Joye, Sebastien; Gao, Anja; Kayemba-Kay’s, Simon; Cotting, Jacques; Perez, Marie-Hélène
Despite good cover with 7-valent vaccination, invasive pneumococcal infections may still be misdiagnosed and may lead to lifethreatening situations or death in young children. New serotypes are emerging and, therefore, clinicians must keep a high level of suspicion in young children regardless of their vaccination status. We report three cases of invasive pneumococcal infection due to new serotypes not covered by the 7-valent conjugated vaccine, two of which led children to death. PMID:24765491
Joye, Sebastien; Gao, Anja; Kayemba-Kay's, Simon; Cotting, Jacques; Perez, Marie-Hélène
Despite good cover with 7-valent vaccination, invasive pneumococcal infections may still be misdiagnosed and may lead to lifethreatening situations or death in young children. New serotypes are emerging and, therefore, clinicians must keep a high level of suspicion in young children regardless of their vaccination status. We report three cases of invasive pneumococcal infection due to new serotypes not covered by the 7-valent conjugated vaccine, two of which led children to death.
Sinisalo, Marjatta; Vilpo, Juhani; Itälä, Maija; Väkeväinen, Merja; Taurio, Jyrki; Aittoniemi, Janne
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a common adulthood mature B-cell neoplasm. Infections are the most important cause of mortality in this condition, and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been considered the most important single pathogen. We investigated the immunogenicity of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in patients with CLL. The study material comprised 52 patients with CLL and 25 age- and sex-matched controls. The subjects were vaccinated with Prevenar pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Serum samples were taken for antibody determinations before and four weeks after vaccination. Antibody response rates to vaccine antigens were lower in patients with CLL compared to controls. However, if the vaccine had been administered at an early stage of the disease, i.e. before commencement of chemotherapy and the development of hypogammaglobulinaemia, a significant vaccination response to at least six antigens was obtained in almost 40% of the CLL patients. Our results indicate that early administration of conjugate vaccine may be beneficial in CLL.
Zielen, S.; Bühring, I.; Strnad, N.; Reichenbach, J.; Hofmann, D.
There is still a lack of effective vaccination strategies for patients with a deficient antibody response to bacterial polysaccharide antigens. In an open trial, we evaluated the immunogenicity and tolerance of a new 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 22 infection-prone nonresponders to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 21 controls. In the patient group, nonresponsiveness was confirmed by repeated vaccination with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The study protocol provided two doses of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, given 4 to 6 weeks apart, for both groups. The antibody response was determined before each vaccination and on follow-up by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared to the response in a functional opsonophagocytosis assay. Patients showed a significantly lower postvaccination immune response for all serotypes than did controls. The postvaccination response was serotype dependent. A median titer of >1 μg/ml in patients was recorded only for serotypes 4, 9V, 14, and 19F, which are known to be more immunogenic than serotypes 6B, 18C, and 23F. In the patient group, 70% responded to serotype 19F (Pnc 19F), 65% responded to Pnc 14 and 4, 60% responded to Pnc 9V, 55% responded to Pnc 18C, 50% responded to Pnc 23F, and 25% responded to Pnc 6B. In the control group >95% of individuals showed a titer of >1 μg/ml to every serotype. The vaccine was tolerated well, and no major side effects have been reported. The new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is clearly more immunogenic in previous nonresponders than is the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. Immunization with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine should be considered as a strategy to protect high-risk patients. PMID:10678957
Background In 2001 when 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced, almost all (90%) young Australian Indigenous children living in remote communities had some form of otitis media (OM), including 24% with tympanic membrane perforation (TMP). In late 2009, the Northern Territory childhood vaccination schedule replaced PCV7 with 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10). Methods We conducted regular surveillance of all forms of OM in children in remote Indigenous communities between September 2008 and December 2012. This analysis compares children less than 36 months of age who received a primary course of at least two doses of PCV7 or PHiD-CV10, and not more than one dose of another pneumococcal vaccine. Results Mean ages of 444 PCV7- and 451 PHiD-CV10-vaccinated children were 20 and 18 months, respectively. Bilaterally normal middle ears were detected in 7% and 9% respectively. OM with effusion was diagnosed in 41% and 51% (Risk Difference 10% [95% Confidence Interval 3 to 17] p = 0.002), any suppurative OM (acute OM or any TMP) in 51% versus 39% (RD −12% [95% CI −19 to −5] p = 0.0004], and TMP in 17% versus 14% (RD −3% [95% CI −8 to 2] p = 0.2), respectively. Multivariate analyses described a similar independent negative association between suppurative OM and PHiD-CV10 compared to PCV7 (Odds Ratio = 0.6 [95% CI 0.4 to 0.8] p = 0.001). Additional children in the household were a risk factor for OM (OR = 2.4 [95% CI 2 to 4] p = 0.001 for the third additional child), and older age and male gender were associated with less disease. Other measured risk factors were non-significant. Similar clinical results were found for children who had received non-mixed PCV schedules. Conclusions Otitis media remains a significant health and social issue for Australian Indigenous children despite PCV vaccination. Around 90% of young children have some form of OM. Children vaccinated
Johnstone, Jennie; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Marrie, Thomas J; Garg, Sipi; Kellner, James D
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, microbiology and outcomes of patients of all ages with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis two years pre- and postintroduction of a S pneumoniae 7-valent conjugate vaccine program in Alberta in children <2 years of age. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2004, all cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in Alberta were identified. From this cohort, patients with S pneumoniae meningitis were identified by chart review. Clinical data, laboratory data and in-hospital outcomes were collected. RESULTS: Of the 1768 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease identified between 2000 and 2004, 110 (6.2%) had S pneumoniae meningitis. The overall incidence was 0.7 per 100,000 persons and remained unchanged over the study period. The rate in children <2 years of age appeared to fall over time, from 10.5 per 100,000 persons in 2000 to five per 100,000 persons in 2004, although there was insufficient evidence of a statistically significant time trend within any age group. Overall, the mean age was 30 years and 47% were male. In-hospital mortality was 20%, ranging from 6% in those ≤2 years of age to 31% for those ≥18 years of age, despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy. CONCLUSION: The high mortality rate associated with S pneumoniae meningitis suggests that prevention by vaccination is critical. In children <2 years of age, there was a downward trend in the rate of S pneumoniae meningitis after implementation of the S pneumoniae 7-valent conjugate vaccine program, but rates were still high. PMID:23205025
Sohn, Hyun Soon; Suh, Dong-Churl; Jang, Eunjin; Kwon, Jin-Won
Streptococcus pneumoniae (sp) is a leading cause of invasive and noninvasive bacterial disease in children. 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, and otitis media. Although PCV-7 was introduced in Korea in 2003, it is not yet included in the universal immunization program. To evaluate the health outcomes, costs, and cost-effectiveness of universal vaccination with PCV-7 in Korean infants and to estimate the break-even price for PCV-7 from a societal perspective. A decision analytic model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of immunization with PCV-7 in a birth cohort of Korean infants born in 2006. A universal vaccination strategy was compared with no vaccination in terms of costs and life years gained (LYG) over a 5-year time horizon. The birth cohort size, incidence of disease, resource utilization, and associated costs were obtained from the Korea National Statistical Office, the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. Inputs on the probabilities of clinical treatment pathways (e.g., tympanostomy) were derived from international literature if data specific to Korea did not exist. To estimate the benefits of universal immunization, the serotype-specific efficacy of PCV-7 was derived from studies conducted by Northern California Kaiser Permanente and by the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Study and applied to the serotypes isolated in Korean children with sp infections. The effects of vaccination on quality of life, herd immunity, benefits after the first 5 years of life, and patient copayments were not considered. A 4-dose schedule was used in the base-case analysis. A 3-dose schedule was also evaluated. The assumed price per dose was Korean won (KW) 70,000 (approximately US$54; 2009 exchange rate US$1 = KW1
Munson, Samantha; Raluy-Callado, Mireia; Lambrelli, Dimitra; Wasiak, Radek; Eriksson, Daniel; Gray, Sharon
This population-based, retrospective study quantified the rates of all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis and septicemia in Norway from 2008 to 2009 and determined the proportions of cases caused by pneumococcal vaccine serotypes. Data on patients with all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis and septicemia were obtained from the Norwegian Patient Registry, which collects hospitalization data from all Norwegian public hospitals based on International Classification of Diseases codes. Norwegian Patient Registry case records linked to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases provided serotype data for invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with microbiological cultures. In 2008 and 2009, hospitalization rates were relatively stable for all-cause pneumonia (5.28 and 5.35, respectively, per 1000), meningitis (10.70 and 9.67, respectively, per 100,000), and septicemia (from 171.81 to 161.46 per 100,000). In contrast, rates decreased for International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosed pneumococcal pneumonia (from 13.66 to 10.52 per 100,000), although these cases may be under-reported because of inclusion in all-cause pneumonia. Rates also decreased in diagnosed pneumococcal meningitis (from 1.60 to 1.19 per 100,000) and diagnosed pneumococcal septicemia (from 9.08 to 7.94 per 100,000). Diagnosed pneumococcal disease rates were highest in younger children and older adults, peaking at ⩾ 60 years old. Pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis and septicemia caused by serotypes included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine decreased substantially during the study period, with corresponding serotype replacement by non-7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes. From 2008 to 2009, International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosed pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis and septicemia decreased in most age groups but remained greatest among subjects aged 0-1 and ⩾ 60 years. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Tashani, Mohamed; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Harboe, Zitta B; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert
AIM To investigate evidence of clinical protection in infants after one dose of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) owing to carrier priming. METHODS Using Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System data, we conducted a descriptive analysis of cases of vaccine type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD) during “catch-up” years, when 7vPCV was carrier primed by prior administration of DTPa vaccine. We compared the number of VT-IPD cases occurring 2-9 wk after a single dose of 7vPCV (carrier primed), with those < 2 wk post vaccination, when no protection from 7vPCV was expected yet. Further comparison was conducted to compare the occurrence of VT-IPD cases vs non-VT-IPD cases after a single carrier-primed dose of 7vPCV. RESULTS We found four VT-IPD cases occurring < 2 wk after one carrier primed dose of 7vPCV while only one case occurred 2-9 wk later. Upon further comparison with the non-VT-IPD cases that occurred after one carrier primed dose of 7vPCV, two cases were detected within 2 wk, whereas seven occurred within 2-9 wk later; suggesting a substantial level of protection from VT-IPD occurring from 2 wk after carrier-primed dose of 7vPCV. CONCLUSION This data suggest that infants may benefit from just one dose of 7vPCV, likely through enhanced immunity from carrier priming effect. If this is proven, an adjusted 2-dose schedule (where the first dose of PCV is not given until after DTPa) may be sufficient and more cost-effective. PMID:27610348
Cost-effectiveness and Health Benefits of Pediatric 23-valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine, 7-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Forecasting 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in China.
Mo, Xiuting; Gai Tobe, Ruoyan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Mori, Rintaro
Each year in China, approximately 700,000 children under 5 years old are diagnosed with pneumonia, and 30,000 die of the disease. Although 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) are available in China, the costs are borne by the consumer, resulting in low coverage for PCV-7. We aimed to conduct a simulation study to assess the cost-effectiveness and health benefits of PCV-7, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and PPV-23 to prevent childhood pneumonia and other vaccine-preventive diseases in China. An economic evaluation was performed using a Markov simulation model. Parameters including demographic, epidemiological data, costs and efficacy of vaccines were obtained from previous studies. A hypothetical cohort of 100,000 newborns (focusing on pneumococcal diseases ≤7 years old) was followed up until death or 100 years of age. The model incorporated the impact of vaccination on reduction of incidence of pneumococcal diseases and mortality of children ≤7 years. Outcomes are presented in terms of disease cases averted, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Under baseline assumptions, PPV-23 is currently the only cost-effective option, whereas PCV-13 showed the greatest impact on pneumococcal disease burden, reducing invasive pneumococcal diseases by 31.3%, pneumonia by 15.3% and gaining 73.8 QALYs (10,000 individuals at discount rate of 3%). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of PCV-13 and PCV-7 are US$29,460/QALY and US$104,094/QALY, respectively, showing no cost-effectiveness based on the World Health Organization recommended willingness-to-pay threshold. On the other hand, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of PCVs were most sensitive to vaccination costs; if it reduces 4.7% and 32.2% for PCV-7 and PCV-13, respectively, the vaccination will be cost-effective. To scale up current vaccination strategies and achieve potential health
Background After the implementation of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), in several countries, serotype 19A is now the serotype most frequently involved in pneumococcal diseases and carriage. To determine factors potentially related to 19A nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage we analyzed data from an ongoing prospective French national surveillance study of pneumococcal NP carriage in young children. Methods NP swabs were obtained from children aged 6 to 24 months, either during routine check-ups with normal findings, or when they presented with acute otitis media (AOM). The swabs were sent for analysis to the French National Reference Centre for Pneumococci. Factors influencing pneumococcal carriage and carriage of penicillin non-susceptible (PNSP), 19A and PNS-19A were investigated by multivariate logistic regression. Results From 2006 to 2009, 66 practitioners enrolled 3507 children (mean age 13.6 months), of whom, 98.3% of children had been vaccinated with PCV7 and 33.4% of children attended daycare centres (DCC). Serotype 19A was found in 10.4% of the overall population, 20.5% of S. pneumoniae carriers (n = 1780) and 40.8% of PNSP carriers (n = 799). Among 19A strains, 10.7% were penicillin-susceptible, 80% intermediate and 9.3% fully resistant. Logistic regression analysis showed that the main factors associated with PNSP carriage were AOM (OR = 3.09, 95% CI [2.39;3.98]), DCC (OR = 1.70, 95% CI [1.42;2.03]), and recent antibiotic use (OR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.05;1.47]. The main factors predictive of 19A carriage were recent antibiotic use (OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.42;2.30]), AOM (OR = 1.67, 95% CI [1.11;2.49]), DCC (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.21;2.2] and young age, <12 months (OR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.16;1.97]). Conclusion In a population of children aged from 6 to 24 months with a high rate of PCV7 vaccination coverage, we found that antibiotic exposure, DCC attendance and AOM were linked to 19A carriage. PMID:21501471
Carlin, JB; Chang, AB; Torzillo, PJ; Nolan, TM; Ruben, A; Andrews, RM
Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in preventing pneumonia, diagnosed radiologically according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, among indigenous infants in the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods We conducted a historical cohort study of consecutive indigenous birth cohorts between 1 April 1998 and 28 February 2005. Children were followed up to 18 months of age. The PCV7 programme commenced on 1 June 2001. All chest X-rays taken within 3 days of any hospitalization were assessed. The primary endpoint was a first episode of WHO-defined pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare disease incidence. Findings There were 526 pneumonia events among 10 600 children – an incidence of 3.3 per 1000 child-months; 183 episodes (34.8%) occurred before 5 months of age and 247 (47.0%) by 7 months. Of the children studied, 27% had received 3 doses of vaccine by 7 months of age. Hazard ratios for endpoint pneumonia were 1.01 for 1 versus 0 doses; 1.03 for 2 versus 0 doses; and 0.84 for 3 versus 0 doses. Conclusion There was limited evidence that PCV7 reduced the incidence of radiologically confirmed pneumonia among Northern Territory indigenous infants, although there was a non-significant trend towards an effect after receipt of the third dose. These findings might be explained by lack of timely vaccination and/or occurrence of disease at an early age. Additionally, the relative contribution of vaccine-type pneumococcus to severe pneumonia in a setting where multiple other pathogens are prevalent may differ with respect to other settings where vaccine efficacy has been clearly established. PMID:20428371
13-valent-pneumococcal conjugated vaccine was recently approved in the USA and Europe for adults 50 years of age or more. But this approval was followed by recommendations limiting its use to immunocompromised and asplenic patients. The extension of indications to adults was based on the well-demonstrated clinical effectiveness in infants less than 2 years of age, and on a better immune response either quantitatively or qualitatively with conjugated vaccines compared to the immunogenicity of plain polysaccharide vaccines. Nevertheless, the issue was to know whether results observed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children are reproducible in adults with the 13-valent. The answer was given by comparing the epidemiological and physiopathological data, and the immunological response of the two populations. Very few clinical effectiveness studies in adults are available. We had for aim to assess these various issues in infants and adults. A lot of questions remain, such as the unknown impact of serotype replacement with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine on the clinical epidemiology and emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenicity, while waiting for the CAPITA study results expected in 2014.
Godot, Cécile; Levy, Corinne; Varon, Emmanuelle; Picard, Capucine; Madhi, Fouad; Cohen, Robert
We collected cases of pneumococcal meningitis vaccine breakthrough (VBT) and vaccine failure (VF) from 2003 to 2013 after the implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in France. VBT accounted for 3.2% of the cases (PCV7 era: 24 of 943, PCV13 era: 15 of 290) and VF 0.6% (PCV7 era: 6 of 943, PCV13 era: 2 of 290). VBT and VF are rare and occur in most cases in children younger than 2 years. The serotype 19F was the most frequent cause even after the introduction of PCV13.
Elberse, Karin E M; van der Heide, Han G J; Witteveen, Sandra; van de Pol, Ingrid; Schot, Corrie S; van der Ende, Arie; Berbers, Guy A M; Schouls, Leo M
The implementation of nationwide pneumococcal vaccination may lead to alterations in the pneumococcal population due to selective pressure induced by the vaccine. To monitor such changes, pneumococcal isolates causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) before (2004-2005, n=1154) and after (2008-2009, n=1190) the implementation of the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in 2006 in the national immunization program (NIP) of The Netherlands were characterized by molecular typing using multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and capsular sequence typing (CST). The IPD incidence after the implementation of PCV7 in children <5 years of age declined, mainly due to an impressive reduction of cases caused by vaccine serotypes. In the age group of patients ≥5 years of age, the overall IPD incidence remained constant, but the IPD incidence due to vaccine serotypes declined in this age cohort as well, indicating herd immunity. IPD incidence of non-vaccine serotypes 1 and 22F isolates increased significantly and a shift in genetic background of the isolates belonging to these serotypes was observed. In general the composition of the pneumococcal population remained similar after the introduction of PCV7. Both before and after introduction of the vaccine several possible capsular switch events were noticed. We found 4 isolates from the pre-vaccination period in which the serotype 19F capsular locus had been horizontally transferred to a different genetic background. Remarkably, none of the 5 post-vaccination isolates in which we observed possible capsule switch belonged to the 19F serotype, possibly due to vaccine induced pressure. In the post-vaccine implementation period we found no evidence for capsular switch of a vaccine serotype to a non-vaccine serotype, indicating that capsular switch is not the main driving force for replacement. This study provides insights into the effects of nationwide vaccination on the pneumococcal population causing IPD.
French, Neil; Gordon, Stephen B; Mwalukomo, Thandie; White, Sarah A; Mwafulirwa, Gershom; Longwe, Herbert; Mwaiponya, Martin; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Gilks, Charles F
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading and serious co-infection of HIV-infected adults, particularly in Africa. Prevention of disease by vaccination with the current 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine is sub-optimal. Protein conjugate vaccines offer a further option for protection but no data exist on their clinical efficacy in any adult population. Methods: We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical efficacy trial of the seven-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in predominantly HIV-infected Malawian adults who had recovered from documented invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Vaccine was given as a two dose schedule four weeks apart. The primary end-point was a further episode of IPD caused by a vaccine-serotype or serotype-6A (VST/6A) pneumococcus. Results: Between February 2003 and October 2007, 496 individuals (44% male, 88% HIV seropositive) were followed for 798 person years of observation. There were 67 IPD events in 52 individuals, all in the HIV infected sub-group. There were 24 VST/6A events (19 VST, five 6A) in 24 participants, 5 in vaccine and 19 in the placebo recipients, a vaccine efficacy of 74% (95% CI 30% - 90%). There were 73 deaths in the vaccine arm and 63 in the placebo arm, Hazard Ratio 1.18 (95% confidence intervals 0.84 -1.66). Compared to placebo, serious adverse events were significantly lower (3 vs 17, p = 0.002) and minor adverse events significantly higher (41 vs 13, p = 0.003 ) in vaccine recipients. Conclusions: The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protects HIV infected adults from recurrent IPD of vaccine serotype or serotype 6A. PMID:20200385
Mo, Xiuting; Tobe, Ruoyan Gai; Liu, Xiaoyan; Mori, Rintaro
Each year in China, approximately 700,000 children under 5 years old are diagnosed with pneumonia, and 30,000 die from the disease. Although 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) are available in China, the costs are borne by the consumer, resulting in low coverage for PCV-7. We aimed to conduct a simulation study to assess the cost-effectiveness and health benefits of PCV-7, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and PPV-23 to prevent childhood pneumonia and other vaccine-preventive diseases in China. An economic evaluation was performed using a Markov simulation model. Parameters including demographic, epidemiological data, costs and efficacy of vaccines were obtained from previous studies. A hypothetical cohort of 100,000 newborns (focusing on pneumococcal diseases ≤7 years old) was followed up until death or 100 years of age. The model incorporated the impact of vaccination on reduction of incidence of pneumococcal diseases and mortality of children ≤7 years. Outcomes are presented in terms of disease cases averted, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Under baseline assumptions, PPV-23 is currently the only cost-effective option, while PCV-13 showed the greatest impact on pneumococcal disease burden, reducing invasive pneumococcal diseases by 31.3%, pneumonia by 15.3% and gaining 73.8 QALYs (10,000 individuals at discount rate of 3%). ICERs of PCV-13 and PCV-7 are US$29,460/QALY and US$104,094/QALY, respectively, showing no cost-effectiveness based on the World Health Organization recommended willingness-to-pay threshold. On the other hand, the ICERs of PCVs were most sensitive to vaccination costs: if it reduces 4.7% and 32.2% for PCV-7 and PCV-13 respectively, the vaccination will be cost-effective. To scale up current vaccination strategies and achieve potential health benefits, the replacement of PCV-7 with PCV-13 should be
Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Hong, Jung Yun; Lee, Hyunju; Kwak, Ga Young; Nam, Chan Hee; Lee, Soo Young; Oh, Eunsang; Yu, Jigui; Nahm, Moon H; Kang, Jin Han
To confirm the effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), pneumococcal nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage was compared between vaccinated (3 + 1 doses PCV7) and non-vaccinated children. Vaccinated subjects were recruited from highly vaccinated regions (≥ 60%), Seoul and Incheon whereas control subjects were recruited from Jeju Island where vaccination rates are low (< 15%). NP swabs were obtained from 400 children aged 18-59 months. Serotype and antibiotic susceptibility was analyzed. Pneumococcal carriage rate was 18.0% (36/200) and 31.5% (63/200) for the vaccinated and control group, respectively. Among those vaccinated, 41.7% (15/36) of the serotypes were vaccine-related type (VRT: 6A, 6C, 19A) with the most common serotype 6C. The next common type was non-typable/non-capsule 30.6% (11/36) followed by non-vaccine type 16.7% (6/36) and vaccine type (VT) serotypes were found in only 11.1% (4/36). In contrast, 52.4% (33/63) of the isolates in the control group were VT. Resistance rates for penicillin and erythromycin were lower in the vaccine group (vaccine vs control; penicillin 45.2% vs 71.4%, erythromycin 74.2% vs 90.5%, P < 0.05). Multi-drug resistance was also lower in vaccinated subjects (vaccine vs control; 45.2% vs 69.8%, P < 0.05). PCV7 reduces carriage in VT which leads to replacement of pneumococci by antibiotic susceptible VRT or non-vaccine type strains.
Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products
May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen; Arciniega, Juan
Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.
Hamaluba, Mainga; Kandasamy, Rama; Ndimah, Susan; Morton, Richard; Caccamo, Marisa; Robinson, Hannah; Kelly, Sarah; Field, Aimee; Norman, Lily; Plested, Emma; Thompson, Ben A.V.; Zafar, Azhar; Kerridge, Simon A.; Lazarus, Rajeka; John, Tessa; Holmes, Jane; Fenlon, Shannon N.; Gould, Katherine A.; Waight, Pauline; Hinds, Jason; Crook, Derrick; Snape, Matthew D.; Pollard, Andrew J.
Abstract Using nasopharyngeal carriage as a marker of vaccine impact, pneumococcal colonization and its relation to invasive disease were examined in children, their parents, and older adults in the United Kingdom following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and prior to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, collecting nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 25 to 55 months who had previously received 3 doses of PCV7, their parents, and adults aged ≥65 years. Pneumococcal serotyping was conducted according to World Health Organization guidelines with nontypeable isolates further analyzed by molecular serotyping. A national invasive disease surveillance program was conducted throughout the corresponding period. Pneumococcus was isolated from 47% of children, 9% of parents, and 2.2% of older adults. For these groups, the percentage of serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 15.4%, with a further 20.1%, 44.4%, and 7.7% coverage added by those in PCV13. In each group, the percentage of disease due to serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.0%, 7.4% and 5.1% with a further 65.3%, 42.1%, and 61.4% attributed to those in PCV13. The prevalence of carriage is the highest in children, with direct vaccine impact exemplified by low carriage and disease prevalence of PCV7 serotypes in vaccinated children, whereas the indirect effects of herd protection are implied by similar observations in unvaccinated parents and older adults. PMID:25569650
Background Several studies have investigated the impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal (Sp) and staphylococcal (Sa) nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage. Few have investigated the impact on Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) carriage. We aimed to compare the NP carriage rates in young children with acute otitis media (AOM) before and after PCV7 implementation in France. Methods Prior to PCV7 implementation, we performed 4 successive randomized trials with NP samples. These studies compared several antibiotic regimens for treating AOM in young children (6 to 30 months). After PCV7 implementation, to assess the impact of the vaccination program on NP flora, young children with AOM were enrolled in a prospective surveillance study. In each study, we obtained an NP sample to analyze the carriage rates of Sp, Hi, Mc and Sa and the factors influencing the carriage. Standardized history and physical examination findings were recorded; the methods used for NP swabs (sampling and cultures) were the same in all studies. Results We enrolled 4,405 children (mean age 13.9 months, median 12.8). Among the 2,598 children enrolled after PCV7 implementation, 98.3% were vaccinated with PCV7. In comparing the pre- and post-PCV7 periods, we found a slight but non-significant decrease in carriage rates of pneumococcus (AOR = 0.85 [0.69;1.05]), H. influenzae (AOR = 0.89 [0.73;1.09]) and S. aureus (AOR = 0.92 [0.70;1.19]). By contrast, the carriage rate of M. catarrhalis increased slightly but not significantly between the 2 periods (AOR = 1.08 [0.95;1.2]). Among Sp carriers, the proportion of PCV7 vaccine types decreased from 66.6% to 10.7% (P < 0.001), penicillin intermediate-resistant strains increased from 30.3% to 43.4% (P < 0.001), and penicillin-resistant strains decreased greatly from 22.8% to 3.8% (P < 0.001). The proportion of Hi ß-lactamase-producing strains decreased from 38.6% to 17.1% (P < 0.001). Conclusion The carriage
Rivera-Olivero, Ismar A; Del Nogal, Berenice; Fuentes, Mariana; Cortez, Rossana; Bogaert, Debby; Hermans, Peter W M; Waard, Jacobus H de
We evaluated the immunogenicity of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), and its impact on pneumococcal carriage in Venezuelan children at high risk for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). 82 children (age 2-59 months) with sickle cell anemia (n=22), chronic heart disease (n=19), HIV infection (n=12), immune-suppressive therapy (n=11) and other IPD-predisposing conditions (n=18) were vaccinated with PCV7 according to CDC-recommended age-related immunization schedules. Blood samples were taken to determine the concentration of IgG antibody, and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained to isolate Streptococcus pneumoniae, before the first vaccine dose and 1 month after completion of the vaccination schedule. Pneumococcal carriage prior to the first immunization was 27% (n=22), with the most frequently carried serotypes being vaccine serotypes 6B (22%) and 14 (13%). One month after completion of the vaccination scheme pneumococcal carriage was 22% (n=17), dominated by non-vaccine serotypes 19A (24%) and 7F (12%). Before immunization, 65% of the subjects had IgG antibody titers >0.35 μg/mL for five serotypes tested. Post-vaccination, 100% of the subjects showed titers >1.0 μg/mL for all PCV7 serotypes with geometric mean concentrations (GMC) ranging from 1.75 μg/mL (serotype 23F) to 17.16 μg/mL (serotype 14). Children previously colonized with serotype 6B had a significantly lower GMC to this serotype following immunization than children not carrying 6B prior to the first PCV dose (p<0.05). PCV7 is highly immunogenic in Venezuelan children at high-risk for IPD. Vaccination was associated with an immediate shift in nasopharyngeal carriage toward non-PCV7 serotypes. Finally, we observed serotype-specific hyporesponsiveness to immunization after natural carriage with the same serotype in high-risk children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodrigues, Fernanda; Nunes, Sónia; Sá-Leão, Raquel; Gonçalves, Guilherme; Lemos, Luís; de Lencastre, Hermínia
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine became available in Portugal in 2001. Although not included in the national immunization program, vaccination coverage is high (over 60%). We studied for the first time the rates of nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of pneumococci, antibiotic resistance patterns and serotypes among children attending day-care centers (DCCs) in Coimbra, a city in the Central Region of Portugal. Between January and February 2007, a cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged 6 months to 6 years attending eight DCCs. NP swabs were obtained from 507 children: 76.7% had received at least one dose of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 64.3% were age-appropriately vaccinated. The global pneumococcal carriage rate was 61.3%. Colonization proportions varied with age and number of children attending each DCC. Serotyping revealed that 20.7% of the pneumococci were vaccine types (VTs), 70.8% were non-VTs, and 8.5% were nontypeable. Serotype 19F was the second most frequent serotype being detected in 10.5% of the samples. While global NP carriage was not associated with vaccination status, non-VTs were predominant among vaccinated children, who had significantly lower prevalence of VT. Of all isolates, 15.7% had penicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations that ranged between 0.12 and 2 microg/ml. The proportion of resistant strains was significantly higher among VT and unvaccinated children. In conclusion, the rates of vaccination and prevalence of pneumococcal NP were high. Rates of antimicrobial resistance were similar to those found in studies conducted in Oeiras and Lisbon. This study is a platform for future surveillance activities.
Cohen, Cheryl; von Mollendorf, Claire; de Gouveia, Linda; Naidoo, Nireshni; Meiring, Susan; Quan, Vanessa; Nokeri, Vusi; Fortuin-de Smit, Melony; Malope-Kgokong, Babatyi; Moore, David; Reubenson, Gary; Moshe, Mamokgethi; Madhi, Shabir A.; Eley, Brian; Hallbauer, Ute; Kularatne, Ranmini; Conklin, Laura; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Zell, Elizabeth R.; Klugman, Keith; Whitney, Cynthia G.; von Gottberg, Anne; Moore, David; Verwey, Charl; Varughese, Sheeba; Archary, Moherndran; Naby, Fathima; Dawood, Khathija; Naidoo, Ramola; Elliott, Gene; Hallbauer, Ute; Eley, Brian; Nuttall, James; Cooke, Louise; Finlayson, Heather; Rabie, Helena; Whitelaw, Andrew; Perez, Dania; Jooste, Pieter; Naidoo, Dhamiran; Kularatne, Ranmini; Reubenson, Gary; Cohen, Cheryl; de Gouveia, Linda; du Plessis, Mignon; Govender, Nevashan; Meiring, Susan; Quan, Vanessa; von Mollendorf, Claire; Fortuin-de Smidt, Melony; Naidoo, Nireshni; Malope-Kgokong, Babatyi; Nokeri, Vusi; Ncha, Relebohile; Lindani, Sonwabo; von Gottberg, Anne; Spies, Barry; Sono, Lino; Maredi, Phasweni; Hamese, Ken; Moshe, Mamokgethi; Nchabeleng, Maphosane; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; van den Heever, Johann; Madhi, Shabir; Conklin, Laura; Verani, Jennifer; Whitney, Cynthia; Zell, Elizabeth; Loo, Jennifer; Nelson, George; Klugman, Keith; O'Brien, Katherine
Background. South Africa introduced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in April 2009 using a 2 + 1 schedule (6 and 14 weeks and 9 months). We estimated the effectiveness of ≥2 PCV7 doses against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and -uninfected children. Methods. IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile site) cases were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance. Specimens were serotyped by Quellung or polymerase chain reaction. Four controls, matched for age, HIV status, and hospital were sought for each case. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated vaccine effectiveness (VE) as 1 minus the adjusted odds ratio for vaccination. Results. From March 2010 through November 2012, we enrolled 187 HIV-uninfected (48 [26%] vaccine serotype) and 109 HIV-infected (43 [39%] vaccine serotype) cases and 752 HIV-uninfected and 347 HIV-infected controls aged ≥16 weeks. Effectiveness of ≥2 PCV7 doses against vaccine-serotype IPD was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%–91%) among HIV-uninfected and −12% (95% CI, −449% to 77%) among HIV-infected children. Effectiveness of ≥3 doses against vaccine-serotype IPD was 90% (95% CI, 14%–99%) among HIV-uninfected and 57% (95% CI, −371% to 96%) among HIV-infected children. Among HIV-exposed but -uninfected children, effectiveness of ≥2 doses was 92% (95% CI, 47%–99%) against vaccine-serotype IPD. Effectiveness of ≥2 doses against all-serotype multidrug-resistant IPD was 96% (95% CI, 62%–100%) among HIV-uninfected children. Conclusions. A 2 + 1 PCV7 schedule was effective in preventing vaccine-serotype IPD in HIV-uninfected and HIV-exposed, uninfected children. This finding supports the World Health Organization recommendation for this schedule as an alternative to a 3-dose primary series among HIV-uninfected individuals. PMID:24917657
Che, Datian; Zhou, Hua; He, Jinchun; Wu, Bin
The purpose of this study was to compare, from a Chinese societal perspective, the projected health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of adding pneumococcal conjugate heptavalent vaccine (PCV-7) to the routine compulsory child immunization schedule. A decision-tree model, with data and assumptions adapted for relevance to China, was developed to project the health outcomes of PCV-7 vaccination (compared with no vaccination) over a 5-year period as well as a lifetime. The vaccinated birth cohort included 16,000,000 children in China. A 2 + 1 dose schedule at US$136.51 per vaccine dose was used in the base-case analysis. One-way sensitivity analysis was used to test the robustness of the model. The impact of a net indirect effect (herd immunity) was evaluated. Outcomes are presented in terms of the saved disease burden, costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. In a Chinese birth cohort, a PCV-7 vaccination program would reduce the number of pneumococcus-related infections by at least 32% and would prevent 2,682 deaths in the first 5 years of life, saving $1,190 million in total costs and gaining an additional 9,895 QALYs (discounted by 3%). The incremental cost per QALY was estimated to be $530,354. When herd immunity was taken into account, the cost per QALY was estimated to be $95,319. The robustness of the model was influenced mainly by the PCV-7 cost per dose, effectiveness herd immunity and incidence of pneumococcal diseases. With and without herd immunity, the break-even costs in China were $29.05 and $25.87, respectively. Compulsory routine infant vaccination with PCV-7 is projected to substantially reduce pneumococcal disease morbidity, mortality, and related costs in China. However, a universal vaccination program with PCV-7 is not cost-effective at the willingness-to-pay threshold that is currently recommended for China by the World Health Organization.
Giglio, Norberto D; Cane, Alejandro D; Micone, Paula; Gentile, Angela
Due to the region's own conditions, universal vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate heptavalent vaccine (PCV-7) in Latin American countries is still controversial. To compare projected economic costs and health benefits associated with pneumococcal conjugate heptavalent vaccine as a routine immunization in healthy children in Argentina. A decision analytic model of Markov simulated lifetime evolution of a birth cohort (n 696,451) was developed and compared costs and health benefits of pneumococcal disease in the presence and absence of vaccination. Cost per life year (LY) gained, reduce in diseases burden and costs of vaccination. From the society's perspective, the incremental cost per LY gained was US$ 5599.42 and the purchase of the 4 doses of vaccine for the entire cohort with a cost of US$ 26.5 dose requires an investment of US$ 73,823,806.00. The model estimated that vaccination reduce the number of death by 159 cases of meningitis, 756 cases of bacteriemias 4594 cases of pneumonias about 84,769 cases of otitis media and 20 meningitis sequelae. The value of the cost per LY gained was considerably modified by the variation in the cost of the vaccine dose, efficacy/effectiveness of the vaccine for pneumonia the mortality from pneumonia and herd immunity. Our analysis predicted that routine vaccination of healthy infants <2 years could prevent an important number of pneumococcal infectious and reduce related mortality and morbidity. This strategic could be highly cost-effective in Argentina. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Picón, Teresa; Alonso, Lucía; García Gabarrot, Gabriela; Speranza, Noelia; Casas, Mariana; Arrieta, Fernando; Camou, Teresa; Rosa, Raquel; De Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Verani, Jennifer Rabke
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into the routine immunization program in Uruguay in March 2008 with a 2-dose primary series (given at 2 and 4 months) plus a booster (at 12 months) and a catch-up campaign (two doses given at 15 and 17 months). We used a case-control methodology and existing laboratory surveillance and immunization registry data from Uruguay to evaluate PCV7 effectiveness against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD). Cases of VT-IPD (with pneumococcus obtained from a normally sterile site) were identified through the National Reference Laboratory. Age- and neighborhood-matched controls were obtained through a national immunization registry in which all children are enrolled at birth regardless of vaccine receipt; all eligible controls were included. Immunization status of cases and controls was assessed through the immunization registry, and conditional logistic regression was used to calculate PCV7 effectiveness. Between April 2008 and February 2010, 44 cases of VT-IPD among children<5 years were identified; 43 (98%) of those children were located in the registry. Among located case patients, 7 (16.3%) were age-eligible to have received at least one dose of PCV7. A total of 637 matched controls were included. Vaccine effectiveness was 91.3% (95% CI: 46.4, 98.6) for ≥ 1 PCV7 doses and 94.8% (95% CI: 43.1, 99.5) for ≥ 2 PCV7 doses. Using existing data we demonstrated high effectiveness of PCV7 against VT-IPD in Uruguay-a middle-income country using a 2-dose primary series plus a booster dose and a limited catch-up campaign. These data also highlight the utility of surveillance and high-quality immunization registries for evaluating the effectiveness of vaccines.
Rodenburg, Gerwin D; van Gils, Elske J M; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Jones, Nienke; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Hak, Eelko; van Alphen, Loek; Berbers, Guy A M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M
In this cohort study we compared IgG antibody levels between infants immunized with 7-valent CRM197-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV-7) at 2, 4 and 11 months and at 2, 3, 4 and 11 months of age, as measured by double adsorption ELISA. Pre- and post-booster levels following the 2+1- and 3+1-dose schedule were comparable for 5 out of 7 serotypes except for serotypes 6B and 19F. The proportion of children reaching post-booster antibody thresholds were comparable except for 6B (>or=1.0 microg/ml and >or=5.0 microg/ml) and 19F (>or=5.0 microg/ml). Surveillance studies are warranted for vaccine impact on 6B and 19F disease cases after reduced-dose PCV-7 schedules.
Serotyping and multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from the blood and posterior nares of Japanese children prior to the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
Oishi, Tomohiro; Wada, Akihito; Chang, Bin; Toyabe, Shinichi; Uchiyama, Makoto
In Japan, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in 2010. To assess the effects of PCV7 on invasive pneumococcal infection in children, a population-based prospective survey has been conducted in 10 prefectures. As a part of the study, blood and nasopharyngeal isolates from children admitted to the Shibata Hospital, Niigata Prefecture, were analyzed for determining the serotypes, their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents, and multilocus sequence types. Sixteen blood isolates were obtained from October 2007 to December 2009. Sixty-three nasopharyngeal isolates were obtained from the posterior nares of 118 children with pneumonia from April to September 2008. The coverage rates of the blood and nasopharyngeal isolates for PCV7 were 81.3% and 57.1%, respectively. Although none of these children had received PCV7, serotype 19A isolates were recovered from 12.5% (2/16) of the blood samples and 12.7% (8/63) of the nasopharyngeal samples. The sequence type of a nasopharyngeal isolate of serotype 19A was ST320, and the minimum inhibitory concentration of penicillin G was 4 μg/mL. In addition to the continuous prospective survey of pneumococcal infection, early introduction of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine, in which the 19A conjugate is included, will be necessary in Japan.
Chen, Jing Jing; Yuan, Lin; Huang, Zhen; Shi, Nian Min; Zhao, Yu Liang; Xia, Sheng Li; Li, Guo Hua; Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Yan Ping; Yang, Shu Yuan; Xia, Jie Lai
Introduction The invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae pose an enormous threat to children under 5 years of age. However, routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines could aid in reducing the incidence of IPDs. The purpose of this clinical trial is to assess the non-inferiority of the investigational 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) to the currently licensed 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Methods and analysis 1040 infants will receive a three-dose series of either PCV13 or PCV7 at ages 3, 4 and 5 months, respectively, and a booster dose at 12–15 months. Primary end points are the percentage of participants reaching a serotype-specific IgG concentration of ≥0.35 µg/mL and the IgG antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) measured 30 days after the primary immunisation. Secondary end points include the percentage of vaccine recipients reaching a serotype-specific IgG concentration threshold of 1.0 µg/mL, the percentage of participants reaching the pneumococcal opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) titre threshold of 1:8, and the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of OPA measured 30 days after primary and booster doses. The number of standard IgG responders and IgG GMCs measured 30 days after the booster immunisation will also be determined. To evaluate differences between two groups, the sequential testing of the non-inferiority of PCV13 for the seven common serotypes and its effectiveness in treating the six additional serotypes will be performed. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals have been granted by the Ethics Committees at the three provinces involved in this study: Shanxi, Henan and Hebei. The trial will be reported in accordance with the CONSORT guidance. Trial registration number NCT02736240. PMID:27798013
Background We investigated the immune response to serogroup 6 with the opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPKA) in children aged 12–23 months of age after immunization with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) containing serotype 6B. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 59 children who had blood sampling for medical examination. Immunization status against PCV7 was confirmed by immunization records and samples were categorized according to immunization status into a booster, primary, or control group. The OPKA was performed for serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D. Results Subjects with no previous PCV7 immunization history showed opsonic activity for serogroup 6 in 5-30% (according to serotype). In subjects vaccinated with a 3-dose primary series, 81% showed opsonic activity for serotypes 6B and 6D, and 29% showed opsonic activity for serotypes 6A and 6C. Among subjects vaccinated with a booster dose, all subjects had opsonic activity against serotype 6B. Subjects in the booster group with opsonic activity against serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D were 100%, 78%, and 89%, respectively. Conclusions In subjects aged 12–23 months, an immune response is elicited after a primary series of immunizations with PCV7 for serotypes 6B and 6D, and a booster dose enhances a cross reactive immune response against serotypes 6A, 6C and 6D. PMID:24112237
Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Miyata, Akiko; Kumagai, Takuji; Maehara, Kouji; Suzuki, Eitarou; Nagai, Takao; Ozaki, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Okada, Kenji; Kawashima, Hisashi; Nakayama, Tetsuo
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and 7-valent pneumococcal (PCV7) vaccines both became recommended in Japan in 2010. In this study, cytokine production was investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultures stimulated with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with acellular pertussis vaccine (DPT), Hib, and PCV7 separately or concurrent different combinations, all as final off-the-shelf vaccines without the individual vaccine components as controls. Higher IL-1β levels were produced when cultures were stimulated with PCV than with DPT or Hib, and the concurrent stimulation including PCV7 enhanced the production of IL-1β. Although Hib induced higher levels of IL-6, no significant difference was observed in IL-6 production with the concurrent stimulation. The concurrent stimulation with Hib/PCV7 and DPT/Hib/PCV7 produced higher levels of TNF-α and human G-CSF. Cytokine profiles were examined in serum samples obtained from 61 vaccine recipients with febrile reactions and 18 recipients without febrile illness within 24 h of vaccination. No significant difference was observed in cytokine levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, MIP-1, TNF-α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in sera between the two groups. However, significantly higher levels of human G-CSF were observed in recipients with febrile illness than in those without febrile reactions. Further investigations of the significance of elevated serum G-CSF levels are required in vaccine recipients with febrile illness. PMID:24589970
Temporal Changes in Pneumococcal Colonization in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Mother-Child Pairs Following Transitioning From 7-valent to 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Soweto, South Africa.
Nzenze, Susan A; von Gottberg, Anne; Shiri, Tinevimbo; van Niekerk, Nadia; de Gouveia, Linda; Violari, Avy; Nunes, Marta C; Madhi, Shabir A
We investigated the impact of infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization on pneumococcal colonization among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected mother-child pairs. Pneumococcal colonization was assessed in May 2010-February 2011 (period 1; 7-valent PCV era) and May 2012-April 2013 (period 2; 13-valent PCV era). Standard microbiological methods were used for pneumococcus isolation and serotyping. In children 0-12 years, PCV13-serotype colonization decreased from period 1 to period 2 among HIV-uninfected (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], .25-.40) and HIV-infected children (adjusted OR, 0.37; 95% CI, .28-.49), while there was an increase in nonvaccine serotype colonization. Decreases in PCV13-serotype colonization were observed in HIV-uninfected women (adjusted OR, 0.44; 95% CI, .23-.81), with a similar trend in HIV-infected women. HIV-infected compared to -uninfected women had higher prevalence of overall (20.5% vs 9.7% in period 1; 13.8% vs 9.7% in period 2) and PCV13-serotype colonization (8.7% vs 5.4% in period 1; 4.8% vs 2.0% in period 2), P < .04 for all observations. Targeted PCV vaccination of African infants in a setting with high HIV prevalence was associated with PCV13-serotype colonization reduction, including among unvaccinated HIV-infected women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Whelan, Jane; Hahné, Susan; Berbers, Guy; van der Klis, Fiona; Wijnands, Yvonne; Boot, Hein
The hexavalent vaccine Infanrix hexa was introduced into the national childhood vaccination schedule in the Netherlands in 2006. It is offered, concomitantly with pneumococcal vaccine (Prevenar), to children at increased risk of hepatitis B, administered in a 4-dose schedule at 2, 3, 4 and 11 months of age. We assessed the immunogenicity of the HBV component of Infanrix hexa co-administered with Prevenar, and compared pertussis and Hib components in Infanrix hexa with the standard Infanrix-IPV+Hib vaccine. Target thresholds for immune responses were achieved for all antigens studied. Over 99% (163/164) of children vaccinated with Infanrix hexa achieved an adequate immune response (≥ 10 mIU/ml) to the HBV component and peak anti-HBs geometric mean concentration (GMC) was 2264 mIU/ml (95%CI:1850-2771 mIU/ml). The GMC of a pertussis component, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), of Infanrix-hexa was significantly lower in children vaccinated with Infanrix hexa and Prevenar than in children vaccinated with Infanrix-IPV+Hib. Universal infant HBV vaccination using Infanrix hexa was introduced in The Netherlands in 2011. Despite very high rates of seroconversion for the HBV component of Infanrix hexa, its long term immunogenicity and effectiveness should be monitored after concomitant vaccination.
Limited impact of neonatal or early infant schedules of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Papua New Guinean children: A randomized controlled trial.
Aho, Celestine; Michael, Audrey; Yoannes, Mition; Greenhill, Andrew; Jacoby, Peter; Reeder, John; Pomat, William; Saleu, Gerard; Namuigi, Pioto; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi; Leach, Amanda J; Richmond, Peter; Lehmann, Deborah
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia, the most common cause of childhood death. Papua New Guinean children experience high rates of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization within weeks of birth, predisposing them to pneumococcal disease. In a trial to determine the safety and immunogenicity of early infant vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV), we investigated the impact of early schedules on pneumococcal carriage. Infants were randomized at birth to receive 7vPCV in a 0-1-2-month (n = 101) or a 1-2-3-month (n = 105) schedule or no 7vPCV (n = 106). All children received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at age 9 months. We cultured nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) collected at ages 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks and 3, 9, 18 months, and middle ear discharge if present. Pneumococcal serotypes were identified by the Quellung reaction. A total of 1761 NPS were cultured. The prevalence of pneumococcal carriage was 22% at 1 week of age, rising to 80% by age 3 months and remained >70% thereafter, with high-density carriage in 42% of pneumococcus-positive samples. We identified 63 different serotypes; 43% of isolates from controls were 13vPCV serotypes. There were no significant differences in 7vPCV serotype carriage between 7vPCV recipients and controls at any age (22% vs. 31% at 9 months, p = 0.2). At age 9 months the prevalence of non-7vPCV carriage was 17% higher in 7vPCV recipients (48%) than in controls (25%, p = 0.02). More non-7vPCV serotypes were isolated from ear discharge in 16 7vPCV recipients than from 4 controls (48% vs. 25%, p = 0.13). The limited impact of neonatal or accelerated infant 7vPCV schedules on vaccine serotype carriage is probably due to the early onset of dense carriage of a broad range of pneumococcal serotypes. While serotype-independent pneumococcal vaccines are needed in high-risk populations, the underlying environmental factors and sources of infection must be investigated. http
Gherardi, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Fabio; Visaggio, Daniela; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Del Grosso, Maria; Pantosti, Annalisa
The percentage of invasive penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci (PNSSP) isolated in Italy in the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) era moderately increased in comparison to the pre-PCV7 era. Increase of nonvaccine serotypes was observed among PNSSP. The most frequent PNSSP clones were the same as those identified in the pre-PCV7 era, although they were present in different proportions. Clonal expansion, emergence of new clones, and acquisition of penicillin resistance by established clones contributed to the maintenance of penicillin resistance.
Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Middle Ear Fluid Pathogens in Costa Rican Children With Otitis Media Before and After the Introduction of the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the National Immunization Program
Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Mercedes Castrejon, Maria; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K.
Abstract Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010–2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3–59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (≥2 PCV7 doses or ≥1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9
Boccalini, Sara; Azzari, Chiara; Resti, Massimo; Valleriani, Claudia; Cortimiglia, Martina; Tiscione, Emilia; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo
A new 13-valent conjugated polysaccharide vaccine (PCV13) against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, which replaced the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) in the regional immunization programmes for newborns and children who started but not completed the 3 doses schedule of PCV7, is available in Italy since 2010. The opportunity of administering a further dose of PCV13 to children under 5 years of age who had already completed their vaccination with PCV7, with the aim of extending the serotype coverage, triggered an animated scientific debate. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical/economic evaluation of the administration of a dose of PCV13, in a catch-up programme, for children under 5 years of age, who had already received 3 doses of PCV7. A mathematical model of the clinical/economic impact of the adoption of 4 catch-up strategies with PCV13 (children up to 24, 36, 48 and 60 months old) was set up, with a vaccination coverage of 80%, versus immunization with 3 doses of PCV7 without the catch-up programme. The time span covered by the simulation was 5.5 years. The following clinical outcomes of infection were evaluated: hospitalised meningitis/sepsis, hospitalised bacteraemic pneumonias (complicated and uncomplicated), hospitalised non-bacteraemic pneumonias, and non-hospitalised pneumonias. The administration of one dose of PCV13 to children up to 60 months of age significantly reduces the number of cases of pneumococcal diseases (especially, non-hospitalised pneumonias, 80% of all events prevented, and hospitalised cases of non-bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonias, 15% of all events prevented) and, subsequently, the relative cost for medical treatment. This results in savings for medical costs amounting to more than 1,000,000 Euros when vaccinating children under 24 months of age (up to almost 3 million Euros for children up to 60 months). More than half of those savings are attributable to avoided hospitalised cases of non-bacteraemic pneumococcal
An open-label randomized clinical trial of prophylactic paracetamol coadministered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and hexavalent diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, 3-component acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine.
Rose, Markus A; Juergens, Christine; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate; Gruber, William C; Baker, Sherryl; Zielen, Stefan
In two clinical trials, low-grade fever was observed more frequently after coadministration than after separate administration of two recommended routine pediatric vaccines. Since fever is an important issue with vaccine tolerability, we performed this open-label study on the efficacy and safety of prophylactic use of paracetamol (acetaminophen, Benuron®) in children administered routine 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) coadministered with hexavalent vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B, poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine [DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib]) in Germany. Healthy infants (N = 301) who received a 3-dose infant series of PCV-7 and DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib plus a toddler dose were randomly assigned 1:1 to prophylactic paracetamol (125 mg or 250 mg suppositories, based on body weight) at vaccination, and at 6-8 hour intervals thereafter, or a control group that received no paracetamol. Rectal temperature and local and other systemic reactions were measured for 4 days post vaccination; adverse events were collected throughout the study. In the intent-to-treat population, paracetamol reduced the incidence of fever ≥38°C, but this reduction was only significant for the infant series, with computed efficacy of 43.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.4, 61.2), and not significant after the toddler dose (efficacy 15.9%; 95% CI: -19.9, 41.3); results were similar in the per protocol (PP) population. Fever >39°C was rare during the infant series, such that there were too few cases for assessment. After the toddler dose, paracetamol effectively reduced fever >39°C, reaching statistical significance in the PP population only (efficacy 79%; 95% CI: 3.9, 97.7). Paracetamol also reduced reactogenicity, but there were few significant differences between groups after any dose. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. Paracetamol effectively prevented fever and other reactions, mainly during the infant series
Thisyakorn, Usa; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate
The current study examined the safety and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumo23(®) [PPV23], Sanofi Pasteur) as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar(®), Pfizer). This was a randomized, observer-blinded, 2-arm, controlled, multicenter phase III study performed in Thailand to assess and describe the immunogenicity and safety of PPV23 as a booster dose in children who had received the 3 primary doses of PCV7, the pneumococcal vaccine available during the study period. Children primed with 3 doses of PCV7 were randomized 1:1 to receive a booster immunization with PPV23 or PCV7. Pneumococcal antibody concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional antibody levels by multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay on day 30. A total of 339 children were enrolled. Geometric mean serum antibody concentrations against serotypes common to PCV7 and PPV23 (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) increased in both groups but they were higher for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C, and 19F in the PPV23 group. Opsonization indices increased in both groups for all measured serotypes (1, 6B, 14, 19A, and 23F) and were higher for serotypes 6B, 14, and 23F in the PCV7 group and for serotypes 1 and 19A in PPV23 group. Solicited reactions and unsolicited adverse events were similar in the 2 groups and generally mild and transient. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. These results confirm that boosting with PPV23 is immunogenic and well tolerated in healthy toddlers primed with PCV7.
Thisyakorn, Usa; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate
The current study examined the safety and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumo23® [PPV23], Sanofi Pasteur) as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar®, Pfizer). This was a randomized, observer-blinded, 2-arm, controlled, multicenter phase III study performed in Thailand to assess and describe the immunogenicity and safety of PPV23 as a booster dose in children who had received the 3 primary doses of PCV7, the pneumococcal vaccine available during the study period. Children primed with 3 doses of PCV7 were randomized 1:1 to receive a booster immunization with PPV23 or PCV7. Pneumococcal antibody concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional antibody levels by multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay on day 30. A total of 339 children were enrolled. Geometric mean serum antibody concentrations against serotypes common to PCV7 and PPV23 (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) increased in both groups but they were higher for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C, and 19F in the PPV23 group. Opsonization indices increased in both groups for all measured serotypes (1, 6B, 14, 19A, and 23F) and were higher for serotypes 6B, 14, and 23F in the PCV7 group and for serotypes 1 and 19A in PPV23 group. Solicited reactions and unsolicited adverse events were similar in the 2 groups and generally mild and transient. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. These results confirm that boosting with PPV23 is immunogenic and well tolerated in healthy toddlers primed with PCV7. PMID:25424793
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F) is the standard vaccine for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal infections in infants and children under 5 years of age. A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (with the addition of valences 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F and 19A) has now been authorised to replace the 7-valent vaccine within the European Union. This new vaccine, adapted to recent epidemiological data on invasive pneumococcal infections, is supposed to cover at least 80% of pneumococcal infections in Europe. The protective potency of the 13-valent vaccine has not yet been tested in clinical trials. Clinical evaluation is based on two immunogenicity studies, in which the immunogenic potency of the 13-valent vaccine was similar to that of the 7-valent vaccine for their shared serotypes, but lower for serotypes 3, 6B and 9V. For these last two serotypes and for the new serotypes, the usual target antibody titre was reached after a booster injection. This was not the case for valence 3. * The vaccine used in immunogenicity studies did not contain polysorbate 80 (an excipient), and a non-inferiority study of the marketed vaccine containing polysorbate 80 was therefore conducted in 500 children. Non-inferiority was established for all 13 valences after the booster injection, but not for valences 6B and 23F after primary vaccination. According to the results of 10 studies, simultaneous administration of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine does not affect the immunogenicity of other vaccines generally administered before the age of 5 years. Other immunogenicity studies support the use of a variety of vaccine schedules for infants and children under 5 years of age who have not yet been vaccinated or who have started vaccination with the 7-valent vaccine. Increasing the number of valences in the vaccine from 7 to 13 led to no marked increase in local adverse effects (hypersensitivity, indurations, erythema) or systemic reactions
Ponvert, C; Scheinmann, P; de Blic, J
Anaphylaxis to pneumococcal vaccines is rare. In the only one child with anaphylaxis to a first injection of the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine that has been explored, skin tests and specific IgE determination diagnosed immediate-type hypersensitivity to pneumococcal antigens. We report the case of a child who tolerated three injections of the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine, but experienced anaphylaxis to a fourth injection of the 23-valent vaccine. Immediate responses in skin tests diagnosed immediate-type hypersensitivity to the two vaccines. Immunizations with the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine may induce IgE-dependent sensitization to pneumococcal antigens, responsible for anaphylaxis to subsequent injections of pneumococcal vaccines.
Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in older infants and young children in China who are naive to pneumococcal vaccination: Results of a phase 4 open-label trial.
Li, Rongcheng; Huang, Lirong; Mo, Shunping; Li, Junchun; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Zhangjing; Liang, John; Young, Mariano; Giardina, Peter C; Scott, Daniel A
This postlicensure study was conducted to assess immunogenicity and safety of PCV7 catch-up regimens in previously unvaccinated older infants and young children in China. Healthy children 121 days to <72 months were grouped by age and immunized with 1 of 4 PCV7 dosing regimens. Serotype-specific IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and percentage of subjects with IgG≥0.35μg/mL were assessed before vaccination and 1 and 12 months postvaccination. The incidence of clinically important adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs), AEs leading to study withdrawal, and protocol-related AEs were assessed throughout the study. Prevaccination serotype-specific GMCs were generally low in subjects <24 months; the majority of children 24 to <72 months had IgG concentrations ≥0.35 μg/mL. One month postvaccination, GMCs were similar across groups for the 7 PCV serotypes, ranging from 3.95 to 13.02 μg/mL; the highest antibody levels were observed for serotype 14. Regardless of dosing regimen, >90% of subjects had IgG≥0.35 μg/mL for each PCV serotype. At 12-month follow-up, IgG GMCs ranged from 0.65 to 5.19, and all remained above prevaccination IgG GMC; >70% of subjects had IgG≥0.35 μg/mL. Older children generally had the most robust immune response both at 1 month postvaccination and during 12-month follow-up. PCV7 was well tolerated. Pyrexia, which was mild to moderate in severity, was the most common AE. Two subjects reported SAEs (n=4), and there was 1 study withdrawal; none of these were considered treatment related. In China, PCV7 catch-up vaccinations given to older infants and young children naive to pneumococcal vaccines resulted in a robust immune response to all serotypes; this response persisted after 1 year. PCV7 was well tolerated in Chinese infants and children. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Optimization and application of a multiplex bead-based assay to quantify serotype-specific IgG against Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharides: response to the booster vaccine after immunization with the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine.
Elberse, Karin E M; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A M; Schouls, Leo M
We describe the optimization and application of a multiplex bead-based assay (Luminex) to quantify antibodies against polysaccharides of 13 pneumococcal serotypes. In the optimized multiplex immunoassay (MIA), intravenous immune globulin was introduced as an in-house reference serum, and nonspecific reacting antibodies were adsorbed with the commercial product pneumococcal C polysaccharides Multi. The antibody concentrations were assessed in 188 serum samples obtained pre- and post-booster vaccination at 11 months after administration of a primary series of the pneumococcal seven-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. The results of the MIA were compared with those of the ELISA for the serotypes included in the seven-valent conjugated polysaccharide vaccine and for a non-vaccine serotype, serotype 6A. The geometric mean concentrations of the antibodies determined by MIA were slightly higher than those determined by ELISA. The correlations between the assays were good, with R(2) values ranging from 0.84 to 0.91 for all serotypes except serotype 19F, for which R(2) was 0.70. The concentrations of antibody against serotype 6A increased after the administration of PCV-7 due to cross-reactivity with serotype 6B. The differences between the results obtained by ELISA and MIA suggest that the internationally established protective threshold of 0.35 microg/ml should be reevaluated for use in the MIA and may need to be amended separately for each serotype.
Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of middle ear fluid pathogens in Costa Rican children with otitis media before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the National Immunization Program: acute otitis media microbiology in Costa Rican children.
Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Castrejon, Maria Mercedes; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K
Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010-2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3-59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (≥ 2 PCV7 doses or ≥ 1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9.7%), 6B (9.7%), and 14 (9
Immunogenicity and safety study of a new DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T combined vaccine compared to a licensed DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T comparator, both concomitantly administered with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in Thai infants.
Kosalaraksa, Pope; Thisyakorn, Usa; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Santos-Lima, Eduardo
To assess a new, fully-liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine (diphtheria toxoid (D), tetanus toxoid (T), acellular pertussis (aP), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), hepatitis B (Hep B), and Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus protein (PRP-T) antigens) compared to a licensed DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T vaccine following primary series co-administration with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). This was a randomized, phase III, observer-blind study in Thai infants (N=412), who received DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T or DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, co-administered with PCV7. All received Hep B at birth. Non-inferiority for Hep B ≥ 10 mIU/ml and PRP ≥0.15μg/ml was analyzed (DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T relative to DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T) at 1 month post-primary. Seroprotection/seroconversion and geometric mean titers (GMTs) were analyzed descriptively for all hexavalent components. Safety was evaluated from parental reports. Anti-Hep B and anti-PRP antibody seroprotection rates were high for DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T (n=189) and DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T (n=190), and non-inferiority was demonstrated. Anti-D and anti-T ≥ 0.01 IU/ml, anti-polio types 1, 2, and 3 ≥ 8 (1/dil), and anti-PT and anti-FHA seroconversion were high and similar in each group. For DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T and DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T, anti-Hep B ≥ 100 mIU/ml was 98.4% and 99.5% (GMTs 2477 and 2442 mIU/ml), respectively; anti-PRP ≥ 1.0 μg/ml was 85.2% and 71.1% (GMTs 5.07 and 2.41 μg/ml), respectively. Safety profiles were comparable. There were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Following co-administration with PCV7 the investigational DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Non-inferiority to DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T was shown for Hep B and PRP. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pneumococcal vaccine is an immunization against Streptococcus pneumoniae , a bacterium that frequently causes meningitis and pneumonia in the elderly, and people with chronic illnesses. Pneumococcal pneumonia accounts for 10 to ...
clinical trial of the currently In 1945, the first successful trial of a polyvalent polysaccha- available 23- valent pneumococcal vaccine . The purpose...December 2001 1088 Pneumococcal Vaccine bers are affected by pneumococcal disease; however, because of Board 35 recommended that the 23- valent ...pnoeumococcal vaccines years studied to date. The efficacy of the conjugate 7- valent Athe bi-oeti peuis cc vacspcilcone, witvaccine in children appears to also
Less than 1 year after recommendations for the routine vaccination of infants with the newly licensed 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate pneumococcal vaccine were issued in February 2000, shortages of the 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate pneumococcal vaccine supply began to occur. A national shortage developed in 2001, involving both the public and private sectors, and it resulted in temporary recommendations to conserve vaccine supply for infants and young children at the highest risk for invasive disease. Multiple factors contributed to this vaccine shortage, including demand that exceeded the expectations of the manufacturer and the need for compliance with the Good Manufacturing Practice of the US Food and Drug Administration. Of the possible strategies that might have averted this shortage, establishment of a vaccine stockpile is the most likely solution. However, establishing a stockpile for a newly licensed vaccine, such as 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, presents unique challenges. Improved communication with physicians and parents regarding changes in vaccine schedules also will promote better adherence to recommended changes and conservation of limited vaccine supplies during a shortage.
... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... or HIV infection); or cochlear implants. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Children younger than 2 years old, ...
... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your ... but also help stop the infections from spreading. Immunization Schedule PCV13 immunizations are given to all infants ...
Pletz, M W; Maus, U; Hohlfeld, J M; Lode, H; Welte, T
Pneumococcal infections (pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis) are common and usually involve toddlers and the elderly. Currently, two pneumococcal vaccines are in clinical use. The older vaccine consists of pure capsular polysaccharides from 23 pneumococcal serotypes and induces only a limited B-cell response because polysaccharides are poor antigens that stimulate mainly B-cells. In 2000, a vaccination program with a novel 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was launched in the U.S. The conjugation of capsular polysaccharides with a highly immunogenic diphtheria toxoid protein induces both a T cell and B cell response that results in specific humoral and mucosal immunity. Since children are the main reservoir of pneumococci, the 7-valent conjugate vaccine seems to eradicate the respective pneumococcal serotypes within the population, as demonstrated by recent US data. Pronounced herd immunity resulted in a decrease in invasive pneumococcal diseases in vaccinees and non-vaccinees as well as in a reduction of antibiotic resistance rates. However, recent data suggest a replacement of vaccine-serotypes by non-vaccine serotypes, which conquer the ecological niche created by the vaccine. In order to encounter this problem a 13-valent conjugated vaccine is currently under development.
Öbrink-Hansen, Kristina; Søgaard, Ole S; Harboe, Zitta B; Schønheyder, Henrik C
HIV-infected individuals have excess rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. We investigated risk factors for nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization at baseline and after 9 months in 96 HIV patients immunized twice with 7- valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine ±1mg CPG 7909. In total, 22 patients (23%) were colonized, 11 at baseline only, four at both baseline and 9 months, and seven at 9 months only. Compared to non-colonized patients, more colonized patients were smokers, had lower CD4+ nadir and had an AIDS-diagnosis. Immunization, antiretroviral treatment and the CPG adjuvant had no impact on colonization. These results suggest preventive strategies in addition to pneumococcal immunization.
Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin
At the beginning of a new century, we have gained significant achievements against pneumococcal infections by using conjugated pneumococcal vaccines. In January 2009, the EMEA issued a positive opinion about, and recommended the approval of, GlaxoSmithKline's pediatric pneumococcal candidate vaccine, which is indicated for active immunization against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants and children from 6 weeks up to 2 years of age. The approved 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PHiD-CV) contains all serotypes in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) plus serotypes 1, 5 and 7F. Protein D from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is the carrier protein for eight serotypes, while tetanus and diphtheria toxins are in the carrier proteins for the remaining two serotypes. It has also been proved that PHiD-CV is immunogenic, safe and well-tolerated in children. This vaccine can be coadministered with routinely used pediatric vaccines. Noninferiority criteria of PHiD-CV compared with PCV-7 were established in shared serotypes, except for serotypes 6B and 23F, and PHiD-CV is immunogenic for additional serotypes as assessed by the percentage of subjects with antibody concentrations. PHiD-CV is also immunogenic for ten serotypes as assessed by post-primary and post-booster dose opsonophagocytic activity responses. Vaccine efficacy against IPD and other conditions should be monitored for shared serotypes and also additional serotypes during the postmarketing period. Optimal scheduling, safety and immunogenicity data in children with different risk factors for IPD, or whether it will provide herd immunity, are the questions waiting for answers in the postmarketing period. Further studies are needed to assess the potential advantages of protein D as a carrier and the potential efficacy of this new vaccine against H. influenzae. The potential public health efficacy of PHiD-CV in low-income countries
Veenhoven, Reinier H; Bogaert, Debby; Schilder, Anne G M; Rijkers, Ger T; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Kiezebrink, Herma H; van Kempen, Muriel J P; Dhooge, Inge J; Bruin, Jacob; Ijzerman, Ed P F; de Groot, Ronald; Kuis, Wietse; Hermans, Peter W M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M
We recently showed that vaccination with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) followed by a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) failed to prevent new episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) in previously unvaccinated toddlers and children with a history of recurrent AOM. We describe in detail the impact of pneumococcal vaccinations on nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae in this study population. The impact of vaccination with PCV7 followed by PPSV23 on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage was studied in a prospective, randomized trial involving 383 children (age range, 1-7 years) with previous AOM. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected at the time of first vaccination and at 6-7-month intervals during the 26-month follow-up period. Overall, pneumococcal carriage rates did not diminish, remaining at approximately 50% in both PCV7/PPSV23 and control vaccinees. A significant shift from conjugate vaccine- to nonconjugate vaccine-type pneumococci was observed in children aged 1-2 years, who received the conjugate vaccine twice before the polysaccharide vaccine was administered. Conjugate vaccine serotype carriage was not influenced in older children, who received the conjugate vaccine once before receiving the polysaccharide booster. The administration of conjugate vaccines at least twice also after 2 years of age may be mandatory for reducing the carriage of conjugate vaccine serotypes in children with recurrent AOM. Polysaccharide booster vaccination did not affect nasopharyngeal colonization with serotypes not included in the conjugate vaccine.
Gadzinowski, Janusz; Albrecht, Piotr; Hasiec, Barbara; Konior, Ryszard; Dziduch, Jerzy; Witor, Anita; Mellelieu, Tracey; Tansey, Susan P; Jones, Thomas; Sarkozy, Denise; Emini, Emilio A; Gruber, William C; Scott, Daniel A
13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) includes polysaccharide conjugates from six pneumococcal serotypes in addition to those in the licensed 7-valent vaccine, thereby offering expanded protection against pneumococcal disease. The phase 3 trial reported here was conducted per a regulatory requirement to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of two lots of the final PCV13 formulation that differed with respect to production scale but not the manufacturing process. The anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide immunogenicity and safety/tolerability were found to be similar between the two PCV13 vaccine lots.
Duggan, Sean T
The pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine Prevenar 13® (PCV13) comprises 13 capsular Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide serotypes that are individually conjugated to nontoxic diphtheria protein (cross-reactive material [CRM(197)]). In randomized, comparator-controlled, phase III trials in healthy infants aged 2-6 months, PCV13 elicited a strong immune response against all 13 pneumococcal serotypes in terms of the proportion of vaccinees achieving reference antibody levels with a two- or three-dose primary vaccination series. Immune responses for the seven serotypes common to PCV13 and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Prevenar® (PCV7) were generally similar. Antibodies to all vaccine serotypes were functional. A booster dose of PCV13 administered between 11 and 15 months of age generally boosted the immune response against all 13 serotypes, regardless of whether infants had previously received PCV13 or PCV7 during the primary vaccination phase. Robust immune responses against all serotypes were achieved when PCV13 was administered as catch-up vaccination schedules in older infants and young children aged 7-72 months. Importantly, PCV13 did not interfere with the immune responses to coadministered routine paediatric vaccines. Based on data for PCV7, it is expected that PCV13 will also display protective efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease, otitis media and pneumonia. PCV13 was generally well tolerated, with an adverse event profile similar to that of PCV7 after any vaccine dose.
Burgess, Laura; Southern, Kevin W
Invasive pneumococcal disease is associated with significant mortality and many countries have introduced routine pneumococcal vaccination into their childhood immunisation programmes. Whilst pneumococcal disease in cystic fibrosis is uncommon, pneumococcal immunisation may offer some protection against pulmonary exacerbations caused by this pathogen. In the USA and UK pneumococcal vaccination is currently recommended for all children and adults with cystic fibrosis. To assess the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccines in reducing morbidity in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. In addition, the pharmaceutical manufacturers of the polysaccharide and conjugate pneumococcal vaccines were approached.Date of the most recent search: 15 May 2014. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing pneumococcal vaccination (with either a polysaccharide or conjugate pneumococcal vaccine) with non-vaccination or placebo in children or adults with cystic fibrosis were eligible for inclusion. No relevant trials were identified. There are no trials included in this review. As no trials were identified we cannot draw conclusions on the efficacy of routine pneumococcal immunisation in people with cystic fibrosis in reducing their morbidity or mortality. As many countries now include pneumococcal immunisation in their routine childhood vaccination schedule it is unlikely that future randomised controlled trials will be initiated. Rigorously conducted epidemiological studies may offer the opportunity to evaluate the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccination in reducing morbidity and mortality in people with cystic fibrosis.
Burgess, Laura; Southern, Kevin W
Invasive pneumococcal disease is associated with significant mortality and many countries have introduced routine pneumococcal vaccination into their childhood immunisation programmes. Whilst pneumococcal disease in cystic fibrosis is uncommon, pneumococcal immunisation may offer some protection against pulmonary exacerbations caused by this pathogen. In the USA and UK pneumococcal vaccination is currently recommended for all children and adults with cystic fibrosis. To assess the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccines in reducing morbidity in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. In addition, the pharmaceutical manufacturers of the polysaccharide and conjugate pneumococcal vaccines were approached.Date of the most recent search: 10 July 2012. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing pneumococcal vaccination (with either a polysaccharide or conjugate pneumococcal vaccine) with non-vaccination or placebo in children or adults with cystic fibrosis were eligible for inclusion. No relevant trials were identified. There are no trials included in this review. As no trials were identified we cannot draw conclusions on the efficacy of routine pneumococcal immunisation in people with cystic fibrosis in reducing their morbidity or mortality. As many countries now include pneumococcal immunisation in their routine childhood vaccination schedule it is unlikely that future randomised controlled trials will be initiated. Rigorously conducted epidemiological studies may offer the opportunity to evaluate the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccination in reducing morbidity and mortality in people with cystic fibrosis.
Vajer, Péter; Tamás, Ferenc; Urbán, Róbert; Torzsa, Péter; Kalabay, László
The prevalence of invasive pneumococcal disease, which is depending on risk factors and comorbidities, is increasing over the age of 50 years. Most developed countries have recommendations but vaccination rates remain low. To assess the general practitioners' daily practice in relation to pneumococcal vaccination and analyse the effect of informing the subjects about the importance of pneumococcal vaccination on vaccination routine. Subjects over 50 years of age vaccinated against influenza during the 2012/2013 campaign were informed about the importance of pneumococcal vaccination and asked to fill in a questionnaire. Of the 4000 subjects, 576 asked for a prescription of pneumococcal vaccine (16.5% of females and 11.6% of males, OR 1.67 CI 95% 1.37-2.04, p<0.001) and 310 were vaccinated. The mean age of females and males was 70.95 and 69.8 years, respectively (OR 1.01; CI 95% 1.00-1.02; p<0.05). Information given by physicians resulted in 33,6% prescription rate, while in case it was 8% when nurses provided information (OR 6.33; CI 95% 5.23-7.67; p<0.001). As an effect of this study the vaccination rate was 6.3 times higher than in the previous year campaign (p<0.001). General practitioners are more effective in informing subjects about the importance of vaccination than nurses. Campaign can raise the vaccination rate significantly.
von Gottberg, Anne; de Gouveia, Linda; Tempia, Stefano; Quan, Vanessa; Meiring, Susan; von Mollendorf, Claire; Madhi, Shabir A; Zell, Elizabeth R; Verani, Jennifer R; O'Brien, Katherine L; Whitney, Cynthia G; Klugman, Keith P; Cohen, Cheryl
In South Africa, a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in 2009 with a three-dose schedule for infants at 6, 14, and 36 weeks of age; a 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in 2011. In 2012, it was estimated that 81% of 12-month-old children had received three doses of vaccine. We assessed the effect of vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease. We conducted national, active, laboratory-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease. We calculated the change in the incidence of the disease from a prevaccine (baseline) period (2005 through 2008) to postvaccine years 2011 and 2012, with a focus on high-risk age groups. Surveillance identified 35,192 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease. The rates among children younger than 2 years of age declined from 54.8 to 17.0 cases per 100,000 person-years from the baseline period to 2012, including a decline from 32.1 to 3.4 cases per 100,000 person-years in disease caused by PCV7 serotypes (-89%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -92 to -86). Among children not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the estimated incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by PCV7 serotypes decreased by 85% (95% CI, -89 to -79), whereas disease caused by nonvaccine serotypes increased by 33% (95% CI, 15 to 48). Among adults 25 to 44 years of age, the rate of PCV7-serotype disease declined by 57% (95% CI, -63 to -50), from 3.7 to 1.6 cases per 100,000 person-years. Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease among children in South Africa fell substantially by 2012. Reductions in the rates of disease caused by PCV7 serotypes among both children and adults most likely reflect the direct and indirect effects of vaccination. (Funded by the National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service and others.).
... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...
... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...
... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...
... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...
Kim, Kyung Hyo; Kim, Yae Jean; Kim, Jong Hyun; Park, Su Eun; Lee, Hoan Jong; Eun, Byung Wook; Jo, Dae Sun; Choi, Kyong Min; Hong, Young Jin
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of invasive infections including bacteremia and meningitis, as well as mucosal infections such as otitis media and pneumonia among children and adults. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed for use among infants and young children in many countries including Korea. The routine use of PCV7 has resulted in a decreased incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) by the vaccine serotypes among the vaccinees and substantial declines in IPD among unvaccinated populations such as older children and adults as well. In addition, there are increasing evidences to suggest that routine immunization with PCV7 is changing the epidemiology of pneumococcal diseases such as serotype distribution of IPD, nasopharyngeal colonization, and antibiotic resistance patterns. In contrast, there is an increase in the number of IPDs caused by nonvaccine serotypes, though it is much smaller than overall declines of vaccine serotype diseases. Several vaccines containing additional serotypes have been developed and tested clinically in order to expand the range of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Recently two new pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccines, 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), have been approved for use in several countries including Korea. This report summarizes the recommendations approved by the Committee on Infectious Diseases, the Korean Pediatric Society. PMID:21738547
Choi, Eun Hwa; Kim, Kyung Hyo; Kim, Yae Jean; Kim, Jong Hyun; Park, Su Eun; Lee, Hoan Jong; Eun, Byung Wook; Jo, Dae Sun; Choi, Kyong Min; Hong, Young Jin
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of invasive infections including bacteremia and meningitis, as well as mucosal infections such as otitis media and pneumonia among children and adults. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed for use among infants and young children in many countries including Korea. The routine use of PCV7 has resulted in a decreased incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) by the vaccine serotypes among the vaccinees and substantial declines in IPD among unvaccinated populations such as older children and adults as well. In addition, there are increasing evidences to suggest that routine immunization with PCV7 is changing the epidemiology of pneumococcal diseases such as serotype distribution of IPD, nasopharyngeal colonization, and antibiotic resistance patterns. In contrast, there is an increase in the number of IPDs caused by nonvaccine serotypes, though it is much smaller than overall declines of vaccine serotype diseases. Several vaccines containing additional serotypes have been developed and tested clinically in order to expand the range of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Recently two new pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccines, 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), have been approved for use in several countries including Korea. This report summarizes the recommendations approved by the Committee on Infectious Diseases, the Korean Pediatric Society.
... the United States.Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. ... get another dose. Anyone who has a severe allergy to any component of PPSV should not receive ...
Salinas-Botrán, Alejandro; Martín-Rico, Patricia; Valdivia, Antonio; Pellicer, Ángel; Esparcia, Óscar
Although urine pneumococcal antigen is an useful test, it has false positives such as pneumococcal vaccination. Positive urine pneumococcal antigen in Hospital de Denia (January-February/2015). We studied epidemiological, radiological and microbiological variables as well as previous pneumococcal vaccination (neumo-23 and/or neumo-13). Urine pneumococcal antigen test was positive in 12.4% of 385 cases. Only 33.3% of positive cases had pneumonia in chest X-ray, and 35.4% of patients had previous pneumococcal vaccination. In most cases (87.5%), an antibiotic was prescribed. Pneumococcal vaccination can produce a false positive result in the urine pneumococcal antigen test in clinical practice, leading to an unnecessary prescription of antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Yildirim, Inci; Shea, Kimberly M; Pelton, Stephen I
Universal immunization of infants and toddlers with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines over the last 15 years has dramatically altered the landscape of pneumococcal disease. Decreases in invasive pneumococcal disease, all-cause pneumonia, empyema, mastoiditis, acute otitis media, and complicated otitis media have been reported from multiple countries in which universal immunization has been implemented. Children with comorbid conditions have higher rates of pneumococcal disease and increased case fatality rates compared with otherwise healthy children, and protection for the most vulnerable pediatric patients will require new strategies to address the underlying host susceptibility and the expanded spectrum of serotypes observed.
Dupont, Damien; Mahjoub-Messai, Farah; François, Martine; Doit, Catherine; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Bidet, Philippe; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Carol, Agnès; Bingen, Edouard
We compare the microbiology of otopathogens causing recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) or AOM treatment failure in 600 children during 2000 to 2008 before and after the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7). Streptococcus pneumoniae predominated before PCV-7 introduction and during 2007 to 2008, whereas Haemophilus influenzae predominated during 2005 to 2006. S. pneumoniae 19A became the most frequent serotype after PCV-7 introduction.
Weil-Olivier, Catherine; Gaillat, Jacques
Before conjugate pneumococcal vaccines (PCVs) were introduced it was estimated that Streptococcus pneumoniae caused 500,000 cases of pneumonia, 50,000 cases of bacteremia and 3000 cases of meningitis annually in the United States in both children and adults. After 10 years of routine use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) the incidence of vaccine-type pneumococcal diseases (PDs) had significantly decreased in vaccinated children (direct effect) and unvaccinated subjects of all ages (indirect effect). Second generation, higher-valent PCVs, especially 13-valent (PCV13), routinely implemented since 2010, have reduced the incidence of PDs caused by the six additional non-PCV7 serotypes, in both vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects. The licence for this vaccine has recently been extended to include adults aged 18 to 49 in Europe. Although PCV13 has an indirect effect on IPD in adults, this will probably not achieve the same level of disease control in adults and the elderly (especially those at high risk) as that obtained in vaccinated children. As highlighted in this paper, differences exist between children and adults for PD manifestations (incidence, morbidity and mortality) and serotypes isolated in nasopharyngeal carriage and diseases, so benefits from adult vaccination must be considered in this light. PCV13 induces an immune response in adults that is non-inferior for all serotypes common with the 23-valent plain polysaccharide vaccine that is currently recommended for adults and even superior for many serotypes. Although there is no evidence that this immune response translates to clinical efficacy in adults as seen in children, the results from a randomised trial in The Netherlands, expected in 2014, should provide the missing evidence. This evidence and efficient surveillance systems should provide the necessary data, essential for policy makers in their decisions on adult pneumococcal vaccination policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd
Madar, R; Strakova, J; Baska, T; Kavcova, E; Straka, S
The authors carried out a survey in outpatient and hospitalised patients with risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease in a tertiary-care medical faculty affiliated hospital. Data were collected by individual interviews and verified against the medical records of all addressed patients. The authors also attempted to discover the attitude of general practitioners (GPs) from 2 Slovak districts towards the pneumococcal vaccine by means of an anonymous questionnaire. Out of the total of 154 addressed patients, 128 (83.1%) had at least one risk factor for acquiring invasive pneumococcal disease. However, only 8 (6.3%) of them had ever been administered pneumococcal vaccine. Out of 34 hospitalised patients with at least one risk factor 82.4 % had not received any pneumococcal vaccination in the past. When subdivided according to age and risk factors (chronic respiratory, cardiovascular, uropoetic, metabolic, immunne system disorders, asplenia), vaccination coverage in all groups was very low, ranging between --9.3%. In an anonymous questionnaire 74 (94.9%) out of 77 surveyed GPs referred to a lack of information on the polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine and 22 (28.2%) expressed their general distrust towards vaccination of any kind. The main role in increasing the disturbingly low pneumococcal vaccination coverage lies in the hands of medical professionals, especially GPs who should inform their patients about the possibility of a free vaccine and who should make an effort to explain to their patients the benefit of pneumococcal vaccination. (Tab. 4, Reft 9.)
Li, Yi; Hill, Andrew; Beitelshees, Marie; Shao, Shuai; Knight, Paul R.; Hakansson, Anders P.; Pfeifer, Blaine A.; Jones, Charles H.
Immunization strategies against commensal bacterial pathogens have long focused on eradicating asymptomatic carriage as well as disease, resulting in changes in the colonizing microflora with unknown future consequences. Additionally, current vaccines are not easily adaptable to sequence diversity and immune evasion. Here, we present a “smart” vaccine that leverages our current understanding of disease transition from bacterial carriage to infection with the pneumococcus serving as a model organism. Using conserved surface proteins highly expressed during virulent transition, the vaccine mounts an immune response specifically against disease-causing bacterial populations without affecting carriage. Aided by a delivery technology capable of multivalent surface display, which can be adapted easily to a changing clinical picture, results include complete protection against the development of pneumonia and sepsis during animal challenge experiments with multiple, highly variable, and clinically relevant pneumococcal isolates. The approach thus offers a unique and dynamic treatment option readily adaptable to other commensal pathogens. PMID:27274071
de Arístegui Fernández, J; Corretger Rauet, J M; García Martín, F; Hernández-Sampelayo, T; Moraga Llop, F A; Rodrigo Gonzalo De Liria, C; Ruiz Contreras, J
Pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity, hospitalization and mortality. Two age groups show a greater incidence and severity of the disease: children under the age of 5 years (mainly during the first 2 years of life) and adults aged more than 65 years. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, which was commercialized in Spain in June 2001, is efficacious in children aged less than 2 years and, unlike the non-conjugate 23-valent vaccine, it induces immunological memory. In Spain the heptavalent vaccine covers 80 % of serotypes causing pneumococcal invasive disease and acute otitis media in children aged 2-59 months. The heptavalent vaccine has been shown to be immunogenic, efficacious and safe. It has proven efficacy in the prevention of invasive disease caused by the seven vaccine serotypes. In addition, it significantly decreases pneumonia and also prevent acute otitis media. The vaccine is preferably indicated in children aged less than 2 years; children aged 2-5 years may also benefit from the vaccine but those in risk groups should be prioritized. Greater knowledge of the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease and the efficiency of this vaccine in Spain will determine whether it should be included in the immunization schedule.
Campins Martí, Magda
Pneumococcal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and are one of the 10 leading causes of death worldwide. Children under 2 years have a higher incidence rate, followed by adults over 64 years. The main risk group are individuals with immunodeficiency, and those with anatomical or functional asplenia, but can also affect immunocompetent persons with certain chronic diseases. Significant progress has been made in the last 10 years in the prevention of these infections. Until a few years ago, only the 23-valent non-conjugate pneumococcal vaccine was available. Its results were controversial in terms of efficacy and effectiveness, and with serious limitations on the type of immune response induced. The current possibility of using the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in adults has led to greater expectations in improving the prevention of pneumococcal disease in these age groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
McDonald, P.; Friedman, E. H.; Banks, A.; Anderson, R.; Carman, V.
OBJECTIVE: To show whether a general practice setting is a practical and effective medium for increasing uptake of pneumococcal vaccine. DESIGN: Follow up study of responses of general practices (debriefing by questionnaire or small group session) and patients (questionnaire sent to 429 patients vaccinated in a two week period) to vaccination campaign. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Patients registered with general practices of one family health services authority. INTERVENTIONS: Pneumococcal vaccination campaign including clinical guidelines and support materials. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of general practitioners offering pneumococcal vaccine; proportion of patients at risk who were vaccinated between 1 May and 31 December 1995; number of splenectomised patients identified and vaccinated in same period; views of patients who were vaccinated. RESULTS: Proportion of general practitioners offering pneumococcal vaccine increased from 17% to 89% during the campaign. Estimated number of patients at risk who were vaccinated increased from 656 (4%) to 5982 (33%) during campaign. Of 61 splenectomised patients identified, 30 had been vaccinated previously and 27 were vaccinated during campaign. Practices in which a general practitioner took or shared the lead had higher vaccination rates and used vaccine up faster. Of the 384 patients whose questionnaires were used in analysis, only 35 had heard of pneumococcal vaccine before the campaign, 198 reported side effects (mostly minor and local, but systemic and severe local reactions were more common than expected), and 337 were pleased they had been vaccinated (only five expressed dissatisfaction). CONCLUSION: A practice based campaign is an effective method of increasing uptake of pneumococcal vaccine by high risk groups. PMID:9133894
Yildirim, Inci; Shea, Kimberly M.
SYNOPSIS Universal immunization of infants and toddlers with PCVs over the past 15 years has dramatically altered the landscape of pneumococcal disease. Decreases in IPD, all cause pneumonia, empyema, mastoiditis, acute otitis media and complicated otitis media have been reported from multiple countries where universal immunization has been implemented. The introduction of the vaccine has also led to expanded understanding of pneumococcal disease; observations have confirmed that most pneumococci are transmitted from children to adults, not all pneumococcal serotypes are equal in terms of common clinical syndromes, likelihood of antibiotic resistance, or likelihood of progression to disease once colonization occurs. Children with comorbid conditions have higher rates of pneumococcal disease and increased case fatality rates compared to otherwise healthy children, and protection for the most vulnerable pediatric patients will require new strategies to address the underlying host susceptibility and the expanded spectrum of serotypes observed. PMID:26610421
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the elderly. There are three established approaches to pneumococcal vaccination: polysaccharide vaccines, protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines and protein-based vaccines. This article reviews advances in anti-pneumococcal vaccines, with reference to advantages and shortcomings for the elderly in particular. The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) is currently recommended for high-risk patients and the general elderly population. Although the effectiveness of PPV against pneumonia is unclear, recent studies point to significant protective effects in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia and reducing the severity of disease in vaccinated elderly patients. PPV offers high serotype coverage and, although it is poorly immunogenic in some individuals, provides approximately 60% protection against invasive disease in the general elderly population. PPV vaccination appears cost effective for elderly patients although the vaccine might only be effective in preventing invasive disease. Additional benefits could mean a greater level of vaccine cost effectiveness. However, it is important to understand that PPV provides incomplete protection, especially in those with underlying high-risk conditions, and development of more effective pneumococcal vaccination strategies for elderly patients is still needed. In recent years, the most important advance in the prevention of pneumococcal infections in the elderly has been the introduction of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (CPV) as a routine vaccination for infants. In addition to dramatically reducing invasive infection in children, CPV has been observed to have a considerable indirect protective effect in parents and grandparents. While the possibility of using CPV in elderly patients has been suggested, currently there are only limited immunogenicity data and no efficacy data in adults. The low serotype coverage is an important
Findlay, P.; Gibbons, Y; Primrose, W; Ellis, G; Downie, G
The efficacy of the influenza vaccine in reducing mortality and hospital admissions is established, particularly in the elderly. However, up to 50% of those at risk do not receive the vaccine. These patients are also at risk from pneumococcal infection and there is considerable overlap between the target group for each vaccine. This study sought to identify at risk individuals from consecutive admissions to an acute geriatric unit and to gain an insight into their perceptions with regard to vaccination. The awareness of each vaccine was recorded, together with the vaccination history. Seventy four per cent of the final cohort had heard of the influenza vaccine, while only 13% had heard of the pneumococcal vaccine. Fifty per cent perceived themselves to be at risk from influenza and its complications and 87% of the cohort believed it to be a serious infection. Influenza vaccine was judged to confer good protection by 72% of the sample and yet up to 50% believed that the vaccine can make the recipient ill. Influenza is perceived as a serious infection by patients and yet many do not believe themselves to be at particular risk. Although influenza vaccination is believed to confer protection, the decision whether, or not, to accept the vaccine is coloured by many factors, including popular myths and anecdotal information from friends and relatives. The uptake of influenza vaccine is suboptimal and the awareness of the pneumococcal vaccine certainly in the elderly is poor. The need for a comprehensive nationwide education campaign promoting both influenza and pneumococcal vaccine is highlighted. Keywords: influenza vaccine; pneumococcal vaccine PMID:10727564
Immunogenicity and safety of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, 5-component acellular pertussis, inactivated poliomyelitis, Haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine when administered concurrently with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a randomized, open-label, phase 3 study.
Bernstein, Henry H; Noriega, Fernando
A phase 3 randomized, multicenter study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, 5-component acellular pertussis, inactivated poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP(5)-IPV/Hib) administered at the same visit with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7, concurrent group) or at separate visits (separated by ≥ 15 days; staggered group). DTaP(5)-IPV/Hib was administered at 2, 4, 6, and 15 months of age, and PCV7 was administered concurrently or at 3, 5, 7, and 16 months of age. The study results found that DTaP(5)-IPV/Hib is safe and immunogenic when given concurrently with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
Fletcher, Mark A.; Fritzell, Bernard
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the predominant otitis media pathogen and its prevention through effective vaccination could diminish childhood illness and antibiotic use. This paper reviews 5 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) trials that used otitis media as an endpoint: Northern California Kaiser Permanente (NCKP; vaccine, 7-valent PCV [PCV7]-CRM); Finnish Otitis Media (FinOM; vaccines, PCV7-CRM or PCV7-OMPC); Native American Trial (vaccine, PCV7-CRM); Pneumococcal Otitis Efficacy Trial (POET; vaccine, 11-valent PCV [PCV11]-PD). For the microbiological endpoint, vaccine efficacy against vaccine-serotype pneumococcal otitis media was about 60% across trials. Against the clinical endpoint of all episodes, vaccine efficacy was 7% (PCV7-CRM/NCKP), 6% (PCV7-CRM/FinOM), −1% (PCV7-OMPC/FinOM), and −0.4% (PCV7-CRM/Native American Trial); 34% against first episodes of ear, nose, and throat specialist-referral cases (PCV11-PD/POET). Both follow-up through 2 years of age, for the 5 trials, and long-term follow-up, for PCV7-CRM/NCKP and PCV7-CRM/FinOM, demonstrated greater vaccine efficacy against recurrent AOM and tympanostomy-tube placement, suggesting that vaccination against early episodes of AOM may prevent subsequent episodes of complicated otitis media. Although study designs varied by primary endpoint measured, age at follow-up, source of middle-ear fluid for culture, case ascertainment, and type of randomization, each clinical trial demonstrated vaccine efficacy against microbiological and/or clinical otitis media. PMID:22701486
Boonacker, Chantal W B; Broos, Pieter H; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Schilder, Anne G M; Rovers, Maroeska M
While pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have shown to be highly effective against invasive pneumococcal disease, their potential effectiveness against acute otitis media (AOM) might become a major economic driver for implementing these vaccines in national immunization programmes. However, the relationship between the costs and benefits of available vaccines remains a controversial topic. Our objective is to systematically review the literature on the cost effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination against AOM in children. We searched PubMed, Cochrane and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects [DARE], NHS Economic Evaluation Database [NHS EED] and Health Technology Assessment database [HTA]) from inception until 18 February 2010. We used the following keywords with their synonyms: 'otitis media', 'children', 'cost-effectiveness', 'costs' and 'vaccine'. Costs per AOM episode averted were calculated based on the information in this literature. A total of 21 studies evaluating the cost effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines were included. The quality of the included studies was moderate to good. The cost per AOM episode averted varied from &U20AC;168 to &U20AC;4214, and assumed incidence rates varied from 20,952 to 118,000 per 100,000 children aged 0-10 years. Assumptions regarding direct and indirect costs varied between studies. The assumed vaccine efficacy of the 7-valent pneumococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine was mainly adopted from two trials, which reported 6-8% efficacy. However, some studies assumed additional effects such as herd immunity or only took into account AOM episodes caused by serotypes included in the vaccine, which resulted in efficacy rates varying from 12% to 57%. Costs per AOM episode averted were inversely related to the assumed incidence rates of AOM and to the estimated costs per AOM episode. The median costs per AOM episode averted tended to be lower in industry
Greenhow, Tara L; Hung, Yun-Yi; Herz, Arnd
In June 2010, Kaiser Permanente Northern California replaced all 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) vaccines with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Our objectives were to compare the incidence of bacteremia in children 3 to 36 months old by 3 time periods: pre-PCV7, post-PCV7/pre-PCV13, and post-PCV13. We designed a retrospective review of the electronic medical records of all blood cultures collected on children 3 to 36 months old at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from September 1, 1998 to August 31, 2014 in outpatient clinics, in emergency departments, and in the first 24 hours of hospitalization. During the study period, 57 733 blood cultures were collected in the population of children 3 to 36 months old. Implementation of routine immunization with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine resulted in a 95.3% reduction of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, decreasing from 74.5 to 10 to 3.5 per 100 000 children per year by the post-PCV13 period. As pneumococcal rates decreased, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, and Staphylococcus aureus caused 77% of bacteremia. Seventy-six percent of all bacteremia in the post-PCV13 period occurred with a source. In the United States, routine immunizations have made bacteremia in the previously healthy toddler a rare event. As the incidence of pneumococcal bacteremia has decreased, E coli, Salmonella spp, and S aureus have increased in relative importance. New guidelines are needed to approach the previously healthy febrile toddler in the outpatient setting. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Background: Antipneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antibody concentrations are used as predictors of vaccine efficacy against vaccine serotype (ST) pneumococcal disease among infants. While pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are recommended globally, factors associated with optimal PCV immune response are not well described. We aimed to systematically assess local setting factors, beyond dosing schedule, which may affect PCV antibody levels. Methods: We conducted a literature review of PCV immunogenicity, abstracting data from published reports, unpublished sources, and conference abstracts from 1994 to 2010 (and ad hoc 2011 reports). Studies included in this analysis evaluated ≥ 2 primary doses of PCV before 6 months of age in non–high-risk populations, used 7-valent or higher PCV products (excluding Aventis-Pasteur and Merck products) and provided information on geometric mean concentration (GMC) for STs 1, 5, 6B, 14, 19F or 23F. Using random effects meta-regression, we assessed the impact of geographic region, coadministered vaccines and PCV product on postprimary GMC, adjusting for dosing schedule and ELISA laboratory method. Results: Of 12,980 citations reviewed, we identified 103 vaccine study arms for this analysis. Children in studies from Asia, Africa and Latin America had significantly higher GMC responses compared with those in studies from Europe and North America. Coadministration with acellular pertussis DTP compared with whole-cell DTP had no effect on PCV immunogenicity except for ST14, where GMCs were higher when coadministered with acellular pertussis DTP. Vaccine product, number of PCV doses, dosing interval, age at first dose and ELISA laboratory method also affected the GMC. Conclusions: PCV immunogenicity is associated with geographic region and vaccine product; however, the associations and magnitude varied by ST. Consideration of these factors is essential when comparing PCV immunogenicity results between groups and should be
van den Bosch, W J H M
In the Netherlands, in contrast to other countries, pneumococcal vaccination for older people and people at risk is not routine, except for patients under special circumstances, such as after a splenectomy. Although pneumococcal vaccination is an effective way to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease in young healthy persons, there is no conclusive evidence that it is effective in older people and people at risk without a good immune response. Pneumococcal disease can be an important complication of an ordinary flu. Because there is a high level of vaccination against influenza in the Netherlands, the risk of pneumococcal disease is low compared to other countries in the world. Adding a pneumococcal vaccine to the influenza vaccination could decrease the degree of protection against influenza. The experimental introduction of pneumococcal vaccination does not seem to lead to an increase in the number of patients that refuse vaccination against influenza.
Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A
Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD.
... the United States.Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs is not as effective as ... should not get PCV13.Anyone with a severe allergy to any component of PCV13 should not get ...
Prediction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Effectiveness against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Using Opsonophagocytic Activity and Antibody Concentrations Determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with 22F Adsorption ▿
Schuerman, L.; Wysocki, J.; Tejedor, J. C.; Knuf, M.; Kim, K.-H.; Poolman, J.
We compared the abilities of two serological readouts, antipolysaccharide IgG antibody concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers, to predict the clinical effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We also assessed the accuracy of the previously established thresholds for GlaxoSmithKline's enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with 22F adsorption (22F-ELISA) (≥0.2 μg/ml) and OPA assay (titer, ≥8) in predicting effectiveness. We showed that following a 3-dose 7vCRM primary vaccination, the serological response rates as determined using thresholds of ≥0.2 μg/ml IgG and an OPA titer of ≥8 corresponded well with overall effectiveness against IPD. In addition, the OPA assay seemed to better predict serotype-specific effectiveness than enzyme-linked immunoassay. Finally, when applied to post-dose-2 immune responses, both thresholds also corresponded well with the overall IPD effectiveness following a 2-dose 7vCRM primary vaccination. These results support the importance of the OPA assay in evaluating immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. PMID:21994351
Taylor, Sylvia; Marchisio, Paola; Vergison, Anne; Harriague, Julie; Hausdorff, William P.; Haggard, Mark
Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of visits to physicians and of antibiotic prescriptions for young children. We systematically reviewed studies on all-cause AOM episodes and physician visits in which impact was attributed to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, either as efficacy or effectiveness. Of 18 relevant publications found, most used the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM). The efficacy of 7vCRM against all-cause AOM episodes or visits was 0%–9% in randomized trials and 17%–23% in nonrandomized trials. In observational database studies, physician visits for AOM were already declining in the 3–5 years before 7vCRM introduction (mean change, −15%; range, +14% to −24%) and continued to decline afterward (mean, −19%; range, +7% to −48%). This vaccine provides some protection against OM, but other factors have also contributed to the recent decline in OM incidence. Future effectiveness studies should thus use better-controlled methods to estimate the true impact of vaccination on AOM. PMID:22423134
Song, Joon Young; Heo, Jung Yeon; Noh, Ji Yun; Seo, Yu Bin; Kim, In Seon; Choi, Won Suk; Kim, Woo Joo
Purpose Despite the ready availability of pneumococcal vaccine, vaccination rates are quite low in South Korea. This study was designed to assess perceptions and awareness about pneumococcal vaccines among subjects at risk and find strategies to increases vaccine coverage rates. Materials and Methods A cross sectional, community-based survey was conducted to assess perceptions about the pneumococcal vaccine at a local public health center. In a tertiary hospital, an outpatient-based pneumococcal vaccine campaign was carried out for the elderly and individuals with chronic co-morbidities from May to July of 2007. Results Based on the survey, only 7.6% were ever informed about pneumococcal vaccination. The coverage rates of the pneumococcal vaccine before and after the hospital campaign showed an increased annual rate from 3.39% to 5.91%. The most common reason for vaccination was "doctor's advice" (53.3%). As for the reasons for not receiving vaccination, about 75% of high risk patients were not aware of the pneumococcal vaccine, which was the most important barrier to vaccination. Negative clinician's attitude was the second most common cause of non-vaccination. Conclusion Annual outpatient-based campaigns early in the influenza season may improve pneumococcal vaccine coverage rates. Doctor's advice was the most important encouraging factor for vaccination. PMID:23364983
Hutchison, B. G.; Oxman, A. D.; Shannon, H. S.; Lloyd, S.; Altmayer, C. A.; Thomas, K.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccine. DATA SOURCES: Computerized searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCISEARCH databases were performed, reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed, and first authors of published studies were contacted. STUDY SELECTION: Studies of use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults were included if the study design was a randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trial and at least one of the following clinical outcomes was reported: vaccine-type systemic pneumococcal infection, systemic pneumococcal infection, vaccine-type pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia, non-vaccine-type pneumococcal pneumonia. SYNTHESIS: Study quality was assessed and descriptive information concerning the study populations, interventions, and outcome measurements was extracted for 13 trials involving more than 65,000 patients. Estimates of vaccine efficacy, based on a meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized trials, were determined for clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine can be expected to reduce the risk of systemic infection due to pneumococcal types included in the vaccine by 83% and systemic infection due to all pneumococci by 73%. We found no evidence that the vaccine was less efficacious for the elderly, institutionalized people, or those with chronic disease. PMID:10540698
Lee, Lucia H.; Gu, Xin-Xing; Nahm, Moon H.
Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction and routine pediatric use has substantially reduced the burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae disease worldwide. However, a significant amount of disease burden, due to serotypes not contained in PCV7, still exists globally. A newly recognized serotype, 6C, was until recently, identified and reported as serotype 6A. This review summarizes the serotype epidemiology of pneumococcal disease pre- and post-introduction of PCV7, available post-marketing surveillance data following the introduction of higher valency pneumococcal vaccines (PCV10, PCV13) and future prospects for the development of new pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:26344470
Vorob'ev, D S; Semenova, I B
The problem of pneumococcal infections is pressing for the whole world. Existing vaccines based only on pneumococci polysaccharide antigens or polysaccharide antigens and diphtherial anatoxin are not capable of protecting from all serotypes of the microorganism. Reasonability of creation of pneumococcal vaccine based on surface proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae is discussed in the literature. One of such key pneumococcal proteins is pneumococcal surface protein A (PSPA), because it is detected in all the S. pneumoniae strains, has cross activity and switches B-cell immune response to T-cell. Currently the development of conjugated vaccine based on surface proteins and capsule polysaccharides of pneumococcus seems promising.
Watson, Michael; Roche, Paul; Bayley, Kathy; Bell, Jan M; Collignon, Peter; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Hogg, Geoff; Keil, Anthony D; Krause, Vicki; Murphy, Denise; Smith, Helen V; Brown, Mitchell; Stylianopoulos, Joanne; Turnidge, John
A comprehensive invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) laboratory surveillance program was carried out in Australia in 2003. This program provided data on the prevalence of pneumococcal serotypes and antimicrobial resistance. There were 1,995 isolates tested with 34 per cent (683) from children aged less than five years and 27 per cent (535) from the elderly aged more than 65 years. One thousand eight hundred and sixty were isolates from blood, 79 from CSF and 56 from other sterile sites. In young children, 84 per cent of isolates were a serotype and 92 per cent a serogroup in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV). Of penicillin resistant isolates in children less than five years of age 85 per cent and 98 per cent were a serotype and serogroup in the 7vPCV respectively. When the universal 7vPCV vaccine program in young children is introduced in 2005, a proportion of cases of IPD should also be prevented in young adults (estimated reduction of 54 cases annually) and elderly Australians (an estimated reduction of 110 cases annually) as a result of improved herd immunity. Pneumococcal serotypes with higher rates of penicillin resistance (19F, 14 and 6B) were more prevalent in the elderly than in young children. In contrast, erythromycin resistance was more common in children less than five years of age (24%) compared to the elderly (15%). The predominant serotype with erythromycin resistance in Australia was serotype 14 and thus there is likely to be a major reduction in erythromycin resistance as a result of 7vPCV vaccination. Continued surveillance of pneumococcal serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility will be essential in order to identify serotype replacement by non-vaccine serotypes and to monitor the overall impact of current and future vaccine programs on invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, not only in young children but also in other age groups.
Boccalini, Sara; Varone, Ornella; Chellini, Martina; Pieri, Luca; Sala, Antonino; Berardi, Cesare; Bonanni, Paolo; Bechini, Angela
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causative organism of acute media otitis in children and meningitis and bacterial pneumonia in the community. Since 2008 in Tuscany, central Italy, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7-valent vaccine, switched to 13-valent vaccine in 2010) was actively offered free of charge to all newborns. Aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of pneumococcal pediatric vaccination in the Tuscan population on hospitalizations potentially caused by S. pneumoniae, during pre-vaccination (PVP, 2002-2007) and vaccination period (VP, 2009-2014). We analyzed hospital discharge records (HDRs) of all hospitals in Tuscany from 2002 to 2014. Hospitalizations potentially due to pneumococcal diseases were 347, 221. The general hospitalization rate was 716/100,000 inhabitants during PVP and 753/100,000 in VP, with a decrease of 29.1% in the age-group 0-9 y ("target" of the vaccination program) and an increase of 75.7% in subjects >64 y of age. During VP, admission days and hospitalization costs increased (6.2% and 24.2%, respectively), especially in patients >64 y (12.9% and 33.8%, respectively); in children <10 y decreased by 21.2% and 12.8%, respectively. The pneumococcal pediatric vaccination resulted in the decrease of hospitalizations in younger but the expected indirect effect in the elderly was not reported, justifying the Tuscan recommendation to extend the vaccination to subjects > 64 y.
Licciardi, Paul V; Toh, Zheng Quan; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Balloch, Anne; Marimla, Rachel A; Tikkanen, Leena; Lamb, Karen E; Bright, Kathryn J; Rabuatoka, Uraia; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Boelsen, Laura K; Dunne, Eileen M; Satzke, Catherine; Cheung, Yin Bun; Pollard, Andrew J; Russell, Fiona M; Mulholland, Edward K
A randomized controlled trial in Fiji examined the immunogenicity and effect on nasopharyngeal carriage after 0, 1, 2, or 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar) in infancy followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV; Pneumovax) at 12 months of age. At 18 months of age, children given 23vPPV exhibited immune hyporesponsiveness to a micro-23vPPV (20%) challenge dose in terms of serotype-specific IgG and opsonophagocytosis, while 23vPPV had no effect on vaccine-type carriage. This follow-up study examined the long-term effect of the 12-month 23vPPV dose by evaluating the immune response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) administration 4 to 5 years later. Blood samples from 194 children (now 5-7 years old) were taken before and 28 days after PCV13 booster immunization. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken before PCV13 immunization. We measured levels of serotype-specific IgG to all 13 vaccine serotypes, opsonophagocytosis for 8 vaccine serotypes, and memory B-cell responses for 18 serotypes before and after PCV13 immunization. Paired samples were obtained from 185 children. There were no significant differences in the serotype-specific IgG, opsonophagocytosis, or memory B-cell response at either time point between children who did or did not receive 23vPPV at 12 months of age. Nasopharyngeal carriage of PCV7 and 23vPPV serotypes was similar among the groups. Priming with 1, 2, or 3 PCV7 doses during infancy did not affect serotype-specific immunity or carriage. Immune hyporesponsiveness induced by 23vPPV in toddlers does not appear to be sustained among preschool children in this context and does not affect the pneumococcal carriage rate in this age group. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was developed to overcome the limitations of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which produces poor immunogenicity in infants younger than 2 years. As many countries have included PCVs in national immunization programs for children, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine type Streptococcus pneumoniae has declined markedly, not only among the vaccinated pediatric population, but also among unvaccinated adults. In this review, we present a concise overview of the indirect effects of mass pediatric PCV immunization on unvaccinated adults. PMID:28032483
Ciruela, Pilar; Hernández, Sergi; García-García, Juan José; Soldevila, Núria; Izquierdo, Conchita; Moraga-Llop, Fernando; Díaz, Alvaro; F. de Sevilla, Mariona; González-Peris, Sebastià; Campins, Magda; Uriona, Sonia; Martínez-Osorio, Johanna; Solé-Ribalta, Anna; Codina, Gemma; Esteva, Cristina; Planes, Ana María; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Salleras, Luis
Background The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was licensed based on the results of immunogenicity studies and correlates of protection derived from randomized clinical trials of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. We assessed the vaccination effectiveness (VE) of the PCV13 in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children aged 7–59 months in a population with suboptimal vaccination coverage of 55%. Methods The study was carried out in children with IPD admitted to three hospitals in Barcelona (Spain) and controls matched by hospital, age, sex, date of hospitalization and underlying disease. Information on the vaccination status was obtained from written medical records. Conditional logistic regression was made to estimate the adjusted VE and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results 169 cases and 645 controls were included. The overall VE of ≥1 doses of PCV13 in preventing IPD due to vaccine serotypes was 75.8% (95% CI, 54.1–87.2) and 90% (95% CI, 63.9–97.2) when ≥2 doses before 12 months, two doses on or after 12 months or one dose on or after 24 months, were administered. The VE of ≥1 doses was 89% (95% CI, 42.7–97.9) against serotype 1 and 86.0% (95% CI, 51.2–99.7) against serotype 19A. Serotype 3 showed a non-statistically significant effectiveness (25.9%; 95% CI, -65.3 to 66.8). Conclusions The effectiveness of ≥1 doses of PCV13 in preventing IPD caused by all PCV13 serotypes in children aged 7–59 months was good and, except for serotype 3, the effectiveness of ≥1 doses against the most frequent PCV13 serotypes causing IPD was high when considered individually. PMID:28806737
Domínguez, Ángela; Ciruela, Pilar; Hernández, Sergi; García-García, Juan José; Soldevila, Núria; Izquierdo, Conchita; Moraga-Llop, Fernando; Díaz, Alvaro; F de Sevilla, Mariona; González-Peris, Sebastià; Campins, Magda; Uriona, Sonia; Martínez-Osorio, Johanna; Solé-Ribalta, Anna; Codina, Gemma; Esteva, Cristina; Planes, Ana María; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Salleras, Luis
The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was licensed based on the results of immunogenicity studies and correlates of protection derived from randomized clinical trials of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. We assessed the vaccination effectiveness (VE) of the PCV13 in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children aged 7-59 months in a population with suboptimal vaccination coverage of 55%. The study was carried out in children with IPD admitted to three hospitals in Barcelona (Spain) and controls matched by hospital, age, sex, date of hospitalization and underlying disease. Information on the vaccination status was obtained from written medical records. Conditional logistic regression was made to estimate the adjusted VE and 95% confidence intervals (CI). 169 cases and 645 controls were included. The overall VE of ≥1 doses of PCV13 in preventing IPD due to vaccine serotypes was 75.8% (95% CI, 54.1-87.2) and 90% (95% CI, 63.9-97.2) when ≥2 doses before 12 months, two doses on or after 12 months or one dose on or after 24 months, were administered. The VE of ≥1 doses was 89% (95% CI, 42.7-97.9) against serotype 1 and 86.0% (95% CI, 51.2-99.7) against serotype 19A. Serotype 3 showed a non-statistically significant effectiveness (25.9%; 95% CI, -65.3 to 66.8). The effectiveness of ≥1 doses of PCV13 in preventing IPD caused by all PCV13 serotypes in children aged 7-59 months was good and, except for serotype 3, the effectiveness of ≥1 doses against the most frequent PCV13 serotypes causing IPD was high when considered individually.
Gentile, Angela; Bazán, Virginia
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), adopted by world leaders in the year 2000 with an aim to accomplish them by 2015, provide concrete benchmarks for tackling extreme poverty in its many dimensions. One aim is to reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children <5 years of age. The deaths of nearly 3 million children under 5 each year worldwide can be attributed to diarrhea and pneumonia. Pneumonia, one form of pneumococcal disease, causes almost 1 in 5 deaths of children under 5 worldwide-more than 1.6 million children each year. Pneumococcal disease is preventable by vaccination; because antibiotic resistance is a growing problem worldwide, there is a great need to promote effective pneumococcal vaccines. Vaccines differ from other types of drugs, because they are administered to healthy individuals. Therefore, a good safety profile is required, there is a large governmental regulatory role, and low efficacy is unacceptable. Other important considerations are as follows: vaccines are often used in infants, are typically given in multiple doses, the manufacturing is a larger part of cost, requires high regulatory and quality control burden and minimization of costs. From a biological standpoint, the induction of vaccine-mediated protection is a complex procedure. Long-term protection typically requires the persistence of anti-microbial antibodies and/or the generation of immune memory cells capable of rapid and effective reactivation after microbial re-exposure. Appreciation of the predominant role of B cells in the efficacy of current vaccines should not minimize the importance of generating a T cell response, as this is essential for the induction of high affinity antibodies and immune memory. Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides typically elicit B cell responses in a T-independent manner. Because of this, capsular polysaccharides are poorly immunogenic in children below 2 years of age and will generate an IgM isotype-based primary response with only
De La Rosa, Indhira; Munjal, Iona M; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Yu, Xiaoying; Pirofski, Liise-Anne; Mendoza, Daniel
HIV(+) subjects on optimal antiretroviral therapy have persistently impaired antibody responses to pneumococcal vaccination. We explored the possibility that this effect may be due to HIV protease inhibitors (PIs). We found that in humans and mice, PIs do not affect antibody production in response to pneumococcal vaccination. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Bolaños-Díaz, Rafael; Fiestas, Víctor; Sanabria, César; Gutiérrez-Aguado, Alfonso; Fiestas, Fabián; Suárez, Víctor J; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Hernández, Adrián V
Pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) has a high burden of morbimortality in children. Use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) is an effective preventive measure. After PCV 7-valent (PCV7) withdrawal, PCV 10-valent (PCV10) and PCV 13-valent (PCV13) are the alternatives in Peru. This study aimed to evaluate cost effectiveness of these vaccines in preventing PP in Peruvian children <5 years-old. A cost-effectiveness analysis was developed in three phases: a systematic evidence search for calculating effectiveness; a cost analysis for vaccine strategies and outcome management; and an economic model based on decision tree analysis, including deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis using acceptability curves, tornado diagram, and Monte Carlo simulation. A hypothetic 100 vaccinated children/vaccine cohort was built. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated. The isolation probability for all serotypes in each vaccine was estimated: 38% for PCV7, 41% PCV10, and 17% PCV13. Avoided hospitalization was found to be the best effectiveness model measure. Estimated costs for PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 cohorts were USD13,761, 11,895, and 12,499, respectively. Costs per avoided hospitalization were USD718 for PCV7, USD333 for PCV10, and USD 162 for PCV13. At ICER, PCV7 was dominated by the other PCVs. Eliminating PCV7, PCV13 was more cost effective than PCV10 (confirmed in sensitivity analysis). PCV10 and PCV13 are more cost effective than PCV7 in prevention of pneumonia in children <5 years-old in Peru. PCV13 prevents more hospitalizations and is more cost-effective than PCV10. These results should be considered when making decisions about the Peruvian National Inmunizations Schedule.
Lagousi, Theano; Papadatou, Ioanna; Kopsidas, Ioannis; Critselis, Elena; Theodoridou, Maria; Spoulou, Vana
We determined the rates of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)-associated hospitalizations and complications in Athens, over a period covering 4 years before and 4 years after the implementation of the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in Greece. PCV7 had no impact on pediatric CAP rates, whereas there was an increase in CAP-associated complications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Knuf, Markus; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Grunert, Detlef; Rapp, Michael; Panzer, Falko; Köllges, Ralph; Fanic, Aurélie; Habib, Ahsan; Borys, Dorota; Dieussaert, Ilse; Schuerman, Lode
Induction of immunologic memory was assessed following primary vaccination with 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). Infants were randomized (1:1) to receive 3 doses of PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (7-valent CRM197-conjugated pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV]) at 2, 3, and 4 months of age followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPS) booster dose at 11 to 14 months of age. Pneumococcal geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs) and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) geometric mean titers were measured. Postprimary immune responses were consistent with those in previous PHiD-CV and 7vCRM studies. Following 23vPS boosting, vaccine serotype-specific antibody GMCs increased 6.5- to 33.3-fold and 4.8- to 32.2-fold versus prebooster in the PHiD-CV and 7vCRM groups, respectively. Postbooster OPA titers increased 2.8- to 38.8-fold and 2.6- to 58.9-fold, respectively. Postbooster antibody GMCs exceeded postprimary levels but, for some serotypes, postbooster OPA geometric mean titers were lower than postprimary in both groups. An additional dose of the same PCV received for priming was administered to 52 children aged 46 to 50 months, resulting in higher responses versus postprimary vaccination for all serotypes, but not always higher than post-23vPS booster. Induction of immunologic memory following PHiD-CV priming was confirmed. Additional PCV boosting in 4-year-olds did not provide strong evidence of hyporesponsiveness induced by previous 23vPS boosting. However, our results did not rule out depletion of the memory B cell pool following 23vPS vaccination, resulting in subsequent attenuated immune responses, and therefore support the use of PCV rather than 23vPS for booster vaccination in the second year of life.
Johannesson, Thomas G; Søgaard, Ole S; Tolstrup, Martin; Petersen, Mikkel S; Bernth-Jensen, Jens M; Østergaard, Lars; Erikstrup, Christian
Untreated HIV infection results in severe perturbations of the B-cell population and hyporesponsiveness to vaccination. We studied associations between circulating B-cell subsets and antibody response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in treated and untreated HIV patients.Ninety-five HIV-infected adults were grouped according to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and CD4+ cell count as follows: 20 ART-naïve (no prior ART), 62 ART-responders (received ART, and CD4 count >500 cells/µl), and 13 impaired responders (received ART for more than 3 years, and CD4 count <500 cells/µl). All subjects were immunized twice with double-dose 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with or without 1 mg CPG 7909 (toll-like receptor 9 agonist) at baseline and after three months. Pre-vaccination B-cell subpopulations were assessed by flow cytometry. Serum IgG concentrations for vaccine serotypes were quantified by ELISA at baseline and 3, 4, and 9 months post-vaccination. ART responders had more isotype-switched memory B cells and more marginal-zone (MZ)-like B cells compared with impaired responders. Furthermore, ART-naïve patients had higher concentration of transitional B cells and plasmablasts compared with B cells of other patient groups. The concentration of MZ-like, isotype switched memory cells and plasmablasts correlated positively with post-vaccination IgG concentration at 3, 4, and 9 months. Low concentrations of isotype-switched memory B cells was the strongest independent predictor of poor pneumococcal conjugate vaccine responsiveness, emphasizing that B-cell subset disturbances are associated with poor vaccine response among HIV-infected patients.
