 4) between the two tissue compartments. Before the irradiations, we used laser-Doppler flowmetry to confirm that acetazolamide increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) of a rat. We compared means of k 2m , k 2s and k 2, k 3 and k 4 without acetazolamide loading (Rest) and with acetazolamide loading (ACZ). For all k values, ACZ values were lower than Rest values. In other words, though CBF increased, washout rates were decreased. This may be attributed to the implanted 11C reacting to form 11CO2. Because acetazolamide increased the concentration of CO2 in brain, suppressed diffusion of 11CO2 and decomposition of 11CO2 into ions were prevented.

  18. Reverse and pseudo redistribution of thallium-201 in healed myocardial infarction and normal and negative thallium-201 washout in ischemia due to background oversubtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, J.L.; Raff, U.; Jain, R.

    1988-09-15

    While the interpolative background subtraction used in quantitative planar thallium scanning can significantly overestimate the background overlying the heart, the effects of background oversubtraction on quantitative analysis have not been well defined. A mathematical model that relates myocardial washout determined using interpolative background subtraction to true myocardial washout is presented. The model was validated using phantoms and applied to myocardial and pulmonary thallium kinetic data in 100 patients, 85 with and 15 without coronary artery disease. The model showed that when using interpolative background subtraction, measured washout equals true washout in normally perfused myocardium; however, depending on the relation between myocardial and pulmonary thallium clearance, myocardial washout in ischemic regions and areas of infarction can be substantially over- or underestimated. Based on generally accepted quantitative criteria, this incorrect washout determination can at times lead to misdiagnosis of infarction as ischemia and ischemia as normally perfused tissue. It can also cause both ''reverse redistribution'' and ''pseudo redistribution'' of thallium in myocardial infarction in the absence of a physiologic basis.

  19. 1980 Volvo award winner in basic science. Nutritional pathways of the intervertebral disc. An experimental study using hydrogen washout technique.

    PubMed

    Ogata, K; Whiteside, L A

    1981-01-01

    The pathways of material transfer to the intervertebral disc were studied in adult dogs by measuring diffusion of hydrogen molecules in the nucleus pulposus before and after disruption of the route through the annulus fibrosus and before and after disruption of the end-plate route. The interfaces was only in the central two-thirds of one side, caused significantly greater decrease in the rate of hydrogen washout than the disruption of the annulus route. Histologically, the bone-cartilage interface was frequently perforated by marrow cavity and vascular buds. These findings suggest that the end-plate route is a major pathway for material transfer to the intervertebral disc.

  20. [Effect of mechanic stimulation of foot support zones during 7-day dry immersion on alterations of ocular saccades kinematics associated with immersion].

    PubMed

    Zobova, L N; Miller, N V; Badakva, A M

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the investigation was to evaluate how daily sessions of mechanic stimulation (MS) of foot support zones applied to mitigate the effects of lack of support loading on the postural muscles influence ocular saccades during prolonged support deprivation. According to the experimental protocol, before and immediately after 7-day dry immersion, 4 control and 4 MC human subjects (experimental group) implemented the test of rapid blanking light target appearing on the visual field periphery. Eye motions were detected using infrared images obtained at 200 Hz. Analysis of normalized and consolidated data showed that MC of foot support zones moderated significantly alterations in ocular saccade kinematics associated with support load deprivation confirmed by recruitment of support afferentation in sensory input to mechanisms of ocular saccade generation.

  1. Biodistribution of PLGA and PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles after repeat-dose oral delivery in F344 rats for 7 days

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sara M; Darensbourg, Caleb; Cross, Linda; Stout, Rhett; Coulon, Diana; Astete, Carlos E; Morgan, Timothy; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Aim To quantify in vivo the biodistribution of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles (PLGA/Chi NPs) and assess if the positive charge of chitosan significantly enhances nanoparticle absorption in the GI tract. Material & methods PLGA and PLGA/Chi NPs covalently linked to tetramethylrhodamine-5-isothiocyanate (TRITC) were orally administered to F344 rats for 7 days, and the biodistribution of fluorescent NPs was analyzed in different organs. Results The highest amount of particles (% total dose/g) was detected for both treatments in the spleen, followed by intestine and kidney, and then by liver, lung, heart and brain, with no significant difference between PLGA and PLGA/Chi NPs. Conclusion Only a small percentage of orally delivered NPs was detected in the analyzed organs. The positive charge conferred by chitosan was not sufficient to improve the absorption of the PLGA/Chi NPs over that of PLGA NPs. PMID:25491670

  2. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus confers complete clinical protection in 7 days and partial protection in 4 days: Use in emergency outbreak response.

    PubMed

    Golde, William T; Pacheco, Juan M; Duque, Hernando; Doel, Timothy; Penfold, Barry; Ferman, Geoffrey S; Gregg, Douglas R; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2005-12-30

    Recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) demonstrate that this highly contagious viral infection of cloven hoofed animals continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Debate about the most effective way to respond to outbreaks of FMDV in disease free countries continues to center on the use of vaccines. In this report, we present data showing that a commercially available, standard dose vaccine formulation can fully protect cattle against direct challenge with the virus in as little as 7 days with no carrier transmission to naïve animals. Cattle challenged 4 days after vaccination have reduced disease severity, no detectable virus in blood and little virus shedding from nasal secretions. These significant effects at 4 days post vaccination, confirmed in two separate trials, support the value of using currently available vaccines as a first line of defense against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks.

  3. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkies, Krystyna; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  4. Visualization of inert gas wash-out during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation using fluorine-19 MRI.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ursula; Scholz, Alexander; Terekhov, Maxim; Koebrich, Rainer; David, Matthias; Schreiber, Laura Maria

    2010-11-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation is looked upon as a lung-protective ventilation strategy. For a further clarification of the physical processes promoting gas transport, a visualization of gas flow and the distribution of ventilation are of considerable interest. Therefore, fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging of the imaging gas octafluorocyclobutane (C(4) F(8) ) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation was performed in five healthy pigs. For that, a mutually compatible ventilation-imaging system was set up and transverse images were acquired every 5 sec using FLASH sequences on a 1.5 T scanner. Despite a drop in signal-to-noise ratio after the onset of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, for each pig, the four experiments could be analyzed. A mean wash-out time (τ) at 5 Hz of 52.7 ± 18 sec and 125.9 ± 39 sec at 10 Hz, respectively, were found for regions of interest including the whole lung. This is in agreement with the clinical findings, in that wash-out of respiratory gases is significantly prolonged for increased high-frequency oscillatory ventilation frequencies. Our study could be a good starting-point for a further optimization of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

  5. Results from Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus with a Space Suit Ventilation Test Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; Kanne, Bryan; McMillin, Summer; Vonau, Walt; Swickrath, Mike

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) to meet the needs of a new NASA advanced space suit. The PLSS is one of the most critical aspects of the space suit providing the necessary oxygen, ventilation, and thermal protection for an astronaut performing a spacewalk. The ventilation subsystem in the PLSS must provide sufficient carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and ensure that the CO2 is washed away from the oronasal region of the astronaut. CO2 washout is a term used to describe the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the astronaut. Accumulation of CO2 in the helmet or throughout the ventilation loop could cause the suited astronaut to experience hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide in the blood). A suited manikin test apparatus (SMTA) integrated with a space suit ventilation test loop was designed, developed, and assembled at NASA in order to experimentally validate adequate CO2 removal throughout the PLSS ventilation subsystem and to quantify CO2 washout performance under various conditions. The test results from this integrated system will be used to validate analytical models and augment human testing. This paper presents the system integration of the PLSS ventilation test loop with the SMTA including the newly developed regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine component used for CO2 removal and tidal breathing capability to emulate the human. The testing and analytical results of the integrated system are presented along with future work.

  6. Preparation of hydroxyapatite/collagen injectable bone paste with an anti-washout property utilizing sodium alginate. Part 1: influences of excess supplementation of calcium compounds.

    PubMed

    Sato, Taira; Kikuchi, Masanori; Aizawa, Mamoru

    2017-03-01

    The anti-washout property, viscosity, and cytocompatibility to an osteoblastic cell line, MG-63, of anti-washout pastes were investigated. Mixing a hydroxyapatite/collagen bone-like nanocomposite (HAp/Col), an aqueous solution of sodium alginate (Na-Alg), which is a paste hardening and lubricant agent, and supplementation of calcium carbonate or calcium citrate (Ca-Cit) as a calcium resource for the hardening reaction realized an injectable bone paste. Adding Ca-Cit at a concentration greater than eight times the Ca(2+) ion concentration to Na-Alg improved the anti-washout property. Although the viscosity test indicated a gradual increase in the paste viscosity as the calcium compounds increased, pastes with excess supplementation of calcium compounds exhibited injectability through a syringe with a 1.8 mm inner diameter, realizing an injectable bone filler. Furthermore, the anti-washout pastes with Ca-Cit had almost the same cell proliferation rate as that of the HAp/Col dense body. Therefore, HAp/Col injectable anti-washout pastes composed of the HAp/Col, Na-Alg, and Ca-Cit are potential candidates for bioresorbable bone filler pastes.

  7. Characterization of an artificial valve flow using the numerical dye washout visualization technique: application to the monoleaflet valve with purged flow.

    PubMed

    Goubergrits, Leonid; Timmel, Tobias; Affeld, Klaus; Petz, Christoph; Stalling, Detlev; Hege, Hans Christian

    2006-08-01

    Until today, no ideal heart valve prosthesis for the replacement of a diseased natural valve or for use in ventricular assist devices exists. Valves still cause thromboembolic complications originating from thrombus formations in the valve's stagnant zones. Optimization of valve design involves avoiding stagnation zones and zones of high shear stresses. This requires detailed flow field investigations. Usually, the regions which are more prone to thrombus formation can be estimated using a dye washout experiment. The method allows an assessment of regions with a high or low residence time that may in turn predict regions with a corresponding thrombus risk. This successful experimental method was simulated using numerical methods with a combination of the computational fluid dynamics program FLUENT (Fluent Inc., Lebanon, NH, USA) and of the visualization tool AMIRA (TGS Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). The numerical dye washout visualization was applied to four monoleaflet valves with varying valve housing geometries. The results show a significant difference in the washout processes of the examined valves. The dye washout was characterized by a time course of the gray value averaged over a defined region of interest. Finally, these curves were quantified by a half dye time. The half dye time in the best optimized valve was only 0.2753 s. The same time in the original valve was 0.6834 s. This study shows that the proposed numerical method of dye washout visualization can be used as an additional tool of the flow characterization in artificial organs.

  8. Fosfomycin in a single dose versus a 7-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Estebanez, A; Pascual, R; Gil, V; Ortiz, F; Santibáñez, M; Pérez Barba, C

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the efficacy of a single dose of 3 g of fosfomycin to that of a 7-day regimen of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A randomised, prospective, interventional, analytical, longitudinal study was undertaken, in which the efficacy of two antibiotic regimens (one short and the other long) in the treatment of pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria is compared. One hundred and nine patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 56 were treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate and 53 with fosfomycin. The two groups were similar in terms of co-morbidity, treatments received during pregnancy, obstetric, gynaecological and surgical history and laboratory data. The efficacy of the two regimens was similar and the eradication rate was over 80% in both groups (P = 0.720) (relative risk [RR] 1.195, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.451-3.165). The number of reinfections was greater in the amoxicillin-clavulanate group (P = 0.045). The secondary effects were lower in the fosfomycin group (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in the number of persistences (P = 0.39), development of symptomatic urinary infections (P = 0.319) or recurrences (P = 0.96). Treatment with a single dose of fosfomycin is as effective as the standard course of treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate and may be preferable due to its simpler administration and the smaller number of reinfections.

  9. [Effect of water-salt dietary supplements on tolerance to head-pelvis acceleration after 7 days of "dry" immersion and during normal motor activity].

    PubMed

    Kokova, N I

    1984-01-01

    The effect of water-salt supplements as an agent increasing human tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration with a slow onset was examined. The test subjects were rotated in a 7.25 m arm centrifuge after 7-day dry immersion or normal motor activity. The water-salt supplements were given at a dose of 0.15 g NaCl and 18 ml water per kg body weight (with the total daily dose consumed in four fractions). During immersion fluid retention was significantly higher than during normal activity (818 +/- 139.7 ml versus 478 +/- 69 ml). Water-salt supplements consumed produced a positive effect on tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration. During centrifugation after water-salt supplementation the physiological responses were less strained. Water-salt supplements taken on the last immersion day increased the tolerance level as compared to the control. The amount of the fluid retained in the body was found to be inversely proportional to the tolerance level. It is concluded that water-salt supplements may be recommended to increase tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration in aerospace medicine.

  10. Calcitonin measurement in fine-needle aspirate washouts vs. cytologic examination for diagnosis of primary or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Crea, C; Raffaelli, M; Maccora, D; Carrozza, C; Canu, G; Fadda, G; Bellantone, R; Lombardi, C P

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C) is able to detect approximately 63% of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The measurement of calcitonin in the needle washout (FNAB-CT) could improve its accuracy. Sixty-two FNAB-C were performed in 38 patients. Serum calcitonin (sCT) was measured before performing FNAB-C. After obtaining a FNAB-C specimen, the needle was washed with 0.5 ml of saline solution to obtain the CT washouts. Receiver operating characteristic (RO C) analysis identified the cut-offs of FNAB-CT and FNAB-CT/sCT. Eighteen MTC were found at final histology. RO C analysis indicated FNAB-CT > 10.4 pg/ml and FNABCT/ sCT > 1.39 as more accurate cut-off values. Overall accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 85%, 100 and 83%, respectively, for FNAB-C, 97%, 100%, 96% for FNAB-CT and 90%, 83% and 93% for FNAB-CT/sCT. The integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT resulted in 98% overall accuracy, 100% PPV and 98% NPV; the integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT/sCT in 90% overall accuracy, 80% PPV and 95% NPV. One of 2 false negative FNAB-CT and one of 3 false negative FNAB CT/sCT were correctly diagnosed by FNAB-C. Eight of 9 non-diagnostic FNAB-C were correctly classified by FNAB-CT and 7 by FNAB CT/sCT. FNAB-CT should integrate but not replace FNAB-C. FNAB-CT is particularly useful in the presence of non-diagnostic FNAB-C.

  11. The effect of gas exchange on multiple-breath nitrogen washout measures of ventilation inhomogeneity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Dharmakumara, Mahesh; Prisk, G Kim; Royce, Simon G; Tawhai, Merryn; Thompson, Bruce R

    2014-11-01

    Inert-gas washout measurements using oxygen, in the lungs of small animals, are complicated by the continuous process of oxygen consumption (V̇o2). The multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) technique uses the alveolar slope to determine measures of ventilation inhomogeneity in the acinar (Sacin) and conducting (Scond) airway regions, as well as overall inhomogeneity, as determined by the lung clearance index (LCI). We hypothesized that measured ventilation inhomogeneity in the mouse lung while it is alive is in fact an artifact due to the high V̇o2 in proportion to alveolar gas volume (Va), and not ventilation inhomogeneity per se. In seven male C57BL/6 mice, MBNW was performed alive and postmortem to derive measures with and without the effect of gas exchange, respectively. These results were compared with those obtained from an asymmetric multibranch point mathematical model of the mouse lung. There was no statistical difference in Sacin and LCI between alive and postmortem results (Sacin alive = 0.311 ± 0.043 ml(-1) and Sacin postmortem = 0.338 ± 0.032 ml(-1), LCI alive = 7.0 ± 0.1 and LCI postmortem = 7.0 ± 0.1). However, there was a significant decrease in Scond from 0.086 ± 0.005 ml(-1) alive to 0.006 ± 0.002 ml(-1) postmortem (P < 0.01). Model simulations replicated these results. Furthermore, in the model, as V̇o2 increased, so did the alveolar slope. These findings suggests that the MBNW measurement of Scond in the mouse lung is confounded by the effect of gas exchange, a result of the high V̇o2-to-Va ratio in this small animal, and not due to inhomogeneity within the airways.

  12. Comparison of follicular dynamics and hormone concentrations between the 7-day and 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR program in primiparous beef cows.

    PubMed

    Bridges, G A; Mussard, M L; Helser, L A; Day, M L

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to compare follicular dynamics, preovulatory estradiol concentrations, and progesterone concentrations between the 7-day (7CO, n = 15) and 5-day (5CO, n = 13) CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) program in primiparous suckled beef cows. On Day -7 (7CO) or Day -5 (5CO), GnRH (100 μg) was administered (GnRH-1) and a CIDR was inserted. On Day 0, hour 0, CIDR was removed and cows received PGF2α (25 mg) at hours 0 and 12. Animals were administered GnRH (100 μg, GnRH-2) at either hour 60 (7CO) or 72 (5CO). Follicular growth and ovulation to both GnRH-1 and GnRH-2 were evaluated using ultrasonography. Concentrations of estradiol were determined in blood samples taken at hours 0, 36, 60, and 72 (5CO). Blood samples were collected on Days 5, 8, and 14 for progesterone quantification. Ovulation rate to GnRH-1 did not differ between the 7CO (11/15) and 5CO (8/13) treatments, and for all dependent variables the statistical model included treatment, ovulation to GnRH-1, and their interaction. Diameter (mm) of the ovulatory follicle did not differ between treatments (13.4 ± 0.3) but was greater (P < 0.05) in cows that responded to GnRH-1 (13.8 ± 0.3) than those did not (12.6 ± 0.6). Maximum estradiol concentrations tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in the 5CO (7.3 ± 0.5 pg/mL) than 7CO (6.1 ± 0.7 pg/mL) treatment and tended to be greater (P = 0.08) in cows that responded to GnRH-1 (7.1 ± 0.5 pg/mL) than those did not (5.6 ± 0.9 pg/mL). Three cows in the 7CO treatment failed to develop a CL after GnRH-2. There was a treatment by response to GnRH-1 interaction (P < 0.05) for progesterone concentrations. In cows that did not respond to GnRH-1 in the 7CO treatment, progesterone concentrations were less (P < 0.05) than in those that responded to GnRH-1 in the 7CO treatment and tended (P = 0.09) to be less than in cows in the 5CO treatment that did not respond to GnRH-1. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that failure to

  13. A phase I trial of the selective oral cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor seliciclib (CYC202; R-Roscovitine), administered twice daily for 7 days every 21 days

    PubMed Central

    Benson, C; White, J; Bono, J De; O'Donnell, A; Raynaud, F; Cruickshank, C; McGrath, H; Walton, M; Workman, P; Kaye, S; Cassidy, J; Gianella-Borradori, A; Judson, I; Twelves, C

    2006-01-01

    Seliciclib (CYC202; R-roscovitine) is the first selective, orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 1, 2, 7 and 9 to enter clinical trial. Preclinical studies showed antitumour activity in a broad range of human tumour xenografts. A phase I trial was performed with a 7-day b.i.d. p.o. schedule. Twenty-one patients (median age 62 years, range: 39–73 years) were treated with doses of 100, 200 and 800 b.i.d. Dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 800 mg b.i.d.; grade 3 fatigue, grade 3 skin rash, grade 3 hyponatraemia and grade 4 hypokalaemia. Other toxicities included reversible raised creatinine (grade 2), reversible grade 3 abnormal liver function and grade 2 emesis. An 800 mg portion was investigated further in 12 patients, three of whom had MAG3 renograms. One patient with a rapid increase in creatinine on day 3 had a reversible fall in renal perfusion, with full recovery by day 14, and no changes suggestive of renal tubular damage. Further dose escalation was precluded by hypokalaemia. Seliciclib reached peak plasma concentrations between 1 and 4 h and elimination half-life was 2–5 h. Inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation was not demonstrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. No objective tumour responses were noted, but disease stabilisation was recorded in eight patients; this lasted for a total of six courses (18 weeks) in a patient with ovarian cancer. PMID:17179992

  14. Trichilia monadelpha bark extracts inhibit carrageenan-induced foot-oedema in the 7-day old chick and the oedema associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ainooson, G K; Owusu, G; Woode, E; Ansah, C; Annan, K

    2012-01-01

    Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Meliaceae) bark extract is used in African traditional medicine for the management of various disease conditions including inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. monadelpha using the 7-day old chick-carrageenan footpad oedema (acute inflammation) and the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (chronic inflammation). TWE and TPEE significantly inhibited the chick-carrageenan footpad oedema with maximal inhibitions of 57.79±3.92 and 63.83±12 respectively, but TAE did not. The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of 64.92±2.03 and 71.85±15.34 respectively. Furthermore, all the extracts and the reference anti-inflammatory agents (diclofenac, dexamethasone, methotrexate) inhibited the inflammatory oedema associated with adjuvant arthritis with maximal inhibitions of 64.41±5.56, 57.04±8.57, 62.18±2.56%, for TWE, TAE and TPEE respectively and 80.28±5.79, 85.75±2.96, 74.68±3.03% for diclofenac, dexamethasone and methotrexate respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant bark confirmed the presence of a large array of plant constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids, all of which may be potential sources of phyto-antiinflammatory agents. In conclusion, our work suggests that T. monadelpha is a potential source of antiinflammatory agents.