Lai, Zengzu; Schreiber, John R
Bacterial polysaccharides (PS) are T cell-independent antigens that do not induce immunologic memory and are poor immunogens in infants. Conjugate vaccines in which the PS is covalently linked to a carrier protein have enhanced immunogenicity that resembles that of T cell-dependent antigens. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, which uses the outer membrane protein complex (OMPC) from meningococcus as a carrier protein, elicits protective levels of anti-capsular PS antibody (Ab) after a single dose, in contrast to other conjugate vaccines, which require multiple doses. We have previously shown that OMPC robustly engages Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and enhances the early anti-Hib PS Ab titer associated with an increase in TLR2-mediated induction of cytokines. We now show that the addition of OMPC to the 7-valent pneumococcal PS-CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine during immunization significantly increases the anti-PS IgG and IgM responses to most serotypes of pneumococcus contained in the vaccine. The addition of OMPC also increased the likelihood of anti-PS IgG3 production against serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 18C, 19F, and 23F. Splenocytes from mice who had received OMPC with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine produced significantly more interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) than splenocytes from mice who received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) plus the conjugate vaccine. We conclude that OMPC enhances the anti-PS Ab response to pneumococcal PS-CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine, an effect associated with a distinct change in cytokine profile. It may be possible to reduce the number of conjugate vaccine doses required to achieve protective Ab levels by priming with adjuvants that are TLR2 ligands.
O'Brien, Megan A; Prosser, Lisa A; Paradise, Jack L; Ray, G Thomas; Kulldorff, Martin; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Mehta, Jyotsna; Colborn, D Kathleen; Lieu, Tracy A
New vaccines that offer protection against otitis media caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and by Moraxella catarrhalis are under development. However, the potential health benefits and economic effects of such candidate vaccines have not been systematically assessed. We created a computerized model to compare the projected benefits and costs of (1) the currently available 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, (2) a candidate pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine that has been tested in Europe, (3) a hypothetical pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine, and (4) no vaccination. The clinical probabilities of acute otitis media and of otitis media with effusion were generated from multivariate analyses of data from 2 large health maintenance organizations and from the Pittsburgh Child Development/Otitis Media Study cohort. Other probabilities, costs, and quality-of-life values were derived from published and unpublished sources. The base-case analysis assumed vaccine dose costs of $65 for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, $100 for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine, and $125 for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine. With no vaccination, we projected that 13.7 million episodes of acute otitis media would occur annually in US children aged 0 to 4 years, at an annual cost of $3.8 billion. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was projected to prevent 878,000 acute otitis media episodes, or 6.4% of those that would occur with no vaccination; the corresponding value for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine was 3.7 million (27%) and for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine was 4.2 million (31%). Using the base-case vaccine costs, pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine use would result in net savings compared with nontypeable 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate use. Conversely, pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine use would not
Jackson, Lisa A; Gurtman, Alejandra; van Cleeff, Martin; Jansen, Kathrin U; Jayawardene, Deepthi; Devlin, Carmel; Scott, Daniel A; Emini, Emilio A; Gruber, William C; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among adults 50 years of age and older in the United States. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are efficacious against pneumococcal disease in children and may also offer advantages in adults. We performed a randomized, modified double-blind trial that compared a single dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in 831 pneumococcal vaccine naive adults 60-64 years of age. An additional group of 403 adults 50-59 years of age received open-label PCV13. Anti-pneumococcal opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers were measured at baseline, and at 1 month and 1 year after vaccination. In the randomized trial, the month 1 post-vaccination OPA geometric mean titers in the PCV13 group were statistically significantly higher than in the PPSV23 group for 8 of the 12 serotypes common to both vaccines and for serotype 6A, a serotype unique to PCV13, and were comparable for the other 4 common serotypes. The immune response to PCV13 was generally greater in adults 50-59 years of age compared to adults 60-64 years of age. OPA titers declined from 1 month to 1 year after PCV13 administration but remained higher than pre-vaccination baseline titers. PCV13 induces a greater functional immune response than PPSV23 for the majority of serotypes covered by PCV13, suggesting that PCV13 could offer immunological advantages over PPSV23 for prevention of vaccine-type pneumococcal infection. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Targonski, Paul V; Poland, Gregory A
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae for all people age 65 and older and also for younger people at high risk. However, experts continue to debate the efficacy of the vaccine; most observational studies found it beneficial, while clinical trials were inconclusive as a group. Although pneumococcal vaccination may or may not protect against pneumonia or death from any cause, it does significantly decrease the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease and is worthwhile for this reason.
Porchia, Barbara Rita; Bonanni, Paolo; Bechini, Angela; Bonaccorsi, Gugliemo; Boccalini, Sara
Pneumococcal infection is a public health concern that disproportionately affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. There is an open debate on the implementation of polysaccharide and/or conjugate vaccines for pneumococcal diseases in adults and the elderly in many countries. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the economic profile of pneumococcal vaccines in adults in terms of costs and benefits. Areas covered: The search for economic studies on pneumococcal vaccination was carried out in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the HTA and NHS EED databases and through a manual search in journals dealing with economic evaluations. We included original articles and reviews with economic evaluation of polysaccharide 23-valent (PPV23) and/or conjugate pneumococcal vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) use in adults, the elderly, and at-risk groups to provide a systematic review of economical evaluation. Expert commentary: Pneumococcal vaccination is strongly recommended for all adults, especially subjects at risk and the elderly. Pneumococcal vaccination with PCV13 or PPV23 in adults is good value for money and should be a priority for the decision-makers. The main issue is how vaccination could be offered.
Griffin, Marie R; Mitchel, Edward; Moore, Matthew R; Whitney, Cynthia G; Grijalva, Carlos G
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was added to the U.S. infant immunization schedule in the year 2000. By 2009, PCV7 introduction was associated with a 43% decline in all-cause pneumonia among U.S. children aged <2 years. In 2010, a new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in the infant immunization schedule, expanding protection from seven to 13 pneumococcal serotypes. To examine changes in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among children aged <2 years after the switch to PCV13, Tennessee hospital discharge data for 1998-2012 were analyzed. By 2012, all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations in children aged <2 years had declined an additional 27%, relative to the PCV7 years. Pneumonia hospitalizations were estimated to be 4.1 per 1,000 population in 2012, a historically low rate that represents a 72% decline from the rate before PCV7 introduction. Tennessee children aged <2 years experienced about 1,300 fewer pneumonia hospitalizations annually in 2011 and 2012 than in the years before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use. These data attest to the powerful impact of the PCV program on pneumonia in Tennessee children. The observed trend likely represents a major decline in pneumococcal pneumonia, which should stimulate a reassessment of current causes and appropriate management of pneumonia in children.
Effect of the different 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination uptakes on the invasive pneumococcal disease in children: Analysis of a hospital-based and population-based surveillance study in Madrid, Spain, 2007-2015
Picazo, Juan; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús; Casado-Flores, Juan; Negreira, Sagrario; Baquero, Fernando; Hernández-Sampelayo, Teresa; Otheo, Enrique; Méndez, Cristina
In the Community of Madrid, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced the 7-valent (PCV7) in the fully government-funded Regional Immunization Program (RIP) in May, 2010, but was later excluded in May, 2012, and included again in January, 2015. These unique changes allowed us to assess the impact of the different pneumococcal vaccination policies on PCV13 uptake in infants and on the incidence rate (IR) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children <15 years old. In this prospective, active, surveillance study, we estimated PCV13 uptakes, IR and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for total IPD and for IPD caused by PCV13- and non-PCV13 serotypes in children <15 years, stratified by age, in four periods with different vaccination policies: fully government-funded PCV7 vaccination, fully government-funded PCV13, mixed public/private funding and only private funding. Vaccine uptakes reached 95% in periods with public-funded pneumococcal vaccination, but fell to 67% in the private funding period. Overall, IR of IPD decreased by 68% (p<0.001) in 2014–15, due to 93% reduction in the IR of PCV13-type IPD (p<0.001) without significant changes in non-PCV13-type IPD. A fully government-funded PCV13 vaccination program lead to high vaccine uptake and dramatic reductions in both overall and PCV13-type IPD IR. When this program was switched to private PCV13 vaccination, there was a fall in vaccine coverage and stagnation in the decline of PCV13-type IPD with data suggesting a weakening of herd immunity. PMID:28207888
Effect of the different 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination uptakes on the invasive pneumococcal disease in children: Analysis of a hospital-based and population-based surveillance study in Madrid, Spain, 2007-2015.
Picazo, Juan; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús; Casado-Flores, Juan; Negreira, Sagrario; Baquero, Fernando; Hernández-Sampelayo, Teresa; Otheo, Enrique; Méndez, Cristina
In the Community of Madrid, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced the 7-valent (PCV7) in the fully government-funded Regional Immunization Program (RIP) in May, 2010, but was later excluded in May, 2012, and included again in January, 2015. These unique changes allowed us to assess the impact of the different pneumococcal vaccination policies on PCV13 uptake in infants and on the incidence rate (IR) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children <15 years old. In this prospective, active, surveillance study, we estimated PCV13 uptakes, IR and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for total IPD and for IPD caused by PCV13- and non-PCV13 serotypes in children <15 years, stratified by age, in four periods with different vaccination policies: fully government-funded PCV7 vaccination, fully government-funded PCV13, mixed public/private funding and only private funding. Vaccine uptakes reached 95% in periods with public-funded pneumococcal vaccination, but fell to 67% in the private funding period. Overall, IR of IPD decreased by 68% (p<0.001) in 2014-15, due to 93% reduction in the IR of PCV13-type IPD (p<0.001) without significant changes in non-PCV13-type IPD. A fully government-funded PCV13 vaccination program lead to high vaccine uptake and dramatic reductions in both overall and PCV13-type IPD IR. When this program was switched to private PCV13 vaccination, there was a fall in vaccine coverage and stagnation in the decline of PCV13-type IPD with data suggesting a weakening of herd immunity.
Feikin, Daniel R.; Kagucia, Eunice W.; Loo, Jennifer D.; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Puhan, Milo A.; Cherian, Thomas; Levine, Orin S.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; O’Brien, Katherine L.; Moore, Matthew R.
Background Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. Methods and Findings Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥2 years before and ≥1 year after PCV7 introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios by dividing observed by expected IPD rates for each post-PCV7 year. We calculated summary rate ratios (RRs) using random effects meta-analysis. For children <5 years old, overall IPD decreased by year 1 post-PCV7 (RR 0·55, 95% CI 0·46–0·65) and remained relatively stable through year 7 (RR 0·49, 95% CI 0·35–0·68). Point estimates for VT IPD decreased annually through year 7 (RR 0·03, 95% CI 0·01–0·10), while NVT IPD increased (year 7 RR 2·81, 95% CI 2·12–3·71). Among adults, decreases in overall IPD also occurred but were smaller and more variable by site than among children. At year 7 after introduction, significant reductions were observed (18–49 year-olds [RR 0·52, 95% CI 0·29–0·91], 50–64 year-olds [RR 0·84, 95% CI 0·77–0·93], and ≥65 year-olds [RR 0·74, 95% CI 0·58–0·95]). Conclusions Consistent and significant decreases in both overall and VT IPD in children occurred quickly and were sustained for 7 years after PCV7 introduction, supporting use of PCVs. Increases in NVT IPD occurred in most sites, with variable magnitude
Feikin, Daniel R; Kagucia, Eunice W; Loo, Jennifer D; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Puhan, Milo A; Cherian, Thomas; Levine, Orin S; Whitney, Cynthia G; O'Brien, Katherine L; Moore, Matthew R
Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥ 2 years before and ≥ 1 year after PCV7 introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios by dividing observed by expected IPD rates for each post-PCV7 year. We calculated summary rate ratios (RRs) using random effects meta-analysis. For children <5 years old, overall IPD decreased by year 1 post-PCV7 (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.46-0.65) and remained relatively stable through year 7 (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35-0.68). Point estimates for VT IPD decreased annually through year 7 (RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.10), while NVT IPD increased (year 7 RR 2.81, 95% CI 2.12-3.71). Among adults, decreases in overall IPD also occurred but were smaller and more variable by site than among children. At year 7 after introduction, significant reductions were observed (18-49 year-olds [RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.91], 50-64 year-olds [RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.93], and ≥ 65 year-olds [RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95]). Consistent and significant decreases in both overall and VT IPD in children occurred quickly and were sustained for 7 years after PCV7 introduction, supporting use of PCVs. Increases in NVT IPD occurred in most sites, with variable magnitude. These findings may not represent the experience in low-income countries or the
Conjugated pneumococal vaccines had a notable impact on prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in vacccinated and non vaccinated (herd immunity) populations. In Chile a 10 valent conjugated vaccine (PCV10) was introduced in the Nacional Immunization Program (NIP) in 2011, initially in a 3+1 schedule at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age, and since 2012 in a 2+1 schedule (2, 4 and 12 months). In prematures schedule 3+1 was maintained. No catch up or high risk groups vaccination strategies were used. The inclusion of PCV10 has reduced the rates of IPD; 66% in infants less than 12 months old and a 60% in 12-24 months old. After 3 years of the introduction of PCV10, no herd immunity has been seen. Serotype replacement shows an increase of ST 3 but not ST19A. Surveillance shows that another vaccine with 13 serotypes (PCV13) would cover an additional 5 to 10% of cases. The nule herd immunity and more extense coverage of PCV13, suggests that NIP should switch from PCV10 to PCV13.
Katkocin, D M
A new heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, designed to protect against disease due to serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F, was formulated with aluminium phosphate adjuvant and analysed before testing in infants. Analyses were complicated by the presence of the adjuvant, and by the low level of each antigen; for example, all serotypes were formulated at 2 microg of saccharide /dose (except 6B which was formulated at 4 microg). Type specific analyses were performed on the formulated vaccine, and included determination of immunogenicity and antigenicity; the former was measured by ELISA following immunization of rabbits, the latter was measured by rate nephelometry. Non serotype specific information was also collected, and included total and adsorbed saccharide (by Anthrone assay), and total and adsorbed protein (by Lowry assay). These preclinical data supported the use of the vaccine in infants in a large randomized double-blinded clinical trial in a multiethnic population. The results of this trial show that the vaccine is safe and efficacious. Collectively, the data will be used to support licensure of the heptavalent vaccine, and documents successful scale-up of the formulation process to manufacturing level.
Nurhonen, Markku; Auranen, Kari
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination has proved highly effective in eliminating vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage and disease. However, the potential adverse effects of serotype replacement remain a major concern when implementing routine childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination programmes. Applying a concise predictive model, we present a ready-to-use quantitative tool to investigate the implications of serotype replacement on the net effectiveness of vaccination against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and to guide in the selection of optimal vaccine serotype compositions. We utilise pre-vaccination data on pneumococcal carriage and IPD and assume partial or complete elimination of vaccine-type carriage, its replacement by non-vaccine-type carriage, and stable case-to-carrier ratios (probability of IPD per carriage episode). The model predicts that the post-vaccination IPD incidences in Finland for currently available vaccine serotype compositions can eventually decrease among the target age group of children <5 years of age by 75%. However, due to replacement through herd effects, the decrease among the older population is predicted to be much less (20–40%). We introduce a sequential algorithm for the search of optimal serotype compositions and assess the robustness of inferences to uncertainties in data and assumptions about carriage and IPD. The optimal serotype composition depends on the age group of interest and some serotypes may be highly beneficial vaccine types in one age category (e.g. 6B in children), while being disadvantageous in another. The net effectiveness will be improved only if the added serotype has a higher case-to-carrier ratio than the average case-to-carrier ratio of the current non-vaccine types and the degree of improvement in effectiveness depends on the carriage incidence of the serotype. The serotype compositions of currently available pneumococcal vaccines are not optimal and the effectiveness of vaccination in the
... gov/news/fullstory_167649.html Decline in Kids' Ear Infections Linked to Pneumococcal Vaccine The shots are ... MONDAY, Aug. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- American kids' ear infections dropped threefold over 10 years, compared to ...
Gorska-Ciebiada, Małgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Małgorzata; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy
Both seasonal influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination are recommended for elderly diabetics. The aim of the study was to determine the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination over the previous twelve months, pneumococcal vaccination over a lifetime, and to identify predictors which affect likelihood of vaccination. 219 diabetics elders were detailed questioned 3 months after the end of 2012/2013 influenza season. 26.48% of patients have been vaccinated against influenza in the last year and only 9.13% of patients reported pneumococcal vaccination in the past. The logistic regression analysis revealed that variables which increased the likelihood of having been vaccinated against influenza were: higher number of anti-hyperglycemic medications, increased number of co-morbidities, higher patients' income, recommendation of vaccination from General Practitioners (GPs) and specialist. Significant predictors of pneumococcal vaccine uptake included increased number of co-morbidities and recommendation of vaccination received from GPs and specialist. The commonest reasons given by those unvaccinated were lack of information about immunization and low perceived benefits of vaccination. Of patients who were not treated with influenza vaccine 86.7% had never received recommendation from specialist and 71.4% had never been advised by GPs. Influenza vaccination was too expensive to 24.85% of patients. The vaccination rate among elderly diabetics in Poland is low. Lack of knowledge and patients' income are the main barriers. Increased awareness of healthcare professionals to educate and encourage vaccination and propagation of free vaccinations to all people at risk may increase the rate of vaccination against influenza and pneumococcal disease.
Wysocki, Jacek; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Panzer, Falko G; François, Nancy A; Ravula, Sudheer M; Kolhe, Devayani A; Song, Yue; Dieussaert, Ilse; Schuerman, Lode; Borys, Dorota
To investigate long-term antibody persistence following the administration of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV), we present results of 2 follow-up studies assessing antibody persistence following 2 3+1 schedules up to 4 (NCT00624819 - Study A) and 5 years (NCT00891176 - Study B) post-booster vaccination. In Study A, antibody persistence was measured one, 2 and 4 years post-booster in children previously primed and boosted with PHiD-CV, or primed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) and boosted with either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM. In Study B, PHiD-CV was co-administered with meningococcal vaccines, and pneumococcal antibody persistence was measured 2, 3 and 5 years post-booster. An age-matched control group, unvaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae, was enrolled in Study A, allowing assessment of immunologic memory by administration of one dose of PHiD-CV to both primed (4 years post-booster) and unprimed 6-year-old children. Four years post-booster (Study A), antibody concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers remained higher compared to the pre-booster timepoint, with no major differences between the 3 primed groups. Antibody persistence was also observed in Study B, with minimal differences between groups. The additional PHiD-CV dose administered 4 years post-booster in Study A elicited more robust immune responses in primed children than in unprimed children. Long-term serotype-specific antibody persistence and robust immunologic memory responses observed in these 2 studies suggest induction of long-term protection against pneumococcal disease after PHiD-CV vaccination.
Longitudinal study on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal colonization in HIV-infected and -uninfected infants vaccinated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
Madhi, Shabir A.; Izu, Alane; Nunes, Marta C.; Violari, Avye; Cotton, Mark F.; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Klugman, Keith P.; von Gottberg, Anne; van Niekerk, Nadia; Adrian, Peter V.
Background Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus are all potentially pathogenic, which frequently colonize the nasopharynx (NP) prior to causing disease. We studied bacterial NP-colonization in 321 HIV-infected and 243 HIV-uninfected children vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Methods HIV-uninfected infants included those born to HIV-uninfected (HUU) and HIV-infected women (HEU); HIV-infected children with CD4+ lymphocyte ≥25% were randomised to initiate antiretroviral therapy immediately (ART-Immed) or when clinically indicated (ART-Def). Nasopharyngeal swabs for bacterial culture were taken prior to each PCV7 dose (Visits 1–3) and at 20, 39, 47 and 67 weeks of age (Visits 4–7). Swabs were cultured by standard methods and pneumococcal serotyping done by the Quellung method. Results Colonization patterns for pneumococcus, H. influenzae and S. aureus did not differ between HUU and HEU children; and were also generally similar between ART-Def and ART-Immed children. Prevalence of PCV7-serotype colonization was similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children, however, overall pneumococcal and specifically non-vaccine serotype colonization tended to be lower in HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children also had a 44% lower prevalence of S. aureus colonization at Visit-1 (p=0.010); and H. influenzae colonization was also lower among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected children at Visit-2, Visit-3, Visit-6 and Visit-7. Conclusion Vaccine-serotype colonization is similar in PCV-immunized HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children. We, however, identified a lower prevalence of overall-pneumococcal and H. influenzae colonization in HIV-infected children post-PCV vaccination, the clinical-relevance of which warrants further study. PMID:25910923
Longitudinal study on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal colonization in HIV-infected and -uninfected infants vaccinated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
Madhi, Shabir A; Izu, Alane; Nunes, Marta C; Violari, Avye; Cotton, Mark F; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Klugman, Keith P; von Gottberg, Anne; van Niekerk, Nadia; Adrian, Peter V
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus are all potentially pathogenic, which frequently colonize the nasopharynx (NP) prior to causing disease. We studied bacterial NP-colonization in 321 HIV-infected and 243 HIV-uninfected children vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. HIV-uninfected infants included those born to HIV-uninfected (HUU) and HIV-infected women (HEU); HIV-infected children with CD4+ lymphocyte ≥25% were randomized to initiate antiretroviral therapy immediately (ART-Immed) or when clinically indicated (ART-Def). Nasopharyngeal swabs for bacterial culture were taken prior to each PCV7 dose (Visits 1-3) and at 20, 39, 47 and 67 weeks of age (Visits 4-7). Swabs were cultured by standard methods and pneumococcal serotyping done by the Quellung method. Colonization patterns for pneumococcus, H. influenzae and S. aureus did not differ between HUU and HEU children; and were also generally similar between ART-Def and ART-Immed children. Prevalence of PCV7-serotype colonization was similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children, however, overall pneumococcal and specifically non-vaccine serotype colonization tended to be lower in HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children also had a 44% lower prevalence of S. aureus colonization at Visit-1 (p=0.010); and H. influenzae colonization was also lower among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected children at Visit-2, Visit-3, Visit-6 and Visit-7. Vaccine-serotype colonization is similar in PCV-immunized HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children. We, however, identified a lower prevalence of overall-pneumococcal and H. influenzae colonization in HIV-infected children post-PCV vaccination, the clinical-relevance of which warrants further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wysocki, Jacek; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Panzer, Falko G.; François, Nancy A.; Ravula, Sudheer M.; Kolhe, Devayani A.; Song, Yue; Dieussaert, Ilse; Schuerman, Lode; Borys, Dorota
ABSTRACT To investigate long-term antibody persistence following the administration of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV), we present results of 2 follow-up studies assessing antibody persistence following 2 3+1 schedules up to 4 (NCT00624819 – Study A) and 5 years (NCT00891176 – Study B) post-booster vaccination. In Study A, antibody persistence was measured one, 2 and 4 years post-booster in children previously primed and boosted with PHiD-CV, or primed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) and boosted with either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM. In Study B, PHiD-CV was co-administered with meningococcal vaccines, and pneumococcal antibody persistence was measured 2, 3 and 5 years post-booster. An age-matched control group, unvaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae, was enrolled in Study A, allowing assessment of immunologic memory by administration of one dose of PHiD-CV to both primed (4 years post-booster) and unprimed 6-year-old children. Four years post-booster (Study A), antibody concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers remained higher compared to the pre-booster timepoint, with no major differences between the 3 primed groups. Antibody persistence was also observed in Study B, with minimal differences between groups. The additional PHiD-CV dose administered 4 years post-booster in Study A elicited more robust immune responses in primed children than in unprimed children. Long-term serotype-specific antibody persistence and robust immunologic memory responses observed in these 2 studies suggest induction of long-term protection against pneumococcal disease after PHiD-CV vaccination. PMID:27736293
Link-Gelles, Ruth; Taylor, Thomas; Moore, Matthew R
Pneumococcal vaccines are highly effective at preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), a leading cause of global morbidity. Because pneumococcal vaccines can be expensive, it is useful to estimate what impact might be expected from their introduction. Our objective was to develop a statistical model that could predict rates of IPD following introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in the U.S. We used active surveillance data to design and validate a Poisson model forecasting the reductions in IPD observed after U.S. introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000. We used this model to forecast rates of IPD from 2010 to 2020 in the presence of PCV13. Because increases in non-PCV7-type IPD were evident following PCV7 introduction, we evaluated varying levels of increase in non-PCV13-type IPD ("serotype replacement") by sensitivity analyses. A total of 43,507 cases of IPD were identified during 1998-2009; cases from this period were used to develop the model, which accurately predicted indirect effects of PCV7 in adults, as well as serotype replacement. Assuming that PCV13 provides similar protection against PCV13 serotypes as PCV7 did against PCV7 serotypes, the base-case model predicted approximately 168,000 cases of IPD prevented from 2011 to 2020. When serotype replacement was varied in sensitivity analyses from 0 to levels comparable to that seen with serotype 19A (the most common replacement serotype since PCV7 was introduced), the model predicted 167,000-170,000 cases prevented. The base-case model predicted rates of IPD in children under five years of age decreasing from 21.9 to 9.3 cases per 100,000 population. This model provides a "benchmark" for assessing progress in the prevention of IPD in the years after PCV13 introduction. The amount of serotype replacement is unlikely to greatly affect the overall number of cases prevented by PCV13. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Givon-Lavi, Noga; Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Bar-Ziv, Jacob; Alonso, Wladimir J.; Greenberg, David; Dagan, Ron
Postlicensure surveillance of pneumonia incidence can be used to estimate whether pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) affect incidence. We used Poisson regression models that control for baseline seasonality to determine the impact of PCVs and the possible effects of variations in virus activity in Israel on these surveillance estimates. PCV was associated with significant declines in radiologically confirmed alveolar pneumonia (RCAP) among patients <6 months, 6–17 months, and 18–35 months of age (–31% [95% CI –51% to –15%], –41% [95% CI –52 to –32%], and –34% [95% CI –42% to –25%], respectively). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activity was associated with strong increases in RCAP incidence, with up to 44% of cases attributable to RSV among infants <6 months of age and lower but significant impacts in older children. Seasonal variations, particularly in RSV activity, masked the impact of 7-valent PCVs, especially for young children in the first 2 years after vaccine introduction. PMID:23763864
González, Roser; Armadans, Lluís; Martínez, Xavier; Moraga, Fernando; Campins, Magda
The public health system in Catalonia only funds pneumococcal vaccination in paediatrics for children at-risk. The aim of this study was to determine pneumococcal vaccination coverage and its association with age, sociodemographic factors and other variables. Descriptive cross-sectional study of children aged between 2 months and 15 years old assigned to primary care centres in Catalonia and with diseases that are included for pneumococcal vaccine in the official vaccination program. The information on vaccination status and study variables were obtained from data registered in the electronic medical records in the primary care centres. An analysis was made of the association between pneumococcal vaccination and demographic and medical variables using bivariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR), with a confidence interval of 95%, was used to measure the relationships. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage was 47.7%. Variables which predicted pneumococcal vaccination were: age (aOR: 9.2 [7.9-10.7] in children 2 months-2 years old; aOR 8.1 [7.0-9.3] in children 3-5 years; aOR: 4.6 [4.0-5.2] in children 6-10 years), Spanish nationality (aOR: 3.9 [3.5-4.3]), correct immunisation according to systematic immunisation schedule (aOR: 2.5 [2.1-3.0]), and number of risk conditions (aOR: 3.2 [2.5-4.1] in children with 2 or more conditions). Pneumococcal vaccination coverage in children with risk conditions is low in Catalonia. Strategies need to be implemented to increase coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or "pneumococcus," causes pneumonia and infections of the brain and blood that are responsible for significant mortality in children under five years as well as in the elderly. Pneumococcal diseases are a major public health problem worldwide. S. pneumoniae is responsible for 15-50% of all episodes of community-acquired pneumonia, 30-50% of all cases of acute otitis media, and a significant proportion of bacterial meningitis and bacteremia. S. pneumoniae kills at least one million children under the age of five every year, which is more than malaria, AIDS and measles combined. More than 70% of the deaths are in developing countries. In 2007, pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading infectious killer of children worldwide. Perhaps more importantly, pneumonia remains the leading killer of children in India. A recent UNICEF publication estimated that 410,000 children under age 5 y die of pneumonia each year in India, and recent data shows that an estimated 25% of all child deaths in India are due to pneumonia. The fact that this high burden of pneumonia has remained undiminished in India in spite of economic growth and decline in child mortality due to other diseases is a reminder of the importance of tackling pneumonia head-on with dedicated resources. The burden of pneumococcal meningitis, which constitutes about half of all childhood meningitis cases in most settings and a greater proportion of meningitis deaths, makes it difficult to avoid the conclusion that the pneumococcus is responsible for 1 million child deaths each year. Global Alliance for Vaccine and Immunization (GAVI) has offered to supply PCV at a cost of 0.15-0.30 USD/dose to India for inclusion in the national immunization schedule and commits to extending this support until the year 2015. Pneumococcal vaccination in not recommended in children aged 5 and above.
Syrogiannopoulos, George A; Michoula, Aspasia N; Tsimitselis, Georgios; Vassiou, Katerina; Chryssanthopoulou, Denise C; Grivea, Ioanna N
Parapneumonic effusions in children are usually associated with pneumococcal infections. In Greece, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was replaced by higher-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs); 10-valent was introduced in May 2009 and 13-valent (PCV13) in June 2010. Since July 2010, PCV13 has been the most commonly used PCV. In a study conducted at the University General Hospital of Larissa, Central Greece, from January 2012 to January 2016, 85.7% of children born after the implementation of PCV13 and aged 24-59 months had received the complete series (3 + 1 immunization schedule) of PCV13. We studied all paediatric community-acquired pneumonia cases with empyema hospitalized at the University General Hospital of Larissa from January 2008 to January 2016. There were 30 cases of parapneumonic empyema. Among 27 empyema cases of known aetiology, 19 (70.4%) were due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (identifiable serotypes 3, 19A, 7F, and 9N/L). After September 2011, no more cases caused by serotypes 7F and 19A were observed, whereas serotype 3 emerged as the predominant pathogen of pneumococcal empyema (9 of 11 cases). Serotype 3 continued to cause empyema despite vaccination with PCV13 either fully with a 3 + 1 schedule (n = 3) or with one booster dose at the age of 21 months (n = 1). In Central Greece during the first five years of high coverage with PCV13, serotype 3 was the only PCV13 serotype that clearly persisted in children with empyema.
Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Cozza, Vanessa; Prato, Rosa
In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0–84.6%) in children <5 years. This study aims at corroborating the estimation of both the effectiveness (VE) of PCVs and its impact in reducing pneumococcal diseases. A 1 : 3 matched-case-control study was conducted among children <5 years old hospitalized for IPD or pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) between 2006 and 2012 in the Puglia region. Moreover, hospitalizations for pneumococcal outcomes in the pre- and postvaccination period and the hospitalization risk ratios (HRRs) with 95% CIs were computed in Italy and in the first eight regions that introduced PCVs in 2006. The overall effectiveness of PCVs was 75% (95% CI: 61%–84%); it was 69% (95% CI: 30%–88%) against IPD and 77% (95% CI: 61%–87%) against PP. PCVs showed a significant impact on IPD and acute otitis media either at a national level or in those regions with a longer vaccination history, with a nearly 40% reduction of hospitalizations for both outcomes. Our findings provide further evidence of the effectiveness of PCVs against pneumococcal diseases and its impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5 years, indicating the importance of maintaining high immunization coverage. PMID:26351644
Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Cozza, Vanessa; Prato, Rosa
In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0-84.6%) in children <5 years. This study aims at corroborating the estimation of both the effectiveness (VE) of PCVs and its impact in reducing pneumococcal diseases. A 1:3 matched-case-control study was conducted among children <5 years old hospitalized for IPD or pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) between 2006 and 2012 in the Puglia region. Moreover, hospitalizations for pneumococcal outcomes in the pre- and postvaccination period and the hospitalization risk ratios (HRRs) with 95% CIs were computed in Italy and in the first eight regions that introduced PCVs in 2006. The overall effectiveness of PCVs was 75% (95% CI: 61%-84%); it was 69% (95% CI: 30%-88%) against IPD and 77% (95% CI: 61%-87%) against PP. PCVs showed a significant impact on IPD and acute otitis media either at a national level or in those regions with a longer vaccination history, with a nearly 40% reduction of hospitalizations for both outcomes. Our findings provide further evidence of the effectiveness of PCVs against pneumococcal diseases and its impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5 years, indicating the importance of maintaining high immunization coverage.
Alharbi, N. S.; Al-Barrak, A. M.; Al-Moamary, M. S.; Zeitouni, M. O.; Idrees, M. M.; Al-Ghobain, M. O.; Al-Shimemeri, A. A.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Saudi Arabia is a host to millions of pilgrims who travel annually from all over the world for Umrah and the Hajj pilgrimages and are at risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia or invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). There is also the risk of transmission of S. pneumoniae including antibiotic resistant strains between pilgrims and their potential global spread upon their return. The country also has unique challenges posed by susceptible population to IPD due to people with hemoglobinopathies, younger age groups with chronic conditions, and growing problem of antibiotic resistance. Since the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease is constantly changing, with an increase in nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes, vaccination policies on the effectiveness and usefulness of vaccines require regular revision. As part of the Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) commitment to promote the best practices in the field of respiratory diseases, we conducted a review of S. pneumoniae infections and the best evidence base available in the literature. The aim of the present study is to develop the STS pneumococcal vaccination guidelines for healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. We recommend vaccination against pneumococcal infections for all children <5 years old, adults ≥50 years old, and people ≥6 years old with certain risk factors. These recommendations are based on the presence of a large number of comorbidities in Saudi Arabia population <50 years of age, many of whom have risk factors for contracting pneumococcal infections. A section for pneumococcal vaccination before the Umrah and Hajj pilgrimages is included as well. PMID:27168856
Varone, Ornella; Chellini, Martina; Pieri, Luca; Sala, Antonino; Berardi, Cesare; Bechini, Angela
ABSTRACT Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causative organism of acute media otitis in children and meningitis and bacterial pneumonia in the community. Since 2008 in Tuscany, central Italy, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7-valent vaccine, switched to 13-valent vaccine in 2010) was actively offered free of charge to all newborns. Aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of pneumococcal pediatric vaccination in the Tuscan population on hospitalizations potentially caused by S. pneumoniae, during pre-vaccination (PVP, 2002–2007) and vaccination period (VP, 2009–2014). We analyzed hospital discharge records (HDRs) of all hospitals in Tuscany from 2002 to 2014. Hospitalizations potentially due to pneumococcal diseases were 347, 221. The general hospitalization rate was 716/100,000 inhabitants during PVP and 753/100,000 in VP, with a decrease of 29.1% in the age-group 0–9 y (“target” of the vaccination program) and an increase of 75.7% in subjects >64 y of age. During VP, admission days and hospitalization costs increased (6.2% and 24.2%, respectively), especially in patients >64 y (12.9% and 33.8%, respectively); in children <10 y decreased by 21.2% and 12.8%, respectively. The pneumococcal pediatric vaccination resulted in the decrease of hospitalizations in younger but the expected indirect effect in the elderly was not reported, justifying the Tuscan recommendation to extend the vaccination to subjects > 64 y. PMID:27925848
Wiese, Andrew D; Griffin, Marie R; Zhu, Yuwei; Mitchel, Edward F; Grijalva, Carlos G
Parapneumonic empyema, a serious complication of pneumonia, started increasing among U.S. children before the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000, and continued afterwards. This increase was due in part to pneumococcal serotypes not included in PCV7 that were included in the new 13-valent (PCV13) vaccine introduced in 2010. We assessed changes in the incidence of empyema hospitalizations among U.S. children after PCV13 introduction. We calculated annualized empyema hospitalization rates among U.S. children <18years using Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Census data (1997-2013) for four periods based on PCV7 and PCV13 introductions. Relative rates (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by age group and sex, comparing PCV7 [early-PCV7 (2001-2005) and late-PCV7 (2006-2009)] and PCV13 (2011-2013) periods with the pre-PCV7 period (1997-1999). Secondary analyses examined changes in pneumococcal, streptococcal, staphylococcal and unspecified empyema. Among children <18years of age, annualized empyema hospitalization rates peaked at 3.6 per 100,000 in the late-PCV7 period compared with 2.1 per 100,000 in the pre-PCV7 period [RR: 1.70 (95% CI: 1.11-2.60)]. However, annualized rates in the post-PCV13 period declined to 2.0 per 100,000, similar to rates in the pre-PCV7 period. Empyema rates among children <2years were lower in the post-PCV13 period compared to the pre-PCV7 period [RR: 0.77 (95% CI: 0.61-0.96)], but rates in the two periods among children 2-4 and 5-17years were similar. Most empyema were of unspecified etiology. Pneumococcal and unspecified empyema declined after PCV13 introduction. Although empyema hospitalization rates among U.S. children peaked after PCV7 introduction, rates decreased substantially following the introduction of PCV13. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taitel, Michael; Cohen, Ed; Duncan, Ian; Pegus, Cheryl
Older adults and persons with chronic conditions are at increased risk for pneumococcal disease. Severe pneumococcal disease represents a substantial humanistic and economic burden to society. Although pneumococcal vaccination (PPSV) can decrease risk for serious consequences, vaccination rates are suboptimal. As more people seek annual influenza vaccinations at community pharmacies, pharmacists have the ability to identify at-risk patients and provide PPSV. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacists educating at-risk patients on the importance of receiving a pneumococcal vaccination. Using de-identified claims from a large, national pharmacy chain, all patients who had received an influenza vaccination between August 1, 2010 and November 14, 2010 and who were eligible for PPSV were identified for the analysis. Based on the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations, at-risk patients were identified as over 65 years of age or as aged 2-64 with a comorbid conditions. A benchmark medical and pharmacy claims database of commercial and Medicare health plan members was used to derive a PPSV vaccination rate typical of traditional care delivery to compare to pharmacy-based vaccination. Period incidence of PPSV was calculated and compared. Among the 1.3 million at-risk patients who were vaccinated by a pharmacist during the study period, 65,598 (4.88%) also received a pneumococcal vaccine. This vaccination rate was significantly higher than the benchmark rate of 2.90% (34,917/1,204,104; p<.001) representing traditional care. Patients aged 60-70 years had the highest vaccination rate (6.60%; 26,430/400,454) of any age group. Pharmacists were successful at identifying at-risk patients and providing additional immunization services. Concurrent immunization of PPSV with influenza vaccination by pharmacists has potential to improve PPSV coverage. These results support the expanding role of community pharmacists in the provision of
Pírez, María Catalina; Mota, María Inés; Giachetto, Gustavo; Sánchez Varela, Mercedes; Galazka, Jeannette; Gutierrez, Stella; Varela, Adriana; Picón, Teresa; Algorta, Gabriela
This is the first study showing the impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis in Latin America; a significant (63.5%) reduction in hospitalization was observed during the first 6 years after starting vaccination. A 90% reduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines 7/13 serotypes was observed (P < 0.0001). After vaccination, all strains were penicillin susceptible. Mortality had a reduction of 71%.
Sherwin, Robert L; Gray, Sharon; Alexander, Ronika; McGovern, Paul C; Graepel, Jay; Pride, Michael W; Purdy, Jay; Paradiso, Peter; File, Thomas M
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a substantial proportion of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) in the United States. Limited data are available regarding the pneumococcal serotypes causing CAP and HCAP. Adults aged ≥ 50 years presenting to participating US hospitals with radiographically confirmed pneumonia between February 2010 and September 2011 were screened for inclusion. S. pneumoniae was identified using microbiological cultures, BinaxNOW® S. pneumoniae assay, or urine antigen detection (UAD) assay capable of detecting 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13)-associated serotypes. Among 710 subjects enrolled, the median age was 65.4 years; 54.2% of subjects were male, 22.4% of radiographically confirmed pneumonia cases were considered HCAP, and 96.6% of subjects were hospitalized. S. pneumoniae was detected in 98 subjects (13.8%) by any test, and PCV13-associated serotype(s) were identified by UAD in 78 (11.0%). Serotype 19A was most prevalent, followed by 7F/A, 3, and 5. Serotypes associated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) accounted for 25% of UAD-positive isolates. Pneumococcal serotypes causing noninvasive pneumonia in adults may differ significantly from those causing invasive disease, with PCV7-associated serotypes overrepresented. Serotype 5, rarely seen in contemporary surveillance of invasive disease in the United States, substantially contributed to the observed cases of S. pneumoniae-positive CAP or HCAP.
Dransfield, Mark T.; Harnden, Sarah; Burton, Robert L.; Albert, Richard K.; Bailey, William C.; Casaburi, Richard; Connett, John; Cooper, J. Allen D.; Criner, Gerard J.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Han, MeiLan K.; Make, Barry; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Martinez, Fernando J.; McEvoy, Charlene; Nahm, Moon H.; Niewoehner, Dennis E.; Porszasz, Janos; Reilly, John; Scanlon, Paul D.; Scharf, Steven M.; Sciurba, Frank C.; Washko, George R.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Lazarus, Stephen C.
Background. Although the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) protects against invasive disease in young healthy persons, randomized controlled trials in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have demonstrated no benefit in the intention-to-treat population. We previously reported that the 7-valent diphtheria-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7) is safe and induced greater serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and functional antibody than did PPSV23 1 month after vaccination. We hypothesized that these advantages would persist at 1 and 2 years. Methods. One hundred eighty-one patients with moderate to severe COPD were randomized to receive PPSV23 (n = 90) or PCV7 (1.0 mL; n = 91). We measured IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and assessed functional antibody activity by a standardized opsonophagocytosis assay, reported as a killing index (OPK). We determined differences in IgG and OPK between vaccine groups at 1 and 2 years. Results. Relative to PPSV23, PCV7 induced greater OPK at both 1 and 2 years for 6 of 7 serotypes (not 19F). This response was statistically greater for 5 of 7 serotypes at 1 year and 4 of 7 at 2 years. Comparable differences in IgG were observed but were less often statistically significant. Despite meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for PPSV23 administration, almost 50% of individuals had never been vaccinated. No differences in the frequency of acute exacerbations, pneumonia, or hospitalization were observed. Conclusions. PCV7 induces a greater functional antibody response than PPSV23 in patients with COPD that persists for 2 years after vaccination. This superior functional response supports testing of conjugate vaccination in studies examining clinical end points. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT00457977. PMID:22652582
Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola
A number of pneumococcal vaccines have long been available and have been used to reduce the medical, social, and economic problems associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae-related diseases. The main purpose of this review was to analyze what has been, until recently, the established doctrine regarding the safety and tolerability of pneumococcal vaccines that have been used in the past and are currently being used in children. Pneumococcal vaccines available on the market are all safe and are highly recommended in clinical practice. In children, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are considered the preparations of choice because of their enhanced immunogenicity and superior ability to impact nasopharyngeal carriage. All PCVs are considered safe because the incidence of severe adverse events (AEs) is marginal. Nonetheless, evidence has emerged from post-marketing surveillance regarding the occurrence of very rare but significant potential AEs following PCV administration. Therefore, post-marketing surveillance should be maintained to confirm the existence of these AEs. Over the next few years, other pneumococcal vaccines will be developed. When these new products are licensed and reach the market, new technologies and innovative epidemiological methods will permit a more rapid and more effective evaluation of AEs.
Rashid, Harunor; Abdul Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Mohamed Dahlan, Zuraimi Bin; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Iqbal, Zafar; Karim, Hj Matnoh; Naeem, Syed Muhammad; Tantawichien, Terapong; Zotomayor, Ricardo; Patil, Shilpa; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef
Hajj is the annual pilgrimage to Mecca in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and is one of the largest mass gathering events in the world. Acute respiratory tract infections are very common during Hajj, primarily as a result of close contact among pilgrims, intense congestion, shared accommodation and air pollution. A number of vaccines are (or have been) recommended for Hajj pilgrims in recent years. Several additional vaccines could significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality at Hajj and should be considered in health recommendations for pilgrims. Pneumococcal vaccines (particularly for those aged >65 years) are widely available, and have been shown to reduce the burden of disease associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Importantly, a considerable percentage of Hajj pilgrims have pre-existing illnesses or are elderly, both important risk factors for pneumococcal infection. While there are substantial gaps that need to be addressed regarding our knowledge of the exact burden of disease in Hajj pilgrims and the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in this population, S. pneumoniae may be an important cause of illness among this group of travelers. It can be assumed that the majority of pneumococcal serotypes circulating during Hajj are included in the existing pneumococcal vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Summary: Invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children under 5 years of age. In the United States, 90% of invasive pneumococcal infections in children are caused by 13 serotypes of S. pneumoniae. The licensure (in 2000) and subsequent widespread use of a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) have had a significant impact on decreasing the incidence of serious invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in all age groups, especially in children under 2 years of age. However, the emergence of replacement non-PCV7 serotypes, especially serotype 19A, has resulted in an increase in the incidence of serious and invasive infections. In 2010, a 13-valent PCV was licensed in the United States. However, the impact that this vaccine will have on IPD remains to be seen. The objectives of this review are to discuss the epidemiology of serious and invasive pneumococcal infections in the United States in the PCV era and to review some of the pneumococcal vaccines that are in development. PMID:22763632
Levy, Corinne; Varon, Emmanuelle; Bingen, Edouard; Lécuyer, Aurélie; Boucherat, Michel; Cohen, Robert
In France, despite a high rate of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage, the number of cases of pneumococcal meningitis in children did not decline signiﬁcantly between 2001–2002 (n = 264) and 2007–2008 (n = 244). A decline was observed among children < 2 years old (185 [70.1%] to 134 [54.9%] cases; P = 0.0004), but was counterbalanced by an increase among children ≥ 2 years old (79 [29.9%] to 110 [45.1%] cases). Mean age increased signiﬁcantly, from 2.3 (median 0.8) to 3.8 (median 1.5) years. After pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 implementation, a wide diversity of serotypes implicated in pneumococcalmeningitis was observed; serotypes 19A and 7F were the most frequent.
Snyder, Christopher M; Begor, Wills; Berndt, Ernst R
Pharmaceutical companies have long been reluctant to invest in producing new vaccines for the developing world because they have little prospect of earning an attractive return. One way to stimulate such investment is the use of an advance market commitment, an innovative financing program that guarantees manufacturers a long-term market. Under this arrangement, international donors pay a premium for initial doses sold to developing countries. In exchange, companies agree to continue supplying the vaccine over the longer term at more sustainable prices. This article provides a preliminary economic analysis of a pilot advance market commitment program for pneumococcal vaccines, explaining the principles behind the program's design and assessing its early performance. Spurred by the advance market commitment--and other contemporaneous initiatives that also increased resources to vaccine suppliers--new, second-generation pneumococcal vaccines have experienced a much more rapid rollout in developing countries than older first-generation vaccines.
Tseng, Hung Fu; Sy, Lina S; Liu, In-Lu Amy; Qian, Lei; Marcy, S Michael; Weintraub, Eric; Yih, Katherine; Baxter, Roger; Glanz, Jason M; Donahue, James; Naleway, Allison; Nordin, James; Jacobsen, Steven J
Although no increased risk was detected for serious adverse events in the prelicensure trials for the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine, Prevnar 13(®) (PCV13), continued monitoring of rare but serious adverse events is necessary. A surveillance system using cohort study design was set up to monitor safety of PCV13 immediately after it was included in the childhood immunization program in the United States. The exposed population included children of 1 month to 2 years old who received PCV13 from April, 2010 to January, 2012 from the eight managed care organizations participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project in the United States. The historical unexposed population was children of the same age who received the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Prevnar 7(®) (PCV7) in 2007 (or 2005 depending on the outcome of interest) to 2009. The risk of pre-specified adverse events in the risk window following PCV13 was repeatedly compared to that in the historical comparison group. The number of doses included in the study was 599,229. No increased risk was found for febrile seizures, urticaria or angioneurotic edema, asthma, thrombocytopenia, or anaphylaxis. An increased risk for encephalopathy was not confirmed following the medical record review. The relative risk for Kawasaki disease in 0-28 days following vaccination was 1.94 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-4.86), comparing PCV13 to PCV7. Comparing to PCV7 vaccine, we identified no significant increased risk of pre-specified adverse events in the Vaccine Safety Datalink study cohort. The possible association between PCV13 and Kawasaki disease may deserve further investigation.
Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) places a considerable burden on society. A substantial number of pediatric and adult CAP cases are due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, but fortunately there are effective vaccines available that have a significant impact on CAP-related medical, social, and economic problems. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the published evidence concerning the impact of pneumococcal vaccines on the prevention of CAP in children and adults. Available data indicate that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are effective in children, reducing all-cause CAP cases and bacteremic and nonbacteremic CAP cases. Moreover, at least for PCV7 and PCV13, vaccination of children is effective in reducing the incidence of CAP among adults. Recently use of PCV13 in adults alone or in combination with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine has been suggested and further studies can better define its effectiveness in this group of subjects. The only relevant problem for PCV13 is the risk of a second replacement phenomenon, which might significantly reduce its real efficacy in clinical practice. Protein-based pneumococcal vaccines might be a possible solution to this problem. PMID:28029140
Vila-Córcoles, Angel; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga
There are currently two anti-pneumococcal vaccines available for use in adults: the classical 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) and the new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The main advantage of the PCV13 is the potentially better immunogenicity, with its major disadvantages being the higher cost and the lower serotype-coverage than the PPV23. The currently available scientific evidence supports the following basic recommendations: (i)among adults with greatest risk (basically asplenia and immunocompromised), a dual vaccination (PCV13+PPV23) is recommended; (ii)among adults with increased risk (basically persons >65years-old and patients 15-64years with chronic pulmonary or heart disease, diabetes and/or alcoholism), a single vaccination with PPV23 is recommended (single dose in primo-vaccinated >65years; re-vaccination at 5-10years in those primo-vaccinated <65years-old); and (iii) in the rest of adults (risk normal/low) vaccination is not recommended.
Azzari, Chiara; Cortimiglia, Martina; Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Mattei, Romano; Zuliani, Massimo; Adriani, Beatrice; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Consales, Guglielmo; Aquilini, Donatella; Bini, Giancarlo; Di Natale, Massimo Edoardo; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; de Vitis, Elisa; Mangone, Giusi; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Pasinato, Angela; Resti, Massimo
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) produced a significant herd protection in unvaccinated adult population mostly because of pneumococcus carriage decrease in vaccinated children. It is not known if the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine can give similar effect on adults. Aims of the work were to evaluate whether the 6 additional serotypes are present in nasopharynx of children and serotype distribution in invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) in adults. Realtime-PCR was used to evaluate pneumococcal serotypes in adults with confirmed IPD and in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) from 629 children not vaccinated or vaccinated with PCV7 and resident in the same geographical areas. Two hundred twenty-one patients (116 males, median 67.9 years) with IPD were studied (pneumonia n = 103, meningitis n = 61 sepsis n = 50, other n = 7). Two hundred twelve were serotyped. The most frequent serotypes were 3, (31/212; 14.6%), 19A, (19/212; 9.0%), 12 (17/212; 8.0%), 7F, (14/212; 6.6%). In NP of children, the frequency of those serotypes causing over 50% of IPD in adults was very low, ranging from 0.48% for serotype 7F to 7.9% for serotype 19A. On the other side serotype 5, very frequent in NP (18.7%) caused <1% IPD. In conclusion serotypes causing IPD in adults are very rarely found in children NP. We suggest that herd protection obtainable with the additional 6 serotypes included in PCV13 may be more limited than that demonstrated with PCV7 in the past. In order to reduce the burden of disease in adults, adults should be offered a specific vaccination program with highly immunogenic PCV.
Buchanan, G R; Smith, S J
Although polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine and prophylactic penicillin are used to prevent overwhelming Streptococcus pneumoniae septicemia in infants and young children with sickle cell anemia, infection rates remain high. We have reviewed our seven-year experience with a regimen of twice daily oral penicillin V potassium prophylaxis in 88 affected children. The median age at the start of prophylaxis was 10 months, and the median duration of prophylaxis was 29 months (range, three months to seven years). The total period of observation of patients who were prescribed penicillin was 248 person-years. Most patients also received one or two doses of polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine. Despite penicillin prophylaxis and pneumococcal vaccine, eight episodes of S pneumoniae septicemia have occurred and three have been fatal. Four episodes were in children older than 3 years. Suboptimal compliance with the prescribed oral penicillin regimen was usually apparent. With one possible exception, the infections occurred when penicillin had not been taken during the previous 24 hours. The S pneumoniae septicemia rate in this patient population, 3.2 per 100 person-years, is somewhat less than that described in previous reports of children not receiving penicillin but is still unacceptably high. Vigorous advocacy of a penicillin prophylaxis regimen does not eliminate the risk of pneumococcal septicema in this patient population.
Gefenaite, G; Bijlsma, M J; Bos, H J; Hak, E
To estimate the effect of the introduction of the 7- and 10-valentpneumococcal vaccines in 2006 and 2011, respectively in the Netherlands, we assessed respiratory antibiotic use in one to nine year-old children between 2002 and 2013. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average models were applied to estimate the percentage reduction in respiratory antibiotic use. When compared with the pre-vaccination period, the proportion of respiratory antibiotic prescriptions fell by 4.94% (95% CI: 4.63 to 5.26) and 9.02% (95% CI: 2.83 to 14.82) after the introduction of the 7-valent vaccine in children aged three and four years, respectively. After the introduction of the 10-valent vaccine, we observed a reduction of 13.04% (95% CI: 2.76 to 22.23), 20.31% (95% CI: 13.50 to 26.58), 16.92% (95% CI: 3.07 to 28.80), 22.34% (95% CI: 3.73 to 37.35), 23.75% (95% CI: 2.37 to 40.44) in two, three, four, six and seven year-old children, respectively. Thus, our results indicate a reduction in respiratory antibiotic prescriptions in young children after introduction of the pneumococcal vaccines. As only children in our study population aged one and two years born after March 2011 had received the 10-valent vaccine, the effects of the 10-valent vaccine in children aged three to nine years likely reflect the effects of the 7-valent vaccine and herd immunity.
Olarte, Liset; Hulten, Kristina G; Lamberth, Linda; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L
The widespread use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been associated with epidemiologic changes of mucosal and invasive pneumococcal disease. No study describes the impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on chronic sinusitis in children. We describe changes in epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae chronic sinusitis after the introduction of PCV13 at Texas Children's Hospital. We identified patients <18 years with positive sinus culture for S. pneumoniae who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery because of chronic sinusitis from August 2008 to December 2013 at Texas Children's Hospital. Isolates were serotyped by the capsular swelling method. Demographic and clinical information was collected retrospectively. The χ test and Fisher's exact test were used to analyze dichotomous variables. We identified 91 cases of chronic sinusitis with positive sinus culture for S. pneumoniae. Sixty-one (67%) isolates were non-PCV13 serotypes. PCV13 cases decreased 31% in the post-PCV13 period (P = 0.003). Serotype 19A decreased 27% in the post-PCV13 period (P = 0.007), but accounted for all the isolates with penicillin minimal inhibitory concentration ≥ 4 μg/mL and ceftriaxone minimal inhibitory concentration ≥ 2 μg/mL. Serotypes 19A (38%) and 15C (17%) were the most common in the pre- and post-PCV13 periods, respectively. The most common organism co-isolated was Haemophilus influenzae (52%). Isolation of Prevotella spp. increased in the post-PCV13 period (P = 0.02). S. pneumoniae continues to represent an important pathogen in chronic sinusitis in children <5 years of age. After the introduction of PCV13, S. pneumoniae isolation declined in children with chronic sinusitis at Texas Children's Hospital. We also observed a substantial reduction of PCV13 serotypes, predominantly serotype 19A.
Greenberg, Richard N; Gurtman, Alejandra; Frenck, Robert W; Strout, Cynthia; Jansen, Kathrin U; Trammel, James; Scott, Daniel A; Emini, Emilio A; Gruber, William C; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate
Unlike free pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPSVs), pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) induce a T-cell-dependent immune response. The study assessed potential influence of initial 13-valent PCV (PCV13) or 23-valent PPSV (PPSV23) on subsequent vaccine administrations. We conducted a randomized, modified double-blind study in 720 pneumococcal vaccine-naïve adults 60-64 years of age. Subjects received either PCV13 at year 0 and PCV13 at year 1; PCV13 at year 0 and PPSV23 at year 1; or PPSV23 at year 0 and PCV13 at year 1. Antipneumococcal opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers were measured before and 1 month after each vaccination. OPA titers following PPSV23 given 1 year after PCV13 (PCV13/PPSV23) (a) were noninferior for the 12 common serotypes and significantly higher for 6 of 12 common serotypes than those following only an initial PPSV23; and (b) were significantly higher for 11 of 12 common serotypes compared with PPSV23 followed by PCV13 (PPSV23/PCV13). In addition, PPSV23 followed 1 year later by PCV13 (PPSV23/PCV13) elicited significantly lower OPA titers than after only an initial dose of PCV13 for all 13 serotypes. Responses after a second vaccination with either PCV13 (PCV13/PCV13) or PPSV23 (PCV13/PPSV23) were noninferior for 9 of 13 and 8 of 12 common serotypes compared with the initial PCV13 dose. In pneumococcal vaccine-naïve adults 60-64 years of age, an initial PCV13 augmented the antipneumococcal response to subsequent administration of PPSV23 for many of the serotypes in common to both vaccines. In contrast, an initial PPSV23 resulted in a diminished response to subsequent administration of PCV13 for all serotypes. With a relatively short 1-year interval between doses, responses after a second vaccination with PCV13 (PCV13/PCV13) or PPSV23 (PCV13/PPSV23) were noninferior for a majority of serotypes compared with the initial PCV13 dose, probably reflecting the need for a longer interval between vaccine administrations. Clinical
Influence of initial vaccination with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine on anti-pneumococcal responses following subsequent pneumococcal vaccination in adults 50 years and older.
Jackson, Lisa A; Gurtman, Alejandra; van Cleeff, Martin; Frenck, Robert W; Treanor, John; Jansen, Kathrin U; Scott, Daniel A; Emini, Emilio A; Gruber, William C; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate
Unlike free polysaccharide vaccines, pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines (PCVs) induce a T cell-dependent immune response and have the potential to provide an extended duration of protection with repeated vaccinations. This was an extension of a previous study in pneumococcal vaccine-naïve adults aged 50-64 years in which adults 60-64 years of age were given 13-valent PCV (PCV13) or 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and adults aged 50-59 were given PCV13. In this follow up study conducted about 4 years later, the 60-64 year olds initially given PCV13 received PCV13 or PPSV23, and those initially given PPSV23 received another PPSV23. All adults aged 50-59 years were re-vaccinated with PCV13. Anti-pneumococcal opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers were measured before and 1 month after vaccination. A second PCV13 given about 4 years after a first vaccination induced OPA titers that were significantly higher than those following the initial vaccination for 7 of 13 serotypes in the older group, and 6 of 13 serotypes in the younger group, and responses to the remaining serotypes were largely non-inferior. In contrast, OPA titers following revaccination with PPSV23 were statistically significantly lower for 9 of the 13 serotypes, and non-inferior for the remaining serotypes, when compared to the responses to the first PPSV23. OPA titers in the older adults who received PPSV23 after initial PCV13 were significantly higher than those following a first PPSV23 for 10 of the 13 serotypes. In adults 50 to 64 years of age, initial vaccination with PCV13 establishes an immune state that results in recall anti-pneumococcal responses upon subsequent vaccination with either conjugated or free polysaccharide vaccine. In contrast, initial vaccination with PPSV23 results in an immune state in which subsequent PPSV23 administration yields generally lower responses compared with the initial responses. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier
Tawfik, Kareem O; Ishman, Stacey L; Altaye, Mekibib; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Choo, Daniel I
Objectives (1) Describe longitudinal trends in annual prevalence of hospital admission for pediatric acute otitis media (AOM) and complications of AOM (CAOM) since introduction of pneumococcal vaccination in 2000 and (2) describe the longitudinal trend of prevalence of hospital admission for pneumococcal meningitis in children with AOM-related diagnoses in the postvaccination era. Study Design Retrospective analysis of Kids' Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2012. Setting Community, nonrehabilitation hospitals. Subjects and Methods To determine annual prevalence of admission for AOM/CAOM, nationally weighted frequencies of children aged <21 years with acute suppurative otitis media, acute mastoiditis, suppurative labyrinthitis, and/or acute petrositis were collected. The frequency of coexisting pneumococcal meningitis diagnoses among these patients was also collected. Trend analysis of prevalences of admission for AOM/CAOM and for pneumococcal meningitis occurring in the setting of AOM/CAOM from 2000 to 2012 was performed. Results Between 2000 and 2012, annual prevalence of admission for AOM/CAOM decreased from 3.956 to 2.618 per 100,000 persons ( P < .0001) (relative risk reduction 34%). Declines in admission prevalence were most pronounced in children <1 year of age (from 22.647 to 8.715 per 100,000 persons between 2000 and 2012, P < .0001) and 1 to 2 years of age (from 13.652 to 5.554 per 100,000 persons between 2000 and 2012, P < .0001). For all ages, the admission prevalence for pneumococcal meningitis and concomitant AOM/CAOM decreased (from 1.760 to 0.717 per 1,000,000 persons, P < .0001) over the study period. Conclusions The prevalence of hospital admission for pediatric AOM/CAOM has declined since the advent of pneumococcal vaccination. Admission rates for pneumococcal meningitis with AOM/CAOM have similarly declined.
Giglio, Norberto; Micone, Paula; Gentile, Angela
Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to be the most important causative agent of invasive bacterial infections in children and is the most common cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in children less than 5 years of age. Due to some conditions in the Latin America region, economic assessments of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have unique characteristics. First, distribution of S. pneumoniae serotypes, and thus coverage by vaccines that incorporate certain serotypes, varies within the region and compared with other parts of the world. Second, the mortality rate of pneumococcal infections in developing countries is significantly higher than in the US and Europe. Third, the economies of the Latin American region are very different from those of developed countries. For these reasons, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is promoting the need for economic valuation studies of the impact of pneumococcal vaccines Latin America. Given the importance of pneumonia in the burden of pneumococcal disease in Latin America, the number of pneumonia cases prevented by the vaccine has a large impact on the economic valuation of PCVs, due to a strong correlation with numbers of deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained or disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) avoided. In terms of cost, analysis of impact on acute otitis media (short-term) and sequelae (long-term) show a significant and important expenditure avoided by vaccination. Cost-effectiveness is significantly modified by vaccine cost, mortality due to pneumonia, vaccine efficacy/effectiveness and herd immunity. Finally the validity of certain assumptions based on the uncertainty of the data should be considered in economic assessments of new PCVs. These include assumptions related to the impact on otitis media, estimates of efficacy/effectiveness based on measured antibody levels and the extrapolation to PCV10 and PCV13 of previous experience with PCV7.
Martinelli, Domenico; Pedalino, Biagio; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Caputi, Giovanni; Sallustio, Anna; Fortunato, Francesca; Tafuri, Silvio; Cozza, Vanessa; Germinario, Cinzia; Chironna, Maria; Prato, Rosa; surveillance of pediatric IPD, Apulian Group for the
Pneumococcal disease epidemiology has changed after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Seven-valent vaccine (PCV7) has been effective in reducing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). In Europe, PCV13 effectiveness was estimated at 78% (95% CI: −18–96%) for 2-priming doses. In Italy, PCV7 was introduced in 2006 in the childhood immunization schedule and replaced with PCV13 in 2010. In Apulia, vaccination coverage has reached 95.1% (birth-cohort 2010). We estimated PCV program effectiveness and its impact on S. pneumoniae diseases. PCV Effectiveness: We used the screening method. We calculated the Proportion of Population Vaccinated from immunization registries and detected cases through a laboratory-confirmed surveillance among hospitalized children ≤60 months. A confirmed IPD case was a child with PCR positive for S. pneumoniae. Differences among children were assessed with the Chi-square or the Fisher exact test (P value < 0.05). PCV Impact: We constructed time series using outcome-specific Poisson regression models: hospitalization rate in pre-PCV era and hospitalization risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs for both PCV7 and PCV7/PCV13 shifting era. We calculated hospitalization RR with 95% CIs comparing pre-PCV years with vaccination period. The PCV effectiveness was 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0–84.6%). In May 2010-January 2013, we enrolled 159 suspected IPD of whom 4 were confirmed. Two (fully vaccinated) were caused by serotype 9V, 1 (not vaccinated) by serotype 3, 1 (vaccinated with 2 PCV13 doses) by 15B/C. The most important reduction was for pneumococcal pneumonia (RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21–0.90). The PCV program show promising results in terms of both PCV13 effectiveness and its impact in reducing IPD in children <5 years. PMID:24096297
Case, David J; Copeland, Laurel A; Stock, Eileen M; Herrera, Henry R; Pfanner, Timothy P
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory condition of the digestive tract not caused by infectious agents. Symptoms of IBD, such as diarrhea and pain, diminish one's quality of life. Underlying immune dysregulation may put IBD patients at risk for severe infectious disease making preventative vaccination highly recommended. Therefore, this study sought to assess rates of pneumococcal vaccination in patients with IBD.A cross-sectional observational study was employed utilizing administrative data extracts from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to identify patients diagnosed with IBD per International Classification of Diseases, Version 9, Clinical Modification codes. Their pneumococcal vaccine histories were determined from Common Procedural Terminology codes. Data were aggregated to the patient level and subjected to multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with receipt of the vaccination and 1-year mortality; survival analyses extended follow-up to as much as 4 years following IBD diagnosis.From October 2004 to September 2009, 49,350 patients were diagnosed with IBD in the VHA. Incidence was approximately 6000 cases/y. Patients averaged 62 years (±15, range 19-98) with 45% aged 65 or older. Approximately 6% were women, 21% were highly disabled from a military service-connected condition, 46% had hypertension, 38% dyslipidemia, and 18% diabetes. Only 20% of the cohort received pneumococcal vaccination including 5% vaccinated prior to IBD diagnosis, 2% on the date of diagnosis, and 13% subsequently. Being married, living outside the Northeast, and having more comorbidities were associated with vaccination before IBD diagnosis; models of vaccination at or after diagnosis demonstrated poor fit: little better than chance. Vaccinations before, after, and at diagnosis were protective against 1-year mortality adjusting for clinical and demographic covariates. Living in the South was an independent risk factor for death among IBD
Moïsi, Jennifer C.; Makawa, Makawa-Sy; Tall, Haoua; Agbenoko, Kodjo; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Tamekloe, Stanislas; Amidou, Moussa; Mueller, Judith E.; Gessner, Bradford D.
Background S. pneumoniae is a leading cause of meningitis morbidity and mortality in the African meningitis belt, but little is known of its contribution to the burden of pneumonia in the region. We aimed to estimate the incidence of pneumococcal disease in children and adults in northern Togo, before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Methods and findings From May 1st 2010 to April 30th 2013, we systematically enrolled all hospitalized patients meeting a case definition of suspected meningitis or clinical pneumonia, residing in Tone or Cinkasse districts, northern Togo and providing informed consent. We collected clinical data and tested biological specimens according to standardized procedures, including bacteriology and PCR testing of cerebro-spinal fluid for meningitis patients and blood cultures and whole blood lytA PCR for pneumonia patients. Chest X-rays (CXR) were interpreted using the WHO methodology. We included 404 patients with meningitis (104 <5 years of age) and 1550 with pneumonia (251 <5 years) over the study period. Of these, 78 (19%) had pneumococcal meningitis (13 <5 years), 574 (37%) had radiologically-confirmed pneumonia (83 <5 years) and 73 (5%) had culture-confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia (2 <5 years). PCV13 serotypes caused 79% (54/68) of laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal meningitis and 83% (29/35) of culture-confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia. Serotype 1 predominated in meningitis (n = 33) but not in pneumonia patients (n = 1). The incidence of pneumococcal disease was 7.5 per 100,000 among children <5 years of age and 14.8 in persons 5 years of age and above in the study area. When considering CXR-confirmed and blood PCR-positive pneumonia cases as likely pneumococcal, incidence estimates increased to 43.7 and 66.0 per 100,000 in each of these age groups, respectively. Incidence was at least 3-fold higher when we restricted the analysis to the urban area immediately around the study hospitals. Conclusions Our findings
Pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (13-valent, adsorbed) [PCV13] is approved for protection against pneumococcal disease in children aged 6 weeks to 5 years and adults aged ≥50 years. In randomized trials in adults aged 60-64 years (not previously vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [PPV23]) and ≥70 years (previously vaccinated with PPV23), PCV13 was noninferior to PPV23 in opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) geometric mean titres (GMTs) for all 12 serotypes common to the two vaccines. More PCV13 than PPV23 recipients had ≥4-fold increases in serotype 6A OPA GMTs (serotype 6A is not included in PPV23). PCV13 recipients also had higher OPA GMTs and met superiority criteria for most serotypes. Adults aged 50-59 years had antibody responses to PCV13 that were noninferior to those in adults aged 60-64 years for all included serotypes. PCV13 administered concomitantly with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in adults aged 50-59 or ≥65 years produced antibody responses that were noninferior to those following sequential administration, except for influenza strain A/H3N2 and pneumococcal serotype 19F in those aged ≥65 years. Antibody responses were numerically higher with sequential administration, although the clinical significance of this is unknown. Adverse events within 14 days of vaccination were mostly of mild-to-moderate severity, with serious events occurring in 0.2-1.4% of PCV13 and 0.4-1.7% of PPV23 recipients.
Tai, Stanley S.
Pneumococcal infection is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in children of developing and underdeveloped countries. Capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines are available for the prevention of this disease. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in 2000 for use in children less than two years of age. Subsequently, to broaden the protection, 10-valent (PCV10) and 13-valent (PCV13) vaccines were licensed in 2009 and 2010, respectively. All of these conjugate vaccines elicit an immune response that only provides protection against the infection of S. pneumoniae serotypes included in the formulation. Profiles of S. pneumoniae serotype distribution and serotype coverage for both PCV7 and PCV13 have been reported in some Asian countries/territories. But the published results cannot provide conclusive information due to the difference in studied population and geographic areas. The goals of this review are to obtain an accurate estimate of serotype coverage for PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 and examine the change in the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution after PCV7 use among pediatric patients in East and Southeast Asia through the analysis of pooled data that were published in the English literature between 2000 and 2014. PMID:26907356
Cernuschi, Tania; Furrer, Eliane; Schwalbe, Nina; Jones, Andrew; Berndt, Ernst R; McAdams, Susan
Markets for life-saving vaccines do not often generate the most desired outcomes from a public health perspective in terms of product quantity, quality, affordability, programmatic suitability and/or sustainability for use in the lowest income countries. The perceived risks and uncertainties about sustainably funded demand from developing countries often leads to underinvestment in development and manufacturing of appropriate products. The pilot initiative Advance Market Commitment (AMC) for pneumococcal vaccines, launched in 2009, aims to remove some of these market risks by providing a legally binding forward commitment to purchase vaccines according to predetermined terms. To date, 14 countries have already introduced pneumococcal vaccines through the AMC with a further 39 countries expected to introduce before the end of 2013.This paper describes early lessons learnt on the selection of a target disease and the core design choices for the pilot AMC. It highlights the challenges faced with tailoring the AMC design to the specific supply situation of pneumococcal vaccines. It points to the difficulty - and the AMC's apparent early success - in establishing a long-term, credible commitment in a constantly changing unpredictable environment. It highlights one of the inherent challenges of the AMC: its dependence on continuous donor funding to ensure long-term purchases of products. The paper examines alternative design choices and aims to provide a starting point to inform discussions and encourage debate about the potential application of the AMC concept to other fields.
Piralam, Barameht; Tomczyk, Sara M.; Rhodes, Julia C.; Thamthitiwat, Somsak; Gregory, Christopher J.; Olsen, Sonja J.; Praphasiri, Prabda; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Naorat, Sathapana; Chantra, Somrak; Areerat, Peera; Hurst, Cameron P.; Moore, Matthew R.; Muangchana, Charung; Baggett, Henry C.
The incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia among adults is a key driver for the cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine used among children. We sought to obtain more accurate incidence estimates among adults by including results of pneumococcal urine antigen testing (UAT) from population-based pneumonia surveillance in two Thai provinces. Active surveillance from 2006 to 2011 identified acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI)–related hospital admissions. Adult cases of pneumococcal pneumonia were defined as hospitalized ALRI patients aged ≥ 18 years with isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood or with positive UAT. Among 39,525 adult ALRI patients, we identified 481 pneumococcal pneumonia cases (105 by blood culture, 376 by UAT only). Estimated incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations was 30.5 cases per 100,000 persons per year (2.2 and 28.3 cases per 100,000 persons per year by blood culture and UAT, respectively). Incidence varied between 22.7 in 2007 and 43.5 in 2010, and increased with age to over 150 per 100,000 persons per year among persons aged ≥ 70 years. Viral coinfections including influenza A/B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus occurred in 11% (44/409) of pneumococcal pneumonia cases tested. Use of UAT to identify cases of pneumococcal pneumonia among adults in rural Thailand substantially increases estimates of pneumococcal pneumonia burden, thereby informing cost-effectiveness analyses and vaccine policy decisions. PMID:26503277
Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines
Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela
We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under
Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.
Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela; Van Der Wielen, Marie
We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under
Saokaew, Surasak; Rayanakorn, Ajaree; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn
Although pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been available for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) for over a decade, their adoption into national immunization programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is still limited. Economic evaluations (EEs) play a crucial role in support of evidence-informed decisions. This systematic review aims to provide a critical summary of EEs of PCVs and identify key drivers of EE findings in LMICs. We searched Scopus, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central from their inception to 30 September 2015 and limited the search to LMICs. The search was undertaken using the search strings 'pneumococc* AND conjugat* AND (vaccin* OR immun*)' AND 'economic OR cost-effectiveness OR cost-benefit OR cost-utility OR cost-effectiveness OR cost-benefit OR cost-utility' in the abstract, title or keyword fields. To be included, each study had to be a full EE of a PCV and conducted for an LMIC. Studies were extracted and reviewed by two authors. The review involved standard extraction of the study overview or the characteristics of the study, key drivers or parameters of the EE, assumptions behind the analyses and major areas of uncertainty. Out of 134 records identified, 22 articles were included. Seven studies used a Markov model for analysis, while 15 studies used a decision-tree analytic model. Eighteen studies performed a cost-utility analysis (CUA), with disability-adjusted life-years, quality-adjusted life-years or life-years gained as a measure of health outcome, while four studies focused only on cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). Both CEA and CUA findings were provided by eight studies. Herd effects and serotype replacement were considered in 10 and 13 studies, respectively. The current evidence shows that both the 10-valent and 13-valent PCVs are probably cost effective in comparison with the 7-valent PCV or no vaccination. The most
Picazo, Juan; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesus; Casado-Flores, Juan; Negreira, Sagrario; Del Castillo, Fernando; Hernández-Sampelayo, Teresa; Bueno, Mercedes; Calvo, Cristina; Ríos, Esther; Méndez, Cristina
In October 2006, the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was included in the Madrid vaccination calendar, warranting serotype (St) surveillances in pneumococcal pediatric parapneumonic empyema (PPE). A prospective 2-year (May 2007-April 2009) laboratory-confirmed PPE surveillance was performed in 22 hospitals. All isolates (for serotyping) and culture-negative pleural fluids were sent to the reference laboratory for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. We identified 138 PPEs. Pneumococcal etiology was confirmed in 100 cases: 38 by culture, 62 by PCR. Mean age was 44.64 ± 26.64 months; 51.0% were male. Similar pneumococcal PPE distribution was found by age: 21% to 28% in <24, ≥24-<36, ≥36-<60, and ≥60 months. PPE-associated Sts were St 1 (38%), St 5 (15%), St 19A (11%), St 7F (9%), St 3 (8%), and others (19%). St 1 was the most common in >36 months, with similar rates to St 19A in <24 months (≈30%). In ≥24-≤36 months, St 3 (21.7%), St 1 and St 5 (17.4% each) were the most frequent. No differences in demographic data, vaccination status, length of hospitalization, and outcome were found between culture-negative (PCR positive) and culture-positive PPE patients, with significantly higher percentages of St 1 and St 5 in culture-positive PPEs. Total rates of St 1 (38%), St 5 (15%), and St 7F (9%) would have been over-represented considering only positive-culture PPEs (n = 38), by increasing to 52.6% (St 1), 23.7% (St 5), and 10.5% (St 7F). The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine would cover 84.0% of Sts causing PPEs. PCR is essential for determining the specific etiology of PPE.
Madar, R; Malechova, L; Baska, T
The authors analysed the direct cost associated with treatment of IPI in 156 patients hospitalised with the diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis at the terciary care Teaching Hospital. The total direct cost for 156 patients was 22,180,080 CZK (Czech Crowns). The average length of hospital stay for the patient with invasive pneumococcal meningitis (IPM) was 23 days. It was possible to conclude, that the direct financial expenses in 156 patients with pneumococcal meningitis would enable 88,337 people to be vaccinated. This is 6.2 % of all people in 65+ age group living in the Czech Republic, 54.8 % of all people in 65+ age group living in the Morava-Silesia Region with 1,250,800 inhabitants, or all inhabitants below 14 and above 65 years in Ostrava city (total population 312,000). The cost of pneumococcal polysacharide vaccine and its administration was 566 times lower compared to the average cost of treatment for one IPM case (Ref.21). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.
Ciprero, Karen; Zykov, Kirill A; Briko, Nikolay I; Shekar, Tulin; Sterling, Tina M; Bitieva, Elizaveta; Stek, Jon E; Musey, Luwy
Pneumococcal infection is a major cause of pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. Incidence of pneumococcal disease (PD) varies worldwide. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) displays an acceptable safety profile and has been demonstrated cost-effective in reducing burden of PD.
Hoshina, Takayuki; Ohga, Shouichi; Fujiyoshi, Junko; Nanishi, Etsuro; Takimoto, Tomoko; Kanno, Shunsuke; Nishio, Hisanori; Saito, Mitsumasa; Akeda, Yukihiro; Oishi, Kazunori; Hara, Toshiro
The immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) are low in immunocompromised hosts. The effect of memory B cells on the immune response to PCV remains elusive. In this prospective study, 53 children who received 7-valent PCV were enrolled. Antipneumococcal immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and opsonization index (OI) titers, along with lymphocyte subsets, were investigated in immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Immunocompromised patients comprised 8 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (group A) and 9 immunosuppressive therapy recipients (group B), and controls consisted of 14 children aged >1 year (group C) and 22 infants (group D). Serotype-specific IgG concentrations and OIs in group A were lower than those in group C. These did not differ among groups B, C, and D. The rates of achieving immunity (defined as an IgG level of 1.0 µg/mL and an OI of 8) in group A were also lower than in group C. Despite the sustained numbers of total T cells and B cells, CD27(+) B-cell and CD4(+) T-cell counts in group A were lower than those in group C. In group B, the immunoglobulin D-expressing CD27(-) B-cell count was only lower than that in group C. Circulating numbers of CD27(+) B cells, rather than CD4(+) T cells, may predict the effective PCV responses in immunocompromised children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
Moore, Matthew R.; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Schaffner, William; Lynfield, Ruth; Lexau, Catherine; Bennett, Nancy M.; Petit, Susan; Zansky, Shelley M.; Harrison, Lee H.; Reingold, Arthur; Miller, Lisa; Scherzinger, Karen; Thomas, Ann; Farley, Monica M.; Zell, Elizabeth R.; Taylor, Thomas H.; Pondo, Tracy; Rodgers, Loren; McGee, Lesley; Beall, Bernard; Jorgensen, James H.; Whitney, Cynthia G.
SUMMARY Background In 2000, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the U.S. and resulted in dramatic reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and modest increases in non-PCV7-type IPD. In 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in the U.S. immunization schedule. We evaluated the effect of PCV13 use in children on IPD in children and adults in the U.S. Methods We used laboratory- and population-based data on incidence of IPD from CDC’s Emerging Infections Program / Active Bacterial Core surveillance in a time-series model to estimate the impact of vaccination. Cases of IPD during July 2004–June 2013 were classified as being caused by the PCV13 serotypes against which PCV7 has no effect (PCV13/nonPCV7). Findings Compared with incidence expected among children <5 years old if PCV7 alone had been continued, incidence of IPD overall and IPD caused by PCV13/nonPCV7 serotypes declined by 64% (95% interval estimate [IE] 59–68 %) and 93% (95%IE 91–94), respectively, by July 2012–June 2013. Among adults, incidence of IPD overall and PCV13/nonPCV7-type IPD also declined by 12–32% and 58–72%, respectively, depending on age. In all age groups, reductions were driven principally by changes in incidence of serotypes 19A and 7F. We estimate that over 30,000 cases of IPD and 3,000 deaths were averted in the first 3 years following PCV13 introduction. Interpretation PCV13 has reduced IPD among all ages when used routinely in children in the U.S. Serotypes 19A and 7F, which emerged after PCV7 introduction, have been effectively controlled. PMID:25656600
Peñaranda, Maria; Payeras, Antoni; Cambra, Ana; Mila, Joan; Riera, Melcior
This is a randomized trial to compare the immunoglobulin G response and the antibody avidity after two pneumococcal vaccinations, conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (CPV) and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) 4 weeks after vs. PPV alone in 202 HIV-infected adults. There were no differences in the two strategies, either in the percentage of immunoglobulin G two-fold increase for the CPV included serotypes or immunoglobulin G two-fold increase, reaching the level of 1 microg/ml except for serotype 23F (26% responded after conjugated pneumococcal vaccine + PPV vs. 14% after PPV). No avidity increases were seen in any strategy.
Shibl, Atef M; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Kattan, Khaled M
Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common bacterial causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing life threatening infections such as meningitis, pneumonia and febrile bacteremia, particular among young children. The severity and frequency of S. pneumoniae infection and emergence of drug-resistant isolates have highlighted the need for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) as the best method for controlling disease; to better achieve this, more information is needed about serotype distribution and patterns of antibiotic resistance in children in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Cases of pneumococcal infections in children aged <5 years, recorded in hospitals throughout KSA from 2005 to 2010 were reviewed for serotyping and for antibiotic susceptibility. This covers the time period just before limited introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2006, to its introduction into the national immunization program in 2008, until right after a switch to PCV13 in 2010. Case definition required isolation of S. pneumoniae from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or any sterile biological fluid. Isolates from 311 eligible cases were collected from different regions across KSA, 250 from blood and 61 from cerebrospinal fluid. The most frequently isolated IPD serotypes were 23F, 19F, 6B, 5 and 1. Over the course of the study, there was significant rise of serotype 19A (covered by PCV13 but not PCV7), which accounted for 20% of isolates of IPD in Western and 5% in Central regions in the last 2 years in KSA. There was a notable decrease in serotype 18C over this period, one of the PCV7 serotypes. Serotype coverage for PCV7, PCV10, PCV13 in children <5 years was 53%, 80%, and 91%, respectively across the Kingdom from 2005 to 2010. A total of 66% of IPD isolates were penicillin-resistant, and 62% were erythromycin-resistant. Continued surveillance is critical to measure the emerging of new serotypes and antibiotic resistance strain, and the
Wu, David Bin-Chia; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Chong, Huey-Yi; Beutels, Philippe
Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7) have been used in children for more than a decade. Given the observed increase in disease caused by pneumococcal serotypes not covered by PCV7, an increasing number of countries are switching from 7-valent to 10- and 13-valent PCVs ("PCV10" and "PCV13"). Economic evaluations are important tools to inform decisions and price negotiations to make such a switch. This review aims to provide a critical assessment of economic evaluations involving PCV10 or PCV13, published since 2006. We searched Scopus, ISI Web of Science (SCI and SSCI) and Pubmed to retrieve, select and review relevant studies, which were archived between 1st January 2006 and 31st January 2014. The review protocol involved standard extraction of assumptions, methods, results and sponsorships from the original studies. Sixty-three economic evaluations on PCVs published since January 2006 were identified. About half of these evaluated PCV10 and/or PCV13, the subject of this review. At current prices, both PCV13 and PCV10 were likely judged preferable to PCV7. However, the combined uncertainty related to price differences, burden of disease, vaccine effectiveness, herd and serotype replacement effects determine the preference base for either PCV10 or PCV13. The pivotal assumptions and results of these analyses also depended on which manufacturer sponsored the study. A more thorough exploration of uncertainty should be made in future analyses on this subject, as we lack understanding to adequately model herd and serotype replacement effects to reliably predict the population impact of PCVs. The introduction of further improved PCVs in an environment of evolving antibiotic resistance and under the continuing influence of previous PCVs implies that the complexity and data requirements for relevant analyses will further increase. Decision makers using these analyses should not just rely on an analysis from a single manufacturer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
Pickren, Elizabeth; Crane, Brad
Background: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for pneumococcal vaccinations were updated in 2014. Given the complexity of the guidelines and the fact that hospitals are no longer required to keep records for pneumococcal vaccinations, many hospitals are determining whether to continue this service. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact on compliance with the revised pneumococcal vaccination guidelines from the CDC after involving pharmacy in the screening and selection processes. Secondary objectives were to determine the impact of the new process on inappropriate vaccination duplications, the time spent by pharmacy on assessments, and financial outcomes. Methods: This institutional review board (IRB)-approved, retrospective, cohort study examined all patients who received a pneumococcal vaccination from January to February 2016 after implementing a new process whereby pharmacy performed pneumococcal vaccination screening and selection (intervention group). These patients were compared to patients who received a pneumococcal vaccination from January to February 2015 (control group). Results: Of 274 patients who received a pneumococcal vaccine, 273 were included in the study. Compliance to CDC guidelines increased from 42% to 97%. Noncompliant duplications decreased from 16% to 2%. In the intervention group, labor cost for assessments and expenditure for vaccines increased. For Medicare patients, the increased reimbursement balanced the increased expenditure in the intervention group. Conclusions: Involving pharmacy in the pneumococcal vaccine screening and selection process improves compliance to CDC guidelines, but further clinical and financial analysis is needed to determine financial sustainability of the new process.
Haber, Michael; Barskey, Albert; Baughman, Wendy; Barker, Lawrence; Whitney, Cynthia G; Shaw, Kate M; Orenstein, Walter; Stephens, David S
Invasive pneumococcal disease in older children and adults declined markedly after introduction in 2000 of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for young children. An empirical quantitative model was developed to estimate the herd (indirect) effects on the incidence of invasive disease among persons >or=5 years of age induced by vaccination of young children with 1, 2, or >or=3 doses of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Prevnar (PCV7), containing serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F. From 1994 to 2003, cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were prospectively identified in Georgia Health District-3 (eight metropolitan Atlanta counties) by Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs). From 2000 to 2003, vaccine coverage levels of PCV7 for children aged 19-35 months in Fulton and DeKalb counties (of Atlanta) were estimated from the National Immunization Survey (NIS). Based on incidence data and the estimated average number of doses received by 15 months of age, a Poisson regression model was fit, describing the trend in invasive pneumococcal disease in groups not targeted for vaccination (i.e., adults and older children) before and after the introduction of PCV7. Highly significant declines in all the serotypes contained in PCV7 in all unvaccinated populations (5-19, 20-39, 40-64, and >64 years) from 2000 to 2003 were found under the model. No significant change in incidence was seen from 1994 to 1999, indicating rates were stable prior to vaccine introduction. Among unvaccinated persons 5+ years of age, the modeled incidence of disease caused by PCV7 serotypes as a group dropped 38.4%, 62.0%, and 76.6% for 1, 2, and 3 doses, respectively, received on average by the population of children by the time they are 15 months of age. Incidence of serotypes 14 and 23F had consistent significant declines in all unvaccinated age groups. In contrast, the herd immunity effects on vaccine-related serotype 6A incidence were inconsistent. Increasing trends of non-vaccine
Rosch, Jason W
The pneumococcus is a remarkably adaptable pathogen whose disease manifestations range from mucosal surface infections such as acute otitis media and pneumonia to invasive infections such as sepsis and meningitis. Currently approved vaccines target the polysaccharide capsule, of which there are over 90 distinct serotypes, leading to rapid serotype replacement in vaccinated populations. Substantial progress has been made in the development of a universal pneumococcal vaccine, with efforts focused on broadly conserved and protective protein antigens. An area attracting considerable attention is the potential application of live attenuated vaccines to confer serotype-independent protection against mucosal and systemic infection. On the basis of recent work to understand the mucosal and systemic responses to nasal administration of pneumococci and to develop novel attenuation strategies, the prospect of a practical and protective live vaccine remains promising.
Dubos, F; Marechal, I; Husson, M O; Courouble, C; Aurel, M; Martinot, A
Background The impact of the heptavalent‐pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence of pneumococcal meningitis in Europe has not yet been assessed. Objective To determine whether heptavalent‐pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in northern France has resulted in a decrease in the incidence of pneumococcal meningitis in children. Design Multicentre retrospective cohort study from 2000 through 2005. Settings All paediatric departments of the 18 hospitals in northern France. Patients Patients <18 years of age, admitted for laboratory‐confirmed pneumococcal meningitis during the study period, were included. Interventions Data were collected from medical files and the microbiological laboratories of each hospital and compared with the regional hospital discharge codes, using a capture–recapture method. Main outcome measures The study assessed and compared global and age‐related incidence rates of pneumococcal meningitis in 2001 (pre‐vaccine era) and 2005. Results 77 cases were found through the capture–recapture method. The incidence rate of pneumococcal meningitis varied from 1.65/100 000 children <18 years in 2001 to 0.80/100 000 children in 2005 (53% reduction, 95% CI 31 to 74; p = 0.08). This has so far been significant only for children <2 years of age (8.9/100 000 in 2001 to 1.8/100 000 in 2005; 82% reduction, 95% CI 52 to 95; p = 0.03). Conclusion A decline in pneumococcal meningitis has been observed in infants since heptavalent‐pneumococcal conjugate vaccination began in our area. PMID:17626145
Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Francis, Jacinta; Jacoby, Peter; Siba, Peter M.; Alpers, Michael P.; Reeder, John C.; Holt, Patrick G.; Richmond, Peter C.; Lehmann, Deborah
Background Approximately 826,000 children, mostly young infants, die annually from invasive pneumococcal disease. A 6-10-14-week schedule of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is efficacious but neonatal PCV may provide earlier protection and better coverage. We conducted an open randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea to compare safety, immunogenicity and priming for memory of 7-valent PCV (PCV7) given in a 0-1-2-month (neonatal) schedule with that of the routine 1-2-3-month (infant) schedule. Methods We randomized 318 infants at birth to receive PCV7 in the neonatal or infant schedule or no PCV7. All infants received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) at age 9 months. Serotype-specific serum IgG for PCV7 (VT) serotypes and non-VT serotypes 2, 5 and 7F were measured at birth and 2, 3, 4, 9, 10 and 18 months of age. Primary outcomes were geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and proportions with concentration ≥0.35 µg/ml of VT serotype-specific pneumococcal IgG at age 2 months and one month post-PPV. Results We enrolled 101, 105 and 106 infants, respectively, into neonatal, infant and control groups. Despite high background levels of maternally derived antibody, both PCV7 groups had higher GMCs than controls at age 2 months for serotypes 4 (p<0.001) and 9V (p<0.05) and at age 3 months for all VTs except 6B. GMCs for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C and 19F were significantly higher (p<0.001) at age 2 months in the neonatal (one month post-dose2 PCV7) than in the infant group (one month post-dose1 PCV7). PPV induced significantly higher VT antibody responses in PCV7-primed than unprimed infants, with neonatal and infant groups equivalent. High VT and non-VT antibody concentrations generally persisted to age 18 months. Conclusions PCV7 is well-tolerated and immunogenic in PNG neonates and young infants and induces immunologic memory to PPV booster at age 9 months with antibody levels maintained to age 18 months. Trial Registration Clinical
Pomat, William S; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Francis, Jacinta; Jacoby, Peter; Siba, Peter M; Alpers, Michael P; Reeder, John C; Holt, Patrick G; Richmond, Peter C; Lehmann, Deborah
Approximately 826,000 children, mostly young infants, die annually from invasive pneumococcal disease. A 6-10-14-week schedule of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is efficacious but neonatal PCV may provide earlier protection and better coverage. We conducted an open randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea to compare safety, immunogenicity and priming for memory of 7-valent PCV (PCV7) given in a 0-1-2-month (neonatal) schedule with that of the routine 1-2-3-month (infant) schedule. We randomized 318 infants at birth to receive PCV7 in the neonatal or infant schedule or no PCV7. All infants received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) at age 9 months. Serotype-specific serum IgG for PCV7 (VT) serotypes and non-VT serotypes 2, 5 and 7F were measured at birth and 2, 3, 4, 9, 10 and 18 months of age. Primary outcomes were geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and proportions with concentration ≥ 0.35 µg/ml of VT serotype-specific pneumococcal IgG at age 2 months and one month post-PPV. We enrolled 101, 105 and 106 infants, respectively, into neonatal, infant and control groups. Despite high background levels of maternally derived antibody, both PCV7 groups had higher GMCs than controls at age 2 months for serotypes 4 (p<0.001) and 9V (p<0.05) and at age 3 months for all VTs except 6B. GMCs for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C and 19F were significantly higher (p<0.001) at age 2 months in the neonatal (one month post-dose2 PCV7) than in the infant group (one month post-dose1 PCV7). PPV induced significantly higher VT antibody responses in PCV7-primed than unprimed infants, with neonatal and infant groups equivalent. High VT and non-VT antibody concentrations generally persisted to age 18 months. PCV7 is well-tolerated and immunogenic in PNG neonates and young infants and induces immunologic memory to PPV booster at age 9 months with antibody levels maintained to age 18 months. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00219401.
Vučina, V Višekruna; Filipović, S Kurečić; Kožnjak, N; Stamenić, V; Clark, A D; Mounaud, B; Blau, J; Hoestlandt, C; Kaić, B
Pneumococcus is a known cause of meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and acute otitis media in children and adults globally. Two new vaccines for children have the potential to prevent illness, disability, and death, but these vaccines are expensive. The Croatian Ministry of Health has considered introducing the vaccine in the past, but requires economic evidence to ensure that the limited funds available for health care will be used in the most effective way. Croatia appointed a multidisciplinary team of experts to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) into the national routine child immunization program. Both 10-valent and 13-valent PCV (PCV10 and PCV13) were compared to a scenario assuming no vaccination. The TRIVAC decision-support model was used to estimate cost-effectiveness over the period 2014-2033. We used national evidence on demographics, pneumococcal disease incidence and mortality, the age distribution of disease in children, health service utilization, vaccine coverage, vaccine timeliness, and serotype coverage. Vaccine effectiveness was based on evidence from the scientific literature. Detailed health care costs were not available from the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance at the time of the analysis so assumptions and World Health Organization (WHO) estimates for Croatia were used. We assumed a three-dose primary vaccination schedule, and an initial price of US$ 30 per dose for PCV10 and US$ 35 per dose for PCV13. We ran univariate sensitivity analyses and multivariate scenario analyses. Either vaccine is estimated to prevent approximately 100 hospital admissions and one death each year in children younger than five in Croatia. Compared to no vaccine, the discounted cost-effectiveness of either vaccine is estimated to be around US$ 69,000-77,000 per disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted over the period 2014-2033 (from the government or societal perspective). Only two alternative scenarios
Kalyango, Joan; Alfvén, Tobias; Darenberg, Jessica; Kadobera, Daniel; Bwanga, Freddie; Peterson, Stefan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Källander, Karin
Background Pneumonia is the major cause of death in children globally, with more than 900,000 deaths annually in children under five years of age. Streptococcus pneumoniae causes most deaths, most often in the form of community acquired pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are currently being implemented in many low-income countries. PCVs decrease vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage, a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease, and thereby affects pneumococcal disease and transmission. In Uganda, PCV was launched in 2014, but baseline data is lacking for pneumococcal serotypes in carriage. Objectives To study pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and serotype distribution in children under 5 years of age prior to PCV introduction in Uganda Methods Three cross-sectional pneumococcal carriage surveys were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2011, comprising respectively 150, 587 and 1024 randomly selected children aged less than five years from the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. The caretakers were interviewed about illness history of the child and 1723 nasopharyngeal specimens were collected. From these, 927 isolates of S. pneumoniae were serotyped. Results Overall, the carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was 56% (957/1723). Pneumococcal carriage was associated with illness on the day of the interview (OR = 1.50, p = 0.04). The most common pneumococcal serotypes were in descending order 19F (16%), 23F (9%), 6A (8%), 29 (7%) and 6B (7%). One percent of the strains were non-typeable. The potential serotype coverage rate for PCV10 was 42% and 54% for PCV13. Conclusion About half of circulating pneumococcal serotypes in carriage in the Ugandan under-five population studied was covered by available PCVs. PMID:27829063
Lindstrand, Ann; Kalyango, Joan; Alfvén, Tobias; Darenberg, Jessica; Kadobera, Daniel; Bwanga, Freddie; Peterson, Stefan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Källander, Karin
Pneumonia is the major cause of death in children globally, with more than 900,000 deaths annually in children under five years of age. Streptococcus pneumoniae causes most deaths, most often in the form of community acquired pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are currently being implemented in many low-income countries. PCVs decrease vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage, a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease, and thereby affects pneumococcal disease and transmission. In Uganda, PCV was launched in 2014, but baseline data is lacking for pneumococcal serotypes in carriage. To study pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and serotype distribution in children under 5 years of age prior to PCV introduction in Uganda. Three cross-sectional pneumococcal carriage surveys were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2011, comprising respectively 150, 587 and 1024 randomly selected children aged less than five years from the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. The caretakers were interviewed about illness history of the child and 1723 nasopharyngeal specimens were collected. From these, 927 isolates of S. pneumoniae were serotyped. Overall, the carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was 56% (957/1723). Pneumococcal carriage was associated with illness on the day of the interview (OR = 1.50, p = 0.04). The most common pneumococcal serotypes were in descending order 19F (16%), 23F (9%), 6A (8%), 29 (7%) and 6B (7%). One percent of the strains were non-typeable. The potential serotype coverage rate for PCV10 was 42% and 54% for PCV13. About half of circulating pneumococcal serotypes in carriage in the Ugandan under-five population studied was covered by available PCVs.
Morano, Raúl; Pérez, Ferrán; Brosa, Max; Pérez Escolano, Isabel
To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of pediatric pneumococcal vaccination in Spain. A deterministic population-based model in the form of a decision-tree with a 1-year time horizon was used to estimate the impact of vaccination with Synflorix® or Prevenar13® in children aged less than 2 years in Spain from the perspective of the National Health System. Epidemiological data were obtained from the hospital discharge minimum data set (MDS) and the literature. Data on costs were obtained from national health costs databases. The main outcomes measured were the number of cases avoided of invasive pneumococcal disease, acute otitis media (AOM) and myringotomies, and hospital admissions for pneumonia. All costs were expressed in 2010 euros. Effectiveness was measured as the number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. The efficacy of Synflorix® in preventing episodes of AOM caused by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae could lead to additional prevention of 41,513 episodes of AOM, 36,324 antibiotic prescriptions and 382 myringotomy procedures and 143 QALYs gained compared with Prevenar13®. The total vaccination cost with Synflorix® would result in savings of 22 million euros. Pneumococcal vaccination with Synflorix® in comparison with Prevenar13® in children aged less than 2 years old in Spain could achieve a higher number of QALYs and a substantial cost offset. Vaccination with Synflorix® would be a dominant strategy in terms of cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Pletz, Mathias W
Pneumococcal infections (pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis) are common and usually involve toddlers, immunocompromised and the elderly. Main reservoir of pneumococci is the nasopharyngeal zone of healthy carriers, especially of toddlers. Currently, two types of pneumococcal vaccines are in clinical use, which induce production of antibodies against capsular polysaccharides. The older vaccine consists of pure capsular polysaccharides. It induces a limited immunity, because polysaccharides are poor antigens that stimulate mainly B-cells. In children under two years of age this vaccine is not used, because it does not induce a sufficient immunologic response, presumably because of the immaturity of their immune system. In 2000, a vaccination program with a novel pneumococcal vaccine was launched in the USA. This vaccine contains capsular polysaccharides, that are conjugated with a highly immunogenic protein. It induces both a T cell and B cell response that results in specific humoral and mucosal immunity. U.S. data demonstrate, that serotypes covered by the conjugated vaccine can be reduced in the whole population by vaccination of children being the main reservoir of pneumococci. This so called ,,herd protection" results in a decrease in invasive pneumococcal diseases in vaccinees and non-vaccinees as well as in a reduction of antibiotic resistance rates by reducing resistant pneumococcal cones.
Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Kistler, Christine E; Ward, Kimberly; Killeya-Jones, Ley A; Better, Olga Maria; Weber, David J; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Nicholson, Bradly P; Woods, Chris W; Sloane, Philip
To evaluate pneumococcal immunization in older adults living in retirement communities and to measure nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae to better assess the potential for herd protection from the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) in these settings. Cross-sectional observational study of adults aged 65 and older living in retirement communities to determine coverage with 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV-23), coverage with PCV-13 in immuncompromised individuals according to 2012 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines, and nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae. Two retirement communities in North Carolina. Older adults recruited between December 2013 and April 2014 (N = 21, 64.8% female, mean age 81.4). A survey was used to assess chronic illnesses, immunization history, and potential risk factors for pneumococcal carriage; a chart review was used to confirm immunization history and abstract chronic conditions; and a nasopharyngeal swab was collected and cultured for S. pneumoniae. Eighty-seven percent of participants reported receiving PPSV-23 since age 65. Of the 16.2% of participants with an immunocompromising condition, only one had received PCV-13. Nasopharyngeal carriage with S. pneumoniae was detected in 1.9% (95% confidence interval = 0.0-3.8%) of participants. In this select sample, PPSV-23 coverage was high, but adherence to the ACIP recommendation for PCV-13 in immunocompromised groups was low. Nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae was present, although infrequent, suggesting that immunization with PCV-13 could provide an individual benefit and a small degree of herd protection. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Ho, Yeh-Li; Brandão, Angela Pires; de Cunto Brandileone, Maria Cristina; Lopes, Marta Heloisa
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of hospitalization in HIV-infected adults therefore pneumococcal vaccine is recommended. The ideal antipneumococcal vaccine and effective vaccination regimen remain controversial and needs further evaluation. To assess the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccines alone and combined, a randomized, blinded clinical trial was conducted in Brazil with 331 HIV-patients aged 18-60, with CD4-T cell count ≥ 200 cells/mm(3). Two interventions 60 days apart were done in three schedules: 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23)/placebo; 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7)/placebo; and PCV7 plus PPV23. Safety and reactogenicity were evaluated, and immunogenicity was assessed by an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to S. pneumoniae serotypes 6B, 9V and 14, performed at baseline, 60 and 180 days after first intervention. Comparison of immunogenicity was based on geometric mean concentration (GMC), percentages of individuals with serotype-specific IgG ≥ 0.35μg/mL and ≥ 1.0 μg/mL and proportion of individuals with ≥ 4-fold increase in specific antibody concentrations for each serotype. Demographic and HIV conditions were similar, and both vaccines were well tolerated across vaccine groups. Significant increase in IgG-antibodies was observed to all serotypes evaluated. A greater proportion of PCV7 recipients reached and sustained IgG antibody concentrations at least four times as high as those at baseline, for serotypes 6B and 9V. A PPV23 dose after PCV7 did not enhance immunogenicity. In this first trial conducted with HIV-infected immunologically stable adults in South America, both PPV23 and PCV7 were safe and immunogenic. Evidence suggesting PCV7 was more immunogenic than PPV23, as it elicited higher and persistent ≥ 4-fold increase of antibodies for 6B and 9V serotypes in a greater proportion of HIV-patients is noteworthy. Despite current recommendation of schedules combining PCV7 and PPV23, there is
Horácio, Andreia N.; Diamantino-Miranda, Jorge; Aguiar, Sandra I.; Ramirez, Mário; Melo-Cristino, José
In Portugal, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been administered to children outside of the national immunization plan since 2001. We determined the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of 1265 isolates responsible for adult invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) between 2009 and 2011 and compared the results with previously published data from 1999 to 2008. Serotypes 3 (12.6%), 7F (10.0%), 19A (9.1%), 14 (8.4%), 1 (6.9%) and 8 (6.2%) were the most frequent and together accounted for 53.2% of adult IPD. Serotypes 1 and 5 declined significantly while serotype 34, not included in any vaccine, increased. Taken together, the serotypes included in the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) peaked among adult IPD isolates in 2008 (70.2%) and declined since then reaching 53.5% in 2011. The decline in the serotypes included in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine since 2007 was also significant but much more modest with 79.2% of the isolates causing IPD in 2011 expressing these serotypes. Since the changes in serotypes causing IPD in adults coincided with the 10-valent and PCV13 introduction in children, it is unlikely that vaccination triggered these changes although it may have accelerated them. The proportion of IPD caused by serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine remained stable (19.0%). Both penicillin non-susceptibility and erythromycin resistance increased in the study period, with serotypes 14 and 19A accounting for the majority of resistant isolates. PMID:24066064
Horácio, Andreia N.; Silva-Costa, Catarina; Lopes, Joana P.; Ramirez, Mário; Melo-Cristino, José; Vaz, Teresa
Since 2010 the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) as the leading pneumococcal vaccine used in children through the private sector. Although, neither of the PCVs were used significantly in adults, changes in adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were expected due to herd protection. We characterized n = 1163 isolates recovered from IPD in adults in 2012–2014 with the goal of documenting possible changes in serotype prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. Among the 54 different serotypes detected, the most frequent, accounting for half of all IPD, were serotypes: 3 (14%), 8 (11%), 19A (7%), 22F (7%), 14 (6%), and 7F (5%). The proportion of IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes remained stable during the study period (14%), but was smaller than in the previous period (19% in 2009–2011, p = 0.003). The proportion of IPD caused by PCV13 serotypes decreased from 51% in 2012 to 38% in 2014 (p < 0.001), mainly due to decreases in serotypes 7F and 19A. However, PCV13 serotype 3 remained relatively stable and the most frequent cause of adult IPD. Non-PCV13 serotypes continued the increase initiated in the late post-PCV7 period, with serotypes 8 and 22F being the most important emerging serotypes. Serotype 15A increased in 2012–2014 (0.7% to 3.5%, p = 0.011) and was strongly associated with antimicrobial resistance. However, the decreases in resistant isolates among serotypes 14 and 19A led to an overall decrease in penicillin non-susceptibility (from 17 to 13%, p = 0.174) and erythromycin resistance (from 19 to 13%, p = 0.034). Introduction of PCV13 in the NIP for children, as well as its availability for adults may further alter the serotypes causing IPD in adults in Portugal and lead to changes in the proportion of resistant isolates. PMID:27790208
Horácio, Andreia N; Silva-Costa, Catarina; Lopes, Joana P; Ramirez, Mário; Melo-Cristino, José
Since 2010 the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) as the leading pneumococcal vaccine used in children through the private sector. Although, neither of the PCVs were used significantly in adults, changes in adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were expected due to herd protection. We characterized n = 1163 isolates recovered from IPD in adults in 2012-2014 with the goal of documenting possible changes in serotype prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. Among the 54 different serotypes detected, the most frequent, accounting for half of all IPD, were serotypes: 3 (14%), 8 (11%), 19A (7%), 22F (7%), 14 (6%), and 7F (5%). The proportion of IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes remained stable during the study period (14%), but was smaller than in the previous period (19% in 2009-2011, p = 0.003). The proportion of IPD caused by PCV13 serotypes decreased from 51% in 2012 to 38% in 2014 (p < 0.001), mainly due to decreases in serotypes 7F and 19A. However, PCV13 serotype 3 remained relatively stable and the most frequent cause of adult IPD. Non-PCV13 serotypes continued the increase initiated in the late post-PCV7 period, with serotypes 8 and 22F being the most important emerging serotypes. Serotype 15A increased in 2012-2014 (0.7% to 3.5%, p = 0.011) and was strongly associated with antimicrobial resistance. However, the decreases in resistant isolates among serotypes 14 and 19A led to an overall decrease in penicillin non-susceptibility (from 17 to 13%, p = 0.174) and erythromycin resistance (from 19 to 13%, p = 0.034). Introduction of PCV13 in the NIP for children, as well as its availability for adults may further alter the serotypes causing IPD in adults in Portugal and lead to changes in the proportion of resistant isolates.
Background Nowadays, there are two vaccination strategies in Colombia to prevent pneumococcal diseases in people over 50 years. Our aim is to estimate cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) versus pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23-valent (PPSV23) to prevent pneumococcal diseases and their related mortality in people over 50 years old in Colombia. Methods A Markov model was developed with national data, including pneumococcal serotypes distribution in Colombia between 2005 and 2010. Vaccination of a cohort was simulated and a five year time horizon was assumed. Analysis was done from a perspective of a third party payer. Direct costs were provided by a national insurance company; sensitive univariate and probabilistic analysis were done for epidemiological and clinical effectiveness parameters and costs. Results PCV13 avoids 3 560 deaths by pneumococcal infections versus PPSV23 and 4 255 deaths versus no vaccine. PCV13 prevents 79 633 cases by all-cause pneumonia versus PPSV23 and 81 468 cases versus no vaccine. Total costs (healthcare and vaccines costs) with PCV13 would be U.S. $ 97,587,113 cheaper than PPSV23 and it would save U.S. $ 145,196,578 versus no vaccine. Conclusion PCV13 would be a cost-saving strategy in the context of a mass vaccination program in Colombia to people over 50 years old because it would reduce burden of disease and specific mortality by pneumococcal diseases, besides, it saves money versus PPSV23. PMID:24679135
Delgleize, Emmanuelle; Leeuwenkamp, Oscar; Theodorou, Eleni; Van de Velde, Nicolas
Objectives In 2010, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) replaced the 7-valent vaccine (introduced in 2006) for vaccination against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM) in the UK. Using recent evidence on the impact of PCVs and epidemiological changes in the UK, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to compare the pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) with PCV-13 in the ongoing national vaccination programme. Design CEA was based on a published Markov model. The base-case scenario accounted only for direct medical costs. Work days lost were considered in alternative scenarios. Setting Calculations were based on serotype and disease-specific vaccine efficacies, serotype distributions and UK incidence rates and medical costs. Population Health benefits and costs related to IPD, pneumonia and AOM were accumulated over the lifetime of a UK birth cohort. Interventions Vaccination of infants at 2, 4 and 12 months with PHiD-CV or PCV-13, assuming complete coverage and adherence. Outcome measures The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was computed by dividing the difference in costs between the programmes by the difference in quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Results Under our model assumptions, both vaccines had a similar impact on IPD and pneumonia, but PHiD-CV generated a greater reduction in AOM cases (161 918), AOM-related general practitioner consultations (31 070) and tympanostomy tube placements (2399). At price parity, PHiD-CV vaccination was dominant over PCV-13, saving 734 QALYs as well as £3.68 million to the National Health Service (NHS). At the lower list price of PHiD-CV, the cost-savings would increase to £45.77 million. Conclusions This model projected that PHiD-CV would provide both incremental health benefits and cost-savings compared with PCV-13 at price parity. Using PHiD-CV could result in substantial budget savings
Kruspe, Rachel; Lillis, Rebecca; Daberkow, Dayton W; Blais, Christopher M; Wilbright, Wayne; Gupta, Shaminder; Gould, Cynthia A; Sun, Tony; Martinez, Jorge A; deBoisblanc, Ben; Ladabaum, Uri; Sanders, Charles V; Lopez, Fred A
Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated infections are an important cause of hospitalization and mortality in high-risk and elderly patients. Even in the setting of appropriate therapy, the case fatality rate of invasive pneumococcal disease in the elderly may approach 40%. Since approximately 40,000 people die annually from pneumococcal-associated disease, it represents a substantial target for vaccine-preventable, bacterial fatalities. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine has proven consistently effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease. Despite its endorsement by numerous specialty societies, the pneumococcal vaccine is underutilized in the inpatient setting. In a recent report of quality indicators for Medicare beneficiaries, the percentage of Medicare beneficiaries in Louisiana admitted with pneumonia who were screened or received the pneumococcal vaccination prior to discharge was only 4%, the lowest percentage in the United States. The Louisiana State University-New Orleans Internal Medicine Department and its house staff embarked upon a retrospective study to determine its baseline pneumococcal vaccination or screening rates for all patients with pneumonia on its inpatient services at the The Medical Center of Louisiana in New Orleans from July 2000 through June 2001. From July 2001 through June 2002 an intensive educational intervention concentrating on the indications and benefits of pneumococcal vaccination was directed toward the Louisiana State University Internal Medicine house staff assigned to the inpatient service. Retrospective analysis for pneumococcal vaccine screening and administration of charts of all patients with pneumonia on the LSU Medicine service from July 2001 through June 2002 was performed in order to determine the effects of the intervention. Data from the pre-educational intervention period revealed a baseline pneumococcal vaccine screening or administration rate of 11% for all patients with pneumonia on the
Liang, Qi; Li, Gui-Fan; Zhu, Feng-Cai
Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a major public health problem worldwide, which can be effectively prevented by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPV23). Areas covered: The Beijing Minhai PPV23 showed good safety and immunogenicity profiles in clinical trials. The immunogenicity of Beijing Minhai PPV23 was non-inferior to other licensed PPVs. Although PPV23 has been proved to be highly efficient and cost-effective, and was recommended for vaccination in high-risk populations in industrialized countries, the coverage of PPV23 vaccination was relatively low in developing countries. Expert commentary: The low vaccination proportions of PPV23 in China have not been improved in recent decades. Most of the populations with indications for receiving PPV23 were not aware of the possible benefits of PPV23. Moreover, PPV23 had some limitations, which called for the development of a new generation of vaccines against pneumococcal infection.
Frazão, Nelson; Hermans, Peter; van Selm, Saskia; Sá-Leão, Raquel; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Tomasz, Alexander; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri
The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Portugal resulted in reduced carriage in children by vaccine-type strains and an increased carriage of three major antibiotic-resistant clones, ST2191, ST276, and ST63 expressing capsules 6A, 19A, and 15A, respectively. Pneumococcal otitis media (OM), a frequent infection among preschool age children, is often associated with viral coinfection. To evaluate the ability of these three antibiotic-resistant clones to cause disease, we used an infant mouse model of influenza virus pneumococcal coinfection. The 6A and 19A clonal types induced OM, while 15A induced pneumococcal pneumonia and bloodstream infection, suggesting potential for invasive disease.
Decreasing incidence and changes in serotype distribution of invasive pneumococcal disease in persons aged under 18 years since introduction of 10-valent and 13-valent conjugate vaccines in Portugal, July 2008 to June 2012.
Aguiar, S I; Brito, M J; Horacio, A N; Lopes, J P; Ramirez, M; Melo-Cristino, J
The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) became available in Portugal in mid-2009 and the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) in early 2010. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients aged under 18 years decreased from 8.19 cases per 100,000 in 2008–09 to 4.52/100,000 in 2011–12. However, IPD incidence due to the serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in children aged under two years remained constant. This fall resulted from significant decreases in the number of cases due to: (i) the additional serotypes included in PCV10 and PCV13 (1, 5, 7F; from 37.6% to 20.6%), particularly serotype 1 in older children; and (ii) the additional serotypes included in PCV13 (3, 6A, 19A; from 31.6% to 16.2%), particularly serotype 19A in younger children. The decrease in serotype 19A before vaccination indicates that it was not triggered by PCV13 administration. The decrease of serotype 1 in all groups, concomitant with the introduction of PCV10, is also unlikely to have been triggered by vaccination, although PCVs may have intensified and supported these trends. PCV13 serotypes remain major causes of IPD, accounting for 63.2% of isolates recovered in Portugal in 2011–12, highlighting the potential role of enhanced vaccination in reducing paediatric IPD in Portugal.
Domínguez, Angela; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Torner, Núria; Force, Luis; Castilla, Jesús; Mayoral, José María; Tamames, Sonia; Martín, Vicente; Egurrola, Mikel; Sanz, Francisco; Astray, Jenaro; Project PI12/02079 Working Group
ABSTRACT Vaccination of the elderly is an important factor in limiting the impact of pneumonia in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized for causes unrelated to pneumonia, acute respiratory disease, or influenza-like illness in Spain. We made a cross-sectional study during 2013-2014. A bivariate analysis was performed comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, taking into account sociodemographic variables and risk medical conditions. A multivariate analysis was performed using multilevel regression models. 921 patients were included; 403 (43.8%) had received the pneumococcal vaccine (394 received the polysaccharide vaccine). Visiting the general practitioner ≥ 3 times during the last year (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.25-2.57); having received the influenza vaccination in the 2013-14 season (OR = 2.57; 95% CI 1.72-3.84) or in any of the 3 previous seasons (OR = 11.70; 95% CI 7.42-18.45) were associated with receiving the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage of hospitalized elderly people is low. The elderly need to be targeted about pneumococcal vaccination and activities that encourage healthcare workers to proactively propose vaccination might be useful. Educational campaigns aimed at the elderly could also help to increase vaccination coverages and reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease in the community. PMID:27064311
Domínguez, Angela; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Torner, Núria; Force, Luis; Castilla, Jesús; Mayoral, José María; Tamames, Sonia; Martín, Vicente; Egurrola, Mikel; Sanz, Francisco; Astray, Jenaro; Project Pi12/02079 Working Group
Vaccination of the elderly is an important factor in limiting the impact of pneumonia in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized for causes unrelated to pneumonia, acute respiratory disease, or influenza-like illness in Spain. We made a cross-sectional study during 2013-2014. A bivariate analysis was performed comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, taking into account sociodemographic variables and risk medical conditions. A multivariate analysis was performed using multilevel regression models. 921 patients were included; 403 (43.8%) had received the pneumococcal vaccine (394 received the polysaccharide vaccine). Visiting the general practitioner ≥ 3 times during the last year (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.25-2.57); having received the influenza vaccination in the 2013-14 season (OR = 2.57; 95% CI 1.72-3.84) or in any of the 3 previous seasons (OR = 11.70; 95% CI 7.42-18.45) were associated with receiving the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage of hospitalized elderly people is low. The elderly need to be targeted about pneumococcal vaccination and activities that encourage healthcare workers to proactively propose vaccination might be useful. Educational campaigns aimed at the elderly could also help to increase vaccination coverages and reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease in the community.
Peña, Maria T; Preciado, Diego; Orestes, Michael; Choi, Sukgi
The widespread use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PVC7), developed to combat invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, has the potential to influence the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of pathogens associated with orbital complications from acute sinusitis. Given the significant morbidity that may result from inadequate treatment of orbital infections related to acute sinusitis, determining the impact of PCV7 on the bacteriology and drug resistance of the pathogens associated with these infections may provide critical information needed to accurately guide optimal clinical management. To determine if the characteristics of orbital complications from acute sinusitis in children have changed in the post-PCV7 era. Review of clinical data. Tertiary care children's hospital. Patients with a diagnosis of orbital cellulitis and/or subperiosteal abscess from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2009. Patients with immune deficiency or orbital trauma were excluded. Patients were divided into pre-PCV7 (before 2003 [n = 128]) and post-PCV7 (2003 and after [n = 145]) groups. Statistical analyses were used to compare the 2 groups. Differences in patient demographics, signs and symptoms, laboratory study results, computed tomography scan findings, and microbiological analyses between the pre-PCV7 and post-PCV7 groups. A total of 273 children met the inclusion criteria. The post-PCV7 group was older (71.4 months vs 88.8 months [P = .007]) than the pre-PCV7 group. A significant decrease in S pneumoniae and Streptococcus viridans -positive sinus or blood cultures were observed (22.4% vs 0% [P < .001] and 12.24% vs 0% [P = .005], respectively). An increase in Staphylococcus aureus was seen in the post-PCV7 group (20.4% vs 42.37% [P = .02]). Methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) was isolated only in the post-PCV7 group (P = .002). The pre-PCV7 group had a significantly longer hospital stay than the post-PCV7 group (7.15 days vs 5.47 days [P = .004
Hurwitz, Julia L.
ABSTRACT In modern-day vaccine design, a good pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine is measured by its ability to induce opsonic antibodies. These antibodies label bacteria for phagocytosis by neutrophils and thereby overcome the capsule’s barrier function. Doyle and Pirofski have raised a serious challenge to the current paradigm by describing anti-capsular antibodies that are highly protective but nonopsonic [C.R. Doyle and L. Pirofski, mBio 7(1):e02260-15, 2016, doi:10.1128/mBio.02260-15]. In fact, some functions are not related to neutrophils or phagocytosis at all. An increased awareness of these activities is critical not only for accurate comparisons of vaccine candidates but also for improvements in vaccination outcomes in settings of neutropenia. When vaccine developers select a single gatekeeper assay (e.g., an opsonophagocytic assay for bacteria or a neutralization assay for viruses), promising vaccine candidates may be missed. Doyle and Pirofski stress that multiple functions, not just one, should be investigated to enhance discovery of antibody mechanisms and to best assess vaccine-induced correlates of immune protection. PMID:26908576
Pneumococcal Vaccination Among Medicare Beneficiaries Occurring After the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommendation for Routine Use Of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine for Adults Aged ≥65 Years.
Black, Carla L; Williams, Walter W; Warnock, Rob; Pilishvili, Tamara; Kim, David; Kelman, Jeffrey A
On September 19, 2014, CDC published the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendation for the routine use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) among adults aged ≥65 years, to be used in series with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) (1). This replaced the previous recommendation that adults aged ≥65 years should be vaccinated with a single dose of PPSV23. As a proxy for estimating PCV13 and PPSV23 vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥65 years before and after implementation of these revised recommendations, CDC analyzed claims for vaccination submitted for reimbursement to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). Claims from any time during a beneficiary's enrollment in Medicare Parts A (hospital insurance) and B (medical insurance) since reaching age 65 years were assessed among beneficiaries continuously enrolled in Medicare Parts A and B during annual periods from September 19, 2009, through September 18, 2016. By September 18, 2016, 43.2% of Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years had claims for at least 1 dose of PPSV23 (regardless of PCV13 status), 31.5% had claims for at least 1 dose of PCV13 (regardless of PPSV23 status), and 18.3% had claims for at least 1 dose each of PCV13 and PPSV23. Claims for either type of pneumococcal vaccine were highest among beneficiaries who were older, white, or with chronic and immunocompromising medical conditions than among healthy adults. Implementation of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee's standards for adult immunization practice to assess vaccination status at every patient encounter, recommend needed vaccines, and administer vaccination or refer to a vaccinating provider might help increase pneumococcal vaccination coverage and reduce the risk for pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease among older adults (2).