  15. The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): reliability and validity against doubly labeled water and 7-day activity diaries.

    PubMed

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Neilson, Heather K; Kopciuk, Karen A; Khandwala, Farah; Liu, Andrew; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Bryant, Heather E; Lau, David C W; Robson, Paula J

    2014-08-15

    We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009-2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ρs of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE.

  16. Concentrations of dapivirine in the rhesus macaque and rabbit following once daily intravaginal administration of a gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Jeremy P; Thake, Daryl C; Lewis, Mark G; Ferkany, John W; Romano, Joseph W; Mitchnick, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    Dapivirine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being developed as a topical microbicide for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The distribution of radioactivity and drug in plasma and in vaginal, cervical, and draining lymph node tissues was investigated after daily application of a vaginal gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine to rhesus macaques. This was preceded by a preliminary study with rabbits. Following the intravaginal administration of [14C]dapivirine ( approximately 0.1 mg/ml [15 microCi/ml]) to rabbits (0.5 ml/day) and macaques (1 ml/day) for 7 days, the dapivirine levels associated with vaginal and cervical tissue samples 1 h after the final dose were high (quantities of microg/g of tissue) and remained detectable at 24 h (mean, >or=2.5 ng/g in rabbits) and 48 h (mean, >80 ng/g in macaques). Radioactivity levels were low in the plasma and very low or unquantifiable in the draining lymph nodes of the macaques. Microautoradiography identified drug-related material (DRM) on the surfaces of the vaginal and cervical tissues of the rabbits and macaques. Although DRM was primarily associated with the outermost layer of shedding cells in rabbits, two animals showed some evidence of small quantities in the mucosal epithelium of the cervix. In macaques, DRM was seen within the keratinized layer of the vaginal epithelium and and was found to extend into the superficial cellular layers, and in at least one animal it appeared to be present in the deepest (germinal) layer of the epithelium and in submucosal tissues. The persistence of biologically significant concentrations of dapivirine in vaginal and cervical tissues for >24 h supports the development of dapivirine as a microbicide for once daily application.

  17. Special Report on the Data Collection Programs for the Ground Based Nitrogen Washout Experiment. Volume 2 - Detailed Program Descriptions, Listings, Examples and Hardware Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Personal data input, decompression data, nitrogen washout, nitrogen data, and update computer programs are described. Input data and formats; program output, reports, and data; program flowcharts; program listings; sample runs with input and output pages; hardware operation; and engineering data are provided.

  18. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Azevedo, Bruna Fernades; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  19. Risk assessment for the Explosive Washout Lagoons (Site 4), Umatilla Depot Activity Hermiston, Oregon. Final report, Mar 91-Mar 92

    SciTech Connect

    Leinbach, A.; Enright, A.M.; Eaton, W.; Lemont, S.

    1992-03-01

    This document is the Risk Assessment (RA) for the Explosive Washout Lagoons (Site 4) at Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA). The purpose of this RA is to address the potential future health risks posed by explosives-contaminated soil and groundwater associated with Site 4 in the absence of remediation, and to identify safe residual explosives concentrations (remedial action criteria) in soil if remediation is determined to be a requirement. This RA is not intended to address the remediation of contaminated groundwater; contaminated groundwater is addressed only to the extent that contaminants in Site 4 soil are affecting groundwater quality. The potential remediation of contaminated groundwater will be addressed in the installation-wide Baseline RA for UMDA. Based on the available data, explosives contamination appears to be widespread in soil near the lagoons and in groundwater at distances of over 650 yards from the lagoons. Three future land use scenarios-residential, light industrial, and military-and four potential future exposure pathways-soil ingestion, dust inhalation, dermal contact with soil, and groundwater ingestion-were evaluated in the RA to estimate potential future carcinogenic hazards. The results of RA indicate that remediation may be a requirement for soil at Site 4; therefore, remedial action criteria for soil were developed.

  20. Effect of elastase or histamine on single-breath N/sub 2/ washouts in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Likens, S.A.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method for performing single-breath N/sub 2/ washouts (SBNW) in rats was developed and the test's usefulness was studied using two experimentally induced models of lung disease. Rats were anesthetized, intubated with oral tracheal and esophageal catheters, and tested by plethysmography. The SBNW expirogram was recorded during exhalation after inhaling 100% O/sub 2/ from residual volume. The slope of phase III (slope III), closing volume (CV), and closing capacity (CC) were calculated. Changes in the SBNW expirogram were compared with changes in breathing pattern, dynamic and quasistatic lung mechanics, lung volumes, and forced expiratory indices. Pre- and postinstillation tests were performed on rats treated with elastase or histamine and on untreated controls. The SBNW indices were altered at significance levels equal to those of other indices of lung function, and different patterns of change were induced by the two disease models. Elastase increased CV and CC, but slope III was unchanged. Other tests suggested loss of elastic recoil and expiratory flow limitation. Histamine increased slope III, but CV and CC were unchanged. Other tests suggested large airway constriction. These results suggested the usefulness of the SBNW in rats, but the relationships between SBNW changes and underlying physiological phenomena remain to be defined.

  1. 36 CFR 223.81 - Shorter advertising periods in emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shorter advertising periods... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.81 Shorter advertising... officer may authorize shortening the formal advertising period to not less than 7 days. In other...

  2. Prevalence of Shunt Dependency and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Massive Intraventricular Haemorrhage Treated with Endoscopic Washout and External Ventricular Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jason Raj; Idris, Zamzuri; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Alias, Azmi; Haspani, Mohammad Saffari Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) causes blockage of ventricular conduits leading to hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and a reduced level of consciousness. The current standard management of IVH is insertion of an external ventricular drainage (EVD) catheter. However, this procedure addresses only the problems of acute hydrocephalus and raised ICP. Endoscopic washout allows for a more complete removal of the intraventricular clot. This study compared these two types of treatment in terms of shunt dependency and relevant clinical outcomes. Methods Patients who were 10–80 years old and presented with a Graeb score of more than six were randomised into endoscopic washout and EVD treatment groups. A CT brain was repeated on each patient within 24 hours after surgery, and if a patient’s Graeb score was still more than six, a repeat endoscopic washout was performed to clear the remaining clots. All patients were monitored for shunt dependency at two weeks and three months, and clinical outcomes were measured at six months after the procedure. Results A total of 39 patients were recruited; 19 patients were randomised into the endoscopic washout group, and 20 were randomised into the EVD group. However, three patients in the endoscopic group refused that treatment and opted for EVD insertion. Patients treated with endoscopic washout had significantly less drainage dependency at two weeks (P < 0.005) and at three months (P < 0.004) as compared to patients in the external ventricular drainage group. The reduction in Graeb scores was also significantly greater in the endoscopic washout group (P < 0.001). However, the functional outcome at six months measured via a modified Rankin scale score was no different in the two groups of patients. The difference in the functional outcome of the patients was mainly dependent on the initial pathology, with those presenting with a thalamic bleed with IVH showing a poor functional outcome. This

  3. Preventing a Washout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poindexter, Dave

    1996-01-01

    Offers ideas for locating a roof leak. Discusses why many leaks originate in the roof's base flashings and the importance of knowing the roof's material makeup. Advocates keeping a roof-leak history and gives advice on performing inspections to check for leaks. Discusses how to find small holes in roofs. (RJM)

  4. Use of arterial to equilibrium enhancement washout to predict viability in liver cancers treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Hye Young; Park, Hyunjin

    2013-04-01

    Liver cancers are very common in Korea and Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is commonly used to diagnose them. This study improves the diagnosis of liver cancer by using a novel parametric image combining various phases of dynamic CT imaging. The objective of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of arterial to equilibrium enhancement washout (AEEW) obtained by image registration and dynamic subtraction in predicting tumor viability in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Forty patients who had forty-seven iodized-oil defect areas (IODAs) in HCCs treated with TACE were included. These patients were divided into two groups, one group with viable tumors (n = 27) and the other group with non-viable tumors (n = 20) in the IODAs. All the patients underwent triple-phase CT before and after TACE. The attenuation differences of the IODAs between the arterial and the equilibrium phases were measured and compared between two groups. Quantitative AEEW color maps of the whole liver were created from the triple-phase CT image by using prototype research software. Two radiologists independently analyzed following two sets of image: one with standard tri-phase CT images and the other with tri-phase CT images and quantitative AEEW color map images. The diagnostic performances in terms of mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying viable or non-viable tumors by using quantitative AEEW color map images in addition to tri-phase CT was larger than the performance obtained using tri-phase CT only. In conclusion, quantitative AEEW color map images improve the diagnostic performances of multiphasic CT for determining the viability of the IODA in a HCC treated with TACE.

  5. Novel methodology to perform sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)-based multiple-breath wash-in and washout in infants using current commercially available equipment.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, P M; Robinson, P D; Lindblad, A; Oberli, D

    2016-11-01

    Multiple-breath inert gas washout (MBW) is ideally suited for early detection and monitoring of serious lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis, in infants and young children. Validated commercial options for the MBW technique are limited, and suitability of nitrogen (N2)-based MBW is of concern given the detrimental effect of exposure to pure O2 on infant breathing pattern. We propose novel methodology using commercially available N2 MBW equipment to facilitate 4% sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) multiple-breath inert gas wash-in and washout suitable for the infant age range. CO2, O2, and sidestream molar mass sensor signals were used to accurately calculate SF6 concentrations. An improved dynamic method for synchronization of gas and respiratory flow was developed to take into account variations in sidestream sample flow during MBW measurement. In vitro validation of triplicate functional residual capacity (FRC) assessments was undertaken under dry ambient conditions using lung models ranging from 90 to 267 ml, with tidal volumes of 28-79 ml, and respiratory rates 20-60 per minute. The relative mean (SD, 95% confidence interval) error of triplicate FRC determinations by washout was -0.26 (1.84, -3.86 to +3.35)% and by wash-in was 0.57 (2.66, -4.66 to +5.79)%. The standard deviations [mean (SD)] of percentage error among FRC triplicates were 1.40 (1.14) and 1.38 (1.32) for washout and wash-in, respectively. The novel methodology presented achieved FRC accuracy as outlined by current MBW consensus recommendations (95% of measurements within 5% accuracy). Further clinical evaluation is required, but this new technique, using existing commercially available equipment, has exciting potential for research and clinical use.

  6. Determination of the subcutaneous tissue to blood partition coefficient in patients with severe leg ischaemia by a double isotope washout technique.

    PubMed

    Bjerre-Jepsen, K; Faris, I; Henriksen, O; Tønnesen, K H

    1982-12-01

    Knowledge of the tissue to blood partition coefficient (lambda) is essential for calculation of the perfusion coefficient in a single tissue based on measurements of the washout of locally injected isotopes. No measurements of lambda for Xenon in subcutaneous tissue in the leg have been done in patients with occlusive arterial disease. In 12 patients with occlusive arterial disease in the legs lambda for Xenon was determined in subcutaneous tissue in the calf region and foot as the ratio between the washout rate constant of 131I-Antipyrine and 133Xe. A mixture of the two indicators was injected subcutaneously laterally on the calf and in the first interosseous space on the foot. The time until the curves followed a monoexponential course varied between 15 and 45 min in the calf and 5 and 45 min in the foot. The calculated lambda for Xe showed a great variance between individuals in calf as well as foot. Mean value was 3.7 ml X g-1 (range: 1 X 7-10 X 7) in the calf and 2 X 7 ml X g-1 (range: 1 X 2-4 X 9) in the foot. It is concluded that lambda measurements are necessary for determination of subcutaneous blood flow from 133Xe washout curves in these patients. Determination of lambda is especially important when comparisons are made between individuals.

  7. Relationships between increased aqueous outflow facility during washout with the changes in hydrodynamic pattern and morphology in bovine aqueous outflow pathways.

    PubMed

    Scott, Patrick A; Lu, Zhaozeng; Liu, Ye; Gong, Haiyan

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that the structural correlate for the increased outflow facility (C) during washout in the bovine eye is separation between the inner wall (IW) and underlying juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT). However, how these structural changes affect hydrodynamic patterns of outflow during washout has not been studied. We hypothesize that an increase in the outflow facility during washout is associated with an increase in the effective filtration area (EFA) of aqueous outflow, which is regulated by a loss of the connectivity between the IW and JCT. To test this hypothesis, the relationship between C and the hydrodynamic patterns of outflow as well as the morphological changes in JCT and IW during the washout were investigated. Ten bovine eyes were perfused at 15 mmHg with Dulbecco's PBS + 5.5 mM glucose (DPBS) for 30 min to establish stable baseline C. After measuring baseline C, five eyes (short-duration group) were perfused with 0.5 mL DPBS containing 0.002% microspheres (0.5 microm) to trace the hydrodynamic pattern of outflow. Five other eyes (long-duration group) were perfused for 3 h to elicit a significant washout effect followed by subsequent perfusion of the same volume (0.5 mL) of microspheres to map out the outflow pattern after washout. All eyes were then perfusion-fixed. Anterior segments were sectioned and prepared for confocal and light microscopy. Total length (TL) and filtration length (FL) of the IW were measured in > or =15 images/eye to calculate percent effective filtration length (PEFL = FL/TL) while TL and length exhibiting JCT/IW separation (SL) were measured in > or =13 images/eye to calculate percent separation length (PSL = SL/TL). In long-duration eyes, C increased 170.5 +/- 21.3% (mean +/- SEM, 1.55 +/- 0.24 vs 4.13 +/- 0.55 microl/min/mmHg, p = 0.001) above baseline. Pre-fixation C (4.13 +/- 0.55 microl/min/mmHg) in long-duration was 1.6-fold greater than that (2.14 +/- 0.61 microl/min/mmHg; p = 0.042) in short

  8. Comprehensive integrated spirometry using raised volume passive and forced expirations and multiple-breath nitrogen washout in infants.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mohy G

    2010-02-28

    With the rapid somatic growth and development in infants, simultaneous accurate measurements of lung volume and airway function are essential. Raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RTC) is widely used to generate forced expiration from an airway opening pressure of 30 cmH(2)O (V(30)). The (dynamic) functional residual capacity (FRC(dyn)) remains the lung volume most routinely measured. The aim of this study was to develop comprehensive integrated spirometry that included all subdivisions of lung volume at V(30) or total lung capacity (TLC(30)). Measurements were performed on 17 healthy infants aged 8.6-119.7 weeks. A commercial system for multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) to measure lung volumes and a custom made system to perform RTC were used in unison. A refined automated raised volume RTC and the following two novel single maneuvers with dual volume measurements were performed from V(30) during a brief post-hyperventilation apneic pause: (1) the passive expiratory flow was integrated to produce the inspiratory capacity (IC) and the static (passive) FRC (FRC(st)) was estimated by initiating MBNW after end-passive expiration; (2) RTC was initiated late during passive expiration, flow was integrated to produce the slow vital capacity ((j)SVC) and the residual volume (RV) was measured by initiating MBNW after end-expiration while the jacket (j) was inflated. Intrasubject FRC(dyn) and FRC(st) measurements overlapped (p=0.6420) but neither did with the RV (p<0.0001). Means (95% confidence interval) of FRC(dyn), IC, FRC(st), (j)SVC, RV, forced vital capacity and tidal volume were 21.2 (19.7-22.7), 36.7 (33.0-40.4), 21.2 (19.6-22.8), 40.7 (37.2-44.2), 18.1 (16.6-19.7), 40.7 (37.1-44.2) and 10.2 (9.6-10.7)ml/kg, respectively. Static lung volumes and capacities at V(30) and variables from the best forced expiratory flow-volume curve were dependent on age, body length and weight. In conclusion, we developed a comprehensive physiologically integrated

  9. The relationship between inert gas wash-out and radioactive tracer microspheres in measurement of bone blood flow: effect of decreased arterial supply and venous congestion on bone blood flow in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Kiaer, T; Dahl, B; Lausten, G S

    1993-01-01

    Several methods have been employed in the study of bone perfusion. We used a method of determining inert gas wash-out by mass spectrometry in the study of blood flow rates in pigs. The method was validated by comparison of the result obtained with inert gas wash-out to that with measurement by microspheres. Furthermore, the effect of decreased inlet flow and venous congestion on the bone perfusion data was tested. The undisturbed bone blood flow was not significantly different when measured with wash-out of inert gas (7 +/- 0.7 ml/min/100 g) or with microspheres (9 +/- 2.9 ml/min/100 g), and the methods were correlated. Perfusion was reduced significantly, to 20% of the original value, after arterial occlusion. The changes in wash-out curves and accumulation of radioactive tracer provided substantial evidence for impaired intraosseous circulation following venous obstruction also. In conclusion, the study showed that this method of determining inert gas wash-out is feasible for studies of local perfusion rates in bone. The flow rates obtained by wash-out correlated well with the results of microsphere studies. In this animal model, both methods detected a fivefold reduction in flow rate after clamping of the arterial inflow. Obstruction of the venous outflow also impaired blood flow and lowered the cellular supply.

  10. Isotropic, anisotropic, and borehole washout analyses in Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II, Alaminos Canyon well 21-A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2012-01-01

    Through the use of three-dimensional seismic amplitude mapping, several gas hydrate prospects were identified in the Alaminos Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico. Two of the prospects were drilled as part of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Program Leg II in May 2009, and a suite of logging-while-drilling logs was acquired at each well site. Logging-while-drilling logs at the Alaminos Canyon 21–A site indicate that resistivities of approximately 2 ohm-meter and P-wave velocities of approximately 1.9 kilometers per second were measured in a possible gas-hydrate-bearing target sand interval between 540 and 632 feet below the sea floor. These values are slightly elevated relative to those measured in the hydrate-free sediment surrounding the sands. The initial well log analysis is inconclusive in determining the presence of gas hydrate in the logged sand interval, mainly because large washouts in the target interval degraded well log measurements. To assess gas-hydrate saturations, a method of compensating for the effect of washouts on the resistivity and acoustic velocities is required. To meet this need, a method is presented that models the washed-out portion of the borehole as a vertical layer filled with seawater (drilling fluid). Owing to the anisotropic nature of this geometry, the apparent anisotropic resistivities and velocities caused by the vertical layer are used to correct measured log values. By incorporating the conventional marine seismic data into the well log analysis of the washout-corrected well logs, the gas-hydrate saturation at well site AC21–A was estimated to be in the range of 13 percent. Because gas hydrates in the vertical fractures were observed, anisotropic rock physics models were also applied to estimate gas-hydrate saturations.

  11. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  12. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  13. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  14. Disease Systems Analysis of Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Response to Alendronate, Placebo, and Washout in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Stone, JA; Verhamme, KM; Danhof, M; Post, TM

    2016-01-01

    A previously established mechanism‐based disease systems model for osteoporosis that is based on a mathematically reduced version of a model describing the interactions between osteoclast (bone removing) and osteoblast (bone forming) cells in bone remodeling has been applied to clinical data from women (n = 1,379) receiving different doses and treatment regimens of alendronate, placebo, and washout. The changes in the biomarkers, plasma bone‐specific alkaline phosphatase activity (BSAP), urinary N‐telopeptide (NTX), lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), and total hip BMD, were linked to the underlying mechanistic core of the model. The final model gave an accurate description of all four biomarkers for the different treatments. Simulations were used to visualize the dynamics of the underlying network and the natural disease progression upon alendronate treatment and discontinuation. These results complement the previous applications of this mechanism‐based disease systems model to data from various treatments for osteoporosis. PMID:27869358

  15. Use of a Cholestyramine Washout in a Patient With Septic Shock on Leflunomide Therapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Laub, Melissa; Fraser, Robert; Kurche, Jonathan; Lara, Abigail; Kiser, Tyree H; Reynolds, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Patients presenting with infections while receiving disease-modifying antirheumatic agents (DMARD) may be predisposed to a higher degree illness due to immunosuppression. This can be particularly problematic in patients who are receiving DMARDs with prolonged pharmacokinetic profiles. Leflunomide is a DMARD that has a prolonged half-life due to enterohepatic recirculation. We report a case of a patient with severe septic shock secondary to a prosthetic joint infection in which therapeutic levels of leflunomide were discovered, despite the patient ceasing therapy several weeks prior to admission. An orogastric cholestyramine washout was given to the patient to expedite the removal of the drug. Serum levels rapidly declined over the next several days, corresponding with resolution of her sepsis. A review of the literature relevant to the incidence of DMARD-related infections was conducted as well as discussion regarding the role of leflunomide drug monitoring and cholestyramine-facilitated removal of the drug in episodes of acute infectious syndromes.