Predictors of pneumococcal vaccination uptake in hospitalized patients aged 65 years and over shortly following the commencement of a publicly funded national pneumococcal vaccination program in Australia.
Ridda, Iman; MacIntyre, Raina C; Lindley, Richard I; McIntyre, Peter B; Sullivan, John; Gilbert, Gwendolyn; Kovoor, Pramesh; Manolios, Nicholas; Fox, John
In January 2005, Australia became the first country to introduce a publicly funded pneumococcal vaccination program for persons 65 years and older which is free at point of service, although the vaccine cost had previously been partially subsidized. Hospitalization in this age group is an important indicator of risk of invasive pneumococcal disease but vaccine uptake has been suboptimal. To determine vaccination rates and predictors of vaccination in the elderly hospitalised patients before and after January 2005. We validated vaccination status against general practitioner (GP) records for patients aged > or = 65 years admitted to a large teaching hospital in Sydney between 16th of May 2005 and the 20th of February 2006 and examined predictors of vaccination. Commencement of the new program resulted in a significant increase in vaccination uptake from 39% of inpatients prior to the free program to 73% in the same cohort of inpatients post January 2005. We found that patient recall of vaccination status was not reliable. Self-report of pneumococcal vaccination had a sensitivity of 0.53 and a specificity of 0.55, highlighting that validation of vaccination status is required. Age over 80 years and dementia significantly predicted under-vaccination. This highlights the importance of integrating free vaccine supply and delivery in primary care to achieve high vaccination coverage. However, demented patients and the very elderly remain under-vaccinated, despite being admitted to hospital for active management of acute conditions.
Fay, Emily E.; Hoppe, Kara K.; Schulkin, Jay; Eckert, Linda O.
Objective. The 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for adults over 65 years of age and younger adults with certain medical conditions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state insufficient evidence to recommend routine pneumococcal vaccination during pregnancy, but the vaccine is indicated for pregnant women with certain medical conditions. We designed this project to gauge obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) resident knowledge of maternal pneumococcal vaccination. Methods. We administered a 22-question survey to OB/GYN residents about maternal pneumococcal vaccination. We performed descriptive analysis for each question. Results. 238 OB/GYN residents responded. Overall, 69.3% of residents reported receiving vaccination education and 86.0% reported having ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. Most residents knew that asplenia (78.2%), pulmonary disease (77.3%), and HIV/AIDS (69.4%) are indications for vaccination but less knew that cardiovascular disease (45.0%), diabetes (35.8%), asthma (42.8%), nephrotic syndrome (19.7%), and renal failure (33.6%) are also indications for vaccination. Conclusion. OB/GYN residents are taught about vaccines and have ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. However, knowledge of indications for pneumococcal vaccination in pregnancy is lacking. Likely, the opportunity to vaccinate at-risk pregnant patients is being missed. PMID:26949324
Newall, A T
The cost-effectiveness of 13-type pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) use in older adults, and the relative merits when compared to the 23-type polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23), has been a topic of much debate. Although a number of economics evaluations have been conducted many of these were completed before the availability of critical data on PCV13 efficacy in older adults. Recent studies using this data have found conflicting results. This may in part reflect differences in the level of herd protection from infant pneumococcal vaccination programs in different countries. The costs and benefits of pneumococcal vaccination in adults are likely to rest on several critical parameters: the magnitude pneumococcal disease in older adults and the serotypes responsible for it, the efficacy of each vaccine against invasive and non-invasive pneumonia, the duration of vaccine protection, and differences in vaccine price. The ongoing changes in pneumococcal disease patterns highlight the need for economic evaluations to use recent serotype-specific disease estimates from the setting under consideration. In countries that do recommend PCV13 use in adults, post-implementation economic evaluation (using data from after a program is implemented) may be useful to help inform potential future changes to vaccine recommendations as well as the maximum price that should be paid for the vaccines in future negotiations.
Balicer, Ran D; Cohen, Chandra J; Leibowitz, Morton; Feldman, Becca S; Brufman, Ilan; Roberts, Craig; Hoshen, Moshe
Current pneumococcal vaccine campaigns take a broad, primarily age-based approach to immunization targeting, overlooking many clinical and administrative considerations necessary in disease prevention and resource planning for specific patient populations. We aim to demonstrate the utility of a population-specific predictive model for hospital-treated pneumonia to direct effective vaccine targeting. Data was extracted for 1,053,435 members of an Israeli HMO, age 50 and older, during the study period 2008-2010. We developed and validated a logistic regression model to predict hospital-treated pneumonia using training and test samples, including a set of standard and population-specific risk factors. The model's predictive value was tested for prospectively identifying cases of pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), and was compared to the existing international paradigm for patient immunization targeting. In a multivariate regression, age, co-morbidity burden and previous pneumonia events were most strongly positively associated with hospital-treated pneumonia. The model predicting hospital-treated pneumonia yielded a c-statistic of 0.80. Utilizing the predictive model, the top 17% highest-risk within the study validation population were targeted to detect 54% of those members who were subsequently treated for hospitalized pneumonia in the follow up period. The high-risk population identified through this model included 46% of the follow-up year's IPD cases, and 27% of community-treated pneumonia cases. These outcomes were compared with international guidelines for risk for pneumococcal diseases that accurately identified only 35% of hospitalized pneumonia, 41% of IPD cases and 21% of community-treated pneumonia. We demonstrate that a customized model for vaccine targeting performs better than international guidelines, and therefore, risk modeling may allow for more precise vaccine targeting and resource allocation than current national and international
Bliss, Sandra J; O'Brien, Katherine L; Janoff, Edward N; Cotton, Mark F; Musoke, Philippa; Coovadia, Hoosen; Levine, Orin S
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are a potentially useful complement to existing treatment strategies in HIV-infected children, for whom pneumococcal infections are common and serious. This Review summarises available data on the burden of pneumococcal disease and the safety and efficacy of PCVs in HIV-infected children. The data demonstrate that children with HIV have significantly increased risk of pneumococcal disease compared with uninfected children; the serotypes included in currently licensed or near-licensure conjugate vaccines include most serotypes that cause invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in HIV-infected children and adults; PCVs provide substantial protection against IPD and clinical pneumonia when given to HIV-infected infants; and HIV-infected adults gain an indirect benefit when children in the community are vaccinated. PCV should be considered as an important intervention for improving the lives of HIV-infected children.
Nurhonen, Markku; Cheng, Allen C.; Auranen, Kari
Background The degree and time frame of indirect effects of vaccination (serotype replacement and herd immunity) are key determinants in assessing the net effectiveness of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in control of pneumococcal disease. Using modelling, we aimed to quantify these effects and their dependence on coverage of vaccination and the vaccine's efficacy against susceptibility to pneumococcal carriage. Methods and Findings We constructed an individual-based simulation model that explores the effects of large-scale PCV programmes and applied it in a developed country setting (Finland). A population structure with transmission of carriage taking place within relevant mixing groups (families, day care groups, schools and neighbourhoods) was considered in order to properly assess the dependency of herd immunity on coverage of vaccination and vaccine efficacy against carriage. Issues regarding potential serotype replacement were addressed by employing a novel competition structure between multiple pneumococcal serotypes. Model parameters were calibrated from pre-vaccination data about the age-specific carriage prevalence and serotype distribution. The model predicts that elimination of vaccine-type carriage and disease among those vaccinated and, due to a substantial herd effect, also among the general population takes place within 5–10 years since the onset of a PCV programme with high (90%) coverage of vaccination and moderate (50%) vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage. A near-complete replacement of vaccine-type carriage by non-vaccine-type carriage occurs within the same time frame. Conclusions The changed patterns in pneumococcal carriage after PCV vaccination predicted by the model are unequivocal. The overall effect on disease incidence depends crucially on the magnitude of age- and serotype-specific case-to-carrier ratios of the remaining serotypes relative to those of the vaccine types. Thus the availability of
Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Tsai, Mao-Song; Kuo, Kuang-Che; Tsai, Jen-Chih; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Cheng, Aristine C; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Hung, Chien-Ching
HIV-infected patients remain at higher risk for pneumococcal disease than the general population despite immune reconstitution and suppression of HIV replication with combination antiretroviral therapy. Vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) composed of T-cell-independent antigens has been recommended to reduce the risk of pneumococcal disease in HIV-infected adults. However, given the heterogeneity of study design, execution and subjects enrolled, studies examining serological responses to PPV23 yielded conflicting results and observational studies of clinical effectiveness only provided moderate evidence to support the routine use of PPV23 in HIV-infected adults. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), with conjugation of the capsular polysaccharide to a protein carrier, is more immunogenic than PPV23 and has been demonstrated to protect against pneumococcal disease in HIV-infected children and recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV-infected adolescents and adults. Guidelines have recently been revised to recommend that HIV-infected patients aged 19 y or older receive one dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) followed by a booster vaccination with PPV23. In this paper, we review the studies using different vaccination strategies to improve immunogenicity among HIV-infected adult patients. PMID:25483681
Background: Despite the breadth of studies demonstrating benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), uncertainty remains regarding the optimal PCV dosing schedule in infants. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of PCV immunogenicity published from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011). Studies included for analysis evaluated ≥2 doses of 7-valent or higher product (excluding Aventis-Pasteur PCV11) administered to nonhigh-risk infants ≤6 months of age. Impact of PCV schedule on geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC) and proportion of subjects over 0.35 mcg/mL were assessed at various time points; the GMC 1 month postdose 3 (for various dosing regimens) for serotypes 1, 5, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F was assessed in detail using random effects linear regression, adjusted for product, acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/whole-cell diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis coadministration, laboratory method, age at first dose and geographic region. Results: From 61 studies, we evaluated 13 two-dose (2+0) and 65 three-dose primary schedules (3+0) without a booster dose, 11 “2+1” (2 primary plus booster) and 42 “3+1” schedules. The GMC after the primary series was higher following 3-dose schedules compared with 2-dose schedules for all serotypes except for serotype 1. Pre- and postbooster GMCs were generally similar regardless of whether 2 or 3 primary doses were given. GMCs were significantly higher for all serotypes when dose 3 was administered in the second year (2+1) compared with ≤6 months of age (3+0). Conclusions: While giving the third dose in the second year of life produces a higher antibody response than when given as part of the primary series in the first 6 months, the lower GMC between the 2-dose primary series and booster may result in less disease protection for infants in that interval than those who completed the 3-dose primary series. Theoretical advantages of higher antibodies induced by giving the third
Queeno, Brenda V
To detail the implementation of a pharmacist-driven education program targeting patients who originally declined pneumococcal or influenza vaccination upon hospital admission and to evaluate the results. Patients admitted to a small community hospital who qualified to receive pneumococcal polysaccharide or influenza vaccination but declined upon admission were educated in person by pharmacists or pharmacy interns and reoffered vaccination. Patient education sheets were provided. Data were obtained via pharmacy intervention documentation in the pharmacy order entry system. Staff documented the outcome of counseling for each patient. A total of 214 and 83 patients receiving influenza and pneumococcal vaccination counseling, respectively, were evaluated. As a result, 23.4% ( P = .06) and 26.5% (n = 83, P = .18) of patients agreed to receive influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, respectively. An unanticipated subset of patients were undecided after counseling and wanted to consider the information further before making a final decision. Taken together with those who consented to receive the vaccine after counseling, 39.2% ( P = .001) and 45.8% ( P = .01) of patients were influenced by the influenza and pneumococcal vaccination counseling, respectively. Patient education performed by a pharmacist or pharmacy intern showed a trend toward increased pneumococcal and influenza vaccination acceptance rates for inpatients who had initially declined.
Nace, David A; Archbald-Pannone, Laurie R; Ashraf, Muhammad S; Drinka, Paul J; Frentzel, Elizabeth; Gaur, Swati; Mahajan, Dheeraj; Mehr, David R; Mercer, William C; Sloane, Philip D; Jump, Robin L P
Efforts at preventing pneumococcal disease are a national health priority, particularly in older adults and especially in post-acute and long-term care settings The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that all adults ≥65 years of age, as well as adults 18-64 years of age with specific risk factors, receive both the recently introduced polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine against 13 pneumococcal serotypes as well as the polysaccharide vaccine against 23 pneumococcal serotypes. Nursing facility licensure regulations require facilities to assess the pneumococcal vaccination status of each resident, provide education regarding pneumococcal vaccination, and administer the appropriate pneumococcal vaccine when indicated. Sorting out the indications and timing for 13 pneumococcal serotypes and 23 pneumococcal serotypes administration is complex and presents a significant challenge to healthcare providers. Here, we discuss the importance of pneumococcal vaccination for older adults, detail AMDA-The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine (The Society)'s recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination practice and procedures, and offer guidance to postacute and long-term care providers supporting the development and effective implementation of pneumococcal vaccine policies.
van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Imöhl, Matthias
This study describes the effects of the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in 2006 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children and adults in Germany with a focus on the dynamics of serotype distribution in vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups. Over a period of 22 years (1992–2014), microbiological diagnostic laboratories from all over Germany have been sending isolates of IPD cases to the German National Reference Center for Streptococci on a voluntary basis. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped using Neufeld’s Quellung method. Among children <16 years, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes among isolates from IPD cases decreased from 61.8% before vaccination (1997–2006) to 23.5% in the early vaccination period (2007–2010; p = 1.30E-72) and sank further to 5.2% in the late vaccination period (2010–2014; p = 4.59E-25). Similar reductions were seen for the separate age groups <2 years, 2-4 years and 5-15 years. Among adults, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes decreased from 43.4% in the pre-vaccination period (1992–2006) to 24.7% (p = 3.78E-88) in the early vaccination period and 8.2% (p = 5.97E-161) in the late vaccination period. Both among children and among adults, the non-PCV7 serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A significantly increased in the early vaccination period. After the switch from PCV7 to PVC10/PCV13 for infant vaccination in 2010, serotypes 1, 6A and 7F significantly decreased. A decrease in serotype 19A was only observed in 2013–2014, as compared to 2010–2011 (children p = 4.16E-04, adults p = 6.98E-06). Among adults, serotype 3, which strongly increased in the early vaccination period (p = 4.44E-15), remained at a constant proportion in the late vaccination period. The proportion of non-PCV13 vaccine serotypes increased over the whole vaccination period, with serotypes 10A, 12F, 23B, 24F and 38 most significantly increasing among children and serotypes 6C, 12F, 15A, 22F and 23B increasing
van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Imöhl, Matthias
This study describes the effects of the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in 2006 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children and adults in Germany with a focus on the dynamics of serotype distribution in vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups. Over a period of 22 years (1992-2014), microbiological diagnostic laboratories from all over Germany have been sending isolates of IPD cases to the German National Reference Center for Streptococci on a voluntary basis. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped using Neufeld's Quellung method. Among children <16 years, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes among isolates from IPD cases decreased from 61.8% before vaccination (1997-2006) to 23.5% in the early vaccination period (2007-2010; p = 1.30E-72) and sank further to 5.2% in the late vaccination period (2010-2014; p = 4.59E-25). Similar reductions were seen for the separate age groups <2 years, 2-4 years and 5-15 years. Among adults, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes decreased from 43.4% in the pre-vaccination period (1992-2006) to 24.7% (p = 3.78E-88) in the early vaccination period and 8.2% (p = 5.97E-161) in the late vaccination period. Both among children and among adults, the non-PCV7 serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A significantly increased in the early vaccination period. After the switch from PCV7 to PVC10/PCV13 for infant vaccination in 2010, serotypes 1, 6A and 7F significantly decreased. A decrease in serotype 19A was only observed in 2013-2014, as compared to 2010-2011 (children p = 4.16E-04, adults p = 6.98E-06). Among adults, serotype 3, which strongly increased in the early vaccination period (p = 4.44E-15), remained at a constant proportion in the late vaccination period. The proportion of non-PCV13 vaccine serotypes increased over the whole vaccination period, with serotypes 10A, 12F, 23B, 24F and 38 most significantly increasing among children and serotypes 6C, 12F, 15A, 22F and 23B increasing among adults. Eight
Prins-van Ginkel, Annemarijn C.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Grundeken, Lucienne H.; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Wittenberns, Jelle I.; Elberse, Karin; Mollema, Liesbeth; de Melker, Hester E.; Knol, Mirjam J.
Introduction Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) for infants decreased overall invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), while non-vaccine serotype IPD increased. To fully understand this serotype replacement, knowledge about serotype dynamics in the pre-vaccine era is needed. In addition to IPD surveillance and carriage studies, the serotype replacement can be investigated by serosurveillance studies. The current study compared the results of two Dutch serosurveillance studies conducted in 1995–1996 (PIENTER1) and 2006–2007 (PIENTER2). Methods Participants in these studies donated a blood sample and completed a questionnaire. Pneumococcal antibodies of serotypes included in PCV13 were measured with a fluorescent-bead based multiplex immunoassay. Geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs) and determinants of pneumococcal antibody levels were investigated. Results GMCs were higher in PIENTER2 for serotypes 1, 6A, 6B, 9V, 18C, 19F and 23F and lower for 3 and 5. Age, day care attendance, household size, vaccination coverage, and urbanisation rate were associated with pneumococcal antibodies in children. Education level, ethnicity, age, low vaccination coverage sample, urbanisation rate, and asthma/COPD were associated with pneumococcal antibodies in elderly. The determinants significantly associated with pneumococcal IgG were slightly different for the elderly in PIENTER1 compared to the elderly in PIENTER2. Conclusion Although most of the serotype antibody levels remained stable, some of the serotype-specific antibody levels varied during the pre-vaccine era, indicating that exposure of certain serotypes changes without interference of PCVs. PMID:26796783
Richard, C; Le Garlantezec, P; Lamand, V; Rasamijao, V; Rapp, C
Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause invasive infections. Incidence and severity are linked to patients' risk factors. Due to the resistance to leading antibiotics, the anti-pneumococcal vaccination has become a major public health issue. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the anti-pneumococcal vaccine coverage in a population of adults with risk factors. This was a prospective study that included patients with at least one recommendation for pneumococcal vaccination as indicated by the Weekly Epidemiological Bulletin (BEH), to which three further US recommendations were added (diabetes, obesity and age>65years). One hundred and thirty-four patients with an average age of 70 years were included. The physician could only confirm 68 % of the patients' vaccination status. Vaccination coverage as recommended by the BEH board was 30 % (n=54). All HIV patients were vaccinated (n=2) and the vaccination coverage was 75 % (n=8) for patients treated for autoimmune diseases and only 10 % (n=20) for patients treated with chemotherapy. Patients with no vaccination didn't know the existence of the vaccine or didn't know that vaccination was recommended to them. This study has highlighted a deficit in pneumococcal vaccination coverage and a high level of ignorance of the existence of recommended vaccination. In addition to awareness campaign for patients and caregiver training, the expansion of the vaccine e-book utilization could improve the vaccination status. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Diez-Domingo, Javier; Gurtman, Alejandra; Bernaola, Enrique; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Pineda-Solas, Valentin; Delgado, Alfonso; Infante-Marquez, Pilar; Liang, John Z; Giardina, Peter C; Gruber, William C; Emini, Emilio A; Scott, Daniel A
Given the concurrent administration of multiple vaccines during routine pediatric immunizations, efforts to elucidate the potential interference of any vaccine on the immune response to the concomitantly administered antigens are fundamental to prelicensure clinical research. This phase 3 randomized controlled trial of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) versus 7-valent PCV (PCV7) assessed immune responses of concomitantly administered meningococcal group C conjugated to diphtheria toxin cross-reactive material 197 (MnCCV-CRM197) in a 2-dose infant series and 15-month toddler dose. 619 subjects were randomized, 315 to PCV13 and 304 to PCV7. MnCCV-CRM197-induced immune responses were similar between the PCV13 and PCV7 groups, with >97% of the subjects achieving a ≥1:8 meningococcal serum bactericidal assay (SBA) titer after both dose 2 and the toddler dose. Geometric mean titers were lower in the PCV13 group 191.22 (167.72, 218.02) versus 266.19 (234.86, 301.71) following dose 2 and 432.28 (361.22, 517.31) versus 730.84 (642.05, 831.91) following the toddler dose. The geometric mean (GM) meningococcal SBA titer ratios (PCV13/PCV7) were 0.72 after dose 2 and 0.59 after the toddler dose. The criteria for MnCCV-CRM197 non-inferiority for GM titers were satisfied after dose 2. Percent responders was similar up to titers of 1:128. PCV13 elicited substantial antipneumococcal responses against all 13 serotypes, with ≥90% of the subjects achieving an antibody concentration ≥0.35μg/mL after dose 3 in the infant series. Safety and tolerability were similar between the vaccine groups. Immunogenicity results of MnCCV-CRM197 for PCV13 compared with PCV7 included lower GMTs, but the clinical significance of this is unknown as the proportion of infants achieving protective MenC antibody titers was comparable in the two groups. Percent responders were similar up to titers of 1:128. PCV13 has an acceptable safety profile in infants and toddlers, while providing
Madoff, Lawrence C.; Coombes, Brandon; Pelton, Stephen I.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether there is a different clinical profile and severity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children caused by nonvaccine types in the era of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). METHODS: Observational study of childhood IPD in Massachusetts based on state public health surveillance data comparing pre-PCV13 (2007–2009) and post-PCV13 (2010–2012) eras. RESULTS: There were 168 pre-PCV13 cases of IPD and 85 post-PCV13 cases of IPD in Massachusetts children ≤5 years of age. PCV13 serotypes declined by 18% in the first 2 years after PCV13 use (P = .011). In the post-PCV13 phase, a higher proportion of children were hospitalized (57.6% vs 50.6%), and a higher proportion of children had comorbidity (23.5% vs 19.6%). Neither difference was statistically significant, nor were comparisons of IPD caused by vaccine and nonvaccine types. Children with comorbidities had higher rates of IPD caused by a nonvaccine type (27.6% vs 17.2%; P = .085), were more likely to be hospitalized (80.4% vs 50%; P < .0001), and were more likely to have a longer hospital stay (median of 3 days vs 0.5 days; P = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Initial data suggest that nonvaccine serotypes are more common in children with underlying conditions, who have greater morbidity from disease. In the post-PCV13 era, a larger proportion of patients are hospitalized, but mortality rates are unchanged. Routine vaccination with PCV13 may not be enough to reduce the risk in patients with comorbidity. PMID:25002663
Lindstrand, Ann; Bennet, Rutger; Galanis, Ilias; Blennow, Margareta; Ask, Lina Schollin; Dennison, Sofia Hultman; Rinder, Malin Ryd; Eriksson, Margareta; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Ortqvist, Ake; Alfvén, Tobias
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia and sinusitis. Pneumonia kills >1 million children annually, and sinusitis is a potentially serious pediatric disease that increases the risk of orbital and intracranial complications. Although pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is effective against invasive pneumococcal disease, its effectiveness against pneumonia is less consistent, and its effect on sinusitis is not known. We compared hospitalization rates due to sinusitis, pneumonia, and empyema before and after sequential introduction of PCV7 and PCV13. All children 0 to <18 years old hospitalized for sinusitis, pneumonia, or empyema in Stockholm County, Sweden, from 2003 to 2012 were included in a population-based study of hospital registry data on hospitalizations due to sinusitis, pneumonia, or empyema. Trend analysis, incidence rates, and rate ratios (RRs) were calculated comparing July 2003 to June 2007 with July 2008 to June 2012, excluding the year of PCV7 introduction. Hospitalizations for sinusitis decreased significantly in children aged 0 to <2 years, from 70 to 24 cases per 100 000 population (RR = 0.34, P < .001). Hospitalizations for pneumonia decreased significantly in children aged 0 to <2 years, from 450 to 366 per 100 000 population (RR = 0.81, P < .001) and in those aged 2 to <5 years from 250 to 212 per 100 000 population (RR = 0.85, P = .002). Hospitalization for empyema increased nonsignificantly. Trend analyses showed increasing hospitalization for pneumonia in children 0 to <2 years before intervention and confirmed a decrease in hospitalizations for sinusitis and pneumonia in children aged 0 to <5 years after intervention. PCV7 and PCV13 vaccination led to a 66% lower risk of hospitalization for sinusitis and 19% lower risk of hospitalization for pneumonia in children aged 0 to <2 years, in a comparison of 4 years before and 4 years after vaccine introduction. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Mark, T L; Paramore, L C
OBJECTIVES: This study examined differences between elderly Hispanic Medicare beneficiaries and other Medicare beneficiaries in the probability of being immunized for pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza. METHODS: We used the 1992 national Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey to evaluate influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia immunization rates. RESULTS: Elderly Hispanic Medicare beneficiaries were less likely than non-Hispanic White Medicare beneficiaries to have received an influenza vaccine in the past year or to have ever been immunized for pneumococcal pneumonia. Speaking Spanish was statistically significantly associated with influenza vaccination but not with pneumococcal pneumonia vaccination. Supplemental insurance status, HMO enrollment, having a usual source of care, and being satisfied with access to care were positively associated with immunization. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies that may improve immunization rates among elderly. Hispanics include reducing the inconvenience of being immunized, decreasing out-of-pocket costs, linking beneficiaries with providers, and educating Hispanic beneficiaries in Spanish about the benefits of vaccinations. PMID:8916518
Nived, Per; Jørgensen, Charlotte Sværke; Settergren, Bo
Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) is immediately life-threatening and vaccination against encapsulated bacteria, in particular pneumococci, decreases its incidence. First, we investigated the adherence to vaccination guidelines in a retrospective study of the hospital records of splenectomised patients. Second, patients were asked to complete a questionnaire and invited to participate in a study where 12-valent pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG concentrations were determined before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination with PCV13. Of 79 individuals who underwent splenectomy between 2000 and 2012: 81.0% received pneumococcal vaccine, 51.9% received vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type B and 22.8% received meningococcal vaccine. 31 individuals were deceased. 33 individuals completed questionnaires and accepted participation in the second part of the study. The participants consisted of two groups: (1) prior PPV23 (n=24) and (2) prior PPV23+PCV13 (n=9). In group 1, pre-PCV13 GMC's≥0.35μg/mL were observed for serotypes 1, 4, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F, and GMC's<0.35μg/mL for serotypes 3 and 5, significant increases pre- to post-PCV13 were found for serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 7F, 18C, 19A, 23F (p≤0.001) and 19F (p=0.01) and all 12 serotypes-specific GMC were above 0.35μg/mL after vaccination. Group 2 did not receive vaccine in this study, but blood tests showed all 12 serotype-specific GMC>0.35μg/mL. Adherence to guidelines regarding primary pneumococcal vaccination was adequate but only a minority received the recommended meningococcal vaccination. High levels of pneumococcal serotype-specific antibodies were observed in the previous PPV23 vaccinated group, and more pronounced in the previous PCV13 group, and our data suggests that PCV13 is immunogenic for serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 7F, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F, if used as a booster dose in asplenic patients with previous PPV23 vaccination.
Durando, P; Faust, S N; Fletcher, M; Krizova, P; Torres, A; Welte, T
Streptococcus pneumoniae-related infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in people of all ages worldwide. Pneumococcal vaccine development started in 1911 with a whole cell vaccine and more recently multivalent plain polysaccharide and polysaccharide conjugate vaccines have been developed. The recent vaccines rely on capsular polysaccharide antigens to induce serotype-specific immune responses. We summarize here the presentations on pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (conjugated to CRM197 carrier protein) given during the integrated symposium organized and funded by Pfizer International Operations during the 22nd European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 31 March to 3 April 2012, London, UK. A dramatic reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) due to vaccine serotypes (VST-IPD) has been reported since the introduction of a hepta-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). An indirect (herd) effect has been demonstrated to be associated with PCV7 infant vaccination programmes, with many studies reporting reductions in VST-IPD in populations that are not eligible for PCV7 vaccination. Since 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been introduced into national immunization programmes and results from early surveillance suggest that this vaccine also has an impact on the serotypes unique to PCV13, as well as continuing to protect against the PCV7 serotypes. Data from a passive surveillance system in Europe in 2009, for instance, showed that the highest incidence of IPD remains in those aged >65 years and in children <5 years. PCV13 has now been licensed for vaccination of adults >50 years based on safety and immunogenicity data; an efficacy trial is being conducted. Regardless of previous pneumococcal vaccination status, if the use of 23-valent polysaccharide is considered appropriate, it is recommended to give PCV13 first. Novel immunization strategies remain
Meerveld-Eggink, A; de Weerdt, O; van Velzen-Blad, H; Biesma, D H; Rijkers, G T
We determined the immunogenicity of conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccines by quantitative analysis of the antibody response in asplenic patients. To that end, we vaccinated 92 patients with a conjugated Hib vaccine and 54 received two doses of conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7), followed at six months by a plain polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23). Antibody concentrations were measured before and three weeks after vaccination. After one dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 46% of the patients reached the antibody threshold of ≥ 1.0 μg/mL for all 7 tested vaccine serotypes. This percentage rose to 54% after the second dose of PCV7 and did not increase further after PPV23. Over 90% of patients had antibody concentrations ≥ 1.0 μg/mL for at least 5 out of the 7 conjugated pneumococcal serotypes after 2 doses of PCV7. For serotypes, included in the PPV23 vaccine only, 25% (PPS3)-100% (PPS19A) of the patients reached antibody concentrations ≥ 1.0 μg/mL after one dose of PPV23. For Hib, 97% of the patients reached the threshold concentration of ≥ 1.0 μg/mL after one dose of vaccine. It can be concluded that the majority of asplenic patients had a sufficient response to conjugated vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Hib, reflected by a ≥ 1.0 μg/mL antibody response. Inclusion of conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines might be of additional value in the vaccination schedule for asplenic patients because of their high immunogenicity.
Miyahara, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Hidehiko; Kanazawa, Akane; Iwasaki, Yuka; Shigemitsu, Yusuke; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Tokorodani, Chiho; Miyazawa, Mari; Nakata, Yusei; Nishiuchi, Ritsuo; Kikkawa, Kiyoshi
Since the introduction of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2007, invasive pneumococcal disease has declined, but the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A has risen worldwide. The present study examined changes in the features of invasive pneumococcal disease since the introduction of the PCV7 in Kochi, Japan. Pediatric cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were investigated before and after vaccine introduction (January 2008 to December 2013). Cases of invasive pneumococcal disease tended to decrease after PCV7 introduction. In addition, before introduction of the vaccine, most serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease were those included in the vaccine. However, after the introduction, we found cases infected by serotypes not covered by vaccine. Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae was the predominant serotype causing invasive pneumococcal disease before introduction of the PCV7, and the susceptibility of this serotype to antibiotics improved after vaccine introduction. Serotype isolates identified after vaccine introduction were also relatively susceptible to antibiotic therapy, but decreased susceptibility is expected.
Shigayeva, Altynay; Rudnick, Wallis; Green, Karen; Chen, Danny K; Demczuk, Walter; Gold, Wayne L; Johnstone, Jennie; Kitai, Ian; Krajden, Sigmund; Lovinsky, Reena; Muller, Matthew; Powis, Jeff; Rau, Neil; Walmsley, Sharon; Tyrrell, Gregory; Bitnun, Ari; McGeer, Allison
In 2012/2013, a single dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was recommended for immunocompromised adults in the United States and Canada. To assess the potential benefits of this recommendation, we assessed the serotype-specific burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among immunocompromised individuals. From 1995 to 2012, population-based surveillance for IPD was conducted in Metropolitan Toronto and Peel Region, Canada. Disease incidence and case fatality were measured in immunocompromised populations over time, and the contribution of different serotypes determined. Overall, 2115/7604 (28%) episodes of IPD occurred in immunocompromised persons. IPD incidence was 12-fold higher (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.7-15) in immunocompromised compared to immunocompetent persons; the case fatality rate was elevated in both younger (odds ratio [OR] 1.8) and older (OR 1.3) adults. Use of immunosuppressive medications was associated with a 2.1-2.7 fold increase in the risk of IPD. Five years after PPV23 program implementation, IPD incidence had declined significantly in immunocompromised adults (IRR 0.57, 95% CI, .40-.82). Ten years after pediatric PCV7 authorization, IPD due to PCV7 serotypes had decreased by 90% (95% CI, 77%-96%) in immunocompromised persons of all ages. In 2011/2012, 37% of isolates causing IPD in immunocompromised persons were PCV13 serotypes and 27% were PPV23/not PCV13 serotypes. Immunocompromised individuals comprised 28% of IPD. Both PPV23 and herd immunity from pediatric PCV7 were associated with reductions in IPD in immunocompromised populations. PCV13 vaccination of immunocompromised adults may substantially reduce the residual burden until herd immunity from pediatric PCV13 is fully established. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jackson, Lisa A; Gurtman, Alejandra; Rice, Kathryn; Pauksens, Karlis; Greenberg, Richard N; Jones, Thomas R; Scott, Daniel A; Emini, Emilio A; Gruber, William C; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate
The currently recommended single dose of the 23-valent pneumococcal free polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for adults 65 years of age and older does not provide extended protection into older age. This reflects a significant unmet medical need for alternative strategies to protect older adults against pneumococcal infection, which may be met by the 13-valent polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (PCV13). We performed a randomized, modified double-blind trial in 936 adults aged 70 years and older who had previously received PPSV23 at least 5 years before study entry and were now vaccinated with PCV13 or PPSV23. At 1 year after enrollment, all subjects received a follow-on dose of PCV13. Anti-pneumococcal opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers were measured before and at 1 month after each vaccination. Following the enrollment vaccination, OPA titers were significantly greater in the PCV13 group compared to the PPSV23 group for 10 of the 12 serotypes common to both vaccines and to serotype 6A which is unique to PCV13. Responses were noninferior for the other 2 common serotypes. Responses to PCV13 given at 1 year were generally lower in the group that received PPSV23 at enrollment. In adults aged 70 years and older previously vaccinated with PPSV23, PCV13 was significantly more immunogenic than PPSV23 for most of the common serotypes and for serotype 6A. The OPA responses after a follow-on dose of PCV13 one year later indicate that a prior dose of PPSV23, but not PCV13, diminishes the response to the subsequent administration of PCV13. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Floyd, Mark W; Boyce, Brandon M; Castellan, Robert M; McDonough, E Barry
Pseudoseptic arthritis is primarily described in rheumatoid arthritis and other systemic inflammatory conditions. To our knowledge, only 1 case report of pseudoseptic arthritis associated with intra-articular injection of a pneumococcal polyvalent vaccine (PPV) has been published. Here, a second case is presented in which a patient presented with swelling, pain, and erythema of the affected shoulder. A 59-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 3-day history of severe pain and decreased mobility of her left shoulder after receiving a PPV vaccination. Her clinical and laboratory workup was suspicious for septic arthritis; however, magnetic resonance imaging of the affected shoulder with and without contrast showed only a partial thickness tear of the rotator cuff, fluid in the subacromial/subdeltoid bursa, and subcutaneous edema without evidence of an abscess. Based on the clinical and laboratory data, she underwent arthroscopic debridement. There was inflammatory tissue throughout the shoulder but no obvious purulent material. She did well postoperatively with a supervised range of motion rehabilitation protocol. Her cultures remained negative. At 12 weeks, she was discharged from follow-up. We suspect that the vaccination was inadvertently injected into the glenohumeral joint directly through the rotator cuff given the lack of a full-thickness tear and the patient's thin body habitus, which could explain her aseptic inflammatory arthritis.
Alari, Anna; Chaussade, Hélène; Domenech De Cellès, Matthieu; Le Fouler, Lénaig; Varon, Emmanuelle; Opatowski, Lulla; Guillemot, Didier; Watier, Laurence
Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) is a major invasive pneumococcal disease. Two pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been introduced in France: PCV7 was recommended in 2003 and replaced in 2010 by PCV13, which has six additional serotypes. The impact of introducing those vaccines on the evolution of PM case numbers and serotype distributions in France from 2001 to 2014 is assessed herein. Data on 5166 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid between 2001 and 2014 in the 22 regions of France were obtained from the National Reference Center for Pneumococci. The effects of the different vaccination campaigns were estimated using time series analyses through autoregressive moving-average models with exogenous variables ("flu-like" syndromes incidence) and intervention functions. Intervention functions used 11 dummy variables representing each post vaccine epidemiological period. The evolution of serotype distributions was assessed for the entire population and the two most exposed age groups (<5 and > 64 years old). For the first time since PCV7 introduction in 2003, total PM cases decreased significantly after starting PCV13 use: -7.1 (95% CI, -10.85 to -3.35) cases per month during 2013-2014, and was confirmed in children < 5 years old (-3.5; 95% CI, -4.81 to -2.13) and adults > 64 years old (-2.0; 95% CI, -3.36 to -0.57). During 2012-2014, different non-vaccine serotypes emerged: 12F, 24F in the entire population and children, 6C in the elderly; serotypes 3 and 19F persisted in the entire population. Unlike other European countries, the total PM cases in France declined only after introduction of PCV13. This suggests that vaccine pressure alone does not explain pneumococcal epidemiological changes and that other factors could play a role. Serotype distribution had changed substantially compared to the pre-vaccine era, as in other European countries, but very differently from the US. A highly reactive surveillance system is
Hanniffy, Sean B; Carter, Andrew T; Hitchin, Ed; Wells, Jerry M
Economical and effective vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are needed for implementation in poorer countries where the disease burden is highest. Here, we evaluated Lactococcus lactis intracellularly producing the pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) as a mucosal vaccine in conferring protection against pneumococcal disease. Mice were intranasally (inl) immunized with the lactococcal vaccine. Control groups were also immunized with similar amounts of recombinant PspA administered inl or subcutaneously with alum. PspA-specific antibodies in serum samples and lung lavage fluids were measured before challenge in intraperitoneal sepsis and inl respiratory-infection models of pneumococcal disease. The lactococcal vaccine afforded better protection against respiratory challenge with pneumococcus than did vaccination with purified antigen given inl or by injection with alum. This finding was associated with a shift toward a Th1-mediated immune response characterized by reduced antibody titers to the PspA antigen. In the sepsis model, the lactococcal vaccine afforded resistance to disease on a par with that obtained with the injected vaccine, demonstrating its efficacy against different forms of pneumococcal disease. Given the safety profile of L. lactis, there is considerable potential to develop a pneumococcal vaccine for use in humans and to broaden this approach to combat other major pathogens.
Rossheim, Alexandria E-B; Young, Anna Marie P; Siik, Julia; Cunningham, Tina D; Troy, Stephanie B
Pneumococcal infection is a leading cause of illness and death in HIV-infected adults. Current United States guidelines for HIV-infected adults recommend a single dose of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) at any CD4 count and at least 1 y after receipt of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). PPV is known to lead to hyporesponsiveness to subsequent pneumococcal vaccines for at least 1 y Whether PCV-13 would be more immunogenic if administered later after PPV receipt or at higher CD4 counts has not been tested. We prospectively collected serum from 96 HIV-infected adults before and after PCV-13 receipt, and measured antibody concentrations against 4 pneumococcal serotypes (3, 6A, 7F, and 19A) via indirect ELISA according to the WHO protocol. Post-booster antibody concentrations and fold-rise in antibody concentrations were compared according to time from PPV receipt and baseline CD4 count using univariate and multivariate analyses. PPV receipt >3 versus 1-3 y prior did not significantly change post-vaccination antibody concentrations, but was associated with slightly higher fold-rise in antibody concentration for the 3 tested serotypes included in PPV, though this only reached significance for serotype 7F. CD4 count was significantly associated with post-vaccination antibody concentrations for 3 of 4 serotypes, but not for fold-rise in antibody concentration for any serotype. Waiting longer than 1 y after PPV receipt to administer PCV-13 may slightly improve the antibody response to serotypes included in both vaccines. While higher CD4 count at PCV-13 administration results in higher post-vaccination antibody concentrations, this is likely because higher CD4 count is also associated with higher pre-vaccination antibody concentrations.
Rossheim, Alexandria E.-B.; Young, Anna Marie P.; Siik, Julia; Cunningham, Tina D.; Troy, Stephanie B.
ABSTRACT Introduction: Pneumococcal infection is a leading cause of illness and death in HIV-infected adults. Current United States guidelines for HIV-infected adults recommend a single dose of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) at any CD4 count and at least 1 y after receipt of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). PPV is known to lead to hyporesponsiveness to subsequent pneumococcal vaccines for at least 1 y Whether PCV-13 would be more immunogenic if administered later after PPV receipt or at higher CD4 counts has not been tested. Methods: We prospectively collected serum from 96 HIV-infected adults before and after PCV-13 receipt, and measured antibody concentrations against 4 pneumococcal serotypes (3, 6A, 7F, and 19A) via indirect ELISA according to the WHO protocol. Post-booster antibody concentrations and fold-rise in antibody concentrations were compared according to time from PPV receipt and baseline CD4 count using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: PPV receipt >3 versus 1–3 y prior did not significantly change post-vaccination antibody concentrations, but was associated with slightly higher fold-rise in antibody concentration for the 3 tested serotypes included in PPV, though this only reached significance for serotype 7F. CD4 count was significantly associated with post-vaccination antibody concentrations for 3 of 4 serotypes, but not for fold-rise in antibody concentration for any serotype. Conclusion: Waiting longer than 1 y after PPV receipt to administer PCV-13 may slightly improve the antibody response to serotypes included in both vaccines. While higher CD4 count at PCV-13 administration results in higher post-vaccination antibody concentrations, this is likely because higher CD4 count is also associated with higher pre-vaccination antibody concentrations. PMID:27172241
Ciprero, Karen L.; Marchese, Rocio D.; Richard, Patrick; Baudin, Martine; Sterling, Tina M.; Manoff, Susan B.; Radley, David; Stek, Jon E.; Soubeyrand, Benoît; Grabenstein, John D.; Samson, Sandrine I.; Musey, Luwy K.
ABSTRACT PNEUMOVAX™ 23, a 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23), covers 65% to 91% of the isolates recovered from adult cases of invasive pneumococcal disease. Several studies have demonstrated that pneumococcal serotypes 31, 11A, 35F, 17F, 3, 16F, 19F, 15B, and 10A are associated with higher case-fatality or meningitis rates than other pneumococcal serotypes. This study (U05-PnPS-403; EudraCT: 2008-003648-12) evaluated the immune response followings administration of PPV23 for 4 of these serotypes (10A, 11A, 15B, and 17F), that are included in PPV23 but not in licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Serotype-specific IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and geometric mean fold-rises (GMFRs) for these 4 serotypes were measured by a validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 104 subjects >50 y of age who were enrolled in a study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of a single-dose of PPV23. At 1 month post-vaccination, GMCs for serotypes10A, 11A, 15B and 17F were 6.5, 4.3, 14.7, and 5.1 µg/mL, respectively. GMFRs from baseline were 9.0, 4.5, 8.4, and 11.5, respectively. The percentages of subjects achieving >2-fold increases in IgG GMCs between pre-vaccination and 1 month post-vaccination were 90%, 85%, 88% and 89%, respectively. In conclusion, PPV23 induces a robust immune response in adults to pneumococcal serotypes 10A, 11A, 15B, and 17F, which have been associated with elevated case-fatality or meningitis rates. PMID:27002793
Offersen, Rasmus; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Paludan, Søren R; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Søgaard, Ole S
HIV-patients have excess of pneumococcal infection. We immunized 40 HIV-patients twice with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar, Pfizer) +/- a TLR9 agonist (CPG 7909). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and cytokine concentrations measured. The CPG 7909 adjuvant group had significantly higher relative cytokine responses than the placebo group for IL-1β, IL-2R, IL-6, IFN-γ and MIP-β, which, did not correlate with IgG antibody responses. These findings suggests that CPG 7909 as adjuvant to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine induces cellular memory to pneumococcal polysaccharides in HIV-patients, independently of the humoral response.
Moore, R Andrew; Wiffen, Philip J; Lipsky, Benjamin A
The objective was to review the evidence of effectiveness of the polyvalent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine from prospective properly randomised controlled trials comparing pneumococcal vaccines with placebo in subjects who are immunocompetent and those likely to have an impaired immune system. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, (issue 2, 2000), MEDLINE (1966-August 2000), PubMed (to August 2000) and EMBASE ( to August 2000). Reference lists of reports and reviews were also searched. To be included in the analysis, a study had to have been a prospective randomised comparison of a polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (any valency) and to have a placebo or no treatment comparison group. Papers had to report important clinical outcomes, such as rates of pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia, lower respiratory tract infections, pneumonia deaths or bacteraemia. Serological outcomes were not sought. Thirteen randomised comparisons with over 45,000 subjects were identified in an extensive literature review. Eight studies had a quality score of 3 or more on a scale of 1 to 5. In three comparisons with 21,152 immunocompetent subjects (South African gold miners, New Guinea highlanders) pneumococcal vaccination was effective in reducing the incidence of all-cause pneumonia (relative risk 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.66), pneumococcal pneumonia (0.16; 0.11 to 0.23), pneumonia deaths (0.70; 0.50 to 0.96) and bacteraemia (0.18; 0.09 to 0.34). In ten comparisons in over 24,000 people who were elderly or likely to have impaired immune systems, pneumococcal vaccination was without effect for any outcome. Present guidelines recommend pneumococcal vaccination for "high-risk" groups. There is no evidence from randomised trials that this is of any benefit. PMID:11038265
Claes, Christa; Graf von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias
The introduction of the conjugate vaccine PnC-7 implies that a pneumococcal vaccine is available, for the first time, which also gives children under the age of 2 years reliable protection against invasive pneumococcal infections and offers some protection against non-invasive pneumococcal infections. OBJECTIVE AND PERSPECTIVE: In the context of a multiple-period Markov model, a cost-effectiveness analysis of a recommendation for general pneumococcal vaccination in Germany for infants and children under the age of 2 years was performed from the healthcare payer, public authority and societal perspectives. Various published data on age-specific incidence rates, mortality rates, efficacy of the conjugate vaccine PnC-7 and treatment costs of pneumococcal infections were incorporated into a Markov model to quantify the consequences of vaccinating versus not vaccinating. From a German healthcare payers' perspective, general vaccination with the conjugate vaccine would redeem 51.1% of the vaccination costs due to avoidable treatment costs, whereas, from a broader point of view, the benefits, expressed in monetary terms, would exceed the cost of vaccination. The conjugate vaccine would require an investment of euro72 866 per life-year saved (discounted, healthcare payers' viewpoint). Besides this benchmark, there are further outcome measures which cannot be ignored by those deciding on a general vaccination recommendation: 450 000 preventable episodes of illness and 134 cases of sequelae which can be prevented. The vaccination with the conjugate vaccine PnC-7 is cost saving from a broader perspective and the results should not be ignored by policy makers in regard to a general vaccination recommendation.
Weltermann, Birgitta; Herwig, Anna; Dehnen, Dorothea; Herzer, Kerstin
Studies have documented deficits of pneumococcal and other vaccinations in kidney and lung transplant patients, but the vaccination status of liver transplant (LT) recipients is unknown. This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of immunizations among LT patients at a large university medical center compared to a representative general population sample. In 2014, all LT patients (>18 years of age) were asked for their vaccination documents. The immunization rates for pneumococcal and other vaccine-preventable diseases were calculated. LT patients' rates for tetanus, diphtheria, and polio vaccinations were compared to a national reference group. Because these vaccinations are recommended for both groups, pneumococcal and influenza vaccination rates of LT patients were compared to those of seniors (>65 years of age) from a national sample. We found that 444 of 581 LT patients (76.4%) had evaluable vaccination documents. Only 60% of the patients received at least 1 pneumococcal vaccination. Insufficient immunization rates (≥1 vaccination/lifetime prevalence) were also documented for other vaccine-preventable diseases: hepatitis B 64%, hepatitis A 48%, tetanus 87%, diphtheria 79%, polio 72%, pertussis 38%, and seasonal influenza (the preceding season) 51%. Only 0.7% (n=3) of LT patients had received all vaccinations as recommended. Similar deficits were documented in the national sample: tetanus 96%, diphtheria 82%, polio 86%, and pertussis 35%. LT patients received pneumococcal vaccines twice as frequently compared to seniors (60% vs. 31%), while influenza vaccination rates were comparable (51% vs. 45%). In agreement with studies addressing other solid organ transplant recipients, vaccination coverage of LT patients and the general population needs to be improved.
Mitchell, Ruth; Trück, Johannes; Pollard, Andrew J
The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into infant immunization schedules has successfully reduced the incidence of pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes. Disease incidence is low in healthy 6 - 17-year-old children and young people; however, there are a number of clinical conditions that put individuals in this age group at increased risk. Expansion of the license of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine , PCV-13, to include the 6 - 17 age group has recently been approved by European and American regulatory bodies. Studies assessing the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in both healthy and high-risk 6 - 17-year-old children and adolescents are covered and the potential impact of PCV-13 in these populations is discussed. The use of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, PPV-23, in high-risk children and adolescents is also considered. Expanding the use of PCV-13 to include high-risk children and adolescents aged 6 - 17 has the potential to prevent additional cases of disease; however, vaccination of this population may no longer be necessary when herd immunity to PCV-13 serotypes becomes fully established. Despite the broader serotype coverage of PPV-23, the benefits of this vaccine in high-risk populations are uncertain.
Tate, Jacqueline E; Kisakye, Annet; Mugyenyi, Prosper; Kizza, Diana; Odiit, Amos; Braka, Fiona
We determined impact and cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs among children<5 years of age in Uganda from the public health system perspective. Disease-specific models compared the disease burden and cost with and without a vaccination program. If introduced, pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccine programs will save 10,796 and 5265 lives, respectively, prevent 94,071 Streptococcus pneumoniae and 94,729 rotavirus cases in children<5 years, and save 3886 and 996 million Ugandan shillings ($2.3 and $0.6 million US dollars), respectively, in direct medical costs annually. At the GAVI price ($0.15/dose), pneumococcal vaccine will be cost-saving and rotavirus vaccine highly cost-effective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nguyen, Mtt; Lindegaard, H; Hendricks, O; Friis-Møller, N
This study investigates predictors of influenza and pneumococcal vaccine coverage among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and explores possible differences according to type of RA therapy. RA patients from two clinics in the region of Southern Denmark were informed about the survey during scheduled follow-up visits. The questionnaire included questions concerning previous influenza and pneumococcal vaccine uptake, attitudes about vaccination, and socio-demographic factors. Factors associated with recalled vaccine uptake were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. A total of 192 RA patients completed the survey, 134 (70%) of whom were women and 90 (47%) were aged ≥ 65 years. Sixty-seven patients (35%) received conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) and 125 (65%) combination therapy with biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). Self-reported uptake of vaccination against seasonal influenza ever was 59% overall; 57% among patients receiving cDMARDs and 61% in patients receiving bDMARDs. Self-reported vaccine uptake against pneumococcal diseases was only 6% overall. Older age, educational level, and information and recommendation by a specialist or general physician were positively associated with influenza vaccine uptake, while there was no significant difference in vaccine uptake according to RA treatment type. Reasons for not being vaccinated included fear of adverse effects, lack of information and recommendation, and perception of good health. We observed a low prevalence of influenza and in particular of pneumococcal vaccinations among RA patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs, with no difference in coverage according to type of RA therapy. More population-specific evidence to support recommendations is required to increase awareness among patients and physicians.
Groom, Holly; Bhatt, Achal; Washington, Michael L; Santoli, Jeanne
Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was in short supply from December 2003 to August 2004. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians made recommendations to providers to withhold third and fourth doses of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to ensure availability for those at highest risk. Previous studies of vaccine shortages have demonstrated that provider compliance with temporary recommendations is low. The objective of this study was to collect timely data about awareness and adherence to temporary recommendations and current supply status of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in pediatric practices. A 2-phase telephone survey of pediatric practices was conducted during a 10-week period during the 2003-2004 heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine shortage. Immunization nurses at randomly selected sites with physician-members of the American Academy of Pediatrics were asked a series of questions. In both study phases, >90% of participating practices were aware of the recommendations and reported adhering to the recommendations. In phase 1, practices with insufficient supply were more likely to implement recommendations than practices with sufficient supply. Participants identified health departments and Wyeth Vaccines as the most common sources of information. At least 65% of the practices in each phase reported use of tracking systems for children who missed doses. Most pediatric practices surveyed were aware of the shortage and were implementing the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine recommendations. Simplified recommendations and collaborative efforts to develop and widely disseminate interim recommendations may result in increased compliance by providers.
Lee, Bruce Y.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Wateska, Angela R.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Chen, Sheng-I; Brown, Shawn T.; Welling, Joel; Norman, Bryan A.; Connor, Diana L.; Bailey, Rachel R.; Jana, Anirban; Van Panhuis, Willem G.; Burke, Donald S.
Although the substantial burdens of rotavirus and pneumococcal disease have motivated many countries to consider introducing the rotavirus vaccine (RV) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) to their National Immunization Programs (EPIs), these new vaccines could affect the countries' vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from their manufacturers to patients). We developed detailed computational models of the Trang Province, Thailand, vaccine supply chain to simulate introducing various RV and PCV-7 vaccine presentations and their combinations. Our results showed that the volumes of these new vaccines in addition to current routine vaccines could meet and even exceed (1) the refrigerator space at the provincial district and sub-district levels and (2) the transport cold space at district and sub-district levels preventing other vaccines from being available to patients who arrive to be immunized. Besides the smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm3/dose), all other vaccine introduction scenarios required added storage capacity at the provincial level (range: 20 L–1151 L per month) for the three largest formulations, and district level (range: 1 L–124 L per month) across all introduction scenarios. Similarly, with the exception of the two smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm3/dose), added transport capacity was required at both district and sub-district levels. Added transport capacity required across introduction scenarios from the provincial to district levels ranged from 1 L–187 L, and district to sub-district levels ranged from 1 L–13 L per shipment. Finally, only the smallest RV vaccine presentation (17.1 cm3/dose) had no appreciable effect on vaccine availability at sub-districts. All other RV and PCV-7 vaccines were too large for the current supply chain to handle without modifications such as increasing storage or transport capacity. Introducing these new vaccines to Thailand could have dynamic effects on
Boelsen, Laura K; Dunne, Eileen M; Lamb, Karen E; Bright, Kathryn; Cheung, Yin Bun; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Russell, Fiona M; Mulholland, E Kim; Licciardi, Paul V; Satzke, Catherine
Previously, the Fiji Pneumococcal Project (FiPP) evaluated reduced dose immunization schedules that incorporated pneumococcal protein conjugate and/or polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7 and 23vPPV, respectively). Immune hyporesponsiveness was observed in children vaccinated with 23vPPV at 12 months of age compared with children who did not receive 23vPPV. Here we assess the long-term impact of 23vPPV vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage rates and densities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. Nasopharyngeal swabs (n=194) were obtained from healthy children who participated in FiPP (now aged 5-7 years). S. pneumoniae were isolated and identified by standard culture-based methods, and serotyped using latex agglutination and the Quellung reaction. Carriage rates and densities of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. aureus and M. catarrhalis were determined using real-time quantitative PCR. There were no differences in the rate or density of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis carriage by PCV7 dose or 23vPPV vaccination in the vaccinated participants overall. However, differences were observed between the two main ethnic groups: Fijian children of Indian descent (Indo-Fijian) were less likely to carry S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, and there was evidence of a higher carriage rate of S. aureus compared with indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) children. Polysaccharide vaccination appeared to have effects that varied between ethnic groups, with 23vPPV vaccination associated with a higher carriage rate of S. aureus in iTaukei children, while there was a lower carriage rate of S. pneumoniae associated with 23vPPV vaccination in Indo-Fijian children. Overall, polysaccharide vaccination had no long-term impact on pneumococcal carriage, but may have impacted on S. aureus carriage and have varying effects in ethnic groups, suggesting current WHO vaccine schedule recommendations against the use of 23v
Mathew, Joseph L
Recently Pneumococcal vaccines have generated considerable interest in developing countries as an intervention for protecting children from pneumonia and thereby reducing childhood mortality. Many convincing scientific arguments have been put forward, although they are often based either on extension of information from developed countries, or estimation plus extrapolation of limited local data. In addition, there is also significant commercial pressure to prescribe/recommend Pneumococcal vaccine(s). Against such a background, it is important for developing countries to critically appraise the issues involved in order to make a rational choice. This brief paper explores these issues, showing that the current Pneumococcal vaccines have limited effectiveness in developing countries and the hype surrounding them is more commercial than scientific.
Andrews, Ross M; Skull, Susan A; Byrnes, Graham B; Campbell, Donald A; Turner, Joy L; McIntyre, Peter B; Kelly, Heath A
This study was undertaken to assess the uptake of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination based on provider records of the hospitalised elderly, a group at high risk of influenza and pneumococcal disease. The study used a random sample of 3,204 admissions at two Victorian teaching hospitals for patients, aged 65 years or more who were discharged between 1 April 2000 and 31 March 2002. Information on whether the patient had received an influenza vaccination within the year prior to admission or pneumococcal vaccination within the previous five years was ascertained from the patient's nominated medical practitioner/vaccine provider. Vaccination records were obtained from providers for 82 per cent (2,804/2,934) of eligible subjects. Influenza vaccine coverage was 70.9 per cent (95% CI 68.9-72.9), pneumococcal coverage was 52.6 per cent (95% CI 50.4-54.8) and 46.6 per cent (95% CI 44.4-48.8) had received both vaccines. Coverage for each vaccine increased seven per cent over the two study years. For pneumococcal vaccination, there was a marked increase in 1998 coinciding with the introduction of Victoria's publicly funded program. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccine coverage in eligible hospitalised adults was similar to, but did not exceed, estimates in the general elderly population. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage reflected the availability of vaccine through Victoria's publicly funded program. A nationally funded pneumococcal vaccination program for the elderly, as announced recently, should improve coverage. However, these data highlight the need for greater awareness of pneumococcal vaccine among practitioners and for systematic recording of vaccination status, as many of these subjects will soon become eligible for revaccination.
Grijalva, Carlos G.; Zhu, Yuwei; Mitchel, Edward F.; Griffin, Marie R.
Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule was associated with decreases in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among black and white children in Tennessee, USA. Although racial disparities that existed before introduction of these vaccines have been substantially reduced, rates remain higher in boys than in girls among young children. PMID:27197048
Wiese, Andrew D; Grijalva, Carlos G; Zhu, Yuwei; Mitchel, Edward F; Griffin, Marie R
Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule was associated with decreases in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among black and white children in Tennessee, USA. Although racial disparities that existed before introduction of these vaccines have been substantially reduced, rates remain higher in boys than in girls among young children.
Grzesiowski, Pawel; Aguiar-Ibáñez, Raquel; Kobryń, Aleksandra; Durand, Laure; Puig, Pierre-Emmanuel
Introduction: Invasive pneumococcal disease is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and cost implications, which could be reduced by vaccination. Aim: To assess the cost-effectiveness of a 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in the elderly (65 and older) in Poland. Methods: A Markov model with a 1-year cycle length was developed, allowing up to 10 cohorts to enter the model over the lifetime horizon (35 years). In the base case, costs and benefits were assessed using the public health care payer (NFZ) perspective. The analysis included routine vaccination of all elderly and high-risk (HR) elderly versus no vaccination. The analysis assumed that the government would reimburse 50% of the vaccine price. Costs and benefits were discounted 5%, with costs expressed in 2009 Polish Zloty (PLN). Extensive sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results: PPV23 vaccination targeting all elderly and HR elderly in Poland would avoid 8,935 pneumococcal infections, 2,542 hospitalisations, 671 deaths and 5,886 infections, 1,673 hospitalisations and 441 deaths respectively. The incremental cost per QALY gained would be PLN 3,382 in all elderly and PLN2,148 in HR elderly. Conclusion: Vaccinating adults 65 and older regardless of risk status with a 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine, is cost-effective, resulting in clinical and economic benefits including a non-negligible reduction of ambulatory doctor visits, hospitalizations and, deaths in Poland. PMID:23095867
Sridhar, Shruti; Belhouchat, Khadidja; Drali, Tassadit; Benkouiten, Samir; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe; Gautret, Philippe
Transmission of respiratory infections poses a major public health challenge during the Hajj and Umrah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Acquisition of Streptococcus pneumoniae during Hajj has been studied in the past and recommendations for vaccination against S. pneumoniae have been made for high risk groups. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of French Hajj pilgrims towards pneumococcal vaccination. Adult pilgrims departing from Marseille, France to Mecca for the 2014 Hajj season were administered a face-to-face questionnaire to ascertain their knowledge and attitudes towards pneumococcal vaccination before departing for Hajj. A total of 300 participants took part. Their overall knowledge about the severity of pneumonia and the existence of the vaccine was very low. Out of 101 participants who had an indication for pneumococcal vaccination, irrespective of their travel status, only 7% were advised to have the vaccine by their general practitioner. These results reinforce the need for better dissemination of information either before or during the pre-travel counselling. The visit to the travel clinic for receiving the mandatory meningococcal vaccination for Hajj is a good opportunity to update routine immunizations, including pneumococcal vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico
The indirect protection of adults as a result of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants has been discussed from different epidemiological points of view. In some countries, including Italy, even after pediatric vaccination, vaccine serotypes are still responsible for most pneumonia and invasive diseases in the elderly. Although the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPITA) produced encouraging results, it has not showed the efficacy of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia regardless of the number of episodes and serotype. Addressing these points by monitoring the direct impact of adult vaccination in real life distinguished from the effects of herd immunity will assist public health decision-making on the most effective adult pneumococcal vaccination strategies.
Tashani, Mohamed; Barasheed, Osamah; Azeem, Mohammad; Alfelali, Mohammad; Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Bokhary, Hamid; Almasri, Nedal; Alshehri, Jassir; Matbouly, Ghassan; Kalantan, Nadeen; Heron, Leon; Ridda, Iman; Haworth, Elizabeth; Asghar, Atif; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert
The uptake of the pneumococcal vaccine is suboptimal in Australia and remains unknown among Australian Hajj pilgrims, many of whom are eligible because of age or underlying disease and at particular risk because of travel and activities at Hajj. Pneumococcal vaccination uptake was examined over three consecutive years (2011 to 2013) through anonymous self-administered cross sectional surveys among Australian pilgrims who assembled in Mina valley, Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Respectively, 158, 513 and 219 pilgrims were recruited in 2011, 2012 and 2013; their mean ages were 43.8 (SD±13), 43 (SD±13.5) and 42.6 (SD±12.3) years; males accounted for 67 (42.4%), 325 (63.4%) and 172 (78.5%). Pneumococcal vaccine uptake rates were 28.5% (45/158), 28.7% (147/513) and 14.2% (31/219); among the pilgrims with 'at risk' conditions the pneumococcal vaccine uptake rates were 15 (30.6%), 43 (45.3%) and 9 (29%) respectively. According to our surveys, the pneumococcal vaccine uptake among Australian pilgrims is low. Further research is needed to explore the reasons through a validated study.
Comparison of immunogenicity and safety of an influenza vaccine administered concomitantly with a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine in the elderly
Purpose Previous studies have demonstrated the immunogenicity and safety of the co-administration of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) with the polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) or pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). However, there is no direct comparison study that evaluates the immunogenicity and safety of IIV3 given concomitantly with PCV13 or PPV23 in the elderly. Materials and Methods During the 2012-2013 influenza vaccination period, 224 healthy elderly volunteers aged 65 years and older randomly received IIV3 given concomitantly with either PCV13 (PCV13+IIV3) or PPV23 (PPV23+IIV3) in a 1:1 ratio. Serum hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies for IIV3 were measured at the time of vaccination and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were recorded prospectively in a clinical diary during a 7-day period. Results A total of 220 participants blood samples for analysis of immunogenicity and kept a clinical diary for safety analysis (PCV13+IIV3, n=110; PPV23+IIV3, n=110). One month after vaccination, both groups satisfied the Committee for Medical Products for Human Use criteria for A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B strains, showing comparable seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates and geometric mean titer fold. The assessments of immunogenicity were similar in both groups. The most common local and systemic reactions were pain at the injection site and generalized myalgia. They were generally mild or moderate in intensity. The adverse events were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusion PCV13+IIV3 and PPV23+IIV3 demonstrated similar immunogenicity and safety in the elderly. PMID:28168172
Altun, Hatice Uludag; Hascelik, Gülsen; Gür, Deniz; Eser, Özgen Köseoglu
This study evaluates the antimicrobial susceptibilities and serotype distributions of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) isolates identified in a Turkish hospital before the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The susceptibilities of all isolates were determined by evaluating six antibiotics: penicillin (PEN), ceftriaxone (CRO), levofloxacin (LEV), erythromycin (ERY), clindamycin (CD), and vancomycin (VAN). Serotyping and amplification of macrolide resistance genes were performed. Sixteen (50%) and four (2%) isolates were resistant to PEN and LEV, respectively. No isolates demonstrated VAN resistance. Intermediate resistance to CRO was found in 4% of all invasive isolates. Twenty-three (12.6%) isolates were resistant to ERY. Four (2%) invasive SP isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance. Serogroups 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 23 were the most common in both age groups. The potential coverage rates of PCV7 and PCV13 were 44.1 and 66.1% in children and 39.8 and 71.5% in adults, respectively. Continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is required.
Jiang, Yiling; Gervais, Frédéric; Gauthier, Aline; Baptiste, Charles; Martinon, Prescilla; Bresse, Xavier
In 2002, a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced to French infants and toddlers. A change has been witnessed in the incidence of pneumococcal diseases in adults: the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of serotypes covered by PCV decreased, and serotypes not covered by PCV increased. This study aimed to quantify the public health and budget impact of pneumococcal vaccination strategies in at-risk adults in France over 5 years. A previously published population-based Markov model was adapted to the French situation. At-risk adults received either PPV23 (pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; for the immunocompetent) or PCV13 (for the immunosuppressed). The strategy was compared to PCV13 alone. Uncertainty was addressed using extreme scenario analyses. Between 2014 and 2018, vaccination with PPV23/PCV13 led to a higher reduction in terms of IPD and non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia cases avoided in most scenarios analyzed when compared to PCV13 alone. For budget impact, none of the scenarios was in favor of PCV13. Under conservative coverage assumptions, the total incremental budget impact ranged from € 39.8 million to € 69.3 million if PCV13 were to replace PPV23 in the immunocompetent. With the epidemiological changes of pneumococcal diseases and the broader serotype coverage of PPV23, the current program remains an optimal strategy from public health perspective. Given the additional budget required for the use of PCV13 alone and its uncertain public health benefits, vaccination with PPV23 remains the preferred strategy.
Vila-Córcoles, Angel; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga; Satué, Eva; de Diego, Cinta; Vila-Rovira, Marc; Jariod, Manel
Published data about prevalence of distinct risk condictions for pneumococcal disease is scarce. This study investigated the prevalence of distinct risk conditions for pneumococal disease in Catalonian adults and stimated the potential size of target population for pneumococcal vaccination in Catalonia and Spain. Cross-sectional population-based study that included 2,033,465 individuals older than 49 years-old assigned to the Catalonian Health Institute (Catalonia, Spain) at 01/01/2015. The Catalonian Health Institute Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP) was used to identify comorbidities and/or underlying conditions in each subject and establish potential target population for pneumococcal vaccination on the basis of their risk for suffering pneumococcal infections: 1) immunocompromised subjects; 2) immunocompetents subjects with any risk condition; 3) immunocompetents subjects without risk conditions. Of the 2,033,465 study subjects, 1,053,155 (51.8%) had no risk conditions, 649,014 (31.9%) had one risk condition and 331,296 (16.3%) had multiple risk conditions (11.4% in 50-64 years vs 21.2% in people older than 65 years, p smaller than 0.001; 21.8% in men vs 11.6% in women, p smaller than 0.001). Overall, 176,600 (8.7%) and 803,710 (39.5%) were classified in risk stratum 1 and 2, respectively. According to distinct risk strata considered, the target population for pneumococcal vaccination varied between 0.2-1.9 million in Catalonia and 1.5-2.3 million in Spain. In our setting, almost fifty percent of people ≥50 years have at least one risk condition to suffert pneumococcal disease. Adult population susceptible for pneumococal vaccination largely varies depending on the risk stratum considered as targeted people for pneumococcal vaccination.
Jiang, Yiling; Gervais, Frédéric; Gauthier, Aline; Baptiste, Charles; Martinon, Prescilla; Bresse, Xavier
In 2002, a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced to French infants and toddlers. A change has been witnessed in the incidence of pneumococcal diseases in adults: the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of serotypes covered by PCV decreased, and serotypes not covered by PCV increased. This study aimed to quantify the public health and budget impact of pneumococcal vaccination strategies in at-risk adults in France over 5 years. A previously published population-based Markov model was adapted to the French situation. At-risk adults received either PPV23 (pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; for the immunocompetent) or PCV13 (for the immunosuppressed). The strategy was compared to PCV13 alone. Uncertainty was addressed using extreme scenario analyses. Between 2014 and 2018, vaccination with PPV23/PCV13 led to a higher reduction in terms of IPD and non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia cases avoided in most scenarios analyzed when compared to PCV13 alone. For budget impact, none of the scenarios was in favor of PCV13. Under conservative coverage assumptions, the total incremental budget impact ranged from € 39.8 million to € 69.3 million if PCV13 were to replace PPV23 in the immunocompetent. With the epidemiological changes of pneumococcal diseases and the broader serotype coverage of PPV23, the current program remains an optimal strategy from public health perspective. Given the additional budget required for the use of PCV13 alone and its uncertain public health benefits, vaccination with PPV23 remains the preferred strategy. PMID:26267239
Papadatou, Ioanna; Spoulou, Vana
Controversy exists regarding the optimal use of the 23-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the protection of high-risk individuals, such as children and adults with immunocompromising conditions and the elderly. The effectiveness and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) are limited in such high-risk populations compared to the healthy, with meta-analyses failing to provide robust evidence on vaccine efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) or pneumonia. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a PPV23-induced state of immune tolerance or hyporesponsiveness to subsequent vaccination, where the response to revaccination does not reach the levels achieved with primary vaccination. The clinical significance of hyporesponsiveness is not yet clarified, but attenuated humoral and cellular response could lead to reduced levels of protection and increased susceptibility to pneumococcal disease. As disease epidemiology among high-risk groups shows that we are still in need of maximum serotype coverage, the optimal use of PPV23 in the context of combined conjugate/polysaccharide vaccine schedules is an important priority. In this minireview, we discuss PPV23-induced hyporesponsiveness and its implications in designing highly effective vaccination schedules for the optimal protection for high-risk individuals.
Jiang, Yiling; Gauthier, Aline; Keeping, Sam; Carroll, Stuart
Since the introduction of the routine childhood immunization, a change in epidemiology of pneumococcal disease has been seen in both children and adults. This study aimed to quantify the public health and budget impact of pneumococcal vaccination of the elderly and those in at risk groups in the UK. The model was adapted from a previous population-based Markov model. At-risk adults and the elderly were assumed to receive PPV23 or PCV13 vaccination or no vaccination. Over the study period (2012-2016), PPV23 vaccination led to a reduction in the number of invasive pneumococcal disease cases in most scenarios. The net budget impact ranged between £15 and £39 million (vs no vaccination) or between -£116 and -£93 million (vs PCV13). PPV23 vaccination program remains the optimal strategy from public health and budgetary perspectives despite epidemiological changes. PCV13 is likely to impose a significant budget with limited health benefits.
Steinbakk, Martin; Aaberge, Ingeborg S.; Caugant, Dominique A.
Serotype replacement in invasive pneumococcal disease has been observed after widespread use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Replacement is dominated by penicillin-nonsusceptible serotype 19A in several countries. Antibiotic selection pressure has been proposed to interact with immunization, leading to rapid replacement. In Norway, where prescription of antibiotics is limited, post-PCV7 replacement by serotype 19A is dominated by penicillin-susceptible clones. Hence, serotype 19A replacement occurs, although it is not driven by antibiotic selection pressure. PMID:22237889
Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Rozenbaum, Mark H; Huijts, Susanne M; van Werkhoven, Cornelis H; Postma, Douwe F; Atwood, Mark; van Deursen, Anna M M; van der Ende, Arie; Grobbee, Diederick E; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Sato, Reiko; Verheij, Theo J M; Vissink, Conrad E; Bonten, Marc J M; de Wit, G Ardine
The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) demonstrated the efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in preventing vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease in elderly subjects. We examined the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination in the Netherlands. Using a Markov-type model, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of PCV13 vaccination in different age- and risk-groups for pneumococcal disease were evaluated using a societal perspective. Estimates of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, vaccine efficacy and epidemiological data were based on the CAPiTA study and other prospective studies. The base-case was PCV13 vaccination of adults aged 65-74 years compared to no vaccination, assuming no net indirect effects in base-case due to paediatric 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Analyses for age- and risk-group specific vaccination strategies and for different levels of hypothetical herd effects from a paediatric PCV programme were also conducted. The ICER for base-case was €8650 per QALY (95% CI 5750-17,100). Vaccination of high-risk individuals aged 65-74 years was cost-saving and extension to medium-risk individuals aged 65-74 years yielded an ICER of €2900. Further extension to include medium- and high-risk individuals aged ≥18 years yielded an ICER of €3100.PCV13 vaccination is highly cost-effective in the Netherlands. The transferability of our results to other countries depends upon vaccination strategies already implemented in those countries. Copyright ©ERS 2015.
Use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine among adults aged ≥65 years: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
Tomczyk, Sara; Bennett, Nancy M; Stoecker, Charles; Gierke, Ryan; Moore, Matthew R; Whitney, Cynthia G; Hadler, Stephen; Pilishvili, Tamara
On August 13, 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 [Prevnar 13, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.]) among adults aged ≥65 years. PCV13 should be administered in series with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23 [Pneumovax23, Merck & Co., Inc.]), the vaccine currently recommended for adults aged ≥65 years. PCV13 was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in late 2011 for use among adults aged ≥50 years. In June 2014, the results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating efficacy of PCV13 for preventing community-acquired pneumonia among approximately 85,000 adults aged ≥65 years with no prior pneumococcal vaccination history (CAPiTA trial) became available and were presented to ACIP. The evidence supporting PCV13 vaccination of adults was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework and determined to be type 2 (moderate level of evidence); the recommendation was categorized as a Category A recommendation. This report outlines the new recommendations for PCV13 use, provides guidance for use of PCV13 and PPSV23 among adults aged ≥65 years, and summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP to make this recommendation.
Rückinger, S; van der Linden, M; Siedler, A; von Kries, R
Currently there are 3 pneumococcal vaccines available in Germany. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the three currently available pneumococcal vaccines to reduce the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in children. Children younger than 16 years who have been hospitalized because of IPD between July 2007 and June 2009 in a German pediatric hospitals. Surveillance of IPD in German pediatric hospitals and laboratories serving these hospitals. The case definition is isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from any normally sterile body site. The actual number of IPD cases is based on the capture recapture method combining information from both reporting systems. In the study period an estimated yearly number of 164 IPD cases occurred among children younger than 2 years compared to 144 and 116 cases among children aged 2-4 years and 5-15 years. Among children under 2 years of age, 69 cases were caused by serotypes covered by PCV10 compared to 103 cases potentially preventable by PCV13. Among children aged 2-4 years 94 IPD cases were caused by serotypes covered by PCV13 compared to 108 cases covered by PPV23. The newly available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with better serotype coverage have the potential to further reduce IPD burden in Germany. The additional benefit of vaccination of children aged 2-4 years at high risk for pneumococcal infections with PPV23 is questionable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Tseng, Hung Fu; Smith, Ning; Sy, Lina S; Jacobsen, Steven J
In 2009, a revision to the zoster vaccine package insert was approved stating that the zoster vaccine and the pneumococcal vaccine should not be given concurrently because concomitant use resulted in reduced immunogenicity of the zoster vaccine. We conducted an observational study to evaluate if concomitant vaccination reduces the protective effect of the zoster vaccine. The study was conducted in Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) after vaccination with a zoster vaccine in the population receiving both vaccines on the same day was compared to that in the population receiving a pneumococcal vaccine within one year to 30 days prior to zoster vaccine. Vaccinations and incident HZ cases were identified by electronic health records. The hazard ratio for incident HZ associated with concomitant vs. nonconcomitant vaccination was estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. There were 56 incident HZ cases in the concomitant vaccination cohort and 58 in the nonconcomitant vaccination cohort, yielding a HZ incidence of 4.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.43-5.89) and 4.51 (95% CI, 3.42-5.83) per 1000 person-years, respectively. The hazard ratio comparing the incidence rate of HZ in the two cohorts was 1.19 (95% CI, 0.81-1.74) in the adjusted analysis. In this study, we found no evidence of an increased risk of HZ in the population receiving zoster vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine concomitantly. The revision of the product information needs to be carefully assessed to avoid introducing barriers to patients and providers who are interested in these two important vaccines.
Center, Kimberly J; Strauss, Ann
Documentation of the safety of any vaccine is of paramount importance given the nature and scale of vaccination as a public health intervention. Prevenar was first approved for use in 2000, and includes seven pneumococcal serotypes conjugated to CRM(197), a carrier protein that has been used safely in multiple conjugate vaccines for more than 20 years. The safety profile of Prevenar was established prior to licensure in 5 clinical trials involving more than 18,000 infants and children. The largest postmarketing study of the safety of Prevenar given concomitantly with other recommended vaccines was conducted in the United States, and included more than 162,000 subjects. This analysis did not suggest any new safety consideration that would alter the risk-benefit balance of the vaccine, and demonstrated the favorable safety profile of Prevenar. To date, global surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events to the manufacturer after more than 198 million doses distributed has confirmed these findings. The WHO has recommended the priority inclusion of this vaccine in national childhood immunization programs based on both its documented efficacy and safety. We will discuss the importance of monitoring vaccine safety and the methodologies by which this may be done, using Prevenar as an illustrative example.
Boccalini, Sara; Bechini, Angela; Levi, Miriam; Tiscione, Emila; Gasparini, Roberto; Bonanni, Paolo
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) are very relevant pathologies among elderly people (≥ 65 y old), with a consequent high disease burden. Immunization with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) has been differently implemented in the Italian regions in the past years, reaching overall low coverage rates even in those with medical indications. In 2010, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) became available and recommended in the universal Italian infant immunization program. Since October 2012, indications for use of PCV13 were extended to subjects ≥ 50 y to prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases. The Italian decision makers should now revise regional indications for the prevention of pneumococcal diseases in the elderly. Pharmaco-economic analyses represent a useful tool to value the feasibility of new immunization programs and their sustainability. Therefore, an ad hoc population model was developed in order to value the clinical and economic impact of an adult pneumococcal vaccination program in Italy. Particularly, different immunization scenarios were modeled: vaccination of 65 y-olds (1 cohort strategy), simultaneous vaccination of people aged 65 and 70 y (double cohort strategy) and, lastly, immunization of people aged 65, 70 and 75 y (triple cohort strategy), thus leading to the vaccination of 5, 10 and 15 cohorts during the 5 y of the program. In addition, the administration of a PPV23 dose one year after PCV13 was evaluated, in order to verify the economic impact of the supplemental serotype coverage in elderly people. The mathematical model valued the clinical impact of PCV13 vaccination on the number of bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) and pneumococcal meningitis (PM) cases, and related hospitalizations and deaths. Although PCV13 is not yet formally indicated for the prevention of pneumococcal CAP by the European Medicine Agency (differently from FDA, whose
Bock, Allison; Chintamaneni, Kathan; Rein, Lisa; Frazer, Tifany; Kayastha, Gyan; MacKinney, Theodore
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is associated with high morbidity and mortality in low income countries. In Nepal, there is a high lung disease burden and incidence of pneumonia due to multiple factors including indoor air pollution, dust exposure, recurrent infections, and cigarette smoking. Despite the ready availability of effective pneumococcal vaccines (PNV), vaccine coverage rates remain suboptimal globally. Quality Improvement (QI) principles could be applied to improve compliance, but it is a virtually new technology in Nepal. This QI study for Patan Hospital sought to introduce the concept of QI there, to measure the baseline pneumococcal vaccination rate of qualifying adult patients discharged from the medical wards and to assess reasons for non-vaccination. QI interventions were instituted to improve this rate, measuring the effectiveness of QI methods to produce the desired outcomes using the Model for Improvement, Plan-Do-Study-Change (PDSA) methodology. In the three week baseline assessment, 2 out of 81 (2%) eligible patients recalled ever receiving a prior pneumococcal vaccine; 68 (84%) unvaccinated patients responded that they were not asked or were unaware of the PNV. After the QI interventions, the pneumococcal vaccination rate significantly increased to 42% (23/56, p<0.001). Post-intervention, the leading reason for non-vaccination was cost (20%, 11/56). Only 5 (9%) unvaccinated patients were not asked or were unaware of the PNV, a significant change in that process outcome from baseline (p<0.001). Quality improvement measures were effective in increasing pneumococcal vaccination rates, despite the limited familiarity with QI methods at this major teaching hospital. QI techniques may be useful in this and other efforts to improve quality in resource-limited settings, without great cost. PMID:27933153
Yetman, Robert J; Shepard, Julie S; Duke, Anton; Stek, Jon E; Petrecz, Maria; Klopfer, Stephanie O; Kuter, Barbara J; Schödel, Florian P; Lee, Andrew W
This open-label, multicenter, randomized, comparative study evaluated immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of concomitant (Group 1; n=330) vs. non-concomitant (Group 2; n=323) VAQTA™ (25U/0.5 mL) (hepatitis A vaccine; HAV) with ProQuad™ (measles/mumps/rubella/varicella; MMRV) and Prevnar™ (7-valent pneumococcal; PCV-7) in healthy, 12-23 mo old children. Group 1 received HAV/MMRV/PCV-7 concomitantly on Day 1 and second doses of HAV/MMRV at Week 24. Group 2 received MMRV/PCV-7 on Day 1, HAV at Weeks 6 and 30 and MMRV at Week 34. Hepatitis A seropositivity rate (SPR: ≥10 mIU/mL; 4 weeks postdose 2), varicella zoster-virus (VZV) SPR (≥5 gpELISA units/mL) and geometric mean titers (GMT) to S. pneumoniae were examined. Injection-site and systemic adverse experiences (AEs) and daily temperatures were collected. Hepatitis A SPR were 100% for Group 1 and 99.4% for Group 2 after two HAV doses; risk difference=0.7 (95%CI: -1.4,3.8, non-inferior) regardless of initial serostatus. VZV SPR was 93.3% for Group 1 and 98.3% for Group 2; risk difference=-5.1 (95%CI: -9.3, -1.4; non-inferior). S. pneumoniae GMT fold-difference (7 serotypes) ranged from 0.9 to 1.1; non-inferior. No statistically significant differences in the incidence of individual AEs were seen when HAV was administered concomitantly vs. non-concomitantly. Three (all Group 2 post-administration of MMRV/PCV-7) of 11 serious AEs were considered possibly vaccine-related: dehydration and gastroenteritis (same subject) on Day 52; febrile seizure on Day 9. No deaths were reported. Antibody responses to each vaccine given concomitantly were non-inferior to HAV given non-concomitantly with MMRV and PCV-7. Administration of HAV with PCV-7 and MMRV had an acceptable safety profile in 12- to 23-mo-old children.
Muciño-Ortega, Emilio; Mould-Quevedo, Joaquín Federico; Farkouh, Raymond; Strutton, David
Vaccination is an effective intervention for reduce child morbidity and mortality associated to pneumococcus. The availability of new anti-pneumococcal vaccines makes it necessary to evaluate its potential impact on public health and costs related to their implementation. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of immunization strategies based on pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV's) currently available in Mexico from a third payer perspective. A decision tree model was developed to assess both, economic and health impact, of anti-pneumococcal vaccination in children <2 years (lifetime time horizon, discount rate: 5% annual). Comparators were: no-vaccination (reference) and strategies based on 7, 10 and 13-valent PCV's. Effectiveness measures were: child deaths avoided, life-years gained (LYG) and quality adjusted life years (QALY's) gained. Effectiveness, utility, local epidemiology and cost of treating pneumococcal diseases were extracted from published sources. Univariate sensitivity analysis were performed. Immunization dominates no-vaccination: strategy based on 13-valent vaccine prevented 16.205 deaths, gained 331.230 LY's and 332.006 QALY's and saved US$1.307/child vaccinated. Strategies based on 7 and 10-valent PCV's prevented 13.806 and 5.589 deaths, gained 282.193 and 114.251 LY's, 282.969 and 114.972 QALY's and saved US$1.084 and US$731/child vaccinated, respectively. These results were robust to variations in herd immunity and lower immunogenicity of 10-valent vaccine. In Mexico, immunization strategies based on 7, 10 and 13-valent PCV's would be cost-saving interventions, however, health outcomes and savings of the strategy based on 13-valent vaccine are greater than those estimated for 7 and 10-valent PCV's. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Monfries, Nicholas; Goldman, Ran D
Question Parents of a 12-month-old boy are bringing their son in to my family practice clinic for his well-baby visit. As the infant is due for his 12-month vaccine series, the parents are concerned after hearing about the association between certain vaccinations and an increased risk of febrile seizures, and are wondering if they should administer prophylactic antipyretics to decrease the risk of febrile seizure. What vaccinations are associated with increased risk of febrile seizure, and is there evidence supporting prophylactic administration of antipyretics to prevent febrile seizures? Answer Vaccinations associated with increased risk of febrile seizure include the following: the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine; the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine; the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; the whole-cell pertussis vaccine; the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; and concomitant administration of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine with either the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine. Despite being a higher-risk group, children receiving these vaccinations should not receive prophylactic antipyretics, as no statistically significant reduction in the rate of febrile seizures has been documented, and prophylactic antipyretic use potentially decreases the immune response to certain vaccines. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Flasche, Stefan; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Dagan, Ron
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have substantially reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease, including the incidence of otitis media (OM). However, in most countries, no surveillance exists to monitor the change in pneumococcal OM incidence after the introduction of PCVs. We explored whether measuring pneumococcal carriage was a useful surrogate for monitoring postvaccination changes in the incidence of pneumococcal OM. The 7-valent PCV was introduced to Israel's national immunization program in July 2009 and gradually replaced by the 13-valent PCV starting in November 2010. Each day since 2009, nasopharyngeal swabs have been obtained from the first 4 Bedouin children and the first 4 Jewish children who were younger than 5 years old and attended a pediatric emergency room in southern Israel. During the same time, OM surveillance in southern Israel included all children younger than 2 years of age who were diagnosed with OM and had undergone a middle-ear fluid culture. The relative change in the prevalence of vaccine-serotype (VT) pneumococcal carriage was predictive of the relative change in incidence of OM due to VT pneumococcus. However, the serotype replacement observed in non-VT carriage is not paralleled in the incidence of OM due to non-VT pneumococcus. This could indicate that there are more complex mechanisms of the immune response involved in preventing initial and consecutive episodes of OM, which has been changed through declining prevalence of the most virulent serotypes as a result of vaccination. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Khan, M Nadeem; Pichichero, Michael E
The human nasopharynx (NP) microbiota is complex and diverse and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a frequent member. In the first few years of life, children experience maturation of their immune system thereby conferring homeostatic balance in which pneumococci are typically rendered as harmless colonizers in the upper respiratory environment. Pneumococcal carriage declines in many children before they acquire capsular-specific antibodies, suggesting a capsule antibody-independent mechanism of natural protection against pneumococcal carriage in early childhood. A child's immune system in the first few years of life is Th2-skewed so as to avoid inflammation-induced immunopathology. Understanding Th1/Th2 and Th17 ontogeny in early life and how adjuvant vaccine formulations shift the balance of T helper-cell differentiation, may facilitate the development of new protein-based pneumococcal vaccines. This article will discuss the immune dynamics of pneumococcal colonization in infants. The discussion aims to benefit the design and improvement of protein subunit-based next-generation pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:25668673
Chang, Xin; Yu, Weili; Ji, Shaoyang; Shen, Lijuan; Tan, Aijuan; Hu, Tao
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious Gram-positive pathogen that can lead to an invasive pneumococcal disease with high mortality rate. Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PS) is a key virulence determinant and its immunogenicity can be increased by conjugation with a carrier protein. However, the PS-specific cellular and humoral immunity of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine needs further improvement. Hexadecane (HD) is an element of lipid that decorates the surface of nearly all microbial classes. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-HD conjugate (PEG-HD) is soluble and can act as an adjuvant. In the present study, a novel pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine was prepared by conjugation of tetanus toxoid (TT) portion of PS-TT conjugate (PS-TT) with PEG-HD. As compared with PS-TT, conjugation with PEG-HD led to an 8.0-fold increase in the PS-specific IgG titers. Conjugation with PEG-HD also gave rise to 34.9-, 3.6- and 7.7-fold increase in the IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-5 levels, respectively. Thus, the conjugated PEG-HD has a stimulatory adjuvant activity to potentiate a robust humoral and cellular immunity. Our proposed conjugate was expected to act as an effective pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for prevention of S. pneumoniae infections.
Hernandez-Bou, Susanna; Garcia-Garcia, Juan Jose; Gene, Amadeu; Esteva, Cristina; del Amo, Eva; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen
Between April 2004 and March 2006 an oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 502 asymptomatic children, aged 6 months to 6 years, at a tertiary children's hospital outpatient department to assess the pneumococcal colonisation rate, risk factors, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility. Only 126 (25.3%) children had received ≥ 1 dose of PCV7. The pneumococcal carriage rate was 23.5%. Carrier rates were significantly higher in children aged ≥ 24 months and children attending daycare center. Thirty six (31.0%) of the isolates were contained in PCV7, 39 (33.6%) in PCV10 and 62 (53.4%) in PCV13. Forty-four strains (37.9%) were resistant to penicillin. Vaccine serotype (VT) strains were more likely to be penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae than non-PCV7 serotype (NVT) strains (66.7% vs. 21.6%; P < 0.001). In our pediatric population, NVT were predominant among pneumococcal carriers whereas antibiotic resistance was significantly associated with VT. PCV13 can substantially increase the serotype coverage of S.pneumoniae in healthy carriers.
Rodgers, Gail L; Klugman, Keith P
Infection due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children, especially in developing countries. With the support of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, the majority of these countries have introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) into their national immunization programs and early data demonstrate a high degree of effectiveness, translating to enormous public health benefit through both direct and indirect (herd) effects. Future vaccination strategy may be focused on maintaining herd effects rather than individual protection. Evaluation of vaccine-type carriage, particularly in pneumonia cases, may be an easy, feasible way of measuring continued vaccine impact.
Rezende, R P V; Ribeiro, F M; Albuquerque, E M N; Gayer, C R; Andrade, L E C; Klumb, E M
To evaluate the immunogenicity of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in adult systemic lupus erythematosus patients undergoing (IS group) and not undergoing (non-IS group) immunosuppressive treatment. In this prospective open-label study from February 2013 to April 2014, 54 patients had blood samples collected immediately before PPSV23 immunization and 4-6 weeks thereafter for the ELISA measurement of IgG antibody levels against seven pneumococcal serotypes. Positive vaccine response for each serotype was defined as a four-fold or greater antibody response over baseline levels or as a post-vaccine anti-pneumococcal IgG level ≥1.3 µg/ml when baseline values were <1.3 µg/ml. Patients should have responded appropriately to ≥70% of the tested serotypes. We also calculated the mean ratio of post- to pre-vaccination anti-pneumococcal IgG levels. Twenty-eight patients were classified into the IS group and 26 into non-IS group. The median dose of prednisone at baseline was ≤5 mg/day in both groups. Serotype-specific vaccine response rates were not significantly different between the groups. Less than 40% of patients responded adequately by both vaccine response criteria, being numerically lower among IS patients. The mean ratio of increase in anti-pneumococcal levels was 6.4 versus 4.7 (p = 0.001) in non-IS and IS groups, respectively. The vaccine was poorly immunogenic, especially among adult systemic lupus erythematosus patients under immunosuppressive therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.
Sadlier, C; O'Dea, S; Bennett, K; Dunne, J; Conlon, N; Bergin, C
The aim of this study was to compare the immunologic response to a prime-boost immunization strategy combining the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) versus the PPSV23 alone in HIV-infected adults. HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive PCV13 at week 0 followed by PPSV23 at week 4 (n = 31, prime-boost group) or PPSV23 alone at week 4 (n = 33, PPSV23-alone group). Serotype specific IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) and functional oposonophagocytic (OPA) geometric mean titer (GMT) were compared for 12 pneumococcal serotypes shared by both vaccines at week 8 and week 28. The prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥2-fold increase in IgG GMC and a GMC >1 ug/ml at week 8 (odds ratio (OR) 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46-2.74, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.40-2.70, p < 0.01). Similarly, the prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥4-fold increase in GMT at week 8 (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.22-2.39, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.15-2.3, p < 0.01). This study adds to evidence supporting current pneumococcal vaccination recommendations combining the conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines in the United States and Europe for HIV-infected individuals.
Gonçalves, Viviane M; Dias, Waldely O; Campos, Ivana B; Liberman, Celia; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria E; Silva, Eliane P; Cardoso, Celso P; Alderson, Mark; Robertson, George; Maisonneuve, Jean-François; Tate, Andrea; Anderson, Porter; Malley, Richard; Fratelli, Fernando; Leite, Luciana C C
Pneumococcal infections impose a large burden of disease on the human population, mainly in developing countries, and the current pneumococcal vaccines offer serotype-specific protection, but do not cover all pathogenic strains, leaving populations vulnerable to disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes. The pneumococcal whole cell vaccine is a low-cost strategy based on non-capsular antigens common to all strains, inducing serotype-independent immunity. Therefore, we developed the process for the cGMP production of this cellular vaccine. Initially, three engineering runs and two cGMP runs were performed in 60-L bioreactors, demonstrating the consistency of the production process, as evaluated by the growth curves, glucose consumption and metabolite formation (lactate and acetate). Cell recovery by tangential filtration was 92 ± 13 %. We optimized the conditions for beta-propiolactone (BPL) inactivation of the bacterial suspensions, establishing a maximum cell density of OD600 between 27 and 30, with a BPL concentration of 1:4000 (v/v) at 150 rpm and 4 °C for 30 h. BPL was hydrolyzed by heating for 2h at 37 °C. The criteria and methods for quality control were defined using the engineering runs and the cGMP Lots passed all specifications. cGMP vaccine Lots displayed high potency, inducing between 80 and 90% survival in immunized mice when challenged with virulent pneumococci. Sera from mice immunized with the cGMP Lots recognized several pneumococcal proteins in the extract of encapsulated strains by Western blot. The cGMP whole cell antigen bulk and whole cell vaccine product lots were shown to be stable for up to 12 and 18 months, respectively, based upon survival assays following i.p. challenge. Our results show the consistency and stability of the cGMP whole cell pneumococcal vaccine lots and demonstrate the feasibility of production in a developing country setting.
... the United States. Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs is not as effective as ... should not get PCV13. Anyone with a severe allergy to any component of PCV13 should not get ...
... the United States. Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs is not as effective as ... should not get PCV13. Anyone with a severe allergy to any component of PCV13 should not get ...
Moore, Catrin E; Paul, John; Foster, Dona; Mahar, Saeed A; Griffiths, David; Knox, Kyle; Peto, Timothy E; Walker, A Sarah; Crook, Derrick W
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7) vaccine's impact on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is well described, but few reports exist on the additional impact of the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13). We calculated the IPD incidence across all ages in a surveillance project following implementation of PCV7 (in September 2006) and PCV13 (in April 2010) in children aged <2 years (11 hospitals; 4935 cases). The overall incidence decreased from 10 cases/100 000 persons per year in 1996-1997 to 8 cases/100 000 persons per year in 2007-2008 and 7 cases/100 000 in 2012-2013. Declines were greater in children aged <2 years (from 37 cases/100 000 in 1996-1997 to 29 and 14 cases/100 000 in 2007-2008 and 2012-2013, respectively). The incidence of IPD due to PCV7 serotypes decreased in all ages after PCV7 introduction (P < .001), whereas the incidence of IPD due to the additional 6 serotypes in PCV13 and to nonvaccine types (NVTs) increased in children aged ≥2 years (P < .001 for both comparisons). The incidence of IPD due to the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13 declined significantly after PCV13 introduction in all ages (P ≤ .01), and the incidence of IPD due to NVTs declined significantly in children aged ≥2 years (P = .003). In 2011-2013, the overall incidences of IPD due to PCV7 serotypes, the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13, and NVTs were 0.3, 2.8, and 4.4 cases/100 000; the incidences among children aged <2 years were 0.9, 2.4, and 10.8 cases/100 000, respectively. The annual incidence of IPD due to vaccine serotypes (1-3 cases/100 000) among children aged <2 years and nontarget groups demonstrates the success of PCV7 and PCV13. A substantially higher incidence of IPD due to NVTs indicates the importance of ongoing surveillance and extension of vaccine polyvalency. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rodrigo, Chamira; Bewick, Thomas; Sheppard, Carmen; Greenwood, Sonia; Macgregor, Vanessa; Trotter, Caroline; Slack, Mary; George, Robert; Lim, Wei Shen
On a population level, pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in children has reduced the incidence of vaccine-type disease in all age groups, including older adults. Few individual level studies have been performed describing the pneumococcal serotypes associated with adult community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and quantifying associations with child contact and child vaccination status. Pneumococcal serotypes were determined using a validated multiplex immunoassay (Bio-Plex) in a large prospective cohort of adults hospitalised with CAP. Child (<16 years old) contact history and child pneumococcal vaccination status were obtained from patients and public health records, respectively. Of 1130 participants, 329 (29.1%) reported child contact, and pneumococcal infection was identified in 410 (36.3%). Pneumococcal CAP was commoner in adults with child contact (148/329 (45.0%) vs 262/801 (32.7%); adjusted OR 1.63, CI 1.25 to 2.14; p<0.001). A serotype was determined in 263 of 410 (64.1%) adults with pneumococcal CAP; 112 (42.6%) reported child contact, 38 (33.9%) with a vaccinated child. Adults in contact with a vaccinated child were significantly less likely to have vaccine-type CAP compared with adults in contact with an unvaccinated child (6 of 38 (15.8%) vs 25 of 74 (33.8%), respectively; OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99; p=0.044). Pneumococcal aetiology in adult CAP is independently associated with child contact and implicated serotypes are influenced by child vaccination status. This is the first study to demonstrate these associations at an individual rather than population level; it affirms that 'herd protection' from childhood vaccination extends beyond adult invasive disease to pneumococcal CAP.
Madhi, Shabir A.; Koen, Anthonet; Jose, Lisa; van Niekerk, Nadia; Adrian, Peter V.; Cutland, Clare; François, Nancy; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Yarzabal, Juan-Pablo; Moreira, Marta; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode
Abstract Background: Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children. Methods: Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9–10 months). Immune responses, assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent and functional assays, and safety were evaluated up to 14 months post-booster. Results: Of 83, 101, and 100 children enrolled in HIV+, HEU, and HUU groups, 70, 91, and 93 were included in according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort. For each vaccine-serotype, percentages of children with antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL were ≥97% 1 month post-primary vaccination and ≥98.5% 1 month post-booster (except for 6B and 23F at both timepoints). Post-primary vaccination, functional antibody responses were lower in HIV+ children: for each vaccine-serotype, percentages of children with opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titres ≥8 were ≥72%, ≥81%, and ≥79% for HIV+, HEU, and HUU children. Post-booster, ≥87% of children in each group had OPA titres ≥8. Reactogenicity was similar across groups. Thirty one (37%) HIV+, 25 (25%) HEU, and 20 (20%) HUU children reported ≥1 serious adverse event. Five HIV+ and 4 HEU children died. One death (sudden infant death syndrome; HEU group; 3 days post-dose 1) was considered potentially vaccine-related. Conclusion: PHiD-CV was immunogenic and well-tolerated in HIV+, HEU, and HUU children, and has the potential to provide substantial benefit irrespective of HIV infection status. PMID:28079828
Madhi, Shabir A; Koen, Anthonet; Jose, Lisa; van Niekerk, Nadia; Adrian, Peter V; Cutland, Clare; François, Nancy; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Yarzabal, Juan-Pablo; Moreira, Marta; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode
Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children. Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9-10 months). Immune responses, assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent and functional assays, and safety were evaluated up to 14 months post-booster. Of 83, 101, and 100 children enrolled in HIV+, HEU, and HUU groups, 70, 91, and 93 were included in according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort. For each vaccine-serotype, percentages of children with antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL were ≥97% 1 month post-primary vaccination and ≥98.5% 1 month post-booster (except for 6B and 23F at both timepoints). Post-primary vaccination, functional antibody responses were lower in HIV+ children: for each vaccine-serotype, percentages of children with opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titres ≥8 were ≥72%, ≥81%, and ≥79% for HIV+, HEU, and HUU children. Post-booster, ≥87% of children in each group had OPA titres ≥8. Reactogenicity was similar across groups. Thirty one (37%) HIV+, 25 (25%) HEU, and 20 (20%) HUU children reported ≥1 serious adverse event. Five HIV+ and 4 HEU children died. One death (sudden infant death syndrome; HEU group; 3 days post-dose 1) was considered potentially vaccine-related. PHiD-CV was immunogenic and well-tolerated in HIV+, HEU, and HUU children, and has the potential to provide substantial benefit irrespective of HIV infection status.
Browning, Michael J; Lim, Michael T C; Kenia, Priti; Whittle, Michelle; Doffinger, Rainer; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Viskaduraki, Maria; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Gaillard, Erol A
Pneumococcal immunization is recommended in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). To date, however, there are no published studies on the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccination in this group of patients. We carried out a retrospective study of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody responses to immunization with Prevenar 7 and Pneumovax II in a cohort of children with CF. Nine children had been immunized with Prevenar 7, and all had serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody levels in the protective range (>0.35mg/L) to all 7 immunizing serotypes. In contrast, only 7 of 33 patients (21%) immunized with Pneumovax II made protective antibody responses to all 7 serotypes, and 3 failed to make protective antibodies to any of the serotypes. Controlling for age as a confounder in the analysis, children with impaired antibody responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide (Pneumovax II) immunization had lower Shwachman-Kulczycki scores than children with normal polysaccharide antibody responses. All isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurred in patients with impaired anti-pneumococcal antibody responses, and a broader range of respiratory pathogens was isolated from these children. Impaired antibody responses to immunization with Pneumovax II are common in children with CF and this may be associated with increased disease severity. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ljutic, Belma; Ochs, Martina; Messham, Benjamin; Ming, Marin; Dookie, Annie; Harper, Kevin; Ausar, Salvador F
We investigated the immunogenicity, stability and adsorption properties of an experimental pneumococcal vaccine composed of three protein vaccine antigens; Pneumococcal histidine triad protein D, (PhtD), Pneumococcal choline-binding protein A (PcpA) and genetically detoxified pneumolysin D1 (PlyD1) formulated with aluminum salt adjuvants. Immunogenicity studies conducted in BALB/c mice showed that antibody responses to each antigen adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide (AH) were significantly higher than when adjuvanted with aluminum phosphate (AP) or formulated without adjuvant. Lower microenvironment pH and decreased strength of antigen adsorption significantly improved the stability of antigens. The stability of PcpA and PlyD1 assessed by RP-HPLC correlated well with the immunogenicity of these antigens in mice and showed that pretreatment of the aluminum hydroxide adjuvant with phosphate ions improved their stability. Adjuvant dose-ranging studies showed that 28 μg Al/dose to be the concentration of adjuvant resulting in optimal immunogenicity of the trivalent vaccine formulation. Taken together, the results of theses studies suggest that the type of aluminum salt, strength of adsorption and microenvironment pH have a significant impact on the immunogenicity and chemical stability of an experimental vaccine composed of the three pneumococcal protein antigens, PhtD, PcpA, and PlyD1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hermand, Philippe; Vandercammen, Annick; Mertens, Emmanuel; Di Paolo, Emmanuel; Verlant, Vincent; Denoël, Philippe; Godfroid, Fabrice
ABSTRACT The use of protein antigens able to protect against the majority of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes is envisaged as stand-alone and/or complement to the current capsular polysaccharide-based pneumococcal vaccines. Pneumolysin (Ply) is a key virulence factor that is highly conserved in amino acid sesec-typsecquence across pneumococcal serotypes, and therefore may be considered as a vaccine target. However, native Ply cannot be used in vaccines due to its intrinsic cytolytic activity. In the present work a completely, irreversibly detoxified pneumolysin (dPly) has been generated using an optimized formaldehyde treatment. Detoxi-fication was confirmed by dPly challenge in mice and histological analysis of the injection site in rats. Immunization with dPly elicited Ply-specific functional antibodies that were able to inhibit Ply activity in a hemolysis assay. In addition, immunization with dPly protected mice against lethal intranasal challenge with Ply, and intranasal immunization inhibited nasopharyngeal colonization after intranasal challenge with homologous or heterologous pneumococcal strain. Our findings supported dPly as a valid candidate antigen for further pneumococcal vaccine development. PMID:27768518
Ngabo, Fidèle; Levin, Ann; Wang, Susan A; Gatera, Maurice; Rugambwa, Celse; Kayonga, Celestin; Donnen, Philippe; Lepage, Philippe; Hutubessy, Raymond
Detailed cost evaluations of delivery of new vaccines such as pneumococcal conjugate, human papillomavirus (HPV), and rotavirus vaccines in low and middle-income countries are scarce. This paper differs from others by comparing the costs of introducing multiple vaccines in a single country and then assessing the financial and economic impact at the time and implications for the future. The objective of the analysis was to understand the introduction and delivery cost per dose or per child of the three new vaccines in Rwanda to inform domestic and external financial resource mobilization. Start-up, recurrent, and capital costs from a government perspective were collected in 2012. Since pneumococcal conjugate and HPV vaccines had already been introduced, cost data for those vaccines were collected retrospectively while prospective (projected) costing was done for rotavirus vaccine. The financial unit cost per fully immunized child (or girl for HPV vaccine) of delivering 3 doses of each vaccine (without costs related to vaccine procurement) was $0.37 for rotavirus (RotaTeq(®)) vaccine, $0.54 for pneumococcal (Prevnar(®)) vaccine in pre-filled syringes, and $10.23 for HPV (Gardasil (®)) vaccine. The financial delivery costs of Prevnar(®) and RotaTeq(®) were similar since both were delivered using existing health system infrastructure to deliver infant vaccines at health centers. The total financial cost of delivering Gardasil(®) was higher than those of the two infant vaccines due to greater resource requirements associated with creating a new vaccine delivery system in for a new target population of 12-year-old girls who have not previously been served by the existing routine infant immunization program. The analysis indicates that service delivery strategies have an important influence on costs of introducing new vaccines and costs per girl reached with HPV vaccine are higher than the other two vaccines because of its delivery strategy. Documented information
Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Narendra; Santosham, Mathuram
Despite the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the US and other Western countries for over 14 years, as of September 2014 only 4 South Asian countries were using PCV in their universal immunization program. To generate momentum toward addressing this issue a “South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines” was organized just prior to the 9th international symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases held in India recently. Leading scientists, program managers, and decision makers including ministry officials from the region participated in the meeting. The participants discussed available data on pneumococcal disease burden in South Asia, surveillance methods, efficacy and safety of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), the status of PCV introduction, programmatic challenges in introducing PCV and available data on the impact of PCV in South Asia and globally. There was a strong consensus that available data on disease burden and the global experience with PCV justified the introduction PCV in all Asian countries in order to accelerate the gains in child survival in the region. PMID:27026150
La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; D’Egidio, Valeria; Sestili, Cristina; Spadea, Antonietta
Background The risk of getting influenza and pneumococcal disease is higher in cancer patients, and serum antibody levels tend to be lower in patients with hematological malignancy. Objective To assess flu and pneumococcal vaccinations efficacy, effectiveness, and safety in onco-hematological patients. Methods Two systematic reviews and possible meta-analysis were conducted to summarize the results of all primary study in the scientific literature about the flu and pneumococcal vaccine in onco-hematological patients. Literature searches were performed using Pub-Med and Scopus databases. StatsDirect 2.8.0 was used for the analysis. Results 22 and 26 studies were collected respectively for flu and pneumococcal vaccinations. Protection rate of booster dose was 30% (95% CI=6–62%) for H1N1. Pooled prevalence protection rate of H3N2 and B was available for meta-analysis only for first dose, 42.6% (95% CI=23.2 – 63.3 %) and 39.6 % (95% CI=26%–54.1%) for H3N2 and B, respectively. Response rate of booster dose resulted 35% (95% CI=19.7–51.2%) for H1N1, 23% (95% CI=16.6–31.5%) for H3N2, 29% (95% CI=21.3–37%) for B. Conclusion Despite the low rate of response, flu, and pneumococcal vaccines are worthwhile for patients with hematological malignancies. Patients undergoing chemotherapy in particular rituximab, splenectomy, transplant recipient had lower and impaired response. No serious adverse events were reported for both vaccines. PMID:27648207
Long, Joanna E; Ring, Chris; Bosch, Jos A; Eves, Francis; Drayson, Mark T; Calver, Rebecca; Say, Vanessa; Allen, Daniel; Burns, Victoria E
To assess whether a life-style physical activity intervention improved antibody response to a pneumococcal vaccination in sedentary middle-aged women. Eighty-nine sedentary women completed a 16-week exercise (physical activity consultation, pedometer, telephone/e-mail prompts; n = 44) or control (advisory leaflet; n = 45) intervention. Pneumococcal vaccination was administered at 12 weeks, and antibody titers (11 of the 23 contained in the pneumococcal vaccine) were determined before vaccination and 4 weeks and 6 months later. Physical activity, aerobic fitness, body composition, and psychological factors were measured before and after the intervention. The intervention group displayed a greater increase in walking behavior (from mean [standard deviation] = 82.16 [90.90] to 251.87 [202.13]) compared with the control condition (111.67 [94.64] to 165.16 [117.22]; time by group interaction: F(1,68) = 11.25, p = .001, η(2) = 0.14). Quality of life also improved in the intervention group (from 19.37 [3.22] to 16.70 [4.29]) compared with the control condition (19.97 [4.22] to 19.48 [5.37]; time by group interaction: F(1,66) = 4.44, p = .039, η(2) = 0.06). However, no significant effects of the intervention on antibody response were found (time by group η(2) for each of the 11 pneumococcal strains ranged from 0.001 to 0.018; p values all >.264). Participation in a life-style physical activity intervention increased subjective and objective physical activity levels and quality of life but did not affect antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination.
Bloom, H G; Bloom, J S; Krasnoff, L; Frank, A D
This study compared three interventions designed to increase acceptance of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines among elderly hospitalized patients. All individuals 65 and older able to give informed consent (73 patients) who were admitted to one medical floor of an acute care hospital were randomized to one of three groups. All groups received informational pamphlets explaining influenza and pneumococcal disease, their respective vaccines, and indications for their use. The first group received pamphlets only, the second received nursing follow-up, and the third received trained volunteer follow-up. Patients on another medical floor served as controls. The results showed a significant improvement in vaccine acceptance in all three study groups compared to controls for both influenza (78% vs 0%) and pneumococcal (75% vs 0%) vaccines. The differences among the three groups were not significant. No significant differences were found among patients accepting or refusing vaccination with regard to diagnosis, age, length of stay, sex, or having a private physician. We conclude that a simple educational program followed by offering vaccination before hospital discharge can be easily implemented, and dramatically increase immunization rates in this high risk group.
Gouveia, Miguel; Fiorentino, Francesca; Jesus, Gonçalo; Costa, João; Borges, Margarida
Pneumococcal infections are the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children. In June 2015, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in the Portuguese Immunization Program. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of children vaccinated with PCV13 versus no vaccination for preventing pneumococcal diseases. A cohort simulation model for 2014 Portuguese newborns was used, considering a lifetime horizon and existence of herd effect on adults. Model outcomes measured life years gained, direct and indirect healthcare costs and net benefits considering &OV0556;20,000 per life years gained. PCV13 clinical effectiveness rate by serotype covered was assumed similar to PCV7. Patients' resource use was based on 2014 diagnostic-related group database and experts' opinion, while national legislation and official drug cost database were the main sources for unitary costs. Univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess results' effectiveness. In base case scenario, PCV13 was a dominant strategy, being associated with better health outcomes and lower costs. In a lifetime, a total of 6238 infections (excluding acute otitis media) and 130 deaths were averted, with a total saving of &OV0556;397,217 ($432,966). Net benefits were estimated above &OV0556;28 million ($30 million). Results were robust in all sensitivity analyses, with positive net benefits, except when herd effect was excluded. Vaccination of children with PCV13 starting in their first year of life is a cost-effective intervention with the potential to save costs to the Portuguese health system and to provide health gains by reducing the burden of pneumococcal disease in the vaccines and through the herd effect of this vaccine.
Long, Joanna E; Ring, Christopher; Drayson, Mark; Bosch, Jos; Campbell, John P; Bhabra, Jagraj; Browne, David; Dawson, Joel; Harding, Sarah; Lau, Jamie; Burns, Victoria E
High intensity acute exercise at the time of vaccination has been shown to enhance the subsequent antibody response. This study examines whether an acute moderate intensity aerobic intervention prior to vaccination can enhance antibody response to pneumonia and half dose influenza vaccination. Sixty young (age (SD)=22.0 (6.1) years) and 60 older (age (SD)=57.5 (6.5) years) adults attended the laboratory on two separate occasions. At the first session, baseline antibody titres were determined, before participants completed either a brisk walk around campus at >55% of their age-predicted heart rate maximum, or a resting control condition, for 45 min. After the intervention, all participants received a full-dose pneumococcal vaccination and a half-dose influenza vaccination. Four weeks later, participants returned for a follow up blood sample. Multivariate ANOVA revealed an increase in total antibody titres against the influenza vaccine (F((12,106))=25.76, p<.001, η(2)=.75) and both the IgM (F((12,106))=17.10, p<.001, η(2)=.66) and IgG (F((12,106))=25.76, p<.001, η(2)=.75) antibody titres against the pneumococcal vaccine. However, there were no significant Time×Group interactions (p's all >.15), indicating that a 45 min brisk walk prior to vaccination did not affect antibody response to either the influenza or pneumonia vaccine. The results suggest that higher intensity exercise is necessary to augment antibody response to vaccination.
Reduced middle ear infection with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, but not Streptococcus pneumoniae, after transition to 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine.
Leach, Amanda Jane; Wigger, Christine; Hare, Kim; Hampton, Vanya; Beissbarth, Jemima; Andrews, Ross; Chatfield, Mark; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi; Morris, Peter Stanley
In October 2009, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7: Prevenar(TM) Pfizer) was replaced in the Northern Territory childhood vaccination schedule by 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10; Synflorix(™) GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines). This analysis aims to determine whether the reduced prevalence of suppurative otitis media measured in the PHiD-CV10 era was associated with changes in nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and middle ear discharge (ED) microbiology in vaccinated Indigenous children. Swabs of the NP and ED were collected in remote Indigenous communities between September 2008 and December 2012. Swabs were cultured using standardised methods for otitis media pathogens. Children less than 3 years of age and having received a primary course of 2 or more doses of one PCV formulation and not more than one dose of another PCV formulation were included in the primary analysis; children with non-mixed single formulation PCV schedules were also compared. NP swabs were obtained from 421 of 444 (95%) children in the PCV7 group and 443 of 451 (98%) children in the PHiD-CV10 group. Non-mixed PCV schedules were received by 333 (79%) and 315 (71%) children, respectively. Pneumococcal (Spn) NP carriage was 76% and 82%, and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) carriage was 68% and 73%, respectively. ED was obtained from 60 children (85 perforations) in the PCV7 group and from 47 children (59 perforations) in the PHiD-CV10 group. Data from bilateral perforations were combined. Spn was cultured from 25% and 18%, respectively, and NTHi was cultured from 61% and 34% respectively (p = 0.008). The observed reduction in the prevalence of suppurative OM in this population was not associated with reduced NP carriage of OM pathogens. The prevalence of NTHi-infected ED was lower in PHiD-CV10 vaccinated children compared to PCV7 vaccinated children. Changes in clinical severity may be explained by the action of PHiD-CV10 on NTHi
American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Technical report: prevention of pneumococcal infections, including the use of pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotic prophylaxis.
Overturf, G D
Pneumococcal infections are the most common invasive bacterial infections in children in the United States. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections peaks in children younger than 2 years, reaching rates of 228/100,000 in children 6 to 12 months old. Children with functional or anatomic asplenia (including sickle cell disease [SCD]) and children with human immunodeficiency virus infection have pneumococcal infection rates 20- to 100-fold higher than those of healthy children during the first 5 years of life. Others at high risk of pneumococcal infections include children with congenital immunodeficiency; chronic cardiopulmonary disease; children receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy; children with immunosuppressive neoplastic diseases; children with chronic renal insufficiency, including nephrotic syndrome; children with diabetes; and children with cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Children of Native American (American Indian and Alaska Native) or African American descent also have higher rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. Outbreaks of pneumococcal infection have occurred with increased frequency in children attending out-of-home care. Among these children, nasopharyngeal colonization rates of 60% have been observed, along with pneumococci resistant to multiple antibiotics. The administration of antibiotics to children involved in outbreaks of pneumococcal disease has had an inconsistent effect on nasopharyngeal carriage. In contrast, continuous penicillin prophylaxis in children younger than 5 years with SCD has been successful in reducing rates of pneumococcal disease by 84%. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines have been recommended since 1985 for children older than 2 years who are at high risk of invasive disease, but these vaccines were not recommended for younger children and infants because of poor antibody response before 2 years of age. In contrast, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (Prevnar) induce proposed protective antibody responses (>.15
Palkola, Nina V.; Pakkanen, Sari H.; Kantele, Jussi M.; Pakarinen, Laura; Puohiniemi, Ritvaleena; Kantele, Anu
Background. Mucosal immune mechanisms in the upper and lower respiratory tracts may serve a critical role in preventing pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus pneumoniae–specific plasmablasts presumably originating in the lower respiratory tract have recently been found in the circulation in patients with pneumonia. The localization of an immune response can be evaluated by exploring homing receptors on such plasmablasts, yet no data have thus far described homing receptors in pneumonia. Methods. The expression of α4β7, L-selectin, and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) on S. pneumoniae–specific plasmablasts was examined in patients with pneumonia (n = 16) and healthy volunteers given pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV; n = 14) or pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV; n = 11). Results. In patients with pneumonia, the proportion of S. pneumoniae–specific plasmablasts expressing L-selectin was high, the proportion expressing α4β7 was moderate, and the proportion expressing CLA was low. The homing receptor α4β7 was expressed more frequently in the pneumonia group than in the PPV (P = .000) and PCV (P = .029) groups, L-selectin was expressed more frequently in the PPV group than in the PCV group (P = .014); and CLA was expressed more frequently in the pneumonia group than in the PPV group (P = .001). Conclusions. The homing receptor profile in patients with pneumonia was unique yet it was closer to that in PCV recipients than in PPV recipients. These data suggest greater mucosal localization for immune response in natural infection, which is clinically interesting, especially considering the shortcomings of vaccines in protecting against noninvasive pneumonia. PMID:25838267
Palkola, Nina V; Pakkanen, Sari H; Kantele, Jussi M; Pakarinen, Laura; Puohiniemi, Ritvaleena; Kantele, Anu
Mucosal immune mechanisms in the upper and lower respiratory tracts may serve a critical role in preventing pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus pneumoniae-specific plasmablasts presumably originating in the lower respiratory tract have recently been found in the circulation in patients with pneumonia. The localization of an immune response can be evaluated by exploring homing receptors on such plasmablasts, yet no data have thus far described homing receptors in pneumonia. The expression of α4β7, L-selectin, and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) on S. pneumoniae-specific plasmablasts was examined in patients with pneumonia (n = 16) and healthy volunteers given pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV; n = 14) or pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV; n = 11). In patients with pneumonia, the proportion of S. pneumoniae-specific plasmablasts expressing L-selectin was high, the proportion expressing α4β7 was moderate, and the proportion expressing CLA was low. The homing receptor α4β7 was expressed more frequently in the pneumonia group than in the PPV (P = .000) and PCV (P = .029) groups, L-selectin was expressed more frequently in the PPV group than in the PCV group (P = .014); and CLA was expressed more frequently in the pneumonia group than in the PPV group (P = .001). The homing receptor profile in patients with pneumonia was unique yet it was closer to that in PCV recipients than in PPV recipients. These data suggest greater mucosal localization for immune response in natural infection, which is clinically interesting, especially considering the shortcomings of vaccines in protecting against noninvasive pneumonia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Satman, Ilhan; Akalin, Sema; Cakir, Bekir; Altinel, Serdar
We aimed to examine the effect of increased physician awareness on the rate and determinants of influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients (n = 5682, mean [SD] age: 57.3 [11.6] years, 57% female) were enrolled by 44 physicians between Sept 2010 and Jan 2011. The physicians were initially questioned regarding vaccination practices, and then, they attended a training program. During the last five years, the physicians recommended influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations to 87.9% and 83.4% of the patients, respectively; however; only 27% of the patients received the influenza and 9.8% received the pneumococcal vaccines. One year after the training, the vaccination rates increased to 63.3% and 40.7%, respectively. The logistic regression models revealed that variables which increased the likelihood of having been vaccinated against influenza were: longer duration of diabetes, presence of hyperlipidemia and more use of concomitant medications whereas more use of anti-hyperglycemic medications was associated with increased odds of vaccination. On the other hand, older age, longer duration of diabetes and presence of a cardiovascular disease were variables which decreased the likelihood of having been vaccinated against pneumococcal disease during the past five years. However, during the study period, variables which decreased the odds of having been vaccinated included: older age and anti-hyperglycemic medications for influenza, and presence of hyperlipidemia and a family history of hypertension for pneumococcal disease. While variables which increased the likelihood of vaccination in the same period were: increased number of co-morbidities for influenza, and family history of diabetes for pneumococcal disease. We conclude that increased awareness of physicians may help improve vaccination rates against influenza and pneumococcal disease. However, diabetic patients with more severe health conditions are less likely to having been
Satman, Ilhan; Akalin, Sema; Cakir, Bekir; Altinel, Serdar; Study Group, The diaVAX
We aimed to examine the effect of increased physician awareness on the rate and determinants of influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients (n = 5682, mean [SD] age: 57.3 [11.6] years, 57% female) were enrolled by 44 physicians between Sept 2010 and Jan 2011. The physicians were initially questioned regarding vaccination practices, and then, they attended a training program. During the last five years, the physicians recommended influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations to 87.9% and 83.4% of the patients, respectively; however; only 27% of the patients received the influenza and 9.8% received the pneumococcal vaccines. One year after the training, the vaccination rates increased to 63.3% and 40.7%, respectively. The logistic regression models revealed that variables which increased the likelihood of having been vaccinated against influenza were: longer duration of diabetes, presence of hyperlipidemia and more use of concomitant medications whereas more use of anti-hyperglycemic medications was associated with increased odds of vaccination. On the other hand, older age, longer duration of diabetes and presence of a cardiovascular disease were variables which decreased the likelihood of having been vaccinated against pneumococcal disease during the past five years. However, during the study period, variables which decreased the odds of having been vaccinated included: older age and anti-hyperglycemic medications for influenza, and presence of hyperlipidemia and a family history of hypertension for pneumococcal disease. While variables which increased the likelihood of vaccination in the same period were: increased number of co-morbidities for influenza, and family history of diabetes for pneumococcal disease. We conclude that increased awareness of physicians may help improve vaccination rates against influenza and pneumococcal disease. However, diabetic patients with more severe health conditions are less likely to having been
Licciardi, Paul V; Russell, Fiona M; Balloch, Anne; Burton, Robert L; Nahm, Moon H; Gilbert, Gwendolyn; Tang, Mimi L K; Mulholland, Edward K
The impact of prior nasopharyngeal carriage on serotype-specific IgG responses following immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has recently been described. This report extends these findings to describe the attenuation of functional immune responses following 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPS). We report the attenuation of immune responses following booster with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPS) in infants with prior nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Fijian infants who were part of a phase II randomized, controlled trial of reduced dose PCV7 schedules were the basis of this study. Pneumococcal carriage was determined at 6, 9 and 12 months of age, prior to PPS immunization. Serum samples collected at 18 weeks (post-PCV7), 12 months (pre-PPS), 12.5 months and 17 months (post-PPS) of age were assessed for serotype-specific IgG and opsonophagocytic responses. The most frequently carried serotypes were 6B (N=11), 19F (N=14) and 23F (N=23). Significantly lower serotype-specific IgG for 19F, 23F but not 6B post-PPS were detected in infants with homologous serotype carriage prior to PPS compared with non-carriers (N=230). However, OPA levels for 6B and 23F were lower in infants that carried these serotypes. Pneumococcal carriage with 19F or 23F at any time prior to PPS immunization in infants at 12 months of age who were previously primed with PCV resulted in serotype-specific hyporesponsiveness that persisted until 17 months of age. These results may have implications for the timing of infant vaccine schedules, particularly in high disease burden settings.