  16. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin 1 g once daily for 3 days in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: an open-label randomised comparison with amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Paris, R; Confalonieri, M; Dal Negro, R; Ligia, G P; Mos, L; Todisco, T; Rastelli, V; Perna, G; Cepparulo, M

    2008-02-01

    This randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study was designed to demonstrate that a 3-day course of oral azithromycin 1 g once daily was at least as effective as a standard 7-day course of oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily in the treatment of outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (Fine class I and II). In total, 267 patients with clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia were randomly assigned to receive either the azithromycin (n=136) or the amoxicillin-clavulanate (n=131) regimen. At screening, 60/136 (58.8%) and 61/131 (62.9%) respectively had at least one pathogen identified by sputum culture, PCR, or serology. The primary endpoint was the clinical response in the intent-to-treat population at the end of therapy (day 8 to 12). Clinical success rates were 126/136 (92.6%) for azithromycin and 122/131 (93.1%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate (treatment difference: - 0.48%; 95% confidence interval: - 5.66%; 4.69%). Clinical and radiological success rates at follow-up (day 22-26) were consistent with the end of therapy results, no patient reporting clinical relapse. Bacteriological success rates at the end of therapy were 32/35 (91.4%) for azithromycin and 30/33 (90.9%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate (treatment difference: 0.52%; 95% confidence interval - 10.81%; 11.85%). Both treatment regimens were well tolerated: the overall incidence of adverse events was 34/136 (25.0%) for azithromycin and 22/132 (16.7%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate. In both treatment groups, the most commonly reported events were gastrointestinal symptoms. Azithromycin 1g once daily for 3 days is at least as effective as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days in the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

  17. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  18. Noninvasive identification of left main and triple vessel coronary artery disease: improved accuracy using quantitative analysis of regional myocardial stress distribution and washout of thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Maddahi, J.; Abdulla, A.; Garcia, E.V.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of visual and quantitative analysis of stress redistribution thallium-201 scintigrams, exercise electrocardiography and exercise blood pressure response were compared for correct identification of extensive coronary disease, defined as left main or triple vessel coronary artery disease, or both (50% or more luminal diameter coronary narrowing), in 105 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Extensive disease was present in 56 patients and the remaining 49 had either less extensive coronary artery disease (n = 34) or normal coronary arteriograms (n = 15). Although exercise blood pressure response, exercise electrocardiography and visual thallium-201 analysis were highly specific (98, 88 and 96%, respectively), they were insensitive for identification of patients with extensive disease (14, 45 and 16%, respectively). Quantitative thallium-201 analysis significantly improved the sensitivity of visual thallium-201 analysis for identification of patients with extensive disease (from 16 to 63%, p less than 0.001) without a significant loss of specificity (96 versus 86%, p = NS). Eighteen (64%) of the 28 patients who were misclassified by visual analysis as having less extensive disease were correctly classified as having extensive disease by virtue of quantitative analysis of regional myocardial thallium-201 washout. When the results of quantitative thallium-201 analysis were combined with those of blood pressure and electrocardiographic response to exercise, the sensitivity and specificity for identification of patients with extensive disease was 86 and 76%, respectively, and the highest overall accuracy (0.82) was obtained.

  19. Repeated 7-Day Treatment with the 5-HT2C Agonist Lorcaserin or the 5-HT2A Antagonist Pimavanserin Alone or in Combination Fails to Reduce Cocaine vs Food Choice in Male Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Negus, S Stevens

    2017-04-01

    Cocaine use disorder is a global public health problem for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies. Emerging preclinical evidence has implicated both serotonin (5-HT) 2C and 2A receptors as potential mechanisms for mediating serotonergic attenuation of cocaine abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects. Therefore, the present study aim was to determine whether repeated 7-day treatment with the 5-HT2C agonist lorcaserin (0.1-1.0 mg/kg per day, intramuscular; 0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h, intravenous) or the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin (0.32-10 mg/kg per day, intramuscular) attenuated cocaine reinforcement under a concurrent 'choice' schedule of cocaine and food availability in rhesus monkeys. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine vs food choice. Repeated pimavanserin (3.2 mg/kg per day) treatments significantly increased small unit cocaine dose choice. Larger lorcaserin (1.0 mg/kg per day and 0.1 mg/kg/h) and pimavanserin (10 mg/kg per day) doses primarily decreased rates of operant behavior. Coadministration of ineffective lorcaserin (0.1 mg/kg per day) and pimavanserin (0.32 mg/kg per day) doses also failed to significantly alter cocaine choice. These results suggest that neither 5-HT2C receptor activation nor 5-HT2A receptor blockade are sufficient to produce a therapeutic-like decrease in cocaine choice and a complementary increase in food choice. Overall, these results do not support the clinical utility of 5-HT2C agonists and 5-HT2A inverse agonists/antagonists alone or in combination as candidate anti-cocaine use disorder pharmacotherapies.

  20. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S.; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K. M.; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A.; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Mahmud, Md. Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J.; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Bradley Sack, R.; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention. PMID:26728766

  1. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks.

  2. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention.

  3. The 6-month safety and efficacy of abatacept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who underwent a washout after anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy or were directly switched to abatacept: the ARRIVE trial

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, M; Pritchard, C; Huffstutter, J E; Rodriguez-Valverde, V; Durez, P; Zhou, X; Li, T; Bahrt, K; Kelly, S; Le Bars, M; Genovese, M C

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of abatacept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had failed anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy and were switched to abatacept directly or after completing washout. Methods: In this international, 6-month, open-label trial, patients had active RA, an inadequate response to anti-TNF therapy for 3 months or longer and a disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28 (C-reactive protein; CRP) of 5.1 or greater. “Washout” patients discontinued anti-TNF therapy 2 months or longer pre-screening; “direct-switch” patients began abatacept (∼10 mg/kg) at their next scheduled anti-TNF therapy dose. Results: 1046 patients were treated (449 washout, 597 direct-switch; baseline characteristics were similar between groups). At 6 months, adverse events (AE; 78.0% vs 79.2%), serious AE (11.1% vs 9.9%) and discontinuations due to AE (3.8% vs 4.0%) and serious AE (2.0% vs 1.3%) were comparable in washout versus direct-switch patients. There were no opportunistic infections. At 6 months, in washout versus direct-switch patients, similar clinically meaningful improvements were seen in DAS28 (CRP) (⩾1.2 unit improvement, 59.5% vs 53.6%, respectively; low disease activity state, 22.5% vs 22.3%; DAS28-defined remission, 12.0% vs 13.7%), physical function (health assessment questionnaire disability index ⩾0.22 improvement; 46.3% vs 47.1%) and health-related quality of life (mean change in short-form 36 scores: physical component summary, 5.5 vs 6.1; mental component summary, 4.8 vs 5.4). Conclusion: Abatacept demonstrated acceptable safety and tolerability and clinically meaningful efficacy over 6 months in patients with inadequate response to anti-TNF therapy. Results were comparable with or without a washout, supporting direct switching from anti-TNF therapy to abatacept as an option in clinical practice. Trial registration number: NCT00124982. PMID:19074911

  4. Optimal recall period for caregiver-reported illness in risk factor and intervention studies: a multicountry study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Galiani, Sebastian; Ram, Pavani K; Hubbard, Alan E; Briceño, Bertha; Gertler, Paul J; Colford, John M

    2013-02-15

    Many community-based studies of acute child illness rely on cases reported by caregivers. In prior investigations, researchers noted a reporting bias when longer illness recall periods were used. The use of recall periods longer than 2-3 days has been discouraged to minimize this reporting bias. In the present study, we sought to determine the optimal recall period for illness measurement when accounting for both bias and variance. Using data from 12,191 children less than 24 months of age collected in 2008-2009 from Himachal Pradesh in India, Madhya Pradesh in India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal, we calculated bias, variance, and mean squared error for estimates of the prevalence ratio between groups defined by anemia, stunting, and underweight status to identify optimal recall periods for caregiver-reported diarrhea, cough, and fever. There was little bias in the prevalence ratio when a 7-day recall period was used (<10% in 35 of 45 scenarios), and the mean squared error was usually minimized with recall periods of 6 or more days. Shortening the recall period from 7 days to 2 days required sample-size increases of 52%-92% for diarrhea, 47%-61% for cough, and 102%-206% for fever. In contrast to the current practice of using 2-day recall periods, this work suggests that studies should measure caregiver-reported illness with a 7-day recall period.

  5. Effects of a 250-mL enema containing sodium phosphate on electrolyte concentrations in healthy volunteers: An open-label, randomized, controlled, two-period, crossover clinical trial*

    PubMed Central

    Sédaba, Belén; Azanza, Josh R.; Campanero, Miguel A.; Garcia-Quetglas, Emilio; Muñoz, Maria Josh; Marco, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Background: Enemas are used by individuals with constipation and are often required before certain medical diagnostic procedures and surgical interventions. However, abnormalities in serum electrolyte concentrations have been associated with enema use. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the changes in serum electrolyte concentrations (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and urinary phosphorus elimination after the administration of a sodium phosphate enema. Methods: Healthy volunteers aged 35 to 70 years were eligible for this open-label, randomized, controlled, 2-period, crossover clinical trial at the Clinical Research Unit of the University Hospital of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. The study comprised 2 one-day periods separated by a 7-day washout. All subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 study sequences: (1) a single dose of Enema Casen® 250 mL in the first period followed by no treatment (control) in the second period, or (2) no treatment in the first period followed by a single dose of the study drug in the second period. The sequence of treatment was assigned using a randomization table that was prepared before the beginning of the study. Serum concentrations of phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and calcium were measured in both periods. Urinary phosphorus elimination was measured for 12 hours after enema administration (Ae0–12) in a subset of the subjects in the second period. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored by the investigators throughout the study. Normal ranges for the electrolytes were as follows: phosphorus, 2.5 to 5 mg/dL; calcium, 8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL; sodium, 135 to 145 mEq/L; and potassium, 3.5 to 5 mEq/L. Results: Twenty-four subjects (12 men, 12 women; mean [SD] age, 47.8 [9.6] years [range, 36–68 years]) participated in the study. All of the subjects were white and none were smokers. Twelve hours after enema administration, mean serum phosphorus and sodium concentrations increased by a mean of 1.18 mg

  6. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  7. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  8. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hypokalemic; Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis; HOKPP; HypoKPP; HypoPP ... is not inherited. Unlike other forms of periodic paralysis, people with hypoPP have normal thyroid function. But ...

  9. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hyperkalemic; Familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; HyperKPP; HyperPP; Gamstorp disease ... factors include having other family members with periodic paralysis. It affects men more often than women.

  10. The composition of egg yolk absorbed by fasted ostrich (Struthio camelus L.) chicks from 1 to 7 days posthatching and for ostrich (Struthio camelus L.) chicks from 1 to 16 days posthatching on a prestarter broiler diet.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, M; Brand, T S; Soley, J T; Boomker, E A

    2012-06-01

    This study was performed to obtain information on yolk utilization in fasted and fed ostrich chicks posthatching. The fasted trial lasted for 7 d, whereas the fed trial continued for 16 d. Fasted ostrich chicks showed a decrease of 31.3 g of BW, with yolk weight decreasing by 28.9 g daily after hatching. Yolk weight comprised 28% of 1-d-old ostrich chick BW and decreased to 12% at 7 d of age. Only 44.4% of the fasted ostrich chick yolk was assimilated over the trial period. Crude protein content of the yolk decreased by 13.2 g daily. Fat content increased by 1.77% daily, whereas total yolk fat weight decreased with 8.91 g daily. Slaughter weight of fed ostrich chicks increased, with yolk weight decreasing by 16.3 g daily. Yolk content for fed ostrich chicks was 26% of BW at 2 d of age. Ostrich chicks absorb 30% of yolk over the first 4 d, 67% after 8 d, and only deplete the yolk after 14 d posthatch. Fasted ostrich chicks absorbed the yolk content at a rate of 28.9 g/d, compared with 22.3 g/d over the first 8 d and 16.3 g/d over the 16 d for fed ostrich chicks. The CP content of the yolk decreased by 6.84 g daily in fed ostrich chicks, whereas fat content of the yolk increased by 1.39% daily, although total yolk fat weight decreased by 6.61 g daily. Yolk weight and total CP decreased faster over the first 7 d in the fasted ostrich chicks compared with the fed ostrich chicks, which indicated that the decrease in yolk weight could be attributed to absorption of protein from the yolk. Fat content decreased faster over the first 8 d from the yolk of the fed ostrich chicks compared with that from the yolk of the fasted ostrich chicks, which could indicate that external feed has a positive influence on the absorption of fat from the yolk content.

  11. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods; Intermenstrual bleeding; Spotting; Metrorrhagia Images Female reproductive anatomy Bleeding between periods Uterus References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  12. Explosives Washout Lagoons Soils Operable Unit supplemental investigation technical and environmental management support of installation-restoration technology development program, Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final report, May 91-May 92

    SciTech Connect

    Raymondi, R.

    1992-04-15

    As part of an ongoing Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at the Umatilla Army Depot, the soils of the Explosives Washout Lagoons at that installation were assigned as an operable unit for a possible expedited remedial action. Additional sampling was conducted to determine the explosives concentrations at depth beneath the lagoons, and to verify the absence of other contaminants. Explosives contamination was found from the ground surface to the groundwater at 47 feet. Concentrations were much higher in the top 3 feet than in the soil beneath that. Other organic contamination was not present; some metals were elevated slightly above background. The results of the study are being used in a feasibility study of remedial action alternatives.

  13. Explosive washout lagoons soils operable unit supplemental investigation technical and environmental management support of installation restoration technology development program, Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston. Oregon. Phase 2. Final Draft report, May 1991-May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Raymondi, R.

    1992-04-15

    As part of an ongoing Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at the Umatilla Army Depot, the soils of the Explosives Washout Lagoons at that installation were assigned as an operable unit for a possible expedited remedial action. Additional sampling was conducted to determine the explosives concentrations at depth beneath the lagoons, and to verify the absence of other contaminants. Explosives contamination was found from the ground surface to the groundwater at 47 feet. Concentrations were much higher in the top 3 feet than in the soil beneath that. Other organic contamination was not present; some metals were elevated slightly above background. The results of the study are being used in a feasibility study of remedial action alternatives.

  14. Silicones used in permanent and semi-permanent hair dyes to reduce the fading and color change process of dyed hair occurred by wash-out or UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Arndt

    2004-01-01

    Different kinds of silicones were incorporated directly into permanent and semi-permanent hair dyes. To ensure that the silicone was deposited to the hair fibers Si deposition was measured. Hair treated with a silicone free control or the silicone modified hair dyes was tested for color and lightness change (fading) by washing the treated tresses several times and measuring the color change. In a second experiment, hair treated with permanent hair dye was treated with UV radiation to show if silicones can reduce the color change initiated by UV light. The influence of the silicones to dry combing forces of permanent dyed hair untreated and treated with UV was also investigated. The tests showed that dimethiconol/dimethicone mixtures can reduce the washout of hair colorant clearly and silicone resins like trimethylsiloxysilcate or propylphenylsilsesquioxane are able to decrease the color change occurred by UV radiation in dyed hair.

  15. Chaos and periodicity in solar wind speed: cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Tushnik; Ray, Rajdeep; Khondekar, Mofazzal H.; Ghosh, Koushik; Banerjee, Subrata

    2015-06-01

    The solar wind speed time series data from 1st January, 1997 to 28th October, 2003 has been pre-processed using simple exponential smoothing, discrete wavelet transform for denoising to investigate the underneath dynamics of it. Recurrence plot and recurrence quantification analysis has revealed that the time series is non-stationary one with deterministic chaotic behavior. The Hilbert-Huang Transform has been used in search of the underlying periods of the data series. Present investigation has revealed the periods of 21 days, 32.5 days, 43.6 days, 148.86 days, 180.7 days, 355.5 days, 403.2 days, 413.6 days, 490.72 days, 729.6 days, 1086.76 days, 1599.4 days and 1892.6 days.

  16. Rotation periods of open-cluster stars, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Dasgupta, Amil; Backman, Dana E.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.; Baker, Shawn W.; Marschall, Laurence A.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Kuijken, Konrad; Stauffer, John R.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results from a photometric monitoring program of 15 open cluster stars and one weak-lined T Tauri star during late 1993/early 1994. Several show rotators which are members of the Alpha Persei, Pleiades, and Hyades open clusters have been monitored and period estimates derived. Using all available Pleiades stars with photometric periods together with current X-ray flux measurements, we illustrate the X-ray activity/rotation relation among Pleiades late-G/K dwarfs. The data show a clear break in the rotation-activity relation around P approximately 6-7 days -- in general accordance with previous results using more heterogeneous samples of G/K stars.

  17. Long-Period Tidal Variations in the Length of Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.

    2014-01-01

    A new model of long-period tidal variations in length of day is developed. The model comprises 80 spectral lines with periods between 18.6 years and 4.7 days, and it consistently includes effects of mantle anelasticity and dynamic ocean tides for all lines. The anelastic properties followWahr and Bergen; experimental confirmation for their results now exists at the fortnightly period, but there remains uncertainty when extrapolating to the longest periods. The ocean modeling builds on recent work with the fortnightly constituent, which suggests that oceanic tidal angular momentum can be reliably predicted at these periods without data assimilation. This is a critical property when modeling most long-period tides, for which little observational data exist. Dynamic ocean effects are quite pronounced at shortest periods as out-of-phase rotation components become nearly as large as in-phase components. The model is tested against a 20 year time series of space geodetic measurements of length of day. The current international standard model is shown to leave significant residual tidal energy, and the new model is found to mostly eliminate that energy, with especially large variance reduction for constituents Sa, Ssa, Mf, and Mt.

  18. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  19. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  20. Community College Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Eldor O.

    Drawing from an examination of community college periodicals, their availability and characteristics, the academic affiliations of contributing authors, and the topics of their articles, this paper discusses the minor role which community college periodicals appear to play. A list of 35 periodicals dealing primary with community college education…

  1. The first orbital parameters and period variation of the short-period eclipsing binary AQ Boo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Liyun; Pi, Qingfeng; Han, Xianming L.; Zhang, Xiliang; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei; Li, TongAn

    2016-10-01

    We obtained the first VRI CCD light curves of the short-period contact eclipsing binary AQ Boo, which was observed on March 22 and April 19 in 2014 at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, and on January 20, 21 and February 28 in 2015 at Kunming station of Yunnan Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Using our six newly obtained minima and the minima that other authors obtained previously, we revised the ephemeris of AQ Boo. By fitting the O-C (observed minus calculated) values of the minima, the orbital period of AQ Boo shows a decreasing tendency P˙ = - 1.47(0.17) ×10-7 days/year. We interpret the phenomenon by mass transfer from the secondary (more massive) component to the primary (less massive) one. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we also derived the photometric orbital parameters of AQ Boo for the first time. We conclude that AQ Boo is a near contact binary with a low contact factor of 14.43%, and will become an over-contact system as the mass transfer continues.

  2. Periodic chiral structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, Dwight L.; Engheta, Nader; Pelet, Philippe; Liu, John C.; Kowarz, Marek W.; Kim, Yunjin

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a structure that is both chiral and periodic are investigated using coupled-mode equations. The periodicity is described by a sinusoidal perturbation of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral admittance. The coupled-mode equations are derived from physical considerations and used to examine bandgap structure and reflected and transmitted fields. Chirality is observed predominantly in transmission, whereas periodicity is present in both reflection and transmission.

  3. Magnetic activity and orbital period variation of the short-period eclipsing binary DV Psc

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, Qing-feng; Zhang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Xi-liang

    2014-03-01

    We present six new BVR{sub c}I{sub c} CCD light curves of a short-period RS CVn binary DV Psc obtained in 2010-2012. The light curve distortions change on both short and long timescales, which is explained by two starspots on the primary component. Moreover, five new flare events were detected and the flare ratio of DV Psc is about 0.082 flares per hour. There is a possible relation between the phases (longitude) of the flares and starspots for all of the available data of late-type binaries, which implies a correlation of the stellar activity of the spots and flares. The cyclic oscillation, with a period of 4.9 ± 0.4 yr, may result from the magnetic activity cycle, identified by the variability of Max. I-Max. II. Until now, there were no spectroscopic studies of chromospheric activity indicators of the H{sub β} and H{sub γ} lines for DV Psc. Our observations of these indicators show that DV Psc is active, with excess emissions. The updated O – C diagram with an observing time span of about 15 yr shows an upward parabola, which indicates a secular increase in the orbital period of DV Psc. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = 2.0×10{sup –7} days yr{sup –1}, which might be explained by the angular momentum exchanges or mass transfer from the secondary to primary component.

  4. Periodic Solutions of Spatially Periodic Hamiltonian Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-10

    Theorem 0.2 generalizes Theorem 1.5 of Rabinowitz in [201. 3 Equation (0.1), under spatially periodic assumptions has been studied by several au...n x n symmetric matrix, H satisfying (HO), (H1) and (H2), and f = (0, fq) satisfying (fM), (fl) and (f2), Rabinowitz in [201 showed the existence of... Rabinowitz [17]. We consider a functional I : E x M ) R of class C’, where E is a Hilbert space and M is a compact manifold. Assuming that I satisfies a

  5. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  6. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out.

  7. Latent Period of Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H

    1961-10-27

    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.

  8. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  9. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  10. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  11. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  12. Ontogeny of thermoregulation during the prenatal period in birds.