Hausdorff, William P; Hoet, Bernard; Adegbola, Richard A
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. A heptavalent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV) has proven highly effective in preventing pneumococcal disease in industrialized countries. Two higher-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are now widely available, even in the poorest countries. These differ from each other in the number of serotypes and carrier proteins used for their conjugation. Some have assumed that the only meaningful clinical difference between PCV formulations is a function of the number of serotypes each contains. A careful review of recent clinical data with these and several unlicensed PCV formulations points to important similarities but also that some key properties of each vaccine likely differ from one another.
Shen, Zhenwei; Lei, Han
Human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide with high activity and broad spectrum activity. hBD-2 expression may be highly elevated by microorganisms and inflammation. We reported that the majority of common vaccines used, including 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and split influenza virus vaccine, could induce the expression of hBD-2 in epithelial cells. Among them, the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine was effective at a lower concentration (0.5 µg/ml), while Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and split influenza virus vaccine were effective at the concentration of 1 µg/ml. However, bacteriostatic experiments revealed that the split influenza virus vaccine was capable of inducing the highest antimicrobial activity. The medium of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine treatment group had a higher antimicrobial activity than the medium of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine treatment group. The transcriptional regulator of hBD-2, that is, the NF-κB subunit, had a high level of activity, while the normal epithelial cells showed barely detectable activity, indicating that these vaccines have potential for clinical application.
Hanke, Christiane R.; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Chochua, Sopio; Pletz, Mathias W.; Hornberg, Claudia; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Griffin, Marie R.; Verastegui, Hector; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Klugman, Keith P.; Vidal, Jorge E.
Background Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have decreased nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-types but little data exists from rural areas. We investigated bacterial density, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of pneumococcal strains within the nasopharynx of young children in the Peruvian Andes, two years after PCV7 was introduced. Methods Pneumococcal strains were isolated from a subset of 125 children from our Peruvian cohort, who entered the study in 2009 and had pneumococcus detected in the nasopharynx in both 2009 and during follow-up in 2011. Strains were quellung-serotyped and tested for susceptibility to antibiotics. Bacterial density was determined by qPCR. Results The prevalence of PCV7 strains decreased from 48% in 2009 to 28.8% in 2011, whereas non-PCV7 types increased from 52% to 71.2% (p=0.002). There was a 3.5-fold increase in carriage of serotype 6C in 2011 (p=0.026). Vaccination with PCV7 did not affect pneumococcal density in children colonized by a PCV7 type but did increased density in those colonized with a non-PCV7 type. Antibiotic resistance did not change after vaccine introduction; strains were non-susceptible to tetracycline (97.2%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (56.4%), penicillin (34%), erythromycin (22.4%), chloramphenicol (18.8%) and clindamycin (12.4%). Conclusions Serotype replacement was observed post-PCV7 vaccination with a concomitant, not previously recognized, increased nasopharyngeal density. PMID:26974749
Sigurdsson, Samuel; Erlendsdóttir, Helga; Quirk, Sigríður Júlía; Kristjánsson, Júlíus; Hauksson, Kristján; Andrésdóttir, Birta Dögg Ingudóttir; Jónsson, Arnar Jan; Halldórsson, Kolbeinn Hans; Sæmundsson, Árni; Ólason, Óli Hilmar; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir; Kristinsson, Karl G; Haraldsson, Ásgeir
Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, vaccine type pneumococcal carriage and disease has decreased world-wide. The aim was to monitor changes in the nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci, the distribution of serotypes and antimicrobial resistance in children before and after initiation of the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccination in 2011, in a previously unvaccinated population. Repeated cross-sectional study at 15day-care centres in greater Reykjavik area. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected yearly in March from 2009 to 2015. The swabs were selectively cultured for pneumococci, which were serotyped using latex agglutination and/or PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility determined. Two independent studies were conducted. In study 1, on total impact, isolates from children aged <4years were included. The vaccine-eligible-cohort (birth-years: 2011-2013, sampled in 2013-2015) was compared with children at the same age born in 2005-2010 and sampled in 2009-2012. In study 2 on herd effect, isolates from older non-vaccine-eligible children (3.5-6.3years) were compared for the periods before and after the vaccination (2009-2011 vs 2013-2015. Vaccine impact was determined using 1-odds-ratio. Following vaccination, the vaccine impact on vaccine type acquisition was 94% (95% CI: 91-96%) in study 1 and 56% (95% CI: 44-65%) in study 2. The impact on serotype 6A was 33% (95% CI: -9%; 59%) in study 1 and 42% (95% CI: 10-63%) in study 2 with minimal effect on 19A. The non-vaccine serotypes/groups 6C, 11, 15 and 23B were the most common serotypes/groups after vaccination. Isolates from the vaccine-eligible-cohort had lower penicillin MICs, less resistance to erythromycin and co-trimoxazole and less multi resistance than isolates from the control-group. The efficacy of the vaccination on vaccine serotypes was high, and a milder effect on vaccine-associated-serotype 6A was observed for the vaccine-eligible-cohort. There was a significant herd effect on vaccine types
Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Lucero, Marilla; Nohynek, Hanna; Anthamatten, Peter; Thomas, Deborah S. K.; Tallo, Veronica; Tanskanen, Antti; Quiambao, Beatriz P.; Puumalainen, Taneli; Lupisan, Socorro P.; Ruutu, Petri; Ladesma, Erma; Williams, Gail M.; Riley, Ian; Simões, Eric A. F.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have demonstrated efficacy against childhood pneumococcal disease in several regions globally. We demonstrate how spatial epidemiological analysis of a PCV trial can assist in developing vaccination strategies that target specific geographic subpopulations at greater risk for pneumococcal pneumonia. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind vaccine trial that examined the efficacy of an 11-valent PCV among children less than 2 y of age in Bohol, Philippines. Trial data were linked to the residential location of each participant using a geographic information system. We use spatial interpolation methods to create smoothed surface maps of vaccination rates and local-level vaccine efficacy across the study area. We then measure the relationship between distance to the main study hospital and local-level vaccine efficacy, controlling for ecological factors, using spatial autoregressive models with spatial autoregressive disturbances. We find a significant amount of spatial variation in vaccination rates across the study area. For the primary study endpoint vaccine efficacy increased with distance from the main study hospital from −14% for children living less than 1.5 km from Bohol Regional Hospital (BRH) to 55% for children living greater than 8.5 km from BRH. Spatial regression models indicated that after adjustment for ecological factors, distance to the main study hospital was positively related to vaccine efficacy, increasing at a rate of 4.5% per kilometer distance. Because areas with poor access to care have significantly higher VE, targeted vaccination of children in these areas might allow for a more effective implementation of global programs. PMID:24550454
Costa-Carvalho, B T; Martinez, R M A; Dias, A T N; Kubo, C A; Barros-Nunes, P; Leiva, L; Solé, D; Carneiro-Sampaio, M M S; Naspitz, C K; Sorensen, R U
The majority of children with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have frequent bacterial infections including recurrent respiratory infections. Our objective was to evaluate the production of antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens after active immunization in DS subjects. IgG antibodies to pneumococcal serotypes (1, 3, 6B, 9V, and 14) were measured before and 6 weeks after immunization with a 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (Pneumo23, Pasteur-Merrieux) in 6- to 13-year-old DS children (N = 17) and in aged-matched normal controls (N = 30). An adequate response was defined as a 4-fold increase over baseline or a post-immunization level of specific pneumococcal serotype antibody > or = 1.3 microg/mL. After immunization, all DS children had an increase in post-immunization levels against all serotypes analyzed. A 4-fold or more increase was observed in all DS children concerning serotypes 1 and 14, in 90% of subjects for serotypes 3 and 9V, and in 65% for serotype 6B. Regarding this increase, 8 of the 17 DS children had an adequate response to all serotypes analyzed, 8/17 patients to 4 serotypes and 1/17 to 3 serotypes. However, when we compared post-immunization levels between DS children and controls, we observed lower levels in the former group (P < 0.05) for all serotypes except serotype 3. We conclude that pneumococcal polysaccharide immunization could be beneficial for these DS children.
Background To investigate the rates of pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations and their determinants in children with chronic medical conditions. Patients and Methods Children with HIV infection, cystic fibrosis, liver transplantation and diabetes mellitus were enrolled. Physicians of regional Reference Centres for each condition, primary care paediatricians and caregivers of children provided information through specific questionnaires. For diabetes, 3 Reference Centres were included. Results Less than 25% of children in each group received pneumococcal vaccination. Vaccination rates against influenza were 73% in patients with HIV-infection, 90% in patients with cystic fibrosis, 76% in patients with liver transplantation, and ranged from 21% to 61% in patients with diabetes mellitus. Reference Centres rather than primary care paediatricians had a major role in promoting vaccinations. Lack of information was the main reason for missing vaccination. Awareness of the severity of pneumococcus infection by key informants of at-risk children was associated with higher vaccination rate. Conclusions Vaccination rates in children with chronic conditions were poor for pneumococcus and slightly better for influenza. Barriers to vaccination include lack of awareness, health care and organization problems. PMID:20346141
Croney, Christina M.; Coats, Mamie T.; Nahm, Moon H.; Briles, David E.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are recommended for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in young children. Since the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in 2000, IPD caused by serotypes in the vaccine has almost been eliminated, and previously uncommon capsular serotypes now cause most cases of pediatric IPD in the United States. One way to protect against these strains would be to add cross-reactive protein antigens to new vaccines. One such protein is pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). Prior to 2000, PspA families 1 and 2 were expressed by 94% of isolates. Because PCV7 vaccine pressure has resulted in IPD caused by capsular serotypes that were previously uncommon and unstudied for PspA expression, it was possible that many of the new strains expressed different PspA antigens or even lacked PspA. Of 157 pediatric invasive pneumococcal isolates collected at a large pediatric hospital in Alabama between 2002 and 2010, only 60.5% had capsular serotypes included in PCV13, which came into general use in Alabama after our strains were collected. These isolates included 17 serotypes that were not covered by PCV13. Nonetheless, pneumococcal capsular serotype replacement was not associated with changes in PspA expression; 96% of strains in this collection expressed PspA family 1 or 2. Continued surveillance will be critical to vaccine strategies to further reduce IPD. PMID:22539473
Croney, Christina M; Coats, Mamie T; Nahm, Moon H; Briles, David E; Crain, Marilyn J
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are recommended for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in young children. Since the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in 2000, IPD caused by serotypes in the vaccine has almost been eliminated, and previously uncommon capsular serotypes now cause most cases of pediatric IPD in the United States. One way to protect against these strains would be to add cross-reactive protein antigens to new vaccines. One such protein is pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). Prior to 2000, PspA families 1 and 2 were expressed by 94% of isolates. Because PCV7 vaccine pressure has resulted in IPD caused by capsular serotypes that were previously uncommon and unstudied for PspA expression, it was possible that many of the new strains expressed different PspA antigens or even lacked PspA. Of 157 pediatric invasive pneumococcal isolates collected at a large pediatric hospital in Alabama between 2002 and 2010, only 60.5% had capsular serotypes included in PCV13, which came into general use in Alabama after our strains were collected. These isolates included 17 serotypes that were not covered by PCV13. Nonetheless, pneumococcal capsular serotype replacement was not associated with changes in PspA expression; 96% of strains in this collection expressed PspA family 1 or 2. Continued surveillance will be critical to vaccine strategies to further reduce IPD.
Akduman, D; Ehret, J M; Judson, F N
Invasive pneumococcal isolates from three hospitals in Denver, CO, USA were serotyped between 1971 and 2004. Serotype 14 was most common (13.2%), and other prevalent serotypes (3, 4, 6, 9 and 19) together accounted for 44.1% of the isolates. All prevalent serotypes and 91.3% of the total isolates were covered by pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, while 79.1% of prevalent serotypes and 56.7% of total isolates were covered by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Serotypes 6, 9 and 14 were more common in the final decade than in the first decade studied (37.3% vs. 20.2%), whereas serotypes 3 and 23 were more common in the first decade (18.5% vs. 11.0%).
Wallace, Cate; Corben, Paul; Turahui, John; Gilmour, Robin
North Coast Area Health Service (NCAHS) conducted a seven week television advertising campaign to raise community awareness of the availability of free adult pneumococcal vaccination and to increase coverage among North Coast residents in high risk groups. Effectiveness of the campaign was evaluated by examining vaccine ordering patterns of North Coast vaccination providers from 2005/2006 as a proxy for vaccination coverage. In the months during and immediately following (June-September 2006) the advertising campaign, a significantly higher proportion of vaccines were despatched to North Coast immunisation service providers. The advertising campaign was an effective strategy to promote vaccination among NCAHS residents not immunised in the first year of the National Pneumococcal Program for Older Australians. This higher immunisation coverage is expected to contribute to the statewide trend of significant reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) notifications.
Mezones-Holguin, Edward; Canelo-Aybar, Carlos; Clark, Andrew David; Janusz, Cara Bess; Jaúregui, Bárbara; Escobedo-Palza, Seimer; Hernandez, Adrian V; Vega-Porras, Denhiking; González, Marco; Fiestas, Fabián; Toledo, Washington; Michel, Fabiana; Suárez, Víctor J
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) versus the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) to the National Immunization Schedule in Peru for prevention of pneumococcal disease (PD) in children <5 years of age. The integrated TRIVAC vaccine cost-effectiveness model from the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative (version 2.0) was applied from the perspective of the Government of Peru. Twenty successive cohorts of children from birth to 5 years were evaluated. Clinical outcomes were pneumococcal pneumonia (PP), pneumococcal meningitis (PM), pneumococcal sepsis (PS) and acute otitis media from any causes (AOM). Measures included prevention of cases, neurological sequelae (NS), auditory sequelae (AS), deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). A sensitivity analyses was also performed. For the 20 cohorts, net costs with PCV10 and PCV13 were US$ 363.26 million and US$ 408.26 million, respectively. PCV10 prevented 570,273 AOM; 79,937 PP; 2217 PM; 3049 PS; 282 NS; 173 AS; and 7512 deaths. PCV13 prevented 419,815 AOM; 112,331 PN; 3116 PM; 4285 PS; 404 NS; 248 AS; and 10,386 deaths. Avoided DALYs were 226,370 with PCV10 and 313,119 with PCV13. Saved treatment costs were US$ 37.39 million with PCV10 and US$ 47.22 million with PCV13. Costs per DALY averted were US$ 1605 for PCV10, and US$ 1304 for PCV13. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. PCV13 has an extended dominance over PCV10. Both pneumococcal vaccines are cost effective in the Peruvian context. Although the net cost of vaccination with PCV10 is lower, PCV13 prevented more deaths, pneumococcal complications and sequelae. Costs per each prevented DALY were lower with PCV13. Thus, PCV13 would be the preferred policy; PCV10 would also be reasonable (and cost-saving relative to the status quo) if for some reason 13-valent were not feasible. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Intranasal Immunization with Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccines with Nontoxic Mutants of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxins as Adjuvants Protects Mice against Invasive Pneumococcal Infections
Jakobsen, Håvard; Schulz, Dominique; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Jónsdóttir, Ingileif
Host defenses against Streptococcus pneumoniae depend largely on phagocytosis following opsonization by polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and complement. Since colonization of the respiratory mucosa is the first step in pneumococcal pathogenesis, mucosal immune responses may play a significant role. In addition to inducing systemic immune responses, mucosal vaccination with an effective adjuvant has the advantage of inducing mucosal IgA antibodies. The heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of Escherichia coli is a well-studied mucosal adjuvant, and adjuvant activity of nontoxic LT mutants has been demonstrated for several protein antigens. We investigated the immunogenicity of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines (PNC) of serotypes 1 and 3 in mice after intranasal (i.n.) immunization by using as an adjuvant the nontoxic LT mutant LT-K63 or LT-R72, which has minimal residual toxicity. Pneumococcal serotype-specific antibodies were measured in serum (IgM, IgG, and IgA) and saliva (IgA), and vaccine-induced protection was evaluated by i.n. challenge with virulent pneumococci of the homologous serotype. When administered with LT mutants, i.n. immunization with both conjugates induced systemic and mucosal immune responses, and serum IgG antibody levels were significantly higher than after subcutaneous immunization. All mice immunized i.n. with PNC-1 and LT mutants were protected against bacteremia and cleared the pneumococci from the lung 24 h after i.n. challenge; pneumococcal density correlated significantly with serum IgG antibody levels. Similarly, the survival of mice immunized i.n. with PNC-3 and LT mutants was significantly prolonged. These results demonstrate that i.n. vaccination with PNC and potent adjuvants can protect mice against invasive and lethal pneumococcal infections, indicating that mucosal vaccination with PNC may be an alternative vaccination strategy for humans. PMID:10531245
Suthers, B; Hansbro, P; Thambar, S; McEvoy, M; Peel, R; Attia, J
Many animal and human studies have found an inverse association between anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) antibodies (anti-oxLDL) and atherosclerotic burden. Furthermore, anti-oxLDL antibodies have been shown to cause regression of atherosclerotic plaque in mice. Animal studies indicate that the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine may induce the production of these potentially protective anti-oxLDL antibodies, and human epidemiological studies support their potentially beneficial effect in reducing cardiovascular events. Here we describe the association between self-reported pneumococcal vaccination, vaccination verified by linkage to health records, and anti-pneumococcal antibody titers, and anti-ox-LDL titers in a group of 116 older people. We found a bimodal distribution of anti-oxLDL antibodies, and a significant association between pneumococcal IgG and anti-oxLDL antibody titers that remained after multivariate adjustment for potential confounders (p=0.04). There was no significant association between self-reported vaccination or vaccination verified by health record linkage and ox-LDL titers, which may be due to reporting error or variability in response to the vaccine. These results support a mechanistic link between pneumococcal vaccination and a potential protective effect on cardiovascular disease, and indicate that self-reported or verified vaccine status may not be sufficient to detect this association. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wagenvoort, Gertjan H J; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Vlaminckx, Bart J; de Melker, Hester E; van der Ende, Arie; Knol, Mirjam J
Implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the Netherlands (PCV7 in 2006 and PCV10 in 2011) for infants caused a shift in serotypes in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We explored sex differences in serotype-specific IPD incidence before and after vaccine introduction. Incidences in the pre-PCV7 (June 2004–May 2006), post-PCV7 (June 2008–May 2011) and post-PCV10 period (June 2013–May 2015), stratified by age, were compared. Incidence was higher in men for all age groups (overall in men: 16.7, 15.5 and 14.4/100,000 and women: 15.4, 13.6 and 13.9/100,000 pre-PCV7, post-PCV7 and post-PCV10, respectively), except for 20–39 year-olds after PCV7 and 40–64 year-olds after PCV10 introduction. After PCV7 and PCV10 introduction, the overall IPD incidence decreased in men aged 20–39 years (from 5.3 pre-PCV7 to 4.7 and 2.6/100,000 post-PCV7 and post-PCV10, respectively), whereas it showed a temporary increase in women (from 3.9/100,000 pre-PCV7 to 5.0/100,000 post-PCV7 and back to 4.0/100,000 post-PCV10) due to replacement disease. PCV10 herd effects were observed throughout, but in women older than 40 years, a significant increase in non-PCV10 serotype offset a decrease in overall IPD incidence. Ongoing surveillance of IPD incidence by sex is important to evaluate the long-term effects of PCV implementation. PMID:28300529
Babb, Rachelle; Chen, Austen; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Hirst, Timothy R; Kara, Ervin E; McColl, Shaun R; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Paton, James C
Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza are the world's foremost bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens. We have previously described a γ-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU) vaccine that provides cross-protective immunity against heterosubtypic infections. More recently, we reported a novel non-adjuvanted γ-irradiated S pneumoniae (γ-PN) vaccine that elicits serotype-independent protection. Considering the clinical synergism of both pathogens, combination of a serotype-independent pneumococcal vaccine with a broad-spectrum influenza vaccine to protect against both infections would have a considerable clinical impact. In the present study, we co-immunized C57BL/6 mice intranasally (IN) with a mixture of γ-PN (whole inactivated cells) and γ-FLU (whole inactivated virions) and examined protective efficacy. Co-immunization enhanced γ-PN vaccine efficacy against virulent pneumococcal challenge, which was dependent on CD4(+) T-cell responses. In contrast, vaccination with γ-PN alone, co-immunization enhanced pneumococcal-specific effector T-helper 17 cell (Th17) and Th1 memory cell, promoted development of CD4(+) tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells and enhanced Pneumococcus-specific antibody responses. Furthermore, co-immunization elicited significant protection against lethal influenza challenge, as well as against co-infection with both influenza and S pneumoniae. This is the first report showing the synergistic effect of combining whole cell and whole virion vaccines to both S pneumoniae and influenza as a single vaccine to protect against individual and co-infection, without compromising pathogen-specific immunity. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
Mallet, Eric; Brachet, Elisabeth; Fernsten, Philip; Laudat, France; Razmpour, Ahmad; Gruber, William C
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis cause invasive disease in children aged <2 years. While individual conjugate vaccines are available to protect this age group against these pathogens, availability of a vaccine combining these antigens into a single injection is desirable. This study randomized 467 healthy infants to receive 4 doses of combination 9-valent pneumococcal and meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (9vPnC-MnCC) or 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (9vPnC). Percentages of subjects achieving immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody concentrations ≥0.35μg/mL and geometric mean IgG concentrations for each pneumococcal serotype in the 9vPnC-MnCC group were noninferior compared to the 9vPnC group. Both vaccines were well-tolerated.
Kandasamy, Rama; Gurung, Meeru; Thapa, Anushil; Ndimah, Susan; Adhikari, Neelam; Murdoch, David R.; Kelly, Dominic F.; Waldron, Denise E.; Gould, Katherine A.; Thorson, Stephen; Shrestha, Shrijana; Hinds, Jason; Pollard, Andrew J.
Invasive pneumococcal disease is one of the major causes of death in young children in resource poor countries. Nasopharyngeal carriage studies provide insight into the local prevalence of circulating pneumococcal serotypes. There are very few data on the concurrent carriage of multiple pneumococcal serotypes. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and serotype distribution of pneumococci carried in the nasopharynx of young healthy Nepalese children prior to the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine using a microarray-based molecular serotyping method capable of detecting multi-serotype carriage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children aged 6 weeks to 24 months from the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal between May and October 2012. Nasopharyngeal swabs were frozen and subsequently plated on selective culture media. DNA extracts of plate sweeps of pneumococcal colonies from these cultures were analysed using a molecular serotyping microarray capable of detecting relative abundance of multiple pneumococcal serotypes. 600 children were enrolled into the study: 199 aged 6 weeks to <6 months, 202 aged 6 months to < 12 months, and 199 aged 12 month to 24 months. Typeable pneumococci were identified in 297/600 (49·5%) of samples with more than one serotype being found in 67/297 (20·2%) of these samples. The serotypes covered by the thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine were identified in 44·4% of samples containing typeable pneumococci. Application of a molecular serotyping approach to identification of multiple pneumococcal carriage demonstrates a substantial prevalence of co-colonisation. Continued surveillance utilising this approach following the introduction of routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccinates in infants will provide a more accurate understanding of vaccine efficacy against carriage and a better understanding of the dynamics of subsequent serotype and genotype replacement. PMID:25643355
Sanal, Ozden; Ersoy, Fugen; Tezcan, Ilhan; Metin, Ayse; Turul, Tuba; Gariboglu, Semra; Yel, Leman
Immunodeficiency is a characteristic feature of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). Humoral immunodeficiency generally consists of hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired antibody response to bacterial and viral antigens. We previously observed defective antibody response to 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) in 96% of 29 patients with A-T. In this study, we investigated the antibody response to a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV7, in 14 patients with A-T. IgG antibody levels to four pneumococcal serotypes, 6B, 14, 19F, 23F, which were included in PCV7, were measured by ELISA in pre- and postimmunization serum samples. Antibody titers against each individual Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype was considered to be positive when serotype specific pneumococcal antibody titer was higher than 10% (>10 U/mL) of the reference plasma pool level. However, when the fold increase (FI) in postimmunization antibody titer was less than two, the subject was determined to be unresponsive to the given serotype. The values were compared with the results obtained in age- and ethnic-matched children after one dose of PPV. Only two patients produced antibodies to one serotype each; one to serotype 19 with a fold increase of <2, and the other to serotype 23F with a fold increase of 5.7 based on the above criteria, although the differences between pre- and postvaccine antibody titers for serotypes 14, 19, and 23 appeared to be statistically significant. In conclusion, A-T patients failed to respond to one dose of PCV7 vaccine. Two or more doses of conjugated vaccine may be required to recruit the help of T lymphocytes in A-T patients.
Liu, Shijun; Xu, Erping; Liu, Yan; Xu, Yuyang; Wang, Jun; Du, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Che, Xinren; Gu, Wenwen
Objectives: To investigate the coverage of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23-PPV) in the Chinese urban elderly population and to understand the attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of this population toward the 23-PPV vaccination. Methods: A cross-sectional approach was employed to survey the willingness of this population to receive the 23-PPV vaccination. Two thousand 9 hundred 2 six subjects over the age of 60 y were enrolled via a multi-stage random sampling method from the urban community population in Hangzhou, China. The relationships between the variables and the willingness to receive the 23-PPV vaccination were computed as odds ratios (ORs) by multivariate analysis. Results Of the participants, 21.77% were willing to undergo 23-PPV vaccination, and 61.65% of the subjects agreed that pneumonia is a serious disease among elderly people. The rate of reasonable perceptions about vaccination, including the perception about vaccine efficacy and safety, among the subjects was below 50%. Only 1.23% of subjects had been vaccinated with 23-PPV, and a similarly low rate was observed for the seasonal influenza vaccine (4.17%). The factors that were independently related to the willingness to receive the 23-PPV vaccine included consensus with the hazards of pneumonia (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.28 – 2.17), the safety of vaccination (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.54 – 2.59), advice about the 23-PPV vaccination from family members (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.39 – 4.40), influenza vaccination history (OR = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.66 – 3.98) and pneumococcal vaccination history (OR = 7.48, 95% CI: 2.4–22.92). Conclusion: The administration of the 23-PPV vaccine among the urban elderly population is not optimistic in China. Emphasis on persuasion from families and the improvement of knowledge about vaccination might encourage elderly people to get the 23-PPV vaccination. Suggestions from physicians did not affect the participants’ willingness to get the 23-PPV vaccination
Domínguez, Angela; Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Saez, Marc; Soldevila, Núria; Astray, Jenaro; Mayoral, José María; Martín, Vicente; Quintana, José María; González-Candelas, Fernando; Galán, Juan Carlos; Tamames, Sonia; Castro, Ady; Baricot, Maretva; Garín, Olatz; Pumarola, Tomas; Working Group (Spain), CIBERESP Cases and Controls in Pandemic Influenza
Background: Since influenza predisposes to bacterial pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, studies have suggested that pneumococcal vaccination might reduce its occurrence during pandemics. We assessed the effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination alone and in combination with influenza vaccination in preventing influenza hospitalization during the 2009–2010 pandemic wave and 2010–2011 influenza epidemic. Methods: We conducted a multicenter case-control study in 36 Spanish hospitals. We selected patients aged ≥ 18 y hospitalized with confirmed influenza and two hospitalized controls per case, matched according to age, date of hospitalization and province of residence. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. Subjects were considered vaccinated if they had received the pneumococcal or seasonal influenza vaccine > 14 d (or > 7 d for pandemic influenza vaccine) before the onset of symptoms (cases) or the onset of symptoms in matched cases (controls). Results: 1187 cases and 2328 controls were included. The adjusted estimate of effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing influenza hospitalization was 41% (95% CI 8–62) in all patients and 43% (95% CI 2–78) in patients aged ≥ 65 y. The adjusted effectiveness of dual PPV23 and influenza vaccination was 81% (95% CI 65–90) in all patients and 76% (95% CI 46–90) in patients aged ≥ 65 y. The adjusted effectiveness of influenza vaccination alone was 58% (95% CI 38–72). Conclusions: In elderly people and adults with chronic illness, pneumococcal vaccination may reduce hospitalizations during the influenza season. In people vaccinated with both the influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, the benefit in hospitalizations avoided was greater than in those vaccinated only against influenza. PMID:23563516
Imöhl, Matthias; Möller, Jens; Reinert, Ralf René; Perniciaro, Stephanie; van der Linden, Mark; Aktas, Orhan
Long-term complications and a case mortality rate of 7.5% make meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae a serious clinical threat. In 2006, a general pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) recommendation was issued for all children under 2 years in Germany. Here, we investigate serotype changes in meningitis cases after this vaccine recommendation. The German National Reference Center for Streptococci (NRCS) has conducted surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Germany since 1992. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the Neufeld's Quellung reaction and antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the broth microdilution method. Of 22,204 IPD isolates sent to the NRCS from July 1992 to June 2013, 3,086 were meningitis cases. Microbiological and statistical investigations were performed to characterize and quantify all meningitis cases, focusing on changes reflecting implementation of the national PCV recommendation. 1,766 isolates (57.2% of meningitis cases) were from adults (≥16 years) and 1,320 isolates (42.8%) originated from children (<16 years). Overall, the leading serotypes were 14 (9.7%), 7F (7.8%), 3 (6.9%), 19F (5.7%) and 23F (5.0%). Among children, serotypes 14 (16.2%), 7F (8.9%) and 19F (7.1%) were most common, whereas among adults, serotypes 3 (9.6%), 7F (6.9%), 22F (5.0%), 23F (4.9%) and 14 (4.8%) were most prevalent. After the introduction of general PCV7/10/13 vaccination a significant decrease for most vaccine serotypes was observed. Generally, the differences in antibiotic nonsusceptibility between children <16 years and adults ≥16 were low. For macrolides in the pre-PCV7 period, a significantly higher proportion of resistant isolates was found in children (25.1%), compared to the post-vaccination period (9.7%; p<0.0001). Implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines broadly reduced vaccine-type meningitis cases. Changes in serotype prevalence must be continuously monitored to observe future trends concerning
Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Ghaffari, Javad; Mahdavi, Mohammadreza; Bahari, Amir; Ala, Shahram
Background: Pneumococcal vaccine provides protection against invasive pneumococcal disease in population at risk. This study was conducted to compare the antibody response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in patients with thalassemia major. Methods: A randomized cross-over clinical trial was performed on 50 asplenic patients with thalassemia major who referred to thalassemia center at Bouali Sina Hospital, Sari, Iran from 2013 to 2014. Patients were divided into two equal groups. The first group received 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) injected into the deltoid muscle at first and received 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) by the same way two months later. The second group received PPV vaccine at first and PCV13 two months later. Levels of serum antibody were checked and measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before vaccination, and then 8 weeks after the first injection and 2 months after the second injection in all patients. Each time 0.5-ml dose of the vaccine was injected. Results: Of the 50 patients, three cases were excluded due to lack of cooperation and avoidance of vaccination. From 47 patient participants, 28 (59.6%) were males and 19 (40.4%) were females with age ranged between 20 to 44 years (average age of 29.6±1.4 years). Pneumococcal IgG levels in a group that used PCV before PPV (Group A) increased from 114.5±87.7 to 1049±720 U/ml (p=0.0001) and in another group that used PPV before PCV (Group B) increased from 115±182.2 to 1497.3±920.3 U/ml (P=0.0001). Conclusion: It can be concluded that PCV vaccine before PPV can be more effective in asplenic thalassemia major patients as a booster dose. PMID:28503278
Ocampo, Thad F; Le, Tuan; Matthews, Peter E; Okulicz, Jason F
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a predominant cause of bacterial infection in HIV-infected individuals. However, reported rates of pneumococcal vaccination with 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) are variable. We evaluated uptake of PPV23 in patients diagnosed with HIV between 1996 and 2012 (n = 507) in the United States Air Force, a centralized HIV program with free access to care including vaccines and medications. A total of 411 (81.1%) patients received at least 1 PPV23 dose. The PPV23 vaccination within 1 year of diagnosis was greater for those diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 (n = 184, 86%) compared with 1996 to 2003 (n = 104, 56.5%; P < .001). For those with ≥6 years of follow-up, receipt of a second recommended PPV23 dose was greater for those diagnosed between 1996 and 2003 (n = 52, 57.8%) compared with 2004 to 2012 (n = 9, 28.1%; P = .004). Although first PPV23 vaccination was high in recent years, process improvement efforts are underway to overcome barriers and improve uptake of pneumococcal vaccines in our program.
Savulescu, Camelia; Krizova, Pavla; Lepoutre, Agnes; Mereckiene, Jolita; Vestrheim, Didrik F; Ciruela, Pilar; Ordobas, Maria; Guevara, Marcela; McDonald, Eisin; Morfeldt, Eva; Kozakova, Jana; Varon, Emmanuelle; Cotter, Suzanne; Winje, Brita A; Munoz-Almagro, Carmen; Garcia, Luis; Castilla, Jesus; Smith, Andrew; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Celentano, Lucia Pastore; Hanquet, Germaine
The Streptococcus pneumoniae Invasive Disease network (SpIDnet) actively monitors populations in nine sites in seven European countries for invasive pneumococcal disease. Five sites use 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) alone and four use the ten-valent PCV (PCV10) and PCV13. Vaccination uptake is greater than 90% in six sites and 67-78% in three sites. We measured the effects of introducing high-valency PCVs on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in children younger than 5 years. We compared the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in each of the 4 years after the introduction of PCV13 alone or PCV10 and PCV13 with the average incidence during the preceding period of heptavalent PCV (PCV7) use, overall and by serotype category. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs for each year and pooled the values for all sites in a random effects meta-analysis. 4 years after the introduction of PCV13 alone or PCV10 and PCV13, the pooled IRR was 0·53 (95% CI 0·43-0·65) for invasive pneumococcal disease in children younger than 5 years caused by any serotype, 0·16 (0·07-0·40) for disease caused by PCV7 serotypes, 0·17 (0·07-0·42) for disease caused by 1, 5, and 7F serotypes, and 0·41 (0·25-0·69) for that caused by 3, 6A and 19A serotypes. We saw a similar pattern when we restricted the analysis to sites where only PCV13 was used. The pooled IRR for invasive pneumococcal disease caused by non-PCV13 serotypes was 1·62 (1·09-2·42). The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by all serotypes decreased due to a decline in the incidence of vaccine serotypes. By contrast, that of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by non-PCV13 serotypes increased, which suggests serotype replacement. Long-term surveillance will be crucial to monitor the further effects of PCV10 and PCV13 vaccination programmes in young children. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Czech National Institute of Public Health
Vila-Corcoles, Angel; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga; Hospital, Imma; de Diego, Cinta; Satué, Eva; Bladé, Jordi; Ansa, Xabier; Guzmán, Jorge A; Salsench, Elisabet; Ramos, Francisca
There is scarce data about pneumococcal vaccination coverages among adults in recent years. We investigated current pneumococcal vaccination coverages in Catalonia, Spain, with a cross-sectional population-based study including 2,033,465 individuals aged 50 y or older assigned to the Catalonian Health Institute at 01/01/2015 (date of survey). A previously validated institutional research clinical Database was used to classify study subjects by their vaccination status for both 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), to identify comorbidities and underlying conditions, and establish the risk stratum of each individual: High risk stratum: functional or anatomic asplenia, cochlear implants, CSF leaks, or immunocompromising conditions; medium risk stratum: immunocompetent persons with history of chronic cardiac or respiratory disease, liver disease, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism and/or smoking; low risk stratum: persons without high or medium risk conditions. Of the total 2,033,465 study population, an amount of 789,098 (38.8%) had received PPVS23, whereas 5031 (0.2%) had received PCV13. PPSV23 coverages increased largely with increasing age: 4.8% in 50-59 y vs 35.5% in 60-69 y vs 71.9% in 70-79 y vs 79.5% in 80 y or older; p < 0.001). PCV13 coverages also increased with age, although they were very low in all age groups. PPSV23 coverages were 59.2% in high risk stratum, 48.3% in medium risk stratum and 28.1% in low risk stratum (p < 0.001). For the PCV13, uptakes were 1.2%, 0.3% and 0.1% in high, medium and low stratum, respectively (p < 0.001). In conclusion, pneumococcal vaccination coverages in Catalonian adults are not optimal, being especially small for the PCV13 (even in high-risk subjects).
Background The clinical and economic burden associated with invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) diseases is substantial in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where pneumococcal vaccines have only been introduced to a few countries. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness and cost utility of three different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) for Peru. Methods A Markov model that simulated the disease processes in a birth cohort over a lifetime, within 1,128 month cycles was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal NTHi protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and 7- and 13-valent PCVs (PCV-7 and PCV-13). Expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), cost-savings and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Results Without vaccination, pneumonia was associated with the greatest health economic burden (90% of QALYs lost and 63% of lifetime direct medical costs); while acute otitis media (AOM) was responsible for 1% of QALYs lost and 25% of direct medical costs. All vaccines were predicted to be cost-effective for Peru, with PHiD-CV being most cost-effective. PHiD-CV was predicted to generate 50 more QALYs gained and required a reduced investment (−US$ 3.4 million) versus PCV-13 (discounted data), and was therefore dominant and cost saving. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that PHiD-CV generated more QALYs gained at a reduced cost than PCV-13 in 84% of the simulations and less QALYs gains at a reduced cost in 16%. Additional scenarios using different assumptions on vaccine efficacies based on previous evidence were explored, but no significant change in the overall cost-effective results were observed. Conclusions The results of this modeling study predict that PCVs are likely to be a cost-effective strategy to help relieve the epidemiological and economic burden associated with pediatric pneumococcal and NTHi diseases for Peru. PHiD-CV is likely
Gao, Fang; Lockyer, Kay; Burkin, Karena; Crane, Dennis T; Bolgiano, Barbara
Physico-chemical analysis of pneumococcal polysaccharide (PS)-protein conjugate vaccine components used for two commercially licensed vaccines was performed to compare the serotype- and carrier protein-specific stabilities of these vaccines. Nineteen different monovalent pneumococcal conjugates from commercial vaccines utilizing CRM197, diphtheria toxoid (DT), Protein D (PD) or tetanus toxoid (TT) as carrier proteins were incubated at temperatures up to 56°C for up to eight weeks or were subjected to freeze-thawing (F/T). Structural stability was evaluated by monitoring their size, integrity and carrier protein conformation. The molecular size of the vaccine components was well maintained for Protein D, TT and DT conjugates at -20°C, 4°C and F/T, and for CRM197 conjugates at 4°C and F/T. It was observed that four of the eight serotypes of Protein D conjugates tended to form high molecular weight complexes at 37°C or above. The other conjugated carrier proteins also appeared to form oligomers or ‘aggregates’ at elevated temperatures, but rarely when frozen and thawed. There was evidence of degradation in some of the conjugates as evidenced by the formation of lower molecular weight materials which correlated with measured free saccharide. In conclusion, pneumococcal-Protein D/TT/DT and most CRM197 bulk conjugate vaccines were stable when stored at 2–8°C, the recommended temperature. In common between the conjugates produced by the two manufacturers, serotypes 1, 5, and 19F were relatively less stable and 6B was the most stable, with types 7F and 23F also showing good stability. PMID:25483488
Badawy, M; El Kholy, A; Sherif, M M; Rahman, E A; Ashour, E; Sherif, H; Mahmoud, H E; Hamdy, M
In Egypt, pneumococcal vaccines have not yet been introduced as being compulsory. Identification of the circulating serotypes in Egypt is mandatory to determine whether or not the pneumococcal vaccines will be beneficial. The current study aims to identify the serotypes, vaccine coverage, and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Egyptian children younger than 5 years old. The study was conducted in two successive winter seasons (December 2012-February 2013 and December 2013-February 2014). Two hundred children were enrolled, aged from 6 months to 5 years, excluding those with fever, signs of infection, history of antibiotic intake, and hospitalization in the preceding month. Nasopharyngeal (NP) secretions were collected, subjected to culture, and underwent antibiotic susceptibility testing if positive for pneumococci. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serotyping by sequential multiplex PCR for positive cases were included as well. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 62 subjects. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and levofloxacin, but the majority showed resistance to multiple antibiotics. PCR was positive for pneumococci in 113 subjects (56.5%). The most commonly detected serotypes (st) were 6A6B6C (n = 21, 20.8%), 19F (n = 19, 18.8%), 1 (n = 11, 10.9%), 34 (n = 8, 7.9%), and 19A (n = 6, 5.9%). The theoretical coverage of the PCV13 vaccine for the detected serotypes was 72.4%, while that of PCV10 was 65.5%. Based on these percentages, we recommend including pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the Egyptian national vaccination program.
Chang, Qiuzhi; Stevenson, Abbie E; Croucher, Nicholas J; Lee, Grace M; Pelton, Stephen I; Lipsitch, Marc; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Hanage, William P
The success of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV-7) introduced to the US childhood immunization schedule in 2000 was partially offset by increases in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumococcal carriage due to non-vaccine serotypes, in particular 19A, in the years that followed. A 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) was introduced in 2010. As part of an ongoing study of the response of the Massachusetts pneumococcal population to conjugate vaccination, we report the findings from the samples collected in 2011, as PCV-13 was introduced. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to analyze 367 pneumococcal isolates carried by Massachusetts children (aged 3 months-7 years) collected during the winter of 2010-11 and used eBURST software to compare the pneumococcal population structure with that found in previous years. One hundred and four distinct sequence types (STs) were found, including 24 that had not been previously recorded. Comparison with a similar sample collected in 2009 revealed no significant overall difference in the ST composition (p = 0.39, classification index). However, we describe clonal dynamics within the important replacement serotypes 19A, 15B/C, and 6C, and clonal expansion of ST 433 and ST 432, which are respectively serotype 22F and 21 clones. While little overall change in serotypes or STs was evident, multiple changes in the frequency of individual STs and or serotypes may plausibly be ascribed to the introduction of PCV-13. This 2011 sample documents the initial impact of PCV-13 and will be important for comparison with future studies of the evolution of the pneumococcal population in Massachusetts.
Blum, M D; Dagan, R; Mendelman, P M; Pinsk, V; Giordani, M; Li, S; Bohidar, N; McNeely, T B
Children who had been randomized to receive one dose of either heptavalent pneumococcal polysaccharide-meningococcal outer membrane protein complex conjugate vaccine (PCV) or 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PN23) at 12, 15, or 18 months of age were subsequently randomized to receive a booster injection of either PCV or PN23 12 months later. For those children who received a priming dose of PCV (N=75) compared to PN23 (N=48) at 12, 15, or 18 months of age, higher serum antibody concentrations were achieved 1 month following a booster injection of either PCV or PN23 for all serotypes tested (p<0.001). Within the group of children receiving a priming dose of PCV, those children who received a booster dose of PN23 developed higher serum antibody concentrations for four of the seven serotypes tested and similar opsonic antibody titers to serotype 6B, yet more frequent erythema (p=0.030) and pain or soreness (p=0.024) at the injection site compared to those boosted with PCV. In conclusion, a single dose of PCV at 12-18 months of age primed for responses to booster doses of either PCV or PN23 12 months later. For those children who received a priming dose of PCV, boosting with PN23 resulted in more frequent injection site pain and erythema than boosting with PCV, yet higher antibody concentrations for most of the serotypes tested.
Bruce, Michael G; Singleton, Rosalyn; Bulkow, Lisa; Rudolph, Karen; Zulz, Tammy; Gounder, Prabhu; Hurlburt, Debby; Bruden, Dana; Hennessy, Thomas
Alaska Native (AN) children have experienced high rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). In March 2010, PCV13 was introduced statewide in Alaska. We evaluated the impact of PCV13 on IPD in children and adults, 45 months after introduction. Pneumococcal sterile site isolates, reported through state-wide surveillance, were serotyped using standard methods. We defined a pre-PCV13 time period 2005-2008 and post-PCV13 time period April 2010-December 2013; excluding Jan 2009-March 2010 because PCV13 was introduced pre-licensure in one high-risk region in 2009. Among Alaska children <5 years, PCV13 serotypes comprised 65% of IPD in the pre-PCV13 period and 26% in the PCV13 period. Among all Alaska children <5 years, IPD rates decreased from 60.9 (pre) to 25.4 (post) per 100,000/year (P<0.001); PCV13 serotype IPD decreased from 37.7 to 6.4 (P<0.001). Among AN children <5 years, IPD rates decreased from 149.2 to 60.8 (P<0.001); PCV13 serotype IPD decreased from 87.0 to 17.4 (P<0.001); non-PCV13 serotype IPD did not change significantly. Among persons 5-17 and ≥45 years, the post-vaccine IPD rate was similar to the baseline period, but declined in persons 18-44 years (39%, P<0.001); this decline was similar in AN and non-AN persons (38%, P=0.016, 43%, P=0.014, respectively). Forty-five months after PCV13 introduction, overall IPD and PCV13-serotype IPD rates had decreased 58% and 83%, respectively, in Alaska children <5 years of age when compared with 2005-2008. We observed evidence of indirect effect among adults with a 39% reduction in IPD among persons 18-44 years. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Remschmidt, Cornelius; Harder, Thomas; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Wichmann, Ole; Bogdan, Christian
Background Routine vaccination of elderly people against pneumococcal diseases is recommended in many countries. National guidelines differ, recommending either the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) or both. Considering the ongoing debate on the effectiveness of PPV23, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the vaccine efficacy/effectiveness (VE) of PPV23 against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumococcal pneumonia in adults aged ≥60 years living in industrialized countries. Methods We searched for pertinent clinical trials and observational studies in databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We assessed the risk of bias of individual studies using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies. We rated the overall quality of the evidence by GRADE criteria. We performed meta-analyses of studies grouped by outcome and study design using random-effects models. We applied a sensitivity analysis excluding studies with high risk of bias. Results We identified 17 eligible studies. Pooled VE against IPD (by any serotype) was 73% (95%CI: 10–92%) in four clinical trials, 45% (95%CI: 15–65%) in three cohort studies, and 59% (95%CI: 35–74%) in three case-control studies. After excluding studies with high risk of bias, pooled VE against pneumococcal pneumonia (by any serotype) was 64% (95%CI: 35–80%) in two clinical trials and 48% (95%CI: 25–63%) in two cohort studies. Higher VE estimates in trials (follow-up ~2.5 years) than in observational studies (follow-up ~5 years) may indicate waning protection. Unlike previous meta-analyses, we excluded two trials with high risk of bias regarding the outcome pneumococcal pneumonia, because diagnosis was based on serologic methods with insufficient specificity. Conclusions Our meta
Aljunid, Syed; Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Ahmed, Zafar; Sulong, Saperi; Nur, Amrizal Muhd; Goh, Adrian
Pneumococcal disease is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. The World Health Organization recommends pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as a priority for inclusion into national childhood immunization programmes. Pneumococcal vaccine has yet to be included as part of the national vaccination programme in Malaysia although it has been available in the country since 2005. This study sought to estimate the disease burden of pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and to assess the cost effectiveness of routine infant vaccination with PCV7. A decision model was adapted taking into consideration prevalence, disease burden, treatment costs and outcomes for pneumococcal disease severe enough to result in a hospital admission. Disease burden were estimated from the medical records of 6 hospitals. Where local data was unavailable, model inputs were obtained from international and regional studies and from focus group discussions. The model incorporated the effects of herd protection on the unvaccinated adult population. At current vaccine prices, PCV7 vaccination of 90% of a hypothetical 550,000 birth cohort would incur costs of RM 439.6 million (US$128 million). Over a 10 year time horizon, vaccination would reduce episodes of pneumococcal hospitalisation by 9,585 cases to 73,845 hospitalisations with cost savings of RM 37.5 million (US$10.9 million) to the health system with 11,422.5 life years saved at a cost effectiveness ratio of RM 35,196 (US$10,261) per life year gained. PCV7 vaccination of infants is expected to be cost-effective for Malaysia with an incremental cost per life year gained of RM 35,196 (US$10,261). This is well below the WHO's threshold for cost effectiveness of public health interventions in Malaysia of RM 71,761 (US$20,922).
Neto, Joao Tonolio; de Araujo, Gabriela Tannus Branco; Gagliardi, Anna; Pinho, Amanda; Durand, Laure; Fonseca, Marcelo
Vaccination of adults aged 60 years and older against Streptococcus pneumonia is not recommended in Brazil. The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) is only available for institutionalized persons or with underlying diseases despite the substantial medical and economic burden related to pneumococcal infections in adults over than 59 years. The study aimed at evaluating the cost effectiveness of implementing a large PPV program in this population. This analysis was performed using a static decision tree model. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained from Brazilian official sources and international literature. Economic data were obtained from a study performed in 2007 in a public and a private hospital located in Sao Paulo. Vaccination was assumed to protect for 5 years with 60% effectiveness against bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) and 21% effectiveness against non bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBPP). Deterministic and sensitivity analyses were performed. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination saved 5,218 life year gained (LYG). The vaccination program was found to be cost effective in the social security and public health care perspectives with a mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of R$10,887 and R$8,281 per LYG respectively. Results were sensitive to the vaccine effectiveness against NBPP, the incidence and case-fatality rate of NBPP. From a societal perspective, PPV23 program for adults 60 and older was found to be cost-saving. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination is clinically and economically favored over the present vaccination strategy, in which persons aged over 59 years in Sao Paulo, have not been vaccinated.
Neto, Joao Tonolio; Gagliardi, Anna; Pinho, Amanda; Durand, Laure; Fonseca, Marcelo
Vaccination of adults aged 60 years and older against Streptococcus pneumonia is not recommended in Brazil. The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) is only available for institutionalized persons or with underlying diseases despite the substantial medical and economic burden related to pneumococcal infections in adults over than 59 years. The study aimed at evaluating the cost effectiveness of implementing a large PPV program in this population. This analysis was performed using a static decision tree model. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained from Brazilian official sources and international literature. Economic data were obtained from a study performed in 2007 in a public and a private hospital located in Sao Paulo. Vaccination was assumed to protect for 5 years with 60% effectiveness against bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) and 21% effectiveness against non bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBPP). Deterministic and sensitivity analyses were performed. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination saved 5,218 life year gained (LYG). The vaccination program was found to be cost effective in the social security and public health care perspectives with a mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of R$10,887 and R$8,281 per LYG respectively. Results were sensitive to the vaccine effectiveness against NBPP, the incidence and case-fatality rate of NBPP. From a societal perspective, PPV23 program for adults 60 and older was found to be cost-saving. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination is clinically and economically favored over the present vaccination strategy, in which persons aged over 59 years in Sao Paulo have not been vaccinated. PMID:21941088
Background Pneumococcal disease is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. The World Health Organization recommends pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as a priority for inclusion into national childhood immunization programmes. Pneumococcal vaccine has yet to be included as part of the national vaccination programme in Malaysia although it has been available in the country since 2005. This study sought to estimate the disease burden of pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and to assess the cost effectiveness of routine infant vaccination with PCV7. Methods A decision model was adapted taking into consideration prevalence, disease burden, treatment costs and outcomes for pneumococcal disease severe enough to result in a hospital admission. Disease burden were estimated from the medical records of 6 hospitals. Where local data was unavailable, model inputs were obtained from international and regional studies and from focus group discussions. The model incorporated the effects of herd protection on the unvaccinated adult population. Results At current vaccine prices, PCV7 vaccination of 90% of a hypothetical 550,000 birth cohort would incur costs of RM 439.6 million (US$128 million). Over a 10 year time horizon, vaccination would reduce episodes of pneumococcal hospitalisation by 9,585 cases to 73,845 hospitalisations with cost savings of RM 37.5 million (US$10.9 million) to the health system with 11,422.5 life years saved at a cost effectiveness ratio of RM 35,196 (US$10,261) per life year gained. Conclusions PCV7 vaccination of infants is expected to be cost-effective for Malaysia with an incremental cost per life year gained of RM 35,196 (US$10,261). This is well below the WHO's threshold for cost effectiveness of public health interventions in Malaysia of RM 71,761 (US$20,922). PMID:21936928
Analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluid before and after the introduction of government subsidies for pneumococcal and H. influenzae type b vaccines in Japan.
Hoshino, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Noriko; Fukasawa, Chie; Hirose, Shoko; Okui, Hideyuki; Sato, Hiroko; Sato, Mari; Arimoto, Yukiko; Nakano, Atsuko; Ishiwada, Naruhiko
This study aimed to identify trends in frequency, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluid specimens of children aged≤15 years (mean, 2 years), before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and the H. influenzae type b vaccine, at a pediatric facility in Japan. Sixty-six S. pneumoniae and 88 H. influenzae strains were isolated from 820 middle ear fluid samples. Serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed. The study time-frame was divided into period 1 (2007-2010) and period 2 (2011-2014), according to the availability of vaccine public funding. The S. pneumoniae detection rate decreased from 9.6% in period 1-6.1% in period 2 (p = 0.042). PCV7 serotypes decreased from 56.8% to 9.1% (p = 0.0002). No significant change was observed for the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes: 72.7% in period 1 and 59.1% in period 2. Penicillin-resistant strains (penicillin G-MIC ≥2 μg/mL) decreased from 25% to 4.5% (p = 0.038). Detection rates for H. influenzae did not change significantly: 10.3% in period 1 and 11.3% in period 2. Serotypes were mostly non-typeable: 97.9% in period 1 and 90.2% in period 2, and only one serotype b strain was isolated in each period. The frequency of ampicillin-resistant strains (MIC ≥4 μg/mL) did not change. These results show a preventative effect of PCV7 on otitis media due to S. pneumoniae. PCV7 was replaced with PCV13 in 2013 in Japan; therefore, a further decrease in pneumococcal otitis media is anticipated in the future. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pope, Caroline; Oliver, Elizabeth H; Ma, Jiangtao; Langton Hewer, Claire; Mitchell, Tim J; Finn, Adam
Streptococcus pneumoniae colonises the upper respiratory tract and can cause pneumonia, meningitis and otitis media. Existing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are expensive to produce and only protect against 13 of the 90+ pneumococcal serotypes; hence there is an urgent need for the development of new vaccines. We have shown previously in mice that pneumolysin (Ply) and a non-toxic variant (Δ6Ply) enhance antibody responses when genetically fused to pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA), a potentially valuable effect for future vaccines. We investigated this adjuvanticity in human paediatric mucosal primary immune cell cultures. Adenoidal mononuclear cells (AMNC) from children aged 0-15 years (n=46) were stimulated with conjugated, admixed or individual proteins, cell viability and CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses were assessed using flow cytometry and cytokine secretion was measured using multiplex technology. Proliferation of CD4+ T-cells in response to PsaAPly, was significantly higher than responses to individual or admixed proteins (p=0.002). In contrast, an enhanced response to PsaAΔ6Ply compared to individual or admixed proteins only occurred at higher concentrations (p<0.01). Evaluation of cytotoxicity suggested that responses occurred when Ply-induced cytolysis was inhibited, either by fusion or mutation, but importantly an additional toxicity independent immune enhancing effect was also apparent as a result of fusion. Responses were MHC class II dependent and had a Th1/Th17 profile. Genetic fusion of Δ6Ply to PsaA significantly modulates and enhances pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cell responses without the cytolytic effects of some other pneumolysoids. Membrane binding activity of such proteins may confer valuable adjuvant properties as fusion may assist Δ6Ply to deliver PsaA to the APC surface effectively, contributing to the initiation of anti-pneumococcal CD4+ T-cell immunity.