    PubMed

    Nichelmann, M; Tzschentke, B

    1997-03-15

    In contrast to the well-known thermoregulatory processes in the postnatal period the ontogeny of the thermoregulatory effector system as well as the central nervous control elements in the prenatal period is underinvestigated. Because of this, the aim of this paper is to characterize the development of thermoregulatory mechanisms in the embryonic period of one avian species, the Muscovy duck, Cairina moschata. The experiments were carried out in three series. In the first the influence of low ambient temperatures on call producing activity was investigated, in the second the oxygen consumption of single or pooled embryos was measured in the temperature range between 34.0 and 40.5 degrees C and in the last oxygen consumption, colonic temperature and preferred temperature were examined in birds incubated in reduced temperatures (34.5 degrees C) during the last 7 days before hatching. The results of experiments led to the conclusion, that (1) some days before hatching temperature perception is very well developed, (2) endothermic reactions occur in the last quarter of embryonic development, (3) the thermoregulatory setpoint is adjustable during the perinatal period. Altogether, embryos of the Muscovy duck show in the last days of incubation typical endothermic reactions. They activate the heat production as well as the heat loss mechanisms to control the body temperature. Besides this, when vocalization is used, behavioral thermoregulatory mechanisms support the autonomic reactions.

  13. Anisotropic models to account for large borehole washouts to estimate gas hydrate saturations in the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II Alaminos 21 B well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Through the use of 3-D seismic amplitude mapping, several gashydrate prospects were identified in the Alaminos Canyon (AC) area of the Gulf of Mexico. Two locations were drilled as part of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (JIP Leg II) in May of 2009 and a comprehensive set of logging-while-drilling (LWD) logs were acquired at each well site. LWD logs indicated that resistivity in the range of ~2 ohm-m and P-wave velocity in the range of ~1.9 km/s were measured in the target sand interval between 515 and 645 feet below sea floor. These values were slightly elevated relative to those measured in the sediment above and below the target sand. However, the initial well log analysis was inconclusive regarding the presence of gashydrate in the logged sand interval, mainly because largewashouts caused by drilling in the target interval degraded confidence in the well log measurements. To assess gashydratesaturations in the sedimentary section drilled in the Alaminos Canyon 21B (AC21-B) well, a method of compensating for the effect of washouts on the resistivity and acoustic velocities was developed. The proposed method models the washed-out portion of the borehole as a vertical layer filled with sea water (drilling fluid) and the apparent anisotropic resistivity and velocities caused by a vertical layer are used to correct the measured log values. By incorporating the conventional marine seismic data into the well log analysis, the average gashydratesaturation in the target sand section in the AC21-Bwell can be constrained to the range of 8–28%, with 20% being our best estimate.

  14. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  15. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  16. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  17. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  18. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

  19. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  20. Periodically structured plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saj, W. M.; Foteinopoulou, S.; Kafesaki, M.; Soukoulis, C. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2008-04-01

    We study surface plasmon polariton (SPP) guiding structures, which are a modification of the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) waveguide. The designs are constructed by introducing a periodic modulation in a MIM waveguide, with a glass core and silver claddings. This periodic modulation is created either by causing periodic indentations in the silver slabs encompassing the glass core, or by increasing the glass spacer material in certain periodic locations. Our objective is to achieve long range sub-wavelength waveguiding with vast dispersion engineering capabilities. We employ the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) with the Auxiliary Differential Equation method (ADE) for the calculation of the dispersion relation of the guided modes, as well as the real time propagation suggests that the guiding mechnism in the examined structures is based on the electromagnetic (EM) couping between the slit plasmon modes. These - depending on the design - exist in the grooves between the silver plates or in the larger areas of the glass core spacer. Put it different, the guiding mechanism in the examined SPP waveguide designs is analogous to the EM energy transfer along metallic nanoparticle chains.

  1. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  2. Double-blind, randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000/125 milligrams) versus those of amoxicillin-clavulanate (875/125 milligrams), both given twice daily for 7 days, in treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in adults.

    PubMed

    File, T M; Lode, H; Kurz, H; Kozak, R; Xie, H; Berkowitz, E

    2004-09-01

    This randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial was designed to demonstrate that pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000/125 mg) was at least as effective clinically as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg, both given twice daily for 7 days, in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. In total, 633 clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia patients (intent-to-treat population) were randomized to receive either oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 2,000/125 mg (n = 322) or oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg (n = 311). At screening, 160 of 633 (25.3%) patients had at least one typical pathogen isolated from expectorated or invasive sputum samples or blood culture (bacteriology intent-to-treat population). Streptococcus pneumoniae (58 of 160, 36.3%), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (34 of 160, 21.3%), and Haemophilus influenzae (33 of 160, 20.6%) were the most common typical causative pathogens isolated in both groups in the bacteriology intent-to-treat population. Clinical success in the clinical per protocol population at test of cure (days 16 to 37), the primary efficacy endpoint, was 90.3% (223 of 247) for amoxicillin-clavulanate 2,000/125 mg and 87.6% (198 of 226) for amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg (treatment difference, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, -3.0, 8.3). Bacteriological success at test of cure in the bacteriology per protocol population was 86.6% (58 of 67) for amoxicillin-clavulanate 2,000/125 mg and 78.4% (40 of 51) for amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg (treatment difference, 8.1%; 95% confidence interval, -5.8, 22.1). Both therapies were well tolerated. Amoxicillin-clavulanate 2,000/125 mg twice daily was shown to be as clinically effective as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days in the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia, without a noted increase in the reported rate of adverse events.

  3. Efficacy and safety of pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 milligrams twice daily for 5 days versus amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 milligrams twice daily for 7 days in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sanjay; Breton, John; Wynne, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This randomized, controlled trial was designed to show that a short, 5-day course of pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg (Augmentin XR) is as effective clinically as a longer, 7-day course of conventional amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 mg (both given twice daily) in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB). Amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg was designed to extend the therapeutic levels of amoxicillin in serum over the 12-h dosing interval, compared with conventional formulations, to eradicate bacterial strains for which amoxicillin MICs were < or =4 microg/ml while retaining efficacy against beta-lactamase-producing pathogens. A total of 893 patients were randomized and received study medication (amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg for 443 patients and 875/125 mg for 450 patients). Overall, 141 patients receiving amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg and 135 receiving the comparator formulation had at least one pathogen identified at screening. Amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg was as effective clinically in the per-protocol (PP) population at the test of cure (days 14 to 21, primary efficacy endpoint) as amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 mg (clinical success rates of 93.0 and 91.2%, respectively; treatment difference, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.2, 5.7). Bacteriological success in the bacteriology PP population was high for both formulations (amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg, 76.7%; amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 mg, 73.0%; treatment difference, 3.8; 95% CI, -7.5, 15.0). Both therapies were well tolerated, with a similar incidence of adverse events. Fewer than 5% of patients in each group withdrew from the study due to adverse events. The shorter, 5-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg was shown to be as effective clinically as a longer, 7-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 mg, with high bacteriological efficacy and no difference in

  4. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  5. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  6. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  7. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-05

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  8. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  9. Multifunctional periodic cellular metals.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Haydn N G

    2006-01-15

    Periodic cellular metals with honeycomb and corrugated topologies are widely used for the cores of light weight sandwich panel structures. Honeycombs have closed cell pores and are well suited for thermal protection while also providing efficient load support. Corrugated core structures provide less efficient and highly anisotropic load support, but enable cross flow heat exchange opportunities because their pores are continuous in one direction. Recent advances in topology design and fabrication have led to the emergence of lattice truss structures with open cell structures. These three classes of periodic cellular metals can now be fabricated from a wide variety of structural alloys. Many topologies are found to provide adequate stiffness and strength for structural load support when configured as the cores of sandwich panels. Sandwich panels with core relative densities of 2-10% and cell sizes in the millimetre range are being assessed for use as multifunctional structures. The open, three-dimensional interconnected pore networks of lattice truss topologies provide opportunities for simultaneously supporting high stresses while also enabling cross flow heat exchange. These highly compressible structures also provide opportunities for the mitigation of high intensity dynamic loads created by impacts and shock waves in air or water. By filling the voids with polymers and hard ceramics, these structures have also been found to offer significant resistance to penetration by projectiles.

  10. Periodic truss structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zok, Frank W.; Latture, Ryan M.; Begley, Matthew R.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the recognition of the enormous potential of periodic trusses for use in a broad range of technologies, there are no widely-accepted descriptors of their structure. The terminology has been based loosely either on geometry of polyhedra or of point lattices: neither of which, on its own, has an appropriate structure to fully define periodic trusses. The present article lays out a system for classification of truss structure types. The system employs concepts from crystallography and geometry to describe nodal locations and connectivity of struts. Through a series of illustrative examples of progressively increasing complexity, a rational taxonomy of truss structure is developed. Its conceptual evolution begins with elementary cubic trusses, increasing in complexity with non-cubic and compound trusses as well as supertrusses, and, finally, with complex trusses. The conventions and terminology adopted to define truss structure yield concise yet unambiguous descriptions of structure types and of specific (finite) trusses. The utility of the taxonomy is demonstrated by bringing into alignment a disparate set of ad hoc and incomplete truss designations previously employed in a broad range of science and engineering fields. Additionally, the merits of a particular compound truss (comprising two interpenetrating elementary trusses) is shown to be superior to the octet truss for applications requiring high stiffness and elastic isotropy. By systematically stepping through and analyzing the finite number of structure types identified through the present classification system, optimal structures for prescribed mechanical and functional requirements are expected to be ascertained in an expeditious manner.

  11. Radiation-Free Weekend Rescued! Continuous Accelerated Irradiation of 7-Days per Week Is Equal to Accelerated Fractionation With Concomitant Boost of 7 Fractions in 5-Days per Week: Report on Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof; Hutnik, Marcin; Wygoda, Andrzej; Golen, Maria; Pilecki, Boleslaw; Przeorek, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Lukaszczyk-Widel, Beata; Heyda, Alicja; Suwinski, Rafal; Tarnawski, Rafal; Maciejewski, Boguslaw

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term results of randomized trial comparing 2 accelerated fractionations of definitive radiation therapy assessing the need to irradiate during weekend in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 345 patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, and oro- or hypo-pharynx, stage T2-4N0-1M0, were randomized to receive continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR: once per day, 7 days per week) or concomitant accelerated boost (CB: once per day, 3 days per week, and twice per day, 2 days per week). Total dose ranged from 66.6-72 Gy, dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy, number of fractions ranged from 37-40 fractions, and overall treatment time ranged from 37-40 days. Results: No differences for all trial end-points were noted. At 5 and 10 years, the actuarial rates of local-regional control were 63% and 60% for CAIR vs 65% and 60% for CB, and the corresponding overall survival were 40% and 25% vs 44% and 25%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with an incidence of 89% in CAIR and 86% in CB patients. The 5-year rate of grade 3-4 late radiation morbidity was 6% for both regimens. Conclusions: Results of this trial indicate that the effects of accelerated fractionation can be achieve by delivering twice-per-day irradiation on weekday(s). This trial has also confirmed that an accelerated, 6-weeks schedule is a reasonable option for patients with intermediate-stage head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma because of the associated high cure rate and minimal severe late toxicity.

  12. Model Valid Prediction Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P. C.

    2002-12-01

    A new concept, valid prediction period (VPP), is presented here to evaluate model predictability. VPP is defined as the time period when the prediction error first exceeds a pre-determined criterion (i.e., the tolerance level). It depends not only on the instantaneous error growth, but also on the noise level, the initial error, and tolerance level. The model predictability skill is then represented by a single scalar, VPP. The longer the VPP, the higher the model predictability skill is. A theoretical framework on the base of the backward Fokker-Planck equation is developed to determine the probability density function (pdf) of VPP. Verification of a Gulf of Mexico nowcast/forecast model is used as an example to demonstrate the usefulness of VPP. Power law scaling is found in the mean square error of displacement between drifting buoy and model trajectories (both at 50 m depth). The pdf of VPP is asymmetric with a long and broad tail on the higher value side, which suggests long-term predictability. The calculations demonstrate that the long-term (extreme long such as 50-60 day) predictability is not an "outlier" and shares the same statistical properties as the short-term predictions. References Chu P. C., L. M. Ivanov, and C.W. Fan, Backward Fokker-Plank equation for determining model predictability with unknown initial error distribution. J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2002. Chu P.C., L.M.Ivanov, T.M. Margolina, and O.V.Melnichenko, 2002b: On probabilistic stability of an atmospheric model to various amplitude perturbations. J. Atmos. Sci., in press Chu P.C., L.M. Ivanov, L. Kantha, O.V. Melnichenko and Y.A. Poberezhny, 2002c: The long-term correlations and power decay law in model prediction skill. Geophys. Res. Let., in press.

  13. Neuromuscular Responses to Short-Term Resistance Training With Traditional and Daily Undulating Periodization in Adolescent Elite Judoka.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Pelzer, Thiemo; Oliveira, Sergio; Pfeiffer, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, Oliveira, S, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular responses to short-term resistance training with traditional and daily undulating periodization in adolescent elite judoka. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2083-2099, 2016-The influence of different periodization models on neuromuscular outcomes after short-term strength training periods has not been examined in adolescent athletes. Eleven elite judoka (age: 14.8 ± 0.6 years, height: 163.2 ± 7.5 cm, body mass: 57.3 ± 11.1 kg, 5 boys/6 girls, and strength training experience: 2.7 ± 1.1 years) performed two 4-week strength training mesocycles (each with 12 sessions) with either traditional (TP) or daily undulating (DUP) periodization. Both mesocycles were separated by a 7-week washout period and added to the regular judo training. Strength training was performed as lifting and lowering of weights using squats, knee flexion curl, clean & jerk, snatch, bench press, barbell bench pull, and lat pull-down. The mesocycles were equated for the number of repetitions and different intensity zones (50-90% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), addressing the optimization of strength, power, or velocity. Laboratory and 1RM testing was carried out 2 times during the baseline (T1 and T2), after the TP mesocycle (T3), after the washout period (T4), and after the DUP mesocycle (T5). Isometric knee extensor and knee flexor maximum voluntary contractive capacity (MVC), electromyographic-estimated neural drive of the quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, and 1RMs of all training exercises were measured. ANOVA revealed moderate (5.5-13.5%) but significant (p ≤ 0.05) temporal gains in knee extensor MVC, 1RMs, and VL architecture during both the mesocycles. Wilcoxon tests detected no significant differences for the percentage changes of any outcome between the mesocycles. For adolescent judoka, TP and DUP were equally adept in improving neuromuscular outcomes during short-term training periods.

  14. Effect of temperature and moisture period on infection of Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White' by Phytophthora ramorum.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Paul W; Browning, Marsha; Kyde, Kerrie L; Berner, Dana

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the temperature and moisture conditions that allow Phytophthora ramorum to infect Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White'. Most experiments were performed with a single P. ramorum isolate from the NA1 clonal lineage. For whole plants incubated in dew chambers at 10 to 31 degrees C, the greatest proportion of diseased leaves, 77.5%, occurred at the optimum temperature of 20.5 degrees C. Disease occurred over the entire range of temperatures tested, although amounts of disease were minor at the temperature extremes. For whole plants exposed to varying dew periods at 20 degrees C and then incubated at 20 degrees C for 7 days, a dew period as short as 1 h resulted in a small amount of disease; however, at least 4 h of dew were required for >10% of the leaves to become diseased. Moisture periods of 24 and 48 h resulted in the greatest number of diseased leaves. In detached-leaf, temperature-gradient-plate experiments, incubation at 22 degrees C resulted in the greatest disease severity, followed by 18 degrees C and then 14 degrees C. In detached-leaf, moisture-tent experiments, a 1-h moisture period was sufficient to cause disease on 67 to 73% of leaves incubated for 7 days at 20 degrees C. A statistical model for disease development that combined the effects of temperature and moisture period was generated using nonlinear regression. Our results define temperature and moisture conditions which allow infection by P. ramorum on Cunningham's White rhododendron, and show that P. ramorum is able to infect this host over a wide range of temperatures and moisture levels. The results indicate that P. ramorum has the potential to become established in parts of the United States that are outside its current range.

  15. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  16. Modeling the contribution of individual proteins to mixed skeletal muscle protein synthetic rates over increasing periods of label incorporation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin F; Wolff, Christopher A; Peelor, Fredrick F; Shipman, Patrick D; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2015-03-15

    Advances in stable isotope approaches, primarily the use of deuterium oxide ((2)H2O), allow for long-term measurements of protein synthesis, as well as the contribution of individual proteins to tissue measured protein synthesis rates. Here, we determined the influence of individual protein synthetic rates, individual protein content, and time of isotopic labeling on the measured synthesis rate of skeletal muscle proteins. To this end, we developed a mathematical model, applied the model to an established data set collected in vivo, and, to experimentally test the impact of different isotopic labeling periods, used (2)H2O to measure protein synthesis in cultured myotubes over periods of 2, 4, and 7 days. We first demonstrated the influence of both relative protein content and individual protein synthesis rates on measured synthesis rates over time. When expanded to include 286 individual proteins, the model closely approximated protein synthetic rates measured in vivo. The model revealed a 29% difference in measured synthesis rates from the slowest period of measurement (20 min) to the longest period of measurement (6 wk). In support of these findings, culturing of C2C12 myotubes with isotopic labeling periods of 2, 4, or 7 days revealed up to a doubling of the measured synthesis rate in the shorter labeling period compared with the longer period of labeling. From our model, we conclude that a 4-wk period of labeling is ideal for considering all proteins in a mixed-tissue fraction, while minimizing the slowing effect of fully turned-over proteins. In addition, we advocate that careful consideration must be paid to the period of isotopic labeling when comparing mixed protein synthetic rates between studies.

  17. PERIOD CHANGES AND FOUR-COLOR LIGHT CURVES OF ACTIVE CONTACT BINARY VW BOOTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.; Li, L.-J.

    2011-05-15

    The secured four-color light curves of VW Boo were analyzed with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney code. It is confirmed that VW Boo is a shallow W-type contact binary system with a degree of contact factor f = 10.8%({+-} 0.5%). Two dark spots were found on the massive cool component this time. They cause an unequal depth of the two maxima. A period investigation based on all available visual, photographic, CCD, and photoelectric data shows that the period of the system includes a long-term decrease (dP/dt = -1.454 x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}) and an oscillation (A{sub 3} = 0.0059 days; T{sub 3} = 25.96 years). These may be caused by mass transfer, angular momentum loss, and cyclic magnetic activity.

  18. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  19. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity – very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  20. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2016-02-08

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity--very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions.

  1. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\...

  2. 75 FR 1301 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Docket No. RM2009-10, Order on Analytical Principles Used in Periodic Reporting (Proposals Three...

  3. Developmental changes in hepatic glucose metabolism in a newborn piglet model: A comparative analysis for suckling period and early weaning period.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Wang, Qinhua; Wang, Jing; Tan, Bie; Fan, Zhiyong; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2016-02-19

    The liver glucose metabolism, supplying sufficient energy for glucose-dependent tissues, is important in suckling or weaned animals, although there are few studies with piglet model. To better understand the development of glucose metabolism in the piglets during suckling period and early weaning period, we determined the hepatic glycogen content, and investigated the relative protein expression of key enzymes of glucogenesis (GNG) and mRNA levels of some glucose metabolism-related genes. During suckling period, the protein level of G6Pase in the liver of suckling piglets progressively declined with day of age compared with that of newborn piglets (at 1 day of age), whereas the PEPCK level stabilized until day 21 of age, indicating that hepatic GNG capacity gradually weakened in suckling piglets. The synthesis of hepatic glycogen, which was consistent with the fluctuation of glycolytic key genes PFKL and PKLR that gradually decreased after birth and was more or less steady during latter suckling period, although both the mRNA levels of GCK and key glucose transporter GLUT2 presented uptrend in suckling piglets. However, early weaning significantly suppressed the hepatic GNG in the weaned piglets, especially at d 3-5 of weaning period, then gradually recovered at d 7 of weaning period. Meanwhile, PFKL, PKLR and GLUT2 showed the similar trend during weaning period. On the contrast, the hepatic glycogen reached the maximum value when the G6Pase and PEPCK protein expression were at the lowest level, although the GCK level maintained increasing through 7 days of weaning period. Altogether, our study provides evidence that hepatic GNG and glycolysis in newborn piglets were more active than other days during suckling period, and early weaning could significantly suppressed glucose metabolism in liver, but this inhibition would progressively recover at day 7 after weaning.

  4. Long period preservation of marine products using electrostatic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Takamasa; Yaegashi, Taro; Yamada, Kazuki; Ito, Takanori; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Aisawa, Sumio; Takaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Shigeyoshi; Syuto, Bunei

    2016-07-01

    The effect of an AC electric field on the freshness of marine products was experimentally investigated. An AC voltage of 10 kV with 50 Hz in frequency was generated with a transformer and applied to a plane electrode set in an incubator. The biological material was the gonad of purple sea urchin. The AC electric field with 50 Hz in frequency was applied to the gonad at -1 °C for 7 days. Freshness was evaluated by measuring protein release and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. The results showed that the protein release and LDH activity in the gonad were suppressed by applying the AC electric field, compared with that without the AC electric field. Moreover, the gonad was treated with the AC electric field at -5 °C for 3 days and then preserved at 0 °C for 1 day without the field. This electrical field treatment of the gonad prolonged the freshness date for more than 10 days under 4 °C preservation condition. In addition, the permeability of the cell membrane was suppressed by applying the AC electric field. Concerning the relationship between permeability and AC electric field, the conformational change of bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by the AC electric field was evaluated on the basis of UV absorption spectra. The results revealed that the secondary and/or higher-order structure gradually changes with preservation period. The conformational change of the BSA molecule was induced by applying the AC electric field.

  5. Periodic Fever and Neutrophilic Dermatosis: Is It Sweet's Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Raheleh; Parvaneh, Nima; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy with high grade fever (39°C) and warm, erythematous, and indurated plaque above the left knee was referred. According to the previous records of this patient, these indurated plaques had been changed toward abscesses formation and then spontaneous drainage had occurred after about 6 to 7 days, and finally these lesions healed with scars. In multiple previous admissions, high grade fever, leukocytosis, and a noticeable increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were noted. After that, until 7th year of age, he had shoulder, gluteal, splenic, kidney, and left thigh lesions and pneumonia. The methylprednisolone pulse (30 mg/kg) was initiated with the diagnosis of Sweet's syndrome. After about 10–14 days, almost all of the laboratory data regressed to nearly normal limits. After about 5 months, he was admitted again with tachypnea and high grade fever and leukocytosis. After infusion of one methylprednisolone pulse, the fever and tachypnea resolved rapidly in about 24 hours. In this admission, colchicine (1 mg/kg) was added to the oral prednisolone after discharge. In the periodic fever and neutrophilic dermatosis, the rheumatologist should search for sterile abscesses in other organs. PMID:25544911

  6. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  7. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  8. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  9. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  10. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  11. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  12. Zopiclone versus nitrazepam: a double-blind comparative study of efficacy and tolerance in elderly patients with chronic insomnia.

    PubMed

    Klimm, H D; Dreyfus, J F; Delmotte, M

    1987-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, comparative trial of zopiclone versus nitrazepam was conducted in 74 geriatric chronic insomniac patients. Following a 7-day wash-out period, two parallel groups, successively received a placebo for 7 days, then either 7.5 mg zopiclone or 5 mg nitrazepam for another 7-day period. Efficacy on sleep was assessed by a sleep analogue scale and the Spiegel Sleep Questionnaire, residual effects by psychometric tests and tolerance by a standardized question, as well as by clinical and laboratory tests. Zopiclone and nitrazepam were more active than placebo on all tests of efficacy. In contrast with nitrazepam, zopiclone was devoid of effect on neurological function. In addition, the condition on awakening was better with zopiclone.

  13. High sensitive reflection type long period fiber grating biosensor for real time detection of thyroglobulin, a differentiated thyroid cancer biomarker: the Smart Health project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quero, G.; Severino, R.; Vaiano, P.; Consales, M.; Ruvo, M.; Sandomenico, A.; Borriello, A.; Giordano, M.; Zuppolini, S.; Diodato, L.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a reflection-type long period fiber grating (LPG) biosensor able to perform the real time detection of thyroid cancer markers in the needle washout of fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A standard LPG is first transformed in a practical probe working in reflection mode, then it is coated by an atactic-polystyrene overlay in order to increase its surrounding refractive index sensitivity and to provide, at the same time, the desired interfacial properties for a stable bioreceptor immobilization. The results provide a clear demonstration of the effectiveness and sensitivity of the developed biosensing platform, allowing the in vitro detection of human Thyroglobulin at sub-nanomolar concentrations.

  14. Sensitivity of measurements of regional brain activation with oxygen-15-water and PET to time of stimulation and period of image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Mullani, N.; Gould, L.K.; Adler, S.S.; Gatley, S.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of oxygen-15- (15O) water uptake with positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive technique to monitor regional brain activation secondary to stimulation paradigms. In order to investigate data acquisition times that show maximal changes in regional activation and to assess the optimal time for stimulus presentation, we investigated 10 controls with 15O-water and PET during baseline and stroboscopic light stimulation. Sequential scans were done varying the time of stimulus presentation. The images were reconstructed using three different periods of data acquisition: uptake phase (initial 30-35 sec), washout phase (40 sec following peak activity in brain), and total activity (3 min). The images reconstructed during the uptake phase showed the largest changes in occipital cortex from stimulation. Maximal changes in occipital cortex were obtained when the visual stimulus was maintained during the uptake phase only.

  15. The atmospheric circulation of ultra-short period exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Lewis, Nikole K.

    2015-01-01

    Even though ultra-short period exoplanets comprise only a small fraction of the total exoplanet population, they present a useful probe into the role of fast rotation rates and small orbital distances on atmospheric dynamics. In this regime, advective timescales are longer than radiative timescales such that the temperature contrasts from dayside to nightside are large (>500 K at photospheric pressures); this strong day-night forcing, coupled with the planet's fast rotation rate (and hence small Rossby deformation radius) yields multiple, narrow (~40 degrees) jets in the atmosphere. Here we will present two cases illustrative of the dynamical regime for ultra-short period exoplanets, and how we can use general circulation models to constrain observations of their atmospheres. First, we will present models of WASP-43b, a Jupiter-mass planet in a 19.5-hour orbit around a K7 star. Because WASP-43b has an equilibrium temperature similar to that of HD 209458b, we can explore the role of rotation rate on the dynamics at a fixed stellar flux. We then compare our models to spectrophotometric observations obtained with HST/WFC3 and show how our 5× solar model provides the best match to the data. Next, we explore the dynamical regime of 55 Cnc e, a 7 Earth-mass, 2 Earth-radius planet in a 0.7 day orbit around a K star. Because smaller planets have a large diversity in possible compositions, we compare hydrogen-, water- and carbon dioxide-dominated models and show how differences in opacity structure lead to differences in temperature structure and circulation. We also demonstrate how future observations can distinguish between these possible compositions of 55 Cnc e, particularly in emission.

  16. Swift Detection of a 65 Day X-Ray Period from the Ultraluminous Pulsar NGC 7793 P13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Ng, C.-Y.; Chun-Che Lin, Lupin

    2017-01-01

    NGC 7793 P13 is an ultraluminous X-ray source harboring an accreting pulsar. We report on the detection of a ∼65 day period X-ray modulation with Swift observations in this system. The modulation period found in the X-ray band is P = 65.05 ± 0.10 days and the profile is asymmetric with a fast rise and a slower decay. On the other hand, the u-band light curve collected by Swift UVOT confirmed an optical modulation with a period of P = 64.24 ± 0.13 days. We explored the phase evolution of the X-ray and optical periodicities and propose two solutions. A superorbital modulation with a period of ∼2700–4700 days probably caused by the precession of a warped accretion disk is necessary to interpret the phase drift of the optical data. We further discuss the implication if this ∼65 day periodicity is caused by the superorbital modulation. Estimated from the relationship between the spin-orbital and orbital-superorbital periods of known disk-fed high-mass X-ray binaries, the orbital period of P13 is roughly estimated as 3–7 days. In this case, an unknown mechanism with a much longer timescale is needed to interpret the phase drift. Further studies on the stability of these two periodicities with a long-term monitoring could help us to probe their physical origins.

  17. 75 FR 7426 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Advance notice of...-789-6820 or stephen.sharfman@prc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background II... approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ The Postal Service labels its proposal ``Proposal One''...

  18. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  19. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  20. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-05-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  1. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Using the forward period analysis (FPA), we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit) solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT) scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested. PMID:27727295

  2. Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Orbitsfor the Standard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, Alberto; Gentile, Guido

    We consider both periodic and quasi-periodic solutions for the standard map, and we study the corresponding conjugating functions, i.e. the functions conjugating the motions to trivial rotations. We compare the invariant curves with rotation numbers ω satisfying the Bryuno condition and the sequences of periodic orbits with rotation numbers given by their convergents ωN = pN/qN. We prove the following results for N--> ∞: (1) for rotation numbers ωNN we study the radius of convergence of the conjugating functions and we find lower bounds on them, which tend to a limit which is a lower bound on the corresponding quantity for ω (2) the periodic orbits consist of points which are more and more close to the invariant curve with rotation number ω (3) such orbits lie on analytical curves which tend uniformly to the invariant curve.

  3. The Stability of Periodic Orbits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-21

    I AOB a7 PRIlNCETON UNIV NJ JOSEPH HENRY LABS OF PHYSICS FD 7/S THE STABILITY OF PERIODIC ORBITS. (U) JAN 81 L SNEDOOM N00014-77-C-0711 UNCLASSIFIE-D...NL I - The Stability of Periodic Orbits Leigh Sneddon* Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08544 ABSTRACT...eigenvalue of the Poincare map passes out through the unit circle at -1 : see Appendix 1) 9,10 are observed and are referred to as subharmonic or period

  4. Spectrum analysis of short-period K index behaviour at high and mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzé, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Geomagnetic activity levels during the declining phase and solar minimum period of the solar cycle are considerably different from those during the solar maximum phase. Previous studies revealed variations in the pattern of recurrent activity from cycle to cycle as well as variations in the average geomagnetic activity levels during a solar cycle. During the declining phase of a solar cycle (and solar minimum), the solar and interplanetary causes of geomagnetic activity are substantially different from those during the solar maximum phase. Co-rotating fast solar wind streams originating from large polar coronal holes, extending towards the Sun's equator, interact with the Earth's magnetosphere, resulting in recurrent geomagnetic activity particularly during solar cycle minimum periods. This is a well-known phenomenon with respect to 27.0- and 13.5-day recurrence geomagnetic activity, and it is well-known to be related to sectorial (non-axial) poloidal magnetic field structure in the Sun. Published results of the recent solar-cycle-23 minimum showed that the presence of 9.0- and 6.7-day recurrent geomagnetic activities can be attributed to the sectorial spherical harmonic structure present in the solar magnetic field. In this study we performed a wavelet and Lomb-Scargle analysis of the geomagnetic activity K index at Lerwick (LER), Hermanus (HER) and Canberra (CNB) for the period between 1960 and 2010, overlapping with solar cycles 20 to 23. Daily mean K indices are used to identify how several harmonics of the 27.0-day recurrent period change during each solar cycle when comparing high and mid-latitude geomagnetic activity, applying a 95% confidence level. In particular the behaviour of the second (13.5-day), third (9.0-day) and fourth (6.7-day) harmonics are investigated by doing a wavelet analysis of each individual year's K indices at each location. Results obtained show that particularly during solar minima the 27.0-day period is no longer detectable above the

  5. Operation of Alaskan Long-Period Array.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-21

    number) The ALPA was operated 24 hours per day, 7 days per week from I July 1975 to 24 May 1976. During this time, the remote site fuel system desilt ...reproduced in appendix 1. Amendment 2 to AFTAC Project Authorization No. VELA T/6707 and a request for a proposal to accomplish the changes set forth in...allowed contract cost/fee adjust- ment not to exceed $20,000 for this work. Our Proposal P-2558 to accomplish the work requested in Amendment No. 2 was

  6. Chaos in Periodic Discrete Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuming; Zhang, Lijuan; Yu, Panpan; Huang, Qiuling

    This paper focuses on chaos in periodic discrete systems, whose state space may vary with time. Some close relationships between some chaotic dynamical behaviors of a periodic discrete system and its autonomous induced system are given. Based on these relationships, several criteria of chaos are established and some sufficient conditions for no chaos are given for periodic discrete systems. Further, it is shown that a finite-dimensional linear periodic discrete system is not chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Wiggins. In particular, an interesting problem of whether nonchaotic rules may generate a chaotic system is studied, with some examples provided, one of which surprisingly shows that a composition of globally asymptotically stable maps can be chaotic. In addition, some properties of sign pattern matrices of non-negative square matrices are given for convenience of the study.

  7. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  8. Nerve growth factor preserves a critical motor period in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Wolansky, M J; Paratcha, G C; Ibarra, G R; Azcurra, J M

    1999-01-01

    We previously found the occurrence of a critical motor period during rat postnatal development where circling training starting the 7-day schedule at 30 days-but not before or after-induces a lifetime drop in the binding to cholinergic muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) in striatum. Here, we studied whether nerve growth factor (NGF) participates in this restricted period of muscarinic sensitivity. For this purpose, we administered mouse salival gland 2.5S NGF (1.4 or 0.4 microg/day, infused by means of ALZA minipumps) by intrastriatal unilateral route between days 25 and 39, and then trained rats starting at 40 days. Under these conditions, NGF induced a long-term reduction in the striatal [3H] quinuclidilbenzylate (QNB) binding sites despite the fact that motor training was carried out beyond the natural critical period. Thus, at day 70, measurement of specific QNB binding in infused striata of trained rats showed decreases of 42% (p < .0004) and 33% (p < .02) after administration of the higher and lower NGF doses, respectively, with respect to trained rats treated with cytochrome C, for control. Noncannulated striata of the NGF-treated rats also showed a decrease in QNB binding sites (44%; p < .0001) only at the higher infusion rate. This effect was not found in the respective control groups. Our observations show that NGF modulates the critical period in which activity-dependent mAChR setting takes place during rat striatal maturation.

  9. Analysis of minimum 7-day discharges and estimation of minimum 7-day, 2-year discharges for streamflow-gaging stations in the Brazos River basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Timothy H.; Asquith, William H.

    1997-01-01

    The 7Q2 is zero for 31 of the 46 unregulated-only stations and for 9 of the 26 regulated-only stations. The 7Q2 also is zero for 9 stations before regulation and for 3 stations after regulation of the 25 stations with both unregulated and regulated data. The 7Q2 ranges from 33 to 631 cubic feet per second for the eight regulated-only stations on the mainstem Brazos River. For the seven stations on the mainstem Brazos River with at least 10 years of unregulated and 10 years of regulated discharge data, the 7Q2 ranges from 0 to 568 cubic feet per second before regulation and from 0.30 to 670 cubic feet per second after regulation. The 7Q2 increased during regulation for 19 of the 25 stations with both unregulated and regulated data. The effect of regulation for most stations generally was an increase in the magnitude of the 7Q2.

  10. Periodic solar wind density structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, Nicholeen Mary

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a specific aspect of the Sun-Earth connection: we show that coronal activity creates periodic density structures in the solar wind which convect radially outward and interact with Earth's magnetosphere. First, we analyze 11 years (1995-2005) of in situ solar wind density observations from the Wind spacecraft and find that periodic density structures occur at particular sets of radial length-scales more often than others. This indicates that these density fluctuations, which have radial length-scales of hundreds of megameters, cannot be attributed entirely to turbulence. Next, we analyze their effect on Earth's magnetosphere. Though these structures are not waves in the solar wind rest frame, they appear at discrete frequencies in Earth's reference frame. They compress the magnetosphere as they convect past, driving global magnetospheric oscillations at the same discrete frequencies as the periodic density structures. Last, we investigate source regions and mechanisms of the periodic solar wind density structures. We analyze the alpha particle to proton abundance ratio during events of periodic density structures. In many events, the proton and alpha density fluctuations are anti- correlated, which strongly argues for either temporally or spatially varying coronal source plasma. We examine white light images of the solar wind taken with SECCHI HI1 on the STEREO spacecraft and find periodic density structures as near to the Sun as 15 solar radii. The smallest resolvable periodic structures that we identify are of comparable length to those found at 1 AU, providing further evidence that at least some periodic density structures are generated in the solar corona as the solar wind is formed. Guided by the properties observed during previous studies and the characteristics established through the work presented here, we examine possible candidate mechanisms in the solar corona that can form periodic density structures. We conclude that

  11. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  12. Enhanced Long Term Potentiation and Decreased AMPA Receptor Desensitization in the Acute Period Following a Single Kainate Induced Early Life Seizure

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Heather; Bernard, Paul B.; Castano, Anna M.; Benke, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are associated with long term disabilities including epilepsy and cognitive deficits. Using a neonatal seizure rat model that does not develop epilepsy, but develops a phenotype consistent with other models of intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we sought to isolate the acute effects of a single episode of early life seizure on hippocampal CA1 synaptic development and plasticity. We have previously shown chronic changes in glutamatergic synapses, loss of long term potentiation (LTP) and enhanced long term depression (LTD), in the adult male rat ~50 days following kainic acid (KA) induced early life seizure (KA-ELS) in post-natal (P) 7 day old male Sprague-Dawley rats. In the present work, we examined the electrophysiological properties and expression levels of glutamate receptors in the acute period, 2 and 7 days, post KA-ELS. Our results show for the first time enhanced LTP 7 days after KA-ELS, but no change 2 days post KA-ELS. Additionally, we report that ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) desensitization is decreased in the same time frame, with no changes in AMPAR expression, phosphorylation, or membrane insertion. Inappropriate enhancement of the synaptic connections in the acute period after the seizure could alter the normal patterning of synaptic development in the hippocampus during this critical period and contribute to learning deficits. Thus, this study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which KA-ELS alters early network properties that potentially lead to adverse outcomes. PMID:26706598

  13. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  14. Geologic periodicities and the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Stothers, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    New geologic and astronomical developments are reviewed that have recently led to the proposal of various Galactic theories to explain the temporal pattern of impact craters on earth. Linear and harmonic time series analyses have revealed that two dominant periodicities about equal to 33 + or - 3 Myr and 260 + or - 25 Myr underlie the geologic record of terrestrial impact cratering and global tectonic phenomena. It is argued that purely terrestrial mechanisms cannot account for the cratering cycles as being preservational artifacts; cratering rather appears to influence tectonism, possibly through perturbations of mantle convection. Galactic models proposed to explain the two long-term periodicities are reviewed critically. The most likely explanation for the 33 Myr cycle involves the comparatively stable half period of vertical oscillation of the solar system about the Galactic plane. The 260 Myr cycle may be related to rare encounters with Galactic spiral arms during the revolution of the solar system around the Galactic center.

  15. Health-promoting compounds in broccoli as influenced by refrigerated transport and retail sale period.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Fernando; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco; Garcia-Viguera, Cristina

    2003-05-07

    Total aliphatic and indole glucosinolates, phenolic compounds (flavonoids and hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives), and vitamin C contents were evaluated in freshly harvested broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., var. italica, cv. Marathon) inflorescences. These were film-wrapped and stored for 7 days at 1 degrees C to simulate a maximum period of commercial transport and distribution. After cold storage, inflorescences were kept for 3 days at 15 degrees C to simulate a retail sale period. For wrapping, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) of 11 microm thickness was used. Gas composition was about 17% O(2) and 2% CO(2) during cold storage and about 16% O(2) and 3-4% CO(2) during shelf life within packages. The predominant glucosinolates were 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), 3-indolylmethyl-glucosinolate (glucobrassicin), and 1-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl-glucosinolate (neoglucobrassicin). The predominant hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives were identified as 1,2,2'-trisinapoylgentiobiose, 1,2-diferuloylgentiobiose, 1,2'-disinapoyl-2-feruloylgentiobiose, and 3-O-caffeoyl-quinic (neochlorogenic acid). Results showed major losses at the end of both periods, in comparison with broccoli at harvest. Thus, the respective losses, at the end of cold storage and retail periods, were 71-80% of total glucosinolates, 62-59% of total flavonoids, 51-44% of sinapic acid derivatives, and 73-74% caffeoyl-quinic acid derivatives. Slight differences in all compound concentrations between storage and retail sale periods were detected. Distribution and retail periods had minimal effects on vitamin C. Weight loss was monitored at the end of both periods.

  16. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  17. Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Erin; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pieracci, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Background. Sigmoid volvulus is a rare complication of pregnancy and the puerperium. Case. A 19-year-old patient, gravida 1 para 0 at 41 0/7 weeks of gestation, admitted for late-term induction of labor underwent an uncomplicated primary low transverse cesarean delivery for arrest of descent. Her postoperative period was complicated by sudden onset of abdominal pain and the ultimate diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. Conclusion. Prompt surgical evaluation of an acute abdomen in the postpartum period is essential; delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:28251004

  18. 76 FR 80312 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... of the Business Reply Mail cost model in periodic reporting of service performance measurement... initiate a rulemaking proceeding to address the current methodology used to develop the avoided cost.... SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to consider new measurement of Flats Sequencing...

  19. A Special Section. College Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Special section includes "True to Format," an editor's guide to periodicals (Robin Goldman); "The Move to Magazine," focusing on format (Patricia Ann LaSalle); "The Fast-paced Alternative," about timely tabloids (Janis D. Gleason, Lynn Donham); and also about tabloids, "Why Don't We Have a Magazine?" (Marsha…

  20. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in... Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposal One), April 6, 2011...

  1. Quantifying periodicity in omics data

    PubMed Central

    Amariei, Cornelia; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations play a significant role in biological systems, with many examples in the fast, ultradian, circadian, circalunar, and yearly time domains. However, determining periodicity in such data can be problematic. There are a number of computational methods to identify the periodic components in large datasets, such as signal-to-noise based Fourier decomposition, Fisher's g-test and autocorrelation. However, the available methods assume a sinusoidal model and do not attempt to quantify the waveform shape and the presence of multiple periodicities, which provide vital clues in determining the underlying dynamics. Here, we developed a Fourier based measure that generates a de-noised waveform from multiple significant frequencies. This waveform is then correlated with the raw data from the respiratory oscillation found in yeast, to provide oscillation statistics including waveform metrics and multi-periods. The method is compared and contrasted to commonly used statistics. Moreover, we show the utility of the program in the analysis of noisy datasets and other high-throughput analyses, such as metabolomics and flow cytometry, respectively. PMID:25364747

  2. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  3. Fast excitation variable period wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    van Steenbergen, A.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; Woodle, M.