Park, Chulmin; Kwon, Eun-Young; Choi, Su-Mi; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Byun, Ji-Hyun; Park, Jung Yeon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Kang, Jin Han; Shin, Jinhwan; Kim, Hun
Animal models facilitate evaluation of vaccine efficacy at relatively low cost. This study was a comparative evaluation of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) with a control vaccine in a mouse model. After vaccination, anti-capsular antibody levels were evaluated by pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPA). Also, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with 100-fold of the 50% lethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The anti-capsular IgG levels against serotypes 1, 4, 7F, 14, 18C, 19A, and 19F were high (quartile 2 >1,600), while those against the other serotypes were low (Q2 ≤ 800). Also, the OPA titres were similar to those determined by PnP ELISA. Comparative analysis between new PCV13 and control vaccination group in a mouse model exhibited significant differences in serological immunity of a few serotypes and the range of anti-capsular IgG in the population. Challenge of wild-type or neutropenic mice with serotypes 3, 5, 6A, 6B, and 9V showed protective immunity despite of induced relatively low levels of anti-capsular antibodies. With comparison analysis, a mouse model should be adequate for evaluating serological efficacy and difference in the population level as preclinical trial.
van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Fitzner, Christina; Imöhl, Matthias
In this study we calculate the effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children under the age of two years using the indirect cohort method. We also discuss the timeliness of vaccination and the residual cases of vaccine type IPD. From July 2006 until June 2015, 921 IPD cases were reported and for 618 children (67.1%), the vaccination status at the time of infection could be accurately determined. Of these, 379 (61.3%) were vaccinated and 239 (38.7%) were not vaccinated. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) of PCV7 for all included serotypes + 6A was 80% (95% CI: 63-89) for at least one dose, 97% (89-100) after three primary doses (post primary) and 95% (57-100) post booster. The adjusted overall VE of PCV13 was 86% (74-93) for at least one dose, 85% (62-94) post primary and 91% (61-99) post booster. For the additional serotypes included in PCV13, the adjusted VE was 82% (66-91), 80% (46-93) and 90% (54-98) respectively. The serotype specific VE for at least one dose was high for serotypes 1 (83%; 15-97), 3 (74%; 2-93), 7F (84%; 18-98) and 19A (77%; 47-90). Only 39.5% of children with IPD obtained their first dose of PCV7 according to schedule (2nd dose: 32.9%, 3rd dose: 22.0%, booster dose: 63.6%). For children vaccinated with PCV13 values were slightly better: 43.8%, 33.5%, 26.3% and 74.3% respectively. Among 90 residual cases with PCV7 serotypes, 73 (81.1%) were in unvaccinated children, and 15 (16.7%) in children who had not obtained the number of doses recommended for their age, and only two (2.2%) in children vaccinated according to age. Of 82 cases with PCV13 serotypes occurring after the switch from PCV7 to PCV13, 56 (68.3%) were not vaccinated, 22 (26.8%) were incompletely vaccinated, and four (4.9%) were vaccinated according to age. Our data show a high effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Germany. However, the administration of vaccine doses among children with IPD is
van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Fitzner, Christina; Imöhl, Matthias
Background In this study we calculate the effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children under the age of two years using the indirect cohort method. We also discuss the timeliness of vaccination and the residual cases of vaccine type IPD. Methods and Findings From July 2006 until June 2015, 921 IPD cases were reported and for 618 children (67.1%), the vaccination status at the time of infection could be accurately determined. Of these, 379 (61.3%) were vaccinated and 239 (38.7%) were not vaccinated. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) of PCV7 for all included serotypes + 6A was 80% (95% CI: 63–89) for at least one dose, 97% (89–100) after three primary doses (post primary) and 95% (57–100) post booster. The adjusted overall VE of PCV13 was 86% (74–93) for at least one dose, 85% (62–94) post primary and 91% (61–99) post booster. For the additional serotypes included in PCV13, the adjusted VE was 82% (66–91), 80% (46–93) and 90% (54–98) respectively. The serotype specific VE for at least one dose was high for serotypes 1 (83%; 15–97), 3 (74%; 2–93), 7F (84%; 18–98) and 19A (77%; 47–90). Only 39.5% of children with IPD obtained their first dose of PCV7 according to schedule (2nd dose: 32.9%, 3rd dose: 22.0%, booster dose: 63.6%). For children vaccinated with PCV13 values were slightly better: 43.8%, 33.5%, 26.3% and 74.3% respectively. Among 90 residual cases with PCV7 serotypes, 73 (81.1%) were in unvaccinated children, and 15 (16.7%) in children who had not obtained the number of doses recommended for their age, and only two (2.2%) in children vaccinated according to age. Of 82 cases with PCV13 serotypes occurring after the switch from PCV7 to PCV13, 56 (68.3%) were not vaccinated, 22 (26.8%) were incompletely vaccinated, and four (4.9%) were vaccinated according to age. Conclusions Our data show a high effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Germany
Bryant, K A; Frenck, R; Gurtman, A; Rubino, J; Treanor, J; Thompson, A; Jones, T R; Sundaraiyer, V; Baxter, L M; Gruber, W C; Emini, E A; Scott, D A; Schmoele-Thoma, B
Based on the success of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in children, recent studies have focused on PCVs in adults. Data from a randomized, double-blind study comparing the immunogenicity, tolerability, and safety of the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) and the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in PPSV23-naive adults 60-64 years of age have been published. The same study also included a cohort of adults aged 18-49 years that received open-label PCV13. The purpose of this cohort was to examine the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of PCV13 in adult subjects 18-49 years of age compared with adults 60-64 years of age for whom PCV13 is approved. Adults naive to PPSV23 were grouped by age into 2 cohorts: 18-49 years (n=899; further stratified by age into 3 subgroups 18-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years) and 60-64 years (n=417). All subjects received 1 dose of PCV13. In both age groups, immunogenicity was assessed by antipneumococcal opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) geometric mean titers (GMTs) and IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) 1 month after vaccination. Safety and tolerability were evaluated. In adults aged 18-49 years, OPA GMTs and IgG GMCs were noninferior for all 13 serotypes and statistically significantly higher for all except 1 serotype (OPA GMT) and 5 serotypes (IgG GMCs) compared with adults 60-64 years. Immune responses were highest in the youngest age subgroup (18-29 years). Local reactions and systemic events were more common in adults 18-49 years compared with 60-64 years and were self-limited. Immune responses to PCV13 are robust in adults ≥18 years of age, with highest responses observed in the youngest subgroup. Based on its safety and immunologic profile, PCV13 may serve an important therapeutic role in younger adults, particularly those with underlying medical conditions who have an increased risk of serious pneumococcal infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Cohen, Cheryl; von Mollendorf, Claire; de Gouveia, Linda; Lengana, Sarona; Meiring, Susan; Quan, Vanessa; Nguweneza, Arthermon; Moore, David P; Reubenson, Gary; Moshe, Mamokgethi; Madhi, Shabir A; Eley, Brian; Hallbauer, Ute; Finlayson, Heather; Varughese, Sheeba; O'Brien, Katherine L; Zell, Elizabeth R; Klugman, Keith P; Whitney, Cynthia G; von Gottberg, Anne
The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was designed to include disease-causing serotypes that are important in low-income and middle-income countries. Vaccine effectiveness estimates are scarce in these settings. South Africa replaced PCV7 with PCV13 in 2011 using a 2 + 1 schedule. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of two or more doses of PCV13 against invasive pneumococcal disease in children with HIV infection and in those not infected with HIV. Cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged 5 years or younger were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance. Isolates were serotyped with the Quellung reaction or PCR. We sought in-hospital controls for every case, matched for age, HIV status, and study site. We aimed to enrol four controls for every case not infected with HIV and six controls for every case with HIV infection (case-control sets). With conditional logistic regression, we calculated vaccine effectiveness as a percentage, with the equation 1 - [adjusted odds ratio for vaccination] × 100. We included data from an earlier investigation of PCV7 to assess vaccine effectiveness in children exposed to but not infected with HIV and in malnourished children not infected with HIV. Between January, 2012, and December, 2014, we enrolled children aged 16 weeks or older to our study: 240 were cases not infected with HIV, 75 were cases with HIV infection, 1118 were controls not infected with HIV, and 283 were controls with HIV infection. The effectiveness of two or more doses of PCV13 against PCV13-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease was 85% (95% CI 37 to 96) among 11 case-control sets of children not infected with HIV and 91% (-35 to 100) among three case-control sets of children with HIV infection. PCV13 effectiveness among 26 case-control sets of children not infected with HIV was 52% (95% CI -12 to 79) against all-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease and 94% (44 to 100) for serotype 19A. Vaccine
Liguori, Giorgio; Parlato, Antonino; Zamparelli, Alessandro Sanduzzi; Belfiore, Patrizia; Gallé, Francesca; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Riganti, Carla; Zamparelli, Bruno
Pneumococcal pneumonia has a high clinical burden in terms of morbidity, mortality and hospitalization rate, with heavy implications for worldwide health systems. In particular, higher incidence and mortality rates of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) cases, with related costs, are registered among elderly. This study aimed to an economic evaluation about the immunization with PCV13 in the adult population in Campania region, South Italy. For this purpose we performed, considering a period of 5 y, a budget impact analysis (BIA) and a cost-effectiveness analysis which considered 2 scenarios of immunization compared with lack of immunization for 2 targeted cohorts: first, the high risk subjects aged 50-79 y, and second the high risk individuals aged 50-64 y, together with all those aged 65 y. Regarding the first group, the decrease of pneumonia could give savings equal to €29,005,660, while the immunization of the second cohort could allow savings equal to €10,006,017. The economic evaluation of pneumococcal vaccine for adult groups represents an essential instrument to support health policies. This study showed that both hypothesized immunization strategies could produce savings. Obtained results support the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for adults. This strategy could represent a sustainable and savings-producer health policy.
Jokinen, Jukka; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Siira, Lotta; Palmu, Arto A.; Virtanen, Mikko J.; Nohynek, Hanna; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni; Toropainen, Maija; Nuorti, J. Pekka
Background The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 with a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months) without catch-up vaccinations. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children ≤5 years of age during the first three years after NVP introduction. Methods We conducted a population-based, observational follow-up study. The cohort of vaccine-eligible children (all children born June 1, 2010 or later) was followed from 3 months of age until the end of 2013. For the indirect effect, another cohort of older children ineligible for PCV10 vaccination was followed from 2011 through 2013. Both cohorts were compared with season- and age-matched reference cohorts before NVP introduction. National, population-based laboratory surveillance data were used to compare culture-confirmed serotype-specific IPD rates in the vaccine target and reference cohorts by using Poisson regression models. Results The overall IPD rate among vaccine-eligible children was reduced by 80% (95%CI 72 to 85); the reduction in vaccine-type IPD was 92% (95%CI 86 to 95). However, a non-significant increase in non-vaccine type IPD was observed. During 2012–2013, we also observed a 48% (95%CI 18 to 69) reduction in IPD among unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age, which was mostly attributable to the ten vaccine serotypes. Conclusions This is the first population-based study investigating the impact of PCV10 introduction without prior PCV7 use. A substantial decrease in IPD rates among vaccine-eligible children was observed. A smaller and temporally delayed reduction among older, unvaccinated children suggests that PCV10 also provides indirect protection against vaccine-type IPD. Changes in serotype distribution warrant continuous monitoring of potential increases in non-vaccine serotypes. PMID:25781031
Jokinen, Jukka; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Siira, Lotta; Palmu, Arto A; Virtanen, Mikko J; Nohynek, Hanna; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni; Toropainen, Maija; Nuorti, J Pekka
The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 with a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months) without catch-up vaccinations. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children ≤5 years of age during the first three years after NVP introduction. We conducted a population-based, observational follow-up study. The cohort of vaccine-eligible children (all children born June 1, 2010 or later) was followed from 3 months of age until the end of 2013. For the indirect effect, another cohort of older children ineligible for PCV10 vaccination was followed from 2011 through 2013. Both cohorts were compared with season- and age-matched reference cohorts before NVP introduction. National, population-based laboratory surveillance data were used to compare culture-confirmed serotype-specific IPD rates in the vaccine target and reference cohorts by using Poisson regression models. The overall IPD rate among vaccine-eligible children was reduced by 80% (95%CI 72 to 85); the reduction in vaccine-type IPD was 92% (95%CI 86 to 95). However, a non-significant increase in non-vaccine type IPD was observed. During 2012-2013, we also observed a 48% (95%CI 18 to 69) reduction in IPD among unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age, which was mostly attributable to the ten vaccine serotypes. This is the first population-based study investigating the impact of PCV10 introduction without prior PCV7 use. A substantial decrease in IPD rates among vaccine-eligible children was observed. A smaller and temporally delayed reduction among older, unvaccinated children suggests that PCV10 also provides indirect protection against vaccine-type IPD. Changes in serotype distribution warrant continuous monitoring of potential increases in non-vaccine serotypes.
Goldblatt, David; Ramakrishnan, Meena; O'Brien, Katherine
An international consultation was convened in March 2012 to provide feedback on the Case for Carriage, a summary statement by the Pneumococcal Carriage Consortium (PneumoCarr) proposing nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization as a supplementary or alternative endpoint in vaccine licensure. PneumoCarr members provided information to vaccine manufacturers, regulators and the WHO on the evidence for NP carriage as a precursor to pneumococcal disease, standardization of laboratory methods for the detection of multiple serotype carriage, definition and estimation of pneumococcal vaccine efficacy against carriage (VE-col), and the direct and indirect impact of vaccination on carriage. Manufacturers and regulators had the opportunity to respond to the information compiled by PneumoCarr and share their perspectives. VE-col as a licensure endpoint may be more useful for the next generation pneumococcal vaccine products, particularly those for which the immunological correlate of protection is not established, whereas it may be less needed for pneumococcal conjugate vaccines which have an established licensure pathway. The consultation supported the importance of NP carriage data as a critical element linking vaccine impact on the individual direct risk of disease to the population-level impact: indirect effects such as herd protection and serotype replacement. The indirect effects of vaccination, however, are not currently established as part of the licensure process and to include them would be a paradigm shift for regulatory agencies who currently consider this information in the post-licensure setting. More discussion and consensus-building is needed around the rationale and optimal mechanism to include carriage data in the licensure pathway for new pneumococcal vaccines. The WHO and national advisory groups on immunization policy may have an important role in considering the evidence for the indirect benefit of vaccination as informed by its impact on NP carriage.
Kondo, Kyoko; Suzuki, Kanzo; Washio, Masakazu; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Akiko; Hirota, Yoshio
We conducted a case-control study to elucidate associations between pneumonia in elderly individuals and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and seasonal influenza vaccine (influenza vaccine). Here, we examined selection of controls in our study using an analytic epidemiology approach. The study period was from October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2014. Cases comprised ≥65-year-old patients newly diagnosed with pneumonia. For every case with pneumonia, two patients with other diseases (one respiratory medicine, one non-respiratory medicine) who were sex-, age-, visit date- and visit hospital-matched were selected as controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of vaccination for pneumonia were calculated using conditional logistic regression model. Similar analyses were also conducted based on the clinical department of controls. Analysis was conducted in 234 cases and 438 controls. Effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination or influenza vaccination against pneumonia was not detected. Proportions of either vaccination in controls were greater among respiratory medicine (pneumococcal vaccine, 38%; influenza vaccine, 55%) than among non-respiratory medicine (23%; 48%). Analysis using controls restricted to respiratory medicine showed marginally significant effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination (OR, 0.59; 95%CI, 0.34-1.03; P=0.064) and influenza vaccination (0.64; 0.40-1.04; 0.072). However, this effectiveness might have been overestimated by selection bias of controls, as pneumonia cases are not necessarily respiratory medicine patients. In the analysis using controls restricted to non-respiratory medicine, OR of pneumococcal vaccination for pneumonia was close to 1, presumably because the proportion of pneumococcal vaccination was higher in cases than in controls. Because pneumococcal vaccine was not routinely administered during the study period, differences in recommendations of vaccination by physician in different
Wilmore, Stephanie M S; Philip, Keir E; Cambiano, Valentina; Bretherton, Christopher P; Harborne, Josephine E; Sharma, Aditi; Jayasena, Shyama D
Patients on dialysis mount reduced immune responses compared with the general population. The Department of Health advises that these patients receive influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations at regular intervals-once yearly and every five years, respectively. This article investigates the uptake of these vaccinations in this patient population and seeks to examine factors that may influence vaccination status such as patient's language and presence of a general practitioner (GP) electronic vaccination reminder system. It also explores preferred site of vaccination for patients and GPs as these are primary care vaccinations yet patients have more frequent contact with their dialysis unit than their GP, blurring the boundaries between primary and specialized care. This is a retrospective study of all patients registered as dialysing at the North Middlesex University Hospital NHS Trust (NMUH) in September 2011. Information was obtained through GP letters, GP and patient questionnaires. Of 154 patients, 133 were included in the data analysis. Nineteen per cent were up-to-date with both vaccinations and 67% with their influenza vaccination. Fifty per cent had received the influenza vaccination in the last two consecutive years. Thirty per cent were not up-to-date with either vaccination. There was no evidence of a difference in uptake in 2009 (P = 0.7564) and in 2010 (P = 0.7435) among those who could and could not speak English. Twenty-five per cent of GPs and 58.6% of patients preferred vaccination to occur in the dialysis unit. Unfortunately a high number of GPs did not provide information on whether they used an electronic vaccination reminder but the analysis from the information provided by the few respondents did not reveal any correlation between the presence of an electronic reminder and vaccination status. Most dialysis patients were not up-to-date with both vaccinations. They were, however, more up-to-date with their influenza than their pneumococcal
Waight, Pauline A; Andrews, Nicholas J; Ladhani, Shamez N; Sheppard, Carmen L; Slack, Mary P E; Miller, Elizabeth
The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) protects against key serotypes that increased after routine immunisation with the seven-valent vaccine (PCV7), but its potential for herd protection and serotype replacement is uncertain. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales 4 years after its introduction. We used a national dataset of electronically reported and serotyped invasive pneumococcal disease cases in England and Wales to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for vaccine and non-vaccine type invasive pneumococcal disease between July, 2013, and June, 2014, versus the pre-PCV13 and pre-PCV7 baseline. Incidence rates were corrected for missing serotype data and changes in surveillance sensitivity over time. An over-dispersed Poisson model was used to estimate IRRs and confidence intervals. Incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in the epidemiological year 2013/14 decreased by 32% compared with the pre-PCV13 baseline (incidence 10·14 per 100,000 in 2008-10 vs 6·85 per 100,000 in 2013/14; IRR 0·68, 95% CI 0·64-0·72). This was due to an 86% reduction of the serotypes covered by PCV7 (1·46 vs 0·20 per 100,000; IRR 0·14, 0·10-0·18) and a 69% reduction of the additional six serotypes covered by PCV13 (4·48 vs 1·40 per 100,000; IRR 0·31, 0·28-0·35). When compared with the pre-PCV7 baseline, there was a 56% overall reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease (15·63 vs 6·85 per 100,000; IRR 0·44, 95% CI 0·43-0·47). Compared with the pre-PCV13 baseline, the incidence of non-PCV13 serotypes increased (incidence all ages 4·19 vs 5·25 per 100,000; IRR 1·25, 95% CI 1·17-1·35) due to increases across a broad range of serotypes in children younger than 5 years and in people aged 45 years or more. In children younger than 5 years, incidence of non-PCV13 serotypes in 2013/14 was higher than in 2012/13 (age <2 years: 12·03 vs 10·83
Background This study aimed to assess the costs and clinical benefits of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) administered annually to the 65-year-old cohort in Spain versus the alternative of not vaccinating patients and treating them only when infected. Methods Cases of pneumococcal disease avoided were calculated through a dynamic model based on the work of Anderson and May (1999). Sixty-six percent of the 65-year-old cohort was assumed to have been vaccinated with one PCV13 dose (304,492 subjects). Base-case estimated vaccine effectiveness and serotype coverage were 58% and 60%, respectively. Disease-related costs were calculated based on published data. Results Over the 5-year period, a total of 125,906 cases of pneumococcal disease would be avoided. Net savings of €102 million would be obtained. The cost-saving distribution was not homogeneous, starting in the 2nd year and increasing through the 5th. To demonstrate model robustness, an additional scenario analysis was performed using extreme values of model parameters (vaccination programme coverage, vaccine effectiveness, discount rate and disease costs). Under those scenarios, net savings were always achieved. Conclusions Based on the assumptions of the model, the 65-year-cohort pneumococcal vaccination campaign appears to be a cost-saving intervention in the Spanish population under different scenarios. PMID:23578307
Denoël, Philippe; Philipp, Mario T; Doyle, Lara; Martin, Dale; Carletti, Georges; Poolman, Jan T
Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Protein-based pneumococcal vaccines are envisaged to replace or complement the current polysaccharide-based vaccines. In this context, detoxified pneumolysin (dPly) and pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD) are two potential candidates for incorporation into pneumococcal vaccines. In this study, the protective efficacy of a PhtD-dPly vaccine was evaluated in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model of pneumonia. The animals were immunized twice with 10 μg of PhtD and 10 μg of dPly formulated in the Adjuvant System AS02 or with AS02 alone, before they were challenged with a 19F pneumococcal strain. The survival was significantly higher in the protein-vaccinated group and seemed to be linked to the capacity to greatly reduce bacterial load within the first week post-challenge. Vaccination elicited high concentrations of anti-PhtD and anti-Ply antibodies and a link was found between survival and antibody levels. In conclusion, AS02-adjuvanted PhtD-dPly vaccine protects against S. pneumoniae-induced pneumonia. It is probable that the protection is at least partially mediated by PhtD- and Ply-specific antibodies.
Wang, Mao-Che; Wang, Ying-Piao; Chu, Chia-Huei; Tu, Tzong-Yang; Shiao, An-Suey; Chou, Pesus
To investigate the impact of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population. Retrospective ecological study. This study used Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000-2009. Every child under 17 years old who received tubes during this 10-year period was identified and analyzed. The tube insertion rates in different age groups and the risk to receive tubes in different birth cohorts before and after the release of the vaccine in 2005 were compared. The tube insertion rates for children under 17 years of age ranged from 21.6 to 31.9 for 100,000 persons/year. The tube insertion rate of children under 2 years old decreased significantly after 2005 in period effect analysis (β = -0.074, P < 0.05, and the negative β value means a downward trend) and increased in children 2 to 9 years old throughout the study period (positive β values which mean upward trends, P < 0.05). The rate of tube insertion was lower in 2004-2005 and 2006-2007 birth cohorts than that of 2002-2003 birth cohort (RR = 0.90 and 0.21, 95% CI 0.83-0.97 and 0.19-0.23, resp.). The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may reduce the risk of tube insertion for children of later birth cohorts. The vaccine may have the protective effect on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population.
Pumarola, Felix; Salamanca de la Cueva, Ignacio; Sistiaga-Hernando, Alessandra; García-Corbeira, Pilar; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Cardelús, Sara; McCoig, Cynthia; Gómez Martínez, Justo Ramón; Rosell Ferrer, Rosa; Iniesta Turpin, Jesús; Devadiga, Raghavendra
Acute otitis media (AOM) is common in children aged <3 years. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (PCV7; Prevenar, Pfizer/Wyeth, USA) has been available in Spain since 2001, which has a coverage rate of 50-60% in children aged <5 years. Children aged ≥3 to 36 months with AOM confirmed by an ear-nose-throat specialist were enrolled at seven centers in Spain (February 2009-May 2012) (GSK study identifier: 111425). Middle-ear-fluid samples were collected by tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea and cultured for bacterial identification. Culture-negative samples were further analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 125 confirmed AOM episodes in 124 children, 117 were analyzed (median age: 17 months (range: 3-35); eight AOM episodes were excluded from analyses. Overall, 69% (81/117) episodes were combined culture- and PCR-positive for ≥1 bacterial pathogen; 44% (52/117) and 39% (46/117) were positive for Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), respectively. 77 of 117 episodes were cultured for ≥1 bacteria, of which 63 were culture-positive; most commonly Spn (24/77; 31%) and Hi (32/77; 42%). PCR on culture-negative episodes identified 48% Hi- and 55% Spn-positive episodes. The most common Spn serotype was 19F (4/24; 17%) followed by 19A (3/24; 13%); all Hi-positive episodes were non-typeable (NTHi). 81/117 AOM episodes (69%) occurred in children who had received ≥1 pneumococcal vaccine dose. NTHi and Spn were the main etiological agents for AOM in Spain. Impact of pneumococcal vaccination on AOM requires further evaluation in Spain, after higher vaccination coverage rate is reached. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a serious injury ... state health department . Contact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Call 1-800-232-4636 ( ...
... As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a serious injury ... state health department. • Contact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): - Call 1-800-232-4636 ( ...
Bernaola, Enrique; Gil, Francisco; Herranz, Mercedes; Gil-Setas, Alberto; Guevara, Marcela; Castilla, Jesus
The aim was to assess the effect of the non-systematic pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on incidence of pneumonia associated with parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) in vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Cases were patients aged <15 years who had been diagnosed with pneumonia associated with PPE in a tertiary hospital in Navarra (Spain) between 1995 and 2014. The population aged <15 years and covered by the public health service was used as reference. The vaccination status of the cases and population was obtained from computerised medical records. Logistic regression analyses included vaccination status, age group and time periods: pre-vaccine (1995-2001) and vaccination with PCV7 (2002-2010) and PCV13 (2011-2014). A total of 321 cases of PPE were included. The risk of PPE increased between the pre-vaccine and PCV7 period (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.37-4.71), while vaccination with PCV7 was found to be an independent risk factor (OR=1.44, 95%CI:1.09-1.89) in the same analysis. In the PCV13 period the risk of PPE returned to the pre-vaccination incidence level among children vaccinated with PCV13 (OR=1.07, 95%CI:0.56-2.04), while unvaccinated children (OR=1.69, 95%CI:0.96-2.98) and overall those vaccinated with PCV7 (OR=3.64, 95%CI:2.15-6.17) maintained an increased risk of PPE. The non-systematic introduction of PCV7 was followed by an increased incidence of PPE. The subsequent introduction of PCV13 was associated with a return to the incidence level in the pre-vaccine period, mainly in children vaccinated with PCV13.
Constenla, Dagna O
A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate the economic impact of post-introduction pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programs in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay from the societal perspective. Hypothetical birth cohorts were followed for a 20-year period in each country. Estimates of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, and health care costs were derived from primary and secondary data sources. Costs were expressed in 2014 US$. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of model input uncertainties. Over the 20 years of vaccine program implementation, the health care costs per case ranged from US$ 764 854 to more than US$ 1 million. Vaccination prevented more than 50% of pneumococcal cases and deaths per country. At a cost of US$ 16 per dose, the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted for the 10-valent PCV (PCV10) and the 13-valet PCV (PCV13) ranged from US$ 796 (Honduras) to US$ 1 340 (Ecuador) and from US$ 691 (Honduras) to US$ 1 166 (Ecuador) respectively. At a reduced price (US$ 7 per dose), the cost per DALY averted ranged from US$ 327 (Honduras) to US$ 528 (Ecuador) and from US$ 281 (Honduras) to US$ 456 (Ecuador) for PCV10 and PCV13 respectively. Several model parameters influenced the results of the analysis, including vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, disease incidence, and costs. The economic impact of post-introduction PCV needs to be assessed in a context of uncertainty regarding changing antibiotic resistance, herd and serotype replacement effects, differential vaccine prices, and government budget constraints.
Moberley, Sarah; Licciardi, Paul V; Balloch, Anne; Andrews, Ross; Leach, Amanda J; Kirkwood, Marie; Binks, Paula; Mulholland, Kim; Carapetis, Jonathan; Tang, Mimi L K; Skull, Sue
Indigenous adults residing in the Northern Territory of Australia experience elevated rates of invasive pneumococcal disease despite the routine use of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV). We hypothesised that the limited protection from 23vPPV may be due to hyporesponsiveness as a result of vaccine failure from repeated vaccination. To explore this possibility, we evaluated the immune response to a first and second dose of 23vPPV in Indigenous adults and a first dose of 23vPPV in non-Indigenous adults. Serotype-specific IgG was measured by ELISA for all 23 vaccine serotypes at baseline and at one month post-vaccination. Individuals were considered to have an adequate immune response if paired sera demonstrated either: a four-fold rise in antibody concentration; a two-fold rise if the post vaccination antibody was >1.3μg/ml but <4.0μg/ml; or a post-vaccination antibody concentration >4.0μg/ml for at least half of the serotypes tested (12/23). Our per-protocol analysis included the comparison of outcomes for three groups: Indigenous adults receiving a second 23vPPV dose (N=20) and Indigenous (N=60) and non-Indigenous adults (N=25) receiving their first 23vPPV dose. All non-Indigenous adults receiving a first dose of 23vPPV mounted an adequate immune response (25/25). There was no significant difference in the proportion of individuals with an adequate response using our definition (primary endpoint), with 88% of Indigenous adults mounted an adequate response following first dose 23vPPV (53/60) compared to 70% having an adequate response following a second dose of 23vPPV (14/20; p=0.05). The risk difference between Indigenous participants receiving first dose compared to non-Indigenous participants receiving first dose was significant when comparing a response threshold of at least 70% (-27%, 95% CI: -43% to -11%; p=0.01) and 90% (-38%, 95% CI: -60% to -16%; p=0.006) of serotypes with a positive response. Indigenous participants demonstrated a
Background Invasive (IPD, defined as detection of pneumococci in sterile body fluids like meningitis or bacteremic pneumonia) and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections (i.e. non-bacteremic pneumonia, otitis media) in adults are associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. In Germany, Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPV23) is recommended for all persons >60 years and for defined risk groups (age 5–59). The aim of this model was to estimate the potential cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost ratios of the adult vaccination program (18 years and older), considering the launch of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for adults (PCV13). Methods A cross-sectional steady state Markov model was developed to estimate the outcomes of PCV13, PPV23 vaccination schemes and ‘no vaccination’. Conservative assumptions were made if no data were available for PCV13 and PPV23 respectively. The effectiveness of individual pneumococcal vaccination in adults was adjusted for expected indirect effects due to the vaccination in infants. Data on incidences, effectiveness and costs were derived from scientific literature and publicly available databases. All resources used are indicated. Benefit-cost ratios and cost-effectiveness were evaluated from the perspective of the German Statutory Health Insurance as well as from social perspective. Results Under the assumption that PCV13 has a comparable effectiveness to PCV7, a vaccination program with PCV13 revealed the potential to avoid a greater number of yearly cases and deaths in IPD and pneumonia in Germany compared to PPV23. For PCV13, the costs were shown to be overcompensated by monetary savings resulting from reduction in the use of health care services. These results would render the switch from PPV23 to PCV13 as a dominant strategy compared to PPV23 and ‘no vaccination’. Given the correctness of the underlying assumptions every Euro spent on the PCV13 vaccination scheme yields savings of 2
Campos, Ivana B; Herd, Muriel; Moffitt, Kristin L; Lu, Ying-Jie; Darrieux, Michelle; Malley, Richard; Leite, Luciana C C; Gonçalves, Viviane M
The pneumococcal whole cell vaccine (PWCV) has been investigated as an alternative to polysaccharide-based vaccines currently in use. It is a non-encapsulated killed vaccine preparation that induces non-capsular antibodies protecting mice against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage via IL-17A activation of mouse phagocytes. Here, we show that PWCV induces antibody and IL-17A production to protect mice against challenge in a fatal aspiration-sepsis model after only one dose. We observed protection even with a boiled preparation, attesting to the stability and robustness of the vaccine. PWCV antibodies were shown to bind to different encapsulated strains, but complement deposition on the pneumococcal surface was observed only on serotype 3 strains; using flow cytometer methodology, variations in PWCV quality, as in the boiled vaccine, were detected. Moreover, anti-PWCV induces phagocytosis of different pneumococcal serotypes by murine peritoneal cells in the presence of complement or IL-17A. These findings suggest that complement and IL-17A may participate in the process of phagocytosis induced by PWCV antibodies. IL-17A can stimulate phagocytic cells to kill pneumococcus and this is enhanced in the presence of PWCV antibodies bound to the bacterial cell surface. Our results provide further support for the PWCV as a broad-range vaccine against all existing serotypes, potentially providing protection for humans against NP colonization and IPD. Additionally, we suggest complement deposition assay as a tool to detect subtle differences between PWCV lots.
Wu, Kaifeng; Yao, Run; Wang, Hong; Pang, Dan; Liu, Yusi; Xu, Hongmei; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Xuemei; Yin, Yibing
Despite the availability of effective vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae is still one of the major infectious diseases causing substantial morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years old. In this study, we demonstrate the protective efficacy of S. pneumoniae SPY1, a novel live attenuated vaccine strain against pneumococcal infection in murine models. This strain was characterized by defects in three important pneumococcal virulence factors including capsule, teichoic acids and pneumolysin. The lactate dehydrogenase assays and in vivo animal experiments demonstrated a significantly attenuated virulence and a reduced nasopharyngeal colonization for the SPY1 strain. We also show that mucosal and systemic immunization with the live SPY1 strain induced protective immune responses against pneumococci. Mucosal immunization with SPY1 offered better protection against colonization challenge with strains TIGR4 and serotype 19F than systemic SPY1 immunization. In invasive infection models, mucosal vaccination with the SPY1 strain conferred complete protection against D39 and clinical serotype 6B and 3 strains. Notably, intranasal vaccination with the SPY1 strain conferred superior protection against pneumococcal invasive disease compared with the commercial available vaccines. SPY1 strain was shown to elicit high levels of serotype-independent antibodies and a mixed cellular immune response. Besides, the SPY1 serum was able to passively protect mice against invasive challenge with D39 strain, indicating the protective effect of the antibody-mediated responses. Together, the SPY1 strain may be a promising live vaccine strain to protect pneumococcal infection.
Zhang, Yan-Yang; Tang, Xue-Feng; Du, Chang-Hui; Wang, Bin-Bing; Bi, Zhen-Wang; Dong, Bi-Rong
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis comparing the effectiveness of influenza vaccination alone versus influenza plus pneumococcal dual vaccination for the prevention of pneumonia and mortality in adults ≥ 65 years of age. Medline, Cochrane, CENTRAL, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 2-arm prospective studies, or retrospective cohort studies; 2) Patients were ≥ 65 years of age with or without chronic respiratory disease; 3) Patients received the influenza vaccine alone or dual pneumococcal and influenza vaccination; 4) Results included incidence of recurrent respiratory tract infections, length of hospital stay, and overall mortality rate. The outcomes were pneumonia and all-cause mortality rates. Of 142 studies identified in the database searches, 6 were ultimately included in the systematic review, and 5 were included in meta-analysis. The number of patients that received the influenza vaccination alone ranged from 211 to 29,346 (total = 53,107), and the number that received influenza+pneumococcal vaccination ranged from 246 to 72,107 (total = 102,068). Influenza+pneumococcal vaccination was associated with a significantly lower pneumonia rate than influenza vaccination alone (relative risk [RR] = 0.835, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.718–0.971, P = 0.019), and with a significantly lower all-cause mortality rate than influenza vaccination alone (relative risk [RR] = 0.771, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.707–0.842, P = 0.001). In conclusion, the results of this study support concomitant pneumococcal and influenza vaccination of the elderly as a dual vaccination strategy is associated with lower pneumonia and all-cause mortality rates. PMID:27629584
Akata, Kentaro; Chang, Bin; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Kawanami, Toshinori; Naito, Keisuke; Noguchi, Shingo; Kido, Takashi; Mukae, Hiroshi
We previously reported a decrease in the vaccine serotypes of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) 23 in adult pneumonia patients after starting PCV7 vaccination in children in Japan between 2011 and 2013, suggesting that the vaccination of children had an indirect effect on adults. PCV7 was replaced by PCV13 in 2013 and was authorized for individuals ≥65 in 2014; vaccination with PPSV23 has been routinely implemented since the same year. We continuously evaluated the pneumococcal serotype changes. This retrospective epidemiological study was performed at the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, from January 2014 to December 2015, while also referring to the data from January 2011 to December 2013. The pneumococcal serotypes that were isolated from pneumonia patients and clinical information were evaluated. The proportions of the PCV7 and PCV13 vaccine serotypes significantly decreased each year (from 2011 to 2015) from 46.4% to 8.3% (p < 0.05) and 71.4% to 33.3% (p < 0.05), respectively. The PPSV23 serotypes without PCV13 showed a continuous, mild increase, while the mortality rates tended to decrease in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. The present study showed that the vaccine serotypes of PCV7 and PCV13 have been decreasing since the introduction of PCV7 in October 2009 and since PCV13 was introduced to replace PCV7 from November 2013, and that the mortality rates of patients have tended to decrease. These results indicate that a continuous analysis of the pneumococcal serotype data is necessary for the appropriate administration of vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Yi; Beitelshees, Marie; Fang, Lei; Hill, Andrew; Ahmadi, Mahmoud Kamal; Chen, Mingfu; Davidson, Bruce A.; Knight, Paul; Smith, Randall J.; Andreadis, Stelios T.; Hakansson, Anders P.; Jones, Charles H.; Pfeifer, Blaine A.
The type and potency of an immune response provoked during vaccination will determine ultimate success in disease prevention. The basis for this response will be the design and implementation of antigen presentation to the immune system. Whereas direct antigen administration will elicit some form of immunological response, a more sophisticated approach would couple the antigen of interest to a vector capable of broad delivery formats and designed for heightened response. New antigens associated with pneumococcal disease virulence were used to test the delivery and adjuvant capabilities of a hybrid biological-biomaterial vector consisting of a bacterial core electrostatically coated with a cationic polymer. The hybrid design provides (i) passive and active targeting of antigen-presenting cells, (ii) natural and multicomponent adjuvant properties, (iii) dual intracellular delivery mechanisms, and (iv) a simple formulation mechanism. In addition, the hybrid format enables device-specific, or in situ, antigen production and consolidation via localization within the bacterial component of the vector. This capability eliminates the need for dedicated antigen production and purification before vaccination efforts while leveraging the aforementioned features of the overall delivery device. We present the first disease-specific utilization of the vector toward pneumococcal disease highlighted by improved immune responses and protective capabilities when tested against traditional vaccine formulations and a range of clinically relevant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. More broadly, the results point to similar levels of success with other diseases that would benefit from the production, delivery, and efficacy capabilities offered by the hybrid vector. PMID:27419235
Valdivielso-Ramos, M; Velázquez, D; Tortoledo, A; Hernanz, J M
Bullous pemphigoid is an acquired autoimmune blistering disorder extremely uncommon in children, characterized by circulating IgG antibodies to antigens of the epidermal basement membrane zone. In general, the clinical course of this condition is good and relapses are rare. The early diagnosis and treatment are fundamental. We present a 3-month-old girl with a blistering eruption on her palms and soles, and urticarial plaques on trunk, and face, 3 weeks after vaccine at two months (hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae B, meningococcal C, pneumococcus). The clinical course worsened with vaccinations at 4 and 6 months. The control of lesions was achieved with oral deflazacort 1 mg/kg/day, with a gradual decrease until 3 months of therapy. The patient is still in remission after 8 months of follow-up. Bullous pemphigoid has been connected with some drugs and vaccinations, 1 day to 4 weeks after receiving immunization. Although the exact mechanism of induction is unclear, this case report has a visible relationship with vaccinations. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
O'Brien, Katherine L; Moulton, Lawrence H; Reid, Raymond; Weatherholtz, Robert; Oski, Jane; Brown, Laura; Kumar, Gaurav; Parkinson, Alan; Hu, Diana; Hackell, Jill; Chang, Ih; Kohberger, Robert; Siber, George; Santosham, Mathuram
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of invasive bacterial disease in children aged younger than 2 years. Navajo and White Mountain Apache children have some of the highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease documented in the world. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a seven-valent polysaccharide protein conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PnCRM7) against such disease. In a group-randomised study, we gave this vaccine to children younger than 2 years from the Navajo and White Mountain Apache Indian reservations; meningococcal type C conjugate vaccine (MnCC) served as the control vaccine. Vaccine schedules were determined by age at enrollment. We recorded episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease and serotyped isolates. Analyses were by intention to treat and per protocol. 8292 children enrolled in the trial. In the per protocol analysis of the primary efficacy group (children enrolled by 7 months of age) there were eight cases of vaccine serotype disease in the controls and two in the PnCRM7 group; in the intention-to-treat analysis we noted 11 cases of vaccine serotype disease in the MnCC control group and two in the PnCRM7 group. After group randomisation had been controlled for, the per protocol primary efficacy of PnCRM7 was 76.8% (95% CI -9.4% to 95.1%) and the intention-to-treat total primary efficacy was 82.6% (21.4% to 96.1%). PnCRM7 vaccine prevents vaccine serotype invasive pneumococcal disease even in a high risk population. Other regions with similar disease burden should consider including this vaccine in the routine childhood vaccine schedule.
Kieninger, Martha Peña; Caballero, Edgar Giménez; Sosa, Antonio Arbo; Amarilla, Carlos Torres; Jáuregui, Bárbara; Janusz, Cara Bess; Clark, Andrew David; Castellanos, Raúl Montesano
To describe a cost-effectiveness analysis of 10- or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10 or 13) introduction in Paraguay compared to no vaccination. The integrated TRIVAC vaccine cost-effectiveness model (version 2.0) jointly developed by the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine was applied from the government and societal perspectives to estimate the cost-effectiveness (CE) of PCV introduction during 2010 and 2011. The cost-effectiveness ratios of PCV10 and PCV13 were separately compared to non-vaccination. The model calculated health and economic benefits of vaccination for 10 birth cohorts of children <5 years of age. A base case scenario with two primary doses at 2 and 4 months and a booster dose at 12 months (2+1 schedule) and alternate scenarios with varying parameters were considered. With PCV10 introduction, the incremental costs of the vaccination program would be approximately US$ 67 million to vaccinate all 10 cohorts of children; with PCV13, US$ 87 million. Health services costs avoided by the government with PCV10 would be US$ 19.5 million; with PCV 13, US$ 17.7 million. From the societal perspective, savings were much greater: with PCV10, US$ 43 million; with PCV13, US$ 35 million. For the higher priced PCV13, the average cost-effectiveness ratio was better than for PCV10 when compared to no vaccination, but regardless both were cost effective for government and society based on a threshold of 3× GDP per capita in Paraguay (2009 US$ 2516). The number of averted meningitis and all-cause pneumonia cases and deaths was greater with PCV13 than with PCV10 when compared to no vaccination. The introduction of either PCV10 or PCV13 would be cost effective when compared to no vaccination, and in some scenarios, highly cost effective in Paraguay. The outcomes of these analyses demonstrate that a pneumococcal vaccine could substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in
Ingels, Helene Andrea Sinclair
Streptococcus pneumoniae is still a leading cause of septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis in young children world-wide with over half a million children dying annually from pneumococcal disease. Some children are prone to repeated episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) because of an underlying predisposing disease. Recurrent IPD (rIPD) is a rarity and published reports on rIPD are limited by having few children included, selected groups of patients or short follow-up periods. Deficiencies in the innate or adaptive immune system have been described in children with rIPD, but the frequency of immunodeficiency among such patients is unknown. The aim of this PhD thesis was to examine paediatric cases of laboratory-confirmed rIPD, over a 33-year period in Denmark, to determine risk factors and study aspects of the immunological background for this problem in children. In October 2007, a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was implemented in the Danish infant immunization programme. An additional aim of the thesis was to examine the impact of vaccination on a population level, following the first three years of general PCV7 vaccination in Denmark. The thesis consists of three papers, which are all directly or indirectly based on data retrieved from the National Streptococcus Pneumoniae Registry. This registry is nationwide and dates back to 1938. The registry contains data from all laboratory-confirmed cases of IPD in Denmark and is continually updated for national surveillance. In Paper 1, we conducted a 33-year retrospective nationwide study of paediatric rIPD. By using data from the National Streptococcus Pneumoniae Registry combined with clinical data from hospital records, we could describe one of the largest known cohorts of children (n:59) with rIPD . We covered epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical features of this clinical entity. Of all children experiencing rIPD, 47% had a known predisposing underlying disease at the time of
Lugovskaia, N A; Bushueva, L E; Tulupova, L G; Kholopov, I O
Influenza-like diseases are among the causes of disability. Risk of these diseases is increased with other occupational hazards. The study covered efficiency of combined vaccination against influenza (annually, over 2 years, with inactivated split-vaccine Vaxigrip) and pneumococcal infection (single, with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine Pneumo 23) in 318 workers of Neviansk branch of "Gazprom transgaz Yekaterinburg" company. Among them, 49 workers (welders and joiners) were exposed to occupational hazards. Findings are that general frequency of such diseases decreased by 17% over the first year after the vaccination and by 27% over the second year, and in welders and joiners group--by 33% and 44% respectively. The authors proved economic efficiency of combined vaccination with Vaxigrip and Pneumo 23.
Marom, Tal; Bookstein Peretz, Shiran; Schwartz, Orna; Goldfarb, Abraham; Oron, Yahav; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric head and neck infections (HNIs), for example, acute otitis media (AOM), acute mastoiditis, acute bacterial sinusitis and meningitis. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of pneumococcal HNIs (pHNIs) before, during and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Children 0-16 years of age, who were hospitalized with HNIs in the pediatrics department in a general hospital between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2014, were retrospectively identified. Study years were categorized according to the PCV introduction timeline: 2007-2008: "pre-PCV years"; 2009-2011: "transition years" and 2012-2014: "post-PCV years." pHNIs episodes were defined if pneumococcal culture or urine antigen was positive. Children who received ≥2 doses of PCV7/PCV13 were considered as immunized. All other children were considered as unimmunized. HNIs accounted for 2.5%-4.7% of the total admissions; 3%-17% of them were pHNIs. Eighty-seven pHNI episodes were identified: AOM (n = 42), acute mastoiditis (n = 28) and meningitis (n = 17). There was a downward trend in the overall incidence of HNIs, and particularly of pHNIs, in the post-PCV years. The average age and hospitalization duration of children with HNIs/pHNIs remained stable during the study years. In 2009-2010, pHNIs incidence sharply decreased, from 7 to 1.74/1000 hospitalized children/year, due to ~55% reduction of pneumococcal AOM episodes. An additional decrease was observed in the post-PCV years (1.62/1000 hospitalized children/year). Immunized children were less likely to present with pHNIs (P = 0.001) but were more likely to undergo surgery (P = 0.042). We observed a reduction in pHNIs incidence after PCV program implementation.
Weinberger, Daniel M.; Grant, Lindsay R.; Weatherholtz, Robert C.; Warren, Joshua L.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Hammitt, Laura L.
The use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in children has a strong indirect effect on disease rates in adults. When children are vaccinated with PCVs, other serotypes that are not targeted by the vaccine can increase in frequency (serotype replacement) and reduce the direct and indirect benefits of the vaccine. To understand and predict the likely impacts of serotype replacement, it is important to know how patterns in the transmission of serotypes among children relate to disease rates in adults. We used data on pneumococcal carriage and disease from Navajo Nation children and adults collected before and after the routine use of PCVs (1998–2012). Using regression models within a Bayesian framework, we found that serotype-specific carriage and invasiveness (disease incidence divided by carriage prevalence) had similar patterns in children and adults. Moreover, carriage in children, invasiveness in children, and a serotype-specific random intercept (which captured additional variation associated with the serotypes) could predict the incidence serotype-specific pneumococcal disease in adults 18–39 years of age and those 40 years of age or older in the era of routine use of PCVs. These models could help us predict the effects of future pneumococcal vaccine use in children on disease rates in adults, and the modeling approach developed here could be used to test these findings in other settings. PMID:27188949
Jiang, Yiling; Gauthier, Aline; Annemans, Lieven; van der Linden, Mark; Nicolas-Spony, Laurence; Bresse, Xavier
To assess the comparative public health and budget impact over 5 years of several pneumococcal vaccination strategies (23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [PPV23] and/or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV13]) in Germany, within the context of changing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence over time. A multi-cohort, population-based Markov model was developed. Uncertainty around vaccine effectiveness, costs and IPD incidence change was handled through scenario analyses. Between 2012 and 2016, the introduction of PCV13 in adults, compared with the use of PPV23, would be associated with a net estimated budget increase of €59.7 million (+6.7%) to €151.6 million (+13.7%). Impact on IPD incidence ranged from -113 cases (-0.8%) to +298 cases (+2.8%). Introducing PCV13 in adults is expected to significantly affect healthcare budgets. Adult vaccination with PPV23 remains the optimal vaccination strategy from public health and budget perspectives.
da Silva, Sandra Rodrigues; de Mello, Luane Marques; da Silva, Anderson Soares; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido
Abstract Objective: To describe and analyze the occurrence of hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia in children before and after the pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation into the National Immunization Program. Methods: This is an ecological study that includes records of children younger than one year old, vaccinated and not vaccinated with the pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine in the periods pre- and post-inclusion of the vaccine in the National Immunization Program in the area covered by the Regional Health Superintendence of Alfenas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vaccination was considered as the exposure factor and hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia as the endpoint, using secondary annual data by municipality. The prevalence ratio and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to verify the association between variables. The Z test was used to calculate the difference between proportions. Results: Considering the 26 municipalities of the Regional Health Superintendence of Alfenas, there was a significant reduction in hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia in children younger than one year of age, with prevalence ratio (PR)=0.81 (95%CI: 0.74-0.89; p<0.05), indicating a 19% lower prevalence of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia in the post-vaccination period. Conclusions: The results suggest the effectiveness of the pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine in preventing severe cases of community-acquired pneumonia in children younger than one year of age. PMID:27108092
Meisel, Roland; Kuypers, Lisa; Dirksen, Uta; Schubert, Ralf; Gruhn, Bernd; Strauss, Gabriele; Beutel, Karin; Groll, Andreas H; Duffner, Ulrich; Blütters-Sawatzki, Renate; Holter, Wolfgang; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Grüttner, Hans-Peter; Schroten, Horst; Zielen, Stefan; Ohmann, Christian; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Dilloo, Dagmar
Following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), children are at risk of life-threatening pneumococcal infections. Whereas vaccination with polysaccharide vaccines fails to elicit protective immunity in most alloHSC transplant recipients, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines may effectively prevent invasive disease by eliciting T-cell-dependent antibody responses. Here, we report safety and immunogenicity in 53 children immunized with a regimen of 3 consecutive doses of a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) in monthly intervals starting 6 to 9 months after alloHSCT. Immunization was well tolerated with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Serologic response rates evaluable in 43 patients ranged from 41.9% to 86.0% and 58.1% to 93.0% after 2 and 3 vaccinations, respectively, with 55.8% and 74.4% of patients achieving protective antibody levels to all 7 vaccine serotypes. Our study provides the first evidence that vaccination with 7vPCV is safe and elicits protective antipneumococcal antibody responses in pediatric recipients of related or unrelated donor alloHSC transplants within the first year following transplantation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00169728.
Travers, Jasmine L; Dick, Andrew W; Stone, Patricia W
To examine racial/ethnic differences in influenza and pneumococcal vaccination receipt and nonreceipt among nursing home (NH) residents post implementation of federal vaccination policy. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING/STUDY DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: An analysis of a merged national cross-sectional dataset containing resident assessment, facility, and community data for years 2010-2013 was conducted. Logistic regressions omitting and including facility fixed effects were used to examine the influence of race and ethnicity (black, Hispanic, white) and black concentration on vaccination status across and within NHs. Vaccination receipt of 107,874 residents in 742 NHs was examined. Blacks were less likely than whites to receive influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations (OR = 0.75; OR = 0.81, respectively, p-values <.001). The likelihood of not being offered the influenza vaccination was greater for blacks (OR=1.25, p = .004) and the likelihood of not being offered the pneumococcal vaccination was greater for Hispanics (OR = 1.65, p = .04) compared to whites. Fixed effects showed that within the same NH, Hispanics were more likely to receive both vaccinations compared to whites (OR=1.22, p = .004 (influenza); OR=1.34, p < .001 (pneumococcal)). Facilities highly concentrated with blacks accounted for large proportions of differences seen in vaccination receipt. Racial/ethnic differences remain despite policy changes. Focused strategies aimed at NH personnel and racially segregated NHs are critical to improving vaccination delivery and eliminating disparities in care. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Martikainen, Janne A; Soini, Erkki J; Laine, Juha; Ahman, Heidi; Postila, Ville; Klemets, Peter
Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) are associated with substantial burden in adults (≥50 years). Moreover, adults with vascular, metabolic or respiratory diseases have been shown to have a 3-6 times higher risk of IPD when compared with their healthy controls. These persons at higher risk are likely to benefit most from pneumococcal vaccinations. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was recently introduced to prevent the 13 most prevalent serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in adults. The objective of this study was to estimate the expected 5-year economic impact of targeted PCV13 vaccination compared with no vaccination in Finnish adults (≥50 years) at moderate or high risk for IPD. A budget impact model was developed to predict the impact of PCV13 vaccination in terms of the costs and IPD events avoided for years 2012-2016. Approximately 35% of the 2.2 million Finns over 50 years of age can be considered to be at moderate or high risk for IPD because of underlying chronic medical conditions. Vaccination of these people with PCV13 could provide an estimated net budget savings of about €218 million compared with the current no-vaccination situation over the next 5 years. Among the risk groups considered, the largest absolute net savings (€66.2 million) could be expected to be obtained by vaccinating people with heart disease, due to its high prevalence in the target population. In Finland, the immunization with PCV13 vaccine, of adults (≥50 years) at moderate and high risk of IPD, is estimated to lead to substantial cost savings in the 5 years after vaccination. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pawlowski, A; Källenius, G; Svenson, S B
There is a global urgent need for a new efficient and inexpensive vaccine to combat pneumococcal disease, which should also be affordable in developing countries. In view of this need a simple low-cost technique to prepare such a vaccine was developed. The preparation of serotype 14 and 23F pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PnPS)-protein conjugates to be included in a forthcoming multivalent PnPS conjugate vaccine is described. Commercial lots of PnPSs produced according to Good Manufacturing Practice from Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 14 (PS14) and 23F (PS23F) were partially depolymerized by sonication or irradiation in an electron beam accelerator. The PnPS fragments were conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) using a recently developed conjugation chemistry. The application of these new simple, efficient and inexpensive fragmentation and conjugation technologies allowed the synthesis of several PnPS-protein conjugates containing PnPS fragments of preselected sizes and differing in the degree of substitution. The PS14TT and PS23FTT conjugate vaccine candidates were characterized chemically and their immunogenicity was evaluated in rabbits and mice. All PnPS conjugate vaccines, unlike the corresponding plain polysaccharides, produced high IgG titres in both animal species. The PS14TT conjugates tended to be more immunogenic than the PS23FTT conjugates. The immune response to the PS14TT conjugates, but not to the PS23FTT conjugates, was related to the size of the conjugated polysaccharide hapten. Both types of conjugates elicited strong booster effects upon secondary immunizations, resulting in high IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b titres.
Kondo, Masahide; Yamamura, Mariko; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Okubo, Ichiro
Vaccination programs often organize subsidies and public relations in order to obtain high uptake rates and coverage. However, effects of subsidies and public relations have not been studied well in the literature. In this study, the demand function of pneumococcal vaccination among the elderly in Japan is estimated, incorporating effects of public relations and subsidy. Using a data from a questionnaire survey sent to municipalities, the varying and constant elasticity models were applied to estimate the demand function. The response variable is the uptake rate. Explanatory variables are: subsidy supported shot price, operating years of the program, target population size for vaccination, shot location intensity, income and various public relations tools. The best model is selected by c-AIC, and varying and constant price elasticities are calculated from estimation results. The vaccine uptake rate and the shot price have a negative relation. From the results of varying price elasticity, the demand for vaccination is elastic at municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD). Effects of public relations on the uptake rate are not found. It can be suggested that municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD) could subsidize more and reduce price to increase the demand for vaccination. Effects of public relations are not confirmed in this study, probably due to measurement errors of variables used for public relations, and studies at micro level exploring individual's response to public relations would be required.
Carreño-Ibáñez, L V; Esteban-Vasallo, M D; Domínguez-Berjón, M F; Astray-Mochales, J; González Del Yerro, C; Iniesta-Fornies, D; Gascón-Sancho, M J; Jiménez-García, R
Patients aged ⩾ 40 years with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; codes R95, R79 and R91 in the International Classification for Primary Care) registered in primary care clinical records in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain. To assess pneumococcal vaccination coverage in patients with COPD and to analyse factors associated with vaccination uptake. Population-based cross-sectional study in which data were collected in September 2010. We found that 93,797 patients (72.0% men and 28.0% women) had COPD. Overall coverage was 65.5% (67.5% men vs. 60.4% women, P < 0.001). In patients aged 40-59 years, coverage was 19.5%, reaching 75.8% in those aged ⩾ 60 years. In patients aged <60 years, uptake was associated with a higher number of comorbidities and appropriate adherence to seasonal influenza and pandemic vaccination schedules. In patients aged ⩾ 60 years, factors associated with uptake in both sexes were older age and appropriate adherence to seasonal influenza vaccination schedules. Factors associated with uptake in men were concomitant comorbidities and pandemic vaccination. Vaccination coverage in individuals aged <60 years with COPD is less than acceptable in Madrid. Coverage was higher in men and in patients with another chronic condition.
Halgrimson, Whitney R; Chan, Kenny H; Abzug, Mark J; Perkins, Jonathan N; Carosone-Link, Phyllis; Simões, Eric A F
Acute otitis media is among the most common reasons young children seek medical care, with Streptococcus pneumoniae the most common pathogen. Despite introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000, recent experience suggests an increase in complications of acute otitis media, particularly acute mastoiditis. We performed a retrospective review of acute mastoiditis in children from 1999 to 2008 using inpatient data from the Colorado Hospital Association and the Children's Hospital Colorado. The study included patients with documentation of acute mastoiditis or mastoidectomy and excluded those with chronic mastoiditis, chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma. The annual incidence of acute mastoiditis in children <2 years/100,000 population was 11.0 in 2001 before decreasing to 4.6 in 2002 and 4.5 in 2003. The incidence then increased to 12.0 in 2008 (total N = 242). The proportion of S. pneumoniae isolates nonsusceptible to penicillin increased from 0% (0/16) between 1999 and 2004 to 38% (5/13) between 2005 and 2008 (P = 0.03). The incidence of acute mastoiditis in Colorado children <2 years of age exhibited a dynamic pattern from 1999 to 2008: a significant decline early after introduction of PCV7 that paralleled initial vaccine uptake, followed by an increase in subsequent years to pre-PCV7 levels. Replacement with non-PCV7 pneumococcal serotypes and increased pneumococcal antibiotic resistance may be responsible for the increase in incidence to pre-PCV7 rates. Surveillance of mastoiditis incidence, pathogen distribution and resistance patterns following introduction of 13-valent PCV is warranted.
Tsuda, Yuko; Watanabe, Misuzu; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Komiyama, Maki; Kono, Koichi
This study aimed to understand the current scenario of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among 18-month-old children of Takatsuki City, Japan. Based on 1167 parents responses, we found that voluntary vaccination coverage rates were low when compared with routine vaccination rates. The children who were not the first born of the family and who had young and poorly educated parents were less likely to receive voluntary vaccination. Japanese government-supported vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccine, had a higher coverage than the vaccines for which parents had to bear the entire vaccination cost. Furthermore, it was found that mass communication media and family pediatricians were effective means to disseminate voluntary vaccination-related information. We envisage that an active participation of medical professionals, easy access to vaccinations, and mass awareness programs will increase voluntary vaccination coverage in Takatsuki.
Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Asghar, Zahid; Coupland, Carol C A
Evidence that respiratory infections trigger stroke suggests that influenza or pneumococcal vaccination might prevent stroke. We aimed to investigate whether influenza or pneumococcal vaccination or both together were associated with reduced risk of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). We used a matched 1:1 case-control design with data from the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Cases, aged 18 years or above with stroke (fatal or non-fatal) and TIA during September 2001 to August 2009, were compared with controls matched for age, sex, calendar time and practice, adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, vaccine risk groups, comorbidity and indicators of functional ability. We included 26,784 cases of stroke and 20,227 cases of TIA with equal numbers of matched controls. Influenza vaccination within-season was associated with 24% reduction in stroke risk (adjusted OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.80) but no reduction in TIA (1.03, 0.98 to 1.09). Stroke risk was significantly lower with early (September to mid-November: 0.74, 0.70 to 0.78) but not later influenza vaccination (mid-November onwards: 0.92, 0.83 to 1.01). Associations persisted after multiple imputation of missing data and sensitivity analysis for unmeasured confounders. Pneumococcal vaccination was not associated with a reduction in risk of stroke (0.98, 0.94 to 1.00) or TIA (1.15, 1.08 to 1.23). Influenza vaccination was associated with a 24% reduction in risk of stroke but not TIA. Pneumococcal vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of stroke or TIA. This has important implications for potential benefits of influenza vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nagel, J; Saxne, T; Geborek, P; Bengtsson, A A; Jacobsen, S; Svaerke Joergensen, C; Nilsson, J-Å; Skattum, L; Jönsen, A; Kapetanovic, M C
Background/purpose The objective of this study was to explore the impact of systemic lupus erythematosus and belimumab given in addition to standard of care therapy on 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) response. Methods Forty-seven systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 21 healthy controls were immunized with a single dose of 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. Forty systemic lupus erythematosus patients were treated with traditional disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs, 11 of those received belimumab in addition, and 32 patients were treated with concomitant prednisolone. Quantification of serotype specific IgG levels to 12 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides was performed in serum taken before and four to six weeks after vaccination using multiplex fluorescent microsphere immunoassay. IgG levels against serotypes 23F and 6B were also analyzed using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Opsonophagocytic assay was performed on serotype 23F to evaluate the functionality of the antibodies. Pre- and post-vaccination log transformed antibody levels were compared to determine the impact of systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosis and different treatments on antibody response. Results Systemic lupus erythematosus patients as a group showed lower post-vaccination antibody levels and lower fold increase of antibody levels after vaccination compared to controls ( p = 0.02 and p = 0.009, respectively). Systemic lupus erythematosus patients treated with belimumab in addition to standard of care therapy or with only hydroxychloroquine did not differ compared to controls, whereas the other treatment groups had significantly lower fold increase of post-vaccination antibody levels. Higher age was associated with lower post-vaccination antibody levels among systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Conclusion Belimumab given in addition to traditional disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs or prednisolone did not further impair antibody