    1991-01-01

    The design of an easily stackable, variable period length, fast excitation driven wiggler, making use of geometrically alternating substacks of Vanadium Permandur ferromagnetic laminations, interspaced with conductive, non magnetic, laminations which act as eddy current induced field reflectors,'' is discussed and experimental results obtained with short wiggler models are presented.

  4. Fast excitation variable period wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    van Steenbergen, A.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; Woodle, M.

    1991-12-31

    The design of an easily stackable, variable period length, fast excitation driven wiggler, making use of geometrically alternating substacks of Vanadium Permandur ferromagnetic laminations, interspaced with conductive, non magnetic, laminations which act as eddy current induced ``field reflectors,`` is discussed and experimental results obtained with short wiggler models are presented.

  5. Stability of underwater periodic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu; Kanso, Eva

    2013-07-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates swim by lateral flapping of their bodies and caudal fins. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the flapping kinematics and its influence on the swimming efficiency, little is known about the stability (or lack of) of periodic swimming. It is believed that stability limits maneuverability and body designs/flapping motions that are adapted for stable swimming are not suitable for high maneuverability and vice versa. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of a planar elliptic body undergoing prescribed periodic heaving and pitching in potential flow. We show that periodic locomotion can be achieved due to the resulting hydrodynamic forces, and its value depends on several parameters including the aspect ratio of the body, the amplitudes and phases of the prescribed flapping.We obtain closedform solutions for the locomotion and efficiency for small flapping amplitudes, and numerical results for finite flapping amplitudes. This efficiency analysis results in optimal parameter values that are in agreement with values reported for some carangiform fish. We then study the stability of the (finite amplitude flapping) periodic locomotion using Floquet theory. We find that stability depends nonlinearly on all parameters. Interesting trends of switching between stable and unstable motions emerge and evolve as we continuously vary the parameter values. This suggests that, for live organisms that control their flapping motion, maneuverability and stability need not be thought of as disjoint properties, rather the organism may manipulate its motion in favor of one or the other depending on the task at hand.

  6. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  7. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis associated with multiple sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, A; Santamaria, J

    1999-12-15

    A 24-year-old man with sporadic hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) presented with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness and transitory episodes of weakness which occurred during and after sleep. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) demonstrated the presence of five sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) and a sleep latency of five minutes. Treatment with a diuretic which decreases serum potassium resolved all the clinical symtomps and a new MSLT showed the absence of SOREMPs and a sleep latency of 13.5 minutes. To our knowledge, the patient herein reported is the first case that associates sleep abnormalities and multiple SOREMPs with HPP. Furthermore, the present case suggests that SOREMPs may be explained by an increased extracellular potassium conductance related to HPP.

  8. 12 CFR 390.285 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Audit period. 390.285 Section 390.285 Banks and... Associations § 390.285 Audit period. The audit period of a State savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual audit conducted...

  9. 12 CFR 161.6 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Audit period. 161.6 Section 161.6 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.6 Audit period. The audit period of a savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual...

  10. 12 CFR 561.6 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Audit period. 561.6 Section 561.6 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.6 Audit period. The audit period of a savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual...

  11. 12 CFR 390.285 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Audit period. 390.285 Section 390.285 Banks and... Associations § 390.285 Audit period. The audit period of a State savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual audit conducted...

  12. 7 CFR 1160.113 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fiscal period. 1160.113 Section 1160.113 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.113 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the initial period of up to 30 months that this subpart is effective. Thereafter, the fiscal period shall be such annual period as the Board may...

  13. High endocytotic activity occurs periodically in the endplate region of denervated mouse striated muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, G; Tågerud, S

    1995-08-01

    High endocytotic activity after denervation of skeletal muscle occurs in a proportion of muscle fibers (both slow and fast fiber types) in the endplate region. The present study was performed in order to examine if a periodicity in the endocytotic activity could explain why the process is not observed in all fibers at a given time. Three markers, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), rhodamine B isothiocyanate-labeled dextran, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran were used to demonstrate endocytotic activity of muscle fibers of the denervated mouse hemidiaphragm in vivo. Acetylcholine esterase staining was used in conjunction with HRP uptake to determine the proportion of denervated muscle fibers with endocytotic activity in the endplate region at any one time. The results show that 25-50% of the muscle fibers display high endocytotic activity in the endplate region at a given time 10 days after denervation. The existence of a periodicity in this endocytotic activity is suggested by results obtained using two different endocytotic markers administered at time intervals of 0-7 days. We conclude that loss of contact with the innervating motorneuron induces a high endocytotic activity which occurs periodically in the perisynaptic region of skeletal muscle fibers.

  14. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  15. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  16. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  17. PFAPA syndrome (Periodic Fever, Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis).

    PubMed

    Lee, W I; Yang, M H; Lee, K F; Chen, L C; Lin, S J; Yeh, K W; Huang, J L

    1999-01-01

    not associated with significant long-term sequelae and has a good response to steroids. One patient with atypical PFAPA, who received low-dose steroids for over 1 year, developed intestinal perforation after an increment of the 7-day steroid dose. If an underlying problem requires long-term immunosuppressive medication, it is wiser to choose cimetidine rather than increasing the steroid dosage to resolve atypical PFAPA.

  18. Haemocytic periodicity and periodic disorders: Periodic neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis and anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Hobart A.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated of rhythmic numerical oscillation of each of the blood cells either independently or in combinations. The cyclic changes originate in the marrow of some normal persons and animals without causing illness, and can be induced experimentally. In more than 100 reported instances, periodic oscillations of various cells were accompanied by respective episodes of the disorders named in the title. The disorders may be transitory but usually recur throughout life and occasionally are fatal. All resist therapy. Features in common suggest an interrelationship of the haemal disorders and other disparate heritable periodic diseases. Theoretically, the rhythms are regulated by ubiquitous, inherent, intracellular bioclocks controlled hypothalamically or neurohumorally in relation to a feedback mechanism. Reactions to long cycles are of greater clinical importance than disturbances arising from the circadian rhythm. PMID:4397784

  19. Rotational period of GQ Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, C.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Guenther, E.; Gaedke, A.; Bedalov, A.; Neuhäuser, R.; Walter, F. M.

    2007-06-01

    Aims: We wanted to determine the rotation parameters of GQ Lup A, thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the GQ Lup system. Methods: We have undertaken a photometric monitoring campaign on GQ Lup A consisting of two epochs spaced one year apart. We also searched the photometric archives to enlarge the data set. Results: We were able to determine the photometric period (8.45±0.2 days) in both epochs in several photometric bands. This periodicity could also be found in some of the archival data. The combined false-alarm probability is 0.015. The variation is most likely caused by hot spots on the surface of GQ Lup A. This, combined with high-resolution spectra (v sin i) allows calculation of GQ Lup A's inclination (i=27±5°). Radial velocity data also contains this period but is inconclusive. Nevertheless, the RV data supports the interpretation that hot spots cause the photometric variation. We use the known K-band variability, amplitude, and phase of GQ Lup A together with a new image of GQ Lup A+b, taken quasi-simultaneously with our monitoring of the star, to confirm the magnitude and, hence, luminosity of the companion. Based on observations obtained on Cerro Paranal, Chile, in ESO program 075.C-0710(C) and on La Silla, Chile, in ESO programs 074.C-0034(A),075.C-0710(E), 075.C-0710(F), 075.C-0202(A), 076.C-0010(A) as well as with ANDICAM of the SMARTS consortium. Photometry data of epochs I and II are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/468/1039

  20. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  1. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  2. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  3. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  4. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  5. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  6. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  7. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  8. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  9. Long-Period Solar Variability

    SciTech Connect

    GAUTHIER,JOHN H.

    2000-07-20

    Terrestrial climate records and historical observations of the Sun suggest that the Sun undergoes aperiodic oscillations in radiative output and size over time periods of centuries and millenia. Such behavior can be explained by the solar convective zone acting as a nonlinear oscillator, forced at the sunspot-cycle frequency by variations in heliomagnetic field strength. A forced variant of the Lorenz equations can generate a time series with the same characteristics as the solar and climate records. The timescales and magnitudes of oscillations that could be caused by this mechanism are consistent with what is known about the Sun and terrestrial climate.

  10. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  11. Chronic speciation in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, M G.

    2001-02-01

    Allochronic speciation and reproductive character displacement are two intuitively attractive models of speciation. The first proposes that changes in the timing of life cycles produce new species, whereas the second suggests that speciation is due to the exaggeration of sexual isolation in sympatric populations. Clear examples of either process in nature remain elusive, despite some extensive searches. Two recent studies of mtDNA markers and behaviour of periodical cicadas in North America have identified a new species of cicada that seems to provide good evidence for the involvement of both processes in its origin.

  12. A model for periodic blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobacchi, Emanuele; Sormani, Mattia C.; Stamerra, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    We describe a scenario to explain blazar periodicities with time-scales of ˜ few years. The scenario is based on a binary supermassive black hole (SMBH) system in which one of the two SMBHs carries a jet. We discuss the various mechanisms that can cause the jet to precess and produce corkscrew patterns through space with a scale of ˜ few pc. It turns out that the dominant mechanism responsible for the precession is simply the imprint of the jet-carrying SMBH orbital speed on the jet. Gravitational deflection and Lense-Thirring precession (due to the gravitational field of the other SMBH) are second-order effects. We complement the scenario with a kinematical jet model which is inspired to the spine-sheath structure observed in M87. One of the main advantages of such a structure is that it allows the peak of the synchrotron emission to scale with frequency according to νF ∝ νξ as the viewing angle is changed, where ξ is not necessarily 3 or 4 as in the case of jets with uniform velocity, but can be ξ ˜ 1. Finally, we apply the model to the source PG1553+113, which has been recently claimed to show a Tobs = (2.18 ± 0.08) yr periodicity. We are able to reproduce the optical and gamma-ray light curves and multiple synchrotron spectra simultaneously. We also give estimates of the source mass and size.

  13. Estimating the Distribution of the Incubation Periods of Human Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Virlogeux, Victor; Li, Ming; Tsang, Tim K.; Feng, Luzhao; Fang, Vicky J.; Jiang, Hui; Wu, Peng; Zheng, Jiandong; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Cao, Yu; Qin, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel avian influenza virus, influenza A(H7N9), emerged in China in early 2013 and caused severe disease in humans, with infections occurring most frequently after recent exposure to live poultry. The distribution of A(H7N9) incubation periods is of interest to epidemiologists and public health officials, but estimation of the distribution is complicated by interval censoring of exposures. Imputation of the midpoint of intervals was used in some early studies, resulting in estimated mean incubation times of approximately 5 days. In this study, we estimated the incubation period distribution of human influenza A(H7N9) infections using exposure data available for 229 patients with laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) infection from mainland China. A nonparametric model (Turnbull) and several parametric models accounting for the interval censoring in some exposures were fitted to the data. For the best-fitting parametric model (Weibull), the mean incubation period was 3.4 days (95% confidence interval: 3.0, 3.7) and the variance was 2.9 days; results were very similar for the nonparametric Turnbull estimate. Under the Weibull model, the 95th percentile of the incubation period distribution was 6.5 days (95% confidence interval: 5.9, 7.1). The midpoint approximation for interval-censored exposures led to overestimation of the mean incubation period. Public health observation of potentially exposed persons for 7 days after exposure would be appropriate. PMID:26409239

  14. Genetics Home Reference: hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions hypokalemic periodic paralysis hypokalemic periodic paralysis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a condition that causes episodes of extreme ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions hyperkalemic periodic paralysis hyperkalemic periodic paralysis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is a condition that causes episodes of extreme ...

  16. Decreased AMPA GluR2, but not GluR3, mRNA expression in rat amygdala and dorsal hippocampus following morphine-induced behavioural sensitization.

    PubMed

    Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Bahrololoumi Shapourabadi, Mina; Ahmadi, Shamseddin; Hashemi Bozchlou, Saeed; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Sahebgharani, Mousa

    2008-11-01

    1. Repeated administration of psychostimulants and micro-opioid receptor agonists elicits a progressive enhancement of drug-induced behavioural responses, a phenomenon termed behavioural sensitization. These changes in behaviour may reflect plastic changes requiring regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) receptor function. 2. In the present study, rats were treated for 7 days with saline or morphine (10 mg/kg). After a washout period of either 24 h or 7 days, locomotion, oral stereotypy and state-dependent memory in a passive avoidance test were measured in the presence or absence of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione disodium salt (CNQX; 3 mg/kg), an AMPA receptor antagonist. In order to evaluate the mechanism underlying the behavioural responses, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate mRNA expression of the AMPA receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR3 in the striatum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and amygdala of animals treated repeatedly with morphine. 3. The results indicate that repeated morphine treatment followed by 7 days (but not 24 h) washout produces behavioural sensitization, as determined by locomotion, oral stereotypy and state-dependent memory. Blockade of AMPA receptors with CNQX on the test day did not alter these behavioural responses. In addition, repeated morphine treatment followed by 7 days (but not 24 h) washout decreased GluR2 mRNA expression in both the amygdala (by 50%) and hippocampus (by 35%). Repeated morphine treatment did not alter GluR3 mRNA expression in any brain area assessed. 4. These data imply that AMPA receptors are involved in the development (but not expression) phase of behavioural sensitization. The decreases in GluR2 mRNA expression in the amygdala and hippocampus may result in the formation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors, which are believed to play an important role in behavioural sensitization.

  17. Optimum detection times for bacteria and yeast species with the BACTEC 9120 aerobic blood culture system: evaluation for a 5-year period in a Turkish university hospital.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Gül; Us, Tercan; Aydinli, Aydin; Kiremitci, Abdurrahman; Kiraz, Nuri; Akgün, Yurdanur

    2003-02-01

    We tracked and documented the time of positivity of blood cultures by using the BACTEC 9120 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems) blood culture system over a 5-year study period. A 7-day protocol of the incubation period was selected, and a total of 11156 blood cultures were evaluated. The clinically significant microorganisms (32.95%) were isolated in 3676 specimens. Gram-positive and -negative bacterial isolation rates were found to be 41.07 and 44.88%, respectively. Yeasts were found in 14.03% of all pathogens. Both the false-positivity and -negativity rates were very low (0.1 and 0.3%, respectively). The mean detection times for all of the pathogens were determined to be 19.45 h. Yeasts, nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria, and Brucella melitensis strains were isolated within 5 days. By taking these data into account, we decided to establish a 5-day-incubation protocol in our laboratory instead of the 7 days that are commonly used.

  18. Optimum Detection Times for Bacteria and Yeast Species with the BACTEC 9120 Aerobic Blood Culture System: Evaluation for a 5-Year Period in a Turkish University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Gül; Us, Tercan; Aydinli, Aydin; Kiremitci, Abdurrahman; Kiraz, Nuri; Akgün, Yurdanur

    2003-01-01

    We tracked and documented the time of positivity of blood cultures by using the BACTEC 9120 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems) blood culture system over a 5-year study period. A 7-day protocol of the incubation period was selected, and a total of 11,156 blood cultures were evaluated. The clinically significant microorganisms (32.95%) were isolated in 3,676 specimens. Gram-positive and -negative bacterial isolation rates were found to be 41.07 and 44.88%, respectively. Yeasts were found in 14.03% of all pathogens. Both the false-positivity and -negativity rates were very low (0.1 and 0.3%, respectively). The mean detection times for all of the pathogens were determined to be 19.45 h. Yeasts, nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria, and Brucella melitensis strains were isolated within 5 days. By taking these data into account, we decided to establish a 5-day-incubation protocol in our laboratory instead of the 7 days that are commonly used. PMID:12574291

  19. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  20. A periodic table for cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  1. Water repellent periodic mesoporous organosilicas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendong; Grozea, Daniel; Kohli, Sandeep; Perovic, Douglas D; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2011-02-22

    This paper demonstrates for the first time thermally induced gradual hydrophobization, monitored quantitatively by ellipsometric porosimetry, of four prototypical periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) that are tailored through materials chemistry for use as low-dielectric-constant (low k) materials in microprocessors. Theoretical aspects of this quantification are briefly discussed. A comparison of structural, mechanical, dielectric, and hydrophobic properties of ethane, methane, ethene, and 3-ring PMOs is made. Particularly, ethane, methane, and 3-ring PMOs show impressive water repellency at post-treatment temperatures as low as 350 °C, with corresponding Young's modulus values greater than 10 GPa and k values smaller than 2, a figure of merit that satisfies the technological requirements of future generation microchips.

  2. Nonlinear growth of periodic patterns.

    PubMed

    Villain-Guillot, Simon; Josserand, Christophe

    2002-09-01

    We study the growth of a periodic pattern in one dimension for a model of spinodal decomposition, the Cahn-Hilliard equation. We particularly focus on the intermediate region, where the nonlinearity cannot be neglected anymore, and before the coalescence dominates. The dynamics is captured through the standard technique of a solubility condition performed over a particular family of quasistatic solutions. The main result is that the dynamics along this particular class of solutions can be expressed in terms of a simple ordinary differential equation. The density profile of the stationary regime found at the end of the nonlinear growth is also well characterized. Numerical simulations correspond satisfactorily to the analytical results through three different methods and asymptotic dynamics are well recovered, even far from the region where the approximations hold.

  3. [Effect of pharmacotherapy on course of postoperative period after endovenous thermal ablation].

    PubMed

    Stoiko, Yu M; Mazaishvili, K V; Khlevtova, T V; Tsyplyashchuk, A V; Kharitonova, S E; Akimov, S S

    2015-01-01

    The authors assessed the effect of a micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) on the course of the postoperative period after endovenous thermal ablation (EVTA). The patients of the Study Group matching by the main studied parameters to the Control Group patients were given the MPFF according to the suggested regimen for 7 days. The obtained results were analysed by means of questionnaires (CIVIQ, VCSS, VAS) and ultrasound angioscanning. The obtained findings were statistically processed by means of the program Statistica 6.0 and reliability of the results was assessed with the help of the Student t-test. Patients of the both groups showed complete stable obliteration of the target veins. No statistically significant differences of the items of the questionnaires CIVIQ and VCSS at the beginning of the study and at the last examination were revealed, differences were noted on days 2-14 after EVTA and were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Phlebotrophic therapy in the postoperative period after EVTA helps to decrease phlebitic alterations in the coagulated vein, to improve motor activity and mental psychoemotional state of the patients.

  4. The First Photometric Study of the Short-period Shallow Contact System LO Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Han, Q. W.; Liu, J. Z.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the first complete photometric light curves in the B, V, and R passbands for an eclipsing binary LO Com are presented, and the photometric solution for the LO Com is derived by analyzing these light curves by using the Wilson and Devinney code. From the photometric solution, it is found that the LO Com is a W-type W UMa binary with a mass ratio of q={m}2/{m}1=2.478 and a contact degree of f=(3.2+/- 0.25) % . By combining the two new minimum times with those published earlier in the literature, we have found that the (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation corresponding to a long-term decrease in the orbital period with a rate of {{d}}P/{{d}}t=-1.18× {10}-7 days yr-1. This long-term decrease in its orbital period may be caused by mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one.

  5. An initial experience with a digital drainage system during the postoperative period of pediatric thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Altair da Silva; Bachichi, Thiago; Holanda, Caio; Rizzo, Luiz Augusto Lucas Martins De

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report an initial experience with a digital drainage system during the postoperative period of pediatric thoracic surgery. Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving consecutive patients, ≤ 14 years of age, treated at a pediatric thoracic surgery outpatient clinic, for whom pulmonary resection (lobectomy or segmentectomy via muscle-sparing thoracotomy) was indicated. The parameters evaluated were air leak (as quantified with the digital system), biosafety, duration of drainage, length of hospital stay, and complications. The digital system was used in 11 children (mean age, 5.9 ± 3.3 years). The mean length of hospital stay was 4.9 ± 2.6 days, the mean duration of drainage was 2.5 ± 0.7 days, and the mean drainage volume was 270.4 ± 166.7 mL. The mean maximum air leak flow was 92.78 ± 95.83 mL/min (range, 18-338 mL/min). Two patients developed postoperative complications (atelectasis and pneumonia, respectively). The use of this digital system facilitated the decision-making process during the postoperative period, reducing the risk of errors in the interpretation and management of air leaks. PMID:28117476

  6. Establishing an appropriate period of acclimatization following transportation of laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Obernier, Jennifer A; Baldwin, Ransom L

    2006-01-01

    Stress associated with transportation has widespread effects on physiological systems in laboratory animals, including changes in the cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, central nervous, and reproductive systems. Although short-lived, these changes can confound research if animals are utilized before homeostasis is restored and physiological measures return to normal. Therefore, some period of acclimatization following transportation is generally suggested to restore homeostasis. The following two questions should be considered to establish an adequate period for acclimatization: (1) Will anticipated physiological changes confound the research to be conducted? (2) What is the length of time necessary for confounding physiological changes to normalize? Finding answers to those questions in the literature can be a challenge. Most literature on the physiological impact of transportation involves agricultural animals, although the limited literature in common laboratory animal species generally parallels changes documented in agricultural animals. The literature documents elevated heart rate and weight loss, as well as elevated concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucose, cortisol, free fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism (both lipolysis and lipogenesis) are altered, and plasma osmolality, albumen, protein, and pack-cell volume increase. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia are also evident. These measures generally return to baseline within 1 to 7 days of transportation, although animals that are young, severely stressed, and have stress-sensitive genotypes may show altered physiological measures for several weeks. Other measures such as circadian rhythm and reproductive performance may take several weeks to months to normalize.

  7. Group B streptococcal meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in sub-Himalayan India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Divya; Mokta, Kiran; Kanga, Anil; Grover, Neelam; Singh, Digvijay; Bhagra, Suruchi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate clinicolaboratory profile and the outcomes in children (1 to 59 months) diagnosed with Group B streptococcus (GBS) meningitis over a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of 250 pediatric patients (1 to 59 months) admitted with suspected acute bacterial meningitis(ABM)were subjected to cell count, biochemical profile, culture, latex particle agglutination (LPA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). They were also evaluated for complications and were followed-up till 6 months after discharge. Results: Forty patients (25 boys and 15 girls), 16% of total suspected cases of ABM were diagnosed with GBS by LPA method and 30 (75%) out of these were above 3 months of age. The median duration of hospital stay was 7 days (range 1 to 72 days). State of coma was observed in two (5%) and one (2.5%) died, while 20 (50%) patients recovered completely. Conclusion: GBS should be considered as an important cause of ABM in Indian children beyond the neonatal period and further studies are warranted to determine the actual problem of the disease in our country. PMID:25745315

  8. 7-Day Biodefense: Engineered Nanoparticle for Virus Elimination by Opsonization (ENVELOP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    Pilot batches of liposomes produced by Northern Lipids using this process had the same physical properties as similar batches produced at UCSB and...a lipid anchor to create a glycolipid that could be incorporated into liposomes. Alternatives were to conjugate the carbohydrate to a different...molecules such as sucrose when exposed to protein and lipid surfactants in the airway. The pharmacokinetic profile was not dependent on the liposome

  9. N-Nitroso compounds: Assessing agreement between food frequency questionnaires and 7-day food records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate the intake of these compounds in a US population. To ad...

  10. [Investigation into vegetative regulation of blood circulation during 7-day dry immersion].

    PubMed

    Eshmanova, A K; Luchinskaia, E S; Baevskiĭ, R M

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations into vegetative regulation of blood circulation and regulation modification by peroral amlodipine and myostimulation during 7-d dry immersion. It was shown that in immersion vegetative regulation readjusted towards predominance of the sympathetic mechanisms. Myostimulation and peroral amlodipine modified regulation substantially mobilizing high level suprasegmentary structures. It should be noted that amlodipine and myostimulation differ in mechanisms of their action on central regulation. Pharmaceutical intervention seems to have a more complex and varying effect on people including side-effects. Presumably, it was the cause of poor orthostatic tolerance of several test-subjects.

  11. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal ketamine exposure.

  12. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be counted... and care), or unemployment compensation or disability insurance laws; and (iii) Days of service...

  13. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be counted... and care), or unemployment compensation or disability insurance laws; and (iii) Days of service...

  14. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be counted... and care), or unemployment compensation or disability insurance laws; and (iii) Days of service...

  15. Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli septicemia and meningoencephalitis in a 7-day-old llama.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, N; Couëtil, L L; Clarke, K A

    1998-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were isolated from blood collected on presentation and tissues samples taken postmortem. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid collected antemortem. The importance of passive transfer of immunity, the subtlety of neurologic signs in early meningitis, and considering blood-CSF penetration in antimicrobial selection are discussed. PMID:10051957

  16. 34 CFR 75.251 - Budget periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Budget periods. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education Office...-Year Projects § 75.251 Budget periods. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of not more... multi-year project period, the Secretary: (1) Makes a grant to the project for the initial budget...

  17. 7 CFR 959.16 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 959.16 Section 959.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.16 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the annual period beginning...

  18. 7 CFR 945.12 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 945.12 Section 945.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning and ending on the dates approved by the...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.9 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1230.9 Section 1230.9 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the 12-month period ending on December 31 or such other consecutive...

  20. 7 CFR 947.9 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 947.9 Section 947.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning and ending on the dates...

  1. 7 CFR 948.103 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 948.103 Section 948.103 Agriculture... Rules and Regulations General § 948.103 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 948.10, the fiscal periods for each... following year, both dates inclusive. The 1986-87 fiscal period which began July 1, 1986, will be...

  2. 7 CFR 948.10 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 948.10 Section 948.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.10 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period...

  3. 7 CFR 953.122 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 953.122 Section 953.122 Agriculture... STATES Rules and Regulations Change in Date for Completing Nominations, Term of Office, and Fiscal Period § 953.122 Fiscal period. The fiscal period, pursuant to § 953.9, which began on April 1, 1976, shall...

  4. 7 CFR 956.113 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 956.113 Section 956.113 Agriculture... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.113 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 956.13, fiscal period shall mean the period beginning January 1 and ending December 31...

  5. 7 CFR 958.12 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 958.12 Section 958.12 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.12 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning and ending on the dates approved by the Secretary pursuant...

  6. 7 CFR 946.9 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 946.9 Section 946.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning...

  7. Epigenetics in the perioperative period

    PubMed Central

    Lirk, P; Fiegl, H; Weber, N C; Hollmann, M W

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative period is characterized by profound changes in the body's homoeostatic processes. This review seeks to address whether epigenetic mechanisms may influence an individual's reaction to surgery and anaesthesia. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that epigenetic mechanisms can explain many facets of susceptibility to acute and chronic pain, making them potential therapeutic targets. Modern pain management is still based upon opiates, and both the developmental expression of opioid receptors and opioid-induced hyperalgesia have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms. In general, opiates seem to increase global DNA methylation levels. This is in contrast to local anaesthetics, which have been ascribed a global demethylating effect. Even though no direct investigations have been carried out, the potential influence of epigenetics on the inflammatory response that follows surgery seems a promising area for research. There is a considerable body of evidence that supports the involvement of epigenetics in the complex process of wound healing. Epigenetics is an important emerging research topic in perioperative medicine, with a huge potential to positively influence patient outcome. PMID:25073649

  8. Photometric and Period Investigation of the Late F-type Overcontact Binary II UMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, B.; Kreiner, J.

    2016-03-01

    II UMa is a late F-type (F5) contact binary with a close-in tertiary and a distant visual companion. According to the four-color (B V RcIc) light curves’ solutions of II UMa, it is a high fill-out (f = 86.6%) and low-mass ratio (q = 0.172) contact binary system, which indicates that it is at the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binary stars. The masses of the primary star and secondary star are calculated to be {M}1=1.99{M}⊙ and {M}2=0.34{M}⊙ . The primary star has evolved from the zero-age main sequence, but it still appeared before the terminal-age main sequence, and the secondary star is even more evolved. Considering the mass ratio ({M}3/{M}1=0.67) obtained by spectroscopic observations, the mass of the close-in tertiary is estimated to be {M}3=1.34{M}⊙ . The period variations of the binary system are investigated for the first time. According to the observed-calculated (O-C) curve analysis, a continuous period increase at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=4.88× {10}-7 {day} {{yr}}-1 is determined. The parabolic variation in the O-C curve may be part of a cyclic period of change, or the combined period of change of a parabolic variation and a cyclic one. More instances of minimum light are needed to confirm this. The presence of the tertiary component may play an important role in the formation and evolution of this binary system by drawing angular momentum from the central system during the pre-contact stage.

  9. Metamaterial properties of periodic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ankit

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we show that a 1-D phononic crystal (laminate) can exhibit metamaterial wave phenomena which are traditionally associated with 2- and 3-D crystals. Moreover, due to the absence of a length scale in 2 of its dimensions, it can outperform higher dimensional crystals on some measures. This includes allowing only negative refraction over large frequency ranges and serving as a near-omnidirectional high-pass filter up to a large frequency value. First we provide a theoretical discussion on the salient characteristics of the dispersion relation of a laminate and formulate the solution of an interface problem by the application of the normal mode decomposition technique. We present a methodology with which to induce a pure negative refraction in the laminate. As a corollary to our approach of negative refraction, we show how the laminate can be used to steer beams over large angles for small changes in the incident angles (beam steering). Furthermore, we clarify how the transmitted modes in the laminate can be switched on and off by varying the angle of the incident wave by a small amount. Finally, we show that the laminate can be used as a remarkably efficient high-pass frequency filter. An appropriately designed laminate will reflect all plane waves from quasi-static to a large frequency, incident at it from all angles except for a small set of near-normal incidences. This will be true even if the homogeneous medium is impedance matched with the laminate. Due to the similarities between SH waves and electromagnetic (EM) waves it is expected that some or all of these results may also apply to EM waves in a layered periodic dielectric.

  10. Megadontia, striae periodicity and patterns of enamel secretion in Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Dean, M Christopher; Ramirez-Rozzi, Fernando; Bromage, Timothy G

    2008-08-01

    Early hominins formed large and thick-enamelled cheek-teeth within relatively short growth periods as compared with modern humans. To understand better the developmental basis of this process, we measured daily enamel increments, or cross striations, in 17 molars of Plio-Pleistocene hominins representing seven different species, including specimens attributed to early Homo. Our results show considerable variation across species, although all specimens conformed to the known pattern characterised by greater values in outer than inner enamel, and greater cuspal than cervical values. We then compared our results with the megadontia index, which represents tooth size in relation to body mass, for each species to assess the effect of daily growth rates on tooth size. Our results indicate that larger toothed (megadont) taxa display higher rates or faster forming enamel than smaller toothed hominins. By forming enamel quickly, large tooth crowns were able to develop within the constraints of shorter growth periods. Besides daily increments, many animals express long-period markings (striae of Retzius) in their enamel. We report periodicity values (number of cross striations between adjacent striae) in 14 new specimens of Australopithecus afarensis, Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus boisei, Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis and Homo erectus, and show that long-period striae express a strong association with male and average male-female body mass. Our results for Plio-Pleistocene hominins show that the biological rhythms that give rise to long-period striae are encompassed within the range of variation known for modern humans, but show a lower mean and modal value of 7 days in australopithecines. In our sample of early Homo, mean and modal periodicity values were 8 days, and therefore similar to modern humans. These new data on daily rates of enamel formation and periodicity provide a better framework to interpret surface manifestations of internal growth markings on

  11. Zopiclone and nitrazepam: a multicenter placebo controlled comparative study of efficacy and tolerance in insomniac patients in general practice.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A A

    1987-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerance of zopiclone were compared with nitrazepam and placebo in a multicenter double-blind parallel-group study in insomniac patients. Following a 7-day placebo washout period, 99 patients (age range 20 to 69 years) received oral capsules of 7.5 mg zopiclone or 5 mg nitrazepam or placebo for 2 weeks. During the fourth week all patients received placebo treatment. Sleep assessments by the patients showed that, compared with placebo, zopiclone and nitrazepam improved all sleep measures of efficacy from the first night and that effectiveness was maintained throughout treatment. The physicians global assessment of efficacy also favored zopiclone and nitrazepam over placebo treatment. Subjective morning drowsiness during treatment was significantly less for zopiclone than for either nitrazepam or placebo and represents a clear advantage for ambulatory patients. No rebound insomnia was evident during a 7 day post-treatment withdrawal period for either zopiclone or nitrazepam. Tolerance was good for all treatments.

  12. Man Made Elements Periodic Table, Astronomical Periodic Table, Geographic Periodic Table-Dimitri Mendeleev Imitation in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, J.-T.

    2013-11-01

    A man made elements periodic table, including every single current element not just synthetic elements can be built differently than the naturally occurring element periodic table. Implications for knowing producible elements in space travel.

  13. Association between the Severity of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections and Length of the Incubation Period

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Vicky J.; Feng, Luzhao; Tsang, Tim K.; Jiang, Hui; Wu, Peng; Zheng, Jiandong; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Qin, Ying; Peng, Zhibin; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In early 2013, a novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) virus emerged in China, and has caused sporadic human infections. The incubation period is the delay from infection until onset of symptoms, and varies from person to person. Few previous studies have examined whether the duration of the incubation period correlates with subsequent disease severity. Methods and Findings We analyzed data of period of exposure on 395 human cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in China in a Bayesian framework using a Weibull distribution. We found a longer incubation period for the 173 fatal cases with a mean of 3.7 days (95% credibility interval, CrI: 3.4–4.1), compared to a mean of 3.3 days (95% CrI: 2.9–3.6) for the 222 non-fatal cases, and the difference in means was marginally significant at 0.47 days (95% CrI: -0.04, 0.99). There was a statistically significant correlation between a longer incubation period and an increased risk of death after adjustment for age, sex, geographical location and underlying medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio 1.70 per day increase in incubation period; 95% credibility interval 1.47–1.97). Conclusions We found a significant association between a longer incubation period and a greater risk of death among human H7N9 cases. The underlying biological mechanisms leading to this association deserve further exploration. PMID:26885816

  14. NMR Shielding and the Periodic Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerothanassis, I. P.; Kalodimos, C. G.

    1996-08-01

    The object of this article is to find periodic, structurally significant observables that can be correlated to the nuclear shielding or alternatively to investigate whether chemical shift can be used to intensify the periodic disposition of valence electrons.

  15. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  16. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  17. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  18. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  19. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  20. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  1. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-06-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell's theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks.

  2. Effect of fluconazole on viability of Candida albicans over extended periods of time.

    PubMed Central

    Sohnle, P G; Hahn, B L; Erdmann, M D

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of chronic mycoses may expose the infecting organisms to antimicrobial agents for extended periods of time. It is possible that an azole antifungal drug such as fluconazole, with primarily fungistatic activity in standard in vitro susceptibility tests, might be able to damage the fungal cells and reduce their viability over prolonged incubations under nonproliferating conditions. To test this possibility, Candida albicans yeast cells were exposed to various concentrations of fluconazole in RPMI 1640 tissue culture medium for 4 h at 37 degrees C, washed free of the drug, and then incubated at 37 degrees C for a 28-day period; enumeration of the remaining CFU at various times during this period revealed no increased loss of viability for the fluconazole-exposed organisms. However, when fluconazole was added to the organisms maintained in distilled water (with or without pretreatment with the drug), a marked reduction of viability was found. At 14 days of incubation with two strains of C. albicans, negative cultures were found for 7 of 10 and 10 of 11 samples, respectively, containing 1.0 microgram of fluconazole per ml versus 0 of 10 and 1 of 11 control samples (P of < 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). The effect of fluconazole on fungal viability under these conditions became noticeable at approximately 7 days and was greater when the samples were incubated at 37 degrees C rather than 25 degrees C. These findings suggest that fluconazole may have fungicidal effects on fungal cells during prolonged exposures under conditions in which the organisms are prevented from proliferating by lack of nutrients. PMID:8913476

  3. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  4. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  5. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  6. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  7. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  8. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  9. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  10. Extracting Fundamental Periods to Segment Biomedical Signals.

    PubMed

    Motrenko, Anastasia; Strijov, Vadim

    2016-11-01

    We address the problem of segmenting nearly periodic time series into period-like segments. We introduce a definition of nearly periodic time series via triplets 〈 basic shape, shape transformation, time scaling 〉 that covers a wide range of time series. To split the time series into periods, we select a pair of principal components of the Hankel matrix. We then cut the trajectory of the selected principal components by its symmetry axis and, thus, obtaining half-periods that are merged into segments. We describe a method of automatic selection of periodic pairs of principal components, corresponding to the fundamental periodicity. We demonstrate the application of the proposed method to the problem of period extraction for accelerometric time series of human gait. We see the automatic segmentation into periods as a problem of major importance for human activity recognition problem, since it allows to obtain interpretable segments: each extracted period can be seen as an ultimate entity of gait. The method we propose is more general compared to the application specific methods and can be used for any nearly periodical time series. We compare its performance to classical mathematical methods of period extraction and find that it is not only comparable to the alternatives, but in some cases performs better.

  11. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for the... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section...

  12. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  13. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  14. 8 CFR 244.17 - Periodic registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Periodic registration. 244.17 Section 244... STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.17 Periodic registration. (a) Aliens granted Temporary Protected Status must re-register periodically in accordance with USCIS instructions. Such...

  15. 8 CFR 244.17 - Periodic registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Periodic registration. 244.17 Section 244... STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.17 Periodic registration. (a) Aliens granted Temporary Protected Status must re-register periodically in accordance with USCIS instructions. Such...

  16. 8 CFR 244.17 - Periodic registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Periodic registration. 244.17 Section 244... STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.17 Periodic registration. (a) Aliens granted Temporary Protected Status must re-register periodically in accordance with USCIS instructions. Such...

  17. 77 FR 73452 - Grace Period Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Grace Period Study ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The...Collection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Grace Period Study comment'' in the subject line of the message... are not fully understood. Few studies in the past ten years have dealt with the grace period, and...

  18. About the Solar Activity Rotation Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Zadig

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evidence, from a statistical point of view, the different periods of solar activity. The well known period is that of 150-160 days, but many others were detected between 9 and 4750 days (length of solar cycle). We tabulated 49 articles revealing 231 periods. In order to explain them, different hypotheses were suggested.

  19. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  20. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  1. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  2. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon... an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant differs from an award-specific audit of...

  3. Prebifurcation periodic ghost orbits in semiclassical quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Kus, M. ); Haake, F. ); Delande, D. )

    1993-10-04

    Classical periodic orbits are stationary-phase points in path integral representations of quantum propagators. We show that complex solutions of the stationary-phase equation, not corresponding to real classical periodic orbits, give additional contributions to the propagator which can be important, especially near bifurcations. We reveal the existence and relevance of such periodic ghost orbits for a kicked top.

  4. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  5. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal period. 9901.411 Section 9901... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) and (b) of this section, the appraisal period will be October 1 to September...

  6. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of... estate acquired for future bank expansion. (c) Effect of statutory redemption period. For DPC real...

  7. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  8. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  9. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  10. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  11. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  12. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  13. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon... an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant differs from an award-specific audit of...

  14. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  15. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  16. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  17. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  18. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  19. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  20. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  1. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  2. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  3. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  4. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  5. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  6. 7 CFR 916.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 916.7 Section 916.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and...

  7. Islets of stability beyond period doubling

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, R.S.

    1981-11-01

    Period doubling of a periodic orbit of an area preserving map appears to lead to the elimination of all closed invariant curves in the vicinity. We show, however, that there are always islets of stabilhty again beyond the accumulation point of the period doubling sequence.

  8. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the appraisal....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR...

  9. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  10. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  11. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  12. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  13. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  14. 7 CFR 930.107 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 930.107 Section 930.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.107 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 930.7, fiscal period shall mean the...

  15. 7 CFR 947.114 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 947.114 Section 947.114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.114 Fiscal period. The fiscal period shall begin July 1 of each year and end June 30 of...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.307 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1205.307 Section 1205.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.307 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is the 12-month...

  17. 7 CFR 1250.303 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1250.303 Section 1250.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.303 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the calendar...

  18. 7 CFR 959.104 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 959.104 Section 959.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations General § 959.104 Fiscal period. The fiscal period shall begin August 1 of each year and end...

  19. 7 CFR 953.9 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 953.9 Section 953.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the...

  20. 7 CFR 945.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 945.111 Section 945.111 Agriculture... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 945.111 Fiscal period. The fiscal period that began June 1, 1981, shall end July 31, 1982. Each year thereafter...

  1. 12 CFR 561.6 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit period. 561.6 Section 561.6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.6 Audit period. The audit period of a savings association means the...

  2. Sodium periodate-induced human suppressor cells for polyclonal B cell activation.

    PubMed

    Goust, J M

    1982-09-01

    Sodium periodate (SP) induces proliferation of mature T cells. In this study, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) pretreated for 10 minutes at room temperature with increasing concentrations (0.1 to 5 mM) of SP before culture for 7 days in the presence of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of IgG production, contrasting with an increase in 3H-thymidine uptake. When MNC from 70 normal individuals were pretreated with 1 and 2 mM SP, IgG production in culture was suppressed by 46.8 +/- 4.5% and 60.4 +/- 4.4% (mean +/- S.E.M.), respectively, as compared to IgG synthesis in the presence of PWM alone. Longitudinal studies of MNC obtained from the same normal individuals over 6-10 months showed similar degrees of suppression, indicating that the level of SP-inducible suppressor cell activity remains relatively constant, although the degree of suppression varies among normal persons. Both T cells and monocytes were required for PWM-driven IgG production and for SP-induced suppression. A soluble factor elaborated by SP-treated monocytes was also able to suppress IgG production. This model should provide useful information about abnormal regulation of IgG synthesis in various pathological conditions.

  3. Microarray analysis of human milk cells: persistent high expression of osteopontin during the lactation period

    PubMed Central

    NAGATOMO, T; OHGA, S; TAKADA, H; NOMURA, A; HIKINO, S; IMURA, M; OHSHIMA, K; HARA, T

    2004-01-01

    To continue the search for immunological roles of breast milk, cDNA microarray analysis on cytokines and growth factors was performed for human milk cells. Among the 240 cytokine-related genes, osteopontin (OPN) gene ranked top of the expression. Real-time PCR revealed that the OPN mRNA levels in colostrum cells were approximately 100 times higher than those in PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), and 10 000 times higher than those in PB CD14+ cells. The median levels of OPN mRNA in early milk or mature milk cells were more than three times higher than those in colostrum cells. Western blot analysis of human milk showed appreciable expression of full-length and short form proteins of OPN. The concentrations of full-length OPN in early milk or mature milk whey continued to be higher than those in colostrum whey and plasma as assessed by ELISA. The early milk (3–7 days postpartum) contained the highest concentrations of OPN protein, while the late mature milk cells (1 years postpartum) had the highest expression of OPN mRNA of all the lactating periods. The results of immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical staining indicated that OPN-producing epithelial cells and macrophages are found in actively lactating mammary glands. These results suggest that the persistently and extraordinarily high expression of OPN in human milk cells plays a potential role in the immunological development of breast-fed infants. PMID:15373904

  4. Improving the precipitation accumulation analysis using lightning measurements and different integration periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregow, Erik; Pessi, Antti; Mäkelä, Antti; Saltikoff, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this article is to improve the precipitation accumulation analysis, with special focus on the intense precipitation events. Two main objectives are addressed: (i) the assimilation of lightning observations together with radar and gauge measurements, and (ii) the analysis of the impact of different integration periods in the radar-gauge correction method. The article is a continuation of previous work by Gregow et al. (2013) in the same research field. A new lightning data assimilation method has been implemented and validated within the Finnish Meteorological Institute - Local Analysis and Prediction System. Lightning data do improve the analysis when no radars are available, and even with radar data, lightning data have a positive impact on the results. The radar-gauge assimilation method is highly dependent on statistical relationships between radar and gauges, when performing the correction to the precipitation accumulation field. Here, we investigate the usage of different time integration intervals: 1, 6, 12, 24 h and 7 days. This will change the amount of data used and affect the statistical calculation of the radar-gauge relations. Verification shows that the real-time analysis using the 1 h integration time length gives the best results.

  5. Quasi-Periodically Driven Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdeny, Albert; Puig, Joaquim; Mintert, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Floquet theory provides rigorous foundations for the theory of periodically driven quantum systems. In the case of non-periodic driving, however, the situation is not so well understood. Here, we provide a critical review of the theoretical framework developed for quasi-periodically driven quantum systems. Although the theoretical footing is still under development, we argue that quasi-periodically driven quantum systems can be treated with generalisations of Floquet theory in suitable parameter regimes. Moreover, we provide a generalisation of the Floquet-Magnus expansion and argue that quasi-periodic driving offers a promising route for quantum simulations.

  6. Light period regulation of carbohydrate partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Harry W.

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that the photosynthetic period is important in regulating carbon partitioning. Even when the same amount of carbon is fixed over a 24h period considerably more is translocated out of the leaf under the longer photosynthetic period. This is extremely important when parts of the plant other than the leaves are to be sold. It is also important to notice the amount of carbon respired in the short photosynthetic period. The light period effect on carbohydrate fixation, dark respiration, and translocation is shown in this report.

  7. Latent period in clinical radiation myelopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Higgins, E.M.; El-Mahdi, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    Seventy-seven papers containing data on more than 300 cases of radiation myelopathy have been analyzed. The data suggest that the latent periods are similar in the cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord and are bimodally distributed. Myelopathy of lumbar cord apparently has a shorter latent period. As in controlled animal experiments, the latent period decreases with increasing dose. Furthermore, the variation in latent periods also decreases with dose. It is also seen that retreated patients and pediatric or adolescent patients have greatly reduced latent periods. The implications of these findings as they compare with the animal data are discussed.

  8. Confinement of sows for different periods during lactation: effects on behaviour and lesions of sows and performance of piglets.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, C; Petig, M; Elkmann, A; Gauly, M

    2015-08-01

    Alternatives to farrowing crates with continuous confinement of the sow are urgently needed because the animal welfare is negatively impacted. Given the increase of herd sizes, practical experience with loose-housing is needed to force the implementation of these systems in the field. Next to aspects of labour efficiency, detrimental piglet mortality rates that may occur during the first days postpartum (pp) is a major criticism. Therefore, loose-housing after a crating period limited to the first days pp might be a feasible alternative to improve welfare under intensive production conditions. The aim was to investigate the effect of crating sows during lactation for different periods on their behaviour and integument alterations and on piglets' performance. Gilts from a commercial herd were observed from 5 to 26 days pp and housed in farrowing crates (1.85×2.50 m) that could be altered between confinement crates and loose-housing pens. Animals were divided into three groups, that were either crated continuously from birth until weaning (Group A, n=55), until 14 days pp (Group B; n=54) or 7 days pp (Group C, n=59). The behaviour of six randomly selected gilts per group was video recorded from 5 to 26 days pp and analysed by time sampling technique. Lesions on the legs, shoulder and lumbar vertebra were scored on days 7, 14 and 25 pp. Piglets were weighed weekly, causes of losses recorded and weight losses of gilts measured. Not different between groups (P>0.05), animals spent 72 to 76% lying laterally, 14 to 17% lying in abdominal or semi-abdominal position, 9 to 10% standing and 1 to 3% sitting. B-sows were lying longer in week 3 and 4 of lactation compared to A- and C-sows (P0.05), whereas almost 90% of the losses occurred in the first week pp. In conclusion, loose-housing of lactating gilts after a reduced postnatal crating period of 7 days affected neither the activity level of the gilts and lesions on the integument nor pre-weaning mortality. Therefore, it is

  9. Long Periodic Terms in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretagnon, P.

    1982-01-01

    The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation function. A second approximation was made taking into account the short period terms' contribution, namely the perturbations of first order with respect to the masses. Special attention was paid to the determination of the integration constants. The relative importance of the different contributions is shown. It is useless, for example, to introduce the long period terms of fifth order if no account has been taken of the short period terms. Meanwhile, the terms that have been neglected would not introduce large changes in the integration constants. Even so, the calculation should be repeated with higher order short period terms and fifth order long periods.

  10. A highly specific test for periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ansmann, Gerrit

    2015-11-15

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series.

  11. Coexisting attractors in periodically modulated logistic maps.

    PubMed

    Singh, Thounaojam Umeshkanta; Nandi, Amitabha; Ramaswamy, Ram

    2008-06-01

    We consider the logistic map wherein the nonlinearity parameter is periodically modulated. For low periods, there is multistability, namely two or more distinct dynamical attractors coexist. The case of period 2 is treated in detail, and it is shown how an extension of the kneading theory for one-dimensional maps can be applied in order to analyze the origin of bistability, and to demarcate the principal regions of bistability in the phase space. When the period of the modulation is increased-and here we choose periods which are the Fibonacci numbers-the measure of multistable regions decreases. The limit of quasiperiodic driving is approached in two different ways, by increasing the period and keeping the drive dichotomous, or by increasing the period and varying the modulation sinusoidally. In the former case, we find that multistability persists in small regions of the phase space, while in the latter, there is no evidence of multistability but strange nonchaotic attractors are created.

  12. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  13. Long period coupling terms for Lagrange's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of that portion of the work of Berger, which deals with the long period coupling effect of certain pairs of zonal harmonics. Long period terms arising from the short short period coupling of zonal harmonics are derived for Lagrange's equations. The formulation is general so that the results are valid for any pairs of zonal harmonics. Formulas are given to generate the various functions and integrals needed for the results given. Checks have been made against the work of Kozai.

  14. Do triatomic molecules echo atomic periodicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Hefferlin, R. Barrow, J.

    2015-03-30

    Demonstrations of periodicity among triatomic-molecular spectroscopic constants underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. The objective of this work is to prepare for another test using vibration frequencies ν{sub 1} of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected ν{sub 1} data for molecules formed from second period atoms.

  15. Preparing to perform: periodization and dance.

    PubMed

    Wyon, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the historical and current literature on periodization in sport before applying the concept to dance from scientific and anecdotal points of view. Preparing the dancer through the use of a periodization model, in a professional or vocational setting, will potentially help prevent overtraining and its link to injury, while improving the dancer's readiness to perform optimally. Practical examples of tapering and periodization of training are discussed for companies and vocational schools.

  16. Periodicity In The Intervals Between Primes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    statistically strong periodicity is identified in the counting function giving the total number of intervals of a certain size. The nature of the periodic...positive intervals among the first n<=10^6 prime numbers as a probe of the global nature of the sequence of primes. A statistically strong periodicity is...Let x = x1, x2, . . . be an increasing sequence of real numbers which may be either finite or infinitely long. Throughout the following every bold

  17. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  18. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  19. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  20. The 51-day periodicity in cycle 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of the occurrence rate of major flares (X-ray class greater than or equal to M3.0), we present evidence that the 51-day periodicity was in operation during the interval from May 4, 1991 to November 15, 1992. This periodicity is noted to be two times 25.5 days, which has been proposed as the fundamental period of the Sun.

  1. A Method to Compute Periodic Sums

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-15

    A method to compute periodic sums Nail A. Gumerov∗ and Ramani Duraiswami† Institute for Advanced Computer Studies University of Maryland, College...fast summa- tion algorithms, such as the fast multipole method (FMM), the periodized extension is usually treated via a different algorithm, Ewald...summation algorithm is presented in this paper. The method splits the periodized sum in to two parts. The first, comprising the contribution of all

  2. LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY WITH PARASITIC ELEMENTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The design and measured characteristics of dipole and monopole versions of a log periodic array with parasitic elements are discussed. In a dipole...for the elements to obtain log periodic performance of the anntenna. This design with parasitic elements lends itself to a monopole version of the...antenna which has a simplified feeding configuration. The result is a log periodic antenna design that can be used from high frequencies through microwave frequencies.

  3. Update on Saturn's energetic electron periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, James F.

    2017-01-01

    The periodicities in fluxes of energetic electrons (110-365 keV) in Saturn's magnetosphere were determined from late 2004 to mid-2016. The electron periods were calculated using Lomb periodogram analyses within windows of 200 days at sliding intervals of 10 days, which tracked changes in the periodicity. Sometimes the periodicity showed a clear duality, as in 2007-2008, while at other times the two periods came together so closely as to be indistinguishable, as after equinox in 2010 and in 2015. At still other times, the periodicity apparently vanished altogether, as in 2014. These periodicities generally agreed with those of other phenomena such as the magnetic field and radio emissions. Whether dual or mono, the periods generally remained between 10.58 h and 10.84 h, with two statistical peaks at 10.68 h and 10.81 h. This observation suggests that magnetospheric periodicities at Saturn lie within a limited range of values, which places constraints on the generative mechanism for the phenomena.

  4. NONPARAMETRIC BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuyang; Khardon, Roni; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2012-09-01

    Many astronomical phenomena exhibit patterns that have periodic behavior. An important step when analyzing data from such processes is the problem of identifying the period: estimating the period of a periodic function based on noisy observations made at irregularly spaced time points. This problem is still a difficult challenge despite extensive study in different disciplines. This paper makes several contributions toward solving this problem. First, we present a nonparametric Bayesian model for period finding, based on Gaussian Processes (GPs), that does not make assumptions on the shape of the periodic function. As our experiments demonstrate, the new model leads to significantly better results in period estimation especially when the light curve does not exhibit sinusoidal shape. Second, we develop a new algorithm for parameter optimization for GP which is useful when the likelihood function is very sensitive to the parameters with numerous local minima, as in the case of period estimation. The algorithm combines gradient optimization with grid search and incorporates several mechanisms to overcome the high computational complexity of GP. Third, we develop a novel approach for using domain knowledge, in the form of a probabilistic generative model, and incorporate it into the period estimation algorithm. Experimental results validate our approach showing significant improvement over existing methods.

  5. Non-Periodic Helix TWT Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    IA-A087 413 LITTON SYSTEMS INC SAN CARLOS CA ELECTRON TUBE DIV F/6 9/1 NON-PERIODIC HELIX TWT STUDY.(U) MAY 80 N00173-76C-014 UNCLASSIFIED ML...IEEEEEEmhEEI U-80 - ’l////////,, 11111 128 25 L1. = *""L 1- 1.8 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART ’IT-, ( (NO-PERIODIC HELIX WTSTUDY0 I EXTENSION OF CONTRACT... Helix Circuit 4 - 2 Non-Periodic Helix Structure 7 3 Unwound Tape for Non-Periodic Helix 8 4 Typical Helix Assembly 10 5 Typical Ladder Assembly 11 6

  6. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  16. Dark periodic lattices in nonlinear liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado-Méndez, Edgar; Trejo-Durán, Mónica; Cano-Lara, Miroslava; Huerta-Mascotte, Eduardo; Castaňo, Víctor M.

    2007-11-01

    Experimental evidence of the formation of one- and two-dimensional dark periodic lattices in a negative Kerr-type nonlinear liquid media is presented. Bright periodic lattices propagate throughout two nonlinear liquids [alcohol with rhodamine (R6G), and acetone with R6G] as the negative nonlinear refractive index forms a dark periodic lattice. Our experiments demonstrate that the nonlinearity increases with the optical power and that a proper selection of the period leads to self-phase modulation of the lattice.

  17. On periodicity of solar wind phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, V. K.; Joshi, G. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the rate of occurrence of solar wind phenomena observed between 1972-1984 using power spectrum analysis. The data have been taken from the high speed solar wind (HSSW) streams catalogue published by Mavromichalaki et al. (1988). The power spectrum analysis of HSSW events indicate that HSSW stream events have a periodicity of 9 days. This periodicity of HSSW events is 1/3 of the 27 days period of coronal holes which are the major source of solar wind events. In our opinion the 9 days period may be the energy build up time to produce the HSSW stream events.

  18. [Hypokalemic periodic paralysis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Areta-Higuera, J D; Algaba-Montes, M; Oviedo-García, A Á

    2014-01-01

    Periodic paralysis is a rare disorder that causes episodes of severe muscle weakness that can be confused with other diseases, including epilepsy or myasthenia gravis. Hyperkalemic and hypokalemic paralysis are included within these diseases, the latter being divided into periodic paralysis (familial, thyrotoxic or sporadic) and non-periodic paralysis. In this regard, we present a case of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis in an eighteen year-old female who was diagnosed with epilepsy in childhood, as well as a subclinical hypothyroidism (for which she received replacement therapy) months ago. The diagnosis was made by the anamnesis and the confirmation of hypokalemia.

  19. 40 CFR 91.105 - Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Useful life period, recall, and... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.105 Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods. (a) The useful life for PWC engines is a period of 350 hours of operation or 5 years of use, whichever...

  20. 40 CFR 91.105 - Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Useful life period, recall, and... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.105 Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods. (a) The useful life for PWC engines is a period of 350 hours of operation or 5 years of use, whichever...

  1. 40 CFR 91.105 - Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Useful life period, recall, and... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.105 Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods. (a) The useful life for PWC engines is a period of 350 hours of operation or 5 years of use, whichever...

  2. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... began or ended during World War II, the Korean conflict, the Vietnam era or the Persian Gulf War, if... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  3. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... began or ended during World War II, the Korean conflict, the Vietnam era or the Persian Gulf War, if... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  4. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... began or ended during World War II, the Korean conflict, the Vietnam era or the Persian Gulf War, if... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  5. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... began or ended during World War II, the Korean conflict, the Vietnam era or the Persian Gulf War, if... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  6. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... began or ended during World War II, the Korean conflict, the Vietnam era or the Persian Gulf War, if... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  7. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  8. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  9. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  10. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  11. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  12. The alcohol-sensitive period during early octavolateral organ development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zamora, Lilliann Y; Miguel, Kayla C; Lu, Zhongmin

    2017-01-20

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), completely preventable developmental disabilities characterized by permanent birth defects. However, specific gestational timing when developing organs are most sensitive to alcohol exposure is unclear. In this study, we examined the temporal effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on octavolateral organs in zebrafish (Danio rerio), including inner ears and lateral line neuromasts that function in hearing, balance, and hydrodynamic detection, respectively. To determine an alcohol-sensitive period in the first 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), Et(krt4:EGFP)(sqet4) zebrafish that express green fluorescent protein in sensory hair cells were treated in 2% alcohol for 2, 3, and 5-hours. Octavolateral organs of control and alcohol-exposed larvae were examined at 3, 5, and 7 days post fertilization (dpf). Using confocal and light microscopy, we found that alcohol-exposed larvae had significantly smaller otic vesicles and saccular otoliths than control larvae at 3 dpf. Only alcohol-exposed larvae from 12-17 hpf had smaller otic vesicles at 5 dpf, smaller saccular otoliths at 7 dpf and fewer saccular hair cells, neuromasts and hair cells per neuromast at 3 dpf. In addition, auditory function was assessed by microphonic potential recordings from inner ear hair cells in response to 200-Hz stimulation. Hearing sensitivity was reduced for alcohol-exposed larvae from 7-12 and 12-17 hpf. Our results show that 12-17 hpf is an alcohol-sensitive time window when morphology and function of zebrafish octavolateral organs are most vulnerable to alcohol exposure. This study implies that embryonic alcohol exposure timing during early development can influence severity of hearing deficits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The GTC exoplanet transit spectroscopy survey . I. OSIRIS transmission spectroscopy of the short period planet WASP-43b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgas, F.; Pallé, E.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Nortmann, L.; Hoyer, S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.

    2014-03-01

    Aims: In this work, we use long-slit spectroscopy observations of a transit event of the close-in orbiting planet WASP-43b (Mp = 2.034 MJup, Rp = 1.036 RJup) in an effort to detect its atmosphere. Methods: We used the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) instrument OSIRIS to obtain long-slit spectra in the optical range 520-1040 nm of the planetary host star WASP-43 and of a reference star during a full primary transit event and four partial transit observations. We integrated the stellar flux of both stars in different wavelength regions producing several light curves. We fitted transit models to these curves to measure the star-to-planet radius ratio, Rp/Rs, across wavelength among other physical parameters. Results: We measure a mean planet-to-star radius ratio in the white light curve of 0.15988-0.00145+0.00133. Using broadband filters, we detect the color signature of WASP-43. We present a tentative detection in the planet-to-star radius ratio around the Na i doublet (λ 588.9, 589.5 nm) when compared to the nearby continuum at the 2.9σ level. We find no significant excess of the measured planet-to-star radius ratio around the K i doublet (λ 766.5 nm, 769.9 nm) when compared to the nearby continuum. Combining our observations with previously published epochs, we refine the estimation of the orbital period. Using a linear ephemeris, we obtained a period of P = 0.81347385 ± 1.5 × 10-7 days. Using a quadratic ephemeris, we obtained an orbital period of 0.81347688 ± 8.6 × 10-7 days, and a change in this parameter of Ṗ = -0.15 ± 0.06 s/year. As previous results, this hints to the orbital decay of this planet although a timing analysis over several years needs to be made to confirm this. Photometry is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A41Appendix is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Time periodic solution to the compressible Euler equations with damping in a periodic domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhong; Xu, Qiuju; Wang, Huaqiao

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we consider the existence and uniqueness of a time periodic solution to the three-dimensional compressible damped Euler equations in a periodic domain. By adapting a regularized approximation scheme and applying the topological degree theory, we establish the existence of the time periodic solution under some smallness and structure assumptions imposed on a time periodic force. And based on energy estimates, the uniqueness of the periodic solution is proved.

  15. 30 CFR 735.17 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant periods. 735.17 Section 735.17 Mineral... REGULATORY PROGRAMS FOR NON-FEDERAL AND NON-INDIAN LANDS GRANTS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.17 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally...

  16. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within...

  17. Selecting Full-Text Undergraduate Periodicals Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie M.; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Examines how libraries and librarians can compare full-text general periodical indices, using ProQuest Direct, Periodical Abstracts (via Ovid), and EBSCOhost as examples. Explores breadth and depth of coverage; manipulation of results (email/download/print); ease of use (searching); and indexing quirks. (AEF)

  18. Statistical Inference of the Be Star Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, A. M.

    2007-03-01

    A review of periodicities with different timescales found in photometric and line profile variability of Be stars from visual, UV, and X-ray observations is presented. A distinction is made between what are called "stable" periods, "transient" periods and cyclic variations. Firstly, the report focuses on the intrinsic variability of Be stars. I attempt to distinguish between variations due to non-radial pulsations and those due to corotating magnetic structures at or near the stellar surface. As the rotational period is a critical value for selection of processes giving rise to short-term periodicities, estimates provided by rotational modulation attributes are compared with those derived from fundamental parameters. Then, I give an overview of new spatial instrumentation, which will improve our understanding of the origin and nature of Be stars through analyses of their light curves. Secondly, periodicities with longer time scales are considered. These periods are associated with binary systems. Though binarity is irrelevant to the Be phenomenon in many cases, it cannot be excluded that a significant number of Be stars are formed through binary processes. Thus, periodicities linked to mass transfer or orbital effects are analyzed in an evolutionary scheme. Thirdly, long-term cyclic variations that reflect the dynamical state of Be star disks are briefly reviewed.

  19. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  20. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